WorldWideScience

Sample records for irrigation 2010-2011 fall

  1. A Study on Consequences of Fall Among Elderly People Referred to Emam Hossein Hospital in Tehran City During 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Hatamabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fall is one of the common reasons of older people referring to emergency rooms. Besides suffering, it exposes huge financial burden on the patient and the community health system, as well. It is important to know about risk factors, predictors, consequences and trauma scoring in elderly following the fall. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TRISS (Trauma-Injury Severity for predicting prognosis of fall among elderly people. Methods & Materials: This cross sectional study conducted among 118 elderly patients attended to Imam-Hossein Hospital in Tehran because of the fall. A check list was used to collect the data.Then, trauma scores were assessed by TRISS, ISS (Injury Severity Score and RTS (Revised Trauma Score. The clinical value of the TRISS was also evaluated. Results: The findings showed that sliding (67% and syncope (33% were the reasons of fall. Mortality rate was 22%, more than half of participants had morbidity (bone fracture followed by 41% impaired functional ability. Means for ISS, RTS and TRISS were 12.06±8.9, 6.54±4.52 and 0.45±0.33 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the mean scores and mortality and morbidity rates, which means all scores were higher among those with higher mortality and morbidity rate (P<0.05. Conclusion: As a conclusion, due to the higher risk of unintentional injury in old age, applying some strategies to prevent and treat it seems essential.It is also vital to have an appropriate management plan for the condition to prevent other side effects to be happened.

  2. Neighborhood Bridges: 2010-2011 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2011-01-01

    In 2010-2011, students in twenty-five classrooms from eleven schools in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area participated in The Children's Theatre Company's Neighborhood Bridges (Bridges) program. The Children's Theatre Company contracted with the University of Minnesota's Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) to…

  3. Missouri DECA: 2010-2011 Policy Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the Missouri DECA Policy Manual. This manual contains the following sections: (1) DECA Board of Directors; (2) State Sales Projects; (3) State Officers; (4) Districts; (5) Competitive Events; (6) General Conference Information; (7) Fall Leadership & State Officer Election Conference; (8) Central Region Leadership…

  4. 2010-2011 Expense report for Rohinton Medhora | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-2011 Expense report for Rohinton Medhora. Download PDF of Expense Report 2010-2011 · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open ...

  5. 2010-2011 Expense report for David Malone | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-2011 Expense report for David Malone. Download PDF of Expense Report 2010-2011 · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open ...

  6. 2010-2011 Expense report for Sylvain Dufour | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-2011 Expense report for Sylvain Dufour. Travel and Hospitality Expenses 2010-2011 · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access ...

  7. Vermont travel model 2010-2011 (year 3) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is being prepared under Task 1 of the Maintenance, Operation and Evaluation of the VTrans Statewide Transportation Model contract with the Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTrans) in the 2010-2011 year of the contract. The objectiv...

  8. Modeling identifies optimal fall planting times and irrigation requirements for canola and camelina at locations across California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas George

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In California, Brassica oilseeds may be viable crops for growers to diversify their cool-season crop options, helping them adapt to projected climate change and irrigation water shortages. Field trials have found germination and establishment problems in some late-planted canola, but not camelina at the same locations. We used computer modeling to analyze fall seedbed conditions to better understand this phenomenon. We found seedbeds may be too dry, too cold, or both, to support germination of canola during late fall. Based on seedbed temperatures only, canola should be sown no later than the last week of November in the Central Valley. Camelina has broader temperature and moisture windows for germination and can be sown from October to December with less risk, but yields of camelina are lower than canola yields. In areas without irrigation, growers could plant canola opportunistically when seedbed conditions are favorable and use camelina as a fallback option.

  9. Houston Community College 2010-2011 Fact Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Community College System, Office of Institutional Research, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Houston Community College (HCC) 2010-2011 Fact Book provides statistical information about the college district. It is important for the reader to be aware that data presented in this publication may differ slightly from statistics found in other district reports. Such variances may result from differences methodology including the source of…

  10. Evaluation of Fall Sowing of Cold Tolerant Chickpa (Cicer arietinum L. Genotypes under Supplementary Irrigation in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nezami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate of phenological and morphological characteristics, yield components and yield of cold tolerant chickpea genotypes in fall sowing, 9 cold tolerant chickpea genotypes and Karaj 12-60-31 as a control were evaluated in Experimental Field of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006-2007. The experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with four replications. The planting date was 25 October and three times of irrigation was done as supplementary irrigation at planting stage, 20 days after that and at flowering stage. The control was ruined at seedling stage due to the hard cold. Based on the results, the differences among the genotypes for all of measured traits including growth duration, plant height, number and length of branches, yield components (pod number per plant, seed number per pod and 100 seeds weight, seed yield and biological yield were significant (P≥0.05. There were positive and significant correlations between seed yield and vegetative (r=0.71** and reproductive (r=0.68** periods. MCC291, MCC349 and MCC207 produced the highest seed yield with 231, 229 and 217 g.m-2, respectively. Totally, it appears that some of genotypes have appropriate yield potential for fall sowing under supplementary irrigation at Mashhad. Keywords: Cold tolerant, Chickpea genotypes, Phenological and morphological characteristics, Seed yield, Yield components

  11. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Europe, 2010-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Gunar; van Leth, Frank; Alexandru, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is challenging elimination of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated risk factors for TB and levels of second-line drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in patients in Europe with multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. A total of 380 patients with MDR TB and 376 patients...... with non-MDR TB were enrolled at 23 centers in 16 countries in Europe during 2010-2011. A total of 52.4% of MDR TB patients had never been treated for TB, which suggests primary transmission of MDR M. tuberculosis. At initiation of treatment for MDR TB, 59.7% of M. tuberculosis strains tested were...

  12. Effectiveness of 2010/2011 seasonal influenza vaccine in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barret, A S

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a case-control study to estimate the 2010\\/2011 trivalent influenza vaccine effectiveness (TIVE) using the Irish general practitioners\\' influenza sentinel surveillance scheme. Cases were influenza-like illness (ILI) patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were ILI patients who tested negative for influenza. Participating sentinel general practitioners (GP) collected swabs from patients presenting with ILI along with their vaccination history and other individual characteristics. The TIVE was computed as (1 - odds ratiofor vaccination) x100%. Of 60 sentinel GP practices, 22 expressed interest in participating in the study and 17 (28%) recruited at least one ILI patient. In the analysis, we included 106 cases and 85 controls. Seven controls (8.2%) and one influenza case (0.9%) had been vaccinated in 2010\\/2011. The estimated TIVE against any influenza subtype was 89.4% [95% CI: 13.8; 99.8%], suggesting a protective effect against GP-attended laboratory confirmed influenza. This study design could be used to monitor influenza vaccine effectiveness annually but sample size and vaccination coverage should be increased to obtain precise and adjusted estimates.

  13. Tracking progress toward global polio eradication, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    In January 2012, polio eradication was declared a "programmatic emergency for global public health" by the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO). Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) began in 1988, progress has been tracked by surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and testing of linked stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) in WHO-accredited Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN) laboratories, complemented by sewage testing (environmental surveillance) in selected areas. Monitoring AFP surveillance quality at national and subnational administrative levels using standard performance indicators identifies potential gaps where PV circulation might go undetected; monitoring specimen transport and laboratory reporting timeliness identifies areas where reporting delays could lead to late response, permitting ongoing transmission. This report provides an assessment of 2010-2011 performance indicators for AFP surveillance at national and subnational levels in polio-affected countries and laboratory reporting at the regional level, updated from 2009-2010. Overall, 16 (62%) of 26 countries with circulating wild PV (WPV) met national AFP surveillance indicator targets during both 2010 and 2011. All three countries with reestablished WPV transmission and 16 of 19 countries with WPV outbreaks had substantial proportions (>20%) of their respective populations living in areas with underperforming surveillance during 2010 or 2011. Targets for timely reporting of PV isolation and type characterization results were met in three of six WHO regions in 2010 and five regions in 2011. To achieve polio eradication, efforts are needed to improve AFP surveillance and laboratory performance.

  14. Gambling Participation, Expenditure and Risk of Harm in Australia, 1997-1998 and 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Andrew Richard; Thomas, Anna; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-01

    Gambling-related harm results primarily from financial losses. Internationally Australia continues to rank as the largest spending nation per capita on gambling products. This would suggest that Australian gamblers are at disproportionately high risk of harm despite almost two decades of industry scrutiny and regulation, and investment in research, treatment and education programs. However, declines in participation rates, per capita expenditure, household expenditure, national disposable income spent on gambling and problem gambling rates have been cited as evidence that fewer people are gambling, that gamblers are spending less, and that gambling safety in Australia has improved. The current study investigated these propositions using national population and accounts data, and statistics from Australia's two population-representative gambling surveys conducted in 1997-1998 and 2010-2011. Despite a falling participation rate the study found no real change in the number of people gambling overall, and increasing numbers consuming casino table games, race wagering and sports betting. Further found were increases rather than decreases in average gambler expenditure, overall, and across most products, particularly electronic gaming machines (EGMs). Potentially risky levels of average expenditure were observed in both periods, overall and for race wagering, casino table gaming, and EGMs. Changes in the proportion of income spent on gambling suggest risks declined overall and for race wagering and casino table gaming, but increased for EGMs. Finally, while problem gambling statistics were not comparable between periods, the study found double the number of moderate risk gamblers previously estimated for 2010-2011 amongst the 2 million Australians found to have experienced one or more gambling-related problems. The findings have implications for public health policy and resourcing, and the way in which prevalence and expenditure statistics have been interpreted by

  15. The Journal of Public Inquiry. Fall/Winter 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    launched House & Garden maga- zine. At House & Garden, she also produced five coffee table books on interior design and gardening. More recently, she...Department to Prune Senior Ranks, Freeze Staffing.” http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=62354. January 6, 2011. 11) Office of Management and

  16. Fall

    OpenAIRE

    Odundo, Magdalene

    2008-01-01

    The monoprint Fall, created in the artist-in-residence studio at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New England, represents a transient yet vivid memory of the season spent walking and re-walking a trail I took to the studio on a daily basis. The work arose spontaneously from a direct and instinctive wish to replicate the ghost imprints left on the trail by the wet and dry weather of that autumn. It also represented a sensationally hopeful political transition of what seemed to be the growth of hope...

  17. Quitline – 7-Month Follow-Up (Not Comparable Across States) – 2010-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2011. National Quitline Data Warehouse (NQDW). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. NQDW Data. National Quitline Data Warehouse...

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, 1988-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Walton H.; Mullins, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish, and wildlife prompted the Department of the Interior to begin a program during late 1985 to identify irrigation-induced water-quality problems that might exist in the Western States. During `988, the Task Group on Irrigation Drainage selected the American Falls Reservoir area, Idaho, for study to determine whether potentially toxic concentrations of trace elements or organochlorine compounds existed in water, bottom sediment, and biota. The 91-square mile American Falls Reservoir has a total capacity of 1.7 million acre-feet and is used primarily for irrigation-water supply and power generation. Irrigated land upstream from the reservoir totals about 550,000 acres. Total water inflow to the reservoir is about 5.8 million acre-feet per year, of which about 63 percent is from surface-water runoff, 33 percent is from ground-water discharge, and about 4 percent is from ungaged tributaries, canals, ditches, sloughs, and precipitation. Ground-water discharge to the reservoir originates, in part, from irrigation of land upstream from and adjacent to the reservoir. The 1988 water year was a drought year, and water discharge was about 34 percent less than during 1939-88. Water samples were collected during the post-irrigation (October 1987) and irrigation (July 1988) seasons and were analyzed for major ions and trace elements. Bottom-sediment samples were collected during the irrigation season and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Biota samples were collected during May, June, July, and August 1988 and were analyzed for trace elements and organochlorine compounds. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water ranged from 216 to 561 milligrams per liter. The similarity of dissolved-solids concentrations between the irrigation and post-irrigation seasons can be attributed to the large volume of ground-water discharge in the study area. Most trace

  19. D Malone Travel Expenses 2010-2011Q3 ENGLISH.xlsx

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    acray

    David M. Malone - President. Travel Expenses 2010-2011. Other. Travel. Other. Meals &. Expenses. Total. Amount. Net Expenses. Organization. Dates. Destination(s). Purpose. Airfare. Transportation. Hotels. Incidentals. (note 1). Expenses. Recovered. Paid by IDRC. Recovered from. April 7-8. Montreal. IDRC sponsored ...

  20. 77 FR 61381 - Certain Lined Paper Products From India: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... India in this review. Based on this test, we disregarded certain sales made by Riddhi and SAB in their... From India: Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY: Import Administration... interested parties, the Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the...

  1. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2010-2011. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools: A Reference Tool for School Administrators. 38th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protheroe, Nancy; Licciardi, Christopher M.; Cooke, Willa D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents salary and wage data collected as part of the "ERS National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools, 2010-2011." The survey, conducted in Fall 2010, collected data on salaries scheduled and salaries paid for 23 selected professional positions and 10 selected support positions in public school systems throughout the…

  2. Prestasi Belajar Mahasiswa Penerima Beasiswa Bidik Misi FMIPA UNM Tahun Akademik 2010/2011

    OpenAIRE

    . Hamka L.; . Hartono

    2012-01-01

    DOWNLOAD PDFThe research was a descriptive study to see how the student learning achievement of bidik misi awardees at the beginning of academic year 2010/2011. Population and sample in this study were all students which received bidik misi scholarship at Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Makassar State University (FMIPA UNM). Method collecting data by taking the documentary secondary of GPA at beginning semester. The data obtained in this study were analyzed using descriptive statis...

  3. Assessment of Snacks Consumption among High School Students of Tehran during 2010-2011 Years

    OpenAIRE

    F Jafari; M Aminzadeh; F Gitinavard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Eating snacks during the day can lead to energy distribution and improvement of the health status of students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of snack consumption among high school students in region 8 of Tehran. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed on 300 high school students in district 8 of Tehran educational board during 2010-2011. Cluster sampling was done as a random method. Data were collected by a researcher-...

  4. Descriptive Characteristics of Concussions in National Football League Games, 2010-2011 to 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael D; Asken, Breton M; Marshall, Stephen W; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2017-03-01

    Despite a high reported incidence rate of concussion, little is known about the on-field characteristics of injurious head impacts in National Football League (NFL) games. To characterize on-field features (location, player position, and time during game) and biomechanical features (anticipation status, closing distance, impact location and type) associated with concussions in NFL games over a 4-season period (2010-2011 to 2013-2014). Descriptive epidemiology study. We analyzed video of a subset of reported, in-game concussions for the 2010-2011 to 2013-2014 seasons. These videos represented a sample of injuries that were diagnosed and reported on the same day and that could be clearly associated with an in-game collision as captured on video. We determined anticipation status, closing distance, impact location on the injured player's helmet, and impact type (helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-body, or helmet-to-ground). Associations between these variables were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics and tests of association. A total of 871 diagnosed concussions were reported as occurring during NFL preseason, regular season, and postseason games for the 2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and 2013-2014 seasons. A total of 1324 games were played during this period, giving a concussion incidence rate of 0.658 per game (95% CI, 0.61-0.70). From the video-reviewed subset (n = 429; 49.3%), the majority of injurious impacts occurred with good anticipation (57.3%) and concussions in the NFL occurred through a diverse variety of mechanisms, surprisingly tended to be well-anticipated, and, also surprisingly, occurred with concussion were broadly distributed over the helmet. More concussions occurred during the second half of game play, but we do not have evidence to explain this finding.

  5. Influenza vaccination of Michigan children by provider type, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Joshua L; Potter, Rachel C; Wells, Eden V; Carlton, Cristi A; Boulton, Matthew L

    2014-07-01

    Influenza vaccination for all children aged 6 months to 18 years has been recommended since 2008 to prevent flu-related morbidity and mortality. However, 2010-2011 influenza vaccine coverage estimates show under-vaccination in children of all ages. We examined predictors of influenza vaccination in Michigan during the 2010-2011 influenza season. To determine whether immunization provider type was associated with a child's influenza vaccination in Michigan and assess whether county-level factors were confounders of the association. Influenza vaccinations reported to the Michigan Care Improvement Registry from the 2010-2011 influenza season were analyzed in 2012 to estimate ORs for the association between immunization provider type and influenza vaccination. Among 2,373,826 Michigan children aged 6 months through 17 years, 17% were vaccinated against influenza and lower vaccination rates were observed for public compared to private providers (13% vs 18%). In the unadjusted model, public providers had lower odds of vaccinating children compared to private providers (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.60, 0.61). County-level factors, including percentage of families living below the poverty line, median household income, and percentage black race, were not shown to confound the association. In the adjusted models, public providers had lower odds of vaccinating children compared to private providers (OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.86, 0.88). Although a child's likelihood of influenza vaccination in Michigan varies by provider type, more effective strategies to improve influenza vaccination rates for all Michigan children are needed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Response and recovery lessons from the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierepiekarz, Mark; Johnston, David; Berryman, Kelvin; Hare, John; Gomberg, Joan S.; Williams, Robert A.; Weaver, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts and opportunities that result when low-probability moderate earthquakes strike an urban area similar to many throughout the US were vividly conveyed in a one-day workshop in which social and Earth scientists, public officials, engineers, and an emergency manager shared their experiences of the earthquake sequence that struck the city of Christchurch and surrounding Canterbury region of New Zealand in 2010-2011. Without question, the earthquake sequence has had unprecedented impacts in all spheres on New Zealand society, locally to nationally--10% of the country's population was directly impacted and losses total 8-10% of their GDP. The following paragraphs present a few lessons from Christchurch.

  7. Autocuidado de la salud en jóvenes universitarios, Manizales, 2010-2011 / Self-care in university students. Manizales, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Escobar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Los jóvenes se consideran un grupo poblacional relativamente sano, de ahí la necesidad de repensar el autocuidado como estrategia para promover su salud. Objetivo: Describir algunas características de las prácticas de autocuidado de la salud, en jóvenes universitarios. Metodología: Investigación descriptiva transversal, realizada en el 2010-2011, en una muestra de 353 estudiantes universitarios. Por medio del Cuestionario de Estilos de Vida en Jóvenes Universitarios, se evaluó la dimensión autocuidado de la salud indagando sobre: prácticas, motivos para realizar o no una práctica, motivación para el cambio y recursos para llevarlas a cabo. Resultados: en las mujeres se presentan más prácticas de autocuidado relacionadas con: baño diario y cepillado de dientes después de las comidas. En cuanto a la exploración del cuerpo para detectar cambios, los hombres son los que menos la realizan, siendo estadísticamente significativo. Las mujeres utilizan menos el bloqueador solar con relación a los hombres. Conclusiones: las prácticas de autocuidado de la salud fueron saludables según la puntuación establecida en la metodología implementada para la dimensión de autocuidado de la salud. Se plantea la necesidad de educar a los jóvenes universitarios para su autocuidado como parte del proceso de la formación integral Young people are considered a relatively healthy population, hence the need to rethink self-care as a strategy for promoting their health. Objective: to describe some of the characteristics of the health-related self-care practices among young university students. Methodology: a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 2010-2011 using a sample of 353 university students. The health-related self-care dimension was assessed using the Lifestyle Questionnaire for Young University Students. The participants were asked about their practices, reasons for having or not having them, their motivations for changing a

  8. An evaluation of dental information sessions provided to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Jennifer M

    2013-12-01

    Childcare services provide ideal settings to promote good oral health and help reduce tooth decay in young children. This paper reports the results of an evaluation of the dental information session component of the NSW Little Smiles Program provided by public oral health service professionals to childcare educators in NSW in 2010-2011. The evaluation sought to determine if a face-to-face information session provided to childcare educators by oral health professionals: (i) can improve the confidence of childcare educators to reach national quality standards that relate to oral health; and (ii) is an appropriate model to use. In 2010-2011, 163 dental information sessions were provided to 1716 participants from over 526 childcare centres across NSW. Results showed that a dental information session can improve the confidence of childcare educators to assist their service to reach the required national quality standards for oral hygiene and diet-related oral health issues. Further evaluation is required to determine if oral health can be embedded in the daily practice of childcare services and other options need to be explored to deliver the sessions in a more cost-effective way.

  9. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A; Gerzoff, Robert B; Caraballo, Ralph S; Promoff, Gabbi R

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non-American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations.

  10. Tax Avoidance and Evasion: Cigarette Purchases From Indian Reservations Among US Adult Smokers, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Tynan, Michael A.; Gerzoff, Robert B.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Promoff, Gabbi R.

    2017-01-01

    Excise taxes are the primary public health strategy used to increase the price of cigarettes in the United States. Rather than quitting or reducing consumption of cigarettes, some price-sensitive smokers may avoid state and local excise taxes by purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. The objectives of this study were to (1) provide the most recent state-specific prevalence of purchases made on Indian reservations by non–American Indians/Alaska Natives (non-AI/ANs) and (2) assess the impact of these purchases on state tax revenues. We used data from a large national and state-representative survey, the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, which collects self-reported measures on cigarette use and purchases. Nationwide, 3.8% of non-AI/AN smokers reported purchasing cigarettes from Indian reservations. However, in Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, and Washington State, about 15% to 30% of smokers reported making such purchases, resulting in annual tax revenue losses ranging from $3.5 million (Washington State) to $292 million (New York) during 2010-2011. Strategies to reduce the sale of non- or lower-taxed cigarettes to non-AI/ANs on Indian reservations have the potential to decrease smoking prevalence and recoup lost revenue from purchases made on reservations. PMID:28395142

  11. Education fees: Indexation of the amounts for accommodation, meals and school transport for the 2010-2011 academic year

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    At its meeting on 21 September 2010, the Standing Concertation Committee approved the calculated indexation of the amounts for accommodation, meals and school transport for the 2010-2011 academic year. Accommodation fees for the 2010-2011 academic year will be paid in the form of a lump sum of 537 CHF per month (paid at the rate of 100%). The amount used for the calculation of meal payments will be 18 CHF per meal (paid at the rate of 75%). The ceiling for school transport fees has been set at 615 CHF for the 2010-2011 academic year. Education Fees Service Tel. 72862 / 71421

  12. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wass, Eva

    2011-07-01

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  13. Monitoring Forsmark. Snow depth, snow water content and ice cover during the winter 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Eva (Geosigma AB (Sweden))

    2011-07-15

    Snow depth and ice cover have been measured and observed during the winter 2010/2011. This type of measurements started in the winter 2002/2003 and has been ongoing since then. In addition to these parameters, the water content of the snow was calculated at each measurement occasion from the weight of a snow sample. Measurements and observations were conducted on a regular basis from the beginning of November 2010 until the middle of April 2011. A persistent snow cover was established in the end of November 2010 and remained until the beginning of April 2011 at the station with longest snow cover duration. The period of ice cover was 160 days in Lake Eckarfjaerden, whereas the sea bay at SFR was ice covered for 135 days

  14. 2010-2011 Queensland floods: using Haddon's Matrix to define and categorise public safety strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yu-Li; FitzGerald, Gerry

    2013-08-01

    The 2010-2011 Queensland floods resulted in the most deaths from a single flood event in Australia since 1916. This article analyses the information on these deaths for comparison with those from previous floods in modern Australia in an attempt to identify factors that have contributed to those deaths. Haddon's Matrix, originally designed for prevention of road trauma, offers a framework for understanding the interplay between contributing factors and helps facilitate a clearer understanding of the varied strategies required to ensure people's safety for particular flood types. Public reports and flood relevant literature were searched using key words 'flood', 'fatality', 'mortality', 'death', 'injury' and 'victim' through Google Scholar, PubMed, ProQuest and EBSCO. Data relating to reported deaths during the 2010-2011 Queensland floods, and relevant data of previous Australian flood fatality (1997-2009) were collected from these available sources. These sources were also used to identify contributing factors. There were 33 deaths directly attributed to the event, of which 54.5% were swept away in a flash flood on 10 January 2011. A further 15.1% of fatalities were caused by inappropriate behaviours. This is different to floods in modern Australia where over 90% of deaths are related to the choices made by individuals. There is no single reason why people drown in floods, but rather a complex interplay of factors. The present study and its integration of research findings and conceptual frameworks might assist governments and communities to develop policies and strategies to prevent flood injury and fatalities. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Health education in primary school textbooks in iran in school year 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kazemian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran.In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method.In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144 and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26 number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87 of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8. Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks.The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.

  16. Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon - IPNL, Activity Report 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear physics of Lyon (IPNL) is under the joint supervision of the Claude Bernard University of Lyon (UCBL) and the National Institute of Nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) of the CNRS (National Centre for Scientific Research). The laboratory studies the properties and interactions of sub-atomic particles. Its activities are largely experimental, with groups involved in a wide range of national and international collaborations concerning particle and astro-particle physics, nuclear matter and the interactions of ions and cluster with matter. In addition, the Institute has important interdisciplinary and applied research activities related to: detectors R and D, confinement of radioactive waste, bio-medical imaging, measurement of environmental levels of radioactive elements. This document presents the activity of the Centre during the 2010-2011 years: 1 - Forewords; 2 - Research activities: Quarks and Leptons, Astro-particles, Hadronic and nuclear matter, Theoretical physics, trans-disciplinary activities, publications, communications, partnerships; 3 - Teaching and research training; 4 - Technical services: electronics, Computers, Mechanics, Instrumentation, Accelerators, LABRADOR metrology service; 5 - Laboratory administration; 6 - Communication and scientific mediation (seminars, conferences, exhibitions..)

  17. Prestasi Belajar Mahasiswa Penerima Beasiswa Bidik Misi FMIPA UNM Tahun Akademik 2010/2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Hamka L.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOWNLOAD PDFThe research was a descriptive study to see how the student learning achievement of bidik misi awardees at the beginning of academic year 2010/2011. Population and sample in this study were all students which received bidik misi scholarship at Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Makassar State University (FMIPA UNM. Method collecting data by taking the documentary secondary of GPA at beginning semester. The data obtained in this study were analyzed using descriptive statistical and categorized according academic guidance of Departement of Biology FMIPA UNM year 2010. Study showed that the average learning achievement of students were very satisfactory with average GPA 3.01. There were 12.28% of students who in honors category (cumlaude, GPA 3.51 to 4,00. While, 57.89% of students in category of very satisfactory (GPA 2.76 to 3.50, and 26.32% in the category satisfying (GPA 2.50 to 2.75. Nevertheless, there have about 1.75% of students in the category enough (GPA 2.00 to 2.49, and also 1.75% of students in less category (GPA 0.00 to 1.99. Key words: Learning achievement, bidik misi scholarship

  18. Finding positives after disaster: Insights from nurses following the 2010-2011 Canterbury, NZ earthquake sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johal, Sarbjit S; Mounsey, Zoe R

    2015-11-01

    This paper identifies positive aspects of nurse experiences during the Canterbury 2010-2011 earthquake sequence and subsequent recovery process. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 nurses from the Christchurch area to explore the challenges faced by the nurses during and following the earthquakes. The interviews took place three years after the start of the earthquake experience to enable exploration of the longer term recovery process. The interview transcripts were analysed and coded using a grounded theory approach. The data analysis identified that despite the many challenges faced by the nurses during and following the earthquakes they were able to identify positives from their experience. A number of themes were identified that are related to posttraumatic growth, including; improvement in relationships with others, change in perspective/values, changed views of self and acknowledgement of the value of the experience. The research indicates that nurses were able to identify positive aspects of their experiences of the earthquakes and recovery process, suggesting that both positive and negative impacts on wellbeing can co-exist. These insights have value for employers designing support processes following disasters as focusing on positive elements could enhance nurse wellbeing during stressful times. Copyright © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of the radiological status of the French environment in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissieux, Thomas; D'Amico, Donato; Debayle, Christophe; Goyen, Jean-Philippe; Leprieur, Fabrice; Manach, Erwan; Pierrard, Olivier; Tournieux, Damien; Chaptal-Gradoz, Nathalie; Bouisset, Patrick; Boulaud, Denis; Boust, Dominique; Bruno, Valerie; Delabbaye, Pascale; Gallerand, Marie-Odile; Ielsch, Geraldine; Masson, Olivier; Manificat, Guillaume; Peres, Jean-Marc; Renaud, Philippe; Roussel-Debet, Sylvie; Tardieu, Laure; Thebault, Herve; Guldner, Bruno; Wyckaert, Laure

    2012-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed assessment of the radiological status of the environment in France over the 2010-2011 period. It addresses the radiological monitoring of the environment, presents the national network of measurements of radioactivity in the environment and the main actors of environment monitoring in France, and discusses events and expertise (impact of the Fukushima accident and of some incidents which occurred in France). It presents and comments results of the monitoring of the metropolitan and overseas French territories (atmosphere, soils, sea and coasts, regional assessment), of the monitoring of sites related to nuclear fuel cycle (nuclear sites, old mining sites, industrial sites related to the front-end or back-end of the fuel cycle, waste storage sites), of research centres and nuclear marine bases, of installations using natural or artificial radioactivity sources. It discusses the assessment of the exposure of the French population to ionizing radiation. It indicates information sources dealing with radioactivity monitoring and data publication. A last part proposes a presentation of radioactivity

  20. [The Meaning That Families Place on the Suicide of Pregnant Mothers in Antioquia, 2010-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Builes Correa, María Victoria; Ramírez Zapata, Alexandra María; Arango Arbeláez, Beatriz Elena; Anderson Gómez, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To identify the meaning that the families of two pregnant women from Antioquia placed on their suicide in 2010-2011. A qualitative research using the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach, specifically a case study analysis. The category named "family task: weaving a history that helps them to understand" emerged in both families. Two trends were found in the family of Bella: "tragedy, tensions and scenarios" and "fluctuations: between fear-guilt and relief." The family of Consentida showed three trends: "trapped with no escape", "suicide and orphanhood: the understanding of Juanita" and "death is death." For both families, the fact that the women were pregnant had an important effect on the event of voluntary death. The construction of meaning that took place in both families followed two paths: differentiation and death itself; both can be resilient ways of coping with such a tragedy. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Niemi, M.; Jussila, I.

    2011-10-01

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the summer 2011 and compared with earlier statistics. Population size estimates are based on interviews of the local hunters. No moose or deer inventories were made in the winter 2010-2011. The moose population is stable when compared with the previous year. The white-tailed deer population is stable or slightly increasing when compared with the previous year. The changes in the roe deer population are not accurately known, but population size varies somewhat from year to year. The number of hunted raccoon dogs approximately doubled in the latest hunting season. Altogether two waterfowl were hunted in 2010 (17 in the previous year). The populations of mountain hare and red squirrel are abundant, and the number of hunted mountain hares approximately doubled when compared with the previous hunting season. The brown hare population is still small. In the winter, there were observations of one lynx spending time in the area. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of Snacks Consumption among High School Students of Tehran during 2010-2011 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Eating snacks during the day can lead to energy distribution and improvement of the health status of students. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of snack consumption among high school students in region 8 of Tehran. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed on 300 high school students in district 8 of Tehran educational board during 2010-2011. Cluster sampling was done as a random method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman, Pearson and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 16.2±0.9. 64.6% of students ate snacks everyday and 10.1% of them didn’t use any snack at school. Most students (14.8% ate sandwich as snack prepared by school’s buffet every day. Tea (12.4%, fruits (12%, cheese bread (10% and home -made sandwiches (7.9% were also used as snacks. Results showed that among food consumed as snack, sandwich consumption was negatively associated to the grade of previous semester. Moreover, the consumption of blowgun and cakes were increased in children with more educated fathers. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the consumption of snacks during school attendance is good in terms of quantity, but the quality and usefulness of food still need more attention Keyword: Snack, High school, Average, Student

  3. Report on the Radiological State of the Environment in France in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Report on the Radiological State of the Environment in France in 2010-2011 marks another major milestone in the French policy of nuclear transparency. More than 300,000 measurement results were analyzed for this report, which also incorporates data acquired between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 across France to take into account the impact of the events at Fukushima. For the first time, this IRSN report collates and comments on the results sent to the French National Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Network (RNM) by its members. This includes the results of measurements taken by the IRSN as part of its continuous radiation protection monitoring activities. This latest edition of the report includes a number of changes related to the inclusion of data from RNM members, as well as improved content. The RNM network is part of an innovative initiative to improve the quality of radioactive measurements performed by certified laboratories and provide the public with fuller and clearer information on the radiological state of the environment. On February 2, 2010, environmental monitoring organizations in France created the RNM Internet site (www.mesure-radioactivite.fr) as part of an initiative to centralize information on radioactivity and make measurement results more readily available to professionals and the general public alike. The site can thus be consulted for results regarding all environmental compartments, including air, water, flora and fauna, and the food chain

  4. Influenza transmission in a cohort of households with children: 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua G Petrie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Households play a major role in community spread of influenza and are potential targets for mitigation strategies. METHODS: We enrolled and followed 328 households with children during the 2010-2011 influenza season; this season was characterized by circulation of influenza A (H3N2, A (H1N1pdm09 and type B viruses. Specimens were collected from subjects with acute respiratory illnesses and tested for influenza in real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays. Influenza cases were classified as community-acquired or household-acquired, and transmission parameters estimated. RESULTS: Influenza was introduced to 78 (24% households and transmission to exposed household members was documented in 23 households. Transmission was more likely in younger households (mean age <22 years and those not reporting home humidification, but was not associated with household vaccination coverage. The secondary infection risk (overall 9.7% was highest among young children (<9 years and varied substantially by influenza type/subtype with the highest risk for influenza A (H3N2. The serial interval (overall 3.2 days also varied by influenza type and was longest for influenza B. Duration of symptomatic illness was shorter in children compared with adults, and did not differ by influenza vaccination status. DISCUSSION: Prospective study of households with children over a single influenza season identified differences in household transmission by influenza type/subtype, subject age, and home humidification, suggesting possible targets for interventions to reduce transmission.

  5. Health education in primary school textbooks in iran in school year 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Reza; Ghasemi, Hadi; Movahhed, Taraneh; Kazemian, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Health education in schools is one of the most effective ways of promoting health in a society. Studies have shown the effectiveness of health interventions aimed at improving students' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about health issues. The aim of this study was to evaluate health issues in primary school textbooks in Iran. In school year 2010-2011, the contents of all primary school textbooks in Iran were assessed in accordance to their health-related teachings. Health lessons of these 27 textbooks in the form of picture and text were retrieved and analyzed using content analysis method. In total, 502 health-related lessons were found. The textbooks of the third grade contained the highest (144) and those of the fourth grade had the lowest (26) number of health lessons. Among health-related issues, the largest number (87) of lessons were about personal hygiene, while prevention of high risk behaviors comprised the least number (8). Some important health issues such as nutrition, oral health, and prevention of high-risk behaviors were not adequately discussed in the textbooks. The potential of primary school textbooks in delivering health messages has been neglected in Iran. Taking the critical importance of school ages into account, incorporating health issues in textbooks should be more strongly emphasized.

  6. Game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto in 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M. [Faunatica Oy, Espoo (Finland); Niemi, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland), Dept. of Forest Sciences; Jussila, I. [Turku Univ. (Finland), Satakunta Environmental Research Inst.

    2011-10-15

    The game statistics for the island of Olkiluoto were updated in the summer 2011 and compared with earlier statistics. Population size estimates are based on interviews of the local hunters. No moose or deer inventories were made in the winter 2010-2011. The moose population is stable when compared with the previous year. The white-tailed deer population is stable or slightly increasing when compared with the previous year. The changes in the roe deer population are not accurately known, but population size varies somewhat from year to year. The number of hunted raccoon dogs approximately doubled in the latest hunting season. Altogether two waterfowl were hunted in 2010 (17 in the previous year). The populations of mountain hare and red squirrel are abundant, and the number of hunted mountain hares approximately doubled when compared with the previous hunting season. The brown hare population is still small. In the winter, there were observations of one lynx spending time in the area. (orig.)

  7. Seismic monitoring at Deception Island volcano (Antarctica): the 2010-2011 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, R.; Carmona, E.; Almendros, J.; Serrano, I.; Villaseñor, A.; Galeano, J.

    2012-04-01

    As an example of the recent advances introduced in seismic monitoring of Deception Island volcano (Antarctica) during recent years, we describe the instrumental network deployed during the 2010-2011 survey by the Instituto Andaluz de Geofísica of University of Granada, Spain (IAG-UGR). The period of operation extended from December 19, 2010 to March 5, 2011. We deployed a wireless seismic network composed by four three-component seismic stations. These stations are based on 24-bit SL04 SARA dataloggers sampling at 100 sps. They use a PC with embedded linux and SEISLOG data acquisition software. We use two types of three-component seismometers: short-period Mark L4C with natural frequency of 1 Hz and medium-period Lennartz3D/5s with natural frequency of 0.2 Hz. The network was designed for an optimum spatial coverage of the northern half of Deception, where a magma chamber has been reported. Station locations include the vicinity of the Spanish base "Gabriel de Castilla" (GdC), Obsidianas Beach, a zone near the craters from the 1970 eruptions, and the Chilean Shelter located south of Pendulum Cove. Continuous data from the local seismic network are received in real-time in the base by wifi transmission. We used Ubiquiti Networks Nanostation2 antennas with 2.4 GHz, dual-polarity, 10 dBi gain, and 54 Mbps transmission rate. They have shown a great robustness and speed for real-time applications. To prioritize data acquisition when the battery level is low, we have designed a circuit that allows independent power management for the seismic station and wireless transmission system. The reception antenna located at GdC is connected to a computer running SEISCOMP. This software supports several transmission protocols and manages the visualization and recording of seismic data, including the generation of summary plots to show the seismic activity. These twelve data channels are stored in miniseed format and displayed in real time, which allows for a rapid evaluation of

  8. Survival predictors of preterm neonates: Hospital based study in Iran (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, Ladan; Nojomi, Marzieh; Mohabbatian, Behnaz; Najmi, Zahra

    2013-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is responsible for 70% of neonatal mortalities. Various factors influence the risk of neonatal mortality in different populations. Our objective was to evaluate neonatal survival rate of preterm infants, and to define its predictors in Iranian population. This retrospective cohort study included all preterm (26-37 weeks) infants (n=1612) born alive in Shahid Akbar-abadi university hospital, during one year period (April 2010-2011). These infants were evaluated for fetal-neonatal, maternal, and pregnancy data. Survival analysis was performed and viability threshold and risk factors of neonatal mortality were evaluated. Total overall mortality rate was 9.1%. Survival rate were 11.11% for extremely low birth weights (LBW) and 45.12% for very early PTBs. The smallest surviving infant was a 750 gr female with gestational age (GA) of 30 weeks and the youngest infants was a 970 gram female with GA of 25weeks plus 2 days. History of previous dead neonate, need to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), need to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission, postnatal administration of surfactant, presence of anomalies, Apgar score <7, multiple pregnancy, non-cephalic presentation, early PTB, very early PTB, LBW, very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW), were risk factors for mortality in preterm neonates. Our study revealed that neonatal survival rate is dramatically influenced by birth weight especially under 1000grams, GA especially below 30 weeks, neonatal anomalies, history of previous dead fetus, multiple pregnancy, non- cephalic presentation, and need for NICU admission, resuscitation and respiratory support with surfactant.

  9. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropainen, V.

    2012-05-01

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  10. Reflections on Communicating Science during the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence of 2010-2011, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Berryman, K. R.; Jolly, G. E.; Brackley, H. L.; Gledhill, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence began with the 4th September 2010 Darfield earthquake (Mw 7.1). Perhaps because there were no deaths, the mood of the city and the government was that high standards of earthquake engineering in New Zealand protected us, and there was a confident attitude to response and recovery. The demand for science and engineering information was of interest but not seen as crucial to policy, business or the public. The 22nd February 2011 Christchurch earthquake (Mw 6.2) changed all that; there was a significant death toll and many injuries. There was widespread collapse of older unreinforced and two relatively modern multi-storey buildings, and major disruption to infrastructure. The contrast in the interest and relevance of the science could not have been greater compared to 5 months previously. Magnitude 5+ aftershocks over a 20 month period resulted in confusion, stress, an inability to define a recovery trajectory, major concerns about whether insurers and reinsurers would continue to provide cover, very high levels of media interest from New Zealand and around the world, and high levels of political risk. As the aftershocks continued there was widespread speculation as to what the future held. During the sequence, the science and engineering sector sought to coordinate and offer timely and integrated advice. However, other than GeoNet, the national geophysical monitoring network, there were few resources devoted to communication, with the result that it was almost always reactive. With hindsight we have identified the need to resource information gathering and synthesis, execute strategic assessments of stakeholder needs, undertake proactive communication, and develop specific information packages for the diversity of users. Overall this means substantially increased resources. Planning is now underway for the science sector to adopt the New Zealand standardised CIMS (Coordinated Incident Management System) structure for

  11. Core drilling of REPRO drillholes in ONKALO at Olkiluoto 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropainen, V. [Suomen Malmi Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-05-15

    Suomen Malmi Oy (Smoy) core drilled ten drillholes for the Posiva's Experiments to investigate Rock Matrix Retention Properties (REPRO) in ONKALO at Eurajoki, 2010 - 2011. The drillholes are used for geological characterization, hydrological and geophysical studies and instrumenting in research for retention of radionuclides to rock matrix. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled in March 2010 and the drillholes ONKPP318... 324 and ONK-PP326...327 in October - December 2011. The lengths of the drillholes range from 4.90 to 21.65 metres. The drillholes are 56.5 mm by diameter. The drillhole ONK-PP240 was drilled for pretesting in the investigation niche 4 at access tunnel chainage 3747 and the rest of the drillholes in the investigation niche 5 at access tunnel chainage 4219. The hydraulic DE 130 drilling rig was used. The starting directions of the close spaced drillholes were controlled with an aligner assembly to be as parallel as possible. The drilling water was taken from the ONKALO drilling water pipeline and premixed sodium fluorescein was used as a label agent in the drilling water. The drillholes were measured with EMS deviation survey tool. In addition to drilling the drillcores were logged and reported by geologist. Geological logging included the following parameters: lithology, foliation, fracture parameters, fractured zones, core loss, weathering, fracture frequency, RQD and rock quality. The main rock types in the drillholes are veined gneiss, pegmatitic granite and quartz gneiss (skarn rock). The average fracture frequency in drill cores is 1.2 pcs/m and the average RQD value 98.6 %. (orig.)

  12. MRSA and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. retail meats, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Beilei; Mukherjee, Sampa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Davis, Johnnie A; Tran, Thu Thuy T; Yang, Qianru; Abbott, Jason W; Ayers, Sherry L; Young, Shenia R; Crarey, Emily T; Womack, Niketta A; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick F

    2017-04-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been detected in retail meats, although large-scale studies are scarce. We conducted a one-year survey in 2010-2011 within the framework of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Among 3520 retail meats collected from eight U.S. states, 982 (27.9%) contained S. aureus and 66 (1.9%) were positive for MRSA. Approximately 10.4% (107/1032) of S. aureus isolates, including 37.2% (29/78) of MRSA, were multidrug-resistant (MDRSA). Turkey had the highest MRSA prevalence (3.5%), followed by pork (1.9%), beef (1.7%), and chicken (0.3%). Whole-genome sequencing was performed for all 66 non-redundant MRSA. Among five multilocus sequence types identified, ST8 (72.7%) and ST5 (22.7%) were most common and livestock-associated MRSA ST398 was assigned to one pork isolate. Eleven spa types were represented, predominately t008 (43.9%) and t2031 (22.7%). All four types of meats harbored t008, whereas t2031 was recovered from turkey only. The majority of MRSA (84.8%) possessed SCCmec IV and 62.1% harbored Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all ST8 MRSA belonged to the predominant human epidemic clone USA300, and others included USA100 and USA200. We conclude that a diverse MRSA population was present in U.S. retail meats, albeit at low prevalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. 78 FR 5414 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... September 1, 2010, through August 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the...

  14. Subatomic Physics and Cosmology Laboratory - LPSC Grenoble. Activity report 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissot, Roger; Bechu, Stephane; Boutherin, Bernard; Derome, Laurent; Deslorieux, Colette; Gallin-Martel, Marie-Laure; Kox, Serge; Kraml, Sabine; Lamy, Thierry; Lleres, Annick; Meplan, Olivier; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Sortais, Pascal; Vernay, Emmanuelle; Favro, Christian

    2012-03-01

    seek answers to the existence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. The locations of the experiments are very diverse: ground-based, underground-based or even satellite-based. LPSC also studies artificially created short-lived particles (created by accelerators which our laboratory helps to design) or cosmic particles that were produced at different epochs of the history of the universe. These activities require the development of sophisticated, state-of-the-art instrumentation. A close collaboration between physicists, engineers and technicians is required to achieve the required performance. In addition, a strong theoretical research activity supports the experiments during the preparatory stages and during the data analysis. This report presents the activities of the laboratory during the years 2010-2011: 1 - Forewords, Presentation of the laboratory; 2 - Quarks, leptons and FUNDAMENTAL INTERACTIONS (DΦ experiment at Tevatron, ATLAS experiment at LHC, International Linear Collider (ILC) project, Ultra-cold Neutrons (UCN); 3 - Astro-particles and Cosmology (ultra-high energy cosmic radiation, ultra-high energy cosmic rays, fossil radiation study with PLANCK, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) experiment and theoretical activity, Directional detection of dark matter with MIMAC (MIcro-tpc Matrix of Chambers); 4 - Hadrons and nuclei (ALICE experiment at LHC, Study of the isomeric states of neutron-rich rubidium nuclei, Hadrons structure); 5 - Reactor physics: nuclear data, ADS subcritical reactors (GUINEVERE/FREYA project), Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept development, Thorium cycle with water reactors; 6 - Theory and phenomenology: perturbative QCD and accurate calculations, Beyond-the-Standard-Model, Lattice calculations, nuclei, hadrons and few-body systems; 7 - Interdisciplinary research (Research centre on plasmas-materials-nano-structures - CRPMN, Medical profiler); 8 - Accelerators and ion sources (SPIRAL2 Project, GENEPI-3C accelerator for

  15. Determination of antibiotics consumption in buali-sina pediatric hospital, sari 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehifar, Ebrahim; Nasehi, Mohammadmehdi; Eslami, Gohar; Sahraei, Sima; Alizadeh Navaei, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a major health-care problem worldwide. WHO recommends DID (daily defined dose per 100 Inhabitant per day) as a standard tool for measurement of antibiotic consumption. Since there was not any information regarding the antibiotics usage pattern in the north of Iran, the aim of this study was determine this in our centre. This cross-sectional study was performed in Buali Sina hospital. Using the health information system (HIS) database, records of patients hospitalized during 22 Sep 2010 - 21 Sep 2011. Data of different wards including Neonatal, NICU, PICU, Pediatrics and Pediatric surgery were separately extracted and analyzed. Drug consumption data were expressed as DID. SPSS 16 software was used for statistical analysis. Independent samples t-test was used to compare the quantitative variables. A total of 4619 in-patients records during 1 year of study including 2494 patients in fall and winter and 2125 patients in spring and summer were evaluated. The most hospitalized patients were in Pediatric ward (43.9 %). The highest DID value were obtained for ceftriaxone (21.7), ampicillin (6.05) and vancomycin (4.7), while the lowest value was for gentamicin (0.01). In both cold and warm seasons, Ceftriaxone was the most frequent prescribed antibiotic. The rate of antibiotics consumption especially Ceftriaxone in our setting was significantly higher than the other centers. Strategies for more justified administration of antibiotics especially broad -spectrum ones are necessary.

  16. Kontraktudarbejdelse 2010/2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    Bogen gennemgår de vigtigste teoretiske og praktiske spørgsmål i forbindelse med udarbejdelse af en kontrakt hhv. forhandling om et kontraktudkast udarbejdet af andre. Således gennemgår den spørgsmål om parternes identitet, kravene til og specifikation af hver parts ydelse, spørgsmål om parternes...

  17. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011; Resultados del servicio de dosimetria externa del CPHR durante el bienio 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia, E-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa (LDE), Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements.

  18. The State of Mental Health of Students of Tehran Medical Sciences University in The Academic Year 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monavar Moradian Sorkhkalaee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Students are the most dynamic people in the society and their health is to a great extent a prerequisite for the health of most individuals in the society. This study was conducted to investigate the state of mental health and factors which influence it in the students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 400 students of Tehran Medical Sciences University in the academic year 2010-2011. The number of studied subjects was determined according to the student population of each faculty and questionnaires were randomly distributed among them. The data collection tool in this study was the standard GHQ28 questionnaire. After collecting the data, analysis was done using SPSS.18 software, Chi-square test, T-test, and Regression Logestic.Results: 25.52% of the attendants were healthy and 75.47% had suspected mental disorders. Also, regarding depression, 75.53% of people suffered from mental disorders and 25.46% were healthy.Conclusion: According to the achieved results, it seems that studying at university, facing educational problems and the existing conditions at university cause an increase in the rate of mental disorder among the students of Medical Sciences University.

  19. Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Maia da Costa de Faro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd levels in blood donors in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010-2011. Mean serum Cd was 0.37µg/L (95%CI: 0.33-0.41. Increased serum Cd was associated with lower schooling; individuals with less than five years of schooling showed a mean Cd of 0.61µg/L (95%CI: 0.34-0.89, compared to 0.34µg/L (95%CI: 0.28-0.40 among those with more than nine years of schooling. Mean serum Cd was three times higher among smokers. Smoking showed a positive association with Cd level, with an OR of 12.36 (95%CI: 7.70-19.84. Meanwhile, serum Cd was lower among individuals that regularly drank tea, as compared to non-tea drinkers. Serum Cd levels were mostly below the reference value (88.3% of participants. Mean serum Cd in the current study indicates that in general the population studied here is not exposed to worrisome Cd levels.

  20. Summer of sorrow: measuring exposure to and impacts of trauma after Queensland's natural disasters of 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Susan L; Berry, Helen L; McDermott, Brett M; Harper, Catherine M

    2013-10-21

    To assess the population prevalence of property, income and emotional impacts of the 2010-2011 Queensland floods and cyclones. Cross-sectional telephone-based survey using a brief trauma exposure and impact screening instrument, conducted between 11 March and 6 June 2011, of 6104 adults who answered natural disaster and mental health questions. Natural disaster property damage exposure and emotional wellbeing impacts. Two-thirds of respondents (62%) reported being affected by the disasters, with property damage exposure ranging from 37.2% (suburb or local area) to 9.2% (own home, with 2.1% living elsewhere at least temporarily). Income was reduced for 17.0% of respondents and 11.7% of income-producing property owners reported damage to those properties. Trauma impacts ranged from 14.3% of respondents feeling "terrified, helpless or hopeless" to 3.9% thinking they might be "badly injured or die". Up to 5 months after the disasters, 7.1% of respondents were "still distressed" and 8.6% were "worried about how they would manage". Adults of working age and residents of regional and remote areas and of socioeconomically disadvantaged areas were disproportionately likely to report exposure to damage and emotional impacts. Weather-related disasters exact a large toll on the population through property damage and resultant emotional effects. Vulnerable subpopulations are more severely affected. There is a need for realistic, cost-effective and rapid-deployment mass interventions in the event of weather disasters.

  1. Deep-water scleractinian corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from 2010-2011 INDEMARES expeditions to the Galicia Bank (Spain, northeast Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Alvaro

    2017-11-23

    During surveys in the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic) in the years 2010-2011 (INDEMARES project), 25 species of scleractinian corals corals were collected in a depth interval of 744-1764 m. Most interesting species are described and depicted. Additionally, species list and remarks are given for the 23 species dredged in the bank during the 1987 SEAMOUNT 1 expedition at 675-1125 m depth.From a literature review and new records from Galicia Bank given herein, 31 species of scleractinian corals are known from this seamount in a depth interval of 614-1764 m depth. Six are colonial and 25 solitary, with 17 occurring on hard bottoms and 14 on soft bottoms. Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata are the most widely distributed species in both number of stations and depth range of specimens collected alive. Some species were recorded outside their previously known bathymetric ranges in the northeastern Atlantic. Javania pseudoalabastra is first documented for the Iberian Peninsula and Spanish faunas. Thrypticotrochus sp. is first collected from the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Changes to Saturn's zonal-mean tropospheric thermal structure after the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Fletcher, L. N. [Atmospheric Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarenden Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M., E-mail: Richard.K.Achterberg@nasa.gov [Planetary Systems Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.

  3. Excavation of shafts and research galleries at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory. Construction work of MIU part 4. Construction progress report, fiscal year 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    This progress report presents an outline compilation of construction activities, primary tasks performed, construction progress and safety patrol report, in fiscal year 2010-2011. The outline of construction activities is a summary based on the scope of work planned in 2010-2011: the main activities are based on the Tono Geoscience Center weekly reports; and the construction progress is based on the planned and actual schedules. The safety patrol report is based on defects recording by the safety manager of the Geoscience Facility Construction Section. Regarding the plan and actual performance of the construction work of MIU part IV (March 16, 2010 - March 15, 2012) performance carried out from April 1, 2010 until March 15, 2012 is described in this report. The attached appendices have been provided: regarding content in the excavated material bellowing the environmental standards, technical specifications of fiscal year 2010-2011 in construction work of MIU part IV, also photos of construction activities. (author)

  4. Phase I Investigations at the Former CCC/USDA Grain Storage Facility in Montgomery City, Missouri, in 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division. Applied Geoscience and Environmental Restoration Program

    2012-11-01

    describes the investigative methods used in the 2010-2011 studies and provides a chronological summary of the field events conducted. Section 3 presents a summary of the resulting field and laboratory data. These data, together with information presented in the site-specific Work Plan (Argonne 2010), are interpreted and integrated in Section 4 to (1) develop a preliminary conceptual model of the hydrogeologic framework affecting groundwater and potential contaminant migration in the vicinity of the former CCC/USDA facility and (2) serve as a basis for the initial consideration of contaminant levels and potential exposure pathways that might be of concern in the evaluation of risks to human health, public welfare, and the environment. The working conclusions drawn from the 2010-2011 studies are presented, along with recommendations, in Section 5.

  5. Short communications published online in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, S; Southorn, B; Rosenbaum, G; Aldridge, T; Brennan, P A

    2012-09-01

    The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) publishes many types of papers including original articles, review articles, and short communications. Many of the latter are isolated case reports of rare or interesting diseases or of difficult or unexpected complications. While case reports are sometimes considered to be of little educational or clinical value, and as such do little to advance medical knowledge, they do have an important role, and many trainees begin their publishing careers writing such papers. There is increasing pressure for space in paper medical journals and, for this reason, some journals either limit or do not publish short publications in print copy but instead put them online. Using established criteria, we previously evaluated all 142 short communications published in the BJOMS during 2008-2009 and found that 48% of them had little or no educational value. As a result, the editorial board of BJOMS took the decision to publish most short communications online only. We have now analysed 48 short communications that were published online only during 2010-2011. Most (80%) were single case reports that covered virtually the whole remit of the specialty, and over half (56%) were published by authors based in the UK. While many of these papers did not add important new information to existing knowledge, these types of article are clearly of value both for trainees and for experienced surgeons. We think that these should continue to be supported as, in addition to their educational value, they are an excellent way for trainees to start to write. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of children with acute gastroenteritis in Madrid, Spain, during 2010-2011: rotavirus genotype distribution after the vaccines introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fauquier, Alicia; González-Galán, Verónica; Arroyo, Sandra; Cabornero, Ana; Ruiz-Burruecos, Ana; Wilhelmi-De Cal, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A structured surveillance study was conducted on children with diarrhea who were hospitalized in Madrid (Spain) during 2010-2011, in order to describe temporal, geographic, and age-related trends in rotavirus (RV) strains after the introduction of the RV vaccines in our country. A total of 370 children were enrolled, with RV being detected in 117 (31.6%) cases. Coinfections were detected mainly with rotavirus, astrovirus and norovirus. The most prevalent rotavirus G type was G1 (60.7%) followed by G2 (16.09%), G9 (5.9%), and G12 (5.1%). The G12 genotype appeared for the first time in 2008 in Spain, and it has increased to 5.1% of the cases in this report. Some uncommon P genotypes, such as P[14] and P[6], both with a low percentage, were found. The samples with G1 G2, G9 and G12 genotypes appeared in all ages, but were significantly higher in children under 2 years old. A long-term structured surveillance is required in the Spanish post vaccine era, in order to determine the prevalence and variability of RV genotypes. This will especially be needed to distinguish between changes occurring as a result of natural fluctuation in genotype or those (changes) that could be mediated by population immunity to the vaccines. In addition, it will be necessary to study the impact of the current vaccines on the circulating rotavirus strains and on the overall reduction in the prevalence of rotavirus disease among children in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  8. Slight Decline in Use of Private School Tuition Vouchers in 2010-2011: Loss of Schools Results in Fewer Students. Research Brief. Volume 99, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Anneliese; Schmidt, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For the first time since its 1998 expansion to include religious schools, enrollment in the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) did not grow in the 2010-2011 school year. Currently, 20,996 private school students receive taxpayer-funded tuition vouchers (of $6,442 per pupil), a decrease of 66 students over last year. Chart 1 shows program…

  9. 77 FR 72820 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; 2010-2011...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... governing ``Other Provisions,'' the English and Russian language versions of this revision shall be... Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; 2010-2011; Final Results of Administrative... from the Russian Federation (``the Agreement'') for the period July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011. See...

  10. Epidemiological and virological situation update of the 2010/2011 influenza season in the WHO European Region (Week 40/2010 to Week 03/2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mott, J.A.; Pereyaslov, D.; Jorgensen, P.; Brown, C.S.; Martirosyan, L.; Meerhoff, T.

    2011-01-01

    This overview of influenza data from the WHO European Region from weeks 40/2010 through week 3/2011 has been submitted for consideration during the WHO Northern Hemisphere Vaccine Strain Selection Meeting, to be held on 14-17 February, 2011, in Geneva. The 2010/2011 influenza season arrived 8-10

  11. Influenza in hospitalized children in Ireland in the pandemic period and the 2010/2011 season: risk factors for paediatric intensive-care-unit admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rebolledo, J

    2013-11-11

    SUMMARY Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. This study\\'s objectives were to describe influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 during the pandemic, to compare it with circulating influenza in 2010\\/2011, and to identify risk factors for severe influenza defined as requiring admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Children hospitalized with influenza during the pandemic were older, and more likely to have received antiviral therapy than children hospitalized during the 2010\\/2011 season. In 2010\\/2011, only one child admitted to a PICU with underlying medical conditions had been vaccinated. The risk of severe illness in the pandemic was higher in females and those with underlying conditions. In 2010\\/2011, infection with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 compared to other influenza viruses was a significant risk factor for severe disease. An incremental relationship was found between the number of underlying conditions and PICU admission. These findings highlight the importance of improving low vaccination uptake and increasing the use of antivirals in vulnerable children.

  12. Assessment of water use and its productivity in the Spanish irrigation district "Río Adaja"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Naroua, Iliassou; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    A study of the assessment of the irrigation water use has been carried out in the Spanish irrigation District "Río Adaja" that has analyzed the water use efficiency and the water productivity indicators for the main crops during the first three years of operation (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013). A soil water balance model was applied taking into account climatic data for the nearby weather station and soil properties. Crop water requirements were calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith with the application of the dual crop coefficient and by considering the readily available soil water content (RAW) concept. Likewise, productivity was measured by the indexes: annual relative irrigation supply (ARIS), annual relative water supply (ARWS), relative rainfall supply (RRS), the water productivity (WP), the evapotranspiration water productivity (ETWP), and the irrigation water productivity (IWP). The results show that the irrigation district applied deficit irrigation in most crops (ARIS<1), and also improved water productivity. This was higher in 2010/2011 which showed the highest effective precipitation Pe. The IWP (€/m3) index varied among crops with the highest values for onion (4.14), potato (2.79), carrot (1.37) and barley (1.21) for the first year and, onion (1.98), potato (1.69), carrot (1.70) and barley (1.16) in the second year. Thus, these crops would be a proper cropping pattern to maximize the gross income in the irrigation district.

  13. Irrigation Analysis Based on Long-Term Weather Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Mahan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation management is based upon delivery of water to a crop in the correct amount and time, and the crop’s water need is determined by calculating evapotranspiration (ET using weather data. In 1994, an ET-network was established in the Texas High Plains to manage irrigation on a regional scale. Though producers used the ET-network, by 2010 public access was discontinued. Why did producers allow a valuable irrigation-management tool to be eliminated? Our objective was to analyze the effect of declining well capacities on the usefulness of cotton ET (ETc for irrigation. Thirty years (1975–2004 of daily ETc data were used to compare irrigation demand vs. irrigation responses at four locations, analyzed for multiple years and range of well capacities for three irrigation-intervals. Results indicated that when well capacities declined to the point that over-irrigation was not possible, the lower well capacities reduced the value of ETc in terms of the number of irrigations and total amount of water applied. At well capacities <1514 L·min−1 the fraction of irrigations for which ETc information was used to determine the irrigation amount was <35% across years and irrigation intervals. The value of an ETc-based irrigation may fall into disuse when irrigation-water supplies decline.

  14. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  15. Parental Practices and Attitudes Related to Smoke-Free Rules in Homes, Cars, and Outdoor Playgrounds in US Households With Underage Children and Smokers, 2010?2011

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Rhoads, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A smoke-free environment protects children from exposure to involuntary smoke and also can reduce or prevent future smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine levels and correlates of parental behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor children?s play areas among US households with underage children and 1 or more smoking parents. Methods We used data from the 2010?2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population S...

  16. PENGARUH GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE DAN STRUKTUR KEPEMILIKAN TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN (STUDI EMPIRIS PADA PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR YANG TERDAFTAR DI BEI TAHUN 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Widyaningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti pengaruh good corporate governance dan struktur kepemilikan saham dalam perusahaan terhadap peningkatan kinerja perusahaan. Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder, yaitu laporan keuangan tahunan perusahaan manufaktur yang telah terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia untuk tahun 2010-2011. Pengambilan sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah purposive sampling. Analisis data dengan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil analisis regresi linier berganda dalam penelitian ini adalah corporate governance memiliki pengaruh yang positif terhadap kinerja perusahaan, sedangkan struktur kepemilikan saham baik kepemilikan dari pihak institusional ataupun manajerial tidak berpengaruh positif terhadap kinerja perusahaan.

  17. Falling chains

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chun Wa; Yasui, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    The one-dimensional fall of a folded chain with one end suspended from a rigid support and a chain falling from a resting heap on a table is studied. Because their Lagrangians contain no explicit time dependence, the falling chains are conservative systems. Their equations of motion are shown to contain a term that enforces energy conservation when masses are transferred between subchains. We show that Cayley's 1857 energy nonconserving solution for a chain falling from a resting heap is inco...

  18. Yield loss and economic thresholds of yellow nutsedge in irrigated rice as a function of the onset of flood irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon da Rosa Westendorff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus is adapted to flooding and reduces yield in irrigated rice. Information on the competitive ability of this weed with the crop and the size of the economic damage caused is lacking. Mathematical models quantify the damage to crops and support control decision-making. This study aimed to determine yield losses and economic thresholds (ET of this weed in the culture according to weed population and time of onset of irrigation of the crop. The field study was conducted in the agricultural year of 2010/2011 in Pelotas/RS to evaluate the competitive ability of BRS Querência in competition with different population levels of yellow nutsedge and two periods of onset of flood irrigation (14 and 21 days after emergence. The hyperbolic model satisfactorily estimated yield losses caused by yellow nutsedge. Population of yellow nutsedge was the variable most fitted to the model. The delay of seven days for the beginning of rice irrigation causes decrease in competitive ability of BRS Querência, and based on the ET calculated to the price paid for rice, it is necessary between two and thirteen plants m-2 weed to justify the control in the first and second period of irrigation, respectively. Increases in yield, price paid for rice and control efficiency of the herbicide, besides reduction of costs of controlling promote reduction of ET of yellow nutsedge in rice crops, justifying the adoption of control measures even at smaller weed population.

  19. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  20. Segregation of virulent influenza A(H1N1 variants in the lower respiratory tract of critically ill patients during the 2010-2011 seasonal epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piralla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since its appearance in 2009, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1 virus circulated worldwide causing several severe infections. METHODS: Respiratory samples from patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1 and acute respiratory distress attending 24 intensive care units (ICUs as well as from patients with lower respiratory tract infections not requiring ICU admission and community upper respiratory tract infections in the Lombardy region (10 million inhabitants of Italy during the 2010-2011 winter-spring season, were analyzed. RESULTS: In patients with severe ILI, the viral load was higher in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL with respect to nasal swab (NS, (p<0.001 suggesting a higher virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. Four distinct virus clusters (referred to as cluster A to D circulated simultaneously. Most (72.7%, n = 48 of the 66 patients infected with viruses belonging to cluster A had a severe (n = 26 or moderate ILI (n = 22. Amino acid mutations (V26I, I116M, A186T, D187Y, D222G/N, M257I, S263F, I286L/M, and N473D were observed only in patients with severe ILI. D222G/N variants were detected exclusively in BAL samples. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple virus clusters co-circulated during the 2010-2011 winter-spring season. Severe or moderate ILI were associated with specific 2009 influenza A(H1N1 variants, which replicated preferentially in the lower respiratory tract.

  1. A cluster of patients infected with I221V influenza b virus variants with reduced oseltamivir susceptibility--North Carolina and South Carolina, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shikha; Moore, Zack; Lee, Nicole; McKenna, John; Bishop, Amber; Fleischauer, Aaron; Springs, Chasisity B; Nguyen, Ha T; Sheu, Tiffany G; Sleeman, Katrina; Finelli, Lyn; Gubareva, Larisa; Fry, Alicia M

    2013-03-15

    During 2010-2011, influenza B viruses with a novel neuraminidase substitution, denoted I221V (B/I221V), associated with reduced in vitro oseltamivir susceptibility were detected in North Carolina. We determined the prevalence of I221V among B viruses submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for antiviral resistance surveillance, including all B viruses submitted to North Carolina and South Carolina state laboratories, during October 2010-September 2011.We conducted chart reviews and telephone interviews to characterize North Carolina and South Carolina patients with B/I221V vs wild-type B virus infection (B/WT). We detected I221V in 45 (22%) of 209 B viruses from North Carolina and 8 (10%) of 82 B viruses from South Carolina. We detected I221V in 3 (0.3%) of 881 B viruses tested from 45 other states. B/I221V infection was not associated with differences in underlying conditions or illness severity, compared with B/WT infection. No patients with B/I221V infection received oseltamivir prior to specimen collection. Among patients who completed oseltamivir, those with B/I221V infection reported a longer duration until illness resolution (5 vs 3 days; P = .02). B/I221V cocirculated with B/WT in North Carolina and South Carolina during 2010-2011. I221V did not alter illness severity but may have reduced oseltamivir effectiveness. Thus, global surveillance for I221V is important.

  2. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  3. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  4. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  5. Annual Report 2010-2011

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... 2013-2014 Annual Report 2013-2014 Rapport annuel 2013-2014 Annual Report 2014-2015 Annual Report 2014-2015 Rapport annuel 2014-2015 Investing in Solutions Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Investing in Solutions Strategic Plan 2015-2020 Investir dans des solutions Plan stratégique 2015-2020 Financial statements ...

  6. A large-scale investigation of the quality of groundwater in six major districts of Central India during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Peeyush

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates the groundwater quality in six major districts of Madhya Pradesh in central India, namely, Balaghat, Chhindwara, Dhar, Jhabua, Mandla, and Seoni during the 2010-2011 sampling campaign, and discusses improvements made in the supplied water quality between the years 2011 and 2017. Groundwater is the main source of water for a combined rural population of over 7 million in these districts. Its contamination could have a huge impact on public health. We analyzed the data collected from a large-scale water sampling campaign carried out by the Public Health Engineering Department (PHED), Government of Madhya Pradesh between 2010 and 2011 during which all rural tube wells and dug wells were sampled in these six districts. Eight hundred thirty-one dug wells and 47,606 tube wells were sampled in total and were analyzed for turbidity, hardness, iron, nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulfate ion concentrations. Our study found water in 21 out of the 228 dug wells in Chhindwara district unfit for drinking due to fluoride contamination while all dug wells in Balaghat had fluoride within the permissible limit. Twenty-six of the 56 dug wells and 4825 of the 9390 tube wells in Dhar district exceeded the permissible limit for nitrate while 100% dug wells in Balaghat, Seoni, and Chhindwara had low levels of nitrate. Twenty-four of the 228 dug wells and 1669 of 6790 tube wells in Chhindwara had high iron concentration. The median pH value in both dug wells and tube wells varied between 6 and 8 in all six districts. Still, a significant number of tube wells exceeded a pH of 8.5 especially in Mandla and Seoni districts. In conclusion, this study shows that parts of inhabited rural Madhya Pradesh were potentially exposed to contaminated subsurface water during 2010-2011. The analysis has been correlated with rural health survey results wherever available to estimate the visible impact. We next highlight that the quality of drinking water has enormously improved

  7. Parental Practices and Attitudes Related to Smoke-Free Rules in Homes, Cars, and Outdoor Playgrounds in US Households With Underage Children and Smokers, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana; Rhoads, Natalie

    2015-06-18

    A smoke-free environment protects children from exposure to involuntary smoke and also can reduce or prevent future smoking behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine levels and correlates of parental behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules in homes, cars, and outdoor children's play areas among US households with underage children and 1 or more smoking parents. We used data from the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey and logistic regressions to model behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules in 3 settings. Overall, 60.1% of households with children and at least 1 smoking parent had voluntary smoke-free home rules. Approximately 84.6% and 71.5% of parents thought that smoking should not be allowed inside cars with children present and in outdoor play areas, respectively. Positive parental behavior and attitudes related to voluntary smoke-free rules were more likely among households with 2 parents, parents of higher education and household income, Hispanic parents, and parents of infants (P prevention efforts are needed to promote the voluntary adoption of smoke-free rules in homes, private cars, and outdoor children's play areas. Most parents from smoker households with underage children were supportive of smoke-free laws for cars and outdoor children's play areas, providing evidence and encouragement to policy makers to take action to restrict smoking in these locations.

  8. The effective and preventive factors of taking patients\\' history from the viewpoint of the students of Birjand Medical School in 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Khazaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Taking patients' history and doing physical examinations help physicians to diagnose correctly and treat accordingly. There are several factors which may affect the quality of taking patients' history. This study aims to assess determinants of taking patients' history from the viewpoint of the students of Birjand Medical School. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in 2010-2011 on all 137 medical trainees and interns studying at Birjand Medical School. To determine the students’ attitudes towards history taking and to evaluate their performance a questionnaire and a check-list were used, respectively. The data analyzed using SPSS software. Descriptive-deductive statistics (T-test were applied on the data. Results: The average score of the motivational factors was more than the preventive factors. Among the motivational factors, the statement “taking patient history is a basis of proper diagnosis and treatment” (3.58 and among the preventive factors the statement “taking patient history just to evade responsibility”(2.57had the highest scores. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the performance of trainees and interns in taking and recording patients’ history (P<0.005. Conclusion: Although the students held a positive attitude toward taking patients' history, they didn’t have satisfactory performance in recording disease symptoms, diagnosis and treatment plans this entails more attention. Observation of trainers on the process of history taking may help.

  9. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute community acquired pneumonia in children at a reference public hospital in Pernambuco State, Brazil (2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes de Brito

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of acute community acquired pneumonia in children at a reference public hospital in Pernambuco State, Brazil (2010-2011 Methods: pneumonia case series of 80 children aged 28 days to 14 years old at Hospital da Restauração in Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2010 to 2011. Information was noted from medical files, and two comparison groups were created according to the severity of the disease, considering the presence of pleural effusion. Fisher or Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparative analyses. Results: severe pneumonia with pleural effusion was more frequent in children under five years of age (p=0,025, and was associated with longer period of fever (19 x 15 days and coughing (17 x 13 days, when compared to non-complicated pneumonia cases. Six children (7,5%, 6/80 died, 50% before the fourth day of hospitalization (p=0,001. All deaths were from the pleural effusion group in children from the countryside (p=0,026. Conclusions: the severity of pneumonia in children attended at this hospital is related to younger children, and those transferred from the health units in the countryside, so, early diagnosis and medical intervention are limited by infrastructure and available resources for the health.

  10. Level of knowledge, attitudes and substance use among students of primary and secondary schools in Belgrade 2010/2011: Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Ivan,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to organize prevention of substance abuse in the community, it is necessary to provide research on the level of knowledge, attitudes and patterns of use of particular substances within youth. In Belgrade, the Commission for the prevention of substance abuse among youth has done the research during the 2010/2011. The representative sample consisted of 1103 students from 16 primary and secondary schools in the city of Belgrade. We applied a specially designed questionnaire on the level of knowledge for particular classes of substances as well as new forms of addiction (internet, gambling. Important are data on different levels of students' knowledge about certain classes of substances. The low level of correct answers was noted for the way of cannabis use (5.3%, the consequences of amphetamines use (0.8%, the effects of opiates (1.9%, ways of using opiates (1.4%, effects of steroids (0.7%, the types of inhalants (3.8%, types of synthetic drugs (18.7% and the ability to detect substances in the urine (0.5%. The high level of correct answers was noted on the issue of the consequences of using marijuana (84.4%, sedatives (89.4%, possibility the Internet addiction (85.7%, computer games dependence (86.4% and betting (90.9%. This work provide guidelines for educational programs in order to improve students' knowledge in this field.

  11. Support for smoke-free cars when children are present: a secondary analysis of 164,819 U.S. adults in 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O; Olufajo, Olubode; Filippidis, Filippos T; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2014-11-01

    Comprehensive smoke-free legislations prohibiting smoking in indoor areas of workplaces, bars, and restaurants have been adopted in most of the USA; however, limited efforts have focused on regulating secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in the family car. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants and national/state-specific population support for smoke-free cars, in the presence of any occupant in general, but particularly when children are present. National data of US adults aged ≥18 years (n = 164,819) were obtained from the 2010/2011 Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey. Among all US adults, a significantly greater proportion supported smoke-free cars when it was specified that the occupant was a child compared to when not specified (93.4 vs. 73.7 %, p race/ethnicity, gender, current tobacco use, marital status, and the existence of household smoke-free regulations all mediated population support for smoke-free cars. While differences within the US population were noted, this study however showed overwhelming support for smoke-free car policies, particularly when children are present. Policies which prohibit smoking in indoor or confined areas such as cars may benefit public health by protecting nonsmoking children and adults from involuntary SHS exposure.

  12. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia

    2013-01-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements

  13. Perceptions and the role of group exercise among New York City adults, 2010-2011: an examination of interpersonal factors and leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Melanie J; Yi, Stella S; Bartley, Katherine F; Eisenhower, Donna L

    2015-03-01

    To examine associations of descriptive norms (i.e., behaviors of social group members) and exercising 'with a partner' or 'as a part of a group' on weekly leisure-time physical activity. T-tests and adjusted multivariable linear models were used to test the associations between descriptive norms and exercising with a partner or as a part of a group with self-reported leisure-time physical activity using the cross-sectional, population-based New York City Physical Activity and Transit (PAT) Survey 2010-2011 (n=3806). Overall, 70.6% of adult New Yorkers reported having physically active friends. Having active friends was associated with increased leisure-time physical activity; however, the effect varied by sex. Compared to those who did not have active friends, males with active friends reported two times more activity (56 min/week) and women reported two and a half times more activity (35 min/week) (both p-valuesPhysically active males and females who usually engaged in leisure-time activities as a part of a group reported 1.4 times more activity than those who exercised alone (both p-valuesexercise were associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults. Based on these associations, encouraging group exercise may be an effective strategy for increasing leisure-time physical activity among certain subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enfermedad Periodontal en la población joven y adulta uruguaya del Interior del país: Relevamiento Nacional 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Durante los años 2010-2011, la Facultad de Odontología, Udelar realizó el “Primer Relevamiento Nacional de salud bucal en población joven y adulta uruguaya”. Metodología: estudio poblacional con muestreo complejo en fases que abarcó todo el país urbano (ciudades con más de 20.000 habitantes y las edades de 15-24, 35-44 y 65-74 años, mediante dos muestras independientes: departamentos del interior (n=922 y Montevideo (n=563. Se aplicaron los “Métodos Básicos para estudios poblacionales” (OMS, 1997. Mediante un examen clínico se recogió información en los domicilios sobre: caries, paradenciopatías, lesiones mucosas, maloclusiones. Se aplicó un cuestionario sobre factores socio-culturales. Para el diagnóstico, medición y resumen de la Enfermedad Periodontal, se usó el Índice Periodontal Comunitario (CPI incorporándose las modificaciones introducidas por el “Projecto SB Brasil 2010”. Resultados: población adulta (35-44/65-74: proporción de individuos: sanos 12% y 1.3%; con bolsas ≥ 4mm: 17% y 6%, respectivamente y con alta proporción sextantes excluidos (49,7 % y 89,5%.

  15. Association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase levels in female workers: data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung-Gwon; Lee, Yong-Jin; Ham, Jung-Oh; Jang, Eun-Chul; Kim, Seong-Woo; Park, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between long working hours and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels, a factor influencing the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2011) were used to analyze 1,809 women. Subjects were divided into three groups based on the number of weekly working hours: ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 hours per week. Complex samples logistic regression was performed after adjusting for general and occupational factors to determine the association between long working hours and high serum GGT levels. The prevalence of high serum GGT levels in groups with ≤29, 30-51, and ≥52 working hours per week was 22.0%, 16.9%, and 26.6%, respectively. Even after adjusting for general and occupational factors, those working 30-51 hours per week had the lowest prevalence of high serum GGT levels. Compared to those working 30-51 hours per week, the odds ratios (OR) of having high serum GGT levels in the groups with ≥52 and ≤29 working hours per week were 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-2.23) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.05-2.24), respectively. Long working hours were significantly associated with high serum GGT levels in Korean women.

  16. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  17. Estimation of Maize photosynthesis Efficiency Under Deficit Irrigation and Mulch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadithi, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research aims at estimating maize photosynthesis efficiency under deficit irrigation and soil mulching. A split-split plot design experiment was conducted with three replicates during the fall season 2000 and spring season 2001 at the experimental Station of Soil Dept./ Iraq Atomic Energy Commission. The main plots were assigned to full and deficit irrigation treatments: (C) control. The deficit irrigation treatment included the omission of one irrigation at establishment (S1, 15 days), vegetation (S2, 35 days), flowering (S3, 40 days) and yield formation (S4, 30 days) stages. The sub-plots were allocated for the two varieties, Synthetic 5012 (V1) and Haybrid 2052 (V2). The sub-sub-plots were assigned to mulch (M1) with wheat straw and no mulch (M0). Results showed that the deficit irrigation did not affect photosynthesis efficiency in both seasons, which ranged between 1.90 to 2.15% in fall season and between 1.18 and 1.45% in spring season. The hybrid variety was superior 9.39 and 9.15% over synthetic variety in fall and spring seasons, respectively. Deficit irrigation, varieties and mulch had no significant effects on harvest index in both seasons. This indicates that the two varieties were stable in their partitioning efficiency of nutrient matter between plant organ and grains under the condition of this experiment. (Author) 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Case-based reported mortality associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection in the Netherlands: the 2009-2010 pandemic season versus the 2010-2011 influenza season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timen Aura

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to seasonal influenza epidemics, where the majority of deaths occur amongst elderly, a considerable part of the 2009 pandemic influenza related deaths concerned relatively young people. In the Netherlands, all deaths associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection had to be notified, both during the 2009-2010 pandemic season and the 2010-2011 influenza season. To assess whether and to what extent pandemic mortality patterns were reverting back to seasonal patterns, a retrospective analyses of all notified fatal cases associated with laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection was performed. Methods The notification database, including detailed information about the clinical characteristics of all notified deaths, was used to perform a comprehensive analysis of all deceased patients with a laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection. Characteristics of the fatalities with respect to age and underlying medical conditions were analysed, comparing the 2009-2010 pandemic and the 2010-2011 influenza season. Results A total of 65 fatalities with a laboratory-confirmed influenza A(H1N1 2009 virus infection were notified in 2009-2010 and 38 in 2010-2011. During the pandemic season, the population mortality rates peaked in persons aged 0-15 and 55-64 years. In the 2010-2011 influenza season, peaks in mortality were seen in persons aged 0-15 and 75-84 years. During the 2010-2011 influenza season, the height of first peak was lower compared to that during the pandemic season. Underlying immunological disorders were more common in the pandemic season compared to the 2010-2011 season (p = 0.02, and cardiovascular disorders were more common in the 2010-2011 season (p = 0.005. Conclusions The mortality pattern in the 2010-2011 influenza season still resembled the 2009-2010 pandemic season with a peak in relatively young age groups, but concurrently a clear shift toward

  19. Gambaran Peningkatan Angka Kejadian Gangguan Afektif dengan Gejala Psikotik pada Pasien Rawat Inap di RSJ Prof. Dr. HB. Sa’anin Padang pada Tahun 2010 - 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Fithri Syafwan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGangguan suasana perasaan (gangguan afektif atau mood merupakan sekelompok gambaran klinis yang ditandai dengan berkurang atau hilangnya kontrol emosi dan pengendalian diri. Gangguan afektif dapat berupa depresi, manik atau campuran keduanya (bipolar. Pada beberapa pasien gejala-gejalanya dapat disertai dengan ciri psikotik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran peningkatan angka kejadian gangguan afektif dengan gejala psikotik pada pasien rawat inap di RSJ Prof. Dr. HB. Sa’anin Padang dari tahun 2010 - 2011. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2013 - Agustus 2013. Metode penelitian adalah deskriptif dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 199 orang pada tahun 2010 dan 205 orang pada tahun 2011. Data dikumpulkan melalui bagian rekam medik RSJ Prof. Dr. HB. Sa’anin Padang dan hasil yang didapat disajikan dalam bentuk tabel distribusi frekuensi. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat peningkatan jumlah pasien gangguan afektif dengan gejala psikotik pada pasien rawat inap dari segi umur, jenis kelamin, pasien dari kota Padang dan luar kota Padang. Total pasien rawat inap gangguan afektif dengan gejala psikotik terhadap seluruh pasien rawat inap di RSJ Prof. Dr. HB. Sa’anin Padang adalah 31,7% (2010 dan 30% (2011 dengan usia terbanyak 20-29 tahun dan laki-laki lebih banyak daripada perempuan. Status perkawinan ditemukan kasus terbanyak pada pasien yang belum menikah dan berasal dari luar kota Padang, pekerjaan terbanyak ditemukan pada pasien yang tidak bekerja, dari segi pendidikan kasus terbanyak adalah pada SLTA-sederajat.Kata kunci: gangguan manik, gejala psikotik, gangguan depresi berat, gangguan afektif tipe campuranAbstractAffective disorder (mood disorder is group of clinical picture is characterized by reduced or loss of emotional control and self-control. Affective disorders may include depression, manic or mixture of both. In some patients the symptoms may be accompanied by psychotic featured. This study aims

  20. Analyzing the 2010-2011 La Niña signature in the tropical Pacific sea surface salinity using in situ data, SMOS observations, and a numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Audrey; Delcroix, Thierry; Boutin, Jacqueline; Dussin, Raphael; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2014-06-01

    The tropical Pacific Ocean remained in a La Niña phase from mid-2010 to mid-2012. In this study, the 2010-2011 near-surface salinity signature of ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) is described and analyzed using a combination of numerical model output, in situ data, and SMOS satellite salinity products. Comparisons of all salinity products show a good agreement between them, with a RMS error of 0.2-0.3 between the thermosalinograph (TSG) and SMOS data and between the TSG and model data. The last 6 months of 2010 are characterized by an unusually strong tripolar anomaly captured by the three salinity products in the western half of the tropical Pacific. A positive SSS anomaly sits north of 10°S (>0.5), a negative tilted anomaly lies between 10°S and 20°S and a positive one south of 20°S. In 2011, anomalies shift south and amplify up to 0.8, except for the one south of 20°S. Equatorial SSS changes are mainly the result of anomalous zonal advection, resulting in negative anomalies during El Niño (early 2010), and positive ones thereafter during La Niña. The mean seasonal and interannual poleward drift exports those anomalies toward the south in the southern hemisphere, resulting in the aforementioned tripolar anomaly. The vertical salinity flux at the bottom of the mixed layer tends to resist the surface salinity changes. The observed basin-scale La Niña SSS signal is then compared with the historical 1998-1999 La Niña event using both observations and modeling.

  1. Fish consumption, mercury exposure, and the risk of cholesterol profiles: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Min Cho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations between mercury (Hg exposure and cholesterol profiles were analyzed, and increased Hg levels and cholesterol profiles according to the amount of fish consumption were evaluated. Data on levels of blood Hg, the frequency of fish consumption, total blood cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG in 3951 adults were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011 database. To compare the distribution for each log-transformed indicator, Student’s t-test and analysis of variance were carried out, and the groups were classified according to the frequency of fish consumption through linear regression analysis; the association between Hg level and cholesterol profiles in each group was analyzed. The blood Hg levels (arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean for all target participants were 4.59, 3.66, and 3.74 µg/L, respectively. The high cholesterol group, low HDL-C group, and high TG group showed a statistically and significantly higher blood Hg level than the low-risk group. In both sexes, as the frequency of fish consumption increased, blood Hg level also increased, but TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG did not show a similar trend. Increased blood Hg level showed a significant association with increased TC and LDL-C. This statistical significance was maintained in the group with less frequent fish consumption (8 times per month did not show a similar trend. The results of this study suggest that fish consumption increases the level of Hg exposure, and that as the level of Hg exposure increases, the levels of cholesterol profiles increase. However, this study also suggests that the levels of cholesterol profiles in those with frequent fish consumption can be diminished.

  2. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    2017-01-01

    . We argue that the effect has historical origins: irrigation allowed landed elites in arid areas to monopolize water and arable land. This made elites more powerful and better able to oppose democratization. Consistent with this conjecture, we show that irrigation dependence predicts land inequality...

  3. Effective colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazier, W P; Dignan, R D; Capehart, R J; Smith, B G

    1976-06-01

    The ultimate goal of the cone method of colostomy irrigation is to return patients with colostomies to their former role in society with confidence in themselves to the extent that having a colostomy is not considered a handicap. The results have generally been excellent. We believe all patients with stomas should be afforded the opportunity to attempt colostomy irrigation.

  4. Students fall for Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Kara

    2012-02-01

    From Boston to Beijing, thousands of students traveled to San Francisco for the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting. Of those who participated, 183 students were able to attend thanks to AGU's student travel grant program, which assists students with travel costs and seeks to enrich the meeting through ethnic and gender diversity. Students at Fall Meeting enjoyed a variety of programs and activities designed to help them better network with their peers, learn about new fields, and disseminate their research to the interested public. More than 800 students attended AGU's first annual student mixer, sharing drinks and ideas with fellow student members and future colleagues as well as forging new friendships and intellectual relationships.

  5. Steinar Imsen (ed., The Norwegian Dominion and the Norse World c. 1100-c1400 & Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages (Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press, 2010 & 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Bakker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Book review of: Steinar Imsen (ed., The Norwegian Dominion and the Norse World c. 1100-c1400 and Taxes, Tributes and Tributary Lands in the Making of the Scandinavian Kingdoms in the Middle Ages (Trondheim: Tapir Academic Press, 2010 & 2011

  6. Economic impacts on irrigated agriculture of water conservation programs in drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes vulnerability, impacts, and adaptability by irrigation to drought.It accounts for economic incentives affecting choices on irrigation technology, crop mix, and water sources.When surface water supplies fall, farmers increase pumping, even when pumping raises production costs.Conservation program subsidies raise the value of food production but can increase crop water depletions.

  7. Astronomy Degree Recipients Initial Employment: Results from the Follow-Up Survey of Degree Recipients, Classes of 2010, 2011 and 2012 Combined. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Each fall the Statistical Research Center (SRC) conducts its Survey of Enrollments and Degrees, which asks all degree-granting physics and astronomy departments in the US to provide information concerning the numbers of students they have enrolled and counts of recent degree recipients. In connection with this survey, SRC asks for the names and…

  8. Effectiveness of a fall-risk reduction programme for inpatient rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljar, Nika; Globokar, Daniel; Puzić, Nataša; Kopitar, Natalija; Vrabič, Maja; Ivanovski, Matic; Vidmar, Gaj

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk-assessment-based fall prevention for stroke rehabilitation inpatients. A consecutive series of 232 patients admitted for the first time to a subacute stroke-rehabilitation ward during 2010-2011 was studied in detail. The Assessment Sheet for Fall Prediction in Stroke Inpatients (ASFPSI by Nakagawa et al.) was used to assess fall-risk upon admission. Association of ASFPSI score and patient characteristics with actual falls was statistically tested. Yearly incidence of falls per 1000 hospital days (HD) was retrospectively audited for the 2006-2014 period to evaluate effectiveness of fall-risk reduction measures. The observed incidence of falls over the detailed-study-period was 3.0/1000 HD; 39% of the fallers fell during the first week after admission. ASFPSI score was not significantly associated with falls. Longer hospital stay, left body-side affected and non-extreme FIM score (55-101) were associated with higher odds of fall. Introduction of fall-risk reduction measures followed by compulsory fall-risk assessment lead to incidence of falls dropping from 7.1/1000 HD in 2006 to 2.8/1000 HD in 2011 and remaining at that level until 2014. The fall-risk-assessment-based measures appear to have led to decreasing falls risk among post-stroke rehabilitation inpatients classified as being at high risk of falls. The fall prevention programme as a whole was successful. Patients with non-extreme level of functional independence should receive enhanced fall prevention. Implications for Rehabilitation Recognising the fall risk upon the patient's admission is essential for preventing falls in rehabilitation wards. Assessing the fall risk is a team tasks and combines information from various sources. Assessing fall risk in stroke patients using the assessment sheet by Nakagawa et al. immediately upon admission systematically draws attention to the risk of falls in each individual patient.

  9. Directory of the manufacturers and suppliers for the French wind power industry; Annuaire des fabricants et fournisseurs de l'industrie eolienne 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    With over 5, 660 MW installed in end-2010, France ranks fourth in Europe, behind Germany, Spain and Italy. The wind power industry currently employs almost 11, 000 people in France throughout the value chain. In 2009, the first edition of this directory listed over one hundred companies working in around twenty different areas. Encouraged by these initial positive results, and with the help of ADEME, the French syndicate for renewable energies (SER) asked Capgemini Consulting to undertake a study to identify and raise awareness among French industrials likely to enter into the wind energy market. The French Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea, along with the Ministry for the Economy, Finance and Employment, were involved in the work. 400 companies were questioned as part of the study. Over 150 replies testified to the dynamic character of the wind power market in France and overseas, and the opportunities for diversification that it represents for traditional industries like metallurgy, aeronautics, defence and shipyards, etc. The study led to the creation of the initiative Windustry France, which currently groups over 300 companies either active in the French wind power market or set to enter it. Windustry France is a showcase of the industrial know-how that can be used in the wind power industry both onshore and offshore. It includes local set-ups developed around major fields of activity (e.g. car industry, aeronautics, mechanics, etc.) and industrial port zones (Dunkerque, Rouen/Le Havre, Brest, Nantes Saint-Nazaire, Bordeaux, etc.). Several ministries, regional stakeholders and authorities are also involved (local authorities, Regional directorates for industry, research and the environment (DReal) networks and chambers of commerce and industry), all of which contribute to making Windustry France a collective approach to industrial policy. The 2010-2011 edition of the directory of manufacturers and suppliers for the wind power

  10. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2014-04-01

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K d ) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K d values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO 3 -HF extraction. The 'in situ' K d values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH 4 Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K d values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K d data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of processes into a single value, but the data also vary

  11. Geochemical and physical properties, distribution coefficients of soils and sediments at the Olkiluoto Island and in the reference area in 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-04-15

    The report summarises the chemical, physical and mineralogical data and the calculated 'in situ' distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) values of the indigenous elements from the different types of soil and sediment samples at the Olkiluoto Island and in the Reference area that were taken in 2010-2011. The data has been collected in order to extend the understanding of the site evolution and for radionuclide transport analyses and modelling. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of elements and radionuclides. This report is part of the entirety of soil and sediment data from different soil types, soil layers and environmental conditions collected earlier for the biosphere site description and development. Soil and sediment samples were taken at various depths of humus, peat, gyttja, sandy/fine sandy till and cropland soils. The analyses procedure varied to some extent between the samples. In all samples were analysed pH, LOI, C, N, and the total concentrations of the elements using HNO{sub 3}-HF extraction. The 'in situ' K{sub d} values were calculated using the formula by Sheppard et al.. For selected samples the easily leachable fraction was analysed by NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). Bulk density and mineralogy was determined for a few samples. Grain size distribution was measured only from till samples. The results are discussed and the physical-chemical data and distribution coefficients of the results are presented. The cation exchange capacity and base saturation are calculated for the sandy/fine sandy till samples from Olkiluoto. The K{sub d} values of the important indigenous elements Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Ni, Se and Sr are of main interest in biosphere development due to the longest half-lives of the associated radionuclides, thus having long interaction times. The K{sub d} data are inherently extremely variable due to nature of practical quantity in question, aggregating a number of

  12. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  13. Analysis of the electricity supply-demand balance for the winter of 2010-2011. A globally more favourable situation than last winter up to the end of January 2011. The risk of supply disruption is moderate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Twice a year, RTE publishes a forecast study of the electricity supply and demand in continental France for the summer and winter periods. The study is based on the information supplied by electric utilities concerning the expected availability of power generation means and on statistical meteorological models. Safety margins are calculated using thousands of probabilistic scenarios combining various production and consumption situations. This report is the forecast study for the winter of 2010-2011

  14. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  15. Effects of supplemental irrigation on water consumption characteristics and grain yield in different wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Weiwei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of water resources is a major limiting factor for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production in the North China Plain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of supplemental irrigation (SI on water use characteristics and grain yield of the wheat cultivars 'Jimai 22'and 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Two supplemental irrigation treatment regimens were designed based on target relative soil moisture contents in 0-140 cm soil layers at jointing rising to 75% of field capacity (FC for each cultivar, and at anthesis rising to 65% and 75% (W1, and 70% and 80% (W2 in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively. Rain-fed (W0 treatment was used as control. Under W1, grain yield of 'Jimai 22' was 5.22% higher than that of W2, and water use efficiency (WUE of 'Zhouyuan 9369' was 4.0% higher than that under W2. No significant differences in WUE of 'Jimai 22' and grain yield of 'Zhouyuan 9369' were observed for the two treatment regimens in 2009-2010. Grain yield and WUE in W1 were higher than those of W2 for both cultivars in 2010-2011. W1 enhanced soil water consumption compared to W2, especially in the 100-200 cm soil layers, for both cultivars in 2009-2011. Meanwhile, 'Jimai 22' showed higher soil water consumption and ET from anthesis to mature stage, which resulted in increase in grain yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' by 8.15-21.7% and 7.75-11.73% in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, respectively, compared with 'Zhouyuan 9369'. Thus, our results showed that SI increased the yield and WUE of 'Jimai 22' and W1 was the better treatment regimen.

  16. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  17. Pro-Active Fall-Risk Management is Mandatory to Sustain in Hospital-Fall Prevention in Older Patients--Validation of the LUCAS Fall-Risk Screening in 2,337 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, V S; Neumann, L; Golgert, S; von Renteln-Kruse, W

    2015-12-01

    Prevention of in-hospital falls contributes to improvement of patient safety. However, the identification of high-risk patients remains a challenge despite knowledge of fall-risk factors. Hence, objective was to prospectively validate the performance of the LUCAS (Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study) fall-risk screening, based on routine data (fall history, mobility, mental status) and applied by nurses. Observational study comparing two groups of patients who underwent different fall-risk screenings; the LUCAS screening (2010 - 2011) and the STRATIFY (St. Thomas's Risk Assessment Tool In Falling Elderly Inpatients) (2004 - 2006). Urban teaching hospital. Consecutively hospitalized patients (≥ 65 years old) were screened on admission; LUCAS n = 2,337, STRATIFY n = 4,735. The proportions of fallers were compared between the STRATIFY and the LUCAS time periods. The number of fallers expected was compared to that observed in the LUCAS time period. Standardized fall-incidence recording included case-note checks for unreported falls. Plausibility checks of fall-risk factors and logistic regression analysis for variable fall-risk factors were performed. The proportions of fallers during the two time periods were LUCAS n = 291/2,337 (12.5%) vs. STRATIFY n = 508/4,735 (10.7%). After adjustment for risk-factor prevalence, the proportion of fallers expected was 14.5% (334/2,337), the proportion observed was 12.5% (291/2,337) (p = 0.038). In-hospital fall prevention including systematic use of the LUCAS fall-risk screening reduced the proportion of fallers compared to that expected from the patients' fall-risk profile. Raw proportions of fallers are not suitable to evaluate fall prevention in hospital because of variable prevalence of patients' fall-risk factors over time. Continuous communication, education and training is needed to sustain in-hospital falls prevention.

  18. An assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucks, S S; Mazier, W P; Milsom, J W; Buffin, S E; Anderson, J M; Warwick, M K; Surrell, J A

    1988-04-01

    One hundred patients with permanent sigmoid colostomies were surveyed to determine their satisfaction and success with the "irrigation" technique of colostomy management. Most patients who irrigate their colostomies achieve continence. Odors and skin irritation are minimized. The irrigation method is economical, time efficient, and allows a reasonably liberal diet. It avoids bulky appliances and is safe. In appropriately selected patients, the irrigation technique is the method of choice for management of an end-sigmoid colostomy.

  19. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  20. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  1. An Innovative Approach for Decreasing Fall Trauma Admissions from Geriatric Living Facilities: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tracy; Gross, Brian; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Harnish, Carissa; Vellucci, Ashley; Bupp, Katherine; Horst, Michael; Miller, Jo Ann; Baier, Ron; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B

    2015-12-01

    Geriatric living facilities have been associated with a high rate of falls. We sought to develop an innovative intervention approach targeting geriatric living facilities that would reduce geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center. In 2011, a Trauma Prevention Taskforce visited 5 of 28 local geriatric living facilities to present a fall prevention protocol composed of three sections: fall education, risk factor identification, and fall prevention strategies. To determine the impact of the intervention, the trauma registry was queried for all geriatric fall admissions attributed to patients living at local geriatric living facilities. The fall admission rate (total fall admissions/total beds) of the pre-intervention period (2010-2011) was compared with that of the postintervention period (2012-2013) at the 5 intervention and 23 control facilities. A P value fall admissions attributed to local geriatric living facilities (intervention: 179 fall admissions; control: 308 fall admissions). The unadjusted fall rate decreased at intervention facilities from 8.9 fall admissions/bed pre-intervention to 8.1 fall admissions/bed postintervention, whereas fall admission rates increased at control sites from 5.9 to 7.7 fall admissions/bed during the same period [control/intervention odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32, 1.05-1.67; period OR, 95%CI = 1.55, 1.18-2.04, P = 0.002; interaction of control/intervention group and period OR 95% CI = 0.68, 0.46-1.00, P = 0.047]. An aggressive intervention program targeting high-risk geriatric living facilities resulted in a statistically significant decrease in geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center.

  2. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  3. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  4. [Irrigation in colostomies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Juana; Lecona, Ana; Caparrós, M Rosario; Barbero, M Antonia; Javier Cerdán, F

    2002-01-01

    The degree of acceptation of irrigation from a colostomy varies ostensibly from some cases to others, therefore, we study what occurs in our medium, separating those patients which have previously undergone other procedures (Group A) from those patients who have been informed and trained about the immediate postoperative period (Group B). 48 patients, 22 or 46% of these patients were considered not apt for irrigation. Of the 26 to whom this procedure was proposed, 14 or 54% accepted. Of these, 5 or 36% abandoned its use while 9 continued its use; this is 64% of those who accepted this procedure, 35% of those to whom it was proposed and 19% of the total study group. 189 patients. This procedure was not recommended to 95 patients, 50%. Of the 94 patients to whom this procedure was proposed, 65 or 69% accepted. Of these, 22 or 34% abandoned its use while 43 continued its use; this is 66% of those; who accepted this procedure, 46% of those to whom it was proposed and 23% of the total study group. In our medium, the practice of irrigation oscillates between 19 and 23% of patients who have undergone a colostomy, without any significant difference referring to the moment when a patient started this procedure. A first report on this study was submitted in the III National Congress for Nursing in Colostomies.

  5. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS AND IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Aniketh; Mohamed; Geeta; Nandakishore; Gourav Kumar; Patrick Timothy; Jayson Mathew; Sahle Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Root canal irrigation is not much emphasised in endodontic therapy. Most articles discussed are on root canal shaping and obturation not much emphasis is given for irrigation. There are many irrigation solutions which are introduced into market. The primary objective of root canal therapy is the ret ention of the pulpless or pulpally involved tooth with its associated periapical tissues in a healthy state. Achievement of this objective requires that the pulpal spaces and con...

  6. Fall Enrollment Report. 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes fall enrollment in Iowa's community colleges. Each year, Iowa's 15 community colleges submit data on enrollment on the 10th business day of the fall semester. Some highlights from this report include: (1) Fall 2014 enrollment was 93,772 students--a decline of 0.49 percent from last fall; (2) Enrollment continues…

  7. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  8. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  9. Impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil salinity, hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity and macro-nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif A. Al-Khamisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted at Agriculture Research Center, Oman during the year 2010/2011 to monitor the impact of reclaimed water irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties after wheat, cowpea and maize cultivation (in rotation. Three different water sources (Groundwater (GW, desalinized water (DW, and Reclaimed Water (RW were used as the treatments in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with 3 blocks (replicates. Samples were taken from four depths (30, 45, 60 and 90 cm after harvesting time of the three crops. Soil salinity (ECe in all soil depths decreased with time. Organic carbon did not show significant difference between harvest timings of wheat and cowpea. Organic carbon increased with time in soil irrigated with reclaimed water. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil, Ksat didn’t show significant difference among the water types and their interaction with soil depths. Total nitrogen was the highest after cowpea harvest in reclaimed water irrigation. The soil phosphorus and potassium were not affected by any of the three water irrigation types. The highest concentrations of phosphorus and potassium were found to be in the upper soil layers. Overall, no adverse impacts of reclaimed water irrigation were observed after growing three crops of rotation.

  10. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  11. Irrigation management of sigmoid colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, S W; Beart, R W; Wendorf, L J; Ilstrup, D M

    1985-08-01

    Questionnaires were sent to 270 patients who had undergone abdominoperineal resection and sigmoid colostomy at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the ten years from 1972 to 1982; 223 patients returned their questionnaires with evaluable data. Sixty percent of the patients were continent with irrigation, and 22% were incontinent with irrigation. Eighteen percent had discontinued irrigation for various reasons. The proportion continent was higher in women, younger patients, and previously constipated patients. A poorly constructed colostomy may cause acute angle, parastoma hernia, stomal prolapse, or stenosis and thus be the cause of failure of irrigation.

  12. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  13. Effect of irrigation on heavy metals content of wastewater irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an urgent need to educate farmers on the dangers of the presence of heavy metals in soils as well as the quality of irrigation water especially if it comes from tanning industries for increased crop production. Accordingly, soil and irrigation wastewater study was conducted to assess the concentrations of heavy ...

  14. VARIABILIDAD EN LA NOTIFICACIÓN DE REACCIONES ADVERSAS A LAS VACUNAS DE LA GRIPE PANDÉMICA Y ESTACIONAL. TEMPORADAS 2009-2010 Y 2010-2011, COMUNITAT VALENCIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Alguacil Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: La pérdida de confianza en la seguridad de las vacunas derivada de situaciones de alarma, como en el caso de la gripe pandémica, puede afectar tanto a las coberturas vacunales como a la sensibilidad frente a la notificación de las sospechas de reacciones adversas asociadas a vacunas (SRAAV. El objetivo del trabajo es describir los efectos adversos a la vacuna frente a la gripe pandémica notificados en la temporada 2009-2010 y comparar si existen diferencias con los descritos con la vacuna de la gripe estacional en las temporadas 2009-2010 y 2010-2011 en la Comunitat Valenciana (CV. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de los individuos vacunados frente a la gripe que presentaron alguna SRAAV a la vacuna antigripal y que fue notificada a través del Sistema de Información Vacunal, durante las temporadas 2009-2010 (incluyendo la vacunación pandémica y 2010-2011 en CV. se calcularon las tasas de notificación de sospechas de reacciones adversas asociadas a vacunas por cada mil dosis de vacunas administradas y sus intervalos de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Durante el periodo 2009-2010 la tasa de notificación de SRAAV para la vacuna de la gripe estacional fue de 0,02 por mil dosis administradas, para la vacuna pandémica de 0,95. En el periodo 2010-2011 la tasa para la vacuna de la gripe estacional fue de 0,04 por mil. Conclusiones: Durante las temporadas analizadas se incrementó el número de notificaciones de SRAAV para las vacunas pandémicas en comparación con el resto de vacunas antigripales. La mayor tasa de notificación de SRAAV correspondió al grupo de profesionales sociosanitarios, tanto para las vacunas frente a la gripe estacional como pandé- mica.

  15. Preventing falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, J; Robinson, B E

    1994-11-01

    One of four persons over age 65 in the community falls; those over age 75 in institutions fall more frequently. Falls, a complex phenomena suggesting present disease and predicting future disability, are caused by interactions between the environment and dynamic balance which is determined by the quality of sensory input, central processing, and motor responses. Clinical factors which predispose to falling often produce observable disturbances in gait and balance, making observation critical in assessment. Acute illness and drug therapy produce particularly preventable falls. Therapeutic exercise and environmental modification for safety are the clinical interventions most likely to successfully prevent fall-related injury.

  16. How Patients Experience Antral Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blomgren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Antral irrigation earlier had an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of rhinosinusitis. Nowadays, it is often considered too unpleasant. However, the experience of patients of this procedure has been very seldom evaluated. Nor has the effect on pain in rhinosinusitis been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients’ experience of discomfort and pain during antral irrigation. We also assessed facial pain caused by rhinosinusitis before the procedure and pain soon after the procedure. Methods Doctors and 121 patients completed their questionnaires independently after antral irrigation in a university clinic, in a private hospital, and at a communal health center. Results Patients experienced mild pain during antral irrigation (mean and median visual analog scale score: <3. Their experience of pain during antral irrigation was closely comparable to pain during dental calculus scaling. Facial pain assessed before antral irrigation decreased quickly after the procedure. Conclusions Antral irrigation was well tolerated as an outpatient procedure. The procedure seems to relieve facial pain caused by the disease quickly. The role of antral irrigation in the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis will need further investigation.

  17. Irrigation management in organic greenhouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, W.; Balendonck, J.; Berkelmans, R.; Enthoven, N.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigation in protected cultivation is essential due to the absence of natural precipitation. High evapotranspiration, due to higher temperature and prolonged cropping period, requires ample an adequate supply of water. The water supply in a greenhouse is solely carried out by irrigation and thus

  18. Scintigraphic assessment of colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P.; Olsen, N.; Krogh, K.; Laurberg, S.

    2002-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate colonic transport following colostomy irrigation with a new scintigraphic technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To label the bowel contents 19 patients (11 uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, 8 complicated colostomy irrigation) took 111In-labelled polystyrene pellets one and two days before investigation. 99mTc-DTPA was mixed with the irrigation fluid to assess its extent within the bowel. Scintigraphy was performed before and after a standardized washout procedure. The colon was divided into three segments 1: the caecum andascending colon; 2: the transverse colon; 3: the descending and sigmoid colon. Assuming ordered evacuation of the colon, the contribution of each colonic segment to the total evacuation was expressed as a percentage of the original segmental counts. These were added to reach a total defaecation score (range: 0-300). RESULTS: In uncomplicated colostomy irrigation, the median defaecation score was 235 (range: 145-289) corresponding to complete evacuation of the descending and transverse colon and 35% evacuation of the caecum/ascending colon. In complicated colostomy irrigation it was possible to distinguish specific emptying patterns. The retained irrigation fluid reached the caecum in all but one patient. CONCLUSION: Scintigraphy can be used to evaluate colonic emptying following colostomy irrigation.

  19. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  20. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  2. Simulation of Farmers’ Response to Irrigation Water Pricing and Rationing Policies (Case Study: Zabol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abouzar parhizkari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering that agricultural sector is the largest consumer of water, presenting integrated management for water resources and formulating effective policies to increase water productivity in this sector is essential. Therefore, using economic modeling , this study simulated the farmers’ responses to irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city. To achieve the study purpose, the State Wide Agricultural Production Model and Positive Mathematical Programming were applied. The required data for the years 2010-2011 was collected by completing questionnaires and collecting data sets from the relevant agencies of Zabol city in personal attendance. The results showed that imposing irrigation water pricing and rationing policies in Zabol city leads to a reduction in the total cultivated area by 9/54 and 5/14 percent and a reduction in the water consumption by 6/23 and 7/01 percent, compared to the base year. Ultimately, irrigation water rationing policy, considering frugality of 18/9 million m3 of water, as the appropriate solution for the sustainability of water resources of Zabol city was proposed.

  3. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  4. Wood energy markets, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Aguilar; Christopher Gaston; Rens Hartkamp; Warren Mabee; Kenneth Skog

    2011-01-01

    Global wood energy markets continue to grow, driven primarily by demand in the EU and its commitment to meet 20% of energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Large investments in industrial pellet-production capacity have been made under expectations of a continuously growing demand, mainly from the EU. Concern about how energy and climate-change policies may...

  5. Sociedad y Salud. Curso 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Callado, Raúl; Fabregat Cabrera, María Elena

    2011-01-01

    Sociología de la salud. Determinantes sociales de la salud y la enfermedad. Desigualdades sociales en salud. Las organizaciones como sistemas. Estilos de vida y conductas de salud. Impacto de sociedad de consumo, la ciencia y la tecnología en la salud. Métodos de investigación social aplicados al ámbito de la salud.

  6. Falls in older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dieën, Jaap H.; Pijnappels, Mirjam

    Falls are common incidents, which can have major con-sequences. For example, falls and the interrelated category of accidents being struck by or against objects account for more than 40% of injuries and 30% of injury costs in the USA (Corso et al., 2006). Especially among older adults, falls occur

  7. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  8. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.

    2015-09-18

    A detailed inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to accurately estimate water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. This report provides a detailed digital map and summary of irrigated areas for 2014 within Jackson, Calhoun, and Gadsden Counties in Florida, and Houston County in Alabama. The irrigated areas were delineated using land-use data and orthoimagery that were then field verified between June and November 2014. Selected attribute data were collected for the irrigated areas, including crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system. Results of the 2014 study indicate that an estimated 31,608 acres were irrigated in Jackson County during 2014. This estimate includes 25,733 acres of field crops, 1,534 acres of ornamentals and grasses (including pasture), and 420 acres of orchards. Specific irrigated crops include cotton (11,759 acres), peanuts (9,909 acres), field corn (2,444 acres), and 3,235 acres of various vegetable (row) crops. The vegetable acreage includes 1,714 acres of which 857 acres were planted with both a spring and fall crop on the same field (double cropped). Overall, groundwater was used to irrigate 98.6 percent of the total irrigated acreage in Jackson County during 2014, whereas surface water and wastewater were used to irrigate the remaining 1.4 percent.

  9. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  10. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  11. Colostomy irrigation: are we offering it enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Fran

    This article discusses the use of irrigation for suitable colostomists and reasons why it can have a very positive effect on lifestyle. While it is evidence-based it also includes anecdotal tips from patients who irrigate. The suitability of patients to irrigate and ways to 'get started' with irrigation are discussed.

  12. Evaluation model development for sprinkler irrigation uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    Sprinkle and trickle irrigation. The. Blackburn Press, New Jersey, USA. Li JS, Rao MJ (1999). Evaluation method of sprinkler irrigation nonuniformity. Trans. CSAE. 15(4): 78-82. Lin Z, Merkley GP (2011). Relationships between common irrigation application uniformity indicators. Irrig Sci. Online First™, 27 January. 2011.

  13. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  14. Water supply impacts of nuclear fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Luo, Y.; Maciejowski, M.E.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    “Nuclear winter,” more properly called “nuclear fall,” could be caused by injection of large amounts of dust into the atmosphere. Besides causing a decrease in temperature, it could be accompanied by “nuclear drought,” a catastrophic decrease in precipitation. Dry land agriculture would then be impossible, and municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies would be diminished. It has been argued that nuclear winter/fall poses a much greater threat to human survival than do fall out or the direct impacts of a conflict. However, this does not appear to be true, at least for the U.S. Even under the unprecedented drought that could result from nuclear fall, water supplies would be available for many essential activities. For the most part, ground water supplies would be relatively invulnerable to nuclear drought, and adequate surface supplies would be available for potable uses. This assumes that conveyance facilities and power supplies survive a conflict largely intact or can be repaired

  15. Irrigation-water quality during 1976 irrigation season in the Sulphur Creek basin, Yakima and Benton counties, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, P.R.; Fretwell, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality-sampling network was designed for the Sulphur Creek basin to observe the effects of farming practices on irrigation. Sediment and nutrient yield, discharge, and water temperature data were collected during the 1976 irrigation season and the following fall and winter. The suspended-sediment yield of the basin during this period was 2.0 tons per acre of irrigated cropland. Only about 3% of the net outflow of sediment occurred during the nonirrigation season. The yield computed by subbasin ranged from 0.7 to 7 tons per acre, depending mainly on land slope, but a high percentage of orchard land in the subbasins was probably also significant in reducing loads. Nutrient outflows during the study period were 1,180,000 pounds of nitrogen and 120,000 pounds of phosphorous. Nitrate-plus-nitrite represent 70% of the nitrogen outflow in the irrigation season and 84% in the nonirrigation season. The monitoring network was discontinued at the end of the study period, due largely to insufficient farmer participation. Network sensitivity in the control subbasins was inadequate to detect the effects of a planned demonstration program of best management practices. (USGS)

  16. Irrigation management in Mediterranean salt affected agriculture: how leaching operates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of a crop rotation currently applied in a farm of the Apulian Tavoliere (Southern Italy, this paper reports the effect of brackish water irrigation on soil, outlines the corresponding salinity balance, formulates quantitative relations to model salt outflow below the soil root-layer and defines operational criteria to optimize irrigation management at farm level in order to control soil salinity through leaching. The general aim is to contribute to a sustainable use of the available water resources and a proper soil fertility conservation. A three-year trial (2007-2010 was carried out on a farm located close to the coast of the Manfredonia gulf (Mediterranean - Adriatic sea, where irrigation with brackish water is frequently practiced due to seawater intrusion into the groundwater. An especially designed experimental field-unit was set-up: the bottom of three hydraulically insulated plots was covered with a plastic sheet to intercept the percolating water and collect it into tanks by means of drain tubes. Each year a double crop cycle was applied to the soil; a spring-summer crop (tomato, zucchini and pepper, respectively was followed by a fall-winter crop (spinach, broccoli and wheat. Short “fallow” periods (completely bare soil were inserted between two crop cycles. Irrigation or rain completely restored crop water consumptions (with the exception of wheat, considered a rainfed crop and leaching was performed both unintentionally (by rainfalls or intentionally (supplying higher irrigation volumes whenever the soil electrical conductivity exceeded a fixed threshold. The soil electrical conductivity was periodically measured together with volume and electrical conductivity of irrigation and drainage water. All these measures allowed to draw-up the salt-balance of the soil, respectively at the beginning and the end of each crop cycle. Absolute and relative variations in soil salt content were interpreted with respect to absolute

  17. Meteorite falls in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiri, Fouad; Ibhi, Abderrahmane; Saint-Gerant, Thierry; Medjkane, Mohand; Ouknine, Lahcen

    2017-10-01

    The study of meteorites provides insight into the earliest history of our solar system. From 1800, about the year meteorites were first recognized as objects falling from the sky, until December 2014, 158 observed meteorite falls were recorded in Africa. Their collected mass ranges from 1.4 g to 175 kg with the 1-10 kg cases predominant. The average rate of African falls is low with only one fall recovery per 1.35-year time interval (or 0.023 per year per million km2). This African collection is dominated by ordinary chondrites (78%) just like in the worldwide falls. The seventeen achondrites include three Martian meteorite falls (Nakhla of Egypt, Tissint of Morocco and Zagami of Nigeria). Observed Iron meteorite falls are relatively rare and represent only 5%. The falls' rate in Africa is variable in time and in space. The number of falls continues to grow since 1860, 80% of which were recovered during the period between 1910 and 2014. Most of these documented meteorite falls have been recovered from North-Western Africa, Eastern Africa and Southern Africa. They are concentrated in countries which have a large surface area and a large population with a uniform distribution. Other factors are also favorable for observing and collecting meteorite falls across the African territory, such as: a genuine meteorite education, a semi-arid to arid climate (clear sky throughout the year most of the time), croplands or sparse grasslands and possible access to the fall location with a low percentage of forest cover and dense road network.

  18. Preventing falls in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-02-27

    Essential facts Falls are the most frequent adverse event reported in hospitals, usually affecting older patients. Every year, more than 240,000 falls are reported in acute hospitals and mental health trusts in England and Wales, equivalent to more than 600 a day, according to the Royal College of Physicians (RCP). But research shows that when nurses, doctors and therapists work together, falls can be reduced by 20-30%.

  19. Variable fuzzy assessment of water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to scientifically and reasonably evaluate water use efficiency and benefits in irrigation districts, a variable fuzzy assessment model was established. The model can reasonably determine the relative membership degree and relative membership function of the sample indices in each index's standard interval, and obtain the evaluation level of the sample through the change of model parameters. According to the actual situation of the Beitun Irrigation District, which is located in Fuhai County, in Altay City, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, five indices were selected as evaluation factors, including the canal water utilization coefficient, field water utilization coefficient, crop water productivity, effective irrigation rate in farmland, and water-saving irrigation area ratio. The water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District in different years were evaluated with the model. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation indices from 2006 to 2008 were all at the third level (medium efficiency, while the index in 2009 increased slightly, falling between the second level (relatively high efficiency and third level, indicating an improvement in the water use efficiency and benefits in the Beitun Irrigation District, which in turn showed that the model was reliable and easy to use. This model can be used to assess the water use efficiency and benefits in similar irrigation districts.

  20. Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Bryson; Kayira, Gift

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations and conflicts over the use of water in the schemes developed in the Lake Chilwa basin, in southern Malawi. Using oral and written sources as well as drawing evidence from participatory and field observations conducted at Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes, the largest schemes in the basin, the study observes that women are not passive victims of male domination over the use of dwindling waters for irrigation farming. They have often used existing political and traditional structures developed in the management of water in the schemes to competitively gain monopoly over water. They have sometimes expressed their agency by engaging in irrigation activities that fall beyond the control of formal rules and regulations of irrigation agriculture. Other than being losers, women are winning the battle for water and land resources in the basin.

  1. Use of Irrigation to Extend the Seeding Window for Final Reclamation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRW Environmental Safety

    2000-01-01

    plots sown in December, February, and March, and showed no response to irrigation on plots sown in April. Therefore, early spring irrigation did not facilitate establishment of warm-season species. These results suggest that these species are dependent upon precipitation while temperatures are warm in late summer or fall. However, control plots that were seeded in December had acceptable densities of these species. A more practical approach might be to avoid irrigation costs by seeding in December and waiting for fall precipitation. The remaining species (cool-season species) showed an opposite response to supplemental water with greater densities on irrigated plots sown in February, March, and April, and no response to irrigation on plots sown in December. While these results show that irrigation can extend the seeding window for cool-season species should it be necessary, it was also apparent that if seeds are sown by late December, irrigation is not necessary to achieve acceptable plant densities

  2. Impacts of irrigation regimes with saline water on carrot productivity and soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different irrigation regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot as a fall-winter crop under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot was grown on a sandy soil and surface-irrigated with a water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For the three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Four irrigation methods were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using traditional farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI-100, 80% (DI-80 and 60% (DI-60. FI-100 was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-DI60 was also used. Farmer method (Farmer consisted in giving fixed amounts of water (25 mm every 7 days from planting till harvest. Results on carrot production and soil salinization are globally consistent between the three-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity in the root zone is observed at harvest under DI-60 (3.1, 3.4, 3.9 dS/m, respectively, for the three years and farmer irrigation (3.3, 3.6, 3.9 dS/m treatments compared to FI-100 treatment (2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 dS/m. Relatively low ECe values were also observed under FI-DI60 and DI-80 treatments with respectively (2.7, 3, 3.5 dS/m and (2.5, 2.9, 3.3 dS/m. ECe values under the different irrigation treatments were generally lower than or equal to the EC of irrigation water used. Rainfall received during fall and/or winter periods (57, 26 and 29 mm, respectively, during the three years contributed probably to leaching soluble

  3. Decentralising Zimbabwe’s water management: The case of Guyu-Chelesa irrigation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambudzai, Rashirayi; Everisto, Mapedza; Gideon, Zhou

    scheme is a model of a decentralised entity whose importance lies at improving food security and employment creation within the community, it falls short in representing a downwardly accountable decentralised irrigation scheme. The scheme is faced with various challenges which include its operation which is below capacity utilisation, absence of specialised technical human personnel to address infrastructural breakdowns, uneven distribution of water pressure, incapacitated Irrigation Management Committee (IMC), absence of a locally legitimate constitution, compromised beneficiary participation and unclear lines of communication between various institutions involved in water management. Understanding decentralization is important since one of the key tenets of IWRM is stakeholder participation which the decentralization framework interrogates.

  4. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  5. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for Polk County, Florida, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berry, Darbi; Dixon, Joann F.

    2017-08-16

    An accurate inventory of irrigated crop acreage is not available at the level of resolution needed to better estimate agricultural water use or to project future water demands in many Florida counties. A detailed digital map and summary of irrigated acreage was developed for Polk County, Florida, during the 2016 growing season. This cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Office of Agricultural Water Policy of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services is part of an effort to improve estimates of water use and projections of future demands across all counties in the State. The irrigated areas were delineated by using land-use data provided by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, along with information obtained from the South and Southwest Florida Water Management Districts consumptive water-use permits. Delineations were field verified between April and December 2016. Attribute data such as crop type, primary water source, and type of irrigation system were assigned to the irrigated areas.The results of this inventory and field verification indicate that during the 2016 growing seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter), an estimated 88,652 acres were irrigated within Polk County. Of the total field-verified crops, 83,995 acres were in citrus; 2,893 acres were in other non-citrus fruit crops (blueberries, grapes, peaches, and strawberries); 621 acres were in row crops (primarily beans and watermelons); 1,117 acres were in nursery (container and tree farms) and sod production; and 26 acres were in field crops including hay and pasture. Of the total inventoried irrigated acreage within Polk County, 98 percent (86,566 acres) was in the Southwest Florida Water Management District, and the remaining 2 percent (2,086 acres) was in the South Florida Water Management District.About 85,788 acres (96.8 percent of the acreage inventoried) were irrigated by a microirrigation system, including drip, bubblers, and

  6. Falls and comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Sahlberg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To compare nationwide time trends and mortality in hip and proximal humeral fractures; to explore associations between incidences of falls risk related comorbidities (FRICs) and incidence of fractures. METHODS: The study is a retrospective cohort study using nationwide Danish administrative....... CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the overall reduction in fractures can be explained by reduction in falls related comorbidity....

  7. An update on falls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Steijns, J.A.G.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review: Falls among elderly persons create immense social problems because of their association with physical decline, serious psychosocial consequences, negative impact on the quality of life, and markedly reduced survival. In addition, falls pose high costs to the public health service.

  8. An update on falls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Steijns, J.A.G.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Falls among elderly persons create immense social problems because of their association with physical decline, serious psychosocial consequences, negative impact on the quality of life, and markedly reduced survival. In addition, falls pose high costs to the public health service.

  9. First Aid: Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids do, it's no surprise that falls are common. Although many result in mild bumps, cuts, and bruises, some can cause serious injuries that need immediate medical attention. What to Do ...

  10. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  11. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  12. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  13. Sustainable irrigation in fruit trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristos Xiloyannis

    Full Text Available Water management in fruit growing, particularly in areas with high water deficit, low rainfall and limited availability of water for irrigation should aid to save water by: i the choice of high efficiency irrigation methods and their correct management; ii the proper choice of the specie, cultivar and rootstock to optimise plant water use; iii the proper choice of the architecture of the canopy and it’s correct management in order to improve water use efficiency; iv the application of regulated deficit irrigation at growth stages less sensitive to water deficit; v strengthening the role of technical assistance for a rapid transfer of knowledge to the growers on the sustainable use of water in fruit growing.

  14. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  15. Revascularization Treatment of Emergency Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland: Results from a Nationwide, Cross-Sectional Study in Switzerland for 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Claudia; Jüni, Peter; Endrich, Olga; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in Switzerland. When applied, treatment guidelines for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improve the clinical outcome and should eliminate treatment differences by sex and age for patients whose clinical situations are identical. In Switzerland, the rate at which STEMI patients receive revascularization may vary by patient and hospital characteristics. To examine all hospitalizations in Switzerland from 2010-2011 to determine if patient or hospital characteristics affected the rate of revascularization (receiving either a percutaneous coronary intervention or a coronary artery bypass grafting) in acute STEMI patients. We used national data sets on hospital stays, and on hospital infrastructure and operating characteristics, for the years 2010 and 2011, to identify all emergency patients admitted with the main diagnosis of acute STEMI. We then calculated the proportion of patients who were treated with revascularization. We used multivariable multilevel Poisson regression to determine if receipt of revascularization varied by patient and hospital characteristics. Of the 9,696 cases we identified, 71.6% received revascularization. Patients were less likely to receive revascularization if they were female, and 80 years or older. In the multivariable multilevel Poisson regression analysis, there was a trend for small-volume hospitals performing fewer revascularizations but this was not statistically significant while being female (Relative Proportion = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.97) and being older than 80 years was still associated with less frequent revascularization. Female and older patients were less likely to receive revascularization. Further research needs to clarify whether this reflects differential application of treatment guidelines or limitations in this kind of routine data.

  16. Ten-year changes in positive and negative marker food, fruit, vegetables, and salad intake in 9-10 year olds: SportsLinx 2000-2001 to 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddy, L M; Abayomi, J; Johnson, B; Hackett, A F; Stratton, G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate changes in intakes of 'negative' and 'positive' foods, fruit, vegetables, and salad in serial cohorts of 9-10-year-old children from 2000-2001 to 2010-2011. For this serial, cross-sectional study, children in school year 5 (9-10 years of age) completed the SportsLinx Lifestyles Survey [n = 30,239 (15,336 boys and 14,903 girls)]. Changes in positive and negative food scores, and the proportion of boys and girls reportedly consuming fruit, vegetables and salad on the previous day to surveying, were investigated annually from 2000 to 2011. The consumption of negative foods declined and positive foods increased significantly compared to baseline. Positive changes in fruit, vegetables and salad consumption were observed over time, with the most recent cohort more likely to consume fruit, vegetables and salad compared to the 2000-2001 baseline. Girls displayed more favourable positive and negative food scores and were more likely to consume fruit, salad and vegetables across several study years compared to boys. The consumption of negative and positive foods, fruit, vegetables, and salad has improved over the last 10 years. In addition, girls appear to have better positive and negative food scores, and were more likely to consume fruit, vegetables and salad, across a number of study years or cohorts compared to boys. These encouraging findings suggest that children's food intake has improved since 2000. Furthermore, the data indicate that boys and girls may require separate or different healthy eating messages to further improve food intake. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  17. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  18. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk fac- tors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries. Keywords: Accidental fall, geriatrics, injury, trauma registry. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v16i2.24.

  19. Physical activity in Iranian older adults who experienced fall during the past 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Leili; Shokrvash, Behjat; Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-10-31

    Physical activity may have several benefits for elderly people. However, the risk of falling might prevent this population from showing interest in physical activity. This research was aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to physical activity in older persons who have experienced at least one fall in the past 12 months. This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011, in Tehran, Iran. Using a multistage sampling method a group of elderly people entered into the study. A multi-section questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic information, physical activity level, and different determinants that might influence physical activity. Several statistical tests including linear regression were used to analyze the data. In all, 180 old people from 40 elderly centers (49 men and 131 women) took part in the study. The mean age of participants was 65.9 ± 6.1 years. The result indicated that most participants experienced two or more falls during the last year (54.5%). Those who had more falls significantly scored lower on the Physical Activity Scale for Elderly (p falls, self-reported health and daily living activities. However, we observed inverse association between number of falls and physical activity. Indeed the findings suggest that we should reinforce benefits exist when designing programs to increase physical activity among elderly population.

  20. Soil Suitability Classification of Tomas Irrigation Scheme for Irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need for sustainable rice production in Nigeria cannot be over-emphasized. Since rice can be grown both under rain-fed and irrigated conditions, the need for soil suitability evaluation becomes very necessary in order for supply to meet up with demand. Six land qualities viz; climate, soil physical properties, drainage, ...

  1. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  2. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  3. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  4. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  5. Comparative efficiency of trickle and furrow irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Qureshi, R.H.; Sandhu, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Comparison of furrow and trickle methods of irrigation to know their relative efficiency with respect to water applied and fertilizer used on tomatoes, cauliflower and lettuce as test crops using canal water, showed a significant saving of about 44 and 41 per cent respectively for irrigation water and fertilizer applied with trickle as compared to furrow irrigation. Trickle irrigated crops also showed a better response as regards the rate of survival, crop growth and time of maturity

  6. Fall Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Fall Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1963 and covered an area from Hudson Canyon, NY to Nova Scotia, Canada. Throughout the years,...

  7. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  8. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  9. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  10. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Jaju

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation.

  11. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food... DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator. (a) Identification. An ostomy irrigator is a device that consists of a container for fluid, tubing with a cone-shaped...

  12. Effects of Irrigation Levels on Growth Characteristics and Yield of Four Ecotypes of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of irrigation levels on growth criteria, yield components and seed yield of four ecotypes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L., a field experiment was conducted as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, during growing season 2010-2011. Three irrigation levels (2000, 3000 and 4000 m3 ha-1 and four ecotypes (Darab, Sabzevar, Kashmar and Kalat were allocated as treatments. Criteria such as leaf are index (LAI, dry matter (DM accumulation, yield components (branch number, capsule number, seed number and 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield of sesame were measured, accordingly. Results indicated that the simple effects of irrigation levels and ecotypes were significant (p≤0.05 on yield and yield components of sesame. Interaction between irrigation levels and ecotypes for yield components, biological yield and seed yield were significant (p≤0.01. By increasing water level from 2000 to 4000 m3 ha-1 enhanced branch number, capsule number, seed number and 1000-seed weight up to 57, 55 and 36%, respectively. Seed yield of Kalat was higher than Darab, Sabzevar and Kashmar with 1, 7 and 11%, respectively. By enhancing irrigation from 2000 to 4000 m3.ha-1 seed yield of Darab, Sabzevar and Kashmar and Kalat increased with 15, 67T 62 and 34%, respectively. There was a positive and significant relationship between yield and yield components. The highest correlation coefficient was observed for 1000-seed weight (r=0.87**.

  13. The Effect of Irrigation Regimes and Mulch Application on Vegetative Indices and Essential Oil Content of Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azizi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peppermint (Mentha piperita L. from Lamiaceae family is one of the most important medicinal plants, used in food, sanitary and cosmetic industries. A field experiment was carried out in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010-2011 to evaluate the effects of three irrigation levels (100, 80 and 60 percent of water requirements calculated by evaporation pan class A and two mulch types (black plastic and wood chips in comparison to control (without mulch on physiological parameter and essential oils content in a factorial experiments on the basis of Randimised Complete Block Desing with four replications. The data obtained from each harvest analyzed as a factorial experiment on the basis of randomized complete block design with four replications and the results of two harvests analyzed as split plot on time. The results of two harvest indicated that peppermint plants grow better in the first harvest than the second harvest. Plants collected in the first harvest showed higher dry matter and essential oil yield. The highest dry herb yield (44.12 g/plant, the highest percentage of essential oil (2.835 %v/w and the highest essential oil yield (116.7 l/ha detected in plots treated with third level of irrigation and use of wood chips mulch. In conclusion the results also confirmed that the highest dry herb and the highest oil yield per area unit were observed in plots treated with third level of irrigation with use of wood chips mulch.

  14. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  15. Position paper : Whole bowel irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2004-01-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) should not be used routinely in the management of the poisoned patient. Although some volunteer studies have shown substantial decreases in the bioavailability of ingested drugs, no controlled clinical trials have been performed and there is no conclusive evidence that

  16. The power situation in winter 2010/2011; Kraftsituasjonen vinteren 2010/2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Finn Erik Ljaastad (ed.)

    2011-07-15

    At the beginning of winter, the reservoir level was record low. Very cold weather before the end of the year contributed to the further tapping. Mild weather and early snow melt caused a rapid increase in water levels in beginning of April. On average, the Norwegian power prices was higher last winter compared with the previous winter. High prices are necessary to get high Norwegian imports and keep consumption down, and thus saving water in the reservoirs. Limitations in transmission capacity between market areas affected the prices and power flow last winter. In the night and weekend hours contributed network problems in southern Sweden to the reduced transmission capacity to Southern Norway. This dampened the Norwegian imports, and Norwegian hydropower producers tapped more of the magazined water than they otherwise would. This emphasizes the need to continue NVE's efforts to explore possibilities for a better utilization of transmission capacities in the network. There were several events that had an impact on the operation of the power system and security of supply last winter. Error events led to interruption for many grid customers, in addition to significant risk of further extensive dark laying of large areas if another failure should occur. (AG

  17. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebo, A. L.; Drechsel, P.; Lambin, E. F.

    2014-11-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range.

  18. Global assessment of urban and peri-urban agriculture: irrigated and rainfed croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thebo, A L; Drechsel, P; Lambin, E F

    2014-01-01

    The role of urban agriculture in global food security is a topic of increasing discussion. Existing research on urban and peri-urban agriculture consists largely of case studies that frequently use disparate definitions of urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on the local context and study objectives. This lack of consistency makes quantification of the extent of this practice at the global scale difficult. This study instead integrates global data on croplands and urban extents using spatial overlay analysis to estimate the global area of urban and peri-urban irrigated and rainfed croplands. The global area of urban irrigated croplands was estimated at about 24 Mha (11.0 percent of all irrigated croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.48. The global area of urban rainfed croplands found was approximately 44 Mha (4.7 percent of all rainfed croplands) with a cropping intensity of 1.03. These values were derived from the MIRCA2000 Maximum Monthly Cropped Area Grids for irrigated and rainfed crops and therefore their sum does not necessarily represent the total urban cropland area when the maximum extent of irrigated and rainfed croplands occurs in different months. Further analysis of croplands within 20 km of urban extents show that 60 and 35 percent of, respectively, all irrigated and rainfed croplands fall within this distance range. (letter)

  19. Evaluation of three semi-empirical approaches to estimate the net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael López-Olivari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of actual evapotranspiration (ETα models requires an appropriate parameterization of the available energy, where the net radiation (Rn is the most important component. Thus, a study was carried out to calibrate and evaluate three semi-empirical approaches to estimate net radiation (Rn over a drip-irrigated olive (Olea europaea L. 'Arbequina' orchard during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 seasons. The orchard was planted in 2005 at high density in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The evaluated models were calculated using the balance between long and short wave radiation. To achieve this objective it was assumed that Ts = Tα for Model 1, Ts = Tv for Model 2 and Ts = Tr for Model 3 (Ts is surface temperature; Tα is air temperature; and Tv is temperature inside of the tree canopy; Tr is radiometric temperature. For the three models, the Brutsaert's empirical coefficient (Φ was calibrated using incoming long wave radiation equation with the database of 2009/2010 season. Thus, the calibration indicated that Φ was equal to 1.75. Using the database from 2010/2011 season, the validation indicated that the three models were able to predict the Rn at a 30-min interval with errors lower than 6%, root mean square error (RMSE between 26 and 39 W m-2 and mean absolute error (MAE between 20 and 31 W m-2. On daily time intervals, validation indicated that models presented errors, RMSE and MAE between 2% and 3%, 1.22-1.54 and 1.04-1.35 MJ m-2 d-1, respectively. The three R„-Models would be evaluated and used in others Mediterranean conditions according to the availability of data to estimate net radiation over a drip-irrigated olive orchard planted at high density.

  20. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  1. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  2. The neurobiology of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Plotnik, Meir; Bove, Francesco; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Falling is a major clinical problem; especially, in elderly population as it often leads to fractures, immobilization, poor quality of life and life-span reduction. Given the growing body of evidences on the physiopathology of balance disorders in humans, in recent years the approach of research on falls has completely changed and new instruments and new definitions have been formulated. Among them, the definition of "idiopathic faller" (i.e. no overt cause for falling in a given subject) represented a milestone in building the "science of falling". This review deals with the new determinants of the neurobiology of falling: (1) the role of motor impairment and particularly of those "mild parkinsonian signs" frequently detectable in elderly subjects, (2) the role of executive and attentive resources when coping with obstacles, (3) the role of vascular lesions in "highest level gait disorder" (a condition tightly connected with senile gait, cautious gait and frailty), (4) the role of the failure of automaticity or inter-limbs coordination/symmetry during walking and such approach would definitely help the development of screening instrument for subjects at risk (still lacking in present days). This translational approach will lead to the development of specific therapeutic interventions.

  3. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses an advanced CGE model (Taheripour et al., 2013) coupled with hydrological projections of future water scarcity and biophysical data on likely crop yields under climate change to examine how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. Climate shocks to rainfed and irrigated yields in 2030 are based on the p-DSSAT crop model, RCP 2.6, as reported under the AgMIP project (Rosenzweig et al., 2013), accessed through GEOSHARE (Villoria et al, 2014). Results show that, when water scarcity is ignored, irrigated areas grow in the wake of climate change as the returns to irrigation rise faster than for rainfed uses of land within a given agro-ecological zone. When non-agricultural competition for future water use, as well as anticipated supply side limitations are brought into play (Rosegrant et al., 2013), the opportunity cost of water rises across all river basins, with the increase ranging from 12% (Luni) to 44% (Brahmaputra). As a consequence, irrigated crop production is curtailed in most regions (Figure 1), with the largest reductions coming in the most water intensive crops, namely rice and wheat. By reducing irrigated area, which tends to have much higher yields, the combined effects of water scarcity and climate impacts require an increase in total cropped area, which rises by about 240,000 ha. The majority of this area expansion occurs in the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmari river basins. Overall crop output falls by about 2 billion, relative to the 2030 baseline, with imports rising by about 570 million. The combined effects of climate change and water scarcity for irrigation also have macro-economic consequences, resulting in a 0.28% reduction in GDP and an increase in the consumer price index by about 0.4% in 2030, compared the baseline. The national welfare impact on India amounts to roughly 3 billion (at 2007 prices) in 2030. Assuming a 3% social discount rate, the net present value of the

  4. Fall Prevention Hits Stumbling Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte

    2018-03-01

    Implementation of efforts to screen older people for fall risk-and to intervene before falls occur-have been scattershot at best. Ongoing studies of fall prevention called STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders) might change that. The studies look at whether clinicians can implement a fall-prevention program across rural, urban, and suburban treatment settings.

  5. Phosphorus absorption in drip irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guennelon, R.; Habib, R.

    1979-01-01

    Introducing the use of solute phosphate with drip irrigation may be an unsatisfying practice on account of the very weak mobility of PO 4 anion. Nevertheless P can move down to 30-40 cm depth by following the saturated flux along earth-worms holes or crakes, or by displacement in very narrow structural porosity, even in heavy soils. In this case roots cannot easily absorb PO 4 from soil solution, as soon as the soil is quite saturated. On the other hand, it seems that P absorption occurs very quickly and easily when the implantation of 32 P tagged solution is carried out at the border of zone which is concerned by the irrigation effects [fr

  6. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  7. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  8. Caracterización de la mortalidad por cáncer en la provincia de Cienfuegos. 2010-2011 Characterization of Cancer Mortality in the Province of Cienfuegos. 2010 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Magdalena Basanta Molina

    2013-06-01

    case series study was conducted in order to characterize mortality in the province of Cienfuegos over the period 2010-2011, according to data obtained from death certificates and a review of the Mortality Statistics Program of the province. The series included 1602 cancer-related deaths, 786 of them in the year 2010 and 816 in 2011. The variables used were age, sex, municipality of residence and leading cancer sites. Results: cancer was the second cause of death in the province of Cienfuegos in the year 2010 and the first cause in 2011. A male over-mortality was found in both periods. Men death was due to lung, prostate, colon and larynx cancer whereas women suffered from lung, breast, colon and cervical cancer. Premature death caused by cancer accounted for 59,2 % of all cancer deaths in 2010; 47,9 % of them were in the group aged 65 to 74 years. Premature death in 2011 represented the 54,1 % of all deaths caused by this disease, with a slight decrease. Conclusions: showed the inclusion of cancer as the leading cause of death associated population aging progression with locations showing gaps in prevention and early detection of cancer.

  9. Heavy metal input to agricultural soils from irrigation with treated wastewater: Insight from Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Cary, Lise; Psarras, Georgios; Surdyk, Nicolas; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Pettenati, Marie; Maton, Laure

    2010-05-01

    ). These fingerprints allowed discriminating geogenic (rock-derived) and anthropogenic lead fractions. Both the bulk initial soil before any wastewater irrigation (sampled in 2006) and the residual fractions of all analysed samples have a typical signature of uncontaminated background soils (Erel et al., 1997 and references therein). Mobile fractions fall on a mixing line with an endmember comparable to Israeli aerosols, themselves dominated by gasoline lead (Erel et al., 2006). Due to labour, this signature can be found throughout the root zone. This shift from background values can be explained by the proximity (

  10. Fear of falling as seen in the Multidisciplinary falls consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxatte, C; Nguyen, T; Chourabi, F; Salleron, J; Pardessus, V; Delabrière, I; Thévenon, A; Puisieux, F

    2011-06-01

    Fear of falling may be as debilitating as the fall itself, leading to a restriction in activities and even a loss of autonomy. The main objective was to evaluate the prevalence of the fear of falling among elderly fallers. The secondary objectives were to determine the factors associated with the fear of falling and evaluate the impact of this fear on the activity "getting out of the house". Prospective study conducted between 1995 and 2006 in which fallers and patients at high risk for falling were seen at baseline by the multidisciplinary falls consultation team (including a geriatrician, a neurologist and a physical medicine and rehabilitation physician) and then, again 6 month later, by the same geriatrician. The fear of falling was evaluated with a yes/no question: "are you afraid of falling?". Out of 635 patients with a mean age of 80.6 years, 502 patients (78%) expressed a fear of falling. Patients with fear of falling were not older than those who did not report this fear, but the former were mostly women (Pfear of falling were not going out alone as much as the fearless group (31% vs 53%, Pfearful group admitted to avoiding going out because they were afraid of falling. The strong prevalence of the fear of falling observed in this population and its consequences in terms of restricted activities justifies systematically screening for it in fallers or patients at risk for falling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Women's perspectives on falls and fall prevention during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Dorothy; Naninni, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injury in women. During pregnancy, even a minor fall can result in adverse consequences. Evidence to inform effective and developmentally appropriate pregnancy fall prevention programs is lacking. Early research on pregnancy fall prevention suggests that exercise may reduce falls. However, acceptability and effectiveness of pregnancy fall prevention programs are untested. To better understand postpartum women's perspective and preferences on fall prevention strategies during pregnancy to formulate an intervention. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 31 postpartum women using descriptive qualitative methodology. Discussion of falls during pregnancy and fall prevention strategies was guided by a focus group protocol and enhanced by 1- to 3-minute videos on proposed interventions. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 10 software. Emerging themes were environmental circumstances and physical changes of pregnancy leading to a fall, prevention strategies, barriers, safety concerns, and marketing a fall prevention program. Wet surfaces and inappropriate footwear commonly contributed to falls. Women preferred direct provider counseling and programs including yoga and Pilates. Fall prevention strategies tailored to pregnant women are needed. Perspectives of postpartum women support fall prevention through provider counseling and individual or supervised exercise programs.

  12. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  13. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... to the Turlock Irrigation District's Tuolumne Substation; (2) 23-mile-long, 69-kV Don Pedro-Hawkins Line extending from the Don Pedro switchyard to the Turlock Irrigation District's Hawkins Substation...

  14. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  15. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  16. Falls following discharge after an in-hospital fall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Lori A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls are among the most common adverse events reported in hospitalized patients. While there is a growing body of literature on fall prevention in the hospital, the data examining the fall rate and risk factors for falls in the immediate post-hospitalization period has not been well described. The objectives of the present study were to determine the fall rate of in-hospital fallers at home and to explore the risk factors for falls during the immediate post-hospitalization period. Methods We identified patients who sustained a fall on one of 16 medical/surgical nursing units during an inpatient admission to an urban community teaching hospital. After discharge, falls were ascertained using weekly telephone surveillance for 4 weeks post-discharge. Patients were followed until death, loss to follow up or end of study (four weeks. Time spent rehospitalized or institutionalized was censored in rate calculations. Results Of 95 hospitalized patients who fell during recruitment, 65 (68% met inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. These subjects contributed 1498 person-days to the study (mean duration of follow-up = 23 days. Seventy-five percent were African-American and 43% were women. Sixteen patients (25% had multiple falls during hospitalization and 23 patients (35% suffered a fall-related injury during hospitalization. Nineteen patients (29% experienced 38 falls at their homes, yielding a fall rate of 25.4/1,000 person-days (95% CI: 17.3-33.4. Twenty-three patients (35% were readmitted and 3(5% died. One patient experienced a hip fracture. In exploratory univariate analysis, persons who were likely to fall at home were those who sustained multiple falls in the hospital (p = 0.008. Conclusion Patients who fall during hospitalization, especially on more than one occasion, are at high risk for falling at home following hospital discharge. Interventions to reduce falls would be appropriate to test in this high-risk population.

  17. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  19. Senegal - Irrigation and Water Resource Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — IMPAQ: This evaluation report presents findings from the baseline data collected for the Irrigation and Water Resources Management (IWRM) project, which serves as...

  20. Diagnosis and Tests: Evaluating a Fall or Risk of Falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a physical therapist, who can evaluate your fall risk. If your healthcare provider concludes that you are ... to check for things that can impact your fall risk, such as electrolyte balance and the possibility of ...

  1. Falling and fall risk in adult patients with severe haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Hanna; Schmolders, Jan; Koob, Sebastian; Bornemann, Rahel; Goldmann, Georg; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pennekamp, Peter; Strauss, Andreas C

    2017-05-10

    The objective of this study was to define fall rates and to identify possible fall risk factors in adult patients with severe haemophilia. 147 patients with severe haemophilia A and B were evaluated using a standardized test battery consisting of demographic, medical and clinical variables and fall evaluation. 41 (27.9 %) patients reported a fall in the past 12 months, 22 (53.7 %) of them more than once. Young age, subjective gait insecurity and a higher number of artificial joints seem to be risk factors for falling. Falls seem to be a common phenomenon in patients with severe haemophilia. Fall risk screening and fall prevention should be implemented into daily practice.

  2. Income and irrigation water use efficiency under climate change: An application of spatial stochastic crop and water allocation model to Western Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihtiyor Bobojonov

    2016-01-01

    Results show farmers’ income could fall by as much as 25% with a 3.2 °C temperature increase and a 15% decline in irrigation. Farmers located in the tail end of the irrigation system could lose an even greater share of their revenues. A more conservative increase in temperature could increase farmer income by as much as 46% with a 2.2° temperature increase and only 8% decline in irrigation water since some crops benefit from extended vegetation periods. Under both pessimistic and optimistic scenarios, environmental challenges due to shallow groundwater tables may improve associated with enhanced water use efficiency.

  3. Role of sediment in the design and management of irrigation canals : Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, K.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport in irrigation canals The sediment transport aspect is a major factor in irrigation development as it determines to a large extent the sustainability of an irrigation scheme, particularly in case of unlined canals in alluvial soils. Investigations in this respect started since

  4. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  5. Factors affecting irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; Psimma, Z.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and critical analysis of published data on irrigant extrusion to identify factors causing, affecting or predisposing to irrigant extrusion during root canal irrigation of human mature permanent teeth. An electronic search was conducted

  6. The clinical practice guideline for falls and fall risk

    OpenAIRE

    Vance, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Falling is a significant cause of injury and death in frail older adults. Residents in long-term care (LTC) facilities fall for a variety of reasons and are more likely to endure injuries after a fall than those in the community The American Medical Directors Association (AMDA) Clinical Practice Guideline is written to give LTC staff an understanding of risk factors for falls and provide guidance for a systematic approach to patient assessment and selection of appropriate interventions. It is...

  7. Urban fall traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia de Almeida Valsecchi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the repercussion of falls in the elderly peoplewho live in the city of São Paulo and address - though synthetically- some questions regarding the city and its relation to aging and thequality of life of the elderly. Methods: This is a qualitative study. As fordata collection, “in-depth individual interviews” were applied. Selectionof subjects was guided by a procedure named as “network”. Results:Ten interviews were performed, nine with elderly individuals who werevictims of falls and one with a public authority representative. Dataresulting from interviews confirmed that significant changes occurin live of the elderly, who are victims of what has been called “urbantraps”, and that, by extrapolating mobility and dependence contexts,invade feelings, emotions and desires. The inappropriate environmentprovided by the city of São Paulo is confirmed by absence of adequateurban planning and lack of commitment of public authorities. It alsorevealed that the particular way of being old and living an elderlylife, in addition to right to citizenship, is reflected by major or lesserdifficulties imposed to the elderly to fight for their rights and have theirpublic space respected. Conclusion: The city of São Paulo is not anideal locus for an older person to live in. To the traps that are found inpublic places one can add those that are found in private places andthat contribute to the hard experience of falls among the elderly, anexperience that is sometimes fatal. In Brazil, the attention is basicallyfocused on the consequences of falls and not on prevention, by meansof urban planning that should meet the needs of the most vulnerablegroups - the physically disabled and the elderly.

  8. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  9. improving of irrigation management: a learning based approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Irrigation farms are small businesses and like any other business, the managers or ... human factors and constraints that impact on the adoption of irrigation ... Informal interaction with other irrigation farmers and social networks played a ...

  10. Fall prevention in older persons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weak muscles, poor vision, psychotropic medications ... with increased risk of falls.[3]. Building on the .... [8] First eye cataract surgery has ... of users of bifocals in which half the subjects .... falls of providing single lens distance vision glasses.

  11. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  12. Influence of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and some baking quality characteristics of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavo Elonen

    1975-05-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1967—70 twelve irrigation experiments of spring wheat were carried out in southern Finland (60-62° N, 22-26° E. Sprinkler irrigation (2 X 30 mm increased the grain yields on an average by 1240±470kg/ha (from 2740 to 3980 kg or 45±17 %. The increases in yield were significant on clay soils (9 trials and loam (1 trial but insignificant on fines and (1 trial and mould (1 trial. Additional nitrogen fertilization (from 76 to 143kg/ha N increased the grain yields on an average by 350± 200 kg/ha or 11±6 %. The ripening of wheat was significantly promoted by irrigation in one year but slightly retarded in three years. Nitrogen fertilization slightly retarded ripening every year The falling number of grains tended to be slightly improved by irrigation (from 285 to 321, on an average, but in most trials irrigation and nitrogen fertilization had no significant influence on the falling number. Irrigation decreased the crude protein content of grains in all trials, on an average by 2.2 ± 0.7 %-units (from 16.3 to 14.1%. This unfavourable effect was, however, avoided with additional nitrogen which increased the protein content by 1.9±0.4%-units (from 14,3 to 16.2 %. The effects of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on those characteristics of wheat that are correlated with protein, were similar to the effects on the protein content. Thus, irrigation decreased the zeleny value (from 64 to 53 ml, cold viscosity (from 214 to 114 seconds, water absorption (from 66.5 to 64.9 % and the valorimeter value (from 68 to 60, while these characteristics were improved by nitrogen fertilization. Irrigation did not decrease the Pelshenke value but increased significantly the ratio of the Pelshenke value/protein content (from 5,1 to 6.1. This indicates that the quality of protein was improved by irrigation, while the effect of nitrogen fertilization was the reverse. In fact, irrigation and additional nitrogen fertilization affected the quantity and

  13. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  14. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... slowed reflexes. Drinking alcoholic beverages also increases the risk of falling. Alcohol slows reflexes and response time; causes dizziness, sleepiness, or lightheadedness; alters balance; and encourages risky behaviors that can lead to falls. The Force and Direction of a Fall The ...

  15. Childhood Falls With Occipital Impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, Norrell; van Rijn, Rick R.; Starling, Suzanne P.

    2017-01-01

    Falls are commonly reported in children who present with both accidental and inflicted brain injuries. Short falls rarely result in serious or life-threatening injuries. Our purpose is to describe a series of cases of short falls with occipital impact leading to subdural hemorrhage (SDH). We present

  16. The falls and the fear of falling among elderly institutionalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study it is intended to characterize the history of falls and to evaluate the fear to fall in aged institutionalized. The sample is composed for 113 institutionalized aged people, 32 men and 81 women with a average 82,96 ± 7,03 age of years. The data had been collected by means of a questionnaire and statistical analyzed (descriptive statistics, parametric tests - Test T and Anova - Test U-Mann Whitney, and Test of Kruskal-Wallis – and the Test of Tukey. The results point in the direction of that the women present a bigger number of falls (24.8% and greater fear to fall (Med=55. The falls had occurred in its majority in the context of the room of the institutions. It was verified that people who had at least a fall experience present greater fear to fall comparatively (Med=55 with that they had not the same had no incident of fall in period of time (Med=77. Our results come to strengthen the hypothesis of the changeable sex to be able to be considered a factor of fall risk. Aged that they present a history of falls seems to be more vulnerable to develop the fear to fall.

  17. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  18. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to analyse the technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among smallholder farmers in the guinea savannah, Nigeria, and determine the cost and returns on irrigated vegetable production. Two-stage sampling technique was used, purposive selection of two states and three Local ...

  19. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...

  20. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  1. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  2. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, Christos; van der Sluis, Lucas; Basrani, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews the available information on bacterial disinfection in endodontics, with emphasis on the chemical treatment of root canals based on current understanding of the process of irrigation. It describes recent advances in knowledge of the chemistry associated with irrigants and delivery

  3. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige (Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author).

  4. A scintigraphic study of colostomy irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shinji; Fujii, Hisao; Nakano, Hiroshige

    1991-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation was investigated by colonoscintigraphy. Twelve rectal cancer and one sigmoid colon cancer patients were examined. The tepid water whose volume was determined by barium enema was mixed with 99m Tc-DTPA. Dynamic scanning was started on commencement of colostomy irrigation. The sampling time was 3 seconds and scanning was performed for 30 minutes. The mean volume of remnant colon as measured by barium enema was 650 ml. The mean number of mass movements was 4.3. The mean evacuation time was 11 minutes 56 seconds and the mean half emptying time was calculated to be 9.5 minutes. The evacuation time in the patients who underwent colostomy irrigation for more than 2 years was greater than that in the patients who underwent irrigation for less than 2 years. Colonic motility was thought to have weakened. The half emptying time and the number of mass movements in the patients whose irrigation water went into the terminal ileum was more than that in the patients whose irrigation water was within the colon and cecum. Irrigation water which went into the terminal ileum was caused evacuation after the contents of the remnant colon were washed out. In conclusion, patients should have their colostomy irrigated with the tepid water, volume is determined by barium enema. Furthermore single infusion of the water is recommended. (author)

  5. Irrigation scheduling with the neutron probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travers, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational theory of the neutron probe is briefly outlined and its application and uses discussed in relation to determination of soil compaction and irrigation scheduling. Graphic examples are given of alluvial soil moisture profiles and how this information can be used to improve trickle irrigation in vineyards. 3 refs., 7 figs

  6. Mitigating fall risk: A community fall reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, Humberto; McCaffrey, Ruth G; Taylor, David W M

    One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician. Older adults who attended the risk screening were taking medications that are known to increase falls. They mentioned that their health care providers do not screen for falls and appreciated a community based screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  8. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  9. 1990 Fall Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David S.

    The AGU 1990 Fall Meeting, held in San Francisco December 3-7, continued the steady growth trend for the western meeting set over the last decade. About 5200 members registered for the meeting and 3836 papers were given. The scientific kickoff to the meeting was provided by a Union session on initial results of the current Magellan mission to Venus. The mission was also the focus of a public lecture and short film on highlights of the mission and an extensive Union poster session.

  10. Falls and cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Damulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the main causes of falls. Whatever their cause is, falls may lead to severe maladjustment in everyday life. In nearly 1 out of 10 cases, they are accompanied by severe injuries, including fractures (most commonly those of the proximal femur and humerus, hands, pelvic bones, and vertebrae, subdural hematoma, and severe soft tissue and head injuries. This process is emphasized to be multifactorial. Particular emphasis is laid on the involvement of the cerebellum and its associations, which may be accompanied by falls. This is clinically manifested mainly by gait disorders. Walking is a result of an interaction of three related functions (locomotion, maintenance of balance and adaptive reactions. In addition to synergies related to locomotion and balance maintenance, standing at rest and walking are influenced bythe following factors: postural and environmental information (proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual, the capacity to interpret and integrate this information, the ability of the musculoskeletal system to make movements, and the capability to optimally modulate these movements in view of the specific situation and the ability to choose and adapt synergy in terms of external factors and the capacities and purposes of an individual. The clinical signs of damage to the cerebellum and its associations are considered in detail. These structures are emphasized to be involved not only in movements, but also in cognitive functions. The major symptoms that permit cerebellar dysfunction to be diagnosed are given. Symptoms in cerebellar injuries are generally most pronounced when suddenly changing the direction of movements or attempting to start walking immediately after a dramatic rise. The magnitude of ataxia also increases in a patient who tries to decrease the step size. Falling tendencies or bending to one side (in other symptoms characteristic of cerebellar diseases suggest injury of the corresponding

  11. Falling Liquid Films

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, S; Scheid, B

    2012-01-01

    This research monograph gives a detailed review of the state-of-the-art theoretical methodologies for the analysis of dissipative wave dynamics and pattern formation on the surface of a film falling down a planar, inclined substrate. This prototype is an open-flow hydrodynamic instability representing an excellent paradigm for the study of complexity in active nonlinear media with energy supply, dissipation and dispersion. Whenever possible, the link between theory and experiments is illustrated and the development of order-of-magnitude estimates and scaling arguments is used to facilitate the

  12. New horizons in fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T

    2018-04-25

    Falls pose a major threat to the well-being and quality of life of older people. Falls can result in fractures and other injuries, disability and fear and can trigger a decline in physical function and loss of autonomy. This article synthesises recent published findings on fall risk and mobility assessments and fall prevention interventions and considers how this field of research may evolve in the future. Fall risk topics include the utility of remote monitoring using wearable sensors and recent work investigating brain activation and gait adaptability. New approaches for exercise for fall prevention including dual-task training, cognitive-motor training with exergames and reactive step training are discussed. Additional fall prevention strategies considered include the prevention of falls in older people with dementia and Parkinson's disease, drugs for fall prevention and safe flooring for preventing fall-related injuries. The review discusses how these new initiatives and technologies have potential for effective fall prevention and improved quality of life. It concludes by emphasising the need for a continued focus on translation of evidence into practice including robust effectiveness evaluations of so that resources can be appropriately targeted into the future.

  13. [Can falls be prevented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  14. Scheduling of Irrigation and Leaching Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Hassan Al-haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Iraq depends mainly on Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to provide high percentage of agricultural water use for thousands years. At last years, Iraq is suffering from shortage in water resources due to global climate changes and unfair water politics of the neighboring countries, which affected the future of agriculture plans for irrigation, added to that the lack of developed systems of water management in the irrigation projects and improper allocation of irrigation water, which reduces water use efficiency and lead to losing irrigation water and decreasing in agricultural yield. This study aims at studying the usability of irrigation and leaching scheduling within the irrigating projects and putting a complete annual or seasonal irrigation program as a solution for the scarcity of irrigation water, the increase of irrigation efficiency, lessening the salinity in the projects and preparing an integral irrigation calendar through field measurements of soil physical properties and chemical for project selected and compared to the results of the irrigation scheduling and leaching with what is proposed by the designers. The process is accomplished by using a computer program which was designed by Water Resources Department at the University of Baghdad, with some modification to generalize it and made it applicable to various climatic zone and different soil types. Study area represented by large project located at the Tigris River, and this project was (Al-Amara irrigation project. Sufficient samples of project's soil were collected so as to identify soil physical and chemical properties and the salinity of soil and water as well as identifying the agrarian cycles virtually applied to this project. Finally, a comparison was conducted between the calculated water quantities and the suggested ones by the designers. The research results showed that using this kind of scheduling (previously prepared irrigation and leaching scheduling with its properties

  15. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  16. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  17. Yellow berry, protein and agronomic characteristics in bread wheat under different conditions of nitrogen and irrigation in northwest mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, F.R.; Wong, B.R.; Chavez, P.I.T.; Alviles, A.; Salazar, S.M.; Martinez, M.E.R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of the amount of nitrogen fertilizer and number of irrigations on the YB disorder of wheat cultivar Tarachi, as well as its relationship with protein content, and the agronomic characteristics. The experiment was conducted in northwestern Mexico, during the fall-winter season, 2009-2010. Three levels of nitrogen (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (3, 4 or 5 irrigations) were studied. Increasing the nitrogen rate decreased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; and increased the protein content and the number of grains per spike. The number of irrigations did not affect the number of grains per spike. However, increasing the number of irrigations increased the YB content, the thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight; on the other hand, the protein content decreased. A negative correlation between protein content and percentage of YB was presented. It was concluded that the presence of the disorder YB in bread wheat, Tarachi, is due to a low nitrogen rate in the soil and an increase in number of irrigations. (author)

  18. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost.

  19. The Temporal Variation of Leaf Water Potential in Pistachio under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf AYDIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the experimental field of Pistachio Research Institute on pistachio trees which has uzun variety that was 30 years old. The aim of this research was to determine the Leaf Water Potential (LWP of Pistacia vera L. under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. In the study, the leaf water potential of pistachio was investigated under fully irrigated and non irrigated conditions. The leaf water potential values were measured one day before and after irrigation by using pressure chamber technique at the beginning, mid and end of irrigation season. According to the results obtained from measurements, the LWP value at the beginning of the irrigation season was -3.7 MPa at noon time due to relatively high temperature for both treatments. At the time of pre-dawn and sunset, this value increased and reached to - 1.6 MPa due to relatively low temperature. In general, the LWP values during the mid of irrigation season, in the irrigated treatments, reached to almost -2.5 MPa in the non-irrigated treatment and the value was measured as -3.68 MPa.

  20. Biological degradation of chernozems under irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Naydyonova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the changes in the state of microbial cenosis of Ukraine’s chernozems under irrigation. Considerable part of Ukraine’s chernozems is located in the areas where humidification is insufficient and unstable. Irrigation is a soil-reclamation measure for chernozems of Ukrainian Forest-steppe and Steppe which enables getting the assured yield, especially vegetable and fodder crops. At the same time, irrigation is a powerful anthropogenic factor that affects the soil, causes a significant transformation of many of its properties and regimes including biological ones. Often these changes are negative. The purpose of our investigation was to identify changes in the state of microbial cenoses of chernozem soils under irrigation which depend on such factors as the quality of irrigation water, the duration and intensity of irrigation, the initial properties of soil, the structure of crop rotation, usage of fertilizing systems and agroameliorative techniques. We identified direction and evaluated a degree of changes in biological properties of chernozems under influence of irrigation in different agro-irrigational and soil-climatic conditions. In the long-term stationary field experiments we identified the following biological indices of irrigated soils and their non-irrigated analogues: a number of microorganisms which belong to main ecological-trophic groups, activity of soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidase, soil phytotoxic activity, cellulose destroying capacity of soil, indices of oligotrophy and mineralization, summary biological index (SBI and index of biological degradation (BDI. Results of researches showed that irrigation unbalanced the soil ecosystem and stipulated the forming of microbial cenosis with new parameters. Long-term intensive irrigation of typical chernozem (Kharkiv Region with fresh water under condition of 4-fields vegetable crop rotation led to the degradation changes of its microbial cenosis such as

  1. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  2. Issues in Geriatric Care: Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipesh; Ackermann, Richard J

    2018-05-01

    One in three older adults falls each year. There are approximately 2.5 million falls among older adults treated in emergency departments. Falls account for 87% of all fractures in this age group. The biggest risk factor for falling is a history of falls. Other risk factors include frailty, sedative and anticholinergic drugs, polypharmacy, and a variety of medical conditions. Current recommendations are that all patients age 65 years and older should be asked about falls each year. Patients also can be screened for fall risk with a variety of approaches including questionnaires and the Timed Up & Go test. For patients who have fallen or are at risk, care should focus on correcting reversible home environmental factors that predispose to falls, minimizing the use of drugs with sedating properties, addressing vision conditions, recommending physical exercise (including balance, strength, and gait training), and managing postural hypotension as well as foot conditions and footwear. In addition, vitamin D and calcium supplementation should be considered. For patients needing anticoagulation for medical reasons, an assessment must balance fall risk (and thus bleeding from a fall) versus the risk of discontinuing anticoagulation (eg, sustaining an embolic stroke from atrial fibrillation). Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  3. Quantification of the impacts of coalmine water irrigation on the underlying aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeulen, D.; Usher, B.; van Tonder, G. [University of Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute of Groundwater Studies

    2009-07-15

    It is predicted that vast volumes of affected mine water will be produced by mining activities in the Mpumalanga coalfields of South Africa, The potential environmental impact of this excess water is of great concern in a water-scarce country like South Africa. Research over a period of more than 10 years has shown that this water can be used successfully for the irrigation of a range of crops. There is, however, continuing concern from the local regulators regarding the long-term impact that large-scale mine water irrigation may have on groundwater quality and quantity. Detailed research has been undertaken over the last three years to supplement the groundwater monitoring programme at five different pilot sites, on both virgin soils (greenfields) and in coalmining spoils. These sites range from sandy soils to very clayey soils. The research has included soil moisture measurements, collection of in situ soil moisture over time, long-term laboratory studies of the leaching and attenuation properties of different soils and the impact of irrigation on acid rock drainage processes, and in depth determination of the hydraulic properties of the subsurface at each of these sites, including falling head tests, pumping tests and point dilution tests. This has been supported by geochemical modelling of these processes to quantify the impacts. The results indicate that many of the soils have considerable attenuation capacities and that in the period of irrigation, a large proportion of the salts have been contained in the upper portions of the unsaturated zones below each irrigation pivot. The volumes and quality of water leaching through to the aquifers have been quantified at each site. From this mixing ratios have been calculated in order to determine the effect of the irrigation water on the underlying aquifers.

  4. Irrigation and Nitrogen Regimes Promote the Use of Soil Water and Nitrate Nitrogen from Deep Soil Layers by Regulating Root Growth in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weixing; Ma, Geng; Wang, Chenyang; Wang, Jiarui; Lu, Hongfang; Li, Shasha; Feng, Wei; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Kang, Guozhang

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonably high irrigation levels and excessive nitrogen (N) supplementation are common occurrences in the North China Plain that affect winter wheat production. Therefore, a 6-yr-long stationary field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of irrigation and N regimes on root development and their relationship with soil water and N use in different soil layers. Compared to the non-irrigated treatment (W0), a single irrigation at jointing (W1) significantly increased yield by 3.6-45.6%. With increases in water (W2, a second irrigation at flowering), grain yield was significantly improved by 14.1-45.3% compared to the W1 treatments during the drier growing seasons (2010-2011, 2012-2013, and 2015-2016). However, under sufficient pre-sowing soil moisture conditions, grain yield was not increased, and water use efficiency (WUE) decreased significantly in the W2 treatments during normal precipitation seasons (2011-2012, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015). Irrigating the soil twice inhibited root growth into the deeper soil depth profiles and thus weakened the utilization of soil water and NO 3 -N from the deep soil layers. N applications increased yield by 19.1-64.5%, with a corresponding increase in WUE of 66.9-83.9% compared to the no-N treatment (N0). However, there was no further increase in grain yield and the WUE response when N rates exceeded 240 and 180 kg N ha -1 , respectively. A N application rate of 240 kg ha -1 facilitated root growth in the deep soil layers, which was conducive to utilization of soil water and NO 3 -N and also in reducing the residual NO 3 -N. Correlation analysis indicated that the grain yield was significantly positively correlated with soil water storage (SWS) and nitrate nitrogen accumulation (SNA) prior to sowing. Therefore, N rates of 180-240 kg ha -1 with two irrigations can reduce the risk of yield loss that occurs due to reduced precipitation during the wheat growing seasons, while under better soil moisture conditions, a

  5. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  6. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  7. effect of deficit irrigation on growth and yield of okro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    reduce the demand for irrigation water (Boland et al., 1993). Deficit irrigation is another way in which water use efficiency can be maximized for higher yields per unit of irrigation water. Stegman (1982) reported that the yield of maize, sprinkler irrigated to induce a 30 - 40 percent depletion of available water between.

  8. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  9. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny

    2014-01-01

    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...

  10. Local land-atmosphere feedbacks limit irrigation demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Mark; Ma, Shaoxiu; Pitman, Andy

    2017-05-01

    Irrigation is known to influence regional climate but most studies forecast and simulate irrigation with offline (i.e. land only) models. Using south eastern Australia as a test bed, we demonstrate that irrigation demand is fundamentally different between land only and land-atmosphere simulations. While irrigation only has a small impact on maximum temperature, the semi-arid environment experiences near surface moistening in coupled simulations over the irrigated regions, a feedback that is prevented in offline simulations. In land only simulations that neglect the local feedbacks, the simulated irrigation demand is 25% higher and the standard deviation of the mean irrigation rate is 60% smaller. These local-scale irrigation-driven feedbacks are not resolved in coarse-resolution climate models implying that use of these tools will overestimate irrigation demand. Future studies of irrigation demand must therefore account for the local land-atmosphere interactions by using coupled frameworks, at a spatial resolution that captures the key feedbacks.

  11. Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for Improved Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Sanda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11082 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 235-240

  12. 16. PRE-OPERATIVE BLADDER IRRIGATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    effectiveness of using preoperative bladder irrigation with 1% povidone iodine in reducing ... consenting patient who presented to the department of surgery for open ..... infections in a tertiary care center in south-western. Nigeria. International ...

  13. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater quality; irrigation and domestic suitability; ionic balance, Suri I and II ... is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. ... total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study.

  14. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  15. The Regularity of Optimal Irrigation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Jean-Michel; Santambrogio, Filippo

    2010-02-01

    A branched structure is observable in draining and irrigation systems, in electric power supply systems, and in natural objects like blood vessels, the river basins or the trees. Recent approaches of these networks derive their branched structure from an energy functional whose essential feature is to favor wide routes. Given a flow s in a river, a road, a tube or a wire, the transportation cost per unit length is supposed in these models to be proportional to s α with 0 measure is the Lebesgue density on a smooth open set and the irrigating measure is a single source. In that case we prove that all branches of optimal irrigation trees satisfy an elliptic equation and that their curvature is a bounded measure. In consequence all branching points in the network have a tangent cone made of a finite number of segments, and all other points have a tangent. An explicit counterexample disproves these regularity properties for non-Lebesgue irrigated measures.

  16. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  17. A piece of paper falling faster than free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, F; Rivera, R, E-mail: fvera@ucv.cl [Instituto de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de ValparaIso, Av. Universidad 330, Curauma, ValparaIso (Chile)

    2011-09-15

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls with acceleration g. To test if the paper falls behind the book in a nearly free fall motion or if it is dragged by the book, we designed a version of this experiment that includes a ball and a piece of paper over a book that is forced to fall using elastic cords. We recorded a video of our experiment using a high-speed video camera at 300 frames per second that shows that the book and the paper fall faster than the ball, which falls well behind the book with an acceleration approximately equal to g. Our experiment shows that the piece of paper is dragged behind the book and therefore the paper and book demonstration should not be used to show that all objects fall with acceleration g independently of their mass.

  18. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  19. Evaluation of Modern Irrigation Techniques with Brackish Water

    OpenAIRE

    Aboulila, Tarek Selim

    2012-01-01

    Modern irrigation techniques are becoming increasingly important in water-scarce countries especially in arid and semiarid regions. Higher crop production and better water use efficiency are usually achieved by drip irrigation as compared to other irrigation methods. Furthermore, by using drip irrigation simultaneously with brackish irrigation water, some of the water stress due to shortage of fresh water resources can be managed. The objective of the current study was to investigate the infl...

  20. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  1. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  2. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  3. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  4. Effect of Mycorrhiza Symbiosis on Yield, Yield Components and Water Use Efficiency of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. Affected by Different Irrigation Regimes in Mashhad Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Plant association with mycorrhiza has been considered as one of the options to improve input efficiency particularly for water and nutrient - (Allen and Musik, 1993; Bolan, 1991. This has been due to kncreasing the absorbing area of the root and therefore better contact with water and nutrients. Inoculation with mycorrhiza enhances nutrient uptake with low immobility such as phosphorus and solphur-, improve association and could be an option to drought and other environmental abnormalities such as salinity (Rice et al., 2002. Moreover, higher water use efficiency (WUE for crops -has been reported in the literatures (Sekhara and Reddy, 1993.The sustainable use of scarce water resources in Iran is a priority for agricultural development. The pressure of using water in agriculture sector is increasing, so creating ways to improve water-use efficiency and taking a full advantage of available water are crucial. Water stress reduce crop yield by impairing the growth of crop canopy and biomass. Scheduling water application is very crucial for efficient use of drip irrigation system, as excessive irrigation reduces yield, while inadequate irrigation causes water stress and reduces production. The aim of present study was to evaluate the symbiotic effect of mycorrhiza on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of sesame under different irrigation regimes in Mashhad. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of inoculation with two species of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi on yield, yield components and water use efficiency (WUE of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. under different irrigation regimes, an experiment was conducted as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications during two growing seasons 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.. The experimental factors were three irrigation regimes include 2000, 3000 and

  5. Preventing Falls in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Lainie Van Voast; Mire, L Glen

    2017-08-15

    The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults who are at increased risk of falls. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians do not recommend routine multifactorial intervention to prevent falls in all community-dwelling older adults, they state that it may be appropriate in individual cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed an algorithm to aid in the implementation of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society guideline. The algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial intervention for those who have had two or more falls or one fall-related injury. Multifactorial interventions should include exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium; management of medications, especially psychoactive medications; home environment modification; and management of postural hypotension, vision problems, foot problems, and footwear. These interventions effectively decrease falls in the community, hospital, and nursing home settings. Fall prevention is reimbursed as part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

  6. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  7. Fall prevention in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-05-01

    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a

  8. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  9. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  10. ASPECTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION ON SLOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Radu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, water and its supply raise problems of strategic importance, of great complexity, being considered one of the keys to sustainable human development. Drip irrigation consists in the slow and controlled administration of water in the area of the root system of the plants for the purposes of fulfilling their physiological needs and is considered to be one of the variants of localized irrigation. Water is distributed in a uniform and slow manner, drop by drop, in a quantity and with a frequency that depend on the needs of the plant, thanks to the exact regulation of the water flow rate and pressure, as well as to the activation of the irrigation based on the information recorded by the tensiometer with regard to soil humidity. This method enables the exact dosage of the water quantity necessary in the various evolution stages of the plant, thus eliminating losses. By applying the irrigation with 5 liters of water per linear meter, at a 7 days interval, in the month of august, for a vine cultivated on a slope, in layers covered with black film and irrigated via dropping, soil humidity immediately after irrigation reaches its highest level, but within the limits of active humidity, on the line of the irrigation band. Three days later, the water content of the soil in the layer is relatively uniform, and, after this interval, it is higher in the points situated at the basis of the film. This technology of cultivation on slopes favors the accumulation, in the soil, of the water resulted from heavy rains and reduces soil losses as a result of erosion.

  11. Chemical colostomy irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bichere, A; Bossom, C; Gangoli, S; Green, C; Phillips, R K

    2001-09-01

    Colostomy irrigation may improve patient quality of life, but is time consuming. This study tests the hypothesis that irrigation with glyceryl trinitrate solution, by inducing gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxation, may accelerate expulsion of stool by passive emptying, thereby reducing irrigation time. Fifteen colostomy irrigators(with more than 3 years' experience) performed washout with tap water compared with water containing 0.025 mg/kg glyceryl trinitrate. Fluid inflow time, total washout time, and hemodynamic changes occurring during glyceryl trinitrate irrigation were documented by an independent observer. Subjects recorded episodes of fecal leakage and overall satisfaction on a visual analog scale. Cramps, headaches, and whether or not a stoma bag was used were expressed as a percentage of number of irrigations. Comparison of fluid inflow time, total washout time, leakage, and satisfaction was by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and headaches, cramps, and stoma bag use was by McNemar's test. Pulse rate (paired t-test), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (Wilcoxon's test) at 20 and 240 minutes after washout with glyceryl trinitrate solution were compared with baseline. Fifteen patients (9 female), with a mean age of 53 (31-73) years, provided 30 sessions (15 with water and 15 with glyceryl trinitrate). Medians (interquartile ranges) for water vs. glyceryl trinitrate were fluid inflow time 7 (4-10) vs. 4, (3-5; P = 0.001); total washout time 40 (30-55) vs. 21, (15-24; P colostomy irrigation time compared with the generally recommended tap water. Patients suffer fewer leakages and are highly satisfied, but side effects are potential drawbacks. Other colonoplegic agent solutions should now be evaluated.

  12. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  13. Geriatric fall-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefny, Ashraf F; Abbas, Alaa K; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-06-01

    Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention. All injured patients with an age ≥ 60 years who were admitted to Al-Ain Hospital or died in the Emergency Department due to falls were prospectively studied over a four year period. We studied 92 patients. Fifty six of them (60.9%) were females. The mean (standard deviation) of age was 72.2 (9.6) years. Seventy three (89%) of all incidents occurred at home. Eighty three patients (90.2%) fell on the same level. The median (range) ISS was 4 (1-16) and the median GCS (range) was 15 (12-15). The lower limb was the most common injured body region (63%). There were no statistical significant differences between males and females regarding age, ISS, and hospital stay (p = 0.85, p = 0.57, and p = 0.35 respectively). The majority of geriatric fall-related injuries were due to fall from the same level at home. Assessment of risk factors for falls including home hazards is essential for prevention of geriatric fall-related injuries.

  14. The effect of irrigation time and type of irrigation fluid on cartilage surface friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärke, F; Awiszus, F; Lohmann, C H; Stärke, C

    2018-01-01

    It is known that fluid irrigation used during arthroscopic procedures causes a wash-out of lubricating substances from the articular cartilage surface and leads to increased friction. It was the goal of this study to investigate whether this effect depends on the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. Rabbit hind legs were used for the tests. The knees were dissected and the friction coefficient of the femoral cartilage measured against glass in a boundary lubrication state. To determine the influence of irrigation time and fluid, groups of 12 knees received either no irrigation (control), 15, 60 or 120min of irrigation with lactated Ringer's solution or 60min of irrigation with normal saline or a sorbitol/mannitol solution. The time of irrigation had a significant effect on the static and kinetic coefficient of friction (CoF), as had the type of fluid. Longer irrigation time with Ringer's solution was associated with increased friction coefficients (relative increase of the kinetic CoF compared to the control after 15, 60 and 120min: 16%, 76% and 88% respectively). The sorbitol/mannitol solution affected the static and kinetic CoF significantly less than either Ringer's or normal saline. The washout of lubricating glycoproteins from the cartilage surface and the associated increase of friction can be effectively influenced by controlling the time of irrigation and type of fluid used. The time of exposure to the irrigation fluid should be as short as possible and monosaccharide solutions might offer a benefit compared to salt solutions in terms of the resultant friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon and water footprints of irrigated corn and non-irrigated wheat in Northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, Raphael; Carvalho, Monica; Causapé, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Irrigation increases yields and allows several crops to be produced in regions where it would be naturally impossible due to limited rainfall. However, irrigation can cause several negative environmental impacts, and it is important to understand these in depth for the correct application of mitigation measures. The life cycle assessment methodology was applied herein to compare the main irrigated and non-irrigated crops in Northeast Spain (corn and wheat, respectively), identifying those processes with greater contribution to environmental impacts (carbon and water footprint categories) and providing scientifically-sound information to facilitate government decisions. Due to concerns about climate change and water availability, the methods selected for evaluation of environmental impacts were IPCC 2013 GWP (carbon footprint) and water scarcity indicator (water footprint). The area studied, a 7.38-km 2 basin, was monitored for 12 years, including the period before, during, and after the implementation of irrigation. The functional unit, to which all material and energy flows were associated with, was the cultivation of 1 ha, throughout 1 year. The overall carbon footprint for irrigated corn was higher, but when considering the higher productivity achieved with irrigation, the emissions per kilogram of corn decrease and finally favor this irrigated crop. When considering the water footprint, the volumes of irrigation water applied were so high that productivity could not compensate for the negative impacts associated with water use in the case of corn. Nevertheless, consideration of productivities and gross incomes brings the results closer. Fertilizer use (carbon footprint) and irrigation water (water footprint) were the main contributors to the negative impacts detected.

  16. Cowlitz Falls fish passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The upper Cowlitz was once home to native salmon and steelhead. But the combined impacts of overharvest, farming, logging and road building hammered fish runs. And in the 1960s, a pair of hydroelectric dams blocked the migration path of ocean-returning and ocean-going fish. The lower Cowlitz still supports hatchery runs of chinook, coho and steelhead. But some 200 river miles in the upper river basin--much of it prime spawning and rearing habitat--have been virtually cut off from the ocean for over 26 years. Now the idea is to trap-and-haul salmon and steelhead both ways and bypass previously impassable obstacles in the path of anadromous fish. The plan can be summarized, for the sake of explanation, in three steps: (1) trap and haul adult fish--collect ocean-returning adult fish at the lowermost Cowlitz dam, and truck them upstream; (2) reseed--release the ripe adults above the uppermost dam, and let them spawn naturally, at the same time, supplement these runs with hatchery born fry that are reared and imprinted in ponds and net pens in the watershed; (3) trap and haul smolts--collection the new generation of young fish as they arrive at the uppermost Cowlitz dam, truck them past the three dams, and release them to continue their downstream migration to the sea. The critical part of any fish-collection system is the method of fish attraction. Scientists have to find the best combination of attraction system and screens that will guide young fish to the right spot, away from the turbine intakes. In the spring of 1994 a test was made of a prototype system of baffles and slots on the upriver face of the Cowlitz Falls Dam. The prototype worked at 90% efficiency in early tests, and it worked without the kind of expensive screening devices that have been installed on other dams. Now that the success of the attraction system has been verified, Harza engineers and consultants will design and build the appropriate collection part of the system

  17. Community College Estimated Growth: Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Kent; Mullin, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    A survey from the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) found that enrollment growth in fall 2010 slowed its pace at community colleges, increasing 3.2% from the previous year. This contrasts with more dramatic increases in recent years: more than 11% between fall 2008 and fall 2009, and nearly 17% between fall 2007 and fall 2009,…

  18. Rehabilitation after falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionyssiotis, Y; Dontas, I A; Economopoulos, D; Lyritis, G P

    2008-01-01

    Falls are one of the most common geriatric problems threatening the independence of older persons. Elderly patients tend to fall more often and have a greater tendency to fracture their bones. Fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic people due to increased bone fragility, resulting in considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. This article provides information for the rehabilitation of osteoporotic fractures pertaining to the rehabilitation of the fractured patient, based on personal experience and literature. It also outlines a suggested effective and efficient clinical strategy approach for preventing falls in individual patients.

  19. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  20. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-06-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  1. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  2. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Mya Su Kyi; Lu Maw; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area fall...

  3. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  4. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  5. Coil irrigation in sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Sánchez Gutiérrez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was made at the Basic Seed Bank of the Local Sugar Cane Research Station for the Mideastern Cuba, based in Camaguey, on brown carbonate soil, between 2013 and 12014. Coil irrigation was applied to meet the water requirements for the crop, according to the edafoclimatic conditions and the different phenological phases it has. The Savo method was used to determine useful rain water. Adjustment and complementation of the irrigation program was based on indicators that characterize the exploitation scheme. The machine´s working parameters were determined to meet the water needs, and increase crop´s overall yields. The evaluations and results achieved have contributed to new proposals for management and operation of coil irrigation, and they are important to increase its efficiency.

  6. Falls: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and relationship to fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah D; Miller, Ram R

    2008-12-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury and disability. Most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and dementia, psychotropic medications, and certain types of footwear. Fewer studies have focused on acute precipitating factors, but environmental and situational factors are clearly important to fall risk. Approximately 30% of falls result in an injury that requires medical attention, with fractures occurring in approximately 10%. In addition to the risk factors for falls, the fall descent, fall impact, and bone strength are all important determinants of whether a fall will result in a fracture. In recent years, numerous studies have been directed toward the development of effective fall and fall-related fracture prevention interventions.

  7. KAJIAN ASET NIRWUJUD DALAM MANAJEMEN SISTEM IRIGASI Study on Intangible Assets in Irrigation System Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Tri Waskitho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying on intangible assets at irrigation system management. The research method consisted oftwo stages. The first stage was data collecting which was done by questionnaire and interview on management of Water Use Associations (WUA in Mejing irrigation system in Bantul, Sapon irrigation system in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta, and Molek irrigation system in Malang, East Java. The second stage was data analysis which was done using ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System.The research result indicated that knowledge management falls into four main components: (i learning organization, (ii principle of organization, (iii policy and strategy of organization, and (iv information and communication technology which are integrated for controlling intangible assets in irrigation system. Intangible assets consisted of human capital, structural capital, and relation capital which are integrated for controlling performance of irrigation system. Knowledge management in Mejing and Sapon irrigation systems were in moderate-good condition (3.81 in1-5 scale and in Molek irrigation system was poor (2.37. Intangible assets in Mejing, Sapon, and Molek irrigation systems were in moderate-good condition (3.61. Effectiveness of performance in Sapon, Mejing, and Molek irrigation systems were very good (0.89-0.95 and were very potential to develop. Each irrigation system had different priorities ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji kondisi aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi ditinjau dari manajemenpengetahuan. Metode penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap. Tahap pertama adalah pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan kuesioner dan wawancara dengan pengurus Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air (P3A di Daerah Irigasi (DI Mejing di kabupaten Bantul, dan DI Sapon di kabupaten Kulon Progo, propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dan DI Molek di kabupaten Malang, Jawa Timur. Tahap kedua adalah analisa data yang dilakukan dengan ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro

  8. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  9. Free Falling in Stratified Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Try; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Leaves falling in air and discs falling in water are examples of unsteady descents due to complex interaction between gravitational and aerodynamic forces. Understanding these descent modes is relevant to many branches of engineering and science such as estimating the behavior of re-entry space vehicles to studying biomechanics of seed dispersion. For regularly shaped objects falling in homogenous fluids, the motion is relatively well understood. However, less is known about how density stratification of the fluid medium affects the falling behavior. Here, we experimentally investigate the descent of discs in both pure water and in stable linearly stratified fluids for Froude numbers Fr 1 and Reynolds numbers Re between 1000 -2000. We found that stable stratification (1) enhances the radial dispersion of the disc at landing, (2) increases the descent time, (3) decreases the inclination (or nutation) angle, and (4) decreases the fluttering amplitude while falling. We conclude by commenting on how the corresponding information can be used as a predictive model for objects free falling in stratified fluids.

  10. Contribution to the improvement of irrigation management practices through water - deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazza, M.

    1995-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying irrigation management practices which could result in water savings through -water deficit irrigation. Two field experiments, one on wheat and the other on sugar beet, were conducted and consisted of refraining from supplying water during specific stages of the cycle so as to identy the period(s) during which water deficit would have a limited effect on crop production. In the case of wheat, high water deficit occurred during the early and during these stages was the most beneficial for the crop. However, one water application during the tillering stage allowed the yield to be lower only to that of the treatement with three irrigations. Irrigation during the stage of grain filling caused the kernel weight to be as high as under three irrigations. The lowest value corresponded to the treatement with one irrigation during grain filling and that under rainfed conditions. For sugar beet, when water stress was was applied early in the crop cycle, its effect could be almost entirely recovered with adequate watering during the rest of the growing season. On the opposite, good watering early in cycle, followed by a stress, resulted in the second lowest yield. Water deficit during the maturity stage had also a limited effect on yield. The most crucial periods for adequate watering were which correspond to late filiar development and root growth which coincided with the highest water requirements period. For the same amount of water savings through deficit irrigation, it was better to partition the stress throughout the cycle than during the critical stages of the crop. However, at the national level, it would have been more important to practice deficit irrigation and the irrigated area. For both crops, high yields as high as water - use efficiency values could have been obtained. 8 tabs; 5 refs ( Author )

  11. Evaluation of mulched drip irrigation for cotton in arid Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.; Jin, M.; Simunek, J.; van Genuchten, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in arid Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China, for 3 years to evaluate sustainable irrigation regimes for cotton. The experiments involved mulched drip irrigation during the growing season and flood irrigation afterward. The drip irrigation experiments included control

  12. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  13. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  14. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  15. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  16. The Reticulation Irrigation Scheme at Sankana, Upper West Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farmers utilizing the irrigation project are food secure. ... The effects of ... Often, lack of maintenance, bad management and financial difficulties decrease the ...... and Mushunje A. (2010), 'Analysis of Irrigation Development Post Fast Track Land ...

  17. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado

    2017-01-01

    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  18. Evaluation some Forage Legumes in Limited Irrigation Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moniri Far

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes respond differently to limited irrigation regimes. Their evaluation may, thus, help to select drought tolerant types for limited irrigation conditions. In this study four type of forage legume were studied for two years in Tikma-Dash Research Station of East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Research Center, Tabriz, Iran, in a randomized complete block design using split-plot experiment in 2011-2013 years. Irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one irrigation and two irrigations were assigned to main plots and four forage types (hairy vetch, grass pea, Pannonica sativa and lathyrus were assigned to subplots. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of irrigation on plant height, number of shoots, leaf area and plant fresh and dry weights were not significant. Howere, legume types affected these traits significantly (P≤0.01. The effect of irrigation levels and legume types on protein content of hay were significant (P

  19. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  20. Heavy metals accumulation in edible part of vegetables irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha

    water quality and permissible levels of metals in food and water. It revealed that the heavy .... irrigation with partially treated or untreated sewage. This was reported by .... Reuse of domestic grey water for irrigation of food crops, unpublished ...

  1. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  2. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... including rainwater harvesting, flood recession, flood water spreading, river ... Smallholder irrigation systems can comprise farmers who use shared or ...... on Irrigation and Drainage, 15-17 November 2006, Aventura. Swadini.

  3. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  4. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  5. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  6. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  7. Epidemiology of falls in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-03-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of population aging. The magnitude of the problem is described in terms of the classification of falls and measurement of outcomes, including fall incidence rates across settings, sociodemographic determinants, international trends, and costs of falls and fall-related injuries. Finally, public health approaches to minimize falls risk and consequent demand on health care resources are suggested.

  8. Falls and patient safety for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovitch, Sharon A

    2006-10-01

    The risk of falling increases with age. Falls in the elderly have been found to raise mortality and morbidity rates and are a leading cause of premature admission to long-term care facilities. Attention to known intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose to falling is important in community dwelling and institutionalized older adults. New government guidelines for long-term care facilities have helped focus attention on the safety aspect of fall risk and information about the physical and psychological impact of falling is increasing. Implementation of fall prevention protocols, including the use of fall risk assessment tools, may help reduce the incidence of falls and resultant complications.

  9. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chukalla, Abebe Demissie; Krol, Martinus S.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and

  10. Fall prevention in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  11. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  12. Ring Irrigation System (RIS) design through customer preference representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.; Rianmora Suchada; Werawatganon Siwat

    2018-01-01

    In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent ...

  13. The management perspective on the performance of the irrigation subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijman, C.

    1993-01-01

    INVESTMENT IN IRRIGATION has been immense in the past. Estimated average annual investments of US$ 15 billion makes irrigation the largest subsector of the agricultural sector, that is itself by far the largest sector of development investment. Since the mid-1960s the awareness spread that the performance of irrigation investments was far below its potential. The size of this underperformance is well represented by Seckler's alarming conclusion that the average irrigation investment costs twi...

  14. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  15. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  16. Potentials for Supplemental Irrigation in Some Rainfall Areas of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, there were up to five months of the year during which rainwater was much in deficit of evapotranspiration. All these stress the need for irrigation. Analysis of water quality (surface, groundwater, and rainfall runoff) showed their suitability for irrigation. Quantity assessment of supplemental irrigation during the dry ...

  17. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  18. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  19. The impact of smallholder irrigation on household welfare: The case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of smallholder irrigated agriculture to enhance food security and alleviate rural poverty has led the South African Government to prioritise and invest significantly in irrigation establishment, rehabilitation and revitalisation. The question addressed in this study pertains to the extent to which smallholder irrigation ...

  20. Effects of seven different irrigation techniques on debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Conventional manual irrigation with a syringe and needle remains widely accepted technique in the irrigation procedures. However, its flushing action has some limitations. Currently, several techniques and systems are available and reported to improve the insufficiency of syringe irrigation. The aim of this study was to ...

  1. Critical parameters for maize yield under irrigation farming in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the critical variables that determine maize yield under irrigation farming in the savanna ecological zone of Kwara State. Seventy-five soil samples were randomly collected from irrigation farm of Oke-Oyi irrigation project of the Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority Ilorin and bulked into 15 ...

  2. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  3. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  4. Scheduling irrigation for jujube ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill. ) | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to select suitable indicator for scheduling the irrigation of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) grown in the Loess Plateau. The relationships between plant-based indicators and soil matrix potential as well as meteorological factors of jujube under deficit irrigation compared with well irrigation were ...

  5. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  6. Irrigation development and management in Ghana: Prospects and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... existing schemes. It is envisaged that irrigation will be seen in its right perspective as a multidisciplinary activity to ensure the success of schemes. There is the need for running a postgraduate programme in irrigation at the KNUST to enhance the nations efforts at developing and managing irrigation projects successfully.

  7. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  8. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Soil Water Irrigation Planning and Energy Management (SWIP-E) mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline pipe diameter, irrigation system delivery capacity and size of the irrigation system. SWIP-E unifies the interrelated ...

  9. Tracking antibiotic resistance genes in soil irrigated with dairy wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    In southern Idaho, the application of dairy wastewater to agricultural soils is a widely used practice to irrigate crops and recycle nutrients. In this study, small-scale field plots were irrigated monthly (6 times) with dairy wastewater (100%), wastewater diluted to 50% with irrigation (canal) wate...

  10. Sustainable Irrigation Development in the White Volta Sub-Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofosu, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study on sustainable irrigation development identified growing markets for irrigated products as an important driving force behind the expansion of irrigation which has given rise to new technologies. The new technologies have spread because they gave farmers direct control over water sources.

  11. Longevity risks and capital markets: The 2010-2011 update

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Courbage, Christophe; MacMinn, Richard; Sherris, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This Special Issue of Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice contains 10 contributions to the academic literature all dealing with longevity risk and capital markets. Draft versions of the papers were presented at Longevity Six: The Sixth International Longevity Risk and Capital Markets Solutions Conference that was held in Sydney on 9-10 September 2010. It was hosted by the Australian Institute for Population Ageing Research, the Australian School of Business and the Unive...

  12. Early Returns: Exploratory Data Analysis of the 2010-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    provide an opportunity for those surveyed to offer insight and provide suggestions on future implementation of Lonergan studies. The 2011 West Coast Methods Institute (WCMI) paper is an exploratory data analysis of the current valid survey sample: n=98 to date. The WCMI presentation offers summary survey......Initially inspired by a 2009 Boston College Lonergan Fellow’s survey interest in the international use of Lonergan’s empirical method in the social sciences, the Global Lonergan Survey (GLS) is a data collection instrument available on the Internet since January 2010. This paper details the survey...

  13. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, Somalia, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindani, Ireneaus; Fitzpatrick, Christopher; Falzon, Dennis; Suleiman, Bashir; Arube, Peter; Adam, Ismail; Baghdadi, Samiha; Bassili, Amal; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-03-01

    In a nationwide survey in 2011, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was found in 5.2% and 40.8% of patients with new and previously treated TB, respectively. These levels of drug resistance are among the highest ever documented in Africa and the Middle East. This finding presents a serious challenge for TB control in Somalia.

  14. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the pressing and urgent need for an accurate and more intensive network of river gauging and sediment monitoring. In a country of "droughts and flooding rains" and in the face of climate change, this need is now imperative.

  15. Informe Annual 2010-2011 de la Iniciativa Think Tank

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Iniciativa Think Tank, IDRC

    Nuestro equipo está comprometido en apoyar a todas las instituciones en sus esfuerzos por consolidar su ... El Grupo Asesor Internacional (IAG en inglés) asesora a la Iniciativa Think Tank ..... MARCA LA DIFERENCIA ... de trabajo adecuados, que son críticos a la hora de retener y aumentar su capacidad de investigación ...

  16. Your business in court and at federal agencies: 2010 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, John B; Crowder, Dawn; Simons, Brian; Pleskov, Igor; Davis, Tiffany; Nugent, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This year the government aggressively pursued Manufacturers under the enhanced provisions of the False Claims Act (FCA), as well as under the provisions of the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (FDCA). In addition, the government pursued actions against individual executives under the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine ("RCO Doctrine") because it does not believe sanctions against the companies provide sufficient deterrence to inappropriate behavior. Companies need to focus on implementing effective compliance programs in order to prevent the occurrence of allegedly improper activity. It should be noted that the existence of an effective program will not protect executives from liability under the RCO Doctrine if improper behavior takes place. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) has undertaken a number of initiatives during the past year in an attempt to counter claims that its review processes for domestic products is driving the development of drugs and devices to overseas markets. The Agency also has improved its capacity to review products imported from overseas by undertaking initiatives with foreign agencies and stationing more FDA employees in foreign countries. The FDA increased the number of warning letters and other enforcement actions. The FDA added two new topics of enhanced authority during the year. One was an expansion of its regulatory authority over foods, and the second was new authority to regulate certain tobacco products. The former is being subjected to some review by the courts, and the scope of its authority over tobacco is the subject of ongoing major litigation. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are unlikely to experience significant change regarding their regulation of Manufacturers. The FTC, as it has for many years, continues to try to prevent "reverse" payments to generic drug manufacturers by Innovator Manufacturers to diminish generic drug competition, and proposed legislation is before Congress. The SEC still appears focused on the Foreign Corporate Practices Act with respect to enforcement against pharmaceutical and device manufacturers. Federal preemption of State law continues to be a topic of concern, with Court's taking different positions on the effect of the various Supreme Court decisions made in the last two years.

  17. Ciguatera fish poisoning - New York City, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    During August 2010-July 2011, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) received reports of six outbreaks and one single case of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving a total of 28 persons. CFP results from consumption of certain large, predatory, tropical reef fish that have bioaccumulated ciguatoxins (CTX). CFP is characterized by various gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurologic symptoms. A prolonged period of acute illness can result, and the neurologic symptoms can last months, with variable asymptomatic and symptomatic periods. The first two outbreaks and the single case, involving 13 persons, were reported during August 6-September 13, 2010. DOHMH distributed a health alert in November 2010 requesting health-care providers be alert for CFP signs and symptoms. The health alert resulted in identification of 11 more cases that month and an additional two outbreaks involving four persons in July 2011. In comparison, only four CFP outbreaks, involving 21 persons total, had been reported in New York City (NYC) during the preceding 10 years (2000-2009). DOHMH's investigation revealed that 13 persons became ill after eating barracuda, and 15 became ill after eating grouper. Although specific and highly sensitive laboratory analyses can detect and confirm CTX in fish, no practical field tests are available for fish monitoring programs. CFP prevention depends on educating the public, seafood suppliers, and distributors about known CFP endemic areas and high-risk fish species. Traceback investigations of fish associated with outbreaks provide valuable information regarding fishing areas associated with CFP. Not all fish from CFP endemic areas are ciguatoxic, but persons who eat fish from endemic regions are at higher risk for CFP. If an illness is suspected to be CFP, public health authorities should be notified and informed of the case history for possible investigation and intervention measures.

  18. Ohio Department of Transportation : 2010-2011 Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Together, Team ODOT and its public and private partners are building a safer, multi-modal transportation system, contributing to job growth and business opportunity, revitalizing our cities and towns, offering green transportation options for busines...

  19. Public Health Agency Business plan 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This second corporate business plan explains the purpose of the PHA and focuses on health improvement, health protection and addressing health inequalities. The business plan is available to download below.

  20. Radioactivity Monitoring of the Irish Environment 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnity, P.; Currivan, L.; Dowdall, A.; Hanley, O.; Kelleher, K.; McKittrick, L.; Pollard, D.; Somerville, S.; Wong, J.; McMahon, C.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents the results of the environmental radioactivity monitoring programme carried out by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII during 2010 and 2011. The RPII has routinely monitored levels of radioactivity in the Irish environment since 1982 and this is the latest in the RPII's series of environmental monitoring reports. The RPII reviews and updates its environmental programme annually to ensure it remains relevant and continues to focus on the most important sources of radioactivity in the environment. The data presented in this report confirm that while the levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment are detectable, they are low. They do not pose a significant risk to the human health of the Irish population. Trace amounts of radioactive isotopes consistent with the Fukushima nuclear accident were detected in air, rainwater and milk samples during the period March to May 2011. These increases in levels of radioactivity were not of concern from a public health point of view. For the remainder of the reporting period, activity concentrations of radionuclides in airborne particles were low and consistent with measurements made in recent years. Radioactivity levels in milk, mixed diet and a wide range of foodstuffs were low and, for the majority of samples, below the detection limits. All drinking waters tested were found to be in compliance with the total indicative dose defined in national and EU legislation. The doses incurred by the Irish public in 2010 and 2011 as a result of artificial radioactivity in the marine environment are small when compared to dose limits or to natural radiation doses received by the Irish public. The doses to the most exposed individuals, members of the oyster and mussel farmers critical group, were approximately 0.02 per cent and 0.05 per cent of the annual dose limit of 1000 microsieverts for members of the public from practices involving controllable sources of radiation in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The increase in 2011 can be attributed to changes in sampling protocol and analytical method. These doses represent a small fraction of the average annual dose to a person in Ireland from all sources of radioactivity of 3950 microsieverts. In general, levels of artificial radioactivity in the Irish environment remain fairly constant and are broadly consistent with levels reported previously. It must be emphasised that the levels of radioactive contamination present in the marine environment, do not warrant any modification of the habits of people in Ireland, either in respect of consumption of seafood or any other use of the amenities of the marine environment

  1. STOP4-7 Nederland. Resultaten 2010-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijsen, L.; Veerman, J.W.; Bastiaanssen, I.L.W.

    2011-01-01

    STOP4-7 is een multimodale interventie voor kinderen van 4 tot 7 jaar met ernstige externaliserende gedragsproblemen en hun opvoeders en leerkrachten. Het doel van STOP4-7 is het aanleren en versterken van sociale en probleemoplossende vaardigheden en het verminderen van ongewenst gedrag. Daarvoor

  2. Tema 2. Oscilaciones y ondas (Curso 2010-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Caballero, María Teresa; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Miret Marí, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    1. Oscilaciones: movimiento armónico simple. Oscilaciones amortiguadas y forzadas. Resonancia; 2. Ondas armónicas: función y ecuación de ondas; 3. Sonido: ondas sonoras, velocidad de propagación; 4. Intensidad de las ondas. Fenómenos de propagación: reflexión, refracción y difracción; 5. Interferencias. Ondas estacionarias.

  3. Annual Report to Parliament Privacy Act - 2010-2011

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    knowledge to the economic and social advancement of those regions. ... and intellectual support across five broad areas: (1) Agriculture and the Environment; ... The responsibility and accountability for the development, coordination and implementation of effective policies, guidelines, systems and procedures to enable the.

  4. End-of-year closure 2010/2011

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin No. 2-3/2010, the Laboratory will be closed from Wednesday 22 December 2010 to Tuesday 4 January 2011 inclusive. This period consists of: 4 days' official holiday, i.e. 24, 25 and 31 December 2010 and 1st January 2011; 6 days' special paid leave in accordance with Article R II 4.38 of the Staff Regulations, i.e.22, 27, 28, 29 December 2010, and 3, 4 January 2011; 2 days, 23 and 30 December 2010 to compensate for 25 December 2010 and 1st January 2011 (Article R II 4.39 of the Staff Regulations); 2 Sundays, i.e. 26 December 2010 and 2 January 2011. The first working day in the New Year will be Wednesday 5 January 2011. Further information is available from Department Secretariats, specifically concerning the conditions applicable to members of the personnel who are required to work during this period. Tel. 73903

  5. Tema 5. Comunicaciones y Redes. Transparencias. Curso 2010-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz Noeda, Maximiliano

    2010-01-01

    TEMA 5. COMUNICACIONES Y REDES. TRANSPARENCIAS. Este tema hace un recorrido por las tecnologías de comunicación entre sistemas electrónicos, los dispositivos y medios de comunicación más comunes, así como Internet como el recurso fundamental de comunicación en nuestra era.

  6. NEA Data Bank Progress Report 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The OECD NEA Data Bank provides scientist in member countries with reference materials in the field of nuclear energy applications. The services include the compilation, verification, and distribution of nuclear data, chemical thermodynamic data, integral benchmark experiments, as well as computer programs and associated application libraries. The Data Bank also develops and maintains databases and related administration/retrieval tools, including the JANIS display software. The Data Bank works in close co-operation with the Nuclear Science Section, especially in the field of computer codes and associated application libraries benchmarking, integral experiments, nuclear data evaluation co-operation, and knowledge preservation. These activities are in essence international and organised in close collaboration with other main national and international organisations. More information on the NEA Data Bank can be found at www.oecd-nea.org/databank.

  7. Sustainable NREL, Biennial Report, FY 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovensky, M.; Daw, J.

    2012-09-01

    This document reports on NREL's 'Campus of the Future,' which leverages partnerships and showcases sustainable energy on and near the NREL site. It is unique in that the report is based on GRI key performance indicators, that support NREL's sustainability goals.

  8. Paper, paperboard and woodpulp markets, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Eduard Akim; Bernard Lombard; Tomas Parik; Anastasia Tolmatsova

    2011-01-01

    Paper and paperboard output rebounded along with overall industrial production in both Europe and the United States, but has not yet fully recovered to the peak levels of 2007-2008. Generally more robust market conditions prevailed from 2010 to early 2011, with higher consumption and prices for most pulp, paper and paperboard commodities. Prices reached a plateau by...

  9. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  10. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  11. Measurement Of Technical Efficiency In Irrigated Vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study measured technical efficiency and identified its determinants in irrigated vegetable production in Nasarawa State of Nigeria using a stochastic frontier model. A complete enumeration of 193 NADP-registered vegetable farmers was done. The predicted farm technical efficiency ranges from 25.94 to 96.24 per cent ...

  12. CORRELATION AMONG FLUORIDE AND METALS IN IRRIGATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The levels of fluoride and selected metals in Ethiopian Rift Valley soils and irrigation water in the nearby sources were ... exhaust fumes, process waters and waste from various industrial processes [1]. The uses of ... into four sub-systems: Lake Rudolf, Chew Bahir, the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and the Afar. The seismically ...

  13. Water quality and irrigation [Chapter 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    Water is the single most important biological factor affecting plant growth and health. Water is essential for almost every plant process: photosynthesis, nutrient transport, and cell expansion and development. In fact, 80 to 90 percent of a seedling's weight is made up of water. Therefore, irrigation management is the most critical aspect of nursery operations....

  14. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  15. Irrigation management of muskmelon with tensiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The production and consumption of muskmelon have been increasing (MELO et al., 2014, thus, information on techniques for higher field productions are necessary. The experiment described in the present work was conducted in the IFTM, Uberaba, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, aiming to evaluate the muskmelon yield under different soil water tensions. A randomized block experimental design was used with five treatments (soil water tensions of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kPa and four replications (plots of two rows of 14 plants. Two harvests were carried out and the fruit yield, stem diameter, number of fruits per plant and efficiency of water use were evaluated. Irrigation was performed with a drip irrigation system and managed with tensiometry. The cultivar Bonus n.2 was used with spacing of 1.0 x 0.6 m. The data of the variables were subjected to the F test and regression test. The treatments showed statistical differences in number of fruits per plant, fruit weight (fruit yield and stem diameter. The highest fruit yield found was 1.36 kg fruit-1 and the highest water use efficiency was 4.08 g mm-1 with irrigation for a soil water tension of 10 kPa. The lowest fruit yield was found with irrigation for a soil water tension of 50 kPa.

  16. New soil water sensors for irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective irrigation management is key to obtaining the most crop production per unit of water applied and increasing production in the face of competing demands on water resources. Management methods have included calculating crop water needs based on weather station measurements, calculating soil ...

  17. FAO study on irrigation potential for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record To improve the conjunctive use of sub-surface and surface water in order to increase water resources availability for sustainable small-scale irrigation development in support of food security in West Africa, south of the Sahara.

  18. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  19. Strategies of smallholder irrigation management in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzungu, E.

    1999-01-01

    The smallholder irrigation sub-sector in Zimbabwe, according to literature sources, is under threat due to what are called management problems. Poor water management and low crop yields have been cited, as has also been poor financial and economic viability, resulting in heavy government

  20. Streamflow Prediction in Ungauged, Irrigated Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The international "predictions in ungauged basins" or "PUB" effort has broadened and improved the tools available to support water resources management in sparsely observed regions. These tools have, however, been primarily focused on regions with limited diversion of surface or shallow groundwater resources. Incorporating anthropogenic activity into PUB methods is essential given the high level of development of many basins. We extended an existing stochastic framework used to predict the flow duration curve to explore the effects of irrigation on streamflow dynamics. Four canonical scenarios were considered in which irrigation water was (i) primarily sourced from water imports, (ii) primarily sourced from direct in-channel diversions, (iii) sourced from shallow groundwater with direct connectivity to stream channels, or (iv) sourced from deep groundwater that is indirectly connected to surface flow via a shallow aquifer. By comparing the predicted flow duration curves to those predicted by accounting for climate and geomorphic factors in isolation, specific "fingerprints" of human water withdrawals could be identified for the different irrigation scenarios, and shown to be sensitive to irrigation volumes and scheduling. The results provide a first insight into PUB methodologies that could be employed in heavily managed basins.

  1. New Approaches to Irrigation Scheduling of Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cahn

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Using evapotranspiration (ET data for scheduling irrigations on vegetable farms is challenging due to imprecise crop coefficients, time consuming computations, and the need to simultaneously manage many fields. Meanwhile, the adoption of soil moisture monitoring in vegetables has historically been limited by sensor accuracy and cost, as well as labor required for installation, removal, and collection of readings. With recent improvements in sensor technology, public weather-station networks, satellite and aerial imaging, wireless communications, and cloud computing, many of the difficulties in using ET data and soil moisture sensors for irrigation scheduling of vegetables can now be addressed. Web and smartphone applications have been developed that automate many of the calculations involved in ET-based irrigation scheduling. Soil moisture sensor data can be collected through wireless networks and accessed using web browser or smartphone apps. Energy balance methods of crop ET estimation, such as eddy covariance and Bowen ratio, provide research options for further developing and evaluating crop coefficient guidelines of vegetables, while recent advancements in surface renewal instrumentation have led to a relatively low-cost tool for monitoring crop water requirement in commercial farms. Remote sensing of crops using satellite, manned aircraft, and UAV platforms may also provide useful tools for vegetable growers to evaluate crop development, plant stress, water consumption, and irrigation system performance.

  2. Reuse of drainage water from irrigated areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willardson, L.S.; Boels, D.; Smedema, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing competition for water of good quality and the expectation that at least half of the required increase in food production in the near-future decades must come from the world's irrigated land requires to produce more food by converting more of the diverted water into food. Reuse of the

  3. The efficiency of drip irrigation unpacked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Boesveld, H.; Kuper, M.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation figures prominently in water policy debates as a possible solution to water scarcity problems, based on the assertion that it will improve water use efficiencies. We use this article to carefully trace the scientific basis of this assertion. Through a systematic review of the

  4. Solar-thermal jet pumping for irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, L. D.; Dellenback, P. A.; Bell, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a novel concept in solar powered irrigation pumping, gives measured performance data for the pump unit, and projected system performance. The solar-thermal jet pumping concept is centered around a conventional jet eductor pump which is commercially available at low cost. The jet eductor pump is powered by moderate temperature, moderate pressure Refrigerant-113 vapor supplied by a concentrating solar collector field. The R-113 vapor is direct condensed by the produced water and the two fluids are separated at the surface. The water goes on to use and the R-113 is repressurized and returned to the solar field. The key issue in the solar-thermal jet eductor concept is the efficiency of pump operation. Performance data from a small scale experimental unit which utilizes an electrically heated boiler in place of the solar field is presented. The solar-thermal jet eductor concept is compared with other solar irrigation concepts and optimal application situations are identified. Though having lower efficiencies than existing Rankine cycle solar-thermal irrigation systems, the mechanical and operational simplicity of this concept make it competitive with other solar powered irrigation schemes.

  5. Scheduling irrigation for jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... indicators for diagnosing plant water information, but it is troublesome to measure leaf water potential using a pressure chamber (Turner, 1981). It is also difficult to achieve automatic and continuous records with the pressure chamber. Definition of threshold values of soil moisture for irrigation management ...

  6. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and soil samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, ... So, attention and investment in these areas have been very limited in Africa and ... The shape of the watershed is almost elliptical (Fig. 1). 2.1. Soil. Texturally ..... quality of the irrigation water, soil factors such as structure, degree of compaction, organic.

  7. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  8. Validation on wheat response to irrigation, CO2 and nitrogen fertilization in the Community Land Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Understanding whether the Community Land Model (CLM) appropriate response to elevated CO2 and different levels of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation is a crucial question. We participated the AgMIP-wheat project and run 72 simulations at Maricopa spring wheat FACE sites and five winter wheat sites in North America forcing with site observed meteorology data. After calibration on the phenology, carbon allocation, and soil hydrology parameters, wheat in CLM45 has reasonable response to irrigation and elevated CO2. However, wheat in CLM45 has no response to low or high N fertilization because the low amount of N fertilization is sufficient for wheat growth in CLM45. We plan to further extend the same simulations for CLM5 (will release in Fall 2016), which has substantial improvements on soil hydrology (improved soil evaporation and plant hydraulic parameterization) and nitrogen dynamics (flexible leaf CN ratio and Vcmax25, plant pays for carbon to get nitrogen). We will evaluate the uncertainties of wheat response to nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, CO2 due to model improvements.

  9. Effect of irrigation fluid temperature on body temperature during arthroscopic elbow surgery in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K R; MacFarlane, P D

    2013-01-01

    This prospective randomised clinical trial evaluated the effect of warmed irrigation fluid on body temperature in anaesthetised dogs undergoing arthroscopic elbow surgery. Nineteen dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy were included in the study and were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Group RT received irrigation fluid at room temperature (RT) while dogs in group W received warmed (W) irrigation fluid (36°C). A standardised patient management and anaesthetic protocol was used and body temperature was measured at four time points; (T1) pre-anaesthetic examination, (T2) arrival into theatre, (T3) end of surgery and (T4) arrival into recovery. There was no significant difference in body temperature at any time point between the groups. The mean overall decrease in body temperature between pre-anaesthetic examination (T1) and return to the recovery suite (T4) was significant in both groups, with a fall of 1.06±0.58°C (pdogs were hypothermic (temperature management protocol in dogs undergoing elbow arthroscopy during general anaesthesia did not lead to decreased temperature losses.

  10. Irrigation et paludisme : un couple infernal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mergeai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation and Malaria - a Terrible Combination?. Increasing agricultural productivity is a priority in most of the developing countries and using irrigation is one of the most efficient ways of achieving this goal. Almost half a billion people in the world contract malaria every year and approximately one million die as a result. The majority of these victims are farmers or members of their families. In infected areas, malaria continues to have major negative impacts on agricultural productivity. For example, in the Equateur province of the DRC, after access to production means, fevers are considered the second biggest obstacle to the development of agricultural activities. In the Ivory Coast, a study has shown that growers suffering from malaria were about half as productive as their healthy colleagues. The disease often strikes at the start of the rainy season when work begins again in the fields. It reduces the amount of land cultivated and affects the amount of care taken with crops. Agricultural practices influence the risk of contracting malaria. Irrigation, in particular, can encourage the proliferation of vectors of the disease and make it more likely to spread. This tendency can be observed in many locations where irrigated rice production is on the increase. Paradoxically, however, an increased number of mosquitoes does not systematically result in more malaria. In Ethiopia, malaria is more prevalent close to the micro-dams sponsored by the government, whereas, in Tanzania, there is less malaria in irrigated areas. Various theories can be put forward in order to explain this paradox. In particular, increased income due to higher rice yields enables farmers to purchase insecticide-treated mosquito nets. It also allows them to eat better, which strengthens their immune systems. It also appears that the negative impact of irrigation systems is greater in areas, in which immunity levels were low in the population prior to the creation of

  11. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.

    2012-01-01

    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  12. Comparison of traditional and ET-based irrigation scheduling of surface-irrigated cotton in the arid southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of irrigation scheduling tools to produce cotton under-surface irrigation in the arid southwesternUSA is minimal. In the State of Arizona, where traditional irrigation scheduling is the norm, producersuse an average of 1460 mm annually to grow a cotton crop. The purpose of this paper was to ...

  13. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  14. Catching a Falling Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    . Comets are another important source of meteoroids and perhaps the most spectacular. After many visits near the Sun, a comet "dirty-snowball" nucleus of ice and dust decays and fragments, leaving a trail of meteoroids along its orbit. Some "meteoroid streams" cross the earth's orbit and when our planet passes through them, some of these particles will enter the atmosphere. The outcome is a meteor shower - the most famous being the "Perseids" in the month of August [2] and the "Leonids" in November. Thus, although meteors are referred to as "shooting" or "falling stars" in many languages, they are of a very different nature. More information The research presented in this paper is published in the journal Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol. 39, Nr. 4, p. 1, 2004 ("Spectroscopic anatomy of a meteor trail cross section with the ESO Very Large Telescope", by P. Jenniskens et al.). Notes [1] The team is composed of Peter Jenniskens (SETI Institute, USA), Emmanuël Jehin (ESO), Remi Cabanac (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile), Christophe Laux (Ecole Centrale de Paris, France), and Iain Boyd (University of Michigan, USA). [2] The maximum of the Perseids is expected on August 12 after sunset and should be easily seen.

  15. Falls in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Yvette Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Falls in Parkinson’s (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are common. 50 % of moderately affected PD patients sustained two or more falls during a prospective follow-up of 6 months. During a 3 month period 40 % of HD patients reported one or more fall. Many falls resulted in minor injuries and 42 % of

  16. A Piece of Paper Falling Faster than Free Fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, F.; Rivera, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple experiment that clearly demonstrates a common error in the explanation of the classic experiment where a small piece of paper is put over a book and the system is let fall. This classic demonstration is used in introductory physics courses to show that after eliminating the friction force with the air, the piece of paper falls…

  17. Bayesian Belief Networks Approach for Modeling Irrigation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyas, S.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Canal operators need information to manage water deliveries to irrigators. Short-term irrigation demand forecasts can potentially valuable information for a canal operator who must manage an on-demand system. Such forecasts could be generated by using information about the decision-making processes of irrigators. Bayesian models of irrigation behavior can provide insight into the likely criteria which farmers use to make irrigation decisions. This paper develops a Bayesian belief network (BBN) to learn irrigation decision-making behavior of farmers and utilizes the resulting model to make forecasts of future irrigation decisions based on factor interaction and posterior probabilities. Models for studying irrigation behavior have been rarely explored in the past. The model discussed here was built from a combination of data about biotic, climatic, and edaphic conditions under which observed irrigation decisions were made. The paper includes a case study using data collected from the Canal B region of the Sevier River, near Delta, Utah. Alfalfa, barley and corn are the main crops of the location. The model has been tested with a portion of the data to affirm the model predictive capabilities. Irrigation rules were deduced in the process of learning and verified in the testing phase. It was found that most of the farmers used consistent rules throughout all years and across different types of crops. Soil moisture stress, which indicates the level of water available to the plant in the soil profile, was found to be one of the most significant likely driving forces for irrigation. Irrigations appeared to be triggered by a farmer's perception of soil stress, or by a perception of combined factors such as information about a neighbor irrigating or an apparent preference to irrigate on a weekend. Soil stress resulted in irrigation probabilities of 94.4% for alfalfa. With additional factors like weekend and irrigating when a neighbor irrigates, alfalfa irrigation

  18. Patient centered fall risk awareness perspectives: clinical correlates and fall risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background While objective measures to assess risk of falls in older adults have been established; the value of patient self-reports in the context of falls is not known. Objectives To identify clinical correlates of patient centered fall risk awareness, and their validity for predicting falls. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and Participants 316 non-demented and ambulatory community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78 years, 55% women). Measurements Fall risk awareness was assessed with a two-item questionnaire, which asked participants about overall likelihood and personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Results Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (kappa 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on both fall risk awareness questions. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Conclusion Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. While patient centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies as they may influence participation and behaviors. PMID:27801936

  19. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  20. Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Root distribution of field grown potatoes (cv. Folva) was studied in 4.32m2 lysimeters and subjected to full (FI), deficit (DI), and partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation strategies. Drip irrigation was applied for all irrigations. Irrigations were run in three different soils: coarse sand......, loamy sand, and sandy loam. Irrigation treatments started after tuber bulking and lasted until final harvest with PRD and DI receiving 65% of FI. Potatoes irrigated with water-saving irrigation techniques (PRD and DI) did not show statistically different dry root mass and root length density (RLD, cm...... density in the furrow. Most roots accumulated in the surface layers of coarse sand as compared to the other soil types. In the deep soil profile (30–70 cm) a higher root density was found in loamy sand compared with the sandy loam and coarse sand. Approximately twice the amounts of roots were found below...

  1. Biochar enhances yield and quality of tomato under reduced irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Li, Guitong; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    tBiochar is an amendment that can be used for enhancing soil water storage which may increase cropproductivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar on physiology, yield andquality of tomato under different irrigation regimes. From early flowering to fruit maturity...... stages, theplants were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying irrigation(PRD) and two levels of biochar (0% and 5% by weight). In FI, the plants were irrigated daily to pot waterholding capacity while in DI and PRD, 70% of FI was irrigated on either...... the whole or one side of the pots,respectively. In PRD, irrigation was switched between sides when the soil water content of the dry sidedecreased to 15%. The results showed that addition of biochar increased the soil moisture contents in DIand PRD, which consequently improved physiology, yield, and quality...

  2. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  3. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  4. Falls: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Relationship to Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Sarah D.; Miller, Ram

    2008-01-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury, disability, and institutionalization. Although the causes of falls are complex, most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, age-associated comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and d...

  5. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  6. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-01-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  7. Development and feasibility of falls prevention advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harten-Krouwel, Diny; Schuurmans, Marieke; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle; Pel-Littel, Ruth

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the feasibility of nursing falls prevention advice and factors influencing feasibility. The frequency and seriousness of falls in hospitalised patients are underestimated, and such falls should be preventable because of the presence of professionals. A best practice-based falls prevention advice was developed to decrease the incidence of secondary falls and the incidence of primary falls in the long term and to increase the knowledge of nurses about falls prevention and the seriousness of falls. A descriptive, explorative study. Feasibility of the advice for 30 patients was assessed 82 times (theoretically, three times per patient) by observation and by interviewing nurses, patients and their families. The falls prevention advice was used in 48% of the assessments. There was a difference in use between interventions. Interventions that required more knowledge, communication and extra activities were implemented the least. The absence of materials and knowledge about falls prevention were important determinants of the non-implementation of certain interventions. Before falls prevention advice is implemented, it is important to educate nurses about falls, communication skills and implementation of the advice. The falls prevention advice might help nurses to prevent falls and increase their knowledge about falls prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. NOVA Fall 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransick, Kristina; Rosene, Dale; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the fall of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lincoln's Secret Weapon"; (2) "Hitler's Lost Sub"; (3) "Runaway Universe"; (4) "Garden of Eden"; (5) "Dying to Be Thin"; and (6) "Japan's Secret…

  9. Trapping fall armyworm in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a noctuid pest of row and vegetable crops throughout the Americas. It has recently invaded Africa and has been identified from almost all sub-Saharan countries. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likel...

  10. Nuclear fall-out shelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    An underground nuclear fall-out shelter has a plastics shell which, apart from service and access openings, is waterproof and provided, if desired, with a concrete roof. The shelter has an access opening, an air system, lighting, water storage, sanitation and sewage facilities. (author)

  11. Falling-sphere radioactive viscometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R. de.

    1987-01-01

    In this work the falling sphere viscometric method was studies experimentally using a sphere tagged with 198 Au radiosotopo, the objective being the demosntration of the advantages of this technique in relation to the traditional method. The utilisation of the falling radioactive sphere permits the point-point monitoring of sphere position as a function of count rate. The fall tube wall and end effects were determined by this technique. Tests were performed with spheres of different diameters in four tubes. The application of this technique demosntrated the wall and end effects in sphere speed. The case of sphere fall in the steady slow regime allowed the determination of the terminal velocity, showing the increase of botton end effect as the sphere approaches the tube base. In the case the transient slow regime, the sphere was initially in a state of respose near the top surface. The data obtained show the influence of the free surface and wall on the sphere acceleration. These experimental data were applied to the Basset equation on order to verify the behaviour of the terms in this equation. (author) [pt

  12. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how ... To make your calves and ankle muscles stronger: Hold on to a solid ... of a chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend ...

  13. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  14. AAAI 1993 Fall Symposium Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Levinson, Robert; Epstein, Susan; Terveen, Loren; Bonasso, R. Peter; Miller, David P.; Bowyer, Kevin; Hall, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence held its 1993 Fall Symposium Series on October 22-24 in Raleigh, North Carolina. This article contains summaries of the six symposia that were conducted: Automated Deduction in Nonstandard Logics; Games: Planning and Learning; Human-Computer Collaboration: Reconciling Theory, Synthesizing Practice; Instantiating Intelligent Agents; and Machine Learning and Computer Vision: What, Why, and How?

  15. Person-Centered Fall Risk Awareness Perspectives: Clinical Correlates and Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe

    2016-12-01

    To identify clinical correlates of person-centered fall risk awareness and their validity for predicting falls. Prospective cohort study. Community. Ambulatory community-dwelling older adults without dementia (N = 316; mean age 78, 55% female). Fall risk awareness was assessed using a two-item questionnaire that asked participants about overall likelihood of someone in their age group having a fall and their own personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. Incident falls were recorded over study follow-up. Fifty-three participants (16.8%) responded positively to the first fall risk awareness question about being likely to have a fall in the next 12 months, and 100 (31.6%) reported being at personal risk of falling over the next 12 months. There was only fair correlation (κ = 0.370) between responses on the two questions. Prior falls and depressive symptoms were associated with positive responses on both fall risk awareness questions. Age and other established fall risk factors were not associated with responses on either fall risk awareness question. The fall risk awareness questionnaire did not predict incident falls or injurious falls. Fall risk awareness is low in older adults. Although person-centered fall risk awareness is not predictive of falls, subjective risk perceptions should be considered when designing fall preventive strategies because they may influence participation and behaviors. © 2016, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Safety and immunogenicity of 2010-2011 H1N12009-containing trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 12-59 months of age previously given AS03-adjuvanted H1N12009 pandemic vaccine: a PHAC/CIHR Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Joanne M; Scheifele, David W; Quach, Caroline; Vanderkooi, Otto G; Ward, Brian; McNeil, Shelly; Dobson, Simon; Kellner, James D; Kuhn, Susan; Kollman, Tobias; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Smith, Bruce; Li, Yan; Halperin, Scott A

    2012-05-14

    Concern arose in 2010 that reactogenicity, particularly febrile seizures, to influenza A/H1N1-containing 2010-2011 trivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could occur in young children who had been previously immunized and/or infected with the pandemic strain. We conducted a pre-season study of 2010-2011 TIV safety and immunogenicity in children 12-59 months of age to inform public health decision making. Children immunized with 1 or 2 doses of the pandemic vaccine, with or without the 2009-10 TIV, received 1 or 2 doses of 2010-11 TIV in an observational, multicentre Canadian study. Standard safety monitoring was enhanced by a telephone call at ~24 h post-TIV when adverse events were expected to peak. Summary safety reports were rapidly reported to public health before the launch of public programs. TIV immunogenicity was assessed day 0, and 21 days after final vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01180621. Among 207 children, a general adverse event was reported by 60.9% of children post-dose one and by 58.3% post-dose two. Only severe fever (>38.5°C) was more common in two-dose compared to one dose recipients (16.7%, n=4 v. 1.0%, n=2). At baseline 99.0% of participants had A/H1N1 hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers ≥10, and 85.5% had a protective titer of ≥40 (95% CI 80.0, 90.0). Baseline geometric mean titers (GMT) were higher in recipients of a 2-dose schedule of pandemic vaccine compared to one-dose recipients: 153.1 (95% CI 126.2, 185.7) v. 78.8 ((58.1, 106.8, pvaccine immunogenicity were exceeded for A/H1N1 and H3N2, but responses to the B antigen were poor. No correlations between reactogenicity and either baseline high influenza titers or serologic response to revaccination were evident. Infants and toddlers who received AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 2009 vaccine up to 11 months earlier retained high titers in the subsequent season but re-exposure to A/H1N1 2009 antigen in TIV resulted in no unusual adverse effects and 100% were sero

  17. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  18. Absence of rotation perception during warm water caloric irrigation in some seniors with postural instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eChiarovano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied.Twenty senior subjects were included in the study separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls. We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video-head impulse test (vHIT, caloric tests, and cervical and ocular VEMPs. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All of the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or greater than 15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All of the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions.These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, amongst other factors, from a

  19. Comparison Between the Risky Agents Correspond to Fall in Elderly People of Urban and Rural Regions of Zabol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakine Sheikh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: the main aim of this study was the comparisons between the risky agents correspond to fall in elderly people of urban and rural regions of Zabol. Methods & Materials: The current study was a Cross sectional survey during 2010-2011 on a sample that contains 173 elderly without Cognitive impairment that are residents of Zabol and aged more than 60 years. The materials for data gathering were Questionnaires. The data was analyzed by employing version 16 of SPSS software, Central and dispersion indices, t-test, ANOVA, and Sig. (2-tailed test at the significance level of. Results: Among the internal agents, diabetes, lung problems, hearing problems, heart problems, surgery history, and high blood pleasure were significantly more in elderly adults of urban regions relative to rural ones (P<0.05. Among the external agents, the amount of physical exercises for the elderly adults of urban regions was significantly more relative to rural ones (P=0.020. The urban and rural elderly adults were in same situation after fall. Conclusion: The results show that Diabetes, lung problems, Hearing problems, and Surgery history, were the main reasons of fall for the elderly adults of urban regions. The physical activity of urban elderly adults is more than that in rural ones The main places in which the fall occurred were the yard, and then the room. The main time of fall was also the morning. Therefor these confirm that the physical activity is not enough to improve the health degree and it require more care. Control of comorbidities and Attention to environment risk factors are necessary.

  20. Intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefang; Yeoh, Han T

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 25% to 27% of women sustain a fall during pregnancy, and falls are associated with serious injuries and can affect pregnancy outcomes. The objective of the current study was to identify intrinsic factors associated with pregnancy that may contribute to women's increased risk of falls. A literature search (Medline and Pubmed) identified articles published between January 1980 and June 2013 that measured associations between pregnancy and fall risks, using an existing fall accident investigation framework. The results indicated that physiological, biomechanical, and psychological changes associated with pregnancy may influence the initiation, detection, and recovery phases of falls and increase the risk of falls in this population. Considering the logistic difficulties and ethnic concerns in recruiting pregnant women to participate in this investigation of fall risk factors, identification of these factors could establish effective fall prevention and intervention programs for pregnant women and improve birth outcomes. [Workplace Health Saf 2014;62(10):403-408.]. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Control system design for concrete irrigation channels

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, Timm; Aamo, Ole Morten; Cantoni, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Concrete channels find use at the periphery of irrigation networks, for expansion and to replace small earthen channels given the relative ease of maintenance and elimination of seepage losses. In design, it is important to account for control system performance when dimensioning the channel infrastructure. In this paper, the design of a distributed controller is investigated in terms managing water-levels, and thereby the depth profile (i.e., amount of concrete) needed to support peak flow l...

  2. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  3. Irrigation port hydration in phacoemulsification surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki H

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hisaharu Suzuki,1 Yoichiro Masuda,2 Yuki Hamajima,1 Hiroshi Takahashi3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University, Katsushika Medical Center, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan Background: In most cases, hydration is performed by water injection into the stromal tissue with a needle. The technique is simple, however it is sometimes troublesome.Purpose: We describe a simple technique for hydrating the corneal stroma in cataract surgery using an irrigation port.Patients and methods: The technique began by pushing the irrigation port against the corneal stroma for a few seconds during phacoemulsification, which generated edema in the corneal incision that subsequently prevented leakage. This procedure is called the hydration using irrigation port (HYUIP technique. A total of 60 eyes were randomized and placed in two groups, 30 eyes underwent surgeries using the HYUIP technique (HYUIP group and 30 eyes underwent surgeries without the HYUIP technique (control. The three points evaluated during each surgery included 1 the occurrence of anterior chamber collapse during the pulling out of the I/A tip after inserting the intraocular lens, 2 the need for conventional hydration, and 3 watertight completion at the end stage of surgery.Results: The anterior chamber collapse and the need for conventional hydration were significantly smaller in the HYUIP group compared to the control group. Regarding the self-sealing completion, no significant difference was observed between the two groups.Conclusion: The HYUIP technique is an effective method for creating self-sealing wound. In addition, this technique helps to prevent anterior chamber collapse. Keywords: cataract surgery, hydration, irrigation and aspiration, phacoemulsification, wound, self-sealing 

  4. Antimicrobial Irrigants in the Endodontic Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Azhar

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of root canal disinfection. It discusses the different endodontic irrigants available and comments on how these can be used most effectively. Eliminating bacteria from the root canal system is an essential stage in endodontic therapy. An objective of endodontic treatment is removal of diseased tissue, elimination of bacteria from the canal system and prevention of recontamination. (1) Disinfection of the root canal system, as part of endodontic therapy, by...

  5. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  6. Colonic irrigation for defecation disorders after dynamic graciloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sacha M; Uludağ, Ozenç; El Naggar, Kadri; van Gemert, Wim G; Baeten, Cor G

    2008-02-01

    Dynamic graciloplasty (DGP) improves anal continence and quality of life for most patients. However, in some patients, DGP fails and fecal incontinence is unsolved or only partially improved. Constipation is also a significant problem after DGP, occurring in 13-90%. Colonic irrigation can be considered as an additional or salvage treatment for defecation disorders after unsuccessful or partially successful DGP. In this study, the effectiveness of colonic irrigation for the treatment of persistent fecal incontinence and/or constipation after DGP is investigated. Patients with defecation disorders after DGP visiting the outpatient clinic of the University Hospital Maastricht were selected for colonic irrigation as additional therapy or salvage therapy in the period between January 1999 and June 2003. The Biotrol(R) Irrimatic pump or the irrigation bag was used for colonic irrigation. Relevant physical and medical history was collected. The patients were asked to fill out a detailed questionnaire about colonic irrigation. Forty-six patients were included in the study with a mean age of 59.3 +/- 12.4 years (80% female). On average, the patients started the irrigation 21.39 +/- 38.77 months after the DGP. Eight patients started irrigation before the DGP. Fifty-two percent of the patients used the irrigation as additional therapy for fecal incontinence, 24% for constipation, and 24% for both. Irrigation was usually performed in the morning. The mean frequency of irrigation was 0.90 +/- 0.40 times per day. The mean amount of water used for the irrigation was 2.27 +/- 1.75 l with a mean duration of 39 +/- 23 min. Four patients performed antegrade irrigation through a colostomy or appendicostomy, with good results. Overall, 81% of the patients were satisfied with the irrigation. Thirty-seven percent of the patients with fecal incontinence reached (pseudo-)continence, and in 30% of the patients, the constipation completely resolved. Side effects of the irrigation were

  7. Root Zone Sensors for Irrigation Management in Intensive Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop irrigation uses more than 70% of the world’s water, and thus, improving irrigation efficiency is decisive to sustain the food demand from a fast-growing world population. This objective may be accomplished by cultivating more water-efficient crop species and/or through the application of efficient irrigation systems, which includes the implementation of a suitable method for precise scheduling. At the farm level, irrigation is generally scheduled based on the grower’s experience or on the determination of soil water balance (weather-based method. An alternative approach entails the measurement of soil water status. Expensive and sophisticated root zone sensors (RZS, such as neutron probes, are available for the use of soil and plant scientists, while cheap and practical devices are needed for irrigation management in commercial crops. The paper illustrates the main features of RZS’ (for both soil moisture and salinity marketed for the irrigation industry and discusses how such sensors may be integrated in a wireless network for computer-controlled irrigation and used for innovative irrigation strategies, such as deficit or dual-water irrigation. The paper also consider the main results of recent or current research works conducted by the authors in Tuscany (Italy on the irrigation management of container-grown ornamental plants, which is an important agricultural sector in Italy.

  8. Irrigation Capability Evaluation of Illushi Floodplain, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Umweni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.

  9. Review of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jee Yoo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Eliminating the residual debris and bacteria in the root canal system is one of the main purposes of the endodontic treatment. However, the complexity on the anatomy of the root canal system makes it difficult to eliminate the bacterial biofilm existing along the root canal surface and necrotic pulp tissue by mechanical instrumentation and chemical irrigation. Recently, more effective irrigant delivery systems for root canal irrigation have been developed. The purpose of this review was to present an overview of root canal irrigant delivery techniques and devices available in endodontics. Review The contents of this paper include as follows; - syringe-needle irrigation, manual dynamic irrigation, brushes - sonic and ultrasonic irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, rotary brush, RinsEndo, EndoVac, Laser Conclusion Though technological advances during the last decade have brought to fruition new agitation devices that rely on various mechanisms, there are few evidence based study to correlate the clinical efficacy of these devices with improved outcomes except syringe irrigation with needle and ultrasonic irrigation. The clinicians should try their best efforts to deliver antimicrobial and tissue solvent solutions in predictable volumes safely to working length.

  10. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  11. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  12. Water and agriculture in arid systems: a dynamic model of irrigation of Mazarron and Aguilas; Agua y agricultural en sistemas aridos: un modelo dinamico del regadio de Mazarron y Aguilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, J.; Esteve Selma, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The intensive use of groundwater resources in the new irrigated lands of Mazarron-Aguilas has led to the over-exploitation of the local aquifer and thus, to seawater intrusion, water salinization and falling off water tables, all of them key processes of desertification. The simulation results show that the unrealistic perceptions about the relationships between irrigated land and water resources constitutes a key factor to explain the highly unsustainable dynamics of irrigated lands in Mazarron and Aguilas and the whole SE Spain. The increase in water resources does not eliminate the problem because the feedback loops and endogenous factors of the system lead to a further increase in irrigated land and continuation of the water deficit, which shows a highly counter-intuitive behaviour. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. Fall-related activity avoidance in relation to a history of falls or near falls, fear of falling and disease severity in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kader, Manzur; Iwarsson, Susanne; Odin, Per; Nilsson, Maria H

    2016-06-02

    There is limited knowledge concerning fall-related activity avoidance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD); such knowledge would be of importance for the development of more efficient PD-care and rehabilitation. This study aimed to examine how fall-related activity avoidance relates to a history of self-reported falls/near falls and fear of falling (FOF) as well as to disease severity in people with PD. Data were collected from 251 (61 % men) participants with PD; their median (min-max) age and PD duration were 70 (45-93) and 8 (1-43) years, respectively. A self-administered postal survey preceded a home visit which included observations, clinical tests and interview-administered questionnaires. Fall-related activity avoidance was assessed using the modified Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly (mSAFFE) as well as by using a dichotomous (Yes/No) question. Further dichotomous questions concerned: the presence of FOF and the history (past 6 months) of falls or near falls, followed by stating the number of incidents. Disease severity was assessed according to the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages. In the total sample (n = 251), 41 % of the participants reported fall-related activity avoidance; the median mSAFFE score was 22. In relation to a history of fall, the proportions of participants (p fall-related activity avoidance were: non-fallers (30 %), single fallers (50 %) and recurrent fallers, i.e. ≥ 2 falls (57 %). Among those that reported near falls (but no falls), 51 % (26 out of 51) reported fall-related activity avoidance. Of those that reported FOF, 70 % reported fall-related activity avoidance. Fall-related activity avoidance ranged from 24 % in the early PD-stage (HY I) to 74 % in the most severe stages (HY IV-V). Results indicate that fall-related activity avoidance may be related to a history of self-reported falls/near falls, FOF and disease severity in people with PD. Importantly, fall-related activity avoidance is

  14. Análisis de las tendencias macroestructurales de la lengua española en los cibermedios: las entrevistas corales de Marca.com protagonizadas por los clásicos entre el Real Madrid C. F. y el Barcelona F. C. (2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barredo Ibáñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza un análisis lingüístico de las entrevistas corales en Marca.com en el marco de los cinco enfrentamientos deportivos entre el Real Madrid F. C. y el F. C. Barcelona (2010-2011, es decir, aquellas formas de intercambio que tuvieron como protagonista este importante evento futbolístico, denominado como ‘el Clásico’. Los resultados obtenidos muestran las tendencias macroestructurales del uso del lenguaje por parte de los usuarios o ideantes. En primer lugar, se concluye cierta despreocupación por el uso del lenguaje basado en las normas ortográficas o en las reglas sintácticas; y, en segundo lugar, una tendencia a evitar en gran medida las deformaciones lingüísticas vinculadas con los chats. Esto podría identificarse como una conciencia colectiva informativa, porque los ideantes saben que sus textos pasarán de lo íntimo a lo publicado, y de lo publicado a lo público.

  15. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  16. Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissawike, K.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The

  17. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials...... were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: On average, 0.65 log units for indicator thermotolerant coliforms and 0.......4 helminth eggs per 100 g of lettuce were removed on each non-irrigated day from lettuce in the dry season. This corresponded to a daily loss of 1.4 tonnes/ha of fresh weight of lettuce. As an input for exposure analysis to make risk estimates, the decay coefficient, k, for thermotolerant coliforms was 0...

  18. Energy performance of sprinkler irrigated maize, wheat and sunflower in Vigia irrigation district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Sandra; Rodrigues, Goncalo Caleia; Paredes, Paula; Pereira, Luis S. [Centro de Engenharia dos Biossistemas (CEER/ISA), Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: lspereira@isa.utl.pt

    2008-07-01

    The energy potential of a crop may be evaluated through life cycle assessment methodologies. These refer to the computation of the crop's energy balance and other related indicators, such as the energy ratio and the energetic efficiency, that may be used as to assess how a given irrigated crop may be used for production of biofuel. This study concerns sprinkler irrigated sunflower, wheat and maize crops using data relative to the campaign of 2007 in the Vigia Irrigation District, Alentejo. A model was developed and various scenarios were considered. The modelling results lead to the conclusion that the maize crop is the most efficient in producing energy and sunflower is the least one for all the alternative scenarios considered. (author)

  19. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotom...

  20. Impacts of Irrigation on the Heat Fluxes and Near-Surface Temperature in an Inland Irrigation Area of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture has the potential to alter regional to global climate significantly. We investigate how irrigation will affect regional climate in the future in an inland irrigation area of northern China, focusing on its effects on heat fluxes and near-surface temperature. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model, we compare simulations among three land cover scenarios: the control scenario (CON, the irrigation scenario (IRR, and the irrigated cropland expansion scenario (ICE. Our results show that the surface energy budgets and temperature are sensitive to changes in the extent and spatial pattern of irrigated land. Conversion to irrigated agriculture at the contemporary scale leads to an increase in annual mean latent heat fluxes of 12.10 W m−2, a decrease in annual mean sensible heat fluxes of 8.85 W m−2, and a decrease in annual mean temperature of 1.3 °C across the study region. Further expansion of irrigated land increases annual mean latent heat fluxes by 18.08 W m−2, decreases annual mean sensible heat fluxes by 12.31 W m−2, and decreases annual mean temperature by 1.7 °C. Our simulated effects of irrigation show that changes in land use management such as irrigation can be an important component of climate change and need to be considered together with greenhouse forcing in climate change assessments.

  1. Traditional Irrigation Management in Betmera-Hiwane, Ethiopia: The Main Peculiarities for the Persistence of Irrigation Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtu; Kitamura Yoshinobu

    2006-01-01

    Traditional irrigation, as part of the ancient agricultural practices in northern Ethiopia (Tigray), has persisted for long time since 500 B.C.,while many newly introduced irrigation projects have usually failed there. The main objective of this study is thus to investigate the peculiarities pertinent to irrigation management and those having contributed for the persistence of traditional irrigation practices for a long period of time. The experience gained from such areas can definitely help make irrigation management system of new irrigation schemes sustainable. Betmera-Hiwane, one of the ancient traditional irrigation areas in Tigray region, was selected for the field study. Direct observations through field visits accompanied by interviews to farmers, local officials, local knowledgeable individuals and higher officials were made. After analyzing the collected primary and secondary information, the main peculiarities that contributed to the persistence of traditional irrigation areas were identified, and they are: the presence of communally constructed local rules, locally designed hydraulic control structures, ownership feeling of the irrigators and accountability of water distributors to the irrigation management, the culture for mobilizing communal resources and the culture of self-initiating local water management strategies.

  2. Where Does the Irrigation Water Go? An Estimate of the Contribution of Irrigation to Precipitation Using MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiangfeng; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Wisser, Dominik; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Mocko, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is an important human activity that may impact local and regional climate, but current climate model simulations and data assimilation systems generally do not explicitly include it. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) shows more irrigation signal in surface evapotranspiration (ET) than the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) because ERA-Interim adjusts soil moisture according to the observed surface temperature and humidity while MERRA has no explicit consideration of irrigation at the surface. But, when compared with the results from a hydrological model with detailed considerations of agriculture, the ET from both reanalyses show large deficiencies in capturing the impact of irrigation. Here, a back-trajectory method is used to estimate the contribution of irrigation to precipitation over local and surrounding regions, using MERRA with observation-based corrections and added irrigation-caused ET increase from the hydrological model. Results show substantial contributions of irrigation to precipitation over heavily irrigated regions in Asia, but the precipitation increase is much less than the ET increase over most areas, indicating that irrigation could lead to water deficits over these regions. For the same increase in ET, precipitation increases are larger over wetter areas where convection is more easily triggered, but the percentage increase in precipitation is similar for different areas. There are substantial regional differences in the patterns of irrigation impact, but, for all the studied regions, the highest percentage contribution to precipitation is over local land.

  3. Fall Prevention in a Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A

    2016-05-27

    Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.

  4. Irrigation and avifaunal change in coastal Northwest Mexico: has irrigated habit attracted threatened migratory species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Emily; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G.

    2015-01-01

    Irrigation in desert ecosystems can either reduce or increase species diversity. Groundwater pumping often lowers water tables and reduces natural wetlands, whereas canal irrigation often creates mesic habitat, resulting in great increases in avian diversity from irrigation. Here we compare a dataset of potential natural vegetation to recent datasets from areal and satellite imagery to show that 60% of the land in the coastal plain of southern Sonora and northern Sinaloa lying below 200 m elevation has been converted by irrigation to more mesic habitats. We then use the record of bird specimens in the world’s museums from this same region of Mexico to examine the avian community before and after the development of extensive irrigation. In general these museum records show an increase in the abundance and diversity of breeding birds associated with mesic habitats. Although thorn forest birds have likely decreased in total numbers, most are common enough in the remaining thorn forest that collection records did not indicate their probable decline. Four migrants having most of their breeding ranges in the US or Canada, Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Cliff Swallow, Bell’s Vireo, and Orchard Oriole, apparently have increased dramatically as breeders in irrigated habitats of NW Mexico. Because these species have decreased or even largely disappeared as breeding birds in parts of the US or Canada, further research should assess whether their increases in new mesic habitats of NW Mexico are linked to their declines as breeding birds in Canada and the US For Bell’s Vireo recent specimens from Sinaloa suggest its new breeding population in NW Mexico may be composed partly of the endangered Least Bell’s Vireo. PMID:26312181

  5. Associated Factors for Falls, Recurrent Falls, and Injurious Falls in Aged Men Living in Taiwan Veterans Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Chiou Ku

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the advanced age, depression status, stroke, gouty arthritis, and cataract are independent variables for predicting falls; depression is the only clinical factor capable of predicting the recurrent falls. These variables were potential targets for effective prevention of falls.

  6. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimada Hiroyuki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. Methods The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. Results All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point were 6.15 (p Conclusion These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.

  7. Comparison of Manual and Automatic Irrigation of Pot Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Vagner

    1975-01-01

    An air-lift principle for transport of water was adapted for automatic irrigation of experimental pots originally constructed for manual irrigation by the weighing method. The two irrigation techniques were compared in an experiment with increasing amounts of nitrogen fertilizer to spring barley....... Productions of grain and straw and chemical composition were almost the same after the two irrigation methods, and it was concluded that the laborious manual watering could be replaced by automatic irrigation. Comparison of the yield from individual plants in the pots showed a large difference between centre...... plants and border plants independent of irrigation principle. The increase in yield per pot with increasing N fertilization was at the highest N level caused only by an increase in yield of the border plants....

  8. Reform of irrigation management and investment policy in African development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KW Easter

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reform of water and irrigation management in Africa and compares it with similar reforms in Asia.  Several things are evident from the review.  First, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is at an earlier stage of irrigation development and reform than Asia.  Second, the articulated need for reform is much stronger in Asia than it is in SSA.  Third, the productivity of small-scale irrigated farms is significantly lower in SSA compared to Asia.  Thus any irrigation investment strategy in SSA should be different from Asia and focus on increasing small-farm productivity as well as small-scale irrigation projects.  Finally, all direct government irrigation investments should be done jointly with decisions regarding the type of project management.

  9. A simple strategy for fall events detection

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-01-20

    The paper concerns the detection of fall events based on human silhouette shape variations. The detection of fall events is addressed from the statistical point of view as an anomaly detection problem. Specifically, the paper investigates the multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control chart to detect fall events. Towards this end, a set of ratios for five partial occupancy areas of the human body for each frame are collected and used as the input data to MEWMA chart. The MEWMA fall detection scheme has been successfully applied to two publicly available fall detection databases, the UR fall detection dataset (URFD) and the fall detection dataset (FDD). The monitoring strategy developed was able to provide early alert mechanisms in the event of fall situations.

  10. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  11. Memory of irrigation effects on hydroclimate and its modeling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Xu, Xiaoyu; Barlage, Michael; Rasmussen, Roy; Shen, Shuanghe; Miao, Shiguang; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation modifies land-surface water and energy budgets, and also influences weather and climate. However, current earth-system models, used for weather prediction and climate projection, are still in their infancy stage to consider irrigation effects. This study used long-term data collected from two contrasting (irrigated and rainfed) nearby maize-soybean rotation fields, to study the effects of irrigation memory on local hydroclimate. For a 12 year average, irrigation decreases summer surface-air temperature by less than 1 °C and increases surface humidity by 0.52 g kg‑1. The irrigation cooling effect is more pronounced and longer lasting for maize than for soybean. Irrigation reduces maximum, minimum, and averaged temperature over maize by more than 0.5 °C for the first six days after irrigation, but its temperature effect over soybean is mixed and negligible two or three days after irrigation. Irrigation increases near-surface humidity over maize by about 1 g kg‑1 up to ten days and increases surface humidity over soybean (~ 0.8 g kg‑1) with a similar memory. These differing effects of irrigation memory on temperature and humidity are associated with respective changes in the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes for maize and soybean. These findings highlight great need and challenges for earth-system models to realistically simulate how irrigation effects vary with crop species and with crop growth stages, and to capture complex interactions between agricultural management and water-system components (crop transpiration, precipitation, river, reservoirs, lakes, groundwater, etc.) at various spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Relationship between subjective fall risk assessment and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Suzukawa, Megumi; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-08-12

    Objective measurements can be used to identify people with risks of falls, but many frail elderly adults cannot complete physical performance tests. The study examined the relationship between a subjective risk rating of specific tasks (SRRST) to screen for fall risks and falls and fall-related fractures in frail elderly people. The SRRST was investigated in 5,062 individuals aged 65 years or older who were utilized day-care services. The SRRST comprised 7 dichotomous questions to screen for fall risks during movements and behaviours such as walking, transferring, and wandering. The history of falls and fall-related fractures during the previous year was reported by participants or determined from an interview with the participant's family and care staff. All SRRST items showed significant differences between the participants with and without falls and fall-related fractures. In multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, diseases, and behavioural variables, the SRRST score was independently associated with history of falls and fractures. Odds ratios for those in the high-risk SRRST group (≥ 5 points) compared with the no risk SRRST group (0 point) were 6.15 (p fall, 15.04 (p falls, and 5.05 (p fall-related fractures. The results remained essentially unchanged in subgroup analysis accounting for locomotion status. These results suggest that subjective ratings by care staff can be utilized to determine the risks of falls and fall-related fractures in the frail elderly, however, these preliminary results require confirmation in further prospective research.

  13. Fall prevention in central coast community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gina M; Kale, Helen L

    2018-04-19

    Fall injuries among people aged 65 years and over (older people) cause substantial health decline and cost to the health system. In 2009 in New South Wales, 25.6% of older people fell in the previous year, and 10.7% (32 000) were hospitalised. Pharmacists are trusted professionals, who interact extensively with older people and have potential to augment fall prevention in pharmacies. This brief report describes how professional development improved pharmacist's knowledge and confidence in fall prevention, encouraged implementation of fall prevention plans and facilitated the provision of brief fall prevention interventions for older clients, after identification of fall risk. In 2014, pharmacists from all Central Coast pharmacies (n = 76) were invited to free, continuing professional development (CPD) in fall prevention. It provided education and resources to identify clients' fall risk, conduct brief fall prevention interventions and implement fall prevention health promotion plans (FPHPP). Pharmacists completed written: Baseline and post-workshop questionnaires to assess changes in pharmacist's knowledge and confidence, and existing fall prevention in pharmacies. Logs of client fall risk and brief fall prevention interventions offered to clients. Four-month follow-up questionnaires to assess implementation of FPHPPs and pharmacy practice changes. Pharmacists representing 36% of pharmacies participated. At four-month follow-up, 67% had implemented FPHPPs, and 62% delivered brief interventions determined by client fall risk. Fall prevention in pharmacies can be augmented through locally provided CPD tailored for pharmacists. SO WHAT?: This model could increase fall prevention reach. It is transferable to settings where health professionals provide services to older adults and require reregistration through professional development. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  14. A Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process approach in irrigation networks maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza Permana, Angga; Rintis Hadiani, Rr.; Syafi'i

    2017-11-01

    Ponorogo Regency has 440 Irrigation Area with a total area of 17,950 Ha. Due to the limited budget and lack of maintenance cause decreased function on the irrigation. The aim of this study is to make an appropriate system to determine the indices weighted of the rank prioritization criteria for irrigation network maintenance using a fuzzy-based methodology. The criteria that are used such as the physical condition of irrigation networks, area of service, estimated maintenance cost, and efficiency of irrigation water distribution. 26 experts in the field of water resources in the Dinas Pekerjaan Umum were asked to fill out the questionnaire, and the result will be used as a benchmark to determine the rank of irrigation network maintenance priority. The results demonstrate that the physical condition of irrigation networks criterion (W1) = 0,279 has the greatest impact on the assessment process. The area of service (W2) = 0,270, efficiency of irrigation water distribution (W4) = 0,249, and estimated maintenance cost (W3) = 0,202 criteria rank next in effectiveness, respectively. The proposed methodology deals with uncertainty and vague data using triangular fuzzy numbers, and, moreover, it provides a comprehensive decision-making technique to assess maintenance priority on irrigation network.

  15. Trash-polluted irrigation: characteristics and impact on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, D.; Arif, SS; Sudarmadji

    2018-04-01

    Trash pollution has been a problem in sustainable water resources management. Trash pollutes not only rivers, lakes and seas, but also irrigation canals and rice fields. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of solid waste (type, time of occurrence and sources of trash) and its impact on agriculture. The study was conducted in four irrigation areas, namely Gamping, Merdiko, Nglaren and Karangploso in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Special Region. We applied the Irrigation Rapid Trash Assessment (IRTA) as our field survey instrument. The results showed that trash was found throughout irrigation canals and rice fields, and the occurrence was influenced by water flow, time and farmer activities. The irrigation was dominantly polluted by plastic trash (52.2%), biodegradable waste (17.91%) and miscellaneous trash (12.3%). The IRTA score showed that Gamping Irrigation Area was at marginal condition, bearing a high risk of disturbing the operation and maintenance of the irrigation canals as well as farmers’ health. Trash in irrigation also generated technical impact of the irrigation operation and maintenance, environmental quality, and social life. This research also offered environmental policy integration approach and water-garbage governance approach as an alternative solution to manage water resources and agriculture in a sustainable manner, under the pressure of increasing amount of trash.

  16. 75 FR 67095 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ...; (c) Vehicle and equipment repairs; (d) Equipment costs, including lease fees; (e) Depreciation; (f... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  17. 76 FR 58293 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ...) Vehicle and equipment repairs; (d) Equipment costs, including lease fees; (e) Depreciation; (f... Mexico 87104, Telephone: (505) 563-3100. Pine River Irrigation Project..... John Waconda, Superintendent...

  18. Uncertainties in modelling the climate impact of irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Irrigation-based agriculture constitutes an essential factor for food security as well as fresh water resources and has a distinct impact on regional and global climate. Many issues related to irrigation's climate impact are addressed in studies that apply a wide range of models. These involve substantial uncertainties related to differences in the model's structure and its parametrizations on the one hand and the need for simplifying assumptions for the representation of irrigation on the other hand. To address these uncertainties, we used the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System model into which a simple irrigation scheme was implemented. In order to estimate possible uncertainties with regard to the model's more general structure, we compared the climate impact of irrigation between three simulations that use different schemes for the land-surface-atmosphere coupling. Here, it can be shown that the choice of coupling scheme does not only affect the magnitude of possible impacts but even their direction. For example, when using a scheme that does not explicitly resolve spatial subgrid scale heterogeneity at the surface, irrigation reduces the atmospheric water content, even in heavily irrigated regions. Contrarily, in simulations that use a coupling scheme that resolves heterogeneity at the surface or even within the lowest layers of the atmosphere, irrigation increases the average atmospheric specific humidity. A second experiment targeted possible uncertainties related to the representation of irrigation characteristics. Here, in four simulations the irrigation effectiveness (controlled by the target soil moisture and the non-vegetated fraction of the grid box that receives irrigation) and the timing of delivery were varied. The second experiment shows that uncertainties related to the modelled irrigation characteristics, especially the irrigation effectiveness, are also substantial. In general the impact of irrigation on the state of the land

  19. Fall prevention in high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, Kathleen M; Balch, Christine

    2014-12-01

    In the oncology population, disease process and treatment factors place patients at risk for falls. Fall bundles provide a framework for developing comprehensive fall programs in oncology. Small sample size of interventional studies and focus on ambulatory and geriatric populations limit the applicability of results. Additional research is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk of Falling in Older Women

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Armas; Joan Lappe; Veronica J. Slavik; Kellan Slattery; Shih-Chuan Cheng; Davender S. Malik; John N. Mordeson

    2015-01-01

    We propose a weighted average approach to measure the risk of falling in older women. We consider four causal variables of falling, namely serum 25-OHD levels, medication use, fracture, and age. We use five methods to derive linear equations with these four factors as independent variables in the linear equations with risk of falling as the dependent variable.

  1. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fall protection. 1926.760 Section 1926.760 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.760 Fall protection. (a... protection from fall hazards in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (c) Controlled Decking Zone...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.41 - House falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false House falls. 1917.41 Section 1917.41 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment § 1917.41 House falls. (a) Span beams shall be secured... working with house fall blocks. (c) Designated employees shall inspect chains, links, shackles, swivels...

  3. STUDY ON MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES AND SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED VERTISOL FROM BOIANU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Dumitru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation, when administered correctly, confers the producers the possibility to overcome drought effects and obtain higher yields, supplementing the quality of food for animals or human consumers. In the mean time, soil erosion, pathogens attack and nutrients or pesticides spreading can be prevented by an adequate management of irrigation water. As a consequence, soil microbial community structure, composition and activities, as well as the organic matter quality can be different from those in non-irrigated soil. Research have been carried out in order to assess changes in bacterial and fungal communities and activity in irrigated Vertisol from Boianu, as compared with non-irrigated. The paper presents the results concerning the taxonomical composition of bacterial and fungalmicroflora in the horizons of the two soil profiles, as well as the level of CO2 released by microorganisms. Chromatographic aspects of humus fractions were used to characterize the organic matter in irrigated and nonirrigated soil. Increased moisture and lowered temperature in Ap horizon of irrigated soil increased bacterial counts(18 x106 viable cells x g-1 dry soil and their metabolic activity expressed by carbon dioxide released (46.838mg CO2 x g-1 dry soil comparatively with non- irrigated soil. Fungal microflora was more abundant after 25-50cm under irrigation. Species diversity slightly increased under irrigation in both upper and lower part of soil profile. In irrigated soil, associations of species belonging to bacterial genera Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant in surface and white actinomycetes in the depth. Fungal consortia of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Fusarium dominated in both soil profiles.Irrigation induced changes in the quantity and quality of soil organic matter, as well as in the aspect of their migration pattern, as revealed on circular chromatograms.

  4. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  5. Irrigating lives : development intervention and dynamics of social relationships in an irrigation project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magadlela, D.

    2000-01-01

    This study is about rural agricultural development and social processes of change in rural Zimbabwe. It is aimed at understanding how irrigation intervention in a remote rural context changed the cultural, social, political and farming lives of people. It is a study of people coping with

  6. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  7. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... 8--Salmon and Steelhead Full Life-Cycle Population Models; and Request 9--Effects of the Project and... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project Project... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District...

  8. Outdoor Irrigation Measurement and Verification Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoughton, Kate M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Figueroa, Jorge [Western Resource Advocates, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-05

    This measurement and verification (M&V) protocol provides procedures for energy service companies (ESCOs) and water efficiency service companies (WESCOs) to determine water savings resulting from water conservation measures (WCMs) in energy performance contracts associated with outdoor irrigation efficiency projects. The water savings are determined by comparing the baseline water use to the water use after the WCM has been implemented. This protocol outlines the basic structure of the M&V plan, and details the procedures to use to determine water savings.

  9. Irrigation of treated wastewater in Braunschweig, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ternes, T.A.; Bonerz, M.; Herrmann, N.

    2007-01-01

    pharmaceuticals and two personal care products (PPCPs; e.g. betablockers, antibiotics, antiphlogistics, carbamazepine, musk fragrances, iodinated contrast media (ICM) and estrogens). No differences in PPCP pollution of the groundwater were found due to irrigation of STP effluents with and without addition....... In the groundwater and lysimeter samples primarily the ICM diatrizoate and iopamidol, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole were detected up to several mu g l(-1), while the acidic pharmaceuticals, musk fragrances, estrogens and betablockers were likely sorbed or transformed while...

  10. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    To respond to agricultural water shortage impacted by climate change without affecting rice yield in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation, such as SRI methodology, is considered to be adopted in rice-cultivation in Taiwan. However, the flooded paddy fields could be considered as an important source of groundwater recharge in Central Taiwan. The water-saving benefit of this new methodology and its impact on the reducing of groundwater recharge should be integrally assessed in this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of groundwater recharge/ irrigation water use between the SRI and traditional irrigation schemes (continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation). An experimental paddy field located in the proximal area of the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping region in Taiwan) was chosen as the study area. The 3-D finite element groundwater model (FEMWATER) with the variable boundary condition analog functions, was applied in simulating groundwater recharge process and amount under traditional irrigation schemes and SRI methodology. The use of effective rainfall was taken into account or not in different simulation scenarios for each irrigation scheme. The simulation results showed that there were no significant variations of infiltration rate in the use of effective rainfall or not, but the low soil moisture setting in deep soil layers resulted in higher infiltration rate. Taking the use of effective rainfall into account, the average infiltration rate for continuous irrigation, rotational irrigation, and SRI methodology in the first crop season of 2013 were 4.04 mm/day, 4.00 mm/day and 3.92 mm/day, respectively. The groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reducing 4% and 2% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly

  11. Falling into a black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2007-01-01

    String theory tells us that quantum gravity has a dual description as a field theory (without gravity). We use the field theory dual to ask what happens to an object as it falls into the simplest black hole: the 2-charge extremal hole. In the field theory description the wavefunction of a particle is spread over a large number of `loops', and the particle has a well-defined position in space only if it has the same `position' on each loop. For the infalling particle we find one definition of ...

  12. The variability of meteoroid falling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Herrera, V. M.; Cordero, G.

    2016-10-01

    We analysed a historical catalogue of meteoroid falling during the last 400 years. We report here for the first time the synchronization between observed meteors and solar barycentric parameters in 19.6 and 13.2 years periodicities using a new multiple cross wavelet. The group of moderated number of meteors is distributed around the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 13.2 years. While the group of severe number of meteors are distributed on the positive phase of the solar barycentric periodicity of 19.6 years. These periodicities could be associated with Jupiter periodicities. So understanding the modulation of meteoroid falling is important for determining the falling patterns of these objects and for knowing when it is more likely to expect the entry of one of these objects into the Earth's atmosphere, because bodies falling onto the Earth can cause damage from minor impacts to mass-extinctions events. One of the most extreme events was the formation of the Chicxulub impact crater 65,000,000 years ago that caused one of the five major mass extinctions in the last 500,000,000 years. During the 20th and 21st centuries, a series of events demonstrated the importance of collisions between planets and small bodies (comets and asteroids), which included our own planet. In the case of the Earth, we can cite three examples: Tunguska, Curuça and Chelyabinsk. These events invite us to think that perhaps the occurrence of this phenomenon might be more common than we realize, but the lack of communication or people in the area where they happened prevents us from having a complete record. Modern man has not witnessed the impact of large asteroids or comets on our planet, but it has been observed on other planetary bodies. The most spectacular of these events was the collision of fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter in 1994. The total energy of the 21 impacts on Jupiter's atmosphere was estimated as the equivalent of tens of millions of

  13. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs

  14. Clinical value of colonic irrigation in patients with continence disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briel, J W; Schouten, W R; Vlot, E A; Smits, S; van Kessel, I

    1997-07-01

    Continence disturbances, especially fecal soiling, are difficult to treat. Irrigation of the distal part of the large bowel might be considered as a nonsurgical alternative for patients with impaired continence. This study is aimed at evaluating the clinical value of colonic irrigation. Thirty-two patients (16 females; median age, 47 (range, 23-72) years) were offered colonic irrigation on an ambulatory basis. Sixteen patients suffered from fecal soiling (Group I), whereas the other 16 patients were treated for fecal incontinence (Group II). Patients were instructed by enterostomal therapists how to use a conventional colostomy irrigation set to obtain sufficient irrigation of the distal part of their large bowel. Patients with continence disturbances during the daytime were instructed to introduce 500 to 1,000 ml of warm (38 degrees C) water within 5 to 10 minutes after they passed their first stool. In addition, they were advised to wait until the urge to defecate was felt. Patients with soiling during overnight sleep were advised to irrigate during the evening. To determine clinical outcome, a detailed questionnaire was used. Median duration of follow-up was 18 months. Ten patients discontinued irrigation within the first month of treatment. Symptoms resolved completely in two patients. They believed that there was no need to continue treatment any longer. Irrigation had no effect in two patients. Despite the fact that symptoms resolved, six patients discontinued treatment because they experienced pain (n = 2) or they considered the irrigation to be too time-consuming (n = 4). Twenty-two patients are still performing irrigations. Most patients irrigated the colon in the morning after the first stool was passed. Time needed for washout varied between 10 and 90 minutes. Frequency of irrigations varied from two times per day to two times per week. In Group I, irrigation was found to be beneficial in 92 percent of patients, whereas 60 percent of patients in Group II

  15. Irrigation and fertigation frequencies with nitrogen in the watermelon culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Newdmar Vieira Fernandes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the influence of different irrigation frequencies and different nitrogen fertigation frequencies on the growth performance of the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus culture. Two experiments were conducted at the Paraguay farm in the Cruz municipality, Ceará, Brazil. They was randomized blocks design with six treatments and four replications. The irrigation frequency experiment consisted of the application of different irrigation frequencies. The treatments were: DM - daily irrigation in the morning with 100% daily dosage; DT - daily irrigation in the afternoon, with 100% daily dosage; DMT - twice daily irrigation, with 50% daily dosage in the morning and 50% daily dosage in the afternoon; 2D - irrigation every two days; 3D - irrigation every three days and 4D - irrigation every four days. To the experiment with different nitrogen fertigation frequencies, the treatments used were: 2F - 2 fertigations in a cycle; 4F - 4 fertigations in a cycle; 8F - 8 fertigations in a cycle; 16F - 16 fertigations in a cycle; 32F - 32 fertigations in a cycle and 64F - 64 fertigations in a cycle. We evaluated the marketable yield (PC, fruit weight (M, polar diameter (DP, equatorial diameter (DE, shell thickness (EC and soluble solids (SS. The irrigation frequency treatments influenced all variables significantly, with twice daily irrigation (DMT, 50% in the morning and the 50% in the afternoon promoting the highest productivity (69.79 t ha-1. The different frequencies of fertigation also significantly influenced all variables, except for the shell thickness, the highest yield (80.69 t ha-1 being obtained with treatment 64 fertigations in a cycle.

  16. Distillation irrigation: a low-energy process for coupling water purification and drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantz, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method is proposed for combining solar distillation and drip irrigation to simultaneously desalinize water and apply this water to row crops. In this paper, the basic method is illustrated by a simple device constructed primarily of sheets of plastic, which uses solar energy to distill impaired water and apply the distillate to a widely spaced row crop. To predict the performance of the proposed device, an empirical equation for distillate production, dp, is developed from reported solar still production rates, and a modified Jensen-Haise equation is used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration, et, for a row crop. Monthly values for et and dp are calculated by using a generalized row crop at five locations in the Western United States. Calculated et values range from 1 to 22 cm month-1 and calculated dp values range from 2 to 11 cm month-1, depending on the location, the month, and the crop average. When the sum of dp plus precipitation, dp + P, is compared to et for the case of 50% distillation irrigation system coverage, the results indicate that the crop's et is matched by dp + P, at the cooler locations only. However, when the system coverage is increased to 66%, the crop's et is matched by dp + P even at the hottest location. Potential advantages of distillation irrigation include the ability: (a) to convert impaired water resources to water containing no salts or sediments; and (b) to efficiently and automatically irrigate crops at a rate that is controlled primarily by radiation intensities. The anticipated disadvantages of distillation irrigation include: (a) the high costs of a system, due to the large amounts of sheeting required, the short lifetime of the sheeting, and the physically cumbersome nature of a system; (b) the need for a widely spaced crop to reduce shading of the system by the crop; and (c) the production of a concentrated brine or precipitate, requiring proper off-site disposal. ?? 1989.

  17. Increasing fall risk awareness using wearables: A fall risk awareness protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Asbjørn; Olofsen, Hans; Bremdal, Bernt Arild

    2016-10-01

    Each year about a third of elderly aged 65 or older experience a fall. Many of these falls may have been avoided if fall risk assessment and prevention tools where available in a daily living situation. We identify what kind of information is relevant for doing fall risk assessment and prevention using wearable sensors in a daily living environment by investigating current research, distinguishing between prospective and context-aware fall risk assessment and prevention. Based on our findings, we propose a fall risk awareness protocol as a fall prevention tool integrating both wearables and ambient sensing technology into a single platform. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Fall risk factors in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P; Hildebrand, K

    2000-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, gait disturbance, and postural instability. Patients with PD suffer frequent falls, yet little research has been done to identify risks specific to PD patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with falls for PD patients through the collection of demographic, environmental, and medical information as well as fall diaries completed during a 3-month period. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, with and without falls, were included in the study provided they could stand and walk and had no other condition that could predispose them to falls. Of the 118 participants, 59% reported one or more falls. A total of 237 falls were reported. Duration and severity of PD symptoms, particularly freezing, involuntary movements, and walking and postural difficulties, were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls. Other factors associated with falls were postural hypotension and daily intake of alcohol. Forty percent of falls resulted in injury, but serious injury was rare. The findings have implications for reducing the risk of falls through patient education.

  19. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  20. Effect of Biofertilizers and Irrigation Intervals on Yield Component and Yield of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jaberi

    2016-02-01

    , Azad University, Birjand, Iran, during 2010-2011. Experimental treatments were irrigation intervals in three levels (every 6, 9 and 12 days and biofertilizer in five levels (nitroxin, biophosphorus, and micorhyza fungi G. mosseae, G. intraradices and control-no fertilizer. Fenugreek was planted through furrow in mid-April 2010. The distance between rows and between plants was 30 and 10 cm, respectively. Seeds were covered by Nitroxin (including: Azotobacterchroococcum, Azospirillum lipoferum and Azospirillum brasilense and biophosphrous (including: Pseudomonas fluorescens and then were cultured.They were used at a depth of 2cm below the seed from Glomusintraradiceand Glomus mosseae. Fenugreek was harvested in early July when the plants became yellow and at least 80% of the pods were reached. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SAS 9.1 and MSTATC. Mean comparison were compared by the Duncan test at 1% and 5% level of probability. Results and Discussion: Results of statistical analysis showed that irrigation treatments and biofertilizers had significant effect on most indices. Interaction effect of irrigation and biofertilizer were significant on seed and leaf yield (p

  1. Nurses' Perceptions of Implementing Fall Prevention Interventions to Mitigate Patient-Specific Fall Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deleise S; Montie, Mary; Conlon, Paul; Reynolds, Margaret; Ripley, Robert; Titler, Marita G

    2016-08-01

    Evidence-based (EB) fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risk factors are readily available but not routinely used in practice. Few studies have examined nurses' perceptions about both the use of these EB interventions and implementation strategies designed to promote their adoption. This article reports qualitative findings of nurses' perceptions about use of EB fall prevention interventions to mitigate patient-specific fall risks, and implementation strategies to promote use of these interventions. The findings revealed five major themes: before-study fall prevention practices, use of EB fall prevention interventions tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors, beneficial implementation strategies, overall impact on approach to fall prevention, and challenges These findings are useful to guide nurses' engagement and use of EB fall prevention practices tailored to patient-specific fall risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Disease state fingerprint for fall risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla

    2014-01-01

    Fall prevention is an important and complex multifactorial challenge, since one third of people over 65 years old fall at least once every year. A novel application of Disease State Fingerprint (DSF) algorithm is presented for holistic visualization of fall risk factors and identifying persons with falls history or decreased level of physical functioning based on fall risk assessment data. The algorithm is tested with data from 42 older adults, that went through a comprehensive fall risk assessment. Within the study population the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale score, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score and the number of drugs in use were the three most relevant variables, that differed between the fallers and non-fallers. This study showed that the DSF visualization is beneficial in inspection of an individual's significant fall risk factors, since people have problems in different areas and one single assessment scale is not enough to expose all the people at risk.

  3. Prevalence of falls in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor, Priscila Regina Rorato; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Kovaleski; Kohler, Renan; Winter, Gabriele Regiane; Rodacki, Cintia; Krause, Maressa Priscila

    2015-01-01

    To verify prevalence of falls and fear of falling, and to compare functional fitness among elderly women fallers and non-fallers. Seventy-eight elderly women participated in this study. Cases of falls and the fear of falling were self-reported by the elderly women, while the functional fitness was measured by a set of functional tests. Mean and standard deviation were used to describe the sample. Independent t-test was used to compare functional fitness between groups. The prevalence of falls in this sample was 32.4%. Among women fallers, 40% self-reported a high fear of falling. It is recommended that functional and resistance exercises are included in the preventive strategies for reducing risk factors for falls and its determinants in elderly women. Level of Evidence II, Prognostic-Prospective Study.

  4. Climate change and irrigation. An Australian response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigram, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Climatic changes on a global or regional scale, resulting from human activities, and the likely effects of such changes on Australia were discussed. Irrigation concerns of the Murray-Darling Basin in southeast Australia associated with global climate were described. Potential risks for regional economies and communities (agriculture in this instance) which may be significant, were assessed. Restructuring of the irrigation industry, and appropriate policy initiatives were urged now, while there is still some time to prepare. Application of the 'Precautionary Principle' to reduce global climate change effects was recommended. (This principle states that in areas threatened by severe climatic change lack of full scientific certainty should not be used as an excuse to delay decisive measures designed to mitigate environmental degradation). Bold policy adjustments and the creation of a new institutional framework to promote sustainable resource management were called for. It was suggested that the region could become a 'laboratory' for the whole world for assessing the effectiveness of managerial responses to environmental changes

  5. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  6. Activation of Alkaline Irrigation Fluids in Endodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J. Walsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In conventional endodontic treatment, alkaline solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA are used in combination to disinfect the root canal system and to eliminate debris and smear layers. An important concept that has emerged over recent years is the use of active physical methods for agitating these fluids to improve their penetration within areas that are not reached by endodontic instruments and to accelerate the chemical actions of these alkaline fluids against planktonic microorganisms, biofilms, soft tissue remnants and smear layers. Ultrasonic agitation and more recently pulsed lasers have emerged as two promising methods for activating endodontic irrigation fluids. Ultrasonic agitation with piezoelectric devices employs a moving tip, while laser agitation uses a stationary tip. Both methods cause cavitation, followed by implosions and shear forces which assist with debridement. Fluid streaming further enhances the activity of the fluids. While agitation enhances performance of irrigants, extrusion of fluids from the root canal during activation is a hazard that must be controlled.

  7. Estimates of Savings Achievable from Irrigation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Alison; Fuchs, Heidi; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham

    2014-03-28

    This paper performs a literature review and meta-analysis of water savings from several types of advanced irrigation controllers: rain sensors (RS), weather-based irrigation controllers (WBIC), and soil moisture sensors (SMS).The purpose of this work is to derive average water savings per controller type, based to the extent possible on all available data. After a preliminary data scrubbing, we utilized a series of analytical filters to develop our best estimate of average savings. We applied filters to remove data that might bias the sample such as data self-reported by manufacturers, data resulting from studies focusing on high-water users, or data presented in a non-comparable format such as based on total household water use instead of outdoor water use. Because the resulting number of studies was too small to be statistically significant when broken down by controller type, this paper represents a survey and synthesis of available data rather than a definitive statement regarding whether the estimated water savings are representative.

  8. Falls and Fear of Falling After Stroke: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Hui-Ting; Nadarajah, Mohanasuntharaam; Hamzah, Norhamizan Binti; Varadan, Parimalaganthi; Tan, Maw Pin

    2016-12-01

    Falls are common after stroke, with potentially serious consequences. Few investigations have included age-matched control participants to directly compare fall characteristics between older adults with and without stroke. Further, fear of falling, a significant psychological consequence of falls, has only been examined to a limited degree as a risk factor for future falls in a stroke population. To compare the fall history between older adults with and without a previous stroke and to identify the determinants of falls and fear of falling in older stroke survivors. Case-control observational study. Primary teaching hospital. Seventy-five patients with stroke (mean age ± standard deviation, 66 ± 7 years) and 50 age-matched control participants with no previous stroke were tested. Fall history, fear of falling, and physical, cognitive, and psychological function were assessed. A χ 2 test was performed to compare characteristics between groups, and logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors for falls and fear of falling. Fall events in the past 12 months, Fall Efficacy Scale-International, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, Fatigue Severity Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Patient Healthy Questionnaire-9 were measured for all participants. Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment was used to quantify severity of stroke motor impairments. Twenty-three patients and 13 control participants reported at least one fall in the past 12 months (P = .58). Nine participants with stroke had recurrent falls (≥2 falls) compared with none of the control participants (P falling than did nonstroke control participants (P falls in the nonstroke group, whereas falls in the stroke group were not significantly associated with any measured outcomes. Fear of falling in the stroke group was associated with functional ambulation level and balance. Functional ambulation level alone explained 22% of variance in fear of falling in the stroke group

  9. [Optimal irrigation index for cotton drip irrigation under film mulching based on the evaporation from pan with constant water level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ji-Yang; Sun, Jing-Sheng; Gao, Yang; Li, Ming-Si; Liu, Hao; Yang, Gui-Sen

    2013-11-01

    A field experiment with two irrigation cycles and two irrigating water quotas at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage was conducted in Urumqi of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Northwest China in 2008-2009, aimed to explore the high-efficient irrigation index of cotton drip irrigation under film mulching. The effects of different water treatments on the seed yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency (WUE) of cotton were analyzed. In all treatments, there was a high correlation between the cotton water use and the evaporation from pan installed above the plant canopy. In high-yield cotton field (including the treatment T4 which had 10 days and 7 days of irrigation cycle with 30.0 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2008, and the treatment T1 having 7 days of irrigation cycle with 22.5 mm and 37.5 mm of irrigating water quota at squaring stage and blossoming-boll forming stage, respectively in 2009), the pan-crop coefficient (Kp) at seedling stage, squaring stage, blossoming-boll forming stage, and boll opening stage was 0.29-0.30, 0.52-0.53, 0.74-0.88, and 0.19-0.20, respectively. As compared with the other treatments, T4 had the highest seed cotton yield (5060 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (1.00 kg x m(-3)) in 2008, whereas T1 had the highest seed cotton yield (4467 kg x hm(-2)) and the highest WUE (0.99 kg x m(-3)) in 2009. The averaged cumulative pan evaporation in 7 days and 10 days at squaring stage was 40-50 mm and 60-70 mm, respectively, and that in 7 days at blossoming-boll forming stage was 40-50 mm. It was suggested that in Xinjiang cotton area, irrigating 45 mm water for seedling emergence, no irrigation both at seedling stage and at boll opening stage, and irrigation was started when the pan evaporation reached 45-65 mm and 45 mm at squaring stage and blossoming-boll stage, respectively, the irrigating water quota could be determined by multiplying cumulative

  10. Investigating deficit irrigation as a climate-smart farming option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global water supplies available for irrigation are declining while food demand continues to rise. Deficit irrigation offers a promising strategy to reduce water use with minimal impacts to yields, but is likely to have a range of impacts on soil nutrient cycling processes and climate change mitigati...

  11. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  12. Agriculture and wildlife: ecological implications of subsurface irrigation drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dennis Lemly

    1994-01-01

    Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage is a wastewater with the potential to severely impact wetlands and wildlife populations. Widespread poisoning of migratory birds by drainwater contaminants has occurred in the western United States and waterfowl populations are threatened in the Pacific and Central flyways. Irrigated agriculture could produce subsurface...

  13. Atmospheric effects of irrigation in monsoon climate: the Indian subcontinent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    During the 20th century, an increasing population increased the demand for food. As a consequence, agricultural activity has expanded and become more intense. A part of this intensification is the use of irrigation systems to water crops. Due to this irrigation, dams and channeling systems,

  14. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the entire fruit and wine industries are dependent on irrigation. Cropping in the Eastern and Northern Cape also relies heavily on irrigation. ..... The soils were described as deep, fine sandy, dominantly red, ..... crops. For example, leaves of deciduous fruit trees (apri- ..... Laboratory Handbook 60, USDA, Washington. 160 pp.

  15. Performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at Mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in discharge can also be adjusted via use of uniform laterals, risers, and nozzles. This study further recommends an incorporation of a soil and water laboratory for the company to aid in monitoring the soil and water quality of the irrigation area. Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation ...

  16. Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semiarid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment ...

  17. Effects of different irrigation programs on yield and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) values varied from 93.1 to 466.3 mm for the treatments. The highest yield was obtained from the S3 and S4 treatments. A significant polynomial correlation was obtained between the yield and irrigation water, and between the yield and ET (P < 0.01). This indicated that when irrigation water and ET ...

  18. Thermal infrared sensors for postharvest deficit irrigation of peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    California has been in a historic drought and the lack of water has been a major problem for agriculture especially for crops that depend on irrigation. A multi-year field study was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of applying thermal infrared sensors for managing deficit irrigation in an ...

  19. Wireless sensor network effectively controls center pivot irrigation of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robust automatic irrigation scheduling has been demonstrated using wired sensors and sensor network systems with subsurface drip and moving irrigation systems. However, there are limited studies that report on crop yield and water use efficiency resulting from the use of wireless networks to automat...

  20. Small private irrigation: Enhancing benefits and managing trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giordano, M.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia benefit from readily available and affordable irrigation technologies. The rapid uptake of small private irrigation in South Asia had a proven positive effect on poverty alleviation. In sub-Saharan Africa similar trends are