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Sample records for irrigation scheduling water

  1. Soil water sensors for irrigation scheduling:Can they deliver a management allowed depletion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water sensors are widely marketed in the farming sector as aids for irrigation scheduling. Sensors report either volumetric water content (theta-v, m**3 m**-3) or soil water potential, with theta-v sensors being by far the most common. To obtain yield and quality goals, irrigations are schedule...

  2. Development of an irrigation scheduling software based on model predicted crop water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modern irrigation scheduling methods are generally based on sensor-monitored soil moisture regimes rather than crop water stress which is difficult to measure in real-time, but can be computed using agricultural system models. In this study, an irrigation scheduling software based on RZWQM2 model pr...

  3. Water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato in northern guinea savanna zone, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibraheem Alhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of water requirement and irrigation schedule for tomato with the support of FAO-CROPWAT simulation model was carried out for Yola, Nigeria with the aim of planning irrigation schedules for tomato and develop recommendations for improve irrigation practices. The climatic data for 2012/2013 and soil properties of the study area were input into the program. Tomato crop properties were updated by the FAO data and three irrigation intervals were tested (7 and 10 days irrigation intervals and irrigation schedule of 10 days interval during initial and development stage and 6 days interval at mid and late season stages of tomato crop. The simulated results analysis for tomato according to the irrigation schedule showed that highest yield reduction of 16.2% was recorded with 10 days irrigation interval treatment and the least of 0.4% with irrigation interval of 10 days at first two growth stages and 6 days at last two stages. FAO-CROPWAT 8.0 can be used in planning proper irrigation schedule for tomato in Yola, Nigeria.

  4. IRRIGATION SCHEDULING CALCULATOR (ISC TO IMPROVE WATER MANAGEMENT ON FIELD LEVEL IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Abou El-Fetouh Hamed Ouda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The developed model is MS excel sheet called “Irrigation Scheduling Calculator, ISC”. The model requires to input daily weather data to calculate daily evapotranspiration using Penman-Monteith equation. The model calculates water depletion from the root zone to determine when to irrigate and how much water should be applied. The charge from irrigation pump is used to calculate how many hours should the farmer run the pump to deliver the needed amount of water. ISC model was used to developed irrigation schedule for wheat and maize planted in El-Gharbia governorate. The developed schedules were compared to the actual schedules for both crops. Furthermore, CropSyst model was calibrated for both crops and run using the developed schedules by ISC model. The simulation results indicated that the calculated irrigation amount by ISC model for wheat was lower than actual schedule by 6.0 mm. Furthermore, the simulated wheat productivity by CropSyst was higher than measured grain and biological by 2%. Similarly, the calculated applied irrigation amount by ISC model for maize was lower than actual schedule by 79.0 mm and the productivity was not changed.

  5. Behaviour Of Saline Irrigation Water Components In Pakistani Barley And Calcareous Soil Under Scheduling Irrigation Using Neutron Scattering Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RIZK, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the behaviour of cation uptake by Pakistani barley (genotype PK-30163) as affected by saline irrigation water, as well as cation distribution within the soil profile. This experiment was carried out at Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The soil was transferred from Wadi Sudr (South Sinai, Egypt). It is salted affected soil (calcareous soil, EC = 4.3 dS/m) and was irrigated using ground water irrigation (12.5 dS/m). Nine used lysimeters were irrigated with three artificial saline water (0.3, 4 and 8 dS/m) using drip irrigation system. The irrigation schedule was carried out using neutron scattering technique according to the hydro physical properties of the soil. Pakistani barley (halophytic plant) was used to remove salts from the soil especially sodium cations. The cation uptake and cation distribution (Na, K, Ca, Mg) within the soil profile were studied.The data indicated that roots of barley collected within 0-15 cm layer showed high cation uptake that made the salt concentrations in this layer low. Sodium uptake ratio was 43, 37 and 47% from total cation uptake by using fresh water (0.3 dS/m), 4 and 8 dS/m, respectively. The maximum uptake for Na, K, Ca and Mg was 20.51, 19.13, 3.98 and 12.81 g/lys at 5.69, 3.05, 6.56 and 4.15 dS/m, respectively. It was found that Pakistani barley preferred Mg uptake rather than Ca uptake.

  6. Influence of crop load on almond tree water status and its importance in irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Conesa, Pablo; Domingo Miguel, Rafael; Torres Sánchez, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    In the Mediterranean area water is the main factor limiting crop production and therefore irrigation is essential to achieve economically viable yields. One of the fundamental techniques to ensure that irrigation water is managed efficiently with maximum productivity and minimum environmental impact is irrigation scheduling. The fact that the plant water status integrates atmospheric demand and soil water content conditions encourages the use of plant-based water status indicators. Some researchers have successfully scheduled irrigation in certain fruit trees by maintaining the maximum daily trunk diameter shrinkage (MDS) signal intensity at threshold values to generate (or not) water stress. However MDS not only depends on the climate and soil water content, but may be affected by tree factors such as age, size, phenological stage and fruit load. There is therefore a need to quantify the influence of these factors on MDS. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of crop load on tree water relations for scheduling purposes. We particularly focused on MDS vs VPD10-15 (mean air vapor pressure deficit during the period 10.00-15.00 h solar time) for different loads and phenological phases under non-limiting soil water conditions. The experiment was carried out in 2011 in a 1 ha plot in SE Spain with almond trees (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb cv. 'Marta'). Three crop load treatments were studied according to three crop load levels, i) T100, high crop load, characteristic crop load, ii) T50, medium crop load, in which 50% of the fruits were removed and iii) T0, practically without fruits. Fruits were manually thinned. Each treatment, randomly distributed in blocks, was run in triplicate. Plant water status was assessed from midday stem water potential (Ψs), MDS, daily trunk growth rate (TGR), leaf turgor potential Ψp, fruit water potential (Ψf), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Yield, pruning weights and

  7. Stress Coefficients for Soil Water Balance Combined with Water Stress Indicators for Irrigation Scheduling of Woody Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several causes for the failure of empirical models to estimate soil water depletion and to calculate irrigation depths, and the problem is particularly critical in tall, uneven, deficit irrigated (DI crops in Mediterranean climates. Locally measured indicators that quantify water status are useful for addressing those causes and providing feed-back information for improving the adequacy of simple models. Because of their high aerodynamic resistance, the canopy conductance of woody crops is an important factor in determining evapotranspiration (ET, and accurate stress coefficient (Ks values are needed to quantify the impact of stomatal closure on ET. A brief overview of basic general principles for irrigation scheduling is presented with emphasis on DI applications that require Ks modelling. The limitations of existing technology related to scheduling of woody crops are discussed, including the shortcomings of plant-based approaches. In relation to soil water deficit and/or predawn leaf water potential, several woody crop Ks functions are presented in a secondary analysis. Whenever the total and readily available water data were available, a simple Ks model was tested. The ultimate aim of this discussion is to illustrate the central concept: that a combination of simple ET models and water stress indicators is required for scheduling irrigation of deep-rooted woody crops.

  8. More crop per drop: Improving our knowledge on crop water requirements for irrigation scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a dry country facing climate change, population expansion and economic growth, resulting in increasing water scarcity and competition for water. The irrigated agriculture and forestry sectors have been allocated approximately two...

  9. Cotton Water Use Efficiency under Two Different Deficit Irrigation Scheduling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Baker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Declines in Ogallala aquifer levels used for irrigation has prompted research to identify methods for optimizing water use efficiency (WUE of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. In this experiment, conducted at Lubbock, TX, USA in 2014, our objective was to test two canopy temperature based stress indices, each at two different irrigation trigger set points: the Stress Time (ST method with irrigation triggers set at 5.5 (ST_5.5 and 8.5 h (ST_8.5 and the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI method with irrigation triggers set at 0.3 (CWSI_0.3 and 0.6 (CWSI_0.6. When these irrigation triggers were exceeded on a given day, the crop was deficit irrigated with 5 mm of water via subsurface drip tape. Also included in the experimental design were a well-watered (WW control irrigated at 110% of potential evapotranspiration and a dry land (DL treatment that relied on rainfall only. Seasonal crop water use ranged from 353 to 625 mm across these six treatments. As expected, cotton lint yield increased with increasing crop water use but lint yield WUE displayed asignificant (p ≤ 0.05 peak near 3.6 to 3.7 kg ha−1 mm−1 for the ST_5.5 and CWSI_0.3 treatments, respectively. Our results suggest that WUE may be optimized in cotton with less water than that needed for maximum lint yield.

  10. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  11. Effects of deficit drip-irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on pepper yield, water productivity and soil salinity under arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in order to assess the effects of different irrigation scheduling regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of pepper under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Pepper was grown on a sandy soil and drip-irrigated with water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. Irrigation treatments consisted in water replacements of accumulated ETc at levels of 100% (FI, full irrigation, 80% (DI-80, 60% (DI-60, when the readily available water in the control treatment (FI is depleted, deficit irrigation during ripening stage (FI-MDI60 and farmer method corresponding to irrigation practices implemented by the local farmers (FM. Results on pepper yield and soil salinity are globally consistent between the two-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity was maintained over the two seasons, 2008 and 2009, with DI-60 and FM treatments than FI. FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments resulted also in low ECe values. Highest yields for both years were obtained under FI (22.3 and 24.4 t/ha although we didn’t find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation treatment (FI-DI60. However, the DI-80 and DI-60 treatments caused significant reductions in pepper yields through a reduction in fruits number/m² and average fruit weight in comparison with FI treatment. The FM increased soil salinity and caused significant reductions in yield with 14 to 43%, 12 to 39% more irrigation water use than FI, FI-MDI60 and DI-80 treatments, respectively, in 2008 and 2009. Yields for all irrigation treatments were higher in the second year compared to the first year. Water productivity (WP values reflected this difference and varied between 2.31 and 5.49 kg/m3. The WP was found to vary significantly among treatments, where the highest and the lowest values were observed for DI-60 treatment and FM, respectively. FI treatment provides

  12. Soil water sensors:Problems, advances and potential for irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands, while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and so...

  13. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  14. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  15. Coordinated research project of the use of nuclear and related techniques in assessment of irrigation schedules of field crops to increase effective use of water in irrigation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anac, M.S.; Tuzel, I.H.; Anac, D.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at determining the followings; water consumptions. irrigation water requirements of new cotton variety N 84; specific growth stages of cotton which are less sensitive to stress so that the irrigation could be avoided without significant yield decrease; and interactions between deficit irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer use. The experiment was set up with 6 irrigation and three nitrogen fertilizer (0.60 , 120 kg.ha sup -1 ) treatments. The irrigation treatments employed single stress at vegetative, flowering and boll formation stages, in addition to full irrigation, continuous stress and the traditional practice. In stress conditions available soil water depleted to 75 - 80 %, whereas in normal irrigation the depletion was 40 % in 0.90 m. of root zone. In full irrigation treatment 8 irrigations were applied, whereas 3 or 4 irrigations were needed in continuous stress conditions. The number of irrigations were 6 or 7 for other stress treatments. Irrigation water applications varied form 424 to 751 mm. Seasonal ET were ranged between 659 and 899 mm. The highest monthly ET in august for all of the treatments. Daily ET were found to vary from 2.2 to 12.1 mm/day. The seed cotton yields, ky values and yield - N indices have indicated that the vegetative state was more sensitive to water stress. The stress at boll formation stage had slight effects on these parameters. Under limited water resource conditions, vegetative growth period of cotton should be given preference for irrigation, followed by flowering period. Omitting irrigation in boll formation period would result in 4.3 to 9.1 % water savings. Yield changes with respect to N rates showed that high N doses are accompanied by high yields. Nitrogen recoveries either from fertilizers or soil revealed high uptakes in full irrigation conditions. Nitrogen use efficiencies were also high in these conditions. Average of three years put forth that 19% of N in stress conditions and 29% in full irrigation were

  16. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travers, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  17. Evaluating irrigation scheduling of hydroponic tomato in Navarra, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lizarraga, H.J.; Boesveld, H.; Huibers, F.P.; Robles, H.

    2003-01-01

    The correct supply of water and nutrients is important in hydroponic growing systems in order to use water efficiently, avoid stress situations, and control production. The present study was conducted to evaluate two irrigation scheduling techniques for hydroponic tomato production in Navarra,

  18. Irrigation Scheduling for Green Bell Peppers Using Capacitance Soil Moisture Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Femminella, K.; Munoz-Carpena, R.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetable production areas are intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensor irrigation controllers (SMS) on yield, irrigation water use

  19. Computer-based irrigation scheduling for cotton crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, K.Q.; Memon, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a real time irrigation schedule for cotton crop has been tested using mehran model, a computer-based DDS (Decision Support System). The irrigation schedule was set on selected MAD (Management Allowable Depletion) and the current root depth position. The total 451 mm irrigation water applied to the crop field. The seasonal computed crop ET (Evapotranspiration) was estimated 421.32 mm and actual (ET/sub ca/) observed was 413 mm. The model over-estimated seasonal ET by only 1.94. WUE (Water Use Efficiency) for seed-cotton achieved 6.59 Kg (ha mm)/sup -1/. The statistical analysis (R/sup 2/=0.96, ARE%=2.00, T-1.17 and F=550.57) showed good performance of the model in simulated and observed ET values. The designed Mehran model is designed quite versatile for irrigation scheduling and can be successfully used as irrigation DSS tool for various crop types. (author)

  20. Irrigation scheduling of spring wheat using infrared thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegman, E.C.; Soderlund, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Irrigation scheduling for spring wheat requires information on different irrigation timing methods. Irrigation timing based on allowable root zone available water depletion and selected crop water stress index (CWSI) thresholds were evaluated in terms of their effect on spring wheat yield. A field study was conducted at Oakes, North Dakota in 1987 and 1988 on a Maddock sandy loam soil with two varieties of spring wheat (Marshall and Wheaton) using a split plot randomized block design. Irrigation was metered to each plot using trickle irrigation tubing. Neutron soil water measurements along with a water balance model were used to time irrigations that were based on different allowed root zone depletions. Infrared thermometer sensors (IRT) were used to measure in situ canopy temperatures and along with measured climatic information were used to time irrigations using the CWSI approach. Additionally, crop phenological stages and final grain yield were measured. The non-water-stressed baselines necessary for the CWSI differed between the two seasons but were similar to those from previous studies. The CWSI methods were feasible from the Feekes scale S4 (beginning pseudo-stem) to S11.2 (mealy ripe). Minimal yield reductions were observed using the CWSI method for thresholds less than 0.4-0.5 during this period. Minimal yield reductions were observed by maintaining the root zone allowable depletion below 50%. The grain yield-evapotranspiration (ET) relationship was linear in both years but with different slopes and intercepts. When analyzed on a relative basis to maximum ET (ETm), a single relationship fit both years’ data with a yield sensitivity factor of 1.58. Irrigations timed at CWSI = 0.5 reduced seasonal water application by 18% relative to treatments irrigated at CWSI = 0.2. (author)

  1. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  2. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... indicators for diagnosing plant water information, but it is troublesome to measure leaf water potential using a pressure chamber (Turner, 1981). It is also difficult to achieve automatic and continuous records with the pressure chamber. Definition of threshold values of soil moisture for irrigation management ...

  3. Tomato yield, biomass accumulation, root distribution and irrigation water use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Dukes, M.D.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Florida is the largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Production areas are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation. The objectives of this 3-year field study were to evaluate the interaction between N-fertilizer rates and irrigation

  4. Scheduling irrigation for jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ) | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to select suitable indicator for scheduling the irrigation of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the Loess Plateau. The relationships between plant-based indicators and soil matrix potential as well as meteorological factors of jujube under deficit irrigation compared with well irrigation were ...

  5. Soil capacitance sensors and stem dendrometers. Useful tools for irrigation scheduling of commercial orchards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonet, L.; Ferrer, P.; Castel, J. R.; Intrigliolo, D. S.

    2010-07-01

    Irrigation scheduling is often performed based on a soil water balance, where orchard evapotranspiration is estimated using the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) times the crop coefficient (Kc). This procedure, despite being widely spread, has some uncertainties. Because of this, plant and soil water status monitoring could be alternatively or complementarity used to schedule irrigation. The usefulness of capacitance probes was evaluated during several seasons in large irrigation districts where irrigation practices were changed over years from the ETo * Kc model to the analysis of soil water status trend. This area corresponds to drip irrigated orchards planted with citrus, peach, nectarine and persimmon. Around 25% less irrigation was applied with no substantial yield penalty when the information provided by capacitance probes was correctly applied for irrigation management. On the other hand, the usefulness of stem dendrometers for continuously monitoring plant water status was evaluated in a young plum experimental orchard. Over two years, irrigation was scheduled using exclusively trunk shrinkage via the signal intensity approach by means of a baseline equation previously obtained in the orchard. Results showed that it was not always possible to schedule irrigation based on the trunk shrinkage signal intensity due to the temporal changes in the reference values that occurred as trees aged. Overall, results obtained are discussed in terms of the possible extrapolation at field level of both capacitance probes and stem dendrometers. Advantages and drawbacks of each technique are analyzed and discussed. (Author) 34 refs.

  6. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  7. Enhancing Adoption of Irrigation Scheduling to Sustain the Viability of Fruit and Nut Crops in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, A.; Snyder, R.; Hillyer, C.; English, M.; Sanden, B.; Munk, D.

    2012-04-01

    Enhancing Adoption of Irrigation Scheduling to Sustain the Viability of Fruit and Nut Crops in California Allan Fulton, Richard Snyder, Charles Hillyer, Marshall English, Blake Sanden, and Dan Munk Adoption of scientific methods to decide when to irrigate and how much water to apply to a crop has increased over the last three decades in California. In 1988, less than 4.3 percent of US farmers employed some type of science-based technique to assist in making irrigation scheduling decisions (USDA, 1995). An ongoing survey in California, representing an industry irrigating nearly 0.4 million planted almond hectares, indicates adoption rates ranging from 38 to 55 percent of either crop evapotranspiration (ETc), soil moisture monitoring, plant water status, or some combination of these irrigation scheduling techniques to assist with making irrigation management decisions (California Almond Board, 2011). High capital investment to establish fruit and nut crops, sensitivity to over and under-irrigation on crop performance and longevity, and increasing costs and competition for water have all contributed to increased adoption of scientific irrigation scheduling methods. These trends in adoption are encouraging and more opportunities exist to develop improved irrigation scheduling tools, especially computer decision-making models. In 2009 and 2010, an "On-line Irrigation Scheduling Advisory Service" (OISO, 2012), also referred to as Online Irrigation Management (IMO), was used and evaluated in commercial walnut, almond, and French prune orchards in the northern Sacramento Valley of California. This specific model has many features described as the "Next Generation of Irrigation Schedulers" (Hillyer, 2010). While conventional irrigation management involves simply irrigating as needed to avoid crop stress, this IMO is designed to control crop stress, which requires: (i) precise control of crop water availability (rather than controlling applied water); (ii) quantifying crop

  8. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  9. Evapotranspiration-based irrigation scheduling of lettuce and broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimation of crop evapotranspiration supports efficient irrigation water management, which in turn supports water conservation, mitigation of groundwater depletion/degradation, energy savings, and crop quality maintenance. Past research in California has revealed strong relationships between fract...

  10. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  11. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  12. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  13. Nuclear techniques to assess irrigation schedules for field crops. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Assessment of Irrigation Schedules of Field Crops to Increase Effective Use of Water in Irrigation Projects. The programme was carried out between 1990 and 1995 through the technical co-ordination of the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water use efficiency through a type of irrigation scheduling known as deficit irrigation. Refs, figs, tabs.

  14. Nuclear techniques to assess irrigation schedules for field crops. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This TECDOC summarizes the results of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Assessment of Irrigation Schedules of Field Crops to Increase Effective Use of Water in Irrigation Projects. The programme was carried out between 1990 and 1995 through the technical co-ordination of the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen Member States of the IAEA and FAO carried out a series of field experiments aimed at improving irrigation water use efficiency through a type of irrigation scheduling known as deficit irrigation. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. Use of infrared thermometer technique in irrigation scheduling of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begüm TEKELİOĞLU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are to assess crop water stress index (CWSI and to determine irrigation schedule of pomegranate using infrared thermometer technique. Treatments with three replications were irrigated every three and six days intervals, as much as 0.50 (S1, 0.75 (S2, 1.00 (S3, and 1.25 (S4 of Class A pan evaporation. Additionally, an unirrigated plot was also formed. The equations obtained for non-water stress baseline is Tc-Ta=0.645VPD-4.338. The equation of full water stressed upper baseline obtained from data taken from branches of pomegranate plant cut in different days is given by Tc-Ta= 0.0489VPD+2.8734. According to the results obtained, it is concluded that infrared thermometer can be used for irrigation scheduling of the pomegranate plants in Antalya conditions. When using this technique in Antalya conditions, it is suggested to keep the seasonal mean CWSI value approximately 0.12 and the index value of 0.40 can be used to start the irrigation. Additionally, it is suggested that the amount of irrigation can be determined as much as the amount of evaporation measured until the index value reaches 0.40.

  16. Soil water sensors for irrigation management-What works, what doesn't, and why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling can be greatly improved if accurate soil water content data are available. There are a plethora of available soil water sensing systems, but those that are practical for irrigation scheduling are divided into two major types: the frequency domain (capacitance) sensors and the t...

  17. Using Irrigation Scheduling to Increase Water Productivity of Wheat-Maize Rotation under Climate Change Conditions Calendario de Riego para Aumentar la Productividad del Agua en Rotación Trigo-Maíz en Condiciones de Cambio Climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El Afandi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation scheduling was used to increase water productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.-maize (Zea mays L. rotation under two climate change scenarios. Three wheat varieties and two maize hybrids were planted at in a 2-yr field experiment. CropSyst model was calibrated and validated for the collected field data, then was used to assess the impact of two climate change scenarios (A2 and B2 and three adaptation strategies (early sowing changing, irrigation schedule and the interaction between them in the year of 2038s. The results revealed that A2 reduced yield more than B2 scenario for both crops. High yield reduction in wheat-maize rotation could be expected under climate change conditions, where wheat and maize yield will be reduced by an average of 41 and 56%, respectively. The most effective adaptation strategy for wheat was sowing 3 wk earlier and irrigation every 21 d, with irrigation water saving and no yield improvement under A2 scenario in both growing seasons. Whereas under B2 scenario yield improvement by 2% occurred with 3% saving in the applied irrigation water in the 1st growing season and in the 2nd growing season yield could improved by 8% with less than 1% increase in the applied irrigation water and higher water productivity. Changing irrigation schedule was an effective adaptation option for maize, where yield improvement could occur under both climate change scenarios in both growing seasons by up to 9% with less than 3% increase in the applied irrigation water and higher water productivity.

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  19. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  20. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  1. Use of plant woody species electrical potential for irrigation scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Rojas, Liliana; Morales-Moraga, David; Alcalde, José A; Gurovich, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The electrical response of plants to environmental stimuli can be measured and quantitatively related to the intensity of several stimulating sources, like temperature, solar radiation, soil water content, evapotranspiration rates, sap flow and dendrometric cycles. These relations can be used to assess the influence of different environmental situations on soil water availability to plants, defined as a steady state condition between leaf transpirative flow and soil water flow to plant roots. A restricted soil water flow due to soil dryness can trigger water stress in plants, if the atmospheric evaporative demand is high, causing partial stomata closure as a physiological response to avoid plant dehydration; water stressed and unstressed plants manifest a differential electrical response. Real time plant electrical response measurements can anticipate actions that prevent the plant reaching actual stress conditions, optimizing stomata gas exchange and photosynthetic rates. An electrophysiological sensor developed in this work, allows remote real-time recording information on plant electrical potential (EP) in the field, which is highly related to EP measurements obtained with a laboratory Keithley voltmeter sensor used in an highly controlled experimental setup. Our electrophysiological sensor is a wireless, autonomous devise, which transmits EP information via Internet to a data server. Using both types of sensors (EP electrodes with a Keithley voltmeter and the electrophysiological sensor), we measured in real time the electrical responses of Persea americana and Prunus domestica plants, to induced water deficits. The differential response for 2 scenarios: irrigation and water restriction is identified by a progressive change in slope on the daily maximal and minimal electric signal values in stressed plants, and a zero-slope for similar signals for well-watered plants. Results show a correspondence between measured signals obtained by our electrophysiological

  2. Irrigation scheduling research: South African experiences and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper was originally presented at the Water Research. Commission 40-Year .... direct link with dry matter production (Tanner and Sinclair,. 1983). Scheduling ..... type infrared thermometer for measuring canopy temperature received much ..... subscribers and advice was made available through web down- loads for ...

  3. Untangling the effects of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on irrigation water productivity in arid region: New conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jingyuan; Huo, Zailin; Wang, Fengxin; Kang, Shaozhong; Huang, Guanhua

    2018-04-01

    Water scarcity and salt stress are two main limitations for agricultural production. Groundwater evapotranspiration (ET g ) with upward salt movement plays an important role in crop water use and water productivity in arid regions, and it can compensate the impact of deficit irrigation on crop production. Thus, comprehensive impacts of shallow groundwater and deficit irrigation on crop water use results in an improvement of irrigation water productivity (IWP). However, it is difficult to quantify the effects of groundwater and deficit irrigation on IWP. In this study, we built an IWP evaluation model coupled with a water and salt balance model and a crop yield estimation model. As a valuable tool of IWP simulation, the calibrated model was used to investigate the coupling response of sunflower IWP to irrigation water depths (IWDs), groundwater table depth (GTDs) and groundwater salinities (GSs). A total of 210 scenarios were run in which five irrigation water depths (IWDs) and seven groundwater table depths (GTDs) and six groundwater salinities (GSs) were used. Results indicate that increasing GS clearly increases the negative effect on a crop's actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) as salt accumulation in root zone. When GS is low (0.5-1g/L), increasing GTD produces more positive effect than negative effect. In regard to relatively high GS (2-5g/L), the negative effect of shallow-saline groundwater reaches a maximum at 2m GTD. Additionally, the salt concentration in the root zone maximizes its value at 2.0m GTD. In most cases, increasing GTD and GS reduces the benefits of irrigation water and IWP. The IWP increases with decreasing irrigation water. Overall, in arid regions, capillary rise of shallow groundwater can compensate for the lack of irrigation water and improve IWP. By improving irrigation schedules and taking advantages of shallow saline groundwater, we can obtain higher IWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EQUITY EVALUATION OF PADDY IRRIGATION WATER DISTRIBUTION BY SOCIETY-JUSTICE-WATER DISTRIBUTION RULE HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanji, Hajime; Kiri, Hirohide; Kobayashi, Shintaro

    When total supply is smaller than total demand, it is difficult to apply the paddy irrigation water distribution rule. The gap must be narrowed by decreasing demand. Historically, the upstream served rule, rotation schedule, or central schedule weight to irrigated area was adopted. This paper proposes the hypothesis that these rules are dependent on social justice, a hypothesis called the "Society-Justice-Water Distribution Rule Hypothesis". Justice, which means a balance of efficiency and equity of distribution, is discussed under the political philosophy of utilitarianism, liberalism (Rawls), libertarianism, and communitarianism. The upstream served rule can be derived from libertarianism. The rotation schedule and central schedule can be derived from communitarianism. Liberalism can provide arranged schedule to adjust supply and demand based on "the Difference Principle". The authors conclude that to achieve efficiency and equity, liberalism may provide the best solution after modernization.

  5. Evaluation of a New Mexico Landrace and Two Commercial Chile (Capsicum annuum Cultivars under Four Furrow Irrigation Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Joukhadar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Commercial and landrace chile (Capsicum annuum cultivars are cultivated under furrow irrigation systems in Northern New Mexico. Yield and physiological differences between commercial and landrace chile cultivars under furrow irrigation systems have not been evaluated. In 2011 and 2012 two commercial chiles, ‘Sandia’ and ‘NuMex Big Jim’, with one landrace chile, ‘Chimayo’, were evaluated under four irrigation schedules, with irrigation once every 7, 9, 11, and 13-days. These four schedules represent possible water availability for farmers in Northern New Mexico. In 2011 there were inconsistent yield patterns; fresh red chile yield of ‘Chimayo’ at the seven-day interval was 90% more than at the nine-day interval. ‘Sandia’ had 138% better yields at the seven- than at the nine-day interval. ‘Chimayo’ fresh green chile yields at the nine-day interval were 47% better than the seven-day interval. ‘NuMex Big Jim’ fresh green yields were 40% greater at the seven-day interval than the 13-day interval. In 2012 no yield components were statistically different for cultivars across irrigation intervals. This data shows commercial green and landrace chile cultivars can be furrow irrigated as water becomes available on 7, 9, 11, or 13-day intervals with no yield effect.

  6. Improved irrigation scheduling for pear-jujube trees based on trunk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A suitable indicator for scheduling pear-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) irrigation in China was developed based on trunk diameter fluctuations (TDF). Parameters derived from TDF responses to variations in soil matrix potential (Ψsoil) were compared under deficit and well irrigation. Maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) increased ...

  7. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  8. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  9. Water quality and irrigation [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Water is the single most important biological factor affecting plant growth and health. Water is essential for almost every plant process: photosynthesis, nutrient transport, and cell expansion and development. In fact, 80 to 90 percent of a seedling's weight is made up of water. Therefore, irrigation management is the most critical aspect of nursery operations....

  10. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  11. A short overview of measures for securing water resources for irrigated crop production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Richardt; Ørum, Jens Erik; Pedersen, Søren Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the main user of limited fresh water resources in the world. Optimisation of agricultural water resources and their use can be obtained by both agronomical and political incentives. Important options are: reduction of the loss of irrigation water in conveyance before it reaches...... of the 'virtual water' principles so that water-rich regions secure food supply to dry regions; reduction in waste of food, feed and biofuel from post-harvest to the end consumer; changing of food composition to less water-consuming products; regulating amount of irrigation water by rationing, subsidies or water...... pricing to support water-saving measures such as use of drip, irrigation scheduling and DI. The potential for water saving for different measures is discussed and estimated. Reduction in waste of food and loss of irrigation water from conveyance source to farm both has a great potential for water saving...

  12. Water Use and Crop Coefficients in Sprinkler Irrigated Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Spanu

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out during the years 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006 to analyze water-soil-atmosphere interactions in sprinkler irrigated rice. The research was carried out in Sardinia (39º 59’ N; 8º 40’ E, at altitude 15 m. The cultivars used in the experiments, respectively in 2002 and in 2004-2005-2006, were Irat 212 and Eurosis. In each year cultivars were subjected to the same crop management. Irrigation was applied since the emergence with the sprinkler method, taking into account the loss of water from ‘Class A’ pan evaporation. Soil water content was monitored at 0.10 m intervals until 1.00-m depth using a ‘Diviner 2000’ (Sentek. In 2002 seven irrigation scheduling treatments were compared. In 2004, 2005, 2006 irrigation treatments provided for optimal soil water conditions during the growing season. In 2002 the results highlighted: 1 0-0.20 m depth was the most important layer for crop water uptake and the best correlated layer with rice rough yield; 2 the positive relationship between yield and water supply was significant until 6500 m3 ha-1 of water applied. Further seasonal irrigation volumes did not increase significantly yield. In 2004, 2005 and 2006 the analysis of the soil water balance at different crop phenological stages allowed to estimate crop coefficients (Kc using the Penman-Monteith equation and the ‘Class A’ pan evaporation (Kcev. Kc varied over the three-year period on average from 0.90 to 1.07 and 0.97, respectively for the emergence-end of tillering, end of tillering-heading and heading-maturing periods, while crop coefficients as a ratio between maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETc and Epan, Kcev ranged from 0.78 to 0.92 and 0.81 for the same time periods.

  13. Water users associations and irrigation water productivity in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Heerink, N.; Dries, L.K.E.; Qu, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional irrigation water management systems in China are increasingly replaced by user-based, participatory management through water users associations (WUAs) with the purpose to promote, economically and ecologically beneficial, water savings and increase farm incomes. Existing research shows

  14. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  15. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  16. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River... Administrative Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges... commenter and the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please...

  17. Optimal model-based deficit irrigation scheduling using AquaCrop: a simulation study with cotton, potato and tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linker, Raphael; Ioslovich, Ilya; Sylaios, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    -smooth behavior of the objective function and the fact that it involves multiple integer variables. We developed an optimization scheme for generating sub-optimal irrigation schedules that take implicitly into account the response of the crop to water stress, and used these as initial guesses for a full......Water shortage is the main limiting factor for agricultural productivity in many countries and improving water use efficiency in agriculture has been the focus of numerous studies. The usual approach to limit water consumption in agriculture is to apply water quotas and in such a situation farmers...... variables are the irrigation amounts for each day of the season. The objective function is the expected yield calculated with the use of a model. In the present work we solved this optimization problem for three crops modeled by the model AquaCrop. This optimization problem is non-trivial due to the non...

  18. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  19. Soil water sensing: Implications of sensor capabilities for variable rate irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling using soil water sensors aims at maintaining the soil water content in the crop root zone above a lower limit defined by the management allowed depletion (MAD) for that soil and crop, but not so wet that too much water is lost to deep percolation, evaporation and runoff or that...

  20. Infra-red thermography for detecting drought in agricultural crops and scheduling irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal imaging is a fast growing and potentially important tool in various fields of agriculture. The technology visually identified the rise of temperature in crop canopy which occurs as a result of drought and allows the precise scheduling of crop irrigation. The aim of presenting paper was to demonstrate the application of these techniques on potato plants and to point out on the necessity of irrigation for potato sustainable and economically justified production.

  1. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  2. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  3. An integrated modeling framework for real-time irrigation scheduling: the benefit of spectroscopy and weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Anna; Polinova, Maria; Housh, Mashor

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture and agricultural landscapes are increasingly under pressure to meet the demands of a constantly increasing human population and globally changing food patterns. At the same time, there is rising concern that climate change and food security will harm agriculture in many regions of the world (Nelson et al., 2009). Facing those treats, majority of Mediterranean countries had chosen irrigated agriculture. For crop plants water is one of the most important inputs, as it is responsible for crop growth, production and it ensures the efficiency of other inputs (e.g. seeds, fertilizers and pesticide) but its use is in competition with other local sectors (e.g. industry, urban human use). Thus, well-timed availability of water is vital to agriculture for ensured yields. The increasing demand for irrigation has necessitated the need for optimal irrigation scheduling techniques that coordinate the timing and amount of irrigation to optimally manage the water use in agriculture systems. The irrigation scheduling problem can be challenging as farmers try to deal with different conflicting objectives of maximizing their yield while minimizing irrigation water use. Another challenge in the irrigation scheduling problem is attributed to the uncertain factors involved in the plant growth process during the growing season. Most notable, the climatic factors such as evapotranspiration and rainfall, these uncertain factors add a third objective to the farmer perspective, namely, minimizing the risk associated with these uncertain factors. Nevertheless, advancements in weather forecasting reduced the uncertainty level associated with future climatic data. Thus, climatic forecasts can be reliably employed to guide optimal irrigation schedule scheme when coupled with stochastic optimization models (Housh et al., 2012). Many studies have concluded that optimal irrigation decisions can provide substantial economic value over conventional irrigation decisions (Wang and Cai 2009

  4. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  5. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  6. Water-Yield Relations of Drip Irrigated Watermelon in Temperate Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study, conducted in Vojvodina a northern part of the Serbia Republic, was to analyse the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of watermelon (Cirullus lanatus Thunb. grown with plasticulture. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration was computed using the reference evapotranspiration and crop coefficient. The yield of watermelon in irrigation conditions (37,28 t/ha was significantly higher compared to non irrigated (9,98 t/ha. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions was 398 mm and 117 mm on non irrigated variant. The crop yield response factor of 1,04 for the whole growing season reveals that relative yield decrease was nearly equal to the rate of evapotranspiration deficit. The values of irrigation water use efficiency and evapotranspiration water use efficiency were 9,93 kg/m3 and 10,29 kg/m3 respectively. The determined results could be used as a good platform for watermelon growers in the region, in terms of improvement of the optimum utilization of irrigation water.

  7. Water Reuse: Using Reclaimed Water For Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haering, Kathryn; Evanylo, Gregory K.; Benham, Brian Leslie, 1960-; Goatley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Describes water reuse and reclaimed water, explains how reclaimed water is produced, options for water reuse, water reuse regulations, and agronomic concerns with water reuse, and provides several case studies of water reuse.

  8. Estimating the Own-Price Elasticity for Irrigation Water in the Musi Catchment of India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Davidson, B.

    2011-01-01

    As irrigation water is an input into a production process, its demand must be ‘derived’. According to theory, a derived demand schedule should be downward sloping and dependent on the outputs produced from it, the prices of other inputs and the price of the water itself. Problems arise when an

  9. Impacts of irrigation regimes with saline water on carrot productivity and soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-01-01

    salts from the root zone. Highest carrot yields for the three years were obtained with SWB scheduling technique FI-100, (29.5, 28.7 and 26.8 t/ha although we didn’t find significant differences with the regulated deficit irrigation regime (FI-DI60. Compared to FI-100, significant reductions in carrot yields were observed under DI-80 and DI-60 deficit irrigation treatments resulting from a reduction in roots number/m2 and average root weight. The farmer’s method not only caused significant reductions in yield but also resulted in using 43–57% more water and increased soil salinity. For all irrigation treatments, carrot yields were higher in the first year compared to the two following years. Water productivity (WP values reflected this difference and varied between 3.2 and 9.7 kg/m3. The lowest WP values were observed for the farmer’s method, while the highest values were obtained under DI-60 deficit irrigation treatment. The scheduling technique using SWB with variable doses is more efficient than the traditional technique used by farmers in carrot production. The FI-100 irrigation scheduling seems to optimize the use of saline water in carrot production and to control soil salinity. Under situations of water shortage, adopting deficit irrigation strategies (FI-DI60 and DI-80 could be an alternative for irrigation scheduling of carrot crop under the conditions of Mediterranean arid in southern Tunisia.

  10. Incentives and technologies for improving irrigation water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Djuma, Hakan; Giannakis, Elias; Eliades, Marinos

    2014-05-01

    from the government irrigation network, with an additional fixed fee of 66.10 euro per ha per season. This is a substantial increase from the 0.17 euro per3 and 17.10 euro per ha fixed fee. The price for individual abstractions has been set at 0.11 euro per m^3. However, these new prices have not yet been approved by the Parliament. Agriculture in Cyprus is highly fragmented. The average farm size is 3.5 ha, while each farm holds on average 5 parcels (agricultural census of 2003). Stakeholder interviews indicated that, in general, small farmers in Cyprus have not considered investments in advanced irrigation scheduling technologies to counter balance the loom of higher water prices. However, the picture is different for large producers. A large citrus producer was interested in testing the ENORASIS technology. The first season of measurements indicated that water can be used more efficiently and that the ENORASIS system provides an important tool for reducing on-farm irrigation water use.

  11. Drip Planner Chart: a simple irrigation scheduling tool for smallholder drip farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveld, H.; Zisengwe, L.S.; Yakami, S.

    2012-01-01

    Drip irrigation is widely recognized as potentially one of the most efficient irrigation methods. However, this efficiency is often not achieved because systems are not always well designed or maintained and many farmers lack the tools to assess the crop water requirements and to monitor the soil

  12. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  13. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  14. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaming Zhai

    Full Text Available To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt, quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1, 320 mm (W2 and 360 mm (W3, and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F, 3.0 dS/m (S1 and 5.0 dS/m (S2. Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym. After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual, and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  15. Soil Salt Distribution and Tomato Response to Saline Water Irrigation under Straw Mulching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yaming; Yang, Qian; Wu, Yunyu

    2016-01-01

    To investigate better saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes that scheduling with the compromise among yield (Yt), quality, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and soil salt residual, an experiment with three irrigation quotas and three salinities of irrigation water was conducted under straw mulching in northern China. The irrigation quota levels were 280 mm (W1), 320 mm (W2) and 360 mm (W3), and the salinity levels were 1.0 dS/m (F), 3.0 dS/m (S1) and 5.0 dS/m (S2). Compared to freshwater, saline water irrigations decreased the maximum leaf area index (LAIm) of tomatoes, and the LAIm presented a decline tendency with higher salinity and lower irrigation quota. The best overall quality of tomato was obtained by S2W1, with the comprehensive quality index of 3.61. A higher salinity and lower irrigation quota resulted in a decrease of individual fruit weight and an increase of the blossom-end rot incidence, finally led to a reduction in the tomato Yt and marketable yield (Ym). After one growth season of tomato, the mass fraction of soil salt in plough layer under S2W1 treatment was the highest, and which presented a decline trend with an increasing irrigation quota. Moreover, compared to W1, soil salts had a tendency to move to the deeper soil layer when using W2 and W3 irrigation quota. According to the calculation results of projection pursuit model, S1W3 was the optimal treatment that possessed the best comprehensive benefit (tomato overall quality, Yt, Ym, IWUE and soil salt residual), and was recommended as the saline water irrigation scheme for tomatoes in northern China.

  16. Drip and Surface Irrigation Water Use Efficiency of Tomato Crop Using Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellouli, H.J.; Askri, H.; Mougou, R.

    2003-01-01

    Nations in the arid and semi-arid regions, especially the Arab countries, will have to take up an important challenge at the beginning of the 21 st century: increasing food production in order to realise food security for growing population, wile optimising the use of limited water resources. Using and adapting management techniques like the drip irrigation system could obtain the later. This would allow reduction in water losses by bare soil evaporation and deep percolation. Consequently improved water use efficiency could be realised. In this way, this work was conducted as a contribution on the Tunisian national programs on the optimisation of the water use. By mean a field study at Cherfech Experimental Station (30 km from Tunis), the effect of the irrigation system on the water use efficiency (WUE)-by a season tomato crop-was monitored by comparing three treatments receiving equivalent quantities of fertiliser: Fertigation, Drip irrigation and Furrow irrigation. Irrigation was scheduled by mean calculation of the water requirement based on the agro meteorological data, the plant physiological stage and the soil water characteristics (Clay Loam). The plant water consumption (ETR) was determined by using soil water balance method, where rainfall and amount of irrigation water readily measured

  17. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    systems, one microirrigation system and three center pivots schemes. Field evaluations used the method advocated by Keller and Bliesner and conducted during farmer scheduled irrigation. Soil samples were taken before irrigations to investigate adequacy of water applied. Since the irrigation water management and the uniformity of water distribution are the two major factors used to define the quality of irrigation, the following criteria for uniformity was used: i) Localized irrigations (distribution uniformity - UD) - excellent (90% management criteria, in agricultural basins, once irrigation water becomes limiting and reduces basin water productivity.

  18. Roles of the combined irrigation, drainage, and storage of the canal network in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts along the lower Yellow River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Luo, Yi; He, Chansheng; Lai, Jianbin; Li, Xiubin

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThe commonly used irrigation system in the irrigation districts (with a combined irrigation area of 3.334 × 10 6 ha) along the lower Yellow River of China is canal network. It delivers water from the Yellow River to the fields, collects surface runoff and drainage from cropland, and stores both of them for subsequent irrigation uses. This paper developed a new combined irrigation, drainage, and storage (CIDS) module for the SWAT2000 model, simulated the multiple roles of the CIDS canal system, and estimated its performance in improving water reuse in the irrigation districts under different irrigation and water diversion scenarios. The simulation results show that the annual evapotranspiration (ET) of the double-cropping winter wheat and summer maize was the highest under the full irrigation scenario (automatic irrigation), and the lowest under the no irrigation scenario. It varied between these two values when different irrigation schedules were adopted. Precipitation could only meet the water requirement of the double-cropping system by 62-96% on an annual basis; that of the winter wheat by 32-36%, summer maize by 92-123%, and cotton by 87-98% on a seasonal basis. Hence, effective irrigation management for winter wheat is critical to ensure high wheat yield in the study area. Runoff generation was closely related to precipitation and influenced by irrigation. The highest and lowest annual runoff accounted for 19% and 11% of the annual precipitation under the full irrigation and no irrigation scenarios, respectively. Nearly 70% of the annual runoff occurred during months of July and August due to the concentrated precipitation in these 2 months. The CIDS canals play an important role in delivering the diversion water from the Yellow River, intercepting the surface runoff and drainage from cropland (inflow of the CIDS canal) and recharging the shallow aquifer for later use. Roughly 14-26% of the simulated total flow in the CIDS canal system recharged

  19. Mathematical model for scheduling irrigation for swamp rice in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the mother model indicated that the planted crops will be under severe water stress because the values of their d2 were below the allowable range of water depletion except in weeks 1,7,10,16 and 17 with their d2 values to be; 178.50mm, 181.47mm, 162.11mm, 198.80mm and 187.60mm respectively. Water ...

  20. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  1. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  2. Irrigation scheduling research: South African experiences and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We propose 4 avenues in the R&D domain to ensure responsible water utilisation. Firstly, there is a need to continue to advance existing soil-water measurement technology; and secondly, to further develop new and emerging technologies, like the use of remote sensing. Thirdly, the user-friendliness should be improved as ...

  3. Water relations and photosynthesis as criteria for adequate irrigation management in 'Tahiti' lime trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Cláudio Ricardo da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture status is one of the most useful methods because of its practicality and low cost. The effects of available soil water depletion on evapotranspiration (ETc, transpiration (E, leaf water potential at predawn (psiP and midday (psiM, stomatal conductance (gs and net CO2 assimilation (A in lime 'Tahiti' trees (Citrus latifolia were evaluated to improve irrigation schedule and minimize water use without causing water stress. The trees were spaced 7 4 m and drip-irrigated by four drippers with the available soil water content (AWC depleted by suspension of irrigation (40 days. Leaf water potential was measured on a pressure chamber (psiP and psiM and leaf gas exchange was measured by infrared gas analyzer (E, gs and A. Evapotranspiration was determined with the aid of weighing lysimeter. Water soil content and potential (psiS were monitored with TDR probes and tensiometers, respectively, installed at 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 m depths. Meteorological variables were monitored with an automatic weather station in the experimental area. The threshold AWC level for the onset of ETc decline was 43%, and 60% for gs, A, E and Y P. Also, psiP was more sensitive to AWC than psiM, and is therefore a better tool for irrigation. When AWC was around 60%, values of psiP and psis were -0.62 MPa and -48.8 kPa, respectively.

  4. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  5. mathematical model for scheduling irrigation for swamp rice in port

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... The thirst for increased food production and management of our natural resources (water) .... 16th, 2009. .... formula, Karl Pearson, (1980), was adopted in ..... Hawksworth, D. L., 1985. Foreword. In S.H. Ou, ed. Rice diseases.

  6. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  7. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  8. Irrigation management strategies to improve Water Use Efficiency of potatoes crop in Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2015-04-01

    In Tunisia, the expansion of irrigated area and the semiarid climate make it compulsory to adopt strategies of water management to increase water use efficiency. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), providing the application of high frequency small irrigation volumes below the soil surface have been increasingly used to enhance irrigation efficiency. At the same time, deficit irrigation (DI) has shown successful results with a large number of crop in various countries. However, for some crops like potatoes, DI is difficult to manage due to the rapid effect of water stress on tuber yield. Irrigation frequency is a key factor to schedule subsurface drip irrigation because, even maintaining the total seasonal volume, soil wetting patterns can result different during the growth period, with consequence on crop yield. Despite the need to enhance water use efficiency, only a few studies related to deficit irrigation of horticultural crops have been made in Tunisia. Objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm irrigation strategies on water use efficiency of potatoes crop irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation in a semiarid area of central Tunisia. After validation, Hydrus-2D model was used to simulate soil water status in the root zone, to evaluate actual crop evapotranspiration and then to estimate indirectly water use efficiency (IWUE), defined as the ratio between crop yield and total amount of water supplied with irrigation. Field experiments, were carried out in Central Tunisia (10° 33' 47.0" E, 35° 58' 8.1° N, 19 m a.s.l) on a potatoes crop planted in a sandy loam soil, during the growing season 2014, from January 15 (plantation of tubers) to May 6 (harvesting). Soil water status was monitored in two plots (T1 and T2) maintained under the same management, but different irrigation volumes, provided by a SDI system. In particular, irrigation was scheduled according to the average water content measured in the root zone, with a total of 8

  9. Use of soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of soil moisture sensing devices have been developed and are commercially available for water management applications. Each type of soil moisture sensors has its advantages and shortcomings in terms of accuracy, reliability, and cost. Resistive and capacitive based sensors, and time-d...

  10. [Ecological risks of reclaimed water irrigation: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Zhang, Wei-Ling; Pan, Neng; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse have become an important approach to alleviate the water crisis in China because of its social, economic and ecological benefits. The irrigation on urban green space and farmland is the primary utilization of reclaimed water, which has been practiced world widely. To understand the risk of reclaimed water irrigation, we summarized and reviewed the publications associated with typical pollutants in reclaimed water including salts, nitrogen, heavy metals, emerging pollutants and pathogens, systematically analyzed the ecological risk posed by reclaimed water irrigation regarding plant growth, groundwater quality and public health. Studies showed that salt and salt ions were the major risk sources of reclaimed water irrigation, spreading disease was another potential risk of using reclaimed water, and emerging pollutants was the hot topic in researches of ecological risk. Based on overseas experiences, risk control measures on reclaimed water irrigation in urban green space and farmland were proposed. Five recommendations were given to promote the safe use of reclaimed water irrigation including (1) strengthen long-term in situ monitoring, (2) promote the modeling studies, (3) build up the connections of reclaimed water quality, irrigation management and ecological risk, (4) evaluate the soil bearing capacity of reclaimed water irrigation, (5) and establish risk management system of reclaimed water reuse.

  11. Yield and water use efficiency of irrigated soybean in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out at Rimski Šančevi experiment field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad in the period 1993-2004. The experiment included an irrigated and non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were determined in order to assess the effectiveness of irrigation on soybean yield. The average yield increases of soybean due to irrigation practice was 0.82 t ha-1, ranging from 2.465 t ha-1 in years with limited precipitation and higher than average seasonal temperatures (2000 to 0 t ha-1 in rainy years (1996, 1997, 1999. Evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue of soybean ranged from 0.11 kg m-3 to 1.36 kg m-3 with an average value of 0.66 kg m-3, while irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue varied from 0.11 kg m-3 to 1.04 kg m-3 with an average value of 0.56 kg m-3. Effect of irrigation on yield of soybean and results of both ETwue and Iwue which were similar to those obtained from the literature indicate that irrigation schedule of soybean in the study period was properly adapted to plant water requirements and water-physical soil properties. Determined values of ETwue and Iwue could be used for the planning, design and operation of irrigation systems, as well as for improving the production technology of soybean in the region.

  12. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  13. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  14. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  15. 76 FR 10233 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 420 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River..., Part III, Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges. Accordingly, the Commission's water charging rates..., 2011. Effective Date: February 24, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For questions about the water...

  16. NUTRIENT CONTENT IN SUNFLOWERS IRRIGATED WITH OIL EXPLORATION WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADERVAN FERNANDES SOUSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation using produced water, which is generated during crude oil and gas recovery and treated by the exploration industry, could be an option for irrigated agriculture in semiarid regions. To determine the viability of this option, the effects of this treated water on the nutritional status of plants should be assessed. For this purpose, we examined the nutritional changes in sunflowers after they were irrigated with oil - produced water and the effects of this water on plant biomass and seed production. The sunflower cultivar BRS 321 was grown for three crop cycles in areas irrigated with filtered produced water (FPW, reverse osmosis - treated produced water (OPW, or ground water (GW. At the end of each cycle, roots, shoots, and seeds were collected to examine their nutrient concentrations. Produced water irrigation affected nutrient accumulation in the sunflower plants. OPW irrigation promoted the accumulation of Ca, Na, N, P, and Mg. FPW irrigation favored the accumulation of Na in both roots and shoots, and biomass and seed production were negatively affected. The Na in the shoots of plants irrigated with FPW increased throughout the three crop cycles. Under controlled conditions, it is possible to reuse reverse osmosis - treated produced water in agriculture. However, more long - term research is needed to understand its cumulative effects on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and crop production.

  17. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of an irrigation system is to apply the desired amount of water, at the correct application rate and uniformly to the whole field, at the right time, with the least amount of non-beneficial water consumption (losses), and as economically as possible. We know that irrigated agriculture plays a major role in the ...

  18. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  19. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  20. Basin Irrigation Design with Multi-Criteria Analysis Focusing on Water Saving and Economic Returns: Application to Wheat in Hetao, Yellow River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfeng Miao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of the Hetao Irrigation System, located in the water scarce upper Yellow River basin, is a priority considering the need for water saving, increased water productivity, and higher farmers’ incomes. The upgrading of basin irrigation, the main irrigation method, is essential and includes the adoption of precise land levelling, cut-off management, improved water distribution uniformity, and adequate irrigation scheduling. With this objective, the current study focuses on upgrading wheat basin irrigation through improved design using a decision support system (DSS model, which considers land parcels characteristics, crop irrigation scheduling, soil infiltration, hydraulic simulation, and environmental and economic impacts. Its use includes outlining water saving scenarios and ranking alternative designs through multi-criteria analysis considering the priorities of stakeholders. The best alternatives concern flat level basins with a 100 and 200 m length and inflow rates between 2 and 4 L s−1 m−1. The total irrigation cost of designed projects, including the cost of the autumn irrigation, varies between 2400 and 3300 Yuan ha−1; the major cost component is land levelling, corresponding to 33–46% of total irrigation costs. The economic land productivity is about 18,000 Yuan ha−1. The DSS modelling defined guidelines to be applied by an extension service aimed at implementing better performing irrigation practices, and encouraged a good interaction between farmers and the Water Users Association, thus making easier the implementation of appropriate irrigation management programs.

  1. Evaluation of different methods of measuring evapotranspiration as a scheduling guide for drip-irrigated cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.; Marani, A.; Mahrer, Y.; Berkovich, D.

    1983-01-01

    Evapotranspiration in a drip-irrigated cotton field was estimated by the energy balance method, net radiation, standard evaporation pan, evaporation pan in the field at canopy height, and by the Penman equation, and the results were compared with the soil-water balance based on neutron meter and tensiometer data from seven observation sites. Evapotranspiration according to the soil-water balance was only about 85% of that determined by the energy balance method, and this is attributed to the fact that irrigation laterals were placed every second row, and the soil-water balance was determined in the irrigated rows. The crop also utilized moisture stored from winter rains in the unirrigated inter-row spaces, which was detected by the energy balance method. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was 96% of potential ET (Penman), and the latter equalled 98% of net radiation energy. The actual ET equalled 90% of free water evaporation from the pan in the field at canopy height, and 88% of net radiation. The high-frequency drip regime maintained ET very close to potential ET, and under these conditions the field-installed evaporation pan, or the net radiometer, are good indicators of crop water use, with the latter being adaptable to computer-controlled irrigation. (author)

  2. Irrigation water policy analysis using a business simulation game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, M.; Holst, G.; Musshoff, O.

    2016-10-01

    Despite numerous studies on farmers' responses to changing irrigation water policies, uncertainties remain about the potential of water pricing schemes and water quotas to reduce irrigation. Thus far, policy impact analysis is predominantly based upon rational choice models that assume behavioral assumptions, such as a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker. Also, econometric techniques are applied which could lack internal validity due to uncontrolled field data. Furthermore, such techniques are not capable of identifying ill-designed policies prior to their implementation. With this in mind, we apply a business simulation game for ex ante policy impact analysis of irrigation water policies at the farm level. Our approach has the potential to reveal the policy-induced behavioral change of the participants in a controlled environment. To do so, we investigate how real farmers from Germany, in an economic experiment, respond to a water pricing scheme and a water quota intending to reduce irrigation. In the business simulation game, the participants manage a "virtual" cash-crop farm for which they make crop allocation and irrigation decisions during several production periods, while facing uncertain product prices and weather conditions. The results reveal that a water quota is able to reduce mean irrigation applications, while a water pricing scheme does not have an impact, even though both policies exhibit equal income effects for the farmers. However, both policies appear to increase the variation of irrigation applications. Compared to a perfectly rational profit-maximizing decision maker, the participants apply less irrigation on average, both when irrigation is not restricted and when a water pricing scheme applies. Moreover, the participants' risk attitude affects the irrigation decisions.

  3. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  4. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  5. A Reevaluation of Price Elasticities for Irrigation Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Richard E.; Watson, William D.; Adams, Richard M.

    1980-08-01

    The effectiveness of pricing systems in the allocation of irrigation water is linked with the price elasticity of demand of farmers for water. Using microeconomic theory, it is shown that omission of the elasticity of demand for the crop produced leads to an inelastic bias in the demand for irrigated water. Linear programing approaches omit the product elasticity of demand and are consequently biased, whereas quadratic programing approaches to estimating derived demands for irrigation water include product demand functions. The difference between the resulting estimates are empirically demonstrated for regional derived demand functions estimated from a model of California's agricultural industry.

  6. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  7. Effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Borivoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiments showing the effect of drip irrigation on yield, evapotranspiration and water productivity of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. were conducted at the experimental field of the Alternative Crops Department, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad. Irrigation was scheduled on the basis of the water balance method. Daily evapotranspiration (ETd was computed from the reference evapotranspiration (ETo and crop coefficient (kc in May, June, July and August of 0.5, 0.6, 1.1 and 1.0, respectively. ETo was calculated using Hargreaves equation. The irrigation depth was restricted to the soil depth of 0.3 m. In other words, irrigation started when readily available water in the soil layer of 0.3 m was completely depleted by plants. The irrigation rate was 30 mm (30 l m-2 while the amount of water added by irrigation during the season was 140 mm. Basil sensitivity to water stress was determined using a yield response factor (Ky. According to the results, the yield of fresh herb of basil under irrigation (32.015 t ha-1 was higher by 9% compared to non-irrigated, control variant (29.364 t ha-1. Worthy of note, basil essential oil yield was significantly affected by irrigation (35.329/28.766 kg ha-1. The content of essential oil was significantly higher in irrigated (6.45 g kg-1 than in non-irrigated variant (5.33 g kg-1 in the first harvest, while no significant difference between irrigated and non-irrigated variants was obtained in the second harvest (6.83 and 6.62 g kg-1 , respectively. Water used on evapotranspiration in irrigation conditions (ETm was 431 mm and 270 mm in non-irrigated, control variant (ETa. The values of irrigation water use efficiency (Iwue and evapotranspiration water use efficiency (ETwue were 1.89 kg m-3 and 1.65 kg m-3 respectively. Ky value (0.22 exhibits all essential characteristics of climate conditions of 2016 rainy year. These preliminary results could be used as a good platform for basil growers in the

  8. Coastal surface water suitability analysis for irrigation in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahtab, Mohammad Hossain; Zahid, Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Water with adequate quality and quantity is very important for irrigation to ensure the crop yields. Salinity is common problem in the coastal waters in Bangladesh. The intensity of salinity in the coastal zone in Bangladesh is not same. It fluctuates over the year. Sodium is another hazard which may hamper permeability and ultimately affects the fertility. It can reduce the crop yields. Although surface water is available in the coastal zone of Bangladesh, but its quality for irrigation needs to be monitored over the year. This paper will investigate the overall quality of coastal surface waters. Thirty-three water samples from different rivers were collected both in wet period (October-December) and in dry period (February-April). Different physical and chemical parameters are considered for investigation of the adequacy of water with respect to international irrigation water quality standards and Bangladesh standards. A comparison between the dry and wet period coastal surface water quality in Bangladesh will also be drawn here. The analysis shows that coastal surface water in Bangladesh is overall suitable for irrigation during wet period, while it needs treatment (which will increase the irrigation cost) for using for irrigation during dry period. Adaptation to this situation can improve the scenario. An integrated plan should be taken to increase the water storing capacity in the coastal area to harvest water during wet period.

  9. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  10. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  11. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  12. Evaluation of dripper clogging using magnetic water in drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshravesh, Mojtaba; Mirzaei, Sayyed Mohammad Javad; Shirazi, Pooya; Valashedi, Reza Norooz

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the uniformity of distribution of water and discharge variations in drip irrigation using magnetic water. Magnetic water was achieved by transition of water using a robust permanent magnet connected to a feed pipeline. Two main factors including magnetic and non-magnetic water and three sub-factor of salt concentration including well water, addition of 150 and 300 mg L-1 calcium carbonate to irrigation water with three replications were applied. The result of magnetic water on average dripper discharge was significant at ( P ≤ 0.05). At the final irrigation, the average dripper discharge and distribution uniformity were higher for the magnetic water compared to the non-magnetic water. The magnetic water showed a significant effect ( P ≤ 0.01) on distribution uniformity of drippers. At the first irrigation, the water distribution uniformity was almost the same for both the magnetic water and the non-magnetic water. The use of magnetic water for drip irrigation is recommended to achieve higher uniformity.

  13. Comparing water options for irrigation farmers using Modern Portfolio Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Meinke, H.B.; Rodriguez, D.; McGrath, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    For irrigation farmers, the deregulation of water markets and consequent emergence of water as a tradeable commodity calls for a method of comparing traditional on-farm water options (growing crops) with off-farm market options (selling water seasonally, or selling water licences permanently). The

  14. Using soil water sensors to improve irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. In this regard, sensors can be used to monitor the soil water status; and som...

  15. Irrigated agriculture with limited water supply:Tools for understanding and managing irrigation and crop water use efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water availability for irrigated agriculture is declining in both China and the United States due to increased use for power generation, municipalities, industries and environmental protection. Persistent droughts have exacerbated the situation, leading to increases in irrigated area as farmers atte...

  16. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  17. Water saving at the field scale with Irrig-OH, an open-hardware environment device for soil water potential monitoring and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masseroni, Daniele; Facchi, Arianna; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Sustainability of irrigation practices is an important objective which should be pursued in many countries, especially in areas where water scarcity causes strong conflicts among the different water uses. The efficient use of water is a key factor in coping with the food demand of an increasing world population and with the negative effects of the climate change on water resources availability in many areas. In this complex context, it is important that farmers adopt instruments and practices that enable a better management of water at the field scale, whatever the irrigation method they adopt. This work presents the hardware structure and the functioning of an open-hardware microstation based on the Arduino technology, called Irrig-OH, which allows the continuous and low-cost monitoring of the soil water potential (SWP) in the root zone for supporting the irrigation scheduling at the field scale. In order to test the microstation, an experiment was carried out during the agricultural season 2014 at Lodi (Italy), with the purpose of comparing the farmers' traditional management of irrigation of a peach variety and the scheduling based on the SWP measurements provided by the microstation. Additional measurements of leaf water potential (LWP), stomatal resistance, transpiration (T), crop water stress index (CWSI) and fruit size evolution were performed respectively on leafs and fruits for verifying the plant physiological responses on different SWP levels in soil. At the harvesting time, the peach production in term of quantity and quality (sucrose content was measured by a rifractometer over a sample of one hundred fruits) of the two rows were compared. Irrigation criteria was changed with respect to three macro-periods: up to the endocarp hardening phase (begin of May) soil was kept well watered fixing the SWP threshold in the first 35 cm of the soil profile at -20 kPa, during the pit hardening period (about the entire month of May) the allowed SWP threshold was

  18. Effect of Timing and Amount of Irrigation Water on Bean Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Arid and Semi-arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Nurbakhsh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, due to lack of water resources and increasing demand for water, agricultural water planning issues need further consideration. With proper planning and determination of irrigation depth and time, the effects of stress and yield loss on the plants are reduced. Irrigation scheduling is one of the most important factors in crop’s quality and quantity. The main objective of irrigation scheduling is to control crop’s water conditions in order to achieve its optimum yield level. So irrigation timing is the vital factor on which crop water stress and eventually yield's level are dependent upon. Moreover, irrigation timing is used in irrigation scheduling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation time on water consumption, water use efficiency and yield of beans. Materials and Methods: In order to observe the effect of the amount and the time of the irrigation on water consumption, yields rate and water use efficiency, the current research was carried out at the University of Shahrekord during the summer of 2012. The experiment was done as a completely randomized design with 4 repetitions consisting of irrigation time and the amount of irrigation in 4 and 2 levels (at 6, 8, 14 and 18 and (deficit irrigation, full irrigation, respectively. Beans seeds were planted in 32 similar vases with a diameter of 45 cm and height of 60 cm, in each experiment. Treatments were begun after 37 days from planting. Treatments were irrigated when the average moisture in the root zone was equal to the lower border of readily available water of full irrigation. At the end of the experiments, plants were completely harvested. Then the plant’s height, number of branches, numbers of pods per plant, pod and seed weight were measured. Results and Discussion: Results showed that irrigating at different times during the day influenced water use efficiency, water consumption, seeds yield and number of pods in the bush. The water

  19. Optimization of irrigation water in stone fruit and table grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Jose Mª; Castillo, Cristina; Temnani, Abdel; Pérez-Pastor, Alejandro

    2017-04-01

    In water scarcity areas, it must be highlighted that the maximum productions of the crops do not necessarily imply maximum profitability. Therefore, during the last years a special interest in the development of deficit irrigation strategies based on significant reductions of the seasonal ET without affecting production or quality has been observed. The strategies of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) are based on the reduction of water supply during non critical periods, the covering of water needs during critical periods and maximizing, at the same time, the production by unit of applied water. The main objective of this experiment was to implement, demonstrate and disseminate a sustainable irrigation strategy based on deficit irrigation to promote its large scale acceptance and use in woody crops in Mediterranean agroecosystems, characterized by water scarcity, without affecting the quality standards demanded by exportation markets. Five demonstration plots were established in representative crops of the irrigating community of Campotejar (Murcia, Spain): i) Peach trees, cv. catherina in the "Periquitos" farm; ii) Apricot trees, cv. "Red Carlet" in "La Hoya del Fenazar" farm; iii) Nectarine trees, cv. Viowhite in "Agrícola Don Fernando" farm; iv) Table grape, cv "Crimson Seedless" in "La Hornera" farm; and v) Paraguayan cv. carioca in "The Hornera" farm. In each demonstration plot, at least two irrigation treatments were established: i) Control (CTL), irrigated to ensure non-limiting water conditions (120% of crop evapotranspiration) and ii) Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) irrigated as CTL during critical periods and decreasing irrigation in non-critical periods. The plant water status indicators evaluated were midday stem water potential and Trunk Diameter Fluctuation derived indices: maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) and trunk daily growth rate (TGR); vegetative growth of the different crops from trunk diameter and pruning dry weight, fruit growth and fruit

  20. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  1. Soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of an inland arid region: Mulched drip irrigation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhou, Tiantian

    2018-04-01

    Agricultural irrigation with trans-basin water diversion can effectively relieve the water paucity in arid and semi-arid regions, however, this may be accompanied by eco-environmental problems (e.g., saline soils, rising groundwater levels, water quality problems). The mechanism of soil water movement under irrigation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions is a key scientific problem that should be solved in order to evaluate agricultural water management and further improve current irrigation practices. This study investigated the impact of drip irrigation on soil water movement in the unsaturated zone of a cotton field in an inland arid region (the Karamay Agricultural Development Area), northwest China. Combining in situ observational physical data with temporal variation in stable isotopic compositions of soil water, we described the soil water flow system and mechanism in severe (Plot 1) and mild (Plot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. The infiltration depths are 0-150 cm for both plots. Drip irrigation scheduling makes no significant contribution to local groundwater recharge, however, groundwater can move into the unsaturated zone through capillary rise during cotton flowering and boll periods. Plot 2 is less prone to having secondary soil salinization than Plot 1 due to the existence of a middle layer (approximately 100 cm thick), which elongated the distance between the root zone and aquifer. Rise in the water table (approximately 60 cm for Plot 1 and 50 cm for Plot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. We estimated the soil water storage changes in the unsaturated zone and proposed a conceptual model for deciphering the movement process of soil water. This study provides a scientific basis for determining the rise of groundwater levels and potential development of saline soils and improving agricultural water management in arid regions.

  2. A model exploring whether the coupled effects of plant water supply and demand affect the interpretation of water potentials and irrigation management

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, GM; Shackel, KA; Gilbert, ME

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Water potential is a useful predictive tool in irrigation scheduling as it, or a component, is associated with physiological responses to water deficit. Increasing atmospheric demand for water increases transpiration and decreases water potential for the same stomatal conductance. However, based on supply by the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum, decreasing soil water potential should decrease stomatal conductance and thus transpiration but also decrease water potential. Su...

  3. The relationship between sap flow and commercial soil water sensor readings in irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many irrigation scheduling methods utilized in commercial production settings rely on soil water sensors that are normally purchased as off-the-shelf technology or through contracted services that install and monitor readings throughout the season. These systems often assume a direct relationship be...

  4. Political Economy and Irrigation Technology Adoption Implications of Water Pricing under Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi, Chokri; Khanna, Madhu

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the design of water pricing rules emerging from farmers' lobbying and their implications for the size of the lobby, water use, profits and social welfare. The lobbying groups are the adopters of modern irrigation technology and the non-adopters. The pricing rules are designed to meet budget balance of water provision; we considered (i) a two-part tariff composed of a mandatory per-acre fee plus a volumetric charge and (ii) a nonlinear pricing schedule. Our results show that under e...

  5. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  6. Deficit irrigation of a landscape halophyte for reuse of saline waste water in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Mckeon, C.; Gerhart, V.; Nagler, P.L.; Jordan, F.; Artiola, J.

    2009-01-01

    Saline waste waters from industrial and water treatment processes are an under-utilized resource in desert urban environments. Management practices to safely use these water sources are still in development. We used a deeprooted native halophyte, Atriplex lentiformis (quailbush), to absorb mildly saline effluent (1800 mg l-1 total dissolved solids, mainly sodium sulfate) from a water treatment plant in the desert community of Twentynine Palms, California. We developed a deficit irrigation strategy to avoid discharging water past the root zone to the aquifer. The plants were irrigated at about one-third the rate of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological data over five years and soil moisture levels were monitored to a soil depth of 4.7 m at monthly intervals with a neutron hydroprobe. The deficit irrigation schedule maintained the soil below field capacity throughout the study. Water was presented on a more or less constant schedule, so that the application rates were less than ETo in summer and equal to or slightly greater than ETo in winter, but the plants were able to consume water stored in the profile in winter to support summer ET. Sodium salts gradually increased in the soil profile over the study but sulfate levels remained low, due to formation of gypsum in the calcic soil. The high salt tolerance, deep roots, and drought tolerance of desert halophytes such as A. lentiformis lend these plants to use as deficit-irrigated landscape plants for disposal of effluents in urban setting when protection of the aquifer is important. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Estratégias de manejo de água em caupi irrigado Strategies of irrigation scheduling in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Sonsol Gondim

    2000-04-01

    .40 m, maintaining two plants per hole. Crop yield showed no significant difference, although using the tensiometer to schedule irrigation, the water consumption was 28 and 30% lower compared to the Class A Pan Evaporation and Hargreaves equation, respectively. The tensiometer may be indicated as an instrument for saving water in irrigation scheduling.

  8. Pond and Irrigation Model (PIM): a tool for simultaneously evaluating pond water availability and crop irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Gary Feng; Theodor D. Leininger; John Read; Johnie N. Jenkins

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural ponds are an important alternative source of water for crop irrigation to conserve surface and ground water resources. In recent years more such ponds have been constructed in Mississippi and around the world. There is currently, however, a lack of a tool to simultaneously estimate crop irrigation demand and pond water availability. In this study, a Pond-...

  9. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  10. Irrigation of pistachios : strategies to confront water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón-López, Maria del Carmen; Moreno, Marta Maria; Couceiro, José Francisco; Centeno, Ana; Martín-Palomo, Maria J.; Corell, Mireia; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso; Tejero, Ivan Francisco Garcia; Zuazo, Victor Hugo Duran

    2017-01-01

    Pistachio trees are capable to be profitable under rain-fed conditions. They also have a good response to low amounts of irrigation water, so are a great candidate to be considered for water-scarcity scenarios. The pistachio tree has a singular way of alternate bearing, losing a percentage of its

  11. Deficit irrigation of peach trees to reduce water consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack of water is a major limiting factor for production tree fruits such as peaches in the San Joaquin Valley of California and many other arid- or semi-arid regions in the world. Deficit irrigation can be used in some cropping systems as a water resource management strategy to reduce non-productiv...

  12. A review of mathematical programming models of irrigation water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crops modelled influence water values, but there is no apparent relationship between objective function specification and average value. Nor does the number of irrigation options seem to influence water value either. The policy implication is that while similar models for the same region produce consistent estimates, each ...

  13. Influence of Hudiara Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Drain Water Irrigation on Trace Elements Load In Soil And Uptake By Vegetables. ... This polluted water not only contains organic matter and crop nutrients but also ... Plant samples were collected at maturity from all the monitoring points. ... (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) ...

  14. Soil properties evolution after irrigation with reclaimed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M.; González-Naranjo, V.; de Miguel, A.; Martínez-Hernández, V.; Lillo, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many arid and semi-arid countries are forced to look for new and alternative water sources. The availability of suitable quality water for agriculture in these regions often is threatened. In this context of water scarcity, the reuse of treated wastewater for crop irrigation could represent a feasible solution. Through rigorous planning and management, irrigation with reclaimed water presents some advantages such as saving freshwater, reducing wastewater discharges into freshwater bodies and decreasing the amount of added fertilizers due to the extra supply of nutrients by reclaimed water. The current study, which involves wastewater reuse in agriculture, has been carried out in the Experimental Plant of Carrión de los Céspedes (Sevile, Spain). Here, two survey parcels equally designed have been cultivated with Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergetic plant and a non-interfering food security crop. The only difference between the two parcels lies on the irrigation water quality: one is irrigated with groundwater and another one with reclaimed water. The main aim of this study focuses on analysing the outstanding differences in soil properties derived from irrigation with two water qualities, due to their implications for plant growth. To control and monitor the soil variables, soil samples were collected before and after irrigation in the two parcels. pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), kjeldahl nitrogen, organic matter content and nutrients (boron, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium) were measured. Data were statistically analyzed using the R package. To evaluate the variance ANOVA test was used and to obtain the relations between water quality and soil parameters, Pearson correlation coefficient was computed. According to other authors, a decrease in the organic matter content and an increase of parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and some exchangeable cations were expected. To date and after

  15. Effects of surface and subsurface drip irrigation regimes with saline water on yield and water use efficiency of potato in arid conditions of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathia El Mokh

    2014-12-01

    significant advantage on yield and WUE and reduces the soil salinity compared to the SDI in potato production under experimental conditions. The SSDI and FI100 irrigation techniques seem to optimize the use of saline water in potato production and to control soil salinity. Under situations of water shortage, adopting deficit irrigation treatment (DI60 could be an alternative for irrigation scheduling of spring and autumn potato under the arid conditions of southern Tunisia.

  16. Water temperature in irrigation return flow from the Upper Snake Rock watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water returning to a river from an irrigated watershed could increase the water temperature in the river. The objective of this study was to compare the temperature of irrigation return flow water with the temperature of the diverted irrigation water. Water temperature was measured weekly in the mai...

  17. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availabil...

  18. Estimating the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water in the Musi catchment of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brian; Hellegers, Petra

    2011-10-01

    SummaryAs irrigation water is an input into a production process, its demand must be 'derived'. According to theory, a derived demand schedule should be downward sloping and dependent on the outputs produced from it, the prices of other inputs and the price of the water itself. Problems arise when an attempt is made to estimate the demand for irrigation water and the resulting own-price elasticity of demand, as the uses to which water is put are spatially, temporarily and geographically diverse. Because water is not generally freely traded, what normally passes for an estimate of the own-price elasticity of demand for irrigation water is usually a well argued assumption or an estimate that is derived from a simulation model of a hypothesized producer. Such approaches tend to provide an inadequate explanation of what is an extremely complex and important relationship. An adequate explanation of the relationship between the price and the quantity demanded of water should be one that not only accords with the theoretical expectations, but also accounts for the diversity of products produced from water (which includes the management practices of farmers), the seasons in which it is used and over the region within which it is used. The objective in this article is to present a method of estimating the demand curve for irrigation water. The method uses actual field data which is collated using the Residual Method to determine the value of the marginal product of water deployed over a wide range of crops, seasons and regions. These values of the marginal products, all which must lie of the input demand schedule for water, are then ordered from the highest value to the lowest. Then, the amount of irrigation water used for each product, in each season and in each region is cumulatively summed over the range of uses according to the order of the values of the marginal products. This data, once ordered, is then used to econometrically estimate the demand schedule from which

  19. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  20. Behavioural modelling of irrigation decision making under water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Providing effective policy solutions to aquifer depletion caused by abstraction for irrigation is a key challenge for socio-hydrology. However, most crop production functions used in hydrological models do not capture the intraseasonal nature of irrigation planning, or the importance of well yield in land and water use decisions. Here we develop a method for determining stochastic intraseasonal water use that is based on observed farmer behaviour but is also theoretically consistent with dynamically optimal decision making. We use the model to (i) analyse the joint land and water use decision by farmers; (ii) to assess changes in behaviour and production risk in response to water scarcity; and (iii) to understand the limits of applicability of current methods in policy design. We develop a biophysical model of water-limited crop yield building on the AquaCrop model. The model is calibrated and applied to case studies of irrigated corn production in Nebraska and Texas. We run the model iteratively, using long-term climate records, to define two formulations of the crop-water production function: (i) the aggregate relationship between total seasonal irrigation and yield (typical of current approaches); and (ii) the stochastic response of yield and total seasonal irrigation to the choice of an intraseasonal soil moisture target and irrigated area. Irrigated area (the extensive margin decision) and per-area irrigation intensity (the intensive margin decision) are then calculated for different seasonal water restrictions (corresponding to regulatory policies) and well yield constraints on intraseasonal abstraction rates (corresponding to aquifer system limits). Profit- and utility-maximising decisions are determined assuming risk neutrality and varying degrees of risk aversion, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the formulation of the production function has a significant impact on the response to water scarcity. For low well yields, which are the major concern

  1. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  2. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  3. Climate change and the water cycle in newly irrigated areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; García-Garizábal, Iker; Merchán, Daniel; Causapé, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Climate change is affecting agriculture doubly: evapotranspiration is increasing due to increments in temperature while the availability of water resources is decreasing. Furthermore, irrigated areas are expanding worldwide. In this study, the dynamics of climate change impacts on the water cycle of a newly irrigated watershed are studied through the calculation of soil water balances. The study area was a 752-ha watershed located on the left side of the Ebro river valley, in Northeast Spain. The soil water balance procedures were carried out throughout 1827 consecutive days (5 years) of hydrological and agronomical monitoring in the study area. Daily data from two agroclimatic stations were used as well. Evaluation of the impact of climate change on the water cycle considered the creation of two future climate scenarios for comparison: 2070 decade with climate change and 2070 decade without climate change. The main indicators studied were precipitation, irrigation, reference evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, drainage from the watershed, and irrigation losses. The aridity index was also applied. The results represent a baseline scenario in which adaptation measures may be included and tested to reduce the impacts of climate change in the studied area and other similar areas.

  4. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  5. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  6. 18 CFR 420.41 - Schedule of water charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule of water charges. 420.41 Section 420.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.41 Schedule of water...

  7. Morphophysiology of guava under saline water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelfonso L. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of grafted guava cv. ‘Paluma’ subjected to different concentrations of salts in irrigation water and nitrogen (N fertilization. The plants were transplanted to 150 L lysimeters and under field conditions at the Science and Agri-food Technology Center of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in the municipality of Pombal - PB. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments corresponded to five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water - ECw (0.3; 1.1; 1.9; 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the crop. The doses equivalent to 100% corresponded to 541.1 mg of N dm-3 of soil. Irrigation water salinity above 0.3 dS m-1 negatively affects the number of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, dry phytomass of leaves, branches and shoots . A significant interaction between irrigation water salinity and N fertilization was observed only for the number of leaves and leaf area at 120 days after transplanting. N dose above 70% of the recommendation (378.7 mg N dm-3 soil did not mitigate the deleterious effects caused by salt stress on plant growth.

  8. Using Audience Segmentation to Tailor Residential Irrigation Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Rumble, Joy N.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Today's complex issues require technical expertise as well as the application of innovative social science techniques within Extension contexts. Researchers have suggested that a social science approach will play a critical role in water conservation, and people who use home landscape irrigation comprise a critical target audience for agriculture…

  9. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary

    This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips

  10. Sample container and storage for paclobutrazol monitoring in irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paclobutrazol is a plant growth retardant commonly used on greenhouse crops. Residues from paclobutrazol applications can accumulate in recirculated irrigation water. Given that paclobutrazol has a long half-life and potential biological activity in parts per billion concentrations, it would be de...

  11. Gas Exchanges and Stem Water Potential Define Stress Thresholds for Efficient Irrigation Management in Olive (Olea europea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Marino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With climate change and decreased water supplies, interest in irrigation scheduling based on plant water status is increasing. Stem water potential (ΨSWP thresholds for irrigation scheduling in olive have been proposed, however, a physiologically-based evaluation of their reliability is needed. A large dataset collected at variable environmental conditions, growing systems, and genotypes was used to characterize the relation between ΨSWP and gas exchanges for olive. Based on the effect of drought stress on the ecophysiological parameters monitored, we described three levels of stress: no stress (ΨSWP above about −2 MPa, where the high variability of stomatal conductance (gs suggests a tight stomatal control of water loss that limit ΨSWP drop, irrigation volumes applied to overcome this threshold had no effect on assimilation but reduced intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE; moderate-stress (ΨSWP between about −2.0 and −3.5 MPa, where iWUE can be increased without damage to the photosynthetic apparatus of leaves; and high-stress (ΨSWP below about −3.5 MPa, where gs dropped below 150 mmol m−2 s−1 and the intercellular CO2 concentration increased proportionally, suggesting non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis was operative. This study confirmed that olive ΨSWP should be maintained between −2 and −3.5 MPa for optimal irrigation efficiency and to avoid harmful water stress levels.

  12. Movement of Irrigation Water in Soil from a Surface Emitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abbas Dawood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available rickle irrigation is one of the most conservative irrigation techniques since it implies supplying water directly on the soil through emitters. Emitters dissipate energy of water at the end of the trickle irrigation system and provide water at emission points. The area wetted by an emitter depends upon the discharge of emitter, soil texture, initial soil water content, and soil permeability. The objectives of this research were to predict water distribution profiles through different soils for different conditions and quantify the distribution profiles in terms of main characteristics of soil and emitter. The wetting patterns were simulated at the end of each hour for a total time of application of 12 hrs, emitter discharges of 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 lph, and five initial volumetric soil water contents. Simulation of water flow from a single surface emitter was carried out by using the numerically-based software Hydrus-2D/3D, Version 2.04. Two approaches were used in developing formulas to predict the domains of the wetted pattern. In order to verify the results obtained by implementing the software Hydrus-2D/3D a field experiment was conducted to measure the wetted diameter and compare measured values with simulated ones. The results of the research showed that the developed formulas to express the wetted diameter and depth in terms of emitter discharge, time of application, and initial soil water content are very general and can be used with very good accuracy.

  13. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  14. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  15. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    controllers, centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, leak detection sensors, and the use of harvested water (i.e., rainwater and air condition water ...include ET functionality with soil moisture sensor, and leak detection via flow meter. ESTCP Final Report Smart Water Conservation System 58... leakage . The minimum static pressure was not achieved because tank water levels were less than 10 feet in the selected low profile tank.) Adjust break

  16. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses an advanced CGE model (Taheripour et al., 2013) coupled with hydrological projections of future water scarcity and biophysical data on likely crop yields under climate change to examine how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. Climate shocks to rainfed and irrigated yields in 2030 are based on the p-DSSAT crop model, RCP 2.6, as reported under the AgMIP project (Rosenzweig et al., 2013), accessed through GEOSHARE (Villoria et al, 2014). Results show that, when water scarcity is ignored, irrigated areas grow in the wake of climate change as the returns to irrigation rise faster than for rainfed uses of land within a given agro-ecological zone. When non-agricultural competition for future water use, as well as anticipated supply side limitations are brought into play (Rosegrant et al., 2013), the opportunity cost of water rises across all river basins, with the increase ranging from 12% (Luni) to 44% (Brahmaputra). As a consequence, irrigated crop production is curtailed in most regions (Figure 1), with the largest reductions coming in the most water intensive crops, namely rice and wheat. By reducing irrigated area, which tends to have much higher yields, the combined effects of water scarcity and climate impacts require an increase in total cropped area, which rises by about 240,000 ha. The majority of this area expansion occurs in the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmari river basins. Overall crop output falls by about 2 billion, relative to the 2030 baseline, with imports rising by about 570 million. The combined effects of climate change and water scarcity for irrigation also have macro-economic consequences, resulting in a 0.28% reduction in GDP and an increase in the consumer price index by about 0.4% in 2030, compared the baseline. The national welfare impact on India amounts to roughly 3 billion (at 2007 prices) in 2030. Assuming a 3% social discount rate, the net present value of the

  17. WATER HAMMER OSCILLATIONS IN THE IRRIGATION FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Kouichi; Sasaki, Katsuhito; Makihata, Toshiaki

    In case a gate installed at the end of discharge conduit is vibrating during discharge, or an air valve is vibrating during water-filling operation into the conduit pipe between main gate and auxiliary gate, and vibration period tv is larger than tc (water hammer propagation time) that is equivalent to the phenomenon of slow closure, there is a possibility that water hammer oscillation in the discharge conduit could be induced. In this paper, by using two case examples, vibration phenomena transmitted to each part are analyzed, on the basis of water pressure fluctuation and pressure wave propagation due to occurrence of water hammer oscillation.

  18. Evaluation of soil and water salinity for irrigation in North-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For sound land use and water management in irrigated area, knowledge of the chemical composition of soils, water, climate, drainage condition and irrigation methods before action are crucial for sustainability of irrigation projects. The study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of soils and water for intended ...

  19. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  20. pH Control of Untreated Water for Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyen, Faruk Bin; Kundu, Palash K.; Ghosh, Apurba K.

    2018-05-01

    Irrigation in India still plays a pivotal role in the country's economic and employment structure. But due to unawareness and lack of technological upgradations and ill and careless agricultural practices, the yield from the fields is poor and not to its best capacity. There exists a lot of reasons and factors that brings down the crop productivity. One among them is the quality of irrigation water that is supplied to the fields. It is a common practice in India and other sub-continental countries not to access the water qualitatively before getting fed to the fields. Albeit, it does not have catastrophic effects on the productivity, but it affects the nourishment of the crops to some good extent. Water pH has a strong effect on the soil and crop, when it comes to absorption of nutrients by the plant bodies. With properly regulating the pH level of the irrigation water, it is possible to create an ambiance where the symbiotic effects between the soil and the plant can be optimized. In this paper, it is tried to regulate the pH levels of the water based on the type of soil and the optimal requirement by the crop. The work in this paper involves neutralization of acidic or alkaline water before it is being supplied to the farmlands. The process model is simulation based which gave considerably good and acceptable results.

  1. Tree Canopy Light Interception Estimates in Almond and a Walnut Orchards Using Ground, Low Flying Aircraft, and Satellite Based Methods to Improve Irrigation Scheduling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, Richard C.; Johnson, Lee; Soderstrom, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Canopy light interception is a main driver of water use and crop yield in almond and walnut production. Fractional green canopy cover (Fc) is a good indicator of light interception and can be estimated remotely from satellite using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. Satellite-based Fc estimates could be used to inform crop evapotranspiration models, and hence support improvements in irrigation evaluation and management capabilities. Satellite estimates of Fc in almond and walnut orchards, however, need to be verified before incorporating them into irrigation scheduling or other crop water management programs. In this study, Landsat-based NDVI and Fc from NASA's Satellite Irrigation Management Support (SIMS) were compared with four estimates of canopy cover: 1. light bar measurement, 2. in-situ and image-based dimensional tree-crown analyses, 3. high-resolution NDVI data from low flying aircraft, and 4. orchard photos obtained via Google Earth and processed by an Image J thresholding routine. Correlations between the various estimates are discussed.

  2. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ht ly M or e W or kl oa d; 5 -M or e W or kl oa d; 6 -S ig ni fic an lty M or...install the water harvesting and pump system was captured from the contractor cost proposal. 7.1.3 Water Cost Water purchased from the Port Hueneme Water...818) 737-2734 KDuke@valleycrest.com Contractor Tom Santoianni 1205 Mill Rd. Bldg. 1430 Public Works, Ventura (805) 982-4075 Tom.Santoianni@navy.mil Energy Manager

  3. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Saha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the largest consumer of water among all crops in California. It is generally flood-irrigated, so any system that decreases runoff can improve irrigation efficiency and conserve water. To more accurately manage the water flow at the tail (bottom end of the field in surface-irrigated alfalfa crops, we developed a system that consists of wetting-front sensors, a cellular communication system and a water advance model. This system detects the wetting front, determines its advance rate and generates a cell-phone alert to the irrigator when the water supply needs to be cut off, so that tail water drainage is minimized. To test its feasibility, we conducted field tests during the 2008 and 2009 alfalfa growing seasons. The field experiments successfully validated the methodology, producing zero tail water drainage.

  4. Impacts of crop insurance on water withdrawals for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Konar, Megan

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, crop insurance may have unintended consequences for water resources sustainability, as the vast majority of freshwater withdrawals go to agriculture. The causal impact of crop insurance on water use in agriculture remains poorly understood. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation water withdrawals in the United States. Importantly, we use an instrumental variables approach to establish causality. Our methodology exploits a major policy change in the crop insurance system - the 1994 Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act - which imposed crop insurance requirements on farmers. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, with most coming from groundwater aquifers. We identify farmers growing more groundwater-fed cotton as an important mechanism contributing to increased withdrawals. A 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.624% increase in cotton acreage, or 95,602 acres. These results demonstrate that crop insurance causally leads to more irrigation withdrawals. More broadly, this work underscores the importance of determining causality in the water-food nexus as we endeavor to achieve global food security and water resources sustainability.

  5. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Rational use of water in trickle irrigation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, J. C. C.; da Silva Junior, H. M.

    2012-04-01

    In trickle irrigation systems, the design is based on the pre-established emission uniformity (EU) which is the combined result of the equipment characteristics and its hydraulic configuration. However, this desired value of the EU may not be confirmed by the final project (in field conditions) and neither by the yield uniformity. However, the most important is to assure yield uniformity with rational use of water. The hypotheses of this research were: a) the EU of a trickle irrigation system at field conditions is equal to the emission uniformity pre-established in the design; b) EU has always the lowest value when compared with other indicators of uniformity; c) the discharge variation coefficient is not equal to production variation coefficient in the operational unit; d) the productivity variation coefficient is more dependent on water depth applied than the EU. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships among EU used in the irrigation system design, water depth applied and the final yield uniformity. The uniformity indicators evaluated were: EU, distribution uniformity (UD) and the index proposed by Barragan & Wu (2005). They were compared estimating the performance of a trickle irrigation system applied in a citrus orchard with dimensions of 400m x 600m. The design of the irrigation system was optimized by a Linear Programming model. The tree rows were leveled in the larger direction and the spacing adopted in the orchard was 7m x 4m. The manifold line was always operating on a slope condition. The sensitivity analysis involved different slopes, 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%, and different values of emission uniformity, 60, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90 and 94%. The citrus yield uniformity was evaluated by the variation coefficient. The emission uniformity (EU) after design differed from the EU pre-established, more sharply in the initial values lower than 90%. Comparing the uniformity indexes, the EU always generated lower values when compared with the UD and with the index

  7. Drought Tip: Irrigating Citrus with Limited Water

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Ben

    2015-01-01

    As an evergreen in California's Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, citrus requires some water all year long. Depending on the cultivar and rootstock, citrus can sustain certain levels of drought stress.

  8. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America Manejo del Agua de Riego en Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.Los países sudamericanos tienen un gran potencial para aumentar sus áreas regadas. El riego es importante para fortalecer las economías locales y regionales y para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria. Esta revisión tiene por objeto proporcionar un resumen de los aspectos más importantes del manejo del riego en Sudamérica. Un manejo pobre del riego puede tener un alto impacto en la producción de cultivos y en el ambiente, en tanto que un buen manejo reduce las pérdidas de suelo y agua, y ayuda a los productores a maximizar sus ingresos. Se encontró que se requiere investigación adicional que permita una mejor comprensión de los requerimientos de agua de los cultivos en las condiciones sudamericanas, y también para proporcionar a los agricultores información local que permita hacer programaci

  9. Irrigation ponds: Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MAO Zhi; BROWN Larry; CHEN XiuHong; PENG LiYuan; WANG JianZhang

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and un-recycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China.With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious.Traditional ir-rigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e.the capacity of irri-gation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality im-provement, how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irriga-tion and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning.Pond is an important irrigation facil-ity in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use.Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treat-ment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system.To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site.The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water.Other issues, e.g.how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  10. Irrigation ponds:Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BROWN; Larry

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and unrecycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China. With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious. Traditional irrigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e. the capacity of irrigation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality improvement. how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irrigation and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning. Pond is an important irrigation facility in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use. Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treatment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system. To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site. The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water. Other issues, e.g. how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  11. Accounting for potassium and magnesium in irrigation water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Oster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation with treated wastewater is expected to increase significantly in California during the coming decade as a way to reduce the impact of drought and mitigate water transfer issues. To ensure that such wastewater reuse does not result in unacceptable impacts on soil permeability, water quality guidelines must effectively address sodicity hazard. However, current guidelines are based on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and thus assume that potassium (K and magnesium (Mg, which often are at elevated concentrations in recycled wastewaters, pose no hazard, despite many past studies to the contrary. Recent research has established that the negative effects of high K and Mg concentrations on soil permeability are substantial and that they can be accounted for by a new irrigation water quality parameter, the cation ratio of structural stability (CROSS, a generalization of SAR. We show that CROSS, when suitably optimized, correlates strongly with a standard measure of soil permeability reduction for an agricultural soil leached with winery wastewater, and that it can be incorporated directly into existing irrigation water quality guidelines by replacing SAR.

  12. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  13. Integration of wireless sensor networks into automatic irrigation scheduling of a center pivot

    Science.gov (United States)

    A six-span center pivot system was used as a platform for testing two wireless sensor networks (WSN) of infrared thermometers. The cropped field was a semi-circle, divided into six pie shaped sections of which three were irrigated manually and three were irrigated automatically based on the time tem...

  14. Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

  15. Evaluation of soil and water salinity for irrigation in North-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... For sound land use and water management in irrigated area, knowledge of the chemical ... Nowadays, soil salinity has become important problem in irrigated ... hoe, shovel, plastic bags, hard paper or labeling, markers, rope,.

  16. Water productivity analysis of sand dams irrigation farming in northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Villani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity in drylands is the main problem that has to be tackled by farmers and practitioners that work in these areas. Climate change and increased and wealthier population are expected to put additional stress on the water resource. A large number of studies is calling to focus efforts to enhance water productivity (WP, and one of the most promising option is represented by water harvesting, the collection and storage of runoff water to be used for beneficially uses. Among the available technologies, sand dams are experiencing a renovated interest because of their relative simplicity and their potential. This research aims to deepen the knowledge about WP of water harvesting systems studying a sand dam irrigation system in Tigray, north Ethiopia, where farmers are getting used to this new technology. The research was carried out in the period March-April 2017, when farmers use sand dams water to irrigate off-season maize. We analysed a representative plot irrigated through a shallow well drilled in the sand dam aquifer, in terms of yield, Crop Water Productivity (CWP, Crop Water Productivity based on Evapotranspiration (CWP(ET and Economic Water Productivity (EWP, through field data analysis and a validated Aquacrop model. CWP(ET was found to be low (1.12 kg of grain per m3 of evapotranspired water, due by both inefficient water application and low soil fertility. Aquacrop model results showed that changing the irrigation schedule can increase CWP(ET up to 1.35 kg/m3 and EWP up to 3.94 birr/m3, but yield gap is mainly due to the low soil fertility. Interventions on soil fertility can raise yields from the original 3.3 up to 8.5 kg/ha, and thus CWP(ET and EWP up to 2.94 kg/m3 and 9.54 birr/m3 respectively. To enhance the effect of sand dams in northern Ethiopia, a set of measures, including conservation agriculture, is then proposed.

  17. Willingness to Pay Additional Water Rate and Irrigation Knowledge of Farmers in Dinar Karakuyu Irrigation Areas in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gül

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Water which has become commodity product which is an important product today. Turkey is not a water rich country. In this study, agricultural enterprises in the field of Irrigation Project in Dinar Karakuyu which was implemented in 1992 by DSI. The study analysed which factors affect the willingness to pay additional irrigation water rate with the help of logit model and the irrigation knowledge of farmers was determined by Likert scale. Dinar Karakuyu irrigation network has begun to lose the function in the region. It was supposed 100% irrigation rate but decreased by approximately 9% today. In this context, DSI (General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works plans to rehabilitation work in the same area. The main material of this study was data obtained from 67 agricultural enterprises through a survey covered by the Irrigation Rehabilitation Project in the province of Afyonkarahisar Karakuyu Dinar. The data was gathered with the help of questionnaires which were answered by farmers in Karakuyu Dinar region. The results indicated that 74.6% of farmers were willingness to pay additional water charge. The data were statistically analysed with the use of the logit model. The model results show that agricultural income, farmers’ educational level, computer ownership, attendance of agricultural training activities, family size and agricultural experience were positive factors affect farmers’ willingness to pay additional water fee.

  18. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, W; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H; Mudasser, M; Jensen, P K

    2001-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water reservoirs is to use the water that has seeped from the irrigation canals and irrigated fields and that has formed a small layer of fresh water on top of the brackish groundwater. The objective of this study was to assess whether use of irrigation seepage water for drinking results in less diarrhoea than direct use of irrigation water and how irrigation water management would impact on health. The study was undertaken in an irrigated area in the southern Punjab, Pakistan. Over a one-year period, drinking water sources used and diarrhoea episodes were recorded each day for all individuals of 200 households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained by the generally poor quality of water in the in-house storage vessels, reflecting considerable in-house contamination of drinking water. Risk factors for diarrhoea were absence of a water connection and water storage facility, lack of a toilet, low standard of hygiene, and low socio-economic status. The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0

  19. Effect of integrated plant nutrition and irrigation scheduling on yield and yield components of maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M.S.; Maqsood, M.; Wajid, S.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of three irrigation schedules (4-6 irrigations) and seven integrated plant nutrition levels (control, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha/sup -1/, 125-60-62 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farm yard manure at the rate 15 t ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha-1, 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ -K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 10 t ha-1 and 250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/ + Farmyard manure at the rate 15 t ha/sup -1/) on grain yield and its components in maize were studied during 2009 and 2010. Plant height, number of cobs plant-1, number of grain rows cob-1, number of grains cob-1, 1000-grain weight, grain weight cob-1, grain yield, stover yield and biological yield were significantly affected by irrigation schedules and integrated plant nutrition levels during both years. The crop applied with six irrigations and fertilized by integrated application of chemical fertilizers (250-120-125 kg N-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/--K/sub 2/O ha/sup -1/) and farmyard manure (15 t ha/sup -1/) produced the highest grain yield of 8.47 t ha/sup -1/ and 8.22 t ha/sup -1/ during 2009 and 2010, respectively. (author)

  20. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  1. Maximizing the value of limited irrigation water: USDA researchers study how producers on limited irrigation can save water and be profitable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  2. Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Marziah Mahmood; Sobri Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)

  3. Tomato nitrogen accumulation and fertilizer use efficiency on a sandy soil, as affected by nitrogen rate and irrigation scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zotarelli, L.; Dukes, M.D.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Icerman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tomato production systems in Florida are typically intensively managed with high inputs of fertilizer and irrigation and on sandy soils with low inherent water and nutrient retention capacities; potential nutrient leaching losses undermine the sustainability of such systems. The objectives of this

  4. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.

  5. Developing a Water Quality Index (WQI) for an Irrigation Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Mora-Orozco, Celia; Flores-Lopez, Hugo; Rubio-Arias, Hector; Chavez-Duran, Alvaro; Ochoa-Rivero, Jesus

    2017-04-29

    Pollution levels have been increasing in water ecosystems worldwide. A water quality index (WQI) is an available tool to approximate the quality of water and facilitate the work of decision-makers by grouping and analyzing numerous parameters with a single numerical classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a WQI for a dam used for irrigation of about 5000 ha of agricultural land. The dam, La Vega, is located in Teuchitlan, Jalisco, Mexico. Seven sites were selected for water sampling and samples were collected in March, June, July, September, and December 2014 in an initial effort to develop a WQI for the dam. The WQI methodology, which was recommended by the Mexican National Water Commission (CNA), was used. The parameters employed to calculate the WQI were pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), alkalinity (Alk), total phosphorous (TP), Cl - , NO₃, SO₄, Ca, Mg, K, B, As, Cu, and Zn. No significant differences in WQI values were found among the seven sampling sites along the dam. However, seasonal differences in WQI were noted. In March and June, water quality was categorized as poor. By July and September, water quality was classified as medium to good. Quality then decreased, and by December water quality was classified as medium to poor. In conclusion, water treatment must be applied before waters from La Vega dam reservoir can be used for irrigation or other purposes. It is recommended that the water quality at La Vega dam is continually monitored for several years in order to confirm the findings of this short-term study.

  6. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  7. SEBAL Model Using to Estimate Irrigation Water Efficiency & Water Requirement of Alfalfa Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Ermolaeva, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of irrigation is a complex and comprehensive undertaking, requiring an attention to much more than hydraulics, chemistry, and agronomy. A special combination of human, environmental, and economic factors exists in each irrigated region and must be recognized and evaluated. A way to evaluate the efficiency of irrigation water use for crop production is to consider the so-called crop-water production functions, which express the relation between the yield of a crop and the quantity of water applied to it or consumed by it. The term has been used in a somewhat ambiguous way. Some authors have defined the Crop-Water Production Functions between yield and the total amount of water applied, whereas others have defined it as a relation between yield and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET). In case of high efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied is less than the potential evapotranspiration (PET), then - assuming no significant change of soil moisture storage from beginning of the growing season to its end-the volume of water may be roughly equal to ET. In other case of low efficiency of irrigation water use the volume of water applied exceeds PET, then the excess of volume of water applied over PET must go to either augmenting soil moisture storage (end-of-season moisture being greater than start-of-season soil moisture) or to runoff or/and deep percolation beyond the root zone. In presented contribution some results of a case study of estimation of biomass and leaf area index (LAI) for irrigated alfalfa by SEBAL algorithm will be discussed. The field study was conducted with aim to compare ground biomass of alfalfa at some irrigated fields (provided by agricultural farm) at Saratov and Volgograd Regions of Russia. The study was conducted during vegetation period of 2012 from April till September. All the operations from importing the data to calculation of the output data were carried by eLEAF company and uploaded in Fieldlook web

  8. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    allows comparing different combinations of (1) water quality, including tap water as a reference, (2) irrigation techniques, and (3) irrigation strategies (including full irrigation, partial root drying, RDI). The replication of each of the combinations on three different plots takes into account the local variations of soil properties and allows a proper statistical treatment. Reactions of the infiltrating water with the soil solid phase are important for the solute cycling, temporary fixation and remobilisation of trace pollutants. The type of reaction (sorption, co-precipitation…) and the reactive mineral phases will also determine the availability of trace elements for the plant and determine the passage towards crops and products. Therefore it is important to assess the soil water quality, directly or indirectly. Direct measurements of soil water imply soil water sampling through an appropriate system; porous cups were installed on the Cretan, Italian and Chinese sites. Indirect evaluation of water-soil interactions can be obtained through sequential extractions. The combination of a variable input function (through diffuse pollution, irrigation, fertigation) and of variable MTE mobility in soils can be expected to lead to short term variations in soil metal concentrations even if such short term variations have been rarely investigated (Féder, 2001; Cary and Trolard, 2008). The sampling focused upon the fully irrigated plots given that the potential impact of irrigation water quality on soil and plant quality can be expected higher for fully irrigated soils compared to other irrigation strategies. Samples were taken within the soil volume of potential influence around each of the drip emitters. This volume varies depending on the nature of the soil and the irrigation system so that each site adopted a specific protocol. For all experiments, three sampling campaigns were scheduled for each irrigation season: at pre-planting, at the end of irrigation, at harvest

  9. Farmers' laws and irrigation : water rights and dispute management in the hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation

  10. Gypsiferous mine water use in irrigation on rehabilitated open-cast mine land: Crop production, soil water and salt balance

    OpenAIRE

    Annandale, J.; Jovanovic, N.; Pretorius, J.; Lorentz, S.; Rethman, N.; Tanner, P.

    2001-01-01

    The use of gypsiferous mine water for irrigation of agricultural crops is a promising technology, which could alleviate a shortage of irrigation water and address the problem of disposal of mine effluent. A field trial was established at Kleinkopje Colliery in Witbank (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa) during the 1997-1998 season. Sugar beans and wheat were irrigated with three center pivots, on both virgin and rehabilitated land. The objectives were to determine crop response to irrigation ...

  11. Assessment of water quality from water harvesting using small farm reservoir for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, W. S.; Komariah; Samsuri, I. Y.; Senge, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to assess the quality of rainfall-runoff water harvesting using small farm reservoir (SFR) for irrigation. Water quality assessment criteria based on RI Government Regulation number 82 the year 2001 on Water Quality Management and Pollution Control, and FAO Irrigation Water Quality Guidelines 1985. The experiment was conducted in the dry land of Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency. SFR size was 10 m x 3 m x 2 m. Water quality measurements are done every week, ten times. Water samples were taken at 6 points, namely: distance of 2.5 m, 5 m, and 7.5 m from the inlet, at depth 25 cm and 175 cm from surface water. In each sampling point replicated three times. Water quality parameters include dissolved oxygen (DO), Turbidity (TSS), water pH, Nitrate (NO3), and Phosphate. The results show that water harvesting that collected in SFR meets both standards quality used, so the water is feasible for agricultural irrigation. The average value of harvested water was DO 2.6 mg/l, TSS 62.7 mg/l, pH 6.6, P 5.3 mg/l and NO3 0.16 mg/l. Rainfall-runoff water harvesting using SFR prospectus for increasing save water availability for irrigation.

  12. [Effect of climate change on rice irrigation water requirement in Songnen Plain, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-gang; Wang, Xiao-li; Xiao, Ye; Yang, Fei; Wang, Chen-xi

    2015-01-01

    Based on meteorological data from China national weather stations and climate scenario grid data through regional climate model provided by National Climate Center, rice water requirement was calculated by using McCloud model and Penman-Monteith model combined with crop coefficient approach. Then the rice irrigation water requirement was estimated by water balance model, and the changes of rice water requirement were analyzed. The results indicated that either in historical period or in climate scenario, rice irrigation water requirement contour lines during the whole growth period and Lmid period decreased along southwest to northeast, and the same irrigation water requirement contour line moved north with decade alternation. Rice irrigation water requirement during the whole growth period increased fluctuantly with decade alternation at 44.2 mm . 10 a-1 in historical period and 19.9 mm . 10 a-1 in climate scenario. The increase in rice irrigation water requirement during the Lmid period with decade alternation was significant in historical period, but not significant in climate scenario. Contribution rate of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement would be fluctuantly increased with decade alternation in climate scenario. Compared with 1970s, contribution rates of climate change to rice irrigation water requirement were 23.6% in 2000s and 34.4% in 2040s, which increased 14.8 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2000s and would increase 21.2 x 10(8) m3 irrigation water in 2040s.

  13. Evolution of Corn Transpiration and Leaf Water Potential During Sprinkler Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Cob, Antonio; Fernández-Navajas, Julián; Durán, Víctor; Cavero Campo, José

    2009-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) transpiration during daytime solid-set sprinkler irrigation was analyzed on two neighbouring subplots to determine the effect of the transpiration reduction on water application efficiency. During each irrigation event, one subplot was irrigated (moist treatment) while the other was not (dry treatment). Transpiration rates were determined at each subplot by the heat balance method (Dynamax Flow4 System) before, during and after the irrigations. During irri...

  14. INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT AND DURABILITY OF LANDSCAPE OF PUBLIC IRRIGATED AREAS IN TUNISIA: CASES OF PUBLIC IRRIGATED AREAS OF CHOTT-MARIEM AND MORNAG

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkarim Hamrita; Amira Boussetta; Rafael Mata Olmo; Mehdi Saqalli; Hichem Rejeb

    2017-01-01

    An important part of the landscape of irrigated areas in Tunisia is the result of morphology, organization and operation of agricultural policies implemented since independence, aimed at optimizing the exploitation of the best soils and natural resources, particularly water and productive crop intensification. The sustainability of the landscape of public irrigated areas has a strong bonding with the resources of irrigation water and their states of management. The scarcity of irrigation wate...

  15. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  16. Income Distribution Impacts of Irrigation Water Distribution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Rajan K.

    1984-06-01

    In the majority of lesser developed countries (LDC's) there is acute inequality in income distribution in the rural sector, particularly between large and small farms on the one hand and between land owners and the landless on the other. Irrigation water distribution policy of the government is both an economic and political problem. It has both equity and efficiency implications. It has effects on both the level and distribution of income. This paper deals with the conditions under which using water redistribution as an effective governmental policy variable can reduce inequality in the distribution of income. This paper also deals with the relationship between the objectives of equity and efficiency in water distribution under different objective realities, such as dualistic versus nondualistic conditions, two-sector versus three-sector modeling, optimum versus equal water distribution, specifically to derive the conditions under which promotion of equity promotes efficiency and vice versa and the conditions under which it does not.

  17. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  18. Irrigation, risk aversion, and water right priority under water supply uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Xu, Wenchao; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority—as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability—on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to 141.4 acre-1 or 55,800 per farm between the two groups. The optimal irrigated acreage, expected net revenue, and shadow value of a water right's priority are subject to substantial changes under a changing climate in the future, where temporal variation in water supply risks significantly affects the profitability of agricultural land use under the priority-based water sharing mechanism.

  19. Uptake of antibiotics from irrigation water by plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azanu, David; Mortey, Christiana; Darko, Godfred

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of carrot (Daucus corota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), two plants that are usually eaten raw, to uptake tetracycline and amoxicillin (two commonly used antibiotics) from irrigated water was investigated in order to assess the indirect human exposure to antibiotics through...... tested concentrations of 0.1-15 mg L(-1). Tetracycline was detected in all plant samples, at concentrations ranging from 4.4 to 28.3 ng/g in lettuce and 12.0-36.8 ng g(-1) fresh weight in carrots. Amoxicillin showed absorption with concentrations ranging from 13.7 ng g(-1) to 45.2 ng g(-1) for the plant...

  20. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part I. water and solute movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.; Hammack, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Water co-produced with coal-bed methane (CBM) in the semi-arid Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana commonly has relatively low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios that can degrade soil permeability where used for irrigation. Nevertheless, a desire to derive beneficial use from the water and a need to dispose of large volumes of it have motivated the design of a deep subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system capable of utilizing that water. Drip tubing is buried 92 cm deep and irrigates at a relatively constant rate year-round, while evapotranspiration by the alfalfa and grass crops grown is seasonal. We use field data from two sites and computer simulations of unsaturated flow to understand water and solute movements in the SDI fields. Combined irrigation and precipitation exceed potential evapotranspiration by 300-480 mm annually. Initially, excess water contributes to increased storage in the unsaturated zone, and then drainage causes cyclical rises in the water table beneath the fields. Native chloride and nitrate below 200 cm depth are leached by the drainage. Some CBM water moves upward from the drip tubing, drawn by drier conditions above. Chloride from CBM water accumulates there as root uptake removes the water. Year over year accumulations indicated by computer simulations illustrate that infiltration of precipitation water from the surface only partially leaches such accumulations away. Field data show that 7% and 27% of added chloride has accumulated above the drip tubing in an alfalfa and grass field, respectively, following 6 years of irrigation. Maximum chloride concentrations in the alfalfa field are around 45 cm depth but reach the surface in parts of the grass field, illustrating differences driven by crop physiology. Deep SDI offers a means of utilizing marginal quality irrigation waters and managing the accumulation of their associated solutes in the crop rooting zone.

  1. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The EU project SAFIR aimed to help farmers solve problems related to the use of low quality water for irrigation in a context of increasing scarcity of conventional freshwater resources. New decentralised water treatment devices (prototypes) were developed to allow a safe direct or indirect reuse...... of wastewater produced by small communities/industries or the use of polluted surface water. Water treatment technologies were coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management of the system. The challenge is to apply new strategies and technologies...... which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...

  2. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF WATER RESOURCES IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE OF UZBEKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Djalalov, Sandjar

    1998-01-01

    Irrigation in Uzbekistan is of great importance since the country is an arid zone. The use of water in agriculture is described and its relationship as a constraint to economic development discussed. The current technical and organizational characteristics of irrigation systems need study and analysis to identify opportunities for improvements. The characteristics of demand for water at the farm level are described and irrigation and land improvement activities are outlined. Reform of water u...

  3. Mismanagement of Irrigation Water and Landslips in Yourjogh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Ali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Risks and hazards associated with climate change and geological factors, especially in the world's youngest mountains, are inevitable and may have been exacerbated in recent decades. However reports about increased landslips and landslides in some areas are being presented as examples to argue that most natural hazards in mountain areas are due to climate change. Based on a field study in the Yourjogh area of Chitral District in Pakistan, we argue that this discourse is based on generalized conclusions that do not hold in all cases and for all types of disasters. Our study challenges the climate change discourse as disregarding the political dimension of water management that also contributes to landslides and landslips in Pakistan's mountainous regions. The climate change discourse has taken the politics out of external-donor-led development interventions that replaced traditional irrigation management practices and institutions with an arrangement in which external development agencies and the state control crucial economic and social processes that shape the distribution of water. This not only depoliticizes disasters and their effects but also leads to further mismanagement of abundantly available irrigation water, contributing to the frequent occurrence of landslips in our study area. We conclude that attributing hazards only to climatic or geological factors leaves little room to promote locally appropriate solutions for locally created hazards.

  4. Recycling of canteen waste water for irrigation purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recycling of wastewater of a canteen was done at Attock refinery Limited, Rawalpindi during 2002. The wastewater of the refinery canteen was recycled after a long process and was reused for irrigation of nearby garden and other landscape plants. The average outflow of the wastewater from the canteen was calculated as 4000 liters/day. Laboratory analysis for the quality of wastewater was conducted and it was found that suspended solid. Chemical Oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the wastewater were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) limits. Treatment system employed was composed of screening and settling tank for removing the suspended solids and aeration for decreasing the COD and BOD. It was a low cost system in which the materials used were mostly taken from the redundant stock. Air was given for aeration with the help of a compressor. The treated water was tested in the laboratory for the priority parameters i.e. temperature, pH, BOD, COD, Total suspended solids (TSS), Total dissolved (TDS), oil and grease and Phenols. These parameters were compared with the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). Treated water was used for irrigation of the nearby garden and landscape. The recycling process was successfully conducted and a huge quantity of 4000 liters water/day (1000 G water/day) was processes was successfully conducted and a huge quantity of 4000 liters water/day (1000 G water/day) was recycled with a daily saving of Rs.100 at the rate of Rs.1/10 G water that was taken from market survey. (author)

  5. Water economy in the irrigation of family farmland in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mhiri, A.; Elloumi, M.J.; Laouini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A simple irrigation technique based on the use of polyethylene bags was developed and tested so as to achieve maximum water economy in family-scale farming in arid zones. It simulates localized irrigation and eliminates water losses due to evaporation and drainage. The method was tried out in the cultivation of tomatoes in glasshouses. In comparison with the control experiment in the field with furrow irrigation, the saving of water was 60%, with a 30% drop in production. There was thus a net improvement in efficiency in the utilization of the irrigation water. (author)

  6. Principles of root water uptake, soil salinity and crop yield for optimizing irrigation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirksen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles of water and salt transport, root water uptake, crop salt tolerance, water quality, and irrigation methods which should be considered in optimizing irrigation management for sustained, viable agriculture with protection of the quality of land and water resources. In particular, the advantages of high-frequency irrigation at small leaching fractions with closed systems are discussed, for which uptake-weighted mean salinity is expected to correlate best with crop yields. Optimization of irrigation management depends on the scale considered. Non-technical problems which are often much harder to solve than technical problems, may well be most favourable for new projects in developing countries. (author)

  7. Water quality, pesticide occurrence, and effects of irrigation with reclaimed water at golf courses in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancar, Amy

    1996-01-01

    Reuse of treated wastewater for golf course irrigation is an increasingly popular water management option in Florida, where growth has put stress on potable water supplies. Surface water, ground water, and irrigation water were sampled at three pairs of golf courses quarterly for one year to determine if pesticides were present, and the effect of irrigation with treated effluent on ground-water quality, with an emphasis on interactions of effluent with pesticides. In addition to the six paired golf courses, which were in central Florida, ground water was sampled for pesticides and other constituents at three more golf courses in other parts of the State. This study was the first to analyze water samples from Florida golf courses for a broad range of pesticides. Statistical methods based on the percentage of data above detection limits were used to determine the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water on ground-water quality. Shallow ground water at golf courses irrigated with treated effluent has higher concentrations of chloride, lower concentrations of bicarbonate, and lower pH than ground water at golf courses irrigated with water from carbonate aquifers. There were no statistically significant differences in nutrient concentrations in ground water between paired golf courses grouped by irrigation water type at a 95 percent confidence level. The number of wells where pesticides occurred was significantly higher at the paired golf courses using ground water for irrigation than at ones using reclaimed water. However, the limited occurrences of individual pesticides in ground water make it difficult to correlate differences in irrigation- water quality with pesticide migration to the water table. At some of the golf courses, increased pesticide occurrences may be associated with higher irrigation rates, the presence of well-drained soils, and shallow depths to the surficial aquifer. Pesticides used by golf courses for turf grass maintenance were detected in

  8. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...... households in 10 villages. Separate surveys were undertaken to collect information on hygiene behaviour, sanitary facilities, and socio-economic status. RESULTS: Seepage water was of much better quality than surface water, but this did not translate into less diarrhoea. This could only be partially explained....... The association between water quality and diarrhoea varied by the level of water availability and the presence or absence of a toilet. Among people having a high quantity of water available and a toilet, the incidence rate of diarrhoea was higher when surface water was used for drinking than when seepage water...

  9. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  10. Gated or ungated : water control in government-built irrigation systems : comparative research in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, T.M.S.

    1996-01-01


    The control, allocation and distribution, of water is the core process of an irrigation system. It is the process by which the available water is divided and distributed to the smaller irrigation units within the system, which in turn is distributed further down to the individual water

  11. Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation among fluoride and metals in irrigation water and soils of Ethiopian Rift Valley. ... The fluoride concentrations in water samples were found in the range of 0.14-8.0 mg/L which is below the WHO limit of fluoride concentration for irrigation (less than 10 mg/L). ... KEY WORDS: Fluoride, Metals, Water, Soil, Ethiopia.

  12. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  13. The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crop water stress index (CWSI) for drip irrigated cotton in a semi-arid region of Turkey. ... Four irrigation treatments designated as full (I100) with no water stress and slight (DI70), moderate (DI50) and strong water ... from 32 Countries:.

  14. Analysis of grey-water used for irrigating vegetables and possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of grey-water used for irrigating vegetables and possible effects on soils in the ... The concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals found in the grey-water ... in order to lower the salt content and to improve the irrigation water quality.

  15. Research on monitoring system of water resources in irrigation region based on multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T H; Wang, D S

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation agriculture is the basis of agriculture and rural economic development in China. Realizing the water resource information of irrigated area will make full use of existing water resource and increase benefit of irrigation agriculture greatly. However, the water resource information system of many irrigated areas in our country is not still very sound at present, it lead to the wasting of a lot of water resources. This paper has analyzed the existing water resource monitoring system of irrigated areas, introduced the Multi-Agent theories, and set up a water resource monitoring system of irrigated area based on multi-Agent. This system is composed of monitoring multi-Agent federal, telemetry multi-Agent federal, and the Communication Network GSM between them. It can make full use of good intelligence and communication coordination in the multi-Agent federation interior, improve the dynamic monitoring and controlling timeliness of water resource of irrigated area greatly, provide information service for the sustainable development of irrigated area, and lay a foundation for realizing high information of water resource of irrigated area.

  16. Evaluation of Different Rice Genotypes Tolerance to Saline Irrigation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jafari Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the responses of seven rice genotypes (Khazar, SA13, Deylam, Sange Joe, Sepidrud, 831 and T5 to different levels of irrigation water salinity, and determining grain yield based on tolerance indices, a CRD based factorial pot experiment with five levels of irrigation water salinity (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dSm-1 and three replications was carried out at Rice Research Institute of Iran in 2011. Indices such as SSI, TOL, MP, GMP, HM, STI, YI and YSI were calculated and their correlations with grain yield were estimated for both stress and non-stress conditions. Results indicated significant differences among genotypes and the indices within both conditions. Results also showed that STI and MP indices could be considered as the best indices to screen salt tolerant genotypes. Among the genotypes used in the experiment, T5 produced the highest yield in both non-stress (19.71 g/plant and stress (10.69 g/plant conditions, while the lowest yield in normal (11.84 g/plant and stressful (4.29 g/plant conditions was recorded for Deylam and Khazar, respectively. The highest and the lowest percentage of yield reduction were found in Khazar (69.49% and Sange Joe (31.48% in stressful conditions, respectively. Overall, genotypes T5, 831, Sepidrud and Sange Joe can probably be considered as superior high yielding genotypes in both saline and non-saline conditions for further research.

  17. Field trials show the fertilizer value of nitrogen in irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased regulatory activity designed to protect groundwater from degradation by nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N is focusing attention on the efficiency of agricultural use of nitrogen (N. One area drawing scrutiny is the way in which growers consider the NO3-N concentration of irrigation water when determining N fertilizer rates. Four drip-irrigated field studies were conducted in the Salinas Valley evaluating the impact of irrigation water NO3-N concentration and irrigation efficiency on the N uptake efficiency of lettuce and broccoli crops. Irrigation with water NO3-N concentrations from 2 to 45 milligrams per liter were compared with periodic fertigation of N fertilizer. The effect of irrigation efficiency was determined by comparing an efficient (110% to 120% of crop evapotranspiration, ETc and an inefficient (160% to 200% of ETc irrigation treatment. Across these trials, NO3-N from irrigation water was at least as efficiently used as fertilizer N; the uptake efficiency of irrigation water NO3-N averaged approximately 80%, and it was not affected by NO3-N concentration or irrigation efficiency.

  18. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  19. Accounting for user expectations in the valuation of reliable irrigation water access in the Ethiopian highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassahun, Habtamu Tilahun; Nicholson, Charles F.; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reliable access to irrigation water for a sample of farmers in a watershed of the Ethiopian highlands who do not have prior experience with irrigation. To address the lack of previous irrigation experience, we account for underlying expectations...... of future irrigation productivity using an Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) econometric model. We then compare the ICLV estimates with alternative models that do not account for expectations regarding productivity increases with irrigation. Our results indicate that both the ICLV and alternative...

  20. Joint optimization scheduling for water conservancy projects in complex river networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we simulated water flow in a water conservancy project consisting of various hydraulic structures, such as sluices, pumping stations, hydropower stations, ship locks, and culverts, and developed a multi-period and multi-variable joint optimization scheduling model for flood control, drainage, and irrigation. In this model, the number of sluice holes, pump units, and hydropower station units to be opened were used as decision variables, and different optimization objectives and constraints were considered. This model was solved with improved genetic algorithms and verified using the Huaian Water Conservancy Project as an example. The results show that the use of the joint optimization scheduling led to a 10% increase in the power generation capacity and a 15% reduction in the total energy consumption. The change in the water level was reduced by 0.25 m upstream of the Yundong Sluice, and by 50% downstream of pumping stations No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4. It is clear that the joint optimization scheduling proposed in this study can effectively improve power generation capacity of the project, minimize operating costs and energy consumption, and enable more stable operation of various hydraulic structures. The results may provide references for the management of water conservancy projects in complex river networks.

  1. Demand Estimation for Irrigation Water in the Moroccan Drâa Valley using Contingent Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas; Heidecke, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in Morocco as in many other parts of the world. For the implementation of an effective water management knowledge about farmers’ irrigation water demand is crucial to assess demand reactions of a water pricing policy, to establish a cost-benefit analysis of water supply investments or to determine the optimal water allocation between different users. Previously used econometric methods providing this in...

  2. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp. and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems’ products (1.72E+05 sej/J and 1.42E+05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R, emergy yield ratio (EYR, emergy investment ratio (EIR, environmental load ratio (ELR, and environmental sustainability index (ESI. The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  3. Emergy evaluation of a production and utilization process of irrigation water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water.

  4. Participatory Irrigation Management and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency in Maize Production: Evidence from Zhangye City, Northwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Water has become increasingly scarce in northwestern China due to climate change, economic growth and burgeoning population. Improving agriculture water use efficiency is of strategic significance in promoting socio-economic water productivity for arid and semi-arid inland river basins. Based on the household-level data collected in Zhangye City, which is located in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin (HRB in northwestern China, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE of maize is estimated based on stochastic frontier analysis. The impacts of influential factors, especially the participatory irrigation management (PIM through water user associations (WUAs, on IWUE were further examined. Results show that the estimated average Technical efficiency (TE and IWUE of maize production are 0.74 and 0.24, respectively. The participation level in irrigation management is very low, with only 40% of the respondents participating in WUA meetings. In addition, most have a relatively superficial understanding of the roles and management scheme of WUAs. Empirical results show that though significantly positive, the magnitude of the impact of PIM on IWUE is relatively small. Households that participated in WUA meetings achieved only 0.002% higher IWUEs than those have never participated in. WUAs are not operating with their designed objectives. Consequently, reform of the traditional management form of WUAs to make them more transparent, fair, and extensively participated in among farmers is in urgently need. In addition, we also find that water price, source of irrigation water, irrigation technology adoption and famers’ education level and farming experience also have significant positive impacts on IWUE.

  5. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  6. Forest Irrigation of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool - 13357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, Phil; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Vangelas, Karen [Savannah River National Laboratory, Bldg. 773-42A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via

  7. Reuse potential of laundry greywater for irrigation based on growth, water and nutrient use of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, R. K.; Patel, J. H.; Baxi, V. R.

    2010-05-01

    SummaryGreywater is considered as a valuable resource with a high reuse potential for irrigation of household lawns and gardens. However, there are possibilities of surfactant and sodium accumulation in soil from reuse of greywater which may affect agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability adversely. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to examine variation in growth, water and nutrient use of tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Grosse Lisse) using tap water (TW), laundry greywater (GW) and solutions of low and high concentration of a detergent surfactant (LC and HC, respectively) as irrigation treatments. Each treatment was replicated five times using a randomised block design. Measurements throughout the experiment showed greywater to be significantly more alkaline and saline than the other types of irrigation water. Although all plants received 16 irrigations over a period of 9 weeks until flowering, there were little or no significant effects of irrigation treatments on plant growth. Soil water retention following irrigation reduced significantly when plants were irrigated with GW or surfactant solutions on only three of 12 occasions. On one occasion, water use measured as evapotranspiration (ET) with GW irrigation was similar to TW, but it was significantly higher than the plants receiving HC irrigation. At harvest, various components of plant biomass and leaf area for GW irrigated plants were found to be similar or significantly higher than the TW irrigated plants with a common trend of GW ⩾ TW > LC ⩾ HC. Whole-plant concentration was measured for 12 essential plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo and B) and Na (often considered as a beneficial nutrient). Irrigation treatments affected the concentration of four nutrients (P, Fe, Zn and Na) and uptake of seven nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and B) significantly. Uptake of these seven nutrients by tomato was generally in the order GW ⩾ TW > HC ⩾ LC. GW

  8. Optimization of Water Allocation between Different Crops in Water Stress Conditions in Qazvin Irrigation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammad khani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluations show the necessity of using optimization models in order to determine optimal allocation of water in different water conditions. Its use can be proposed according to developed model abilities in this study in order to optimize water productivity and provide sustainable management and development of water resources over irrigation and drainage networks. Basic needs of the earth growing population and limitation of water and soil resources remindnecessity of optimal use of resources. World’s more than 280 million hectare lands are covered by irrigation networks (Khalkhali et al., 2006. The efficiency of most projects is between 30-50 percent and studies show that performance of most irrigation and drainage networks is not desirable and they have not achieved their aims. Hirich et al. (2014 Used deficit irrigation to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season 2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of a crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of the full irrigation during the vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity. Moghaddasi et al. (2010 worked examines and compares this approach with that based on the optimization method to manage agricultural water demand during drought to minimize damage. The results show that the optimization method resulted in 42% more income for the agricultural sector using the

  9. A coupled agronomic-economic model to consider allocation of brackish irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon; Weikard, Hans-Peter; Shah, Syed Hamid Hussain; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.

    2013-05-01

    In arid and semiarid regions, irrigation water is scarce and often contains high concentrations of salts. To reduce negative effects on crop yields, the irrigated amounts must include water for leaching and therefore exceed evapotranspiration. The leachate (drainage) water returns to water sources such as rivers or groundwater aquifers and increases their level of salinity and the leaching requirement for irrigation water of any sequential user. We develop a conceptual sequential (upstream-downstream) model of irrigation that predicts crop yields and water consumption and tracks the water flow and level of salinity along a river dependent on irrigation management decisions. The model incorporates an agro-physical model of plant response to environmental conditions including feedbacks. For a system with limited water resources, the model examines the impacts of water scarcity, salinity and technically inefficient application on yields for specific crop, soil, and climate conditions. Moving beyond the formulation of a conceptual frame, we apply the model to the irrigation of Capsicum annum on Arava Sandy Loam soil. We show for this case how water application could be distributed between upstream and downstream plots or farms. We identify those situations where it is beneficial to trade water from upstream to downstream farms (assuming that the upstream farm holds the water rights). We find that water trade will improve efficiency except when loss levels are low. We compute the marginal value of water, i.e., the price water would command on a market, for different levels of water scarcity, salinity and levels of water loss.

  10. Farm level optimal water management : assistant for irrigation under deficit (FLOW-AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balendonck, J.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, J.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    FLOW-AID is an on-going 6th Framework European project (2006-2009) with the objective to contribute to sustainable irrigated agriculture by developing an irrigation management system that can be used for crop production in cases with limited water supply and marginal water quality. The project

  11. Farm level optimal water management: Assistant for irrigation under Defecit (FLOW-AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balendonck, J.; Stanghellini, C.; Hemming, J.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Flow-aid is an on-going 6th Framework European project (2006-2009) with the objective to contribute to sustainable irrigated agriculture by developing an irrigation management system that can be used for crop production in cases with limited water supply and marginal water quality. The project

  12. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  13. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vangani, Ruchi; Saxena, Deepak; Gerber, Nikolaus; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors - especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage - poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular,...

  14. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  15. Assessment of water use and its productivity in the Spanish irrigation district "Río Adaja"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Naroua, Iliassou; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    A study of the assessment of the irrigation water use has been carried out in the Spanish irrigation District "Río Adaja" that has analyzed the water use efficiency and the water productivity indicators for the main crops during the first three years of operation (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013). A soil water balance model was applied taking into account climatic data for the nearby weather station and soil properties. Crop water requirements were calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith with the application of the dual crop coefficient and by considering the readily available soil water content (RAW) concept. Likewise, productivity was measured by the indexes: annual relative irrigation supply (ARIS), annual relative water supply (ARWS), relative rainfall supply (RRS), the water productivity (WP), the evapotranspiration water productivity (ETWP), and the irrigation water productivity (IWP). The results show that the irrigation district applied deficit irrigation in most crops (ARIS<1), and also improved water productivity. This was higher in 2010/2011 which showed the highest effective precipitation Pe. The IWP (€/m3) index varied among crops with the highest values for onion (4.14), potato (2.79), carrot (1.37) and barley (1.21) for the first year and, onion (1.98), potato (1.69), carrot (1.70) and barley (1.16) in the second year. Thus, these crops would be a proper cropping pattern to maximize the gross income in the irrigation district.

  16. Produced water irrigation changes the soil mesofauna community in a semiarid agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Raimundo Nonato Costa; Weber, Olmar Baller; Crisóstomo, Lindbergue Araujo

    2015-08-01

    The scarcity of water in semiarid regions requires alternative sources for irrigation to improve agricultural production. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of produced water from oil exploration on the structure of soil mesofauna during the dry and rainy seasons in irrigated sunflower and castor bean fields in a Brazilian semiarid region. Three irrigation treatments were applied on plots cultivated with castor beans and sunflowers: produced water treated by filtration (filtrated) or treated by reverse osmosis (reverse osmosis) and groundwater. The mesofauna under the biofuel crops was collected and identified during the dry and rainy seasons. Although the abundance and richness of the total fauna did not differ between seasons in sunflower plots, the community was altered. In castor beans, the abundance, richness, and community of mesofauna observed in plots irrigated with produced water differed from the groundwater treatment. Irrigation with produced water promotes important changes in soil fauna community that justify their assessment for the maintenance and monitoring of agroecosystems.

  17. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  18. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  19. Temporal and spatial water use on irrigated and nonirrigated pasture-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, C D; Horne, D; Singh, R; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Scarsbrook, M R

    2017-08-01

    Robust information for water use on pasture-based dairy farms is critical to farmers' attempts to use water more efficiently and the improved allocation of freshwater resources to dairy farmers. To quantify the water requirements of dairy farms across regions in a practicable manner, it will be necessary to develop predictive models. The objectives of this study were to compare water use on a group of irrigated and nonirrigated farms, validate existing water use models using the data measured on the group of nonirrigated farms, and modify the model so that it can be used to predict water use on irrigated dairy farms. Water use data were collected on a group of irrigated dairy farms located in the Canterbury, New Zealand, region with the largest area under irrigation. The nonirrigated farms were located in the Manawatu region. The amount of water used for irrigation was almost 52-fold greater than the amount of all other forms of water use combined. There were large differences in measured milking parlor water use, stock drinking water, and leakage rates between the irrigated and nonirrigated farms. As expected, stock drinking water was lower on irrigated dairy farms. Irrigation lowers the dry matter percentage of pasture, ensuring that the amount of water ingested from pasture remains high throughout the year, thereby reducing the demand for drinking water. Leakage rates were different between the 2 groups of farms; 47% of stock drinking water was lost as leakage on nonirrigated farms, whereas leakage on the irrigated farms equated to only 13% of stock drinking water. These differences in leakage were thought to be related to regional differences rather than differences in irrigated versus nonirrigated farms. Existing models developed to predict milking parlor, corrected stock drinking water, and total water use on nonirrigated pasture-based dairy farms in a previous related study were tested on the data measured in the present research. As expected, these models

  20. The real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water in tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouhaier, M C [Center de recherche du Genie Rural B.P. No. 10-2080 Ariana (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Our research experiments, have been conducted in the experiment station of `Oued souhil` situated under semi-arid climate in tunisia. We have studied the real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water compared the results with trees using water from well. For measuring the different parameters, to determine soil humidity and the soil apparent density, we have used respectively neutron lead `Neutron probe` and radiation gamma instruments. However, the experiments results conducted for 7 years from 1987 to 1993 - allowed the evaluation of the read consumption of orange trees using reused water and well water and the production quantity. The effect of using the two different quality of water with different irrigation systems have been also studied. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. The real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water in tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouhaier, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Our research experiments, have been conducted in the experiment station of 'Oued souhil' situated under semi-arid climate in tunisia. We have studied the real water consumption of orange trees irrigated by reused water compared the results with trees using water from well. For measuring the different parameters, to determine soil humidity and the soil apparent density, we have used respectively neutron lead 'Neutron probe' and radiation gamma instruments. However, the experiments results conducted for 7 years from 1987 to 1993 - allowed the evaluation of the read consumption of orange trees using reused water and well water and the production quantity. The effect of using the two different quality of water with different irrigation systems have been also studied. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Survey the Effects of Partial Root Zone Deficit Irrigation and Deficit Irrigation on Quantitative, Qualitative and Water Use Efficiency of Pomegranate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed tadaion

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the latest efficient methods on increment of water use efficiency that confirmed by many scientists all over the world is deficit and alternative partial root zone deficit irrigation. In this experiment the effect of deficit and alternative partial root zone deficit irrigation on fruit yield, quality and water use efficiency of pomegranate (Punicagranatum (L. cv. Zarde-anar were investigatedin Arsenjan semi-arid region. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in a constant plots and randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replicationsin five years.Treatmentswere 1- full flood irrigation (100 percent crop water requirement (T1 2- flood irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement as alternate partial root-zone irrigation(every irrigation conducted on one side of tree (T2 3- flood irrigation with 50 percent crop water requirement as regular deficit irrigation (T3 4- full two-side drip irrigation(with regard to crop water requirement (eight drippers with twolit/hour flow by two different individual networks (T4 5- alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement (T5 6- regular deficit drip irrigation with 50 percent crop water requirement (T6 in every irrigation period. Each experimental treatment includes four trees and 96 similar twelve years old trees overall. Cultivation practice was conducted similarly on all of the trees. Results and Discussion: Results showed that the highest yield and water use efficiency based on statistical analysis belong to both PRD treatments i.e. alternate partial root-zone drip irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement and alternate partial root-zone flood irrigation with 100 percent crop water requirement, respectively, that both of them decreased water requirement for irrigation up to 35 and 50 percent in comparison tocontrol. Application of partial root drying irrigation on both traditional flood irrigation and drip

  3. Assessment of Suitable Areas for Home Gardens for Irrigation Potential, Water Availability, and Water-Lifting Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Assefa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin of Ethiopia to assess potentially irrigable areas for home gardens, water availability, and feasibility of water-lifting technologies. A GIS-based Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE technique was applied to access the potential of surface and groundwater sources for irrigation. The factors affecting irrigation practice were identified and feasibility of water-lifting technologies was evaluated. Pairwise method and expert’s opinion were used to assign weights for each factor. The result showed that about 345,000 ha and 135,000 ha of land were found suitable for irrigation from the surface and groundwater sources, respectively. The rivers could address about 1–1.2% of the irrigable land during dry season without water storage structure whereas groundwater could address about 2.2–2.4% of the irrigable land, both using conventional irrigation techniques. If the seven major dams within the basin were considered, surface water potential would be increased and satisfy about 21% of the irrigable land. If rainwater harvesting techniques were used, about 76% of the basin would be suitable for irrigation. The potential of surface and groundwater was evaluated with respect to water requirements of dominant crops in the region. On the other hand, rope pump and deep well piston hand pump were found with relatively the most (26% and the least (9% applicable low-cost water-lifting technologies in the basin.

  4. Water and solute balances as a basis for sustainable irrigation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2015-04-01

    The growing development of irrigated agriculture is necessary for the sustainable production of the food required by the increasing World's population. Such development is limited by the increasing scarcity and low quality of the available water resources and by the competitive use of the water for other purposes. There are also increasing problems of contamination of surface and ground waters to be used for other purposes by the drainage effluents of irrigated lands. Irrigation and drainage may cause drastic changes in the regime and balance of water and solutes (salts, sodium, contaminants) in the soil profile, resulting in problems of water supply to crops and problems of salinization, sodification and contamination of soils and ground waters. This is affected by climate, crops, soils, ground water depth, irrigation and groundwater composition, and by irrigation and drainage management. In order to predict and prevent such problems for a sustainable irrigated agriculture and increased efficiency in water use, under each particular set of conditions, there have to be considered both the hydrological, physical and chemical processes determining such water and solute balances in the soil profile. In this contribution there are proposed the new versions of two modeling approaches (SOMORE and SALSODIMAR) to predict those balances and to guide irrigation water use and management, integrating the different factors involved in such processes. Examples of their application under Mediterranean and tropical climate conditions are also presented.

  5. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  6. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The system is operational since 1953 and was completed in 1968. The area to be irrigated ...

  7. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  8. Coupled Crop/Hydrology Model to Estimate Expanded Irrigation Impact on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handyside, C. T.; Cruise, J.

    2017-12-01

    A coupled agricultural and hydrologic systems model is used to examine the environmental impact of irrigation in the Southeast. A gridded crop model for the Southeast is used to determine regional irrigation demand. This irrigation demand is used in a regional hydrologic model to determine the hydrologic impact of irrigation. For the Southeast to maintain/expand irrigated agricultural production and provide adaptation to climate change and climate variability it will require integrated agricultural and hydrologic system models that can calculate irrigation demand and the impact of the this demand on the river hydrology. These integrated models can be used as (1) historical tools to examine vulnerability of expanded irrigation to past climate extremes (2) future tools to examine the sustainability of expanded irrigation under future climate scenarios and (3) a real-time tool to allow dynamic water resource management. Such tools are necessary to assure stakeholders and the public that irrigation can be carried out in a sustainable manner. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version of the crop modeling system (DSSAT). The gridded model is referred to as GriDSSAT. The irrigation demand from GriDSSAT is coupled to a regional hydrologic model developed by the Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center of the USDA Forest Service) (WaSSI). The crop model provides the dynamic irrigation demand which is a function of the weather. The hydrologic model includes all other competing uses of water. Examples of use the crop model coupled with the hydrologic model include historical analyses which show the change in hydrology as additional acres of irrigated land are added to water sheds. The first order change in hydrology is computed in terms of changes in the Water Availability Stress Index (WASSI) which is the ratio of water demand (irrigation, public water supply, industrial use, etc.) and water availability from the hydrologic model. Also

  9. Dual permeability soil water dynamics and water uptake by roots in irrigated potato fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolezal, Frantisek; Zumr, David; Vacek, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Water movement and uptake by roots in a drip-irrigated potato field was studied by combining field experiments, outputs of numerical simulations and summary results of an EU project (www.fertorganic.org). Detailed measurements of soil suction and weather conditions in the Bohemo-Moravian highland...

  10. Agronomic and physiological impacts of irrigation frequency on green basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Peng; Dodd, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a major factor restricting agricultural production and irrigation globally, with sustainable agricultural development calling for less irrigation water use and more production per unit of water applied. Improved understanding of plant physiological responses to water stress, and the effect of irrigation frequency on plant biomass production and quality, may help to optimize irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) received three different irrigatio...

  11. Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londeree, Ben R.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

  12. Irrigation-water quality during 1976 irrigation season in the Sulphur Creek basin, Yakima and Benton counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, P.R.; Fretwell, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality-sampling network was designed for the Sulphur Creek basin to observe the effects of farming practices on irrigation. Sediment and nutrient yield, discharge, and water temperature data were collected during the 1976 irrigation season and the following fall and winter. The suspended-sediment yield of the basin during this period was 2.0 tons per acre of irrigated cropland. Only about 3% of the net outflow of sediment occurred during the nonirrigation season. The yield computed by subbasin ranged from 0.7 to 7 tons per acre, depending mainly on land slope, but a high percentage of orchard land in the subbasins was probably also significant in reducing loads. Nutrient outflows during the study period were 1,180,000 pounds of nitrogen and 120,000 pounds of phosphorous. Nitrate-plus-nitrite represent 70% of the nitrogen outflow in the irrigation season and 84% in the nonirrigation season. The monitoring network was discontinued at the end of the study period, due largely to insufficient farmer participation. Network sensitivity in the control subbasins was inadequate to detect the effects of a planned demonstration program of best management practices. (USGS)

  13. Groundwater irrigation and its implications for water policy in semiarid countries: the Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Alberto; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, M. Ramón

    2006-03-01

    Over the last decades, groundwater irrigation has become commonplace in many arid and semiarid regions worldwide, including Spain. This is largely a consequence of the advances in drilling and pumping technologies, and of the development of Hydrogeology. Compared with traditional surface water irrigation systems, groundwater irrigation offers more reliable supplies, lesser vulnerability to droughts, and ready accessibility for individual users. Economic forces influence the groundwater irrigation sector and its development. In Spain's Mediterranean regions, abstraction costs often amount to a very small fraction of the value of crops. In the inner areas, groundwater irrigation supports a more stable flow of farm income than rainfed agriculture. The social (jobs/m3) and economic (€/m3) value of groundwater irrigation generally exceeds that of surface water irrigation systems. However, poor groundwater management and legal controversies are currently at the base of Spain's social disputes over water. A thorough and transparent assessment of the relative socio-economic value of groundwater in relation to surface water irrigation might contribute to mitigate or avoid potential future conflicts. Enforcement of the European Union's Water Framework Directive may deliver better groundwater governance and a more sustainable use.

  14. ARS irrigation research priorities and projects-An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) Irrigation Scheduling Technologies for Water Productivity; 2) Water Productivity (WP) at Multiple Scales; 3) Irrigation Applicatio...

  15. Innovations in Agriculture in Oregon: Farmers Irrigation District Improves Water Quality, Maximizes Water Conservation, and Generates Clean, Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hood River Farmers Irrigation District used $36.2 million in CWSRF loans for a multiple-year endeavor to convert the open canal system to a piped, pressurized irrigation system to maximize water conservation and restore reliable water delivery to crops

  16. Variable fuzzy assessment of water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to scientifically and reasonably evaluate water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation districts, a variable fuzzy assessment model was established. The model can reasonably determine the relative membership degree and relative membership function of the sample indices in each index's standard interval, and obtain the evaluation level of the sample through the change of model parameters. According to the actual situation of the Beitun Irrigation District, which is located in Fuhai County, in Altay City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, five indices were selected as evaluation factors, including the canal water utilization coefficient, field water utilization coefficient, crop water productivity, effective irrigation rate in farmland, and water-saving irrigation area ratio. The water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District in different years were evaluated with the model. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation indices from 2006 to 2008 were all at the third level (medium efficiency, while the index in 2009 increased slightly, falling between the second level (relatively high efficiency and third level, indicating an improvement in the water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District, which in turn showed that the model was reliable and easy to use. This model can be used to assess the water use efficiency and benefits in similar irrigation districts.

  17. Achieving sustainable irrigation water withdrawals: global impacts on food security and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas W.; Lammers, Richard B.; Prusevich, Alexander; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Unsustainable water use challenges the capacity of water resources to ensure food security and continued growth of the economy. Adaptation policies targeting future water security can easily overlook its interaction with other sustainability metrics and unanticipated local responses to the larger-scale policy interventions. Using a global partial equilibrium grid-resolving model SIMPLE-G, and coupling it with the global Water Balance Model, we simulate the consequences of reducing unsustainable irrigation for food security, land use change, and terrestrial carbon. A variety of future (2050) scenarios are considered that interact irrigation productivity with two policy interventions— inter-basin water transfers and international commodity market integration. We find that pursuing sustainable irrigation may erode other development and environmental goals due to higher food prices and cropland expansion. This results in over 800 000 more undernourished people and 0.87 GtC additional emissions. Faster total factor productivity growth in irrigated sectors will encourage more aggressive irrigation water use in the basins where irrigation vulnerability is expected to be reduced by inter-basin water transfer. By allowing for a systematic comparison of these alternative adaptations to future irrigation vulnerability, the global gridded modeling approach offers unique insights into the multiscale nature of the water scarcity challenge.

  18. Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Bryson; Kayira, Gift

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations and conflicts over the use of water in the schemes developed in the Lake Chilwa basin, in southern Malawi. Using oral and written sources as well as drawing evidence from participatory and field observations conducted at Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes, the largest schemes in the basin, the study observes that women are not passive victims of male domination over the use of dwindling waters for irrigation farming. They have often used existing political and traditional structures developed in the management of water in the schemes to competitively gain monopoly over water. They have sometimes expressed their agency by engaging in irrigation activities that fall beyond the control of formal rules and regulations of irrigation agriculture. Other than being losers, women are winning the battle for water and land resources in the basin.

  19. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-01-01

    Background Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Methods Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia...

  20. How much water do we need for irrigation under Climate Change in the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Marianela; Alberte, Bondeau; Wolfgang, Cramer; Simon, Decock; Sinan, Shi

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change will very likely alter the hydrological system of already water-limited agricultural landscapes around the Mediterranean. This includes the need for, as well as the availability of irrigation water. On top of that Mediterranean agroecosystems are very likely to be under strong pressure in the near future through changes in consumer demands and diets, increasing urbanization, demographic change, and new markets for agricultural exportation. As a first step to assess the water demand of the agricultural sector, we use an ecohydrological model (the Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed land model, LPJmL) to estimate current and future irrigation water requirements of this region, considering various climate and socio-economic scenarios. LPJmL is a process-based, agricultural and water balance model, where plant growth is ecophysiologically coupled with hydrological variables. For these simulations, the model was adapted to the Mediterranean region in terms of agrosystems as well as crop parameters, and a sensitivity analysis for the irrigation system efficiency was performed. Patterns of current irrigation water requirements differ strongly spatially within the Mediterranean region depending mainly on potential evapotranspiration, the combination of crops cultivated and the extension of irrigated areas. The simulations for the future indicate that the Mediterranean may need considerable additional amounts of irrigation water. However, the regional patterns differ strongly depending on changes in length of growing periods, changes in transpirational rate (temperature and precipitation change, CO2-fertilization), and the consideration of potential improvements in irrigation system efficiency.

  1. Understanding water delivery performance in a large-scale irrigation system in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    During a two-year field study the performance of the water delivery was evaluated in a large-scale irrigation system on the north coast of Peru. Flow measurements were carried out along the main canals, along two secondary canals, and in two tertiary blocks in the Chancay-Lambayeque irrigation

  2. Effects of application timing of saline irrigation water on broccoli production and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation with moderately saline water is a necessity in many semi-arid areas of the Mediterranean Basin, and requires adequate irrigation management strategies. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), a crop moderately tolerant to salinity stress, was used to evaluate the effects of the applica...

  3. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the entire fruit and wine industries are dependent on irrigation. Cropping in the Eastern and Northern Cape also relies heavily on irrigation. ..... The soils were described as deep, fine sandy, dominantly red, ..... crops. For example, leaves of deciduous fruit trees (apri- ..... Laboratory Handbook 60, USDA, Washington. 160 pp.

  4. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  5. Village-level supply reliability of surface water irrigation in rural China: effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Wang, Jinxia

    2018-06-01

    Surface water, as the largest part of water resources, plays an important role on China's agricultural production and food security. And surface water is vulnerable to climate change. This paper aims to examine the status of the supply reliability of surface water irrigation, and discusses how it is affected by climate change in rural China. The field data we used in this study was collected from a nine-province field survey during 2012 and 2013. Climate data are offered by China's National Meteorological Information Center which contains temperature and precipitation in the past 30 years. A Tobit model (or censored regression model) was used to estimate the influence of climate change on supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Descriptive results showed that, surface water supply reliability was 74 % in the past 3 years. Econometric results revealed that climate variables significantly influenced the supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Specifically, temperature is negatively related with the supply reliability of surface water irrigation; but precipitation positively influences the supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Besides, climate influence differs by seasons. In a word, this paper improves our understanding of the impact of climate change on agriculture irrigation and water supply reliability in the micro scale, and provides a scientific basis for relevant policy making.

  6. Endangered Species and Irrigated Agriculture, Water Resource Competition in Western River Systems

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1995-01-01

    This report characterizes several aspects of water allocation tradeoffs between fish species listed under the Federal Endangered Species Act and agriculture in the American West. The geographic intersection between endangered/threatened (E/T) fish and agricultural production reliant on surface water for irrigation is identified. Three findings are: (1) 235 counties, representing 22 percent of the West's counties, contain irrigated production that relies on water from rivers with E/T fish, ...

  7. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly

  8. Long Term Effects of Acid Irrigation at the Hoeglwald on Seepage Water Chemistry and Nutrient Cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Wendelin; Baier, Roland; Huber, Christian; Goettlein, Axel

    2007-01-01

    In order to test the hypothesis of aluminium toxicity induced by acid deposition, an experimental acid irrigation was carried out in a mature Norway spruce stand in Southern Germany (Hoeglwald). The experiment comprised three plots: no irrigation, irrigation (170 mm a -1 ), and acid irrigation with diluted sulphuric acid (pH of 2.6-2.8). During the seven years of acid irrigation (1984-1990) water containing 0.43 mol c m -2 a -1 of protons and sulphate was added with a mean pH of 3.2 (throughfall + acid irrigation water) compared to 4.9 (throughfall) on both control plots. Most of the additional proton input was consumed in the organic layer and the upper mineral soil. Acid irrigation resulted in a long lasting elevation of sulphate concentrations in the seepage water. Together with sulphate both aluminium and appreciable amounts of base cations were leached from the main rooting zone. The ratio between base cations (Ca + Mg + K) and aluminium was 0.79 during acid irrigation and 0.92 on the control. Neither tree growth and nutrition nor the pool of exchangeable cations were affected significantly. We conclude that at this site protection mechanisms against aluminium toxicity exist and that additional base cation runoff can still be compensated without further reduction of the supply of exchangeable base cations in the upper mineral soil

  9. Cultivar Mixture Cropping Increased Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat under Limited Irrigation Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqi Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of cultivar mixture cropping on yield, biomass, and water use efficiency (WUE in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were investigated under non-irrigation (W0, no irrigation during growth stage, one time irrigation (W1, irrigation applied at stem elongation and two times irrigation (W2, irrigation applied at stem elongation and anthesis conditions. Nearly 90% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments experienced an increase in grain yield as compared with the mean of the pure stands under W0, those for W1 and W2 were 80% and 85%, respectively. Over 75% of cultivar mixture cropping treatments got greater biomass than the mean of the pure stands under the three irrigation conditions. Cultivar mixture cropping cost more water than pure stands under W0 and W1, whereas the water consumption under W2 decreased by 5.9%-6.8% as compared with pure stands. Approximately 90% of cultivar mixtures showed an increase of 5.4%-34.5% in WUE as compared with the mean of the pure stands, and about 75% of cultivar mixtures had 0.8%-28.5% higher WUE than the better pure stands under W0. Similarly, there were a majority of mixture cropping treatments with higher WUE than the mean and the better one of the pure stands under W1 and W2. On the whole, proper cultivar mixture cropping could increase yield and WUE, and a higher increase in WUE occurred under limited irrigation condition.

  10. Spatio-temporal estimation of consumptive water use for assessment of irrigation system performance and management of water resources in irrigated Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Liedl, R.; Awan, U. K.

    2015-06-01

    Reallocation of water resources in any irrigation scheme is only possible by detailed assessment of current irrigation performance. The performance of the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) irrigation system in Pakistan was evaluated at large spatial and temporal scales. Evaporative Fraction (EF) representing the key element to assess the three very important performance indicators of equity, adequacy and reliability, was determined by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Spatially based estimations were performed at irrigation subdivisions, lower and upper LCC and, whole LCC scales, while temporal scales covered months, seasons and years for the study period from 2005 to 2012. Differences in consumptive water use between upper and lower LCC were estimated for different crops and possible water saving options were explored. The assessment of equitable water distribution indicates smaller coefficients of variation and hence less inequity within each subdivision except Sagar (0.08) and Bhagat (0.10). Both adequacy and reliability of water resources are found lower during kharif as compared to rabi with variation from head to tail reaches. Reliability is quite low from July to September and in February/March. This is mainly attributed to seasonal rainfalls. Average consumptive water use estimations indicate almost doubled water use (546 mm) in kharif as compared to (274 mm) in rabi with significant variability for different cropping years. Crop specific consumptive water use reveals rice and sugarcane as major water consumers with average values of 593 mm and 580 mm, respectively, for upper and lower LCC, followed by cotton and kharif fodder. The water uses for cotton are 555 mm and 528 mm. For kharif fodder, corresponding values are 525 mm and 494 mm for both regions. Based on the differences in consumptive water use, different land use land cover change scenarios were evaluated with regard to savings

  11. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Allende

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  12. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks. PMID:26151764

  13. Possible Use of Treated Wastewater as Irrigation Water at Urban Green Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Bozdoğan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing demands for fresh water resources have brought the reuse of treated wastewater into agendas. Wastewater has year-long potential to be used as an irrigation water source. Therefore, treated wastewater is used as irrigation water over agricultural lands and urban landscapes, as process water in industrial applications, as back-up water in environmental applications in water resources and wetlands of dry regions. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible use of domestic wastewater treated through pilot-scale constructed wetland of Adana-Karaisalı with dominant Mediterranean climate in irrigation of marigold (Tagetes erecta, commonly used over urban landscapes. Experiments were carried out between the dates May-November 2008 for 7 months with fresh water and treated wastewater. Plant growth parameters (plant height, plant diameter, number of branches and flowering parameters (number of flowers, flower diameter, flower pedicle thickness were monitored in monthly basis. Results revealed positive impacts of treated wastewater irrigations on plant growth during the initial 5 months between May-September but negative impacts in October and November. Similarly, treated wastewater irrigations had positive impacts on flowering parameters during the initial 3 months but had negative impacts during the subsequent 4 months. Such a case indicated shortened visual efficiencies of marigold. Therefore, treated wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource in irrigation of annual flowers, but better results can be attained by mixing treated wastewater with fresh water at certain ratios.

  14. Irrigation Water Quality for Leafy Crops: A Perspective of Risks and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Monaghan, James

    2015-07-03

    There is increasing evidence of the contribution of irrigation water in the contamination of produce leading to subsequent outbreaks of foodborne illness. This is a particular risk in the production of leafy vegetables that will be eaten raw without cooking. Retailers selling leafy vegetables are increasingly targeting zero-risk production systems and the associated requirements for irrigation water quality have become more stringent in regulations and quality assurance schemes (QAS) followed by growers. Growers can identify water sources that are contaminated with potential pathogens through a monitoring regime and only use water free of pathogens, but the low prevalence of pathogens makes the use of faecal indicators, particularly E. coli, a more practical approach. Where growers have to utilise water sources of moderate quality, they can reduce the risk of contamination of the edible portion of the crop (i.e., the leaves) by treating irrigation water before use through physical or chemical disinfection systems, or avoid contact between the leaves and irrigation water through the use of drip or furrow irrigation, or the use of hydroponic growing systems. This study gives an overview of the main problems in the production of leafy vegetables associated with irrigation water, including microbial risk and difficulties in water monitoring, compliance with evolving regulations and quality standards, and summarises the current alternatives available for growers to reduce microbial risks.

  15. Small Scale Irrigation within Water, Energy and Food Nexus Framework in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerik, T.; Worqlul, A. W.; Yihun, D.; Bizimana, J. C.; Jeong, J.; Schmitter, P.; Srinivasan, R.; Richardson, J. W.; Clark, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents the nexus of food, energy and water framework in the context of small scale irrigation for vegetable production during the dry season in an irrigated agriculture system in Ethiopia. The study is based on detailed data collected in three sites of the Innovation Lab for Small Scale Irrigation (ILSSI) project in Ethiopia. The sites were Robit, Dangishta and Lemo and detailed field data was collected in 18 households in each site. The field data collected includes crop management (such as irrigation amount and dates, fertilizer rates, tillage practices, irrigation technologies, etc.) and agricultural production (crop yield, biomass, etc.) on tomato, onion and cabbage during the dry season. Four different water lifting technologies - namely rope with pulley and bucket, rope and washer pump, solar pump and motor pump - were used for water withdrawal from shallow groundwater wells. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) models were used in an integrated manner to assess water resource potential and develop water use efficiency of vegetables, which is a relationship between amount of water applied and vegetable yield. The water use efficiency for each vegetable crops were translated into energy requirement as pumping hours and potential irrigable areas for the water lifting technologies. This integrated approach was found useful to optimize water and energy use for sustainable food production using small scale irrigation. The holistic approach will not only provide a significant contribution to achieving food self-sufficiency, but will also be effective for optimizing agricultural input. Keyword: small scale irrigation, integrated modeling, water lifting technology, East Africa

  16. Irrigation Water Value at Small-scale Schemes: Evidence from the North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Perret, S.; Haese, D' L.; Haese, D' M.

    2008-01-01

    Insight into the value of water is essential to support policy decision making about investments in the water sector, efficient allocation of water and water pricing. However, information on irrigation water values at small-scale schemes is scarce and in general little attention is paid to the

  17. Decentralising Zimbabwe’s water management: The case of Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambudzai, Rashirayi; Everisto, Mapedza; Gideon, Zhou

    Smallholder irrigation schemes are largely supply driven such that they exclude the beneficiaries on the management decisions and the choice of the irrigation schemes that would best suit their local needs. It is against this background that the decentralisation framework and the Dublin Principles on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) emphasise the need for a participatory approach to water management. The Zimbabwean government has gone a step further in decentralising the management of irrigation schemes, that is promoting farmer managed irrigation schemes so as to ensure effective management of scarce community based land and water resources. The study set to investigate the way in which the Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme is managed with specific emphasis on the role of the Irrigation Management Committee (IMC), the level of accountability and the powers devolved to the IMC. Merrey’s 2008 critique of IWRM also informs this study which views irrigation as going beyond infrastructure by looking at how institutions and decision making processes play out at various levels including at the irrigation scheme level. The study was positioned on the hypothesis that ‘decentralised or autonomous irrigation management enhances the sustainability and effectiveness of irrigation schemes’. To validate or falsify the stated hypothesis, data was gathered using desk research in the form of reviewing articles, documents from within the scheme and field research in the form of questionnaire surveys, key informant interviews and field observation. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse data quantitatively, whilst content analysis was utilised to analyse qualitative data whereby data was analysed thematically. Comparative analysis was carried out as Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme was compared with other smallholder irrigation scheme’s experiences within Zimbabwe and the Sub Saharan African region at large. The findings were that whilst the

  18. Deep subsurface drip irrigation using coal-bed sodic water: part II. geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Breit, George N.; Healy, Richard W.; Zupancic, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Waters with low salinity and high sodium adsorption ratios (SARs) present a challenge to irrigation because they degrade soil structure and infiltration capacity. In the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, such low salinity (electrical conductivity, EC 2.1 mS cm-1) and high-SAR (54) waters are co-produced with coal-bed methane and some are used for subsurface drip irrigation(SDI). The SDI system studied mixes sulfuric acid with irrigation water and applies water year-round via drip tubing buried 92 cm deep. After six years of irrigation, SAR values between 0 and 30 cm depth (0.5-1.2) are only slightly increased over non-irrigated soils (0.1-0.5). Only 8-15% of added Na has accumulated above the drip tubing. Sodicity has increased in soil surrounding the drip tubing, and geochemical simulations show that two pathways can generate sodic conditions. In soil between 45-cm depth and the drip tubing, Na from the irrigation water accumulates as evapotranspiration concentrates solutes. SAR values >12, measured by 1:1 water-soil extracts, are caused by concentration of solutes by factors up to 13. Low-EC (-1) is caused by rain and snowmelt flushing the soil and displacing ions in soil solution. Soil below the drip tubing experiences lower solute concentration factors (1-1.65) due to excess irrigation water and also contains relatively abundant native gypsum (2.4 ± 1.7 wt.%). Geochemical simulations show gypsum dissolution decreases soil-water SAR to 14 and decreasing EC in soil water to 3.2 mS cm-1. Increased sodicity in the subsurface, rather than the surface, indicates that deep SDI can be a viable means of irrigating with sodic waters.

  19. [Effect of Recycled Water Irrieation on Heavy Metal Pollution in Irrigation Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-qi; Liu, Yun-xia; Fu, Hui-min

    2016-01-15

    With acceleration of urbanization, water shortages will become a serious problem. Usage of reclaimed water for flushing and watering of the green areas will be common in the future. To study the heavy metal contamination of soils after green area irrigation using recycled wastewater from special industries, we selected sewage and laboratory wastewater as water source for integrated oxidation ditch treatment, and the effluent was used as irrigation water of the green area. The irrigation units included broad-leaved forest, bush and lawn. Six samples sites were selected, and 0-20 cm soil of them were collected. Analysis of the heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb in the soil showed no significant differences with heavy metals concentration in soil irrigated with tap water. The heavy metals in the soil irrigated with recycled water were mainly enriched in the surface layer, among which the contents of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were below the soil background values of Beijing. A slight pollution of As and Cd was found in the soil irrigated by recycled water, which needs to be noticed.

  20. Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    javad baghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m from 40 days after plantation to harvesting. Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system. Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test. Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following: Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed

  1. Carbon and water fluxes and footprints in tropical agricultural systems under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Morillas, L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; D'Acunha, B.; Kim, Y.; Suarez, A.; Couto, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk, we will summarize results obtained using three tropical agricultural water observatories in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and Mato Grosso, Brazil. These flux towers and associated sensors enable detailed assessments of carbon use and water use efficiencies for crops under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. In addition to directly assessing water consumption from crops via eddy covariance, determination of water footprints and water use efficiencies using sensors and integrating it with remotely sensed data make it possible to (i) evaluate and compare different irrigation systems used in the study regions (drip, pivot and flood irrigation), (ii) assess the effect of irrigation over the local water balance to identify vulnerabilities associated with intensive water extraction for irrigation, and (iii) study the effect of inter-annual water availability fluctuations on crop water use. We conclude by comparing volumetric water footprints for crops, their carbon footprints, and water and carbon use efficiencies of crops produced under business-as-usual and alternative soil and water management scenarios.

  2. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a dry climate. However, the reclaimed water can also change biosolids properties, which will influence the effectiveness of willows to extract different metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. Collective action and participation in irrigation water management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case study of Mooi River Irrigation Scheme in KwaZulu-Natal. Province ..... Seven principal components were extracted using Pearson cor- relations. By applying the ..... OLSON M (1965) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the.

  4. Effect of saline irrigation water on yield and yield components of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vaio

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... levels at different growth stages of rice on yield and its components. Treatments included ... Therefore, irrigation with saline water at the early growth stages has more negative effect on ...... diversification. Land Degrad. Dev.

  5. Hemolysis in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate Using Distilled Water as the Irrigant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiou-Sheng Chen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Using distilled water as an irrigant for TURP might cause hemolysis, especially in patients with larger prostates and longer resection times. It is necessary to carry out every effort to shorten resection time and avoid extravasation during surgery.

  6. Yield and water use efficiency of deficit-irrigated maize in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield and water use efficiency of deficit-irrigated maize in a semi-arid region of Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  7. Study of Investments in Irrigation Water Sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation water sector is playing pivotal role in agricultural production and have prominent contribution to GDP (Gross Domestic Product both at provincial and country level. Many of the stakeholders including different ministries/department of Federal and Provincial governments, private sectors, farmers, and NGOs (Non-Government Organizations are investing in this sector. Although that the data and data analysis tools are present in most of the countries, yet a comprehensive information base on investments in irrigation water sector is missing. This has led to duplication at resources and beneficiaries? level on one side, as well as gaps in technical, infrastructural, institutional and managerial strategies of the irrigation water sector projects on the other. This paper analyzes investments in irrigation water sector made by government of KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the last 10 fiscal years? time period (2003-2013 and identifies gaps. Besides recommendations are also made in order to overcome the identified gaps/issues.

  8. Quantification of hydrological fluxes in irrigated lands using isotopes for improved water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Rafiq, M.; Iqbal, T.; Fazal, M.

    2012-01-01

    For the study of water percolation using stable and radioactive isotopes, two experimental plots each measuring 5m X 5m were prepared at NIAB Agriculture Farm, Faisalabad. One plot was given normal irrigation and the other was irrigated with almost double quantity of water than the first one. Study was carried out on wheat and maize crops during 2007-2010. Infiltration rates were calculated from the solute transport by advection. The infiltration rates were also calculated by the water balance approach using moisture content data obtained by neutron moisture probe and flow simulation approach using software 'HYDRUS 1D'. The moisture in the field with normal irrigation percolated up to 90 cm depth. It percolated up to 160 cm in the field with excess irrigation. Infiltration rates determined by different techniques are given. The infiltration rates varied during whole of the experiment period. The rates were highest right after irrigation and then decreased with increase in time. The maximum and minimum infiltration rates determined by different techniques are given, which shows that average infiltration rates calculated by the four methods in case of excess irrigation range between 0.4 and 0.51 cm/day and are in good agreement. Infiltration rates in case of normal irrigation were determined only by tritium and water balance approach and range between 0.21 and 0.34 cm/day. (orig./A.B.)

  9. Accumulation of Cd in agricultural soil under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Weiping; Lu, Sidan; Peng, Chi; Jiao, Wentao; Wang, Meie

    2013-01-01

    Safety of agricultural irrigation with reclaimed water is of great concern as some potential hazardous compounds like heavy metals may be accumulated in soils over time. Impacts of long-term reclaimed water on soil Cd pollution were evaluated based on the field investigation in two main crop areas in Beijing with long irrigation history and on simulation results of STEM-profile model. Under long-term reclaimed water, Cd content in the top 20 cm soil layer was greatly elevated and was more than 2 times higher than that in the deep soil layer. There was very small differences between the field measured and model simulated Cd content in the plow layer (top 20 cm) and entire soil layer. Long-term model prediction showed that reclaimed water irrigation had a low environmental risk of soil Cd pollution, but the risk would be aggravated when there were high metal loading from other sources. The risk is also depending on the soil and plant properties. -- Highlights: •Root zone soil Cd content was elevated by one time under long-term reclaimed water irrigation. •The STEM-profile model can well track the Cd balance in the soil profile. •Reclaimed water irrigation plays a limited role on soil Cd accumulation in Beijing croplands. -- There was a low risk of soil Cd pollution under long-term reclaimed water irrigation

  10. IRRIMET: a web 2.0 advisory service for irrigation water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michele, Carlo; Anzano, Enrico; Colandrea, Marco; Marotta, Luigi; Mula, Ileana; Pelosi, Anna; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation agriculture is one the biggest consumer of water in Europe, especially in southern regions, where it accounts for up to 70% of the total water consumption. The EU Common Agricultural Policy, combined with the Water Framework Directive, imposes to farmers and irrigation managers a substantial increase of the efficiency in the use of water in agriculture for the next decade. Irrigating according to reliable crop water requirement estimates is one of the most convincing solution to decrease agricultural water use. Here we present an innovative irrigation advisory service, applied in Campania region (Southern Italy), where a satellite assisted irrigation advisory service has been operating since 2006. The advisory service is based on the optimal combination of VIS-NIR high resolution satellite images (Landsat, Deimos, Rapideye) to map crop vigour, and high resolution numerical weather prediction for assessing the meteorological variables driving the crop water needs in the short-medium range. The advisory service is broadcasted with a simple and intuitive web app interface which makes daily real time irrigation and evapotranspiration maps and customized weather forecasts (based on Cosmo Leps model) accessible from desktop computers, tablets and smartphones.

  11. Farmers’ willingness to pay for surface water in the West Mitidja irrigated perimeter, northern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Azzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Algeria is among the most water-stressed countries in the world. Because of its climatic conditions, irrigation is essential for agricultural production. Water prices paid by farmers in public irrigation districts are very low and do not cover the operation and maintenance (O&M costs of the irrigated perimeters, thus leading to the deterioration of these infrastructures. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether farmer’s in the West Mitidja irrigation district in northern Algeria would be willing to pay more for surface water in order to maintain the water supply service in its current conditions. We estimated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP for water using data from a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey to 112 randomly selected farmers. Farmers’ responses were modelled using logistic regression techniques. We also analysed which technical, structural, social and economic characteristics of farms and farmers explain the differences in WTP. Our results showed that nearly 80% of the surveyed farmers are willing to pay an extra price for irrigation water. The average WTP was 64% greater than the price currently paid by farmers, suggesting some scope for improving the financial resources of the Mitidja irrigated perimeter, but insufficient to cover all O&M costs. Some of the key identified factors that affect WTP for surface water relate to farm ownership, access to groundwater resources, cropping patterns, farmers’ agricultural training and risk exposure.

  12. Farmers’ willingness to pay for surface water in the West Mitidja irrigated perimeter, northern Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzi, M.; Calatrava, J.; Bedrani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Algeria is among the most water-stressed countries in the world. Because of its climatic conditions, irrigation is essential for agricultural production. Water prices paid by farmers in public irrigation districts are very low and do not cover the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs of the irrigated perimeters, thus leading to the deterioration of these infrastructures. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether farmer’s in the West Mitidja irrigation district in northern Algeria would be willing to pay more for surface water in order to maintain the water supply service in its current conditions. We estimated farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for water using data from a dichotomous choice contingent valuation survey to 112 randomly selected farmers. Farmers’ responses were modelled using logistic regression techniques. We also analysed which technical, structural, social and economic characteristics of farms and farmers explain the differences in WTP. Our results showed that nearly 80% of the surveyed farmers are willing to pay an extra price for irrigation water. The average WTP was 64% greater than the price currently paid by farmers, suggesting some scope for improving the financial resources of the Mitidja irrigated perimeter, but insufficient to cover all O&M costs. Some of the key identified factors that affect WTP for surface water relate to farm ownership, access to groundwater resources, cropping patterns, farmers’ agricultural training and risk exposure.

  13. Assesing the suitability of water for irrigation theoretical and practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, A.; Javad, M.A.; Arif, M.; Rashid, A.

    2006-01-01

    Forced by the surface water shortage and prevalent drought like conditions in the country the farmers have started exploiting groundwater resource. On the other hand, seventy percent of the groundwater being marginal to unfit is a threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The judicious groundwater exploitation and application has also become imperative in context of ever increasing demographic pressure on soil, crop and water resources. Different classes of irrigation waters established by various research scientists / organizations within the country or abroad are not ultimate under all conditions but these serve as general guidelines. In some cases brackish water requires only minor modification under existing irrigation and ogronomic practices, while in most of the cases it requires major changes regarding type of crops grown, method of water application and the use of soil and water amendments. Therefore, before recommending water for irrigation. Soil characteristics, water management practices, drainage condition of the filed and climatic events must be taken into account as waters generally classified unsuitable for irrigation can be used successfully to grow crops without long term hazardous consequences to crops or soils. This can be attempted simply with the use of improved farming and management practices. Use of brackish water for irrigation may increase the resource base for irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. This article reviews various water classification schemes, salinity-crop yield interrelation with detailed discussion on brackish water application and associated problems. The article also covers a number of management options so as to mitigate the problem and sustain food security in the country. (author)

  14. Computer-Aided Design System Development of Fixed Water Distribution of Pipe Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou , Mingyao; Wang , Susheng; Zhang , Zhen; Chen , Lidong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; It is necessary to research a cheap and simple fixed water distribution device according to the current situation of the technology of low-pressure pipe irrigation. This article proposed a fixed water distribution device with round table based on the analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of low-pressure pipe irrigation systems. The simulation of FLUENT and GAMBIT software conducted that the flow of this structure was steady with a low head loss comparing to other t...

  15. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I., E-mail: konstantinova-n@inbox.ru [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation); Gordon, E. P. [Research and Production Center “Kaustik” (Russian Federation); Poedintsev, E. A. [FGBU VNIIPO of EMERCOM of Russia (All-Russian Scientific-research Institute of Fire Protection) (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  16. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of s...

  17. Numerical assessment of water-saving irrigation on the water cycle at the oasis of the Manas River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    he

    2018-01-01

    As the birthplace of water-saving technology under mulch drip irrigation in China, the Manas River Basin (MRB) has developed into the largest oasis farming area in Xinjiang and the fourth largest irrigated agricultural area in China. This study presents systematic evaluation the effect of water-saving technologies on precipitation, runoff, infiltration and evapotranspiration in this basin. A model of the regional water cycle was developed for quantitatively assessing groundwater balance and g...

  18. The limit of irrigation adaption due to the inter-crop conflict of water use under changing climate and landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Iizumi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Kotoku, M.; Sakurai, G.; Nishimori, M.

    2017-12-01

    Replacing rainfed cropping system by irrigated one is assumed to be an effective measure for climate change adaptation in agriculture. However, in many agricultural impact assessments, future irrigation scenarios are externally given and do not consider variations in the availability of irrigation water under changing climate and land use. Therefore, we assess the potential effects of adaption measure expanding irrigated area under climate change by using a large-scale crop-river coupled model, CROVER [Okada et al. 2015, JAMES]. The CROVER model simulates the large-scale terrestrial hydrological cycle and crop growth depending on climate, soil properties, landuse, crop cultivation management, socio-economic water demand, and reservoir operation management. The bias-corrected GCMs outputs under the RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The future expansion of irrigation area was estimated by using the extrapolation method based on the historical change in irrigated and rainfed areas. As the results, the irrigation adaptation has only a limited effect on the rice production in East Asia due to the conflict of water use for irrigation with the other crops, whose farmlands require unsustainable water extraction with the excessively expanding irrigated area. In contrast, the irrigation adaptation benefits maize production in Europe due to the little conflict of water use for irrigation. Our findings suggest the importance of simulating the river water availability and crop production in a single model for the more realistic assessment in the irrigation adaptation potential effects of crop production under changing climate and land use.

  19. Assessing options to increase water productivity in irrigated river basins using remote sensing and modelling tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.C.; Singh, R.; Bessembinder, J.J.E.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Jhorar, R.K.; Kroes, J.G.; Droogers, P.

    2006-01-01

    In regions where water is more scarce than land, the water productivity concept (e.g. crop yield per unit of water utilized) provides a useful framework to analyse crop production increase or water savings in irrigated agriculture. Generic crop and soil models were applied at field and regional

  20. Minimizing Erosion and Agro-Pollutants Transport from Furrow Irrigated Fields to the Nearby Water Body Using Spatially-Explicit Agent Based Model and Decision Optimization Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoveisi, H.; Al Dughaishi, U.; Kiker, G.

    2017-12-01

    Maintaining water quality in agricultural watersheds is a worldwide challenge, especially where furrow irrigation is being practiced. The Yakima River Basin watershed in south central Washington State, (USA) is an example of these impacted areas with elevated load of sediments and other agricultural products due to runoff from furrow-irrigated fields. Within the Yakima basin, the Granger Drain watershed (area of 75 km2) is particularly challenged in this regard with more than 400 flood-irrigated individual parcels (area of 21 km2) growing a variety of crops from maize to grapes. Alternatives for improving water quality from furrow-irrigated parcels include vegetated filter strip (VFS) implementation, furrow water application efficiency, polyacrylamide (PAM) application and irrigation scheduling. These alternatives were simulated separately and in combinations to explore potential Best Management Practices (BMPs) for runoff-related-pollution reduction in a spatially explicit, agent based modeling system (QnD:GrangerDrain). Two regulatory scenarios were tested to BMP adoption within individual parcels. A blanket-style regulatory scenario simulated a total of 60 BMP combinations implemented in all 409 furrow-irrigated parcels. A second regulatory scenario simulated the BMPs in 119 furrow-irrigated parcels designated as "hotspots" based on a standard 12 Mg ha-1 seasonal sediment load. The simulated cumulative runoff and sediment loading from all BMP alternatives were ranked using Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), specifically the Stochastic Multi-Attribute Acceptability Analysis (SMAA) method. Several BMP combinations proved successful in reducing loads below a 25 NTU (91 mg L-1) regulatory sediment concentration. The QnD:GrangerDrain simulations and subsequent MCDA ranking revealed that the BMP combinations of 5 m-VFS and high furrow water efficiency were highly ranked alternatives for both the blanket and hotspot scenarios.

  1. Infiltration into cropped soils: effect of rain and sodium adsorption ratio-impacted irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Donald L; Wood, James D; Lesch, Scott M

    2008-01-01

    The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and salinity criteria for water suitability for irrigation have been developed for conditions where irrigation water is the only water source. It is not clear that these criteria are applicable to environments where there is a combination of rain and irrigation during the growing season. The interaction of rainfall with irrigation water is expected to result in increased sodicity hazard because of the low electrical conductivity of rain. In this study we examined the effects of irrigation waters of SAR 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol(1/2) L(-1/2) and electrical conductivities of 1 and 2 dS m(-1) on the infiltration rate of two soils with alternating cycles of rain (simulated with a rainfall sprinkler) and irrigation water, separated by drying cycles. The infiltration rate of surface samples from two soils, Kobase silty clay (fine, smectitic, frigid, Torrertic Haplustept) and Glendive very fine sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed superactive, calcareous, frigid Aridic Ustifluvent) were evaluated under alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cropped conditions for over 140 d and under full canopy cover. Reductions in infiltration were observed for both soils for SAR above 2, and the reductions became more severe with increasing SAR. Saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements taken from undisturbed cores at the end of the experiment were highly variable, suggesting that in situ infiltration measurements may be preferred when evaluating SAR effects.

  2. Analysis of the Economic and Welfare Impacts of Establishing Irrigation Water Market in Qazvin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study economic and welfare impacts of establishing irrigation water market in Qazvin province as well as potentiality of irrigation water transfer under stress irrigation conditions in the cities of Qazvin province were analyzed. To achieve the above objectives, Positive Mathematical Programming model and State Wide Agricultural Production functions were used. To achieve applicable results, the production function with a constant elasticity of substitution and cost function with an exponential form were included into the Positive Mathematical Programming model was imported. The study data for the year 2011-2012 was collected by asking the relevant offices in each city of Qazvin province. The proposed model was solved in six successive stages using the GAMS software. After solving the model, amount changes in the area of irrigated crops, farmer's gross profit and labor surplus under the two conditions of “existence of water market” and “lack of water market “at the regional level were calculated. The results showed that establishing irrigation water market increases total irrigated lands for 1/2 percent, total farmer’s gross profit for 1/86 percent and total labor force employed in agriculture for 1/8 percent in the province. Ultimately, considering the supportive and constructive role of regional water markets, it is recommended to provide necessary conditions and tools to establish an optimal use of such a mechanism associated with the type of market in Qazvin province.

  3. Can deficit irrigation techniques be used to enhance phosphorus and water use efficiency and benefit crop yields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hannah R.; Dodd, Ian C.; Blackwell, Martin S. A.; Surridge, Ben W. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil drying and rewetting (DRW) affects the forms and availability of phosphorus (P). Water soluble P has been reported to increase 1.8- to 19-fold after air-drying with the majority of the increase (56-100%) attributable to organic P. Similarly, in two contrasting soil types DRW increased concentrations of total P and reactive P in leachate, likely due to enhanced P mineralisation and physiochemical processes causing detachment of soil colloids, with faster rewetting rates related to higher concentrations of P. The intensity of drying as well as the rate of rewetting influences organic and inorganic P cycling. How these dynamics are driven by soil water status, and impact crop P acquisition and growth, remains unclear. Improving P and water use efficiencies and crop yields is globally important as both P and water resources become increasingly scarce, whilst demand for food increases. Irrigation supply below the water requirement for full crop evapotranspiration is employed by agricultural practitioners where water supply is limited. Regulated deficit irrigation describes the scheduling of water supply to correspond to the times of highest crop demand. Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) is applied in lowland irrigated rice production to avoid flooding at certain times of crop development, and has benefited P nutrition and yields. This research aims to optimise the benefits of P availability and uptake achieved by DRW by guiding deficit irrigation management strategies. Further determination of underlying processes driving P cycling at fluctuating soil moisture status is required. Presented here is a summary of the literature on DRW effects on soil P availability and plant P uptake and partitioning, in a range of soil types and cropping systems, with emphasis on alternate wetting and drying irrigation (AWD) compared to continuous flooding in lowland irrigated rice production. Soil water contents and matric potentials, and effects on P dynamics, are highly variable

  4. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  5. Approaches and challenges of soil water monitoring in an irrigated vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolz, Reinhard; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of water content is an approved method to quantify certain components of the soil water balance, for example as basis for hydrological studies and soil water management. Temporal soil water data also allow controlling water status by means of demand-oriented irrigation. Regarding spatial variability of water content due to soil characteristics, plant water uptake and other non-uniformities, it is a great challenge to select a location that is most likely representing soil water status of a larger area (e.g. an irrigated field). Although such an approach might not satisfy the requirements of precision farming - which becomes more and more related to industrial agriculture - it can help improving water use efficiency of small-scale farming. In this regard, specific conditions can be found in typical vineyards in the eastern part of Austria, where grapes are grown for high quality wine production. Generally, the local dry-subhumid climate supports grape development. However, irrigation is temporarily essential in order to guarantee stable yields and high quality. As the local winegrowers traditionally control irrigation based on their experience, there is a potential to improve irrigation management by means of soil water data. In order to gain experience with regard to irrigation management, soil water status was determined in a small vineyard in Austria (47°48'16'' N, 17°01'57'' E, 118 m elevation). The vineyard was equipped with a subsurface drip irrigation system and access tubes for measuring water content in soil profiles. The latter was measured using a portable device as well as permanently installed multi-sensor capacitance probes. Soil samples were taken at chosen dates and gravimetrically analyzed in the laboratory. Water content data were analyzed using simple statistical procedures and the temporal stability concept. Soil water content was interpreted considering different environmental conditions, including rainfall and irrigation periods

  6. Use of thermal and visible imagery for estimating crop water status of irrigated grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, M; Alchanatis, V; Cohen, Y; Meron, M; Tsipris, J; Naor, A; Ostrovsky, V; Sprintsin, M; Cohen, S

    2007-01-01

    Achieving high quality wine grapes depends on the ability to maintain mild to moderate levels of water stress in the crop during the growing season. This study investigates the use of thermal imaging for monitoring water stress. Experiments were conducted on a wine-grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot) vineyard in northern Israel. Irrigation treatments included mild, moderate, and severe stress. Thermal and visible (RGB) images of the crop were taken on four days at midday with a FLIR thermal imaging system and a digital camera, respectively, both mounted on a truck-crane 15 m above the canopy. Aluminium crosses were used to match visible and thermal images in post-processing and an artificial wet surface was used to estimate the reference wet temperature (T(wet)). Monitored crop parameters included stem water potential (Psi(stem)), leaf conductance (g(L)), and leaf area index (LAI). Meteorological parameters were measured at 2 m height. CWSI was highly correlated with g(L) and moderately correlated with Psi(stem). The CWSI-g(L) relationship was very stable throughout the season, but for that of CWSI-Psi(stem) both intercept and slope varied considerably. The latter presumably reflects the non-direct nature of the physiological relationship between CWSI and Psi(stem). The highest R(2) for the CWSI to g(L) relationship, 0.91 (n=12), was obtained when CWSI was computed using temperatures from the centre of the canopy, T(wet) from the artificial wet surface, and reference dry temperature from air temperature plus 5 degrees C. Using T(wet) calculated from the inverted Penman-Monteith equation and estimated from an artificially wetted part of the canopy also yielded crop water-stress estimates highly correlated with g(L) (R(2)=0.89 and 0.82, respectively), while a crop water-stress index using 'theoretical' reference temperatures computed from climate data showed significant deviations in the late season. Parameter variability and robustness of the different CWSI estimates

  7. Effects of different on-farm management on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop cultivated in semiarid environments under subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouani, Hiba; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Rallo, Giovanni; Mguidiche, Amel; Douh, Boutheina; Boujelben, Abdelhamid

    2016-04-01

    In Tunisia the amount of water for irrigated agriculture is higher than about 80% of the total resource.The increasing population and the rising food demand, associated to the negative effects of climate change,make it crucial to adopt strategies aiming to improve water use efficiency (WUE). Moreover, the absence of an effective public policy for water management amplifies the imbalance between water supply and its demand. Despite improved irrigation technologies can enhance the efficiency of water distribution systems, to achieve environmental goals it is also necessaryto identify on-farm management strategies accounting for actual crop water requirement. The main objective of the paper was to assess the effects of different on-farm managementstrategies (irrigation scheduling and planting date) on yield and water use efficiency of Potato crop (Solanumtuberosum L.) irrigated with a subsurface drip system, under the semi-arid climate of central Tunisia. Experiments were carried out during three growing seasons (2012, 2014 and 2015) at the High Agronomic Institute of ChottMariem in Sousse, by considering different planting dates and irrigation depths, the latter scheduled according to the climate observed during the season. All the considered treatments received the same pesticide and fertilizer management. Experiments evidenced that the climatic variability characterizing the examined seasons (photoperiod, solar radiation and average temperature) affects considerably the crop phenological stages, and the late sowing shortens the crop cycle.It has also been demonstrated that Leaf Area Index (LAI) and crop yield resulted relatively higher for those treatments receiving larger amounts of seasonal water. Crop yield varied between 16.3 t/ha and 39.1 t/ha, with a trend linearly related to the ratio between the seasonal amount of water supplied (Irrigation, I and Precipitation, P) and the maximum crop evapotranspiration (ETm). The maximum crop yield was in particular

  8. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plant association with mycorrhiza has been considered as one of the options to improve input efficiency particularly for water and nutrient - (Allen and Musik, 1993; Bolan, 1991. This has been due to kncreasing the absorbing area of the root and therefore better contact with water and nutrients. Inoculation with mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake with low immobility such as phosphorus and solphur-, improve association and could be an option to drought and other environmental abnormalities such as salinity (Rice et al., 2002. Moreover, higher water use efficiency (WUE for crops -has been reported in the literatures (Sekhara and Reddy, 1993.The sustainable use of scarce water resources in Iran is a priority for agricultural development. The pressure of using water in agriculture sector is increasing, so creating ways to improve water-use efficiency and taking a full advantage of available water are crucial. Water stress reduce crop yield by impairing the growth of crop canopy and biomass. Scheduling water application is very crucial for efficient use of drip irrigation system, as excessive irrigation reduces yield, while inadequate irrigation causes water stress and reduces production. The aim of present study was to evaluate the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sesame under different irrigation regimes in Mashhad. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of inoculation with two species of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.. The experimental factors were three irrigation regimes include 2000, 3000 and

  9. Optimal Allocation of the Irrigation Water Through a Non Linear Mathematical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rubino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the optimal allocation of the irrigation water among 9 crops (autumnal and spring sugar beet, spring and summer grain maize, dry and shell bean, eggplant, pepper and processing tomato has been carried out, utilizing experimental data of yield response to irrigation obtained in different years in Southern Italy (Policoro MT, 40° 12’ Northern Lat.; 16° 40’Western Long.. Fitting Mitscherlich’s equation modified by Giardini and Borin to the experimental data of each crop, the curve response parameters have been calculated: A = maximum achievable yield in the considered area (t ha-1; b = extra-irrigation water used by the crop (m3 ha-1; c = water action factor (ha m- 3; K, calculated only for tomato crop. ,decreasing factor due to the water exceeding the optimal seasonal irrigation volume (100% of the Crop Maximum Evapotranspiration less effective rainfall, ETMlr. The A values, using the prices of the agricultural produces and the irrigation water tariffs applied by the Consorzio Irriguo della Capitanata, have been converted in Value of Production (VP less the fixed and variable irrigation costs (VPlic. The equation parameters were used in a non linear mathematical model written in GAMS (General Algebraic Modelling System, in order to define the best irrigation water allocation amongst the 9 crops across the entire range of water availability and the volume of maximum economical advantage, hypothesising that each crop occupied the same surface (1 ha. This seasonal irrigation volume, that corresponded to the maximum total VPlic, was equal to 37000 m3. Moreover, the model allowed to define the best irrigation water distribution among the crops also for total available volumes lower than that of maximum economical advantage (37000 m3. Finally, it has been underlined that the vegetable crops should be irrigated with seasonal irrigation volumes equal to 100% of the ETM, whereas the summer and spring maize and the autumnal and spring

  10. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation.

  11. Pricing Unmetered Irrigation Water under Asymmetric Information and Full Cost Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Lika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to define an efficient pricing scheme for irrigation water in conditions of unmetered water use. The study is based on a principal-agent model and identifies a menu of contracts, defined as a set of payments and share of irrigated area, able to provide incentives for an efficient use of the resource by maximizing social welfare. The model is applied in the case study of the Çukas region (Albania where irrigation water is not metered. The results demonstrate that using a menu of contracts makes it possible to define a second best solution that may improve the overall social welfare derived from irrigation water use compared with the existing pricing structure, though, in the specific case study, the improvement is small. Furthermore, the results also suggest that irrigation water pricing policy needs to take into account different farm types, and that appropriate contract-type pricing schemes have a potential role in providing incentives to farmers to make irrigation choices to the social optimum.

  12. Alfalfa Water Use and Yield under Different Sprinkler Irrigation Regimes in North Arid Regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa is one of the major crops grown in Northern China in recent years, however, the current serious water shortage conditions present a challenge to the growth of this crop, especially if efficient use of water is considered in forage production for sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate alfalfa productivity and water use efficiency (WUE under different sprinkler irrigation levels. This experiment was conducted at Shiyanghe Experimental Station for Water-Saving in Agriculture and Ecology of China Agricultural University in Wuwei, Gansu, China, over a period of two years. There were three irrigation treatments: A1: 100% measured evapotranspiration (ETc of alfalfa; A2: irrigation amount was 66% of A1; A3: irrigation amount was 33% of A1; and a control of A4: no irrigation during the growing season. A randomized block design with three replications were applied. The results showed that the ETc and forage yield of alfalfa decreased, while WUE and crude protein (CP increased with the decreasing irrigation amounts. The seasonal average ETc and yield ranged from 412 mm to 809 mm and from 11,577 to 18,636 kg/ha, respectively, under different irrigation levels. The highest yields were obtained from the first growth period in all treatments in both years, due to the winter irrigation and the longest growth period. Alfalfa grown under lesser irrigation treatment conditions had higher variability in ETc and yield, mainly due to the variability in the amount of rainfall during the growth period. The seasonal average WUE of treatments ranged from 22.78 to 26.84 kg/(mm·ha, and the highest WUE was obtained at the first growth period, regardless of treatments. Seasonal average CP content ranged from 18.99% to 22.99%. A significant linear relationship was found between yield and ETc or irrigation amount, and the fitting results varied between growth periods and years. The present results also implied that winter irrigation provided the

  13. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  14. Monitoring of water in soil in asparagus irrigated culture in Vale do Sao Francisco, Pernambuco, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonino, Antonio C. Dantas; Sampaio, Everardo V.S.B.; Dall' Ollio, Attilio; Bernardo, Ana L. Alves; Audry, Pierre

    1996-08-01

    For many years the brazilian government has inactivated the implantation of irrigated areas in the Sao Francisco valley, obtaining high productivity.After the most appropriated areas having been occupied, the irrigation of second choice soils, usually more shallower and more clay is been tried. In one of these areas, the productivity of asparagus is less than the expected. trying to improve productivity by optimization of irrigation, the movement of water on soil and plants is being monitored far the last year and a half. the main results are shown with emphasis on the raining season, the most problematic

  15. Arsenic transport in irrigation water across rice-field soils in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Lineberger, Ethan M.; Matteson, Audrey R.; Neumann, Rebecca B.; Badruzzaman, A. Borhan M.; Ashraf Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to analyze processes impacting arsenic transport in irrigation water flowing over bare rice-field soils in Bangladesh. Dissolved concentrations of As, Fe, P, and Si varied over space and time, according to whether irrigation water was flowing or static. Initially, under flowing conditions, arsenic concentrations in irrigation water were below well-water levels and showed little spatial variability across fields. As flowing-water levels rose, arsenic concentrations were elevated at field inlets and decreased with distance across fields, but under subsequent static conditions, concentrations dropped and were less variable. Laboratory experiments revealed that over half of the initial well-water arsenic was removed from solution by oxidative interaction with other water-column components. Introduction of small quantities of soil further decreased arsenic concentrations in solution. At higher soil-solution ratios, however, soil contributed arsenic to solution via abiotic and biotic desorption. Collectively, these results suggest careful design is required for land-based arsenic-removal schemes. -- Highlights: •We analyzed the processes impacting arsenic transport in flowing irrigation water. •Arsenic in Bangladesh rice-field irrigation water varied over space and time. •Arsenic was correlated with Fe, P, and Si in flowing and static water. •Oxidation, adsorption and desorption reactions controlled arsenic concentrations. •Land-based arsenic removal from water will be impacted by hydraulic conditions. -- Arsenic concentrations in flowing and static irrigation water in Bangladesh varied over space and time, suggesting careful design is required for land-based pre-treatment schemes that aim to remove As from solution

  16. Assessing the performance of surface and subsurface drip systems on irrigation water use efficiency of citrus orchards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo Martinez-Gimeno, Maria; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Bonet, Luis; Intrigliolo, Diego S.; Badal, Eduardo; Ballestrer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water scarcity represents a real environmental concern at present and, according to the current climate change models predictions, the problem will be amplified in the future. In order to deal with this issue, application of strategies aimed to optimize the water resources in agriculture and to increase water use efficiency have become essential. On the one hand, it is important the election of the appropriate irrigation system for each particular case. On the other hand, identify the best management options for that specific irrigation system is crucial to optimize the available water resources without affecting yield. When using water saving strategies, however, it is a must to monitor the soil and/or crop water status in order to know the level of stress reached by the plants and to avoid levels that could lead to detrimental effects on yield. Stem water potential, ψstem, expressing the instantaneous condition of crop water stress, is considered a robust indicator of crop water status. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of a surface (DI) and subsurface (SDI) drip irrigation system in a citrus orchard with 7 (DI7, SDI7) or 14 emitters (DI14, SDI14) per plant, in terms of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and possible amount of water saving. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in Alberique, Spain, (39˚ 7'31" N, 0˚ 33'17" W), in a commercial orchard (Citrus clementina, Hort. ex Tan. 'Arrufatina') in which four different treatments with three replications (12 sub-plots) were prepared according to a complete randomized block design. Irrigation doses and timing were scheduled based on the estimated maximum crop evapotranspiration corrected according to measurements of ψstem and soil water content, and weather forecasts. In order to limit the maximum crop water stress, the thresholds of ψstem were assumed in the range between -0.8 and -1.0 MPa from January to June and between -1.0 and -1

  17. Using Home Irrigation Users' Perceptions to Inform Water Conservation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Momol, Esen

    2017-01-01

    Targeted agricultural education programs can play a role in solving complex water issues. This article applies importance-performance analysis to examine dimensions of water resources that may inform local water conservation campaigns in the United States. The purpose of this study was to generate a deep understanding of home irrigation users'…

  18. Green, blue and grey water footprint reduction in irrigated crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie

    2017-01-01

    In the face of increasing water scarcity, reducing the consumptive and degradative water use of crop production is important to produce more food and/or for the environment. The thesis explores the potential for reducing the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of irrigated crop production by

  19. Regional application of one-dimensional water flow models for irrigation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urso, D' G.; Menenti, M.; Santini, A.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical models for the simulation of soil water processes can be used to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of crop water requirements; this information can support the irrigation management in a rationale usage of water resources. This latter objective requires the knowledge of

  20. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  1. Rice production with less irrigation water is possible in a Sahelian environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.E.; Rodenburg, J.; Bado, B.V.; Sow, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of saving irrigation water in rice production in a Sahelian environment with different nitrogen rates and weed control treatments. A series of field experiments was conducted at Ndiaye (shallow water table, dry and wet season) and at Fanaye (deep water table, wet

  2. Water deficit imposed by deficit irrigation at different plant growth stages of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of maize Crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted withhout significant decrease yield. The field experiment was conducted at a University experiment station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, during may - october 1993, on a sandy loam soil ( typic durustoll). Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.70 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration of the crop was estimated by the water - balance technique. Field water efficiency and crop water use efficiency were calculated by dividing actual grain yield by irrigation and by ETa, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was calculated using N - 15 methodology in the 75 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering and yield formation stages were the most sensitive to moisture stress. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the grain yield. The crop water use effeciency was the lowest at the flowering and yield formation of the region, the treatments I1 and I7 had the same crop water use efficiency. The results of N - 15 labelled plots ( F1) showed that soil water deficiency significantly affects nitrogen was derived from fertilizer in treatments I3 and I7 and only 11 - 9% in the treatments I2 and I5 respectively. ( Author)

  3. The effect of applying different water levels and irrigation frequencies in propagating rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Giovanni Álvarez Herrera

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary seedlings are obtained by vegetative propagation because the seeds present low viability. Despite being an expanding crop, there is little information on water consumption during the propagation stage. Water levels and irrigation frequencies were therefore applied using a completely randomised design having a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. The first factor concerned irrigation frequency (4 and 8 days and the second concerned water level (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 evaporation inside the greenhouse. A 1.0 coefficient combined with 4-day irrigation frequency presented the best results regarding height (39.3 cm, fresh weight, dry weight and branch length (146 cm. Water level affected the fresh and dry weight of leaves regardless of frequency. Relative water content in leaves did not present differences due to environmental conditions minimising treatment effect. Rooting percent- tage showed no significant differences regarding irrigation frequency or water level. Irrigation frequency did not affect rosemary growing pattern because sphagnum retains high moisture content. The best branch number (34 was obtained with 1.0 coefficient and 4-day frequency, this being important from the production point of view because this is the material which is sold. Water management changes photoassimilate distribution in rosemary plants.

  4. Effect of irrigation techniques and strategies on water footprint of growing crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Reducing the water footprint (WF) of growing crops, the largest water user and a significant contributor to the WF of many consumer products, plays a significant role in integrated and sustainable water management. The water footprint for growing crop is accounted by relating the crop yield with the corresponding consumptive water use (CWU), which both can be adjusted by measures that affect the crop growth and root-zone soil water balance. This study explored the scope for reducing the water footprint of irrigated crops by experimenting set of field level technical and managerial measures: (i) irrigation technologies (Furrow, sprinkler, drip and sub-surface drip), (ii) irrigation strategies (full and a range of sustained and controlled deficit) and (iii) field management options (zero, organic and synthetic mulching). Ranges of cases were also considered: (a) Arid and semi-arid environment (b) Loam and Sandy-loam soil types and (c) for Potato, Wheat and Maize crops; under (c) wet, normal and dry years. AquaCrop, the water driven crop growth and soil water balance model, offered the opportunity to systematically experiment these measures on water consumption and yield. Further, the green and blue water footprints of growing crop corresponding to each measure were computed by separating the root zone fluxes of the AquaCrop output into the green and blue soil water stocks and their corresponding fluxes. Results showed that in arid environment reduction in irrigation supply, CWU and WF up to 300 mm, 80 mm and 75 m3/tonne respectively can be achieved for Maize by a combination of organic mulching and drip technology with controlled deficit irrigation strategies (10-20-30-40% deficit with reference to the full irrigation requirement). These reductions come with a yield drop of 0.54 tonne/ha. In the same environment under the absence of mulching practice, the sub-surface drip perform better in reducing CWU and WF of irrigated crops followed by drip and furrow irrigation

  5. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    irrigation practices (timer based and manual watering systems) that are no longer sustainable given the limited water supplies in many U.S. locations and...Areas that have high local water costs or limited water supply options may also benefit from water harvesting. The implementation of smart ET...in potable water use. Smart ET controllers with centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, such as ET gauge, rain, soil moisture, and leak

  6. Evaluating the effects of mulch and irrigation amount on soil water distribution and root zone water balance using HYDRUS-2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drip irrigation under mulch is a major water-saving irrigation method that has been widely practiced for cotton production. The performance of such irrigation systems should be evaluated for proper design, management, operation, and efficient water use. The modeling approach has been used as a commo...

  7. Simulating Water Allocation and Cropping Decisions in Yemen’s Abyan Delta Spate Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jin-Uk Marchant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture employs more Yemenis than any other sector and spate irrigation is the largest source of irrigation water. Spate irrigation however is growing increasingly difficult to sustain in many areas due to water scarcity and unclear sharing of water amongst users. In some areas of Yemen, there are no institutionalised water allocation rules which can lead to water related disputes. Here, we propose a proof-of-concept model to evaluate the impacts of different water allocation patterns to assist in devising allocation rules. The integrated model links simple wadi flow, diversion, and soil moisture-yield simulators to a crop decision model to evaluate impacts of different water allocation rules and their possible implications on local agriculture using preliminary literature data. The crop choice model is an agricultural production model of irrigation command areas where the timing, irrigated area and crop mix is decided each month based on current conditions and expected allocations. The model is applied to Yemen’s Abyan Delta, which has the potential to be the most agriculturally productive region in the country. The water allocation scenarios analysed include upstream priority, downstream priority, equal priority (equal sharing of water shortages, and a user-defined mixed priority that gives precedence to different locations based on the season. Once water is distributed according to one of these allocation patterns, the model determines the profit-maximising plant date and crop selection for 18 irrigated command areas. This aims to estimate the impacts different water allocation strategies could have on livelihoods. Initial results show an equal priority allocation is the most equitable and efficient, with 8% more net benefits than an upstream scenario, 10% more net benefits than a downstream scenario, and 25% more net benefits than a mixed priority.

  8. Delineating shallow ground water irrigated areas in the Atankwidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Basin Lan Use/Land Cover (LULC) and irrigated area Mapping using. Continuous Streams of MODIS Data. Remote Sensing Environ.,. 95(3): 317-341. Neckel H, Labs D (1984). The solar radiation between 3300 and 12500. A. Solar Phys., 90: 205-258. Tucker CJ, Grant DM, Dykstra JD (2005). NASA's global orthorectified.

  9. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    is acidic, thus enhancing leaching and corrosive tendencies of the irrigation ... of heavy metals in the soil indicated contamination from the effluent from the .... well (SAR = 11.1), which contained high pH (pH= 6.65) and high Chloride ion (Cl-of.

  10. Water and nitrogen requirements of subsurface drip irrigated pomegranate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface drip irrigation is a well-developed practice for both annual and perennial crops. The use of subsurface drip is a well-established practice in many annual row crops, e.g. tomatoes, strawberries, lettuce. However, the use of subsurface drip on perennial crops has been slow to develop. With th...

  11. Effects of climate change on water abstraction restrictions for irrigation during droughts - The UK case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Vicario, D.; Holman, I.

    2016-12-01

    The use of water for irrigation and on-farm reservoir filling is globally important for agricultural production. In humid climates, like the UK, supplemental irrigation can be critical to buffer the effects of rainfall variability and to achieve high quality crops. Given regulatory efforts to secure sufficient environmental river flows and meet rising water demands due to population growth and climate change, increasing water scarcity is likely to compound the drought challenges faced by irrigated agriculture in this region. Currently, water abstraction from surface waters for agricultural irrigation can be restricted by the Environment Agency during droughts under Section 57 of the Water Resources Act (1991), based on abnormally low river flow levels and rainfall forecast, causing significant economic impacts on irrigated agricultural production. The aim of this study is to assess the impact that climate change may have on agricultural abstraction in the UK within the context of the abstraction restriction triggers currently in place. These triggers have been applied to the `Future Flows hydrology' database to assess the likelihood of increasing restrictions on agricultural abstraction in the future by comparing the probability of voluntary and compulsory restrictions in the baseline (1961-1990) and future period (2071-2098) for 282 catchments throughout the whole of the UK. The results of this study show a general increase in the probability of future agricultural irrigation abstraction restrictions in the UK in the summer, particularly in the South West, although there is significant variability between the 11 ensemble members. The results also indicate that UK winters are likely to become wetter in the future, although in some catchments the probability of abstraction restriction in the reservoir refilling winter months (November-February) could increase slightly. An increasing frequency of drought events due to climate change is therefore likely to lead to

  12. Aflaj’s Irrigation Water Demand/Supply Ratio: Two Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Ghafri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical location of Oman in an arid zone, agricultural production depends fully on irrigation. The traditional irrigation systems (Aflaj, sing. falaj supply more than one third of water for agriculture. Falaj is defined in the context of this paper as a canal system which provides water for domestic and agricultural uses. Oman has 3,107 active Aflaj producing about 680 Mm3 of water per year. The main objective of this study was to estimate the irrigation performance of Aflaj in Oman. Falaj al-Dariz and al-Nujaid were chosen as case studies. Both Aflaj are located in an extremely arid environment, where the rainfall is low and evapotranspiration is high. The study utilized an approach to estimate the irrigation performance of Aflaj by considering the falaj as a single unit of irrigation. The irrigation demand/supply ratio (D/S was used in the analysis as a tool of evaluation. Date palm, the dominant crop irrigated by Aflaj, was selected for the analysis. In falaj al-Dariz the date palms were slightly under irrigated on a yearly basis. On a monthly basis, in winter, the D/S was below 0.6 and in summer it was above 1.0. On the other hand, falaj al-Nujaid was supplying too much water than the date palms needed all round the year. In winter the D/S ratio was as low as 0.25. Even in summer, the D/S ratio did not much exceed 1.0.

  13. Climate change reduces water availability for agriculture by decreasing non-evaporative irrigation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Adam, Jennifer C.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Peters, R. Troy

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity. However, the impacts of climate change on the efficiency of irrigation systems, particularly on the partitioning between evaporative and non-evaporative losses, have received little attention. In this study, we incorporated a process-based irrigation module into a coupled hydrologic/agricultural modeling framework (VIC-CropSyst). To understand how climate change may impact irrigation losses, we applied VIC-CropSyst over the Yakima River basin, an important agricultural region in Washington State, U.S. We compared the historical period of 1980-2010 to an ensemble of ten projections of climate for two future periods: 2030-2060 and 2060-2090. Results averaged over the watershed showed that a 9% increase in evaporative losses will be compensated by a reduction of non-evaporative losses. Therefore, overall changes in future efficiency are negligible (-0.4%) while the Evaporative Loss Ratio (ELR) (defined as the ratio of evaporative to non-evaporative irrigation losses) is enhanced by 10%. This higher ELR is associated with a reduction in return flows, thus negatively impacting downstream water availability. Results also indicate that the impact of climate change on irrigation losses depend on irrigation type and climate scenarios.

  14. Safety assessment of greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes irrigated with reclaimed and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Pedrero-Salcedo, Francisco; Alarcon, Juan Jose; Gil, Maria Isabel

    2014-11-17

    The impact of reclaimed and surface water on the microbiological safety of hydroponic tomatoes was assessed. Greenhouse tomatoes were irrigated with reclaimed and surface water and grown on two hydroponic substrates (coconut fiber and rock wool). Water samples (n=208) were taken from irrigation water, with and without the addition of fertilizers and drainage water, and hydroponic tomatoes (n=72). Samples were analyzed for indicator microorganisms, generic Escherichia coli and Listeria spp., and pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), using multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) after enrichment. The correlation between climatological parameters such as temperature and the levels of microorganisms in water samples was also determined. In irrigation water, generic E. coli counts were higher in reclaimed than in surface water whereas Listeria spp. numbers increased after adding the fertilizers in both water sources. In drainage water, no clear differences in E. coli and Listeria numbers were observed between reclaimed and surface water. No positive samples for STEC were found in irrigation water. Presumptive positives for Salmonella spp. were found in 7.7% of the water samples and 62.5% of these samples were reclaimed water. Salmonella-positive samples by RT-PCR could not be confirmed by conventional methods. Higher concentrations of E. coli were associated with Salmonella-presumptive positive samples. Climatological parameters, such as temperature, were not correlated with the E. coli and Listeria spp. counts. Tomato samples were negative for bacterial pathogens, while generic E. coli and Listeria spp. counts were below the detection limit. The prevalence of presumptive Salmonella spp. found in irrigation water (reclaimed and surface water) was high, which might present a risk of contamination. The absence of pathogens on greenhouse hydroponic tomatoes indicates that good agricultural practices (GAP) were in place, avoiding the

  15. Survey the Effects of Partial Root Zone Deficit Irrigation and Deficit Irrigation on Quantitative, Qualitative and Water Use Efficiency of Pomegranate

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad saeed tadaion; Gholamreza Moafpourian

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: One of the latest efficient methods on increment of water use efficiency that confirmed by many scientists all over the world is deficit and alternative partial root zone deficit irrigation. In this experiment the effect of deficit and alternative partial root zone deficit irrigation on fruit yield, quality and water use efficiency of pomegranate (Punicagranatum (L.) cv. Zarde-anar) were investigatedin Arsenjan semi-arid region. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carri...

  16. [Effects of different irrigations on the water physiological characteristics of Haloxylon ammodendron in Taklimakan Desert hinterland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ting-ting; Zhang, Xi-ming; Liang, Shao-min; Shan, Li-shan; Yang, Xiao-lin; Hua, Yong-hui

    2008-04-01

    By using heat-balance stem flow gauge and press chamber, the water physiological characteristics of Haloxylon ammodendron under different irrigations in Taklimakan Desert hinterland were measured and analyzed. The results indicated that the diurnal variation curve of H. ammodendron stem sap flow varied with irrigations. When irrigated 35 and 24.5 kg x plant(-1) once time, the diurnal variation of stem sap flow changed in single peak curve and the variation extent was higher; while irrigated 14 kg x plant(-1) once time, the diurnal variation changed in two-peak curve and the variation extent was small. With the decrease of irrigations, the average daily sap flow rate and the daily water consumption of H. ammodendron decreased gradually, the dawn and postmeridian water potential also had a gradual decrease, and the correlations of stem sap flow with total radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed enhanced. Under different irrigations, the correlation between stem sap flow rate and total radiation was always the best.

  17. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daccache, A.; Ciurana, J. S.; Rodriguez Diaz, J. A.; Knox, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m3 kg-1) and energy (CO2 kg-1) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km3 yr-1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO2 emissions yr-1, with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO2/t) and cotton (60 kg CO2/t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm-3 and emissions of 31 kg CO2/t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km3 yr-1 (+137%) whilst CO2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water-energy-food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO2 emissions and/or intensify food production.

  18. Effect of water irrigation volume on Capsicum frutescens growth and plankton abundance in aquaponics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Dhahiyat, Y.; Zahidah; Subhan, U.; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Mawardiani, T.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to understand Capsicum frutescens growth and plankton abundance in aquaponics culture. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments in triplicates comprising of treatment A (positive control using organic liquid fertilizer), B (negative control without fertilizer), C (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 100 ml/day/plant), D (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 150 ml/day/plant), E (drip irrigation with a water debit of 200 ml/day/plant), and F (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 250 ml/day/plant) was applied. The water used in treatments C, D, E, and F contained comet fish feces as fertilizer. C. frutescens growth and plankton abundance were observed. Analysis was conducted using analysis of variance for plant productivity and descriptive analysis for plankton abundance and water quality. The results of this study showed that the highest plant growth was seen in plants receiving F treatment with 50 ml/day drip irrigation. However, no significant difference was found when compared to the positive control with organic artificial fertilizer. Eleven types of phytoplankton and six types of zooplankton were found, with Stanieria sp. as the most abundant phytoplankton and Brachionus sp. and Epistylis sp. as the most abundant zooplanktons.

  19. Use of Moringa oleifera seed extracts to reduce helminth egg numbers and turbidity in irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mita E; Keraita, Bernard; Olsen, Annette; Boateng, Osei K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Pálsdóttir, Guðný R; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-07-01

    Water from wastewater-polluted streams and dug-outs is the most commonly used water source for irrigation in urban farming in Ghana, but helminth parasite eggs in the water represent health risks when used for crop production. Conventional water treatment is expensive, requires advanced technology and often breaks down in less developed countries so low cost interventions are needed. Field and laboratory based trials were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the natural coagulant Moringa oleifera (MO) seed extracts in reducing helminh eggs and turbidity in irrigation water, turbid water, wastewater and tap water. In medium to high turbid water MO extracts were effective in reducing the number of helminth eggs by 94-99.5% to 1-2 eggs per litre and the turbidity to 7-11 NTU which is an 85-96% reduction. MO is readily available in many tropical countries and can be used by farmers to treat high turbid water for irrigation, however, additional improvements of water quality, e.g. by sand filtration, is suggested to meet the guideline value of ≤ 1 helminth egg per litre and a turbidity of ≤ 2 NTU as recommended by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water intended for irrigation. A positive correlation was established between reduction in turbidity and helminth eggs in irrigation water, turbid water and wastewater treated with MO. This indicates that helminth eggs attach to suspended particles and/or flocs facilitated by MO in the water, and that turbidity and helminth eggs are reduced with the settling flocs. However, more experiments with water samples containing naturally occurring helminth eggs are needed to establish whether turbidity can be used as a proxy for helminth eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increasing water productivity, nitrogen economy, and grain yield of rice by water saving irrigation and fertilizer-N management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omar; Hussain, Saddam; Rizwan, Muhammad; Riaz, Muhammad; Bashir, Saqib; Lin, Lirong; Mehmood, Sajid; Imran, Muhammad; Yaseen, Rizwan; Lu, Guoan

    2018-06-01

    The looming water resources worldwide necessitate the development of water-saving technologies in rice production. An open greenhouse experiment was conducted on rice during the summer season of 2016 at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China, in order to study the influence of irrigation methods and nitrogen (N) inputs on water productivity, N economy, and grain yield of rice. Two irrigation methods, viz. conventional irrigation (CI) and "thin-shallow-moist-dry" irrigation (TSMDI), and three levels of nitrogen, viz. 0 kg N ha -1 (N 0 ), 90 kg N ha -1 (N 1 ), and 180 kg N ha -1 (N 2 ), were examined with three replications. Study data indicated that no significant water by nitrogen interaction on grain yield, biomass, water productivity, N uptake, NUE, and fertilizer N balance was observed. Results revealed that TSMDI method showed significantly higher water productivity and irrigation water applications were reduced by 17.49% in TSMDI compared to CI. Thus, TSMDI enhanced root growth and offered significantly greater water saving along with getting more grain yield compared to CI. Nitrogen tracer ( 15 N) technique accurately assessed the absorption and distribution of added N in the soil crop environment and divulge higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) influenced by TSMDI. At the same N inputs, the TSMDI was the optimal method to minimize nitrogen leaching loss by decreasing water leakage about 18.63%, which are beneficial for the ecological environment.

  1. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-07-28

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to accurately estimate agricultural water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. A detailed digital map and summary of irrigated acreage during the 2015 growing season was developed for 13 of the 15 counties that compose the Suwannee River Water Management District. The irrigated areas were delineated using land-use data, orthoimagery, and information obtained from the water management district consumptive water-use permits that were then field verified between May and November of 2015. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results indicate that an estimated 113,134 acres were either irrigated or had potential for irrigation in all or part of the 13 counties within the Suwannee River Water Management District during 2015. This estimate includes 108,870 acres of field-verified, irrigated crops and 4,264 acres of irrigated land observed as (1) idle (with an irrigation system visible but no crop present at the time of the field-verification visit), (2) acres that could not be verified during field visits, or (3) acres that were located on publicly owned research lands.

  2. Increased malaria transmission around irrigation schemes in Ethiopia and the potential of canal water management for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibret, Solomon; Wilson, G Glenn; Tekie, Habte; Petros, Beyene

    2014-09-13

    Irrigation schemes have been blamed for the increase in malaria in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. However, proper water management could help mitigate malaria around irrigation schemes in this region. This study investigates the link between irrigation and malaria in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected fortnightly between November 2009 and October 2010 from two irrigated and two non-irrigated (control) villages in the Ziway area, Central Ethiopia. Daily canal water releases were recorded during the study period and bi-weekly correlation analysis was done to determine relationships between canal water releases and larval/adult vector densities. Blood meal sources (bovine vs human) and malaria sporozoite infection were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Monthly malaria data were also collected from central health centre of the study villages. Monthly malaria incidence was over six-fold higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The number of anopheline breeding habitats was 3.6 times higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages and the most common Anopheles mosquito breeding habitats were waterlogged field puddles, leakage pools from irrigation canals and poorly functioning irrigation canals. Larval and adult anopheline densities were seven- and nine-fold higher in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated villages, respectively, during the study period. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite rates of An. arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were significantly higher in the irrigated villages than the non-irrigated villages. The annual entomological inoculation rate (EIR) calculated for the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were 34.8 and 0.25 P. falciparum infective bites per person per year, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between bi-weekly anopheline larval density and canal water

  3. Salinity and cationic nature of irrigation water on castor bean cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovani S. de Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the water relations, cell damage percentage and growth of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ as a function of salinity and cationic nature of the water used in irrigation. The experiment was conducted in drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions in eutrophic Grey Argisol of sandy loam texture. Six combinations of water salinity and cations were studied (S1 - Control; S2 - Na+, S3 - Ca2+, S4 - Na+ + Ca2+; S5 - K+ and S6 - Na+ + Ca2+ + Mg2+, in a randomized block design with four replicates. In the control (S1, plants were irrigated with 0.6 dS m-1 water, whereas the other treatments received 4.5 dS m-1 water, obtained by adding different salts, all in the chloride form. Higher relative water content in the leaf blade of plants irrigated with K+-salinized water associated with leaf succulence are indicative of tolerance of the castor bean cv. ‘BRS Energia’ to salinity. Saline stress negatively affected castor bean growth, regardless of cationic nature of water. Among the ions studied, ‘BRS Energia’ castor bean was more sensitive to the presence of sodium in the irrigation water, in terms of both water relations and leaf succulence.

  4. A Tool for the Evaluation of Irrigation Water Quality in the Arid and Semi-Arid Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Bortolini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean arid and semi-arid regions, large amounts of low quality waters could be used for crop irrigation, but the adoption of articulated classifications with too rigid quality limits can often reduce the recoverable quantities of water and make the monitoring of water quality too much expensive. Therefore, an evaluation of irrigation water quality based on only a few crucial parameters, which consider the crop species to be irrigated and the type of irrigation system and management adopted, can be an easy and flexible method for maximizing the reuse of wastewater and low-quality water for agricultural purposes. In this view, an irrigation water quality tool (IWQT was developed to support farmers of arid and semi-arid regions on evaluating the use of low quality water for crop irrigation. The most significant and cheapest parameters of irrigation water quality were identified and clustered in three quality classes according to their effects on crop yield and soil fertility (agronomic quality indicators, human health (hygiene and health quality indicators, and irrigation systems (management quality indicators. According to IWQT parameters, a tool reporting a series of recommendations, including water treatment types, was implemented to guide farmers on the use of low quality irrigation water.

  5. Water and energy footprint of irrigated agriculture in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daccache, A; Ciurana, J S; Knox, J W; Rodriguez Diaz, J A

    2014-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture constitutes the largest consumer of freshwater in the Mediterranean region and provides a major source of income and employment for rural livelihoods. However, increasing droughts and water scarcity have highlighted concerns regarding the environmental sustainability of agriculture in the region. An integrated assessment combining a gridded water balance model with a geodatabase and GIS has been developed and used to assess the water demand and energy footprint of irrigated production in the region. Modelled outputs were linked with crop yield and water resources data to estimate water (m 3 kg −1 ) and energy (CO 2 kg −1 ) productivity and identify vulnerable areas or ‘hotspots’. For a selected key crops in the region, irrigation accounts for 61 km 3 yr −1 of water abstraction and 1.78 Gt CO 2 emissions yr −1 , with most emissions from sunflower (73 kg CO 2 /t) and cotton (60 kg CO 2 /t) production. Wheat is a major strategic crop in the region and was estimated to have a water productivity of 1000 t Mm −3 and emissions of 31 kg CO 2 /t. Irrigation modernization would save around 8 km 3 of water but would correspondingly increase CO 2 emissions by around +135%. Shifting from rain-fed to irrigated production would increase irrigation demand to 166 km 3 yr −1 (+137%) whilst CO 2 emissions would rise by +270%. The study has major policy implications for understanding the water–energy–food nexus in the region and the trade-offs between strategies to save water, reduce CO 2 emissions and/or intensify food production. (letter)

  6. Guidelines for irrigation scheduling of peach palm for heart-of-palm production in the São Francisco Valley, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassoi Luís Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The water consumption, crop coefficient and effective rooting depth of the peach palm cultivated in a Vertisol were evaluated over two years and three months, from planting to fifth harvest, in Juazeiro, Bahia State, Brazil. Plants were irrigated by microsprinklers under two irrigation treatments, full irrigation (FI and reduced irrigation (RI, and the amount of water applied in RI corresponded to 75% of that of FI. Water consumption and crop coefficient has increased markedly at the first harvest (7.3 mm day-1 and 1.2, respectively, in FI treatment in the thirteenth month, as a consequence of plant canopy development. After that, plants were harvested every three or four months, and these values varied a little due to decrease of the stand. The effective rooting depth was shallow (40 cm at 12 months (before the first harvest and it remained the same up to 24 months after planting (after the fourth harvest. Significant response of heart-of-palm yield to the irrigation treatments was not observed.

  7. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Kartikasari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  8. Physiology of ‘Paluma’ guava under irrigation with saline water and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Manoel da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of saline water in irrigation causes osmotic and toxic effects and nutritional imbalance in plants, leading to morphophysiological modifications in the leaves and compromising the production of photosynthetic pigments, which negatively reflects in the growth and development of the crops. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation water salinity on the content of photosynthetic pigments and leaf morphophysiology of guava seedlings cv. ‘Paluma’ under nitrogen (N fertilization. A randomized block design was used, testing five levels of irrigation water electrical conductivity - ECw (0.3, 1.1, 1.9, 2.7, and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (541.1, 773.0, 1,004.9, and 1,236.8 mg of N dm-3 of soil in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates and five plants per plot. The contents of photosynthetic pigments in the leaves of the guava seedlings cv. ‘Paluma’ were inhibited by the increase in irrigation water salinity at 190 days after emergence, and the salt stress was lessened with the N dose of 1,004.9 mg dm-3 up to an ECw level of 1.2 dS m-1. Leaf morphophysiology of guava seedlings was not compromised by irrigation water salinity up to 1.5 dS m-1, and the highest values were obtained in plants fertilized with 541.1 mg of N dm-3.

  9. Water deficit imposed by partial irrigation at different plant growth stages of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of common bean crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted without significant decrease in biological nitrogen fixation and yield. Two field experiments were conducted at a University experiments station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, on a sandy loam soil ( Typic durustoll ). The climate is warm and dry ( mean air temperature 16 degree Celcius and mean relative humidity 74% ) during the cropping season and rainfall of 123 mm was recorded during the cropping period. The treatments consisted of combinations of 7 irrigation regimes ( I1 = all normal watering; I2 = all stres; I3 = traditional practice; I4 = single stress at vegetation; I5 flowering; I6 = yield formation and I7 = ripening stages ) and 2 levels of applied N ( 20 and 80 kg/ ha ). Differential irrigation was started after 3 uniform irrigations for germination and crop establishment. Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.60 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was calculated using the N- 15 metodology in the 20 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering stage was the most sensitive to number of pods and grain yield. Biological Nitrogen Fixation was significantly affected by water stress at flowering and formation stages. The crop water use efficiency ( kg/ m 3 ) was the lowest at flowering period and the yield response factor ( Ky ) was higher in treatments I2 ( all stress ) and I5 (stress at flowering ). Comparing with traditional practice by farmers of the region, only treatments I1 and I7 had 13 and 10 % higher crop water use effeciency. 15 tabs., 7 refs. ( Author )

  10. Using hydraulic modeling to simulate human interactions with water resources in an Omani irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Themis; Ertsen, Maurits; Düring, Bleda; Kolen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In the dry Southern Oman, more than a thousand years ago, a large water system that connected the mountain mass with the coastal region was constructed. Its length (up to 30 km) and the fact that the coastal region has a rich groundwater aquifer create confusion as to why the system was initially built. Nonetheless, it was abandoned a couple of centuries later only to be partially revived by small farming communities in the 17th to 18th century. The focus of our research is one of the irrigation systems that used the water conveyed from the large water system. Not much is known about these small irrigation systems functioning in the Wadi Al Jizzi of the greater Sohar region. There are no written records and we can only make guesses about the way the systems were managed based on ethnographical studies and the traditional Omani techniques. On the other hand, the good preservation state of the canals offers a great opportunity for hydraulic reconstruction of irrigation events. More than that, the material remains suggest and at the same time limit the ways in which humans interacted with the system and the water resources of the region. All irrigation activities and some daily activities had to be realized through the canal system and only if the canal system permits it these actions would have been feasible. We created a conceptual model of irrigation that includes the human agent and feedback mechanisms through hydraulics and then we simulated irrigation events using the Sobek software. Scenarios and sensibility analysis were used to address the unknown aspects of the system. Our research yielded insights about the way the farming community interacted with the larger water system, the levels of co-ordination and co-operation required for successful irrigation and the predisposition of conflict and power relations.

  11. Irrigation water quality of Al-Gharraf Canal, south of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein Ewaid, Salam

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf Canal south of Iraq for irrigation purpose, analysis of 12 physiochemical parameters of water samples by standard methods was carried out at five stations during the year 2016 (water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, nitrate, sodium, potassium). Seven irrigation water quality indices were calculated like; sodium percentage (% Na), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC), Kelly’s ratio (KR), permeability index (PI), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). The results represented as diagrams (Piper, Stiff, Schoeller, Durov, Gibbs, and Wilcox) using AquaChem and RockWork hydro-chemical software. Chemical analysis for canal water demonstrates the calcic chlorinated water type, the dominance of alkalis water, the major cations was in the order of: Na+ > Ca2+ > K+ > Mg2+ and major anions was: Cl- > SO42- > HCO3- > NO3-, the mean values of the irrigation water quality indices were (in meq/l) were; SAR (2.37), % Na (43.4), PI (%) (52.3), SSP (% (38.1), MAR (%) (34.5), KR (0.61), RSBC (-1.78). The results indicate the suitability of canal water for irrigational purposes based on the calculated indices for the majority of crops under special management for salinity and permeability control. The presentation of chemical analysis by diagrams and numbers makes understanding of complex water system too simpler and quicker. This study is a comprehensive assessment towards providing indicators and classification indices on irrigation water quality of the canal ecosystem, which will be the basis for future planning decisions on agricultural demand management measures and water quality monitoring to protect this principal water resource.

  12. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Schütze

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  13. Growth, gas exchange, foliar nitrogen content, and water use of subirrigated and overhead irrigated Populus tremuloides Michx. seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Matthew M. Aghai; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Kent G. Apostal

    2011-01-01

    Because limitations on water used by container nurseries has become commonplace, nursery growers will have to improve irrigation management. Subirrigation systems may provide an alternative to overhead irrigation systems by mitigating groundwater pollution and excessive water consumption. Seedling growth, gas exchange, leaf nitrogen (N) content, and water use were...

  14. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly

  15. The impact of the water rights definition on smallholder irrigators' willingness to pay for water in Limpopo province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    Water rights are currently receiving increased attention from scholars and policymakers due to the growing understanding that ill-defined water rights impair efficient use. In South Africa, smallholder irrigation faces problems of low water use efficiency and cost recovery of government investments.

  16. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  17. When should irrigators invest in more water-efficient technologies as an adaptation to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Stockle, C.; Brady, M.; Yoder, J.

    2015-12-01

    The western US is expected to experience more frequent droughts with higher magnitudes and persistence due to the climate change, with potentially large impacts on agricultural productivity and the economy. Irrigated farmers have many options for minimizing drought impacts including changing crops, engaging in water markets, and switching irrigation technologies. Switching to more efficient irrigation technologies, which increase water availability in the crop root zone through reduction of irrigation losses, receives significant attention because of the promise of maintaining current production with less. However, more efficient irrigation systems are almost always more capital-intensive adaptation strategy particularly compared to changing crops or trading water. A farmer's decision to switch will depend on how much money they project to save from reducing drought damages. The objective of this study is to explore when (and under what climate change scenarios) it makes sense economically for farmers to invest in a new irrigation system. This study was performed over the Yakima River Basin (YRB) in Washington State, although the tools and information gained from this study are transferable to other watersheds in the western US. We used VIC-CropSyst, a large-scale grid-based modeling framework that simulates hydrological processes while mechanistically capturing crop water use, growth and development. The water flows simulated by VIC-CropSyst were used to run the RiverWare river system and water management model (YAK-RW), which simulates river processes and calculates regional water availability for agricultural use each day (i.e., the prorationing ratio). An automated computational platform has been developed and programed to perform the economic analysis for each grid cell, crop types and future climate projections separately, which allows us to explore whether or not implementing a new irrigation system is economically viable. Results of this study indicate that

  18. Review of the water management systems in the Gujarat Medium Irrigation II Project (Credit 1496-IN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Different activities are ongoing in the Medium Irrigation II project simultaneously. These are: - emancipation of farmers through their involvement in the operation and management; - change over from Sheshpali type water management to RWS type water management; - design and construction of remaining

  19. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of groundwater for the irrigation of horticultural crops in the greenhouses presents a high degree of overexploitation of the aquifers, but due to the continuous search for alternative water resources, such as desalinated and reclaimed water, as well as in-depth knowledge of the integral management of water irrigation through automated fertigation and localized irrigation systems, the current status of the water resources could be sustainable. Moreover, being conscious of the pollution generated by agricultural leachates, the horticultural system of Almería is implementing complementary sustainable systems such as recirculation, cascade cropping systems and phytodepuration for the reuse of the leachate. Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the intensive horticultural system is on the right path towards respecting the environment and being sustainable in terms of water use.

  20. The best farm-level irrigation strategy changes seasonally with fluctuating water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.; Meinke, H.B.; Rodriguez, D.

    2012-01-01

    Around the globe farmers managing irrigated crops face a future with a decreased and more variable water supply. To investigate generic adaptation issues, a range of on-farm strategies were evaluated for apportioning limited water between fields and enterprises using a typical case-study farm from

  1. Living with less water: development of viable adaptation options for Riverina irrigators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaydon, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, the best use of limited national water resources continues to be a major political and scientific issue. Average water allocations for rice-cereal irrigation farmers in the Riverina region have been drastically reduced since 1998 as a consequence of high rainfall variability and

  2. On the Waterfront. Water Distribution, Technology and Agrarian Change in a South Indian Canal Irrigation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    This book analyses the struggle over water in a large-scale irrigation system in Raichur District, Karnataka, South India. It looks at water control as a simultaneously technical, managerial and socio-political process. The triangle of accommodation of different categories of farmers (head-enders

  3. Leaf temperature of maize and crop water stress index with variable irrigation and nitrogen supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water scarcity due to changing climate, population growth, and economic development is a major threat to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the Western United States and other regions around the world. Water stress indices based on crop canopy temperature can be useful for assessing plan...

  4. The Impact of Small Scale Mining on Irrigation Water Quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small scale mining is a major threat to water resources and agricultural activities in most mining communities across Ghana. This study investigated the effect of small scale mining on the quality of water for irrigation from some selected sites along a river and a reservoir which was used as a control. The physical and ...

  5. Can irrigation water use be guided by market forces? Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the relevance of market forces to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, such as volumetric water charges and tradable water rights, then considers their usefulness in the context

  6. Stover removal effects on seasonal soil water availability under full and deficit irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Removing corn (Zea mays L.) stover for livestock feed or bioenergy feedstock may impact water availability in the soil profile to support crop growth. The role of stover in affecting soil profile water availability will depend on annual rainfall inputs as well as irrigation level. To assess how res...

  7. Scalar alignment and sustainable water governance: The case of irrigated agriculture in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özerol, Gül; Bressers, Johannes T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture plays a significant role in global food security and poverty reduction. At the same time its negative impacts on water and land resources threaten environmental sustainability. With the objective of improving the understanding on the complexity of governing water resources for

  8. Quantification of the impacts of coalmine water irrigation on the underlying aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B.; van Tonder, G. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of affected mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa, The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the last three years to supplement the groundwater monitoring programme at five different pilot sites, on both virgin soils (greenfields) and in coalmining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The research has included soil moisture measurements, collection of in situ soil moisture over time, long-term laboratory studies of the leaching and attenuation properties of different soils and the impact of irrigation on acid rock drainage processes, and in depth determination of the hydraulic properties of the subsurface at each of these sites, including falling head tests, pumping tests and point dilution tests. This has been supported by geochemical modelling of these processes to quantify the impacts. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that in the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts have been contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From this mixing ratios have been calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers.

  9. [Effects of irrigation amount on morphological characteristics and water use of Jatropha curcas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi-Liang; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Liu, Yan-Wei; Yang, Ju-Rui

    2014-05-01

    Jatropha curcas is the most promising energy tree, and soil moisture is the key factor which affects the seedling quality and water use efficiency of J. curcas. With aims to evaluate the effect of different irrigation amount on growth, morphological characteristics and water use of J. curcas, a pot experiment was conducted with four irrigation amounts, i. e., W1:472.49 mm, W2: 228.79 mm, W3:154.18 mm and W4:106.93 mm, respectively. Compared with W1 treatment, the leaf area and stem cross-section area of base significantly decreased in W2, W3 and W4 treatments, but Huber value significantly increased, which could improve the efficiency of water transfer from root to shoot, thus enhance the capability of resistance to drought stress. Compared with W, treatment, the healthy index of J. curcas seedlings decreased slightly in W2 treatment but significantly decreased in W3 and W4 treatments. Hence, the irrigation amount from 228.79 to 472.49 mm was beneficial to increase the healthy index of J. curcas seedlings. Compared with W1 treatment, irrigation water was saved by 67.4% in W3 treatment, and the total dry mass and evapotranspiration significantly decreased by 17.4% and 68.6%, and the irrigation water use efficiency and total water use efficiency increased by 153.2% and 163.2%, respectively. In the condition of this study, the irrigation amount of 154.18 mm was beneficial to increase water use efficiency.

  10. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  11. Potential of deficit irrigation, irrigation cut-offs, and crop thinning to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought and mandatory water restrictions are limiting the availability of irrigation water in many important blueberry growing regions, including Oregon, Washington, and California. New strategies are needed to maintain yield and fruit quality with less water. Three potential options, including defi...

  12. Arsenic contamination of soils and agricultural plants through irrigation water in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, B.M.; Fuerhacker, M.; Mentler, A.; Karki, K.B.; Shrestha, R.R.; Blum, W.E.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study monitored the influence of arsenic-contaminated irrigation water on alkaline soils and arsenic uptake in agricultural plants at field level. The arsenic concentrations in irrigation water ranges from -1 where the arsenic concentrations in the soils were measured from 6.1 to 16.7 mg As kg -1 . The arsenic content in different parts of plants are found in the order of roots > shoots > leaves > edible parts. The mean arsenic content of edible plant material (dry weight) were found in the order of onion leaves (0.55 mg As kg -1 ) > onion bulb (0.45 mg As kg -1 ) > cauliflower (0.33 mg As kg -1 ) > rice (0.18 mg As kg -1 ) > brinjal (0.09 mg As kg -1 ) > potato ( -1 ). - The arsenic content in soil and plants is influenced by the degree of arsenic amount in irrigated water

  13. Heavy metal accumulation imparts structural differences in fragrant Rosa species irrigated with marginal quality water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Muhammad; Younis, Adnan; Jaskani, Muhammad Jafar; Tufail, Aasma; Riaz, Atif; Schwinghamer, Timothy; Tariq, Usman; Nawaz, Fahim

    2018-09-15

    Wastewater is an alternative to traditional sources of renewable irrigation water in agriculture, particularly in water-scarce regions. However, the possible risks due to heavy metals accumulation in plant tissues are often overlooked by producers. The present study aimed to identify heavy metals-induced structural modifications to roots of scented Rosa species that were irrigated with water of marginal quality. The chemical and mineral contents from the experimental irrigation canal water (control) and treated wastewater were below the limits recommended by the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA) for medicinal plants. The experimentally untreated wastewater contained electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and heavy metals (Co, Cu, Cd, Pb) that were above the recommended limits. The responses by wastewater-treated Rosa species (Rosa damascena, R. bourboniana, R. Gruss-an-Teplitz, and R. centifolia) were evaluated. The experimental data revealed that treated wastewater significantly increased the thickness of collenchyma (cortex and pith) and parenchyma tissues (vascular bundle, xylem, and phloem) of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz. Root dermal tissues (epidermis) of R. bourboniana also responded to treated wastewater. R. damascena and R. centifolia were the least affected species, under the experimental irrigation conditions. Collenchyma and dermal tissues were thicker in R. damascena and R. Gruss-an-Teplitz under untreated wastewater conditions. In parenchyma tissues, vascular bundles were thicker in R. damascena in untreated wastewater conditions, while the xylem and phloem of R. Gruss-an-Teplitz were thicker where treated wastewater was applied. In tissues other than the vascular bundle, the differences in anatomical metrics due to the experimental irrigation treatments were greater during the second year of the experiment than in the first year. The contents of metals other than chromium in the roots and

  14. Surveying tubewell water suitability for irrigation in four tehsils of district Kasur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Mehboob, Muhammad Siddique Shakir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Four tehsils of district Kasur (Chunian, Pattoki, Kot Radha Kishan and Kasur were surveyed and five villages were selected in each tehsil at random. Two water samples were collected from each village and were analyzed for various irrigation water quality parameters. The results indicated that 60% tubewell were unfit from Chunian, 90% from Pattoki, 90% from Kot Radha Kishan and 80% from Kasur tehsil. Overall, 20% of total tubewells water sampled had quality parameters within the acceptable limits whereas 80% were unfit for irrigation. About 97% waters were unfit due to high salinity (EC > 1250 S cm¬-1, 63% were due to high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR > 10 mmol L-11/2 and 97% were due to high residual sodium carbonate (RSC > 2.5 me L-1. It may be inferred that use of poor quality irrigation water will cause deterioration in soil health, which consequently will result in poor crop production. Hence, it is emphasized that tubewell discharging unfit water should be used by following sound management practices like precision land leveling, inclusion of high salt tolerant crops in traditional cropping system, occasional deep ploughing in heavy textured soil, occasional flushing of the soil profile with heavy irrigation to reduce the salt concentration in the root zone and application of organic and inorganic amendments like pressmud, poultry manure, farm yard manure and gypsum or acid/acid formers etc, however the management options must be on the basis of analysis of water quality parameters.

  15. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  16. Demand driven decision support for efficient water resources allocation in irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Niels; Grießbach, Ulrike Ulrike; Röhm, Patric; Stange, Peter; Wagner, Michael; Seidel, Sabine; Werisch, Stefan; Barfus, Klemens

    2014-05-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions, such as longer dry spells in the summer months, may have an increasing impact on the agriculture in Saxony (Eastern Germany). For this reason, and, additionally, declining amounts of rainfall during the growing season the use of irrigation will be more important in future in Eastern Germany. To cope with this higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from the optimized agronomic response at farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) which provide the estimated yield subject to the minimum amount of irrigation water. These functions take into account the different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. By applying mathematical interpolation and optimization techniques, the SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different constraints, for instance variable and fix costs or the producer price. This generic approach enables the computation for both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance Irrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies for an effective and efficient utilization of water in order to meet future demands. The prototype is implemented as a web-based decision support system and it is based on a service-oriented geo-database architecture.

  17. The strategies of local farmers' water management and the eco-hydrological effects of irrigation-drainage engineering systems in world heritage of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Terraces are built in mountainous regions to provide larger area for cultivation,in which the hydrological and geomorphological processes are impacted by local farmers' water management strategies and are modified by manmade irrigation-drainage engineering systems.The Honghe Hani Rice Terraces is a 1300a history of traditional agricultural landscape that was inscribed in the 2013 World Heritage List.The local farmers had developed systematic water management strategies and built perfect irrigation-drainage engineering systems to adapt the local rainfall pattern and rice farming activities.Through field investigation,interviews,combined with Geographic Information Systems,Remote Sensing images and Global Positioning Systems technology,the water management strategies as well as the irrigation-drainage systems and their impacts on eco-hydrological process were studied,the results indicate:Firstly,the local people created and maintained an unique woodcarving allocating management system of irrigating water over hundreds years,which aids distributing water and natural nutrition to each terrace field evenly,and regularly according to cultivation schedule.Secondly,the management of local people play an essential role in effective irrigation-drainage engineering system.A ditch leader takes charge of managing the ditch of their village,keeping ample amount of irrigation water,repairing broken parts of ditches,dealing with unfair water using issues,and so on.Meanwhile,some traditional leaders of minority also take part in.Thus, this traditional way of irrigation-drainage engineering has bringed Hani people around 1300 years of rice harvest for its eco-hydrological effects.Lastly we discuss the future of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces,the traditional cultivation pattern has been influenced by the rapid development of modern civilization,in which some related changes such as the new equipment of county roads and plastic channels and the water overusing by tourism are not totally

  18. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain); Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi [Departamento de Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Figueras, María J., E-mail: mariajose.figueras@urv.cat [Unidad de Microbiología, Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, IISPV, Universidad Rovira i Virgili, Reus (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  19. Chlorinated and ultraviolet radiation -treated reclaimed irrigation water is the source of Aeromonas found in vegetables used for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Silvera-Simón, Carolina; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavi; Figueras, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wastewater is increasingly being recognized as a key water resource, and reclaimed water (or treated wastewater) is used for irrigating vegetables destined for human consumption. The aim of the present study was to determine the diversity and prevalence of Aeromonas spp. both in reclaimed water used for irrigation and in the three types of vegetables irrigated with that water. Seven of the 11 (63.6%) samples of reclaimed water and all samples of vegetables were positive for the presence of Aeromonas. A total of 216 Aeromonas isolates were genotyped and corresponded to 132 different strains that after identification by sequencing the rpoD gene belonged to 10 different species. The prevalence of the species varied depending on the type of sample. In the secondary treated reclaimed water A. caviae and A. media dominated (91.4%) while A. salmonicida, A. media, A. allosaccharophila and A. popoffii represented 74.0% of the strains in the irrigation water. In vegetables, A. caviae (75.0%) was the most common species, among which a strain isolated from lettuce had the same genotype (ERIC pattern) as a strain recovered from the irrigation water. Furthermore, the same genotype of the species A. sanarellii was recovered from parsley and tomatoes demonstrating that irrigation water was the source of contamination and confirming the risk for public health. - Highlights: • Reclaimed water (= treated wastewater) is used for the irrigation of vegetables. • Aeromonas was found in reclaimed water and irrigated vegetables with this water. • The prevalence of Aeromonas spp. varied between irrigation water and vegetables. • Epidemiological relationships were found between irrigation water and vegetables. • The water was the source of contamination which means a risk for the public health.

  20. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  2. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  3. Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: A preliminary attempt towards potential estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Atul [Policy Analysis Division, The Energy and Resources Institute, Darbari Seth Block, IHC Complex, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110003 (India); Kandpal, Tara C. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2007-05-15

    Simple frameworks have been developed for estimating the utilization potential of: (a) solar photovoltaic (SPV) pumps; (b) windmill pumps; (c) producer gas based dual fuel engine pumps; and (d) biogas based dual fuel engine pumps for irrigation water pumping in India. The approach takes into account factors such as: solar radiation intensity, wind speed, availability of bovine dung and agri-residues, and their alternative uses, ground water requirements for irrigation and its availability, affordability, and propensity of the users to invest in renewable energy devices, etc. SPV pumps are estimated to have the maximum utilization potential in India, followed by windmill pumps. (author)

  4. Renewable energy technologies for irrigation water pumping in India: A preliminary attempt towards potential estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Atul; Kandpal, Tara C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple frameworks have been developed for estimating the utilization potential of: (a) solar photovoltaic (SPV) pumps; (b) windmill pumps; (c) producer gas based dual fuel engine pumps; and (d) biogas based dual fuel engine pumps for irrigation water pumping in India. The approach takes into account factors such as: solar radiation intensity, wind speed, availability of bovine dung and agri-residues, and their alternative uses, ground water requirements for irrigation and its availability, affordability, and propensity of the users to invest in renewable energy devices, etc. SPV pumps are estimated to have the maximum utilization potential in India, followed by windmill pumps

  5. Modelling Water Flow through Paddy Soils under Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, S.; Mailapalli, D. R.; Das, B. S.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.

    2017-12-01

    Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation practice in paddy cultivation requires an optimum soil moisture stress (OSMS) level at which irrigation water savings can be maximized without compromising the yield reduction. Determining OSMS experimentally is challenging and only possible with appropriate modeling tools. In this study, field experiments on paddy were conducted in thirty non-weighing type lysimeters during dry seasons of 2016 and 2017. Ten plots were irrigated using continuous flooding (CF) and the rest were irrigated with AWD practice at 40mb and 75mb soil moisture stress levels. Depth of ponding and soil suction at 10, 40 and 70 cm from the soil surface were measured daily from all lysimeter plots. The measured field data were used in calibration and validation of Hydrus-1D model and simulated the water flow for both AWD and CF plots. The Hydrus-1D is being used to estimate OSMS for AWD practice and compared the seasonal irrigation water input and deep percolation losses with CF practice.

  6. CyanoHAB occurrence and water irrigation cyanotoxin contamination: ecological impacts and potential health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-12-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms "CyanoHAB" in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water.

  7. CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim

    2009-01-01

    The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms “CyanoHAB” in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water. PMID:22069535

  8. Randomized cross-over trial of polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and water for colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, Austin; Green, Colin; Phillips, Robin K S

    2004-09-01

    Water for colostomy irrigation is largely absorbed by the colon, which may result in less efficient expulsion of stool. This study compared the outcome of colonic cleansing with water and polyethylene glycol solution. In a cross-over study, 41 colostomy irrigators were randomly assigned to water or polyethylene glycol solution irrigation first and then the other regimen, each for one week. Patients recorded fluid inflow time, total washout time, cramps, leakage episodes, number of stoma pouches used, and satisfaction scores (Visual Analog Scale, 1-10: 1 = poor, and 10 = excellent). The median and interquartile range for each variable was calculated, and the two treatments were compared (Wilcoxon's test). Eight patients failed to complete the study. Thirty-three patients (20 females; mean age, 55 (range, 39-73) years) provided 352 irrigation sessions: water (n = 176), and polyethylene glycol solution (n = 176). Irrigation was performed every 24, 48, and 72 hours by 17, 9, and 7 patients respectively, using 500 ml (n = 1), 750 ml (n = 2), 1,000 ml (n = 16), 1,500 ml (n = 11), 2,000 ml (n = 2), and 3,500 ml (n = 1) of fluid. The median and interquartile range for water vs. polyethylene glycol solution were: fluid inflow time (6 (range, 4.4-10.8) vs. 6.3 (range, 4.1-11) minutes; P = 0.48), total washout time (53 (range, 33-69) vs. 38 (range, 28-55) minutes; P = 0.01), leakage episodes (2.3 (range, 1.7-3.8) vs. 0.7 (range, 0.2-1); P colostomy irrigation.

  9. Analysis of Blue and Green Water Consumption at the Irrigation District Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of virtual water and water footprint bring a new perspective for water management. Previous studies mainly focus on one type of water and the relationship between water footprint and water availability. In this study, three indicators were proposed to show water consumption and the influences of virtual water flows at the Hetao irrigation district, China, during 2001–2010, considering both blue and green water. Results indicate that the ratio of blue water footprint and blue water availability was 0.642 in 2010 and the value for green water was 0.148, coefficients on contribution of regional production on consumption in other areas were about 0.9, and coefficients on influences of trades from other regions to the district on regional water consumption were 0.528 (blue water and 0.433 (green water, respectively. Government should promote water pricing policies that can encourage the adoption of irrigation technologies and water-saving practices. Besides, the adjustment of the crop sowing date or the cultivation of new varieties may be helpful in using more rainfall. Lastly, a compensation mechanism for virtual water export should be built in the future, and virtual water importing can be advocated. Before actions are taken, the possible influences and related constraints should be considered.

  10. The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jolaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001 concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most sensitive stages of water stress with drip irrigation. Water deficit occurring in these two growth stages could result in yield reductions. Wang et al. (2006 investigated the effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato yield. The results indicated that potato roots were not limited in wetted soil volume even when the crop was irrigated at the highest frequency while high frequency irrigation enhanced potato tuber growth and water use efficiency (WUE. Though information about irrigation and N management of this crop is often conflicting in the literature, it is accepted generally that production and quality are highly influenced by both N and irrigation amounts and these requirements are related to the cropping technique. Researches revealed that nitrogen fertilizers play a special role in the growth, production and quality of potatoes. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out during two growing seasons. Studied factors were irrigation frequency (I1:2 and I2:4 days interval and nitrogen fertilizer levels (applying 100 (N1, 75 (N2 and 50 (N3 % of the recommended amount. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied through irrigation water. In each plot two rows with within-and between-row spacing of 45 and 105 cm and 20 m length. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer for the control treatment was determined by soil analysis (N1. In all treatments, nitrogen fertilizer

  11. Development of seedlings of watermelon cv. Crimson Sweet irrigated with biosaline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. S. B. da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe limited access and the scarcity of good quality water for agriculture are some of the major problems faced in agricultural areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of watermelon seedlings (cv. Crimson Sweet, irrigated with different concentrations of biosaline water of fish culture. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, corresponding to biosaline water at different concentrations (0, 33, 50, 67 and 100%, and four replicates of 108 seedlings. Watermelon seeds were sown in plastic trays filled with commercial substrate and irrigated with different solutions of biosaline water. Seedlings were harvested for biometric analysis at 14, 21 and 28 days after sowing. The use of biosaline water did not affect emergence and establishment of seedlings until 14 days after sowing, the period recommended for transplantation. However, the use of biosaline water affected the development of seedlings with longer exposure time.

  12. Collective irrigation reloaded. Re-collection and re-moralization of water management after privatization in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Sanchis, María; Boelens, R.A.; Garcia-Molla, Marta

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, water has been subjected to different commodification and de-collectivization processes. Increasingly, this is also affecting collective irrigation water management. Critical analysis of this privatization and de-collectivization wave in the irrigation sector has mainly focused on

  13. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.) maintains high inulin, tuber yield, and antioxidant capacity under moderately-saline irrigation waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scarcity of good quality water in semiarid regions of the world is the main limiting factor for increased irrigated agriculture in those regions. Saline water is generally widely available in arid regions at reduced costs, and can be a viable alternative for crop irrigation. However, the literat...

  14. PRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp IRRIGATED WITH BRACKISH WATER UNDER DIFFERENT LEACHING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ FRANCISCO DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the production components of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp subjected to irrigation with brackish water and different leaching fractions. The experiment was conducted in a lysimeter system of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife campus. The treatments, consisting of two water salinity levels (ECw (1.2 and 3.3 dS m - 1 and five leaching fractions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%, were evaluated using a completely randomized design in a 2x5 factorial arrangement with four replications. The variables evaluated were: number of pods per plant, 100 - grain weight, number of grains per pod, grain and shoot dry weight, grain yield and harvest index. The soil salinity increased with increasing salinity of the water used for irrigation, and reduced with increasing leaching fraction. The salinity of the water used for irrigation influenced only the variables number of pods per plant and grain yield. The estimated leaching fractions of 9.1% and 9.6% inhibited the damage caused by salinity on the number of pods per plant and grain yield, respectively. Therefore, the production of V. unguiculata irrigated with brackish water, leaching salts from the plant root environment, is possible under the conditions evaluated.

  15. Gendered participation in water management in Nepal : discourses, policies and practices in the irrigation and drinking water sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhushan Udas, P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis is about gendered policy processes in the irrigation and drinking water sectors in Nepal. Globally, increased women’s participation in formal decision making bodies such as water users’ associations is extensively advocated as a means to reduce

  16. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are

  17. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); Gibbs, Shawn G. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health-Bloomington, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Claye, Emma [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); He, Xin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States); Sapkota, Amy R., E-mail: ars@umd.edu [Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  18. Occurrence of vancomycin-resistant and -susceptible Enterococcus spp. in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, Stephanie Ann; Goldstein, Rachel E. Rosenberg; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Claye, Emma; He, Xin; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Reclaiming municipal wastewater for agricultural, environmental, and industrial purposes is increasing in the United States to combat dwindling freshwater supplies. However, there is a lack of data regarding the microbial quality of reclaimed water. In particular, no previous studies have evaluated the occurrence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in reclaimed water used at spray irrigation sites in the United States. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the occurrence, concentration, and antimicrobial resistance patterns of VRE and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci at three U.S. spray irrigation sites that use reclaimed water. We collected 48 reclaimed water samples from one Mid-Atlantic and two Midwest spray irrigation sites, as well as their respective wastewater treatment plants, in 2009 and 2010. Samples were analyzed for total enterococci and VRE using standard membrane filtration. Isolates were purified and then confirmed using biochemical tests and PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using the Sensititre® microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed by two-sample proportion tests and one-way analysis of variance. We detected total enterococci and VRE in 71% (34/48) and 4% (2/48) of reclaimed water samples, respectively. Enterococcus faecalis was the most common species identified. At the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site, UV radiation decreased total enterococci to undetectable levels; however, subsequent storage in an open-air pond at this site resulted in increased concentrations of enterococci. E. faecalis isolates recovered from the Mid-Atlantic spray irrigation site expressed intrinsic resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin; however, non-E. faecalis isolates expressed resistance to quinupristin/dalfopristin (52% of isolates), vancomycin (4%), tetracycline (13%), penicillin (4%) and ciprofloxacin (17%). Our findings show that VRE are present in low numbers in reclaimed water at point-of-use at the sampled spray

  19. Proper Management Of Irrigation Water And Nitrogen Fertilizer To Improve Spinach Yield And Reserve Environment Using 15N Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL DEGWY, S.A.; HAMDY, A.; HAMED, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of water regime and N-fertilizer application rate and modality of its application were studied by the aim of identifying the most proper and effective combination of the above studied variables that provide a satisfactory spinach yield as well as to minimize the rational use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers to save the surrounding environment and to achieve a good water saving. The results indicated that reasonable production of spinach crop could be achieved by using 75% of the recommended rate of nitrogen fertilizer combined with 80% of the required water. It means that 20% of the required water could be saved as well as 25% of the required quantity of N-fertilizer. Similarly, the splitting of N-fertilizer into two equal doses prevented the excess of nitrate to be moved to the underground water lowering its concentration in the blades and plant leaves. Drip irrigation system accompanied with proper water scheduling regime and good fertilizer application practices is considered as a useful management practice that could be applied to improve the sandy soil productivity.

  20. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros; Juana Isabel Contreras; Rafael Baeza; Maria Luz Segura; Maria Teresa Lao

    2017-01-01

    The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of gr...

  1. Effects of Furrow Irrigation on the Growth, Production, and Water Use Efficiency of Direct Sowing Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin He

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI system to improve water use efficiency (WUE and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI system (continuous flooding irrigation, for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1 a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2 a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+, and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3 increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages.

  2. Effects of furrow irrigation on the growth, production, and water use efficiency of direct sowing rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunlin

    2010-08-03

    Rice farming is the major crop production in Asia and is predicted to increase significantly in the near future in order to meet the demands for the increasing human population. Traditional irrigation methods used in rice farming often result in great water loss. New water-saving methods are urgently needed to reduce water consumption. Three field and pot experiments were conducted to evaluate the furrow irrigation (FI) system to improve water use efficiency (WUE) and production of direct sowing rice in southern China. Compared to the conventional irrigation (CI) system (continuous flooding irrigation), for every square hectometer of rice field, the FI system reduced water use by 3130 m3, or 48.1%, and increased grain production by 13.9% for an early cultivar. For a late cultivar, the FI system reduced water use by 2655 m3, or 40.6%, and an increase of grain production by 12.1%. The improved WUE in the FI system is attributed to (1) a significant reduction of irrigation rate, seepage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration; (2) a significant reduction in the reduced materials, such as ferrous ion (Fe2+), and therefore an increase in the vitality of the root system, evident by the increases in the number of white roots by 32.62%, and decreases in the number of black roots by 20.04% and yellow roots by 12.58%; the use of the FI system may also reduce humidity of the rice field and enhance gas transport in the soil and light penetration, which led to reduced rice diseases and increased leaf vitality; and (3) increases in tiller and effective spikes by 11.53% and the weight per thousand grains by 1.0 g. These findings suggest that the shallow FI system is a promising means for rice farming in areas with increasing water shortages.

  3. Effects Of Irrigation With Saline Water, And Soil Type On Germination And Seedling Growth Of Sweet Maize (Zea Mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A.Z.; Amato, M.; Hamdi, A.; Mostafa, A.Z.; Galal, Y.G.M.; Lotfy, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Germination and early growth of maize Sweet Maize (Zea mays L.), var. (SEL. CONETA) under irrigation with saline water were investigated in a pot experiment with different soil types. Seven salinity levels of irrigation water up to 12 dS/m were used on a Clay soil (C) and a Sandy-Loam (SL). Emergence of maize was delayed under irrigation with saline water, and the final percentage of germination was reduced only at 8 dS/m or above. Seedling shoot and root growth were reduced starting at 4 dS/m of irrigation water. Salts accumulated more in the C soil but reductions in final germination rate and seedling growth were larger in the SL soil, although differences were not always significant. Data indicate that germination is rather tolerant to salinity level in var. SEL. CONETA whereas seedling growth is reduced at moderate salinity levels, and that soil type affects plant performance under irrigation with saline water

  4. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil. cv. Fino were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment and 1.35 (T2 treatment, which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf and stem (Ystem water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf  = DY was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.

  5. Estimating irrigation water demand in the Moroccan Drâa Valley using contingent valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Hugo; Heckelei, Thomas; Heidecke, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in Morocco as in many other parts of the world. For the implementation of an effective water management, knowledge about farmers' demand for irrigation water is crucial to assess reactions to water pricing policy, to establish a cost-benefit analysis of water supply investments or to determine the optimal water allocation between different users. Previously used econometric methods providing this information often have prohibitive data requirements. In this paper, the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) is adjusted to derive a demand function for irrigation water along farmers' willingness to pay for one additional unit of surface water or groundwater. An application in the Middle Drâa Valley in Morocco shows that the method provides reasonable results in an environment with limited data availability. For analysing the censored survey data, the Least Absolute Deviation estimator was found to be a more suitable alternative to the Tobit model as errors are heteroscedastic and non-normally distributed. The adjusted CVM to derive demand functions is especially attractive for water scarce countries under limited data availability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  7. Analysis of water footprints of rainfed and irrigated crops in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamseddin Musa Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water rather than land is the limiting factor for crop production in Sudan. This study attempts to use the water footprint (WFP and virtual water concepts to account for crops water consumption under the Sudanese rainfed and irrigated conditions. The general average of the green WFP of sorghum and millet were found to be about 7700 and 10700 m3 ton-1, respectively. According to experimental results at three different climates, in-situ rainwater harvesting techniques could reduce the WFP of rainfed sorghum by 56% on the average. The blue component (surface water shows the highest contribution to the total WFP of irrigated crops: 88% for cotton, 70% for sorghum, 68% for groundnut and 100% for wheat. However, the role of the green water (rainwater is not marginal since it largely influences the operation and maintenance (silt clearance of the gravity-fed irrigation system. Under normal conditions, the annual total virtual water demand of sorghum (the dominant food crop in Sudan is found to be 15 km3, of which 91% is green water. During a dry year, however, Sudan could experience a deficit of 2.3 km3 of water, necessitating the adoption of a wise food stocking-exporting policy.

  8. Integrating Growth Stage Deficit Irrigation into a Process Based Crop Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose R.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Elliott, Joshua; Ruane, Alex C.; Porter, Cheryl; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    Current rates of agricultural water use are unsustainable in many regions, creating an urgent need to identify improved irrigation strategies for water limited areas. Crop models can be used to quantify plant water requirements, predict the impact of water shortages on yield, and calculate water productivity (WP) to link water availability and crop yields for economic analyses. Many simulations of crop growth and development, especially in regional and global assessments, rely on automatic irrigation algorithms to estimate irrigation dates and amounts. However, these algorithms are not well suited for water limited regions because they have simplistic irrigation rules, such as a single soil-moisture based threshold, and assume unlimited water. To address this constraint, a new modeling framework to simulate agricultural production in water limited areas was developed. The framework consists of a new automatic irrigation algorithm for the simulation of growth stage based deficit irrigation under limited seasonal water availability; and optimization of growth stage specific parameters. The new automatic irrigation algorithm was used to simulate maize and soybean in Gainesville, Florida, and first used to evaluate the sensitivity of maize and soybean simulations to irrigation at different growth stages and then to test the hypothesis that water productivity calculated using simplistic irrigation rules underestimates WP. In the first experiment, the effect of irrigating at specific growth stages on yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in maize and soybean was evaluated. In the reproductive stages, IWUE tended to be higher than in the vegetative stages (e.g. IWUE was 18% higher than the well watered treatment when irrigating only during R3 in soybean), and when rainfall events were less frequent. In the second experiment, water productivity (WP) was significantly greater with optimized irrigation schedules compared to non-optimized irrigation schedules in

  9. Evaluation of water quality for drinking and irrigation purpose from simly lake, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.; Shah, M.H.; Tirmizi, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was carried out to assess the seasonal distribution of essential metals (Ca, K, Mg and Na) and physicochemical parameters (pH, T, DO, EC, TDS, TA, TH, Cl-, , PS, SAR, RSBC and MAR) in freshwater samples of Simly Lake, Pakistan. The suitability of water for drinking and agricultural purpose was assessed using various water quality parameters and indices. The average concentrations for most of the studied parameters were found to be within the national/international guidelines. However, the levels of bicarbonate ion and residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC) in the water were significantly higher than international standards. Irrigation water quality (IWQ) index revealed that the water was of medium level suitability for the irrigation purpose. (author)

  10. Grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Batchelli, L; Balaguer, M D; Puig, S; Colprim, J

    2013-01-01

    Grey water has long been considered a promising option for dealing with water scarcity and reuse. However, factors such as lack of macronutrients and low carbon content make its treatment challenging. The aim of this paper was to investigate the applicability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology to on-site grey water treatment at a sports centre for reuse in irrigation. The results demonstrated that the regenerated water complied with microbiological parameters concerning restriction of solids and organic matter removal. Denitrification was not fully accomplished, but ammonium was totally oxidised and low concentrations of nitrates were achieved. Effluent with good appearance and no odour was used in an experimental study to irrigate a grid system containing natural and artificial grass sections. The conclusion is that SBR technology offers a promising treatment for grey water.

  11. Impact of Land Use Change and Land Management on Irrigation Water Supply in Northern Java Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suria DarmaTarigan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, paddy irrigation covers an area of 7,230,183 ha. Ten percent (10% of those area or 797,971 ha were supplied by reservoirs. As many as 237,790 ha (30% of those area supplied by reservoirs are situated downstream of Citarum Watershed called Northern Java Coast Irrigation Area or Pantura. Therefore, Citarum watershed is one of the most important watershed in Indonesia. Citarum is also categorized as one of most degraded watershed in Java. The study aimed to evaluate influence of land use change on irrigation water supply in Citarum watershed and land management strategies to reduce the impact. Tremendous land use change occurred in the past ten years in Citarum watershed. Settlement areas increases more than a double during 2000 to 2009 (81,686 ha to 176,442 ha and forest area decreased from 71,750 ha to 9,899 ha in the same time period. Land use change influences irrigation water supply through 2 factors: a decreasing storage capacity of watershed (hydrologic functions for dry season, and b decreasing storage capacity of reservoirs due to the sedimentation. Change of Citarum watershed hydrologic function was analyzed using 24 years’ time series discharge data (1984-2008 in combination with rainfall data from 2000 to 2008. Due to the land use change in this time period, discharge tend to decrease despite of increasing trend of rainfall. As a result irrigation area decreased 9,355 ha during wet season and 10,170 ha during dry season in the last ten years. Another threat for sustainability of water irrigation supply is reservoir sedimentation. Sedimentation rate in the past 10 years has reduced upper Citarum reservoir (Saguling half-life period (½ capacity sedimented from 294 to 28 years. If proper land management strategies be carried out, the half-life period of Saguling reservoir can be extended up to 86,4 years

  12. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  13. Impact of potentially contaminated river water on agricultural irrigated soils in an equatorial climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo-González, Juan Manuel; Mahecha-Pulido, Juan D.; Torres-Mora, Marco Aurelio; Brevik, Eric C.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is estimated that 20 million hectares of arable land are irrigated with water that contains residual contributions from domestic liquids. This potentially poses risks to public health and ecosystems, especially due to heavy metals, which are considered dangerous because of their

  14. Effects of limited irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... Although water deficit is unavoidable in the dry environment, studies have shown that judicious irrigation can to some extent counter the adverse effects on the deficit (Musick and. Dusek, 1980; Misra and ... soil organic carbon, 0.8 g•kg-1 total nitrogen, 37 mg•kg-1 alkaline hydrolysis and 4.58 mg•kg-1 ...

  15. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process.

  16. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic – Aerobic system for irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant

  17. Effects of limited irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of irrigation on grain yield and water use efficiency was studied on two sequence replaced dryland winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Changwu 135 (CW, a new cultivar) and Pingliang 40 (PL, an old cultivar). Field experiments were carried out on Changwu country on Loess Plateau, China. Whereas ...

  18. An appraisal of ground water for irrigation in the Wadena area, central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F.G.

    1970-01-01

    The Wadena area is part of a large sandy plain in central Minnesota whose soils have low water-holding capacity. Drought conditions which adversely affect plant growth frequently occur in the summer when moisture is most needed. To reduce the risk of crop failure in the area supplemental irrigation is on the increase.

  19. Salinity of irrigation water in the Philippi farming area of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity of irrigation water in the Philippi farming area of the Cape Flats, Cape Town, ... Isotope analysis was done for the summer samples so as to assess effects of ... It is concluded that the accumulation of salts in groundwater and soil in the ...

  20. Interaction between Soil Physicochemical Parameters and Earthworm Communities in Irrigated Areas with Natural Water and Wastewaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourtel Ghanem Nadra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to study interaction between physical and chemical properties of soils and their earthworm community characteristics in different areas irrigated by wastewaters and well waters. The fields have different topography and agricultural practices conditions and are located in two regions of Batna department (Eastern Algeria. Both regions are characterized by a semiarid climate with cold winters and Calcisol soils. Nine fields were subject of this study. Three of these fields are located in Ouled Si Slimane region whose irrigation is effectuated by natural waters of Kochbi effluent. The other six fields are located at edges of Wed El Gourzi, effluent from Batna city, and partially treated through water treatment station. The best rates of water saturation and infiltration as well as abundance of earthworms were recorded at sites characterized by irrigation with wastewaters downstream of El Gourzi effluent. PCA characterizes two major groups: a group of hydrodynamic infiltration parameters and structural index stability of soil, explained by fields irrigated with wastewaters downstream of El Gourzi effluent. This group includes chemical characteristics: pH and electric conductivity. The second group is the characteristics of earthworms and includes organic matter content, active limestone levels, and Shannon Biodiversity Index.

  1. In-Soil and Down-Hole Soil Water Sensors: Characteristics for Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    The past use of soil water sensors for irrigation management was variously hampered by high cost, onerous regulations in the case of the neutron probe (NP), difficulty of installation or maintenance, and poor accuracy. Although many sensors are now available, questions of their utility still abound....

  2. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their

  3. Addressing water scarcity through limited irrigation cropping: Field experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population growth in urbanizing areas such as the Front Range of Colorado has led to increased pressure to transfer water from agriculture to municipalities. In many cases this has led to complete dry up of productive irrigated lands. An option to complete dry-up is the practice of limited or defi...

  4. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed

  5. Determining the disaggregated economic value of irrigation water in the Musi sub-basin in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Davidson, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the residual method is used to determine the disaggregated economic value of irrigation water used in agriculture across crops, zones and seasons. This method relies on the belief that the value of a good (its price by its quantity) is equal to the summation of the quantity of each

  6. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  7. Effects of seedbed preparation, irrigation, and water harvesting of seedling emergence at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Gabbert, W.D.; Lyon, G.E.

    1994-02-01

    Approximately 800 hectares on the US Department of Energy Nevada Test Site and vicinity are contaminated with plutonium. As part of a cleanup effort, both the indigenous vegetation and the top 5--10 cm of soil may be removed, and the soil may or may not be replaced. Technologies must be developed to stabilize and revegetate these lands. A study was developed to determine adaptable plant species, methods to prepare seedbeds for direct seeding and water harvesting, and proper irrigation rates. Plots were cleared of indigenous vegetation, and then prepared with various seedbed/water harvesting treatments including, pitting, land imprinting, and mulching. Other plots were treated with large water harvesting structures. Three irrigation treatments were superimposed over the seedbed/water harvesting treatments. Seedling emergence data was collected, and the treatment combinations compared. Supporting meteorological and soil data were collected with an automatic data-logger. Specific data included precipitation, and air temperature. In a year of above-average precipitation, irrigation did not generally aid germination and emergence of seeded species, and only slightly increased densities of species from the native seedbank. With the exception of increased shrub seedling densities in desert strips, there were no strong seedbed preparation/water harvesting treatment effects. In years of above-average rainfall, mulching and water harvesting treatments, irrigation may not be necessary to insure adequate germination and emergence of adapted perennial grasses, forbs, and shrubs in the Mojave/Great Basin Transition Desert. Future collection of survival data will determine whether a maintenance irrigation program is necessary to ensure establishmnent of native plants

  8. Water quality of surface runoff and lint yield in cotton under furrow irrigation in Northeast Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adviento-Borbe, M Arlene A; Barnes, Brittany D; Iseyemi, Oluwayinka; Mann, Amanda M; Reba, Michele L; Robertson, William J; Massey, Joseph H; Teague, Tina G

    2018-02-01

    Use of furrow irrigation in row crop production is a common practice through much of the Midsouth US and yet, nutrients can be transported off-site through surface runoff. A field study with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) was conducted to understand the impact of furrow tillage practices and nitrogen (N) fertilizer placement on characteristics of runoff water quality during the growing season. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block design with conventional (CT) and conservation furrow tillage (FT) in combination with either urea (URN) broadcast or 32% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) injected, each applied at 101kgNha -1 . Concentrations of ammonium (NH 4 -N), nitrate (NO 3 -N), nitrite (NO 2 -N), and dissolved phosphorus (P) in irrigation runoff water and lint yields were measured in all treatments. The intensity and chemical form of nutrient losses were primarily controlled by water runoff volume and agronomic practice. Across tillage and fertilizer N treatments, median N concentrations in the runoff were water. Water pH, specific electrical conductivity, alkalinity and hardness were within levels that common to local irrigation water and less likely to impair pollution in waterways. Lint yields averaged 1111kgha -1 and were higher (P-value=0.03) in FT compared to CT treatments. Runoff volumes across irrigation events were greater (P-value=0.02) in CT than FT treatments, which increased NO 3 -N mass loads in CT treatments (394gNO 3 -Nha -1 season -1 ). Nitrate-N concentrations in CT treatments were still low and pose little threat to N contaminations in waterways. The findings support the adoption of conservation practices for furrow tillage and N fertilizer placement that can reduce nutrient runoff losses in furrow irrigation systems. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. The Water Connection: Irrigation, Water Grabbing and Politics in Southern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle Houdret

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Water and land grabbing is often an indication of growing control by an elite group over natural resources for agricultural production, marginalising their previous users. It may drive and exacerbate social, economic and political disparities and so increase the potential for conflict. In Southern Morocco’s Souss valley, the overuse of water resources is causing aquifer levels to sink and agricultural land to be abandoned. At the same time, irrigated agriculture is still expanding, often permitting the growing of lucrative citrus fruits. This export-oriented agriculture mostly benefits the economic elite, increasing their political influence. Small farmers, on the other hand, face growing threats to their livelihoods. A public-private partnership (PPP project reallocating water through a 90 km pipeline from a mountain region to plantations in the valley has been implemented to enhance water supply and save dying citrus plantations. However, it is accentuating disparities between farmers. We trace the dynamics of marginalisation linked to this PPP and use emerging water conflicts as a lens to analyse the appropriation of water resources and the underlying political and economic relationships and strategies. On the basis of the case study, we show that water conflicts are as much struggles over political influence as over the resource itself and, consequently, that the related phenomenon of 'water grabbing' is not only driven by economic interests but also determined by a political agenda of regime stability and economic control. However, we also point to the opportunities presented by recent social and political changes in Morocco, including the influence of the 'Arab Spring', and argue that such processes as increasing transparency, decentralisation and the empowerment of local civil society support, the re-appropriation of water, livelihoods and power. We conclude by examining the limits of this PPP model, which has been internationally

  10. Monitoring plant water status and rooting depth for precision irrigation in the vineyards of Classic Karst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Tadeja; Moretti, Elisa; Dal Borgo, Anna; Petruzzellis, Francesco; Stenni, Barbara; Bertoncin, Paolo; Dreossi, Giuliano; Zini, Luca; Martellos, Stefano; Nardini, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The extreme summer drought and heat waves that occurred in South-Europe in 2003 and 2012 have led to the loss of more than 50% of winery production in the Classic Karst (NE Italy). The irrigation of vineyards in this area is not appropriately developed and, when used, it does not consider the actual water status and needs of plants, posing risks of inappropriate or useless usage of large water volumes. The predicted future increase in frequency and severity of extreme climate events poses at serious risk the local agriculture based on wine business. We monitored seasonal trends of pre-dawn (Ψpd) and minimum (Ψmin) leaf water potential, and stomatal conductance (gL) of 'Malvasia' grapevine in one mature (MV, both in 2015 and 2016) and one young vineyard (YV, in 2016). Moreover, we extracted xylem sap form plant stems and soil water from samples collected in nearby caves, by cryo-vacuum distillation. We also collected precipitation and irrigation water in different months. Oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of atmospheric, plant, soil and irrigation water was analyzed to get information about rooting depth. In 2015, at the peak of summer aridity, two irrigation treatments were applied according to traditional management practices. The treatments were performed in a sub-area of the MV, followed by physiological analysis and yield measurements at grape harvest. In 2016, the soil water potential (Ψsoil) at 50 cm depth was also monitored throughout the season. Under harsh environmental conditions the apparently deep root system ensured relatively favorable plant water status in both MV and YV and during both growing seasons. The Ψsoil at 50 cm depth gradually decreased as drought progressed, reaching a minimum value of about -1.7 MPa, far more negative than Ψpd recorded in plants (about -0.5 MPa). In July, significant stomatal closure was observed, but Ψmin never surpassed the critical threshold of -1.3 MPa, indicating that irrigation was not needed. The xylem sap

  11. Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wample, R.L.; Smithyman, R.

    2002-01-01

    An initial six-year study in a commercial vineyard located in the Columbia River Valley of Washington State, United States of America, examined the management practices and potential benefits of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) on Vitis vinifera cv. Sauvignon blanc. The objective of the treatments was to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation prior to, compared with after, veraison. Each of four irrigation treatments was applied to 1.6 ha and replicated four times for a total 27.0 ha. Irrigation treatments were based on desired soil moisture levels in the top metre of the profile where most of the root system is found. Soil moisture was monitored using a neutron probe and the information was combined with calculations of evaporative demand to determine the irrigation required on a weekly basis. Vine growth, yield, fruit quality and cold hardiness were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that RDI prior to veraison was effective in controlling shoot growth, as determined by shoot length and elongation rate, as well as pruning weights. Sixteen wine lots, each of approximately 12,000 litres, were prepared each season. Although there was some effect on berry weight, yield was not always significantly reduced. Full irrigation prior to veraison resulted in excessive shoot growth. RDI applied after veraison to vines with large canopies resulted in greater water deficit stress. Fruit quality was increased by pre-veraison RDI compared to postveraison RDI based on wines made. Regulated deficit irrigation applied at anytime resulted in better early-season lignification of canes and cold hardening of buds. There was a slight improvement in mid-winter cold hardiness of vines subjected to RDI. However, this effect was inconsistent. Studies on Cabernet Sauvignon and White Riesling are underway to confirm these results and to investigate the impact of RDI on fruit quality and winemaking practices. (author)

  12. Provision of Desalinated Irrigation Water by the Desalination of Groundwater within a Saline Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated land accounts for 70% of global water usage and 30% of global agricultural production. Forty percent of this water is derived from groundwater. Approximately 20%–30% of the groundwater sources are saline and 20%–50% of global irrigation water is salinized. Salinization reduces crop yields and the number of crop varieties which can be grown on an arable holding. Structured ZVI (zero valent iron, Fe0 pellets desalinate water by storing the removed ions as halite (NaCl within their porosity. This allows an “Aquifer Treatment Zone” to be created within an aquifer, (penetrated by a number of wells (containing ZVI pellets. This zone is used to supply partially desalinated water directly from a saline aquifer. A modeled reconfigured aquifer producing a continuous flow (e.g., 20 m3/day, 7300 m3/a of partially desalinated irrigation water is used to illustrate the impact of porosity, permeability, aquifer heterogeneity, abstraction rate, Aquifer Treatment Zone size, aquifer thickness, optional reinjection, leakage and flow by-pass on the product water salinity. This desalination approach has no operating costs (other than abstraction costs (and ZVI regeneration and may potentially be able to deliver a continuous flow of partially desalinated water (30%–80% NaCl reduction for $0.05–0.5/m3.

  13. Factors Affecting the Ability of Agriculture to Pay Irrigation-Water Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagood, M. A. [Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome (Italy)

    1967-11-15

    There are no universally acceptable standard criteria for determining how much agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Justification of cost will depend upon the country's need to develop its soil and water resources for food, for international trade, and for its cumulative effect on other industries in comparison with other possible uses and their over-all contributions to the economy. Social and political conditions often have as much or more influence on development cost decisions than do strictly economic analyses. Many studies indicate that US $0.10/1000 US gal is an upper limit of acceptable costs for developing irrigation water at present economic levels. Under private development and on projects where water users must pay total water costs, methods are available for making feasibility budgets based on present prices. Because of inflation, world food shortage, recessions, future population and other unknown factors, it is hazardous to predict how much farmers or agriculture can pay for irrigation water. Better utilization of water available now offers opportunities for ''developing'' sources at costs much less than those for sources such as sea-water conversion. (author)

  14. Optimization strategies for improving irrigation water management of lower jhelum canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes computing crop water requirement, identification of problems and optimization strategies for improved irrigation water management of a canal command. Lower Jhelum Canal (LJC) System was selected as a case study. Possible strategies for optimization are enhancing irrigation water productivity by high value and high yield crops, adoption of resource conservation interventions (RCIs) at the farm level, improving irrigation system efficiency and its management. Estimation of daily reference evapotranspiration of LJC command was carried out by Penman Montieth -2000 method and metrological data of Sargodha for the period 1999 to 2010 was used. Crop water requirements were computed from reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients and periods of crops for existing cropping pattern. The comparison of the crop water requirements and available water supplies indicated shortage of more than 51% in Kharif and 54% in Rabi seasons. The gap between requirements and supplies is fulfilled by groundwater in the command. The structural measures identified in the present study for improving canal management include rationalization of canal capacities in keeping with the current water requirements and availability, rehabilitation and remodeling of canal network and lining of distributaries and minors in saline groundwater areas. An array of measures and practices identified for improved water management at the farm level include: improvement and lining of watercourses, proper farm design and layout, adoption of resource conservation technologies involving laser land leveling, zero tillage, and bed-furrow irrigation method. Adopting proper cropping systems considering land suitability and capacity building of farming community in improved soil, crop and water management technologies would enhance the water productivity in an effective and sustainable manner. (author)

  15. Gain-P: A new strategy to increase furrow irrigation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, G.H.; Wohling, T.; Paly, M. D.; Schutze, N.

    2007-01-01

    The new methodology GAIN-P combines Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence techniques and rigorous Process modeling for substantially improving irrigation efficiency. The new strategy simultaneously identifies optimal values of both scheduling and irrigation parameters for an entire growing season and can be applied to irrigation systems with adequate or deficit water supply. In this contribution, GAIN-P is applied to furrow irrigation tackling the more difficult subject of the more effective deficit irrigation. A physically -based hydrodynamic irrigation model is iteratively coupled with a 2D subsurface flow model for generating a database containing all realistically feasible scenarios of water application in furrow irrigation. It is used for training a problem-adapted artificial neural network based on self-organized maps, which in turn portrays the inverse solution of the hydrodynamic furrow irrigation model and thus enormously speeds up the overall performance of the complete optimization tool. Global optimization with genetic algorithm finds the schedule with maximum crop yield for the given water volume. The impact of different irrigation schedules on crop yield is calculated by the coupled furrow irrigation model which also simulates soil evaporation, precipitation and root water uptake by the plants over the whole growing seasons, as well as crop growth and yield. First results with the new optimization strategy show that GAIN-P has a high potential to increase irrigation efficiency. (author)

  16. Observation and Modelling of Soil Water Content Towards Improved Performance Indicators of Large Irrigation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbassi, Kamal; Akdim, Nadia; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Irrigation performance may be evaluated for different objectives such as equity, adequacy, or effectiveness. We are using two performance indicators: IP2 measures the consistency of the allocation of the irrigation water with gross Crop Water requirements, while IP3 measures the effectiveness of irrigation by evaluating the increase in crop transpiration between the case of no irrigation and the case of different levels of irrigation. To evaluate IP3 we need to calculate the soil water balance for the two cases. We have developed a system based on the hydrological model SWAP (Soil Water atmosphere Plant) to calculate spatial and temporal patterns of crop transpiration T(x, y, t) and of the vertical distribution of soil water content θ(x, y, z, t). On one hand, in the absence of ground measurement of soil water content to validate and evaluate the precision of the estimated one, a possibility would be to use satellite retrievals of top soil water content, such as the data to be provided by SMAP. On the other hand, to calculate IP3 we need root zone rather than top soil water content. In principle, we could use the model SWAP to establish a relationship between the top soil and root zone water content. Such relationship could be a simple empirical one or a data assimilation procedure. In our study area (Doukkala- Morocco) we have assessed the consistency of the water allocation with the actual irrigated area and crop water requirements (CWR) by using a combination of multispectral satellite image time series (i,e RapidEye (REIS), SPOT4 (HRVIR1) and Landsat 8 (OLI) images acquired during the 2012/2013 agricultural season). To obtain IP2 (x, y, t) we need to determine ETc (x, y, t). We have applied two (semi)empirical approaches: the first one is the Kc-NDVI method, based on the correlation between the Near Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the value of crop coefficient (kc); the second one is the analytical approach based on the direct application of Penman

  17. Water distribution in an orchard irrigated by perforated distributors in stony ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroix, M.; Marcesse, J.; Normand, M.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of new irrigation techniques the Compagnie Nationale d'Amenagement du Bas-Rhone et du Languedoc (B.Rh.L.) has developed a process of localized irrigation by perforated distributors. Conditions were defined for the optimum use of this process, especially the distribution of water in the ground. The study was carried out in a peach orchard in stony ground. The neutronic method was used to measure the soil moisture content. Because of the heterogeneous stone size distribution it was necessary for the specific humidity determination to take into account the dry apparent density. This parameter was measured by gammametry [fr

  18. Conserving energy through new irrigation technologies. Technical briefing report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    The benefits and applications of five irrigation technologies are explored: mobile drop-tube irrigation, computerized scheduling, reduced-pressure center pivots, well design and development, and automated gated-pipe systems. Perhaps the most promising of the new irrigation technologies is the low-energy, precision-application (LEPA) system. This mobile system used one-half the energy of conventional sprinkler systems and distributes water with greater efficiency through a series of low-pressure drop tubes suspended above the crop. Computerized methods of irrigation scheduling have been developed to help farmers conserve water and energy. Special computer programs determine when a crop needs water and how much to apply for optimal plant growth, thus preventing the unnecessary costs of pumping more water than the crop needs. Field test results show that replacing traditional scheduling methods of irrigation with computerized scheduling can reduce energy and water use by as much as 35%. The irrigation industry is actively promoting reduced-pressure water application methods, particularly for center-pivot systems. Reduced-pressure systems expend less energy but produce the same crop yields as conventional high-pressure systems, as long as excessive water runoff does not occur. If well design and development techniques are applied when a well is drilled into an unconsolidated acquifer, the well's life expectancy, as well as its operating efficiency, can increase, the later by as much as 40%.

  19. Supplemental irrigation to improve wheat production and water use efficiency under rainfed farming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Q.; Bhatti, A.A.; Ahmad, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The stochastic behaviors of rainfall pose serious limitations for sustained and profitable crop production in rainfed areas; farmers hesitate to apply fertilizers when they are not sure about rainfall. In view of these limitations a research study was conducted for three years (2003-2006) at field station of Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI), National Agricultural Research Centre(NARC), Islamabad to examine the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI) on wheat production and water use efficiency (WUE). Irrigation treatments employed under the experiment were: i) Rainfed without irrigation and fertilizer application (I/sub 0/); ii) SI of 25 mm was applied to non-fertilizer field at 75% management allowed deficit (MAD)(I/sub 1/); iii) Rainfed with fertilizer application at sowing time (I/sub 2/); and iv) SI of 25 mm was applied at 75% MAD and at the time of fertilizer application as top dressing (I/sub 3/). Supplemental irrigation increased the crop yield during the years 2003-2006 under both fertilizer and non-fertilizer conditions. Increased in grain yield under non-fertilizer conditions (I/sub 1/) ranges between 770-980 kg/ha, which is 27 to 48% higher than the rainfed yield (I/sub 0/). Supplemental irrigation and split application of fertilizer (treatment I/sub 3/) increased in grain yield within the range of 1000-1350 kg/ha, which is 27-49% higher than yield under treatment I/sub 2/. Whereas, due to synergetic effect of supplemental irrigation and fertilizer application, increased in grain yield ranges between 1550-2030 kg/ha, which is 49% to 100% higher than the rainfed and non-fertilizer field. WUE was calculated for rain (WUE/sub r/) for total water (grass: previous soil water storage + rain + irrigation) (WUE/sub g/), for SI water only (WUE/sub si/) and for synergetic effect (SI water + fertilizer application) (WUE/sub sis/) Water use efficiencies namely the WUE/sub r/, WUE/sub g/ and WUE/sub si/ during the period of three years under non fertilizer

  20. Root Development of Transplanted Cotton and Simulation of Soil Water Movement under Different Irrigation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat and cotton are the main crops grown on the North China Plain (NCP. Cotton is often transplanted after the winter wheat harvest to solve the competition for cultivated land between winter wheat and cotton, and to ensure that both crops can be harvested on the NCP. However, the root system of transplanted cotton is distorted due to the restrictions of the seedling aperture disk before transplanting. Therefore, the investigation of the deformed root distribution and water uptake in transplanted cotton is essential for simulating soil water movement under different irrigation methods. Thus, a field experiment and a simulation study were conducted during 2013–2015 to explore the deformed roots of transplanted cotton and soil water movement using border irrigation (BI and surface drip irrigation (SDI. The results showed that SDI was conducive to root growth in the shallow root zone (0–30 cm, and that BI was conducive to root growth in the deeper root zone (below 30 cm. SDI is well suited for producing the optimal soil water distribution pattern for the deformed root system of transplanted cotton, and the root system was more developed under SDI than under BI. Comparisons between experimental data and model simulations showed that the HYDRUS-2D model described the soil water content (SWC under different irrigation methods well, with root mean square errors (RMSEs of 0.023 and 0.029 cm3 cm−3 and model efficiencies (EFs of 0.68 and 0.59 for BI and SDI, respectively. Our findings will be very useful for designing an optimal irrigation plan for BI and SDI in transplanted cotton fields, and for promoting the wider use of this planting pattern for cotton transplantation.

  1. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, lettuce samples were collected from the beds (irrigated and non-irrigated with reused water and from samples of lettuce commercialized in the city market that were analyzed in the laboratory. The analyses were done using the multiple tubes methodology. The results showed that the samples from lettuce irrigated with urban water supply were not contaminated by either total or thermotolerant coliforms while samples of irrigated lettuce with reused water were contaminated by total coliforms. Samples from commercialized lettuce were contaminated by both kinds of coliforms. Results indicated that the application of reused water for agricultural purposes should occur only after carefully treatment to allow a safe use and to contribute to the water use sustainability.

  2. Impact of Magnetic Treatment of Irrigation Water on the Growth and Yield of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamorudeen Olaniyi YUSUF

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine whether magnetic treatment of the irrigation water may actually enhance vegetative growth and yield of tomato. Three magnetic flux densities of 124, 319 and 719 G (treatments T1, T2 and T3 were used to treat the water and a control experiment (Tc which was irrigated with non-magnetically treated water was also set up. The magnetic field was produced by an electromagnet that had a variable voltage unit varying the voltage from 4 to 12 V. The tomato were planted in buckets, kept in a transparent garden shed for 130 days and irrigated with magnetically treated water and non-magnetically treated water. A completely randomized design experimental layout was used in this study and each of the three treatments was replicated seven times. The results indicated that tomato crop irrigated with magnetically treated water grew faster than that of the non-magnetically treated water and the stem diameters were bigger than those of control. The heights of tomato plants (T1, T2 T3 and Tc after 47 days were 560.0, 556.4, 588.6 and 469.3 mm respectively. The total yield after 130 days of survey for T1, T2 T3 and Tc were 892.1, 1075.8, 1045.7 and 637.7 g respectively. The percentage increment in yield from the plants treated with magnetically treated water varied from 39.9 to 68.7% compared to the yield from untreated water.

  3. Demonstrating demand response from water distribution system through pump scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menke, Ruben; Abraham, Edo; Parpas, Panos; Stoianov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water distribution systems can profitably provide demand response energy. • STOR and FFR are financially viable under a wide range of operating conditions. • Viability depends on the pump utilisation and peak price of the electricity tariff. • Total GHG emissions caused by the provision of reserve energy are <300 gCO_2/kW h. • These are lower than those from the major reserve energy provision technologies. - Abstract: Significant changes in the power generation mix are posing new challenges for the balancing systems of the grid. Many of these challenges are in the secondary electricity grid regulation services and could be met through demand response (DR) services. We explore the opportunities for a water distribution system (WDS) to provide balancing services with demand response through pump scheduling and evaluate the associated benefits. Using a benchmark network and demand response mechanisms available in the UK, these benefits are assessed in terms of reduced green house gas (GHG) emissions from the grid due to the displacement of more polluting power sources and additional revenues for water utilities. The optimal pump scheduling problem is formulated as a mixed-integer optimisation problem and solved using a branch and bound algorithm. This new formulation finds the optimal level of power capacity to commit to the provision of demand response for a range of reserve energy provision and frequency response schemes offered in the UK. For the first time we show that DR from WDS can offer financial benefits to WDS operators while providing response energy to the grid with less greenhouse gas emissions than competing reserve energy technologies. Using a Monte Carlo simulation based on data from 2014, we demonstrate that the cost of providing the storage energy is less than the financial compensation available for the equivalent energy supply. The GHG emissions from the demand response provision from a WDS are also shown to be smaller than

  4. Evaluation of multiple water quality indices for drinking and irrigation purposes for the Karoon river, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminiyan, Milad Mirzaei; Aitkenhead-Peterson, Jacqueline; Aminiyan, Farzad Mirzaei

    2018-06-16

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the Karoon river, which is a main river in Iran country. For this purpose, hydrochemical analyses of a database that maintained by the Water Resources Authority of Khuzestan Province, Iran's Ministry of Energy, were carried out. These data were compared with the maximum permissible limit values recommended by World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization water standards for drinking and agricultural purposes, respectively. Also in this regard, multiple indices of water quality were utilized. However, not all indices gave similar rankings for water quality. According to the USSL diagram and Kelly ratio, Karoon's water quality is not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity and moderate alkalinity. However, the results of the magnesium hazard analysis suggested that water quality for irrigation is acceptable. A Piper diagram illustrated that the most dominant water types during the 15 years of the study were Na-Cl and Na-SO 4 . The mineral saturation index also indicated that Na-Cl is the dominant water type. The water quality for drinking purpose was evaluated using a Schoeller diagram and water quality index (WQI). According to the computed WQI ranging from 111.9 to 194.0, the Karoon's water in the Khuzestan plain can be categorized as "poor water" for drinking purposes. Based on hydrochemical characteristics, years 2000-2007 and 2008-2014 were categorized into two clusters illustrating a decline in water quality between the two time periods.

  5. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  6. Optimal dynamic water allocation: Irrigation extractions and environmental tradeoffs in the Murray River, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafton, R. Quentin; Chu, Hoang Long; Stewardson, Michael; Kompas, Tom

    2011-12-01

    A key challenge in managing semiarid basins, such as in the Murray-Darling in Australia, is to balance the trade-offs between the net benefits of allocating water for irrigated agriculture, and other uses, versus the costs of reduced surface flows for the environment. Typically, water planners do not have the tools to optimally and dynamically allocate water among competing uses. We address this problem by developing a general stochastic, dynamic programming model with four state variables (the drought status, the current weather, weather correlation, and current storage) and two controls (environmental release and irrigation allocation) to optimally allocate water between extractions and in situ uses. The model is calibrated to Australia's Murray River that generates: (1) a robust qualitative result that "pulse" or artificial flood events are an optimal way to deliver environmental flows over and above conveyance of base flows; (2) from 2001 to 2009 a water reallocation that would have given less to irrigated agriculture and more to environmental flows would have generated between half a billion and over 3 billion U.S. dollars in overall economic benefits; and (3) water markets increase optimal environmental releases by reducing the losses associated with reduced water diversions.

  7. Water productivity analysis of irrigated crops in Sirsa district, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Water productivity (WP) expresses the value or benefit derived from the use of water, and includes essential aspects of water management such as production for arid and semi-arid regions. A profound WP analysis was carried out at five selected farmer fields (two for wheat¿rice and three for

  8. China’s Water-Saving Irrigation Management System: Policy, Implementation, and Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased competition for water, the Chinese government has determined to promote water-saving irrigation (WSI followed by a range of institutional arrangements and policy goals. Three management mechanisms are analyzed in this study in terms of effectiveness, including the top-down regulation mechanism using direct control or economic instruments, the design-bid funding mechanism mobilizing local governments by competitive grants program, and the bottom-up participation mechanism transferring more irrigation management responsibilities to end-users. Although the WSI management has achieved notable improvements by the combination of different mechanisms, conflicts among different policy goals, uneven distribution of financial resources, and insufficient participation from water users caused the difficulty in aligning stakeholders’ incentives. Approaches are needed to enable sustainable management by coordinating incentives from different stakeholders in the management, as well as incorporating end water users to assist decision-making.

  9. Mitigation of soil water repellency improves rootzone water status and yield in precision irrigated apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, S.; Gadd, N.; Bell, D.

    2009-04-01

    Water repellent soils are documented to impact a range of hydrological properties, yet studies evaluating the consequences of soil water repellency (SWR) and its mitigation on crop yield and quality are conspicuously absent. With global concerns on drought and water availability and the projected impacts of climate change, development of novel strategies to optimize efficient rootzone delivery of water are required. Co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) and ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EO/PO) block copolymer surfactants have been shown to improve wetting synergistically. The objectives of this study were to determine if this surfactant technology: 1) increased soil water content and wetting front depth in mini-sprinkler irrigated, water repellent, Goulburn Valley clay loam soils and 2) assess the consequence of SWR mitigation on yield of Malus domestica Borkh. Three trials were conducted in the apple varieties 'Pink Lady' (2006/07 and 2007/08) and 'Gala' (2007/08) growing on Goulburn Valley clay loam soils in Victoria, AU. The test design was a randomized complete block with treatments replicated 5-6 times. Plot size varied by location. SWR was mitigated by applying surfactant at initial rates of 0, 5, or 10 L ha-1 in the spring, then at 0, 2.5, or 5 L ha-1 monthly for up to four months and compared to an untreated control. Treatments were applied to tree lines using a hand held small plot sprayer (118 liters of spray solution ha-1) followed by irrigation within 1-3 days of treatment applications. At each location, plots were irrigated by mini sprinklers and received the same irrigation volumes and management practices. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) was monitored at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm using a Theta probe (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, UK). At harvest, fruit number and weights were measured and used for crop yield estimations. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance with mean values summarized and separated using Least Significant Test

  10. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused, was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7, ranging from a single field (317.87 ha to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR. The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58. Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0.

  11. Irrigation with saline-sodic water: effects on two clay soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of a 4-year experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of irrigation with saline-sodic water on the soil are reported. The research was carried out at the Campus of the Agricultural Faculty of Bari University (Italy on 2 clay soils (Bologna – T1 and Locorotondo – T2. The soils were cropped to borlotto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., capsicum (Capsicum annuum L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., wheat (Triticum durum Desf grown in succession; the crops were irrigated with 9 saline-sodic types of water and subjected to two different leaching fractions (10% and 20% of the watering volume. The 9 solutions were obtained dissolving in de-ionised water weighted amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl and calcium chloride (CaCl2, deriving from the combination of 3 saline concentrations and 3 sodicity levels. The crops were irrigated whenever the water lost by evapotranspiration from the soil contained in the pots was equal to 30% of the soil maximum available water. The results showed that, though the soils were leached during the watering period, they showed a high salt accumulation. Consequently, the saturated soil extract electrical conductivity increased from initial values of 0.65 and 0.68 dS m-1 to 11.24 and 13.61 dS m-1 at the end of the experiment, for the soils T1 and T2, respectively. The saline concentration increase in irrigation water caused in both soils a progressive increase in exchangeable sodium, and a decrease in exchangeable calcium and non-significant variations in exchangeable potassium (K and magnesium (Mg.

  12. A New Soil Water and Bulk Electrical Conductivity Sensor Technology for Irrigation and Salinity Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evett, Steve; Schwartz, Robert; Casanova, Joaquin [Soil and Water Management Research Unit, Conservation and Production Research Laboratory, USDA-ARS, Bushland, Texas (United States); Anderson, Scott [Acclima, Inc., 2260 East Commercial Street, Meridian, Idaho 83642 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Existing soil water content sensing systems based on electromagnetic (EM) properties of soils often over estimate and sometimes underestimate water content in saline and salt-affected soils due to severe interference from the soil bulk electrical conductivity (BEC), which varies strongly with temperature and which can vary greatly throughout an irrigation season and across a field. Many soil water sensors, especially those based on capacitance measurements, have been shown to be unsuitable in salt-affected or clayey soils (Evett et al., 2012a). The ability to measure both soil water content and BEC can be helpful for the management of irrigation and leaching regimes. Neutron probe is capable of accurately sensing water content in salt-affected soils but has the disadvantages of being: (1) labour-intensive, (2) not able to be left unattended in the field, (3) subject to onerous regulations, and (4) not able to sense salinity. The Waveguide-On-Access-Tube (WOAT) system based on time domain reflectometry (TDR) principles, recently developed by Evett et al. (2012) is a new promising technology. This system can be installed at below 3 m in 20-cm sensor segments to cover as much of the crop root zone as needed for irrigation management. It can also be installed to measure the complete soil profile from the surface to below the root zone, allowing the measurement of crop water use and water use efficiency - knowledge of which is key for irrigation and farm management, and for the development of new drought tolerant and water efficient crop varieties and hybrids, as well as watershed and environmental management.

  13. Alternate use of good quality and saline irrigation water for tomato production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehaibi, A.; Rehranan, O.U.; Elamin, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    A pot experiment was set in a completely randomized design. With factorial arrangement on tomato (Lycopersicon esoulentum cv Tatto) to examine the effect of alternate irrigation with good quality and saline 4'aters and mineral fertilization on yield an mineral constituents. The experiment consisted of two irrigation practices (IRI-Continuous irrigation with water of EC 1.0 Ds m and IR2=Alternate irrigation with water of EC 10 and 5.1 d elm) two levels of phosphorous (P1 160 and P2=215 kg P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/ha) added at the beginning of the experiment. There were three nitrogen levels (N0=0, N1=370 and N2=375 kg N/ha) split into six doses a basal dose of potassium was added at the rate of 175 kg K/sub 2/ha. One healthy seedling of tomato was transplanted 3 weeks after germination in each pot (0.07 m/sup 2/) filled with soil classified as Torrifluvents. The treatments were replicated thrice and the pots were put in an open area of Agriculture Research Station Rumais Sultanate of Oman. Equal quantities of good water and good+saline (alternatively) waters were applied per treatments the alternate irrigation was started 15 days after transplanting Mature fruit was plucked; yield total soluble solids TSS) and mineral constituents were determined the results indicated that alternate irrigation (IR2) increased overall yield only by 21% in the first year but decreased it by 21% in the second indicating cumulative effect of salt accumulation Nitrogen application showed a significant linear response in tomato fruit yield. The effect of P application and interactions between treatments were non-significant in both the years. Alternate irrigation mineral fertilization increased the total soluble solids significantly Nitrogen application at the rate of 370 kg N ha (NI) gave the highest total soluble solids (TSS) in the two water treatments with phosphorus application rate of 215 kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ha (P2). On the other hand, when nitrogen application rate was increased to 735 kg

  14. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass

  15. Myths and Maths of Water Efficiency: An Analytical Framework to Assess the Real Outcome of Water Saving Technologies in Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Gomez, Carlos Mario; Perez Blanco, Carlos Dionisio

    2013-01-01

    Greening the economy is mostly about improving water governance and not only about putting the existing resource saving technical alternatives into practice. Focusing in the second and forgetting the first risks finishing with a highly efficient use of water services at the level of each individual user but demanding an unsustainable amount of water for the entire economy. This might be happening already in many places with the so-called modernization of irrigated agriculture: the world’s lar...

  16. Enteric Pathogen Survival Varies Substantially in Irrigation Water from Belgian Lettuce Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Berkvens, Nick; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that irrigation water is a potential carrier of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and, therefore, a source for contamination of fresh produce. We tested this by comparing irrigation water samples taken from five different greenhouses in Belgium. The water samples were inoculated with four zoonotic strains, two Salmonella and two E. coli O157:H7 strains, and pathogen survival and growth in the water were monitored up till 14 days. The influence of water temperature and chemical water quality was evaluated, and the survival tests were also performed in water samples from which the resident aquatic microbiota had previously been eliminated by filter sterilization. The pathogen’s survival differed greatly in the different irrigation waters. Three water samples contained nutrients to support important growth of the pathogens, and another enabled weaker growth. However, for all, growth was only observed in the samples that did not contain the resident aquatic microbiota. In the original waters with their specific water biota, pathogen levels declined. The same survival tendencies existed in water of 4 °C and 20 °C, although always more expressed at 20 °C. Low water temperatures resulted in longer pathogen survival. Remarkably, the survival capacity of two E. coli 0157:H7 strains differed, while Salmonella Thompson and Salmonella Typhimurium behaved similarly. The pathogens were also transferred to detached lettuce leaves, while suspended in two of the water samples or in a buffer. The effect of the water sample on the pathogen’s fitness was also reproduced on the leaves when stored at 100% relative humidity. Inoculation of the suspension in buffer or in one of the water samples enabled epiphytic growth and survival, while the pathogen level in the other water sample decreased once loaded on the leaves. Our results show that irrigation waters from different origin may have a different capacity to transmit enteric pathogens and

  17. An experimental study on the grape orchard: Effects comparison of two irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadbhane Sharad J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Table grape (Vitis vinifera cultivars is a major cash crop in the Nashik district of India, which requires irrigation water throughout the year as per demand instantly. Canal irrigation is the adopted irrigation systems in the study area, but canal irrigation has got several serious disadvantages, such as mismatching rotation schedules and crop water demands, water allotment system and restrictions on the use of efficient irrigation methods. The storing the canal water in the farm pond instead of directly applying to the field using the free flooding method is alternate solution to overcome the disadvantages of the canal irrigation system. Once the canal water storing in the pond, it increases the possibilities to use the advance irrigation system like drip, subsurface, sprinkler etc. to enhance water use efficiency. The comparative study between the canal water directly applying for the field and canal water storing in the farm pond then use for irrigation, executed through the field experiments carried out on the grape orchard during a period April 2013 to March 2016. Results have been evaluated based on grape yield, water-productivity, berry size, and biomass. Water productivity (kg·m-3 with respect to water delivery to crop through the pond irrigation method was found 37% higher than the canal irrigation method during the study period. Based on the results, this study recommended the use of the farm pond to store the canal water and use it as per crop demand using advance irrigation systems.

  18. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Water Use and Yield of Irrigated Sugarcane in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M.R; Singels, A.; Ruane, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable predictions of climate change impacts on water use, irrigation requirements and yields of irrigated sugarcane in South Africa (a water-scarce country) are necessary to plan adaptation strategies. Although previous work has been done in this regard, methodologies and results vary considerably. The objectives were (1) to estimate likely impacts of climate change on sugarcane yields, water use and irrigation demand at three irrigated sugarcane production sites in South Africa (Malelane, Pongola and La Mercy) for current (1980-2010) and future (2070-2100) climate scenarios, using an approach based on the Agricultural Model Inter-comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) protocols; and (2) to assess the suitability of this methodology for investigating climate change impacts on sugarcane production. Future climate datasets were generated using the Delta downscaling method and three Global Circulation Models (GCMs) assuming atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] of 734 ppm(A2 emissions scenario). Yield and water use were simulated using the DSSAT-Canegro v4.5 model. Irrigated cane yields are expected to increase at all three sites (between 11 and 14%), primarily due to increased interception of radiation as a result of accelerated canopy development. Evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements increased by 11% due to increased canopy cover and evaporative demand. Sucrose yields are expected to decline because of increased consumption of photo-assimilate for structural growth and maintenance respiration. Crop responses in canopy development and yield formation differed markedly between the crop cycles investigated. Possible agronomic implications of these results include reduced weed control costs due to shortened periods of partial canopy, a need for improved efficiency of irrigation to counter increased demands, and adjustments to ripening and harvest practices to counter decreased cane quality and optimize productivity. Although the Delta climate data

  19. Comparing Sprinkler and Surface Irrigation for Wheat Using Multi-Criteria Analysis: Water Saving vs. Economic Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Darouich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping with water scarcity using supplemental irrigation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the semi-arid northeast Syria is a great challenge for sustainable water use in agriculture. Graded borders and set sprinkler systems were compared using multi-criteria analysis. Alternative solutions for surface irrigation and for sprinkler systems were developed with the SADREG and the PROASPER design models, respectively. For each alternative, two deficit irrigation strategies were considered, which were characterized using indicators relative to irrigation water use, yields and water productivity, including farm economic returns. Alternatives were ranked considering two contrasting priorities: economic returns and water saving. A first step in ranking led to a selection of graded borders with and without precise land levelling and of solid set and semi-permanent sprinkler systems. Precise-levelled borders were better for water saving, while non-precise ones ranked higher for economic returns. Semi-permanent set systems have been shown to be better in economic terms and similar to solid set systems when water saving is prioritized. Semi-permanent sprinkler systems rank first when comparing all type of systems together regardless of the considered deficit irrigation strategy. Likely, border irrigation is appropriate when wheat is in rotation with cotton if the latter is surface irrigated. When peace becomes effective, appropriate economic incentives and training for farmers are required to implement innovative approaches.

  20. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  1. Does the Limpopo River Basin have sufficient water for massive irrigation development in the plains of Mozambique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaag, van der P.; Juizo, D.; Vilanculos, A.; Bolding, J.A.; Post Uiterweer, N.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper verifies whether the water resources of the transboundary Limpopo River Basin are sufficient for the planned massive irrigation developments in the Mozambique part of this basin, namely 73,000 ha, in addition to existing irrigation (estimated at 9400 ha), and natural growth of common use

  2. Determining pomegranate water and nitrogen requirements with drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being an ancient crop there is limited knowledge on the water and nitrogen (N) requirements of pomegranate. We conducted research at the University of California, Kearney Agricultural Research and Extension Center (KARE) to determine the water and nitrogen requirements of a developing pomegr...

  3. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  4. Stalk yield of sugarcane cultivars under different water regimes by subsurface drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderson S. de Andrade Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the stalk yield of ten sugarcane cultivars (RB962962, RB931011, RB931530, RB98710, RB92579, RB867515, RB863129, SP791011, RB72545 and VAT90212 subjected to water deficit, full irrigation and water surplus by subsurface drip irrigation, during three cropping seasons (2011-2014. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Embrapa Meio-Norte, Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil, in dystrophic Red Yellow Argisol. The cultivars RB962962 (162.3 Mg ha-1 and RB867515 (158.5 Mg ha-1 have better stalk yield compared with other cultivars in all water regimes and cropping seasons.

  5. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  6. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  7. IRRIGATION STATION EQUIPMENT FOR PREVENTING THE USE OF LOW WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Nicolescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the economically efficient irrigated area is estimated at 3.5 million hectares. On national scale there is nointegrated approach for monitoring the quantity and quality of the irrigation water, using adequate equipment at thepumping station. On international scale, in many countries the pumping stations are provided with equipment formonitoring, on real time, the quality or the pumped water and for warning about critical situations (emergencies.This paper describes a technical solution consisting of equipment which monitors the following parameters of waterpumped in irrigation systems: turbidity, pH, CE at 25 o C, Na+, Cl-. The lapse of time for monitoring is of 10 to 60 min.The main components are the following: the sampling pump (submersible the monitoring board, the repression pipe ofthe analyzed water. Warnings are made about values exceeding the programmed level for each monitored parameter,about the fact that the pump and agitator do not work or about any other source of damage.The technical solution and equipment were tested at a pumping station which uses water from Danube, in most casesmixed with water originating from drainage. Results showed a reduction of the total content of soluble salts from soiland of their negative impact upon the crops, a reduction of the degree of river alluvial deposits within the irrigationsystem and reduction of the energetic consumption required for pumping.

  8. Radionuclides and heavy metal uptake by lolium italicum plant as affected by saline water irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Aly, A.I.; Helal, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    The use of saline waters to grow crops on increasingly metal polluted soils is becoming a common practice in the arid regions. Nevertheless, the effects of soil and water salinity on radionuclides and heavy metal fluxes in polluted areas are not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate in pot experiments the plant uptake of cesium-137, Co-60, Mn-54, Zinc, cadmium and copper from a polluted alluvial aridisol as affected by salt water irrigation. Fertilized soil material was planted in pots with L. Italicum for 18 weeks under greenhouse conditions. The plants were irrigated either with water or with salt solution of variable variable Na/Ca ratio and harvested every 5-7 weeks. In addition to elemental analysis of plants and soil extracts root length was determined by a gridline intersect method and the viable part of the roots was estimated by a root protein inex. Saline (Na) water irrigation increased cobalt-60, manganese-54 and heavy metal solubility in soil, reduced root viability and enhanced the uptake of Co-60, Mn-54, Cd, Cu, Zn and Na by L.italicum and reduced the uptake of Cs-137. Ca counteracted these effects partly. The presented results demonstrated a dual effect of salinity on radiouclides and heavy metal availability to plants and suggest a relationship between root mortality and the enhanced Co-60, Mn-54, and heavy metake ny salt stressed plants

  9. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  10. Inexact nonlinear improved fuzzy chance-constrained programming model for irrigation water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Shanshan; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    An inexact nonlinear mλ-measure fuzzy chance-constrained programming (INMFCCP) model is developed for irrigation water allocation under uncertainty. Techniques of inexact quadratic programming (IQP), mλ-measure, and fuzzy chance-constrained programming (FCCP) are integrated into a general optimization framework. The INMFCCP model can deal with not only nonlinearities in the objective function, but also uncertainties presented as discrete intervals in the objective function, variables and left-hand side constraints and fuzziness in the right-hand side constraints. Moreover, this model improves upon the conventional fuzzy chance-constrained programming by introducing a linear combination of possibility measure and necessity measure with varying preference parameters. To demonstrate its applicability, the model is then applied to a case study in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin, northwest China. An interval regression analysis method is used to obtain interval crop water production functions in the whole growth period under uncertainty. Therefore, more flexible solutions can be generated for optimal irrigation water allocation. The variation of results can be examined by giving different confidence levels and preference parameters. Besides, it can reflect interrelationships among system benefits, preference parameters, confidence levels and the corresponding risk levels. Comparison between interval crop water production functions and deterministic ones based on the developed INMFCCP model indicates that the former is capable of reflecting more complexities and uncertainties in practical application. These results can provide more reliable scientific basis for supporting irrigation water management in arid areas.

  11. Irrigation methods for efficient water application: 40 years of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at farm level requires careful consideration of the implications of decisions made during both development (planning and design), and .... water if the emitter package is properly designed and the wind speed is less .... The structure and con-.

  12. Near-surface distributions of soil water and water repellency under three effluent irrigation scemes in a blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thwaites, L.A.; Rooij, de G.H.; Salzman, S.; Allinson, G.; Stagnitti, F.; Carr, R.; Versace, V.; Struck, S.; March, T.

    2006-01-01

    Water repellent soils are difficult to irrigate and susceptible to preferential flow, which enhances the potential for accelerated leaching to groundwater of hazardous substances. Over 5 Mha of Australian soil is water repellent, while treated municipal sewage is increasingly used for irrigation.

  13. Hygienic-sanitary conditions of vegetables and irrigation water from kitchen gardens in the municipality of Campinas, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Marise

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined samples of irrigation water and vegetables from kitchen gardens in Campinas, Brazil. The bacterial analysis condemned 22.3% of the vegetable samples, and the parasitological examination condemned 14.5%. The criteria established by the Brazilian legislation condemned 11.8% of the irrigation water samples. Parasites were significantly more frequent in vegetables in the rainy season, while excessive fecal coliforms were more frequent in the dry season. A proper monitoring of the irrigation water supply is important to avoid the contamination of vegetables.

  14. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Omari, Halima El; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    and soluble sugars as osmolytes produced by chickpea to mitigate the effect of salinity stress. The added value of these results is that the crop's responses to salinity are quantified. The obtained values can be used to determine 'threshold values'; should the salinity of the irrigation water go above...... these threshold values one may expect the crop yield parameters to be affected. The quantified responses also indicate the rate of change of yield parameters in response to the irrigation water salinity level. This could help in avoiding significant yield reduction when deciding on the irrigation water salinity...

  15. Influence of Microsprinkler Irrigation Amount on Water, Soil, and pH Profiles in a Coastal Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsprinkler irrigation is a potential method to alleviate soil salinization. After conducting a homogeneous, highly saline, clayey, and coastal soil from the Bohai Gulf in northern China in a column experiment, the results show that the depth of the wetting front increased as the water amount applied increased, low-salinity and low-SAR enlarged after irrigation and water redistribution, and the soil pH increased with an increase in irrigation amount. We concluded that a water amount of 207 mm could be used to reclaim the coastal saline soil in northern China.

  16. Assessing wheat yield, Biomass, and water productivity responses to growth stage based irrigation water allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing irrigated wheat yields is important to the overall profitability of limited-irrigation cropping systems in western Kansas. A simulation study was conducted to (1) validate APSIM's (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator) ability to simulate wheat growth and yield in Kansas, and (2) app...

  17. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  18. Response of Cotton to Irrigation Methods and Nitrogen Fertilization: Yield Components, Water-Use Efficiency, Nitrogen Uptake, and Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-01-01

    Efficient crop use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer is critical from economic and environmental viewpoints, especially under irrigated conditions. Cotton yield parameters, fiber quality, water- and N-use efficiency responses to N, and irrigation methods in northern Syria were evaluated. Field trials were conducted for two growing seasons on a Chromoxerertic Rhodoxeralf soil. Treatments consisted of drip fertigation, furrow irrigation, and five different rates of N fertilizer (50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg N /ha). Cotton was irrigated when soil moisture in the specified active root depth was 80% of the field capacity as indicated by the neutron probe. Seed cotton yield was higher than the national average (3,928 kg/ha) by at least 12% as compared to all treatments. Lint properties were not negatively affected by the irrigation method or N rates. Water savings under drip fertigation ranged between 25 and 50% of irrigation water relative to furrow irrigation. Crop water-use efficiencies of the drip-fertigated treatments were in most cases 100% higher than those of the corresponding furrow-irrigated treatments. The highest water demand was during the fruit-setting growth stage. It was also concluded that under drip fertigation, 100 -150 N kg/ha was adequate and comparable with the highest N rates tested under furrow irrigation regarding lint yield, N uptake, and recovery. Based on cotton seed yield and weight of stems, the overall amount of N removed from the field for the drip-fertigated treatments ranged between 101-118 kg and 116-188 N/ha for 2001 and 2002, respectively. The N removal ranged between 94-113 and 111-144 kg N/ha for the furrow-irrigated treatments for 2001 and 2002, respectively. (author)

  19. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and