WorldWideScience

Sample records for irrelevant neuroscience information

  1. Redundancy of einselected information in quantum Darwinism: The irrelevance of irrelevant environment bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2017-03-01

    The objective, classical world emerges from the underlying quantum substrate via the proliferation of redundant copies of selected information into the environment, which acts as a communication channel, transmitting that information to observers. These copies are independently accessible, allowing many observers to reach consensus about the state of a quantum system via its imprints in the environment. Quantum Darwinism recognizes that the redundancy of information is thus central to the emergence of objective reality in the quantum world. However, in addition to the "quantum system of interest," there are many other systems "of no interest" in the Universe that can imprint information on the common environment. There is therefore a danger that the information of interest will be diluted with irrelevant bits, suppressing the redundancy responsible for objectivity. We show that mixing of the relevant (the "wheat") and irrelevant (the "chaff") bits of information makes little quantitative difference to the redundancy of the information of interest. Thus, we demonstrate that it does not matter whether one separates the wheat (relevant information) from the (irrelevant) chaff: The large redundancy of the relevant information survives dilution, providing evidence of the objective, effectively classical world.

  2. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  3. Directed information measures in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, Raul; Lizier, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of information transfer has found rapid adoption in neuroscience, where a highly dynamic transfer of information continuously runs on top of the brain's slowly-changing anatomical connectivity. Measuring such transfer is crucial to understanding how flexible information routing and processing give rise to higher cognitive function. Directed Information Measures in Neuroscience reviews recent developments of concepts and tools for measuring information transfer, their application to neurophysiological recordings and analysis of interactions. Written by the most active researchers in the field the book discusses the state of the art, future prospects and challenges on the way to an efficient assessment of neuronal information transfer. Highlights include the theoretical quantification and practical estimation of information transfer, description of transfer locally in space and time, multivariate directed measures, information decomposition among a set of stimulus/responses variables, and the relation ...

  4. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  5. Mental Schemas Hamper Memory Storage of Goal-Irrelevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweegers, C C G; Coleman, G A; van Poppel, E A M; Cox, R; Talamini, L M

    2015-01-01

    . An important determinant in this matter is likely related to momentary goals, such that mental schemas facilitate memory processing of goal-relevant input, but suppress processing of goal-irrelevant information. - Schema-congruent information suffers from shallow encoding.- Schema congruency induces poor item and context memory.- The parietal old/new effect is less pronounced for schema-congruent items.- Schemas exert different influences on memory formation depending on current goals.

  6. Neural correlate of filtering of irrelevant information from visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Moeeny, Ali; Esteky, Hossein

    2008-09-26

    In a dynamic environment stimulus task relevancy could be altered through time and it is not always possible to dissociate relevant and irrelevant objects from the very first moment they come to our sight. In such conditions, subjects need to retain maximum possible information in their WM until it is clear which items should be eliminated from WM to free attention and memory resources. Here, we examined the neural basis of irrelevant information filtering from WM by recording human ERP during a visual change detection task in which the stimulus irrelevancy was revealed in a later stage of the task forcing the subjects to keep all of the information in WM until test object set was presented. Assessing subjects' behaviour we found that subjects' RT was highly correlated with the number of irrelevant objects and not the relevant one, pointing to the notion that filtering, and not selection, process was used to handle the distracting effect of irrelevant objects. In addition we found that frontal N150 and parietal N200 peak latencies increased systematically as the amount of irrelevancy load increased. Interestingly, the peak latency of parietal N200, and not frontal N150, better correlated with subjects' RT. The difference between frontal N150 and parietal N200 peak latencies varied with the amount of irrelevancy load suggesting that functional connectivity between modules underlying fronto-parietal potentials vary concomitant with the irrelevancy load. These findings suggest the existence of two neural modules, responsible for irrelevant objects elimination, whose activity latency and functional connectivity depend on the number of irrelevant object.

  7. Neural correlate of filtering of irrelevant information from visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Nasr

    Full Text Available In a dynamic environment stimulus task relevancy could be altered through time and it is not always possible to dissociate relevant and irrelevant objects from the very first moment they come to our sight. In such conditions, subjects need to retain maximum possible information in their WM until it is clear which items should be eliminated from WM to free attention and memory resources. Here, we examined the neural basis of irrelevant information filtering from WM by recording human ERP during a visual change detection task in which the stimulus irrelevancy was revealed in a later stage of the task forcing the subjects to keep all of the information in WM until test object set was presented. Assessing subjects' behaviour we found that subjects' RT was highly correlated with the number of irrelevant objects and not the relevant one, pointing to the notion that filtering, and not selection, process was used to handle the distracting effect of irrelevant objects. In addition we found that frontal N150 and parietal N200 peak latencies increased systematically as the amount of irrelevancy load increased. Interestingly, the peak latency of parietal N200, and not frontal N150, better correlated with subjects' RT. The difference between frontal N150 and parietal N200 peak latencies varied with the amount of irrelevancy load suggesting that functional connectivity between modules underlying fronto-parietal potentials vary concomitant with the irrelevancy load. These findings suggest the existence of two neural modules, responsible for irrelevant objects elimination, whose activity latency and functional connectivity depend on the number of irrelevant object.

  8. Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007456.htm Neurosciences To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurosciences (or clinical neurosciences) refers to the branch of ...

  9. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Several authors have hypothesised that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996a). Experiment 1 replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of ...

  10. The Neuroscience Information Framework: A Data and Knowledge Environment for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Huda; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Bowden, Douglas M.; Bug, William; Donohue, Duncan E.; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Halavi, Maryam; Kennedy, David N.; Marenco, Luis; Martone, Maryann E.; Miller, Perry L.; Müller, Hans-Michael; Robert, Adrian; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Van Essen, David C.; Williams, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    With support from the Institutes and Centers forming the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research, we have designed and implemented a new initiative for integrating access to and use of Web-based neuroscience resources: the Neuroscience Information Framework. The Framework arises from the expressed need of the neuroscience community for neuroinformatic tools and resources to aid scientific inquiry, builds upon prior development of neuroinformatics by the Human Brain Project and others, and directly derives from the Society for Neuroscience’s Neuroscience Database Gateway. Partnered with the Society, its Neuroinformatics Committee, and volunteer consultant-collaborators, our multi-site consortium has developed: (1) a comprehensive, dynamic, inventory of Web-accessible neuroscience resources, (2) an extended and integrated terminology describing resources and contents, and (3) a framework accepting and aiding concept-based queries. Evolving instantiations of the Framework may be viewed at http://nif.nih.gov, http://neurogateway.org, and other sites as they come on line. PMID:18946742

  11. Mental schemas hamper memory storage of goal-irrelevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweegers, C.C.G.; Coleman, G.A.; van Poppel, E.A.M.; Cox, R.; Talamini, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing, for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low

  12. Removal of irrelevant information from working memory: sometimes fast, sometimes slow, and sometimes not at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2018-03-12

    To function properly, working memory must be rapidly updated. Updating requires the removal of information no longer relevant. I present six experiments designed to explore the boundary conditions and the time course of removal. A condition in which three out of six memory items can be removed was compared to two baseline conditions in which either three or six items were encoded and maintained in working memory. The time for removal was varied. In experiment 1, in the removal condition, a distinct subset of three words was cued to be irrelevant after encoding all six words. With longer removal time, response times in the removal condition approximated those in the set-size 3 baseline, but accuracies stayed at the set-size 6 level. In experiment 2, in which a random subset of three words was cued as irrelevant, there was no evidence for removal. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that when each item is cued as relevant or irrelevant after its encoding, irrelevant items can be removed rapidly and completely. Experiments 5 and 6 showed that complete removal was no longer possible when words had to be processed before being cued as irrelevant. The pattern of findings can be explained by distinguishing two forms of removal: deactivation removes working-memory contents from the set of competitors for retrieval; unbinding contents from their contexts removes them from working memory entirely, so that they also cease to compete for limited capacity. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Suppressing Irrelevant Information from Working Memory: Evidence for Domain-Specific Deficits in Poor Comprehenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperton, Hannah; Nation, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that children with specific reading comprehension deficits (poor comprehenders) show an impaired ability to suppress irrelevant information from working memory, with this deficit detrimentally impacting on their working memory ability, and consequently limiting their reading comprehension performance. However, the…

  15. With task experience students learn to ignore the content, not just the location of irrelevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rop, Gertjan; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; van Gog, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Presentation of irrelevant additional information hampers learning. However, using a word-learning task, recent research demonstrated that an initial negative effect of mismatching pictures on learning no longer occurred once learners gained task experience. It is unclear, however, whether learners

  16. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  17. Does high memory load kick task-irrelevant information out of visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Zhou, Jifan; Xu, Haokui; Liang, Junying; Gao, Zaifeng; Shen, Mowei

    2012-04-01

    The limited capacity of visual working memory (VWM) requires the existence of an efficient information selection mechanism. While it has been shown that under low VWM load, an irrelevant simple feature can be processed, its fate under high load (e.g., six objects) remains unclear. We explored this issue by probing the "irrelevant-change distracting effect," in which the change of a stored irrelevant feature affects performance. Simple colored shapes were used as stimuli, with color as the target. Using a whole-probe method (presenting six objects in both the memory and test arrays), in Experiment 1 we found that a change to one of the six shapes led to a significant distracting effect. Using a partial-probe method (presenting the probe either at the screen center or at a location selected from the memory array), in Experiment 2 we showed the distracting effect again. These results suggest that irrelevant simple features can be stored into VWM, regardless of memory load.

  18. Stimulus-response correspondence effect as a function of temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap.

  19. Processing irrelevant location information: practice and transfer effects in a Simon task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan B Welch

    Full Text Available How humans produce cognitively driven fine motor movements is a question of fundamental importance in how we interact with the world around us. For example, we are exposed to a constant stream of information and we must select the information that is most relevant by which to guide our actions. In the present study, we employed a well-known behavioral assay called the Simon task to better understand how humans are able to learn to filter out irrelevant information. We trained subjects for four days with a visual stimulus presented, alternately, in central and lateral locations. Subjects responded with one hand moving a joystick in either the left or right direction. They were instructed to ignore the irrelevant location information and respond based on color (e.g. red to the right and green to the left. On the fifth day, an additional testing session was conducted where the task changed and the subjects had to respond by shape (e.g. triangle to the right and rectangle to the left. They were instructed to ignore the color and location, and respond based solely on the task relevant shape. We found that the magnitude of the Simon effect decreases with training, however it returns in the first few trials after a break. Furthermore, task-defined associations between response direction and color did not significantly affect the Simon effect based on shape, and no significant associative learning from the specific stimulus-response features was found for the centrally located stimuli. We discuss how these results are consistent with a model involving route suppression/gating of the irrelevant location information. Much of the learning seems to be driven by subjects learning to suppress irrelevant location information, however, this seems to be an active inhibition process that requires a few trials of experience to engage.

  20. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagui Qu

    Full Text Available Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  1. Effects of visual working memory on brain information processing of irrelevant auditory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiagui; Rizak, Joshua D; Zhao, Lun; Li, Minghong; Ma, Yuanye

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention has traditionally been viewed as a sensory processing modulator that promotes cognitive processing efficiency by favoring relevant stimuli while inhibiting irrelevant stimuli. However, the cross-modal processing of irrelevant information during working memory (WM) has been rarely investigated. In this study, the modulation of irrelevant auditory information by the brain during a visual WM task was investigated. The N100 auditory evoked potential (N100-AEP) following an auditory click was used to evaluate the selective attention to auditory stimulus during WM processing and at rest. N100-AEP amplitudes were found to be significantly affected in the left-prefrontal, mid-prefrontal, right-prefrontal, left-frontal, and mid-frontal regions while performing a high WM load task. In contrast, no significant differences were found between N100-AEP amplitudes in WM states and rest states under a low WM load task in all recorded brain regions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the time latencies of N100-AEP troughs in WM states and rest states while performing either the high or low WM load task. These findings suggested that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) may integrate information from different sensory channels to protect perceptual integrity during cognitive processing.

  2. Socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attention to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attention to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli), low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.

  3. Socially Anxious Individuals with Low Working Memory Capacity Could Not Inhibit the Goal-Irrelevant Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMoriya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attentional capture to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attentional capture to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli, low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.

  4. Insensitivity of visual short-term memory to irrelevant visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Kemps, Eva; Werniers, Yves; May, Jon; Szmalec, Arnaud

    2002-07-01

    Several authors have hypothesized that visuo-spatial working memory is functionally analogous to verbal working memory. Irrelevant background speech impairs verbal short-term memory. We investigated whether irrelevant visual information has an analogous effect on visual short-term memory, using a dynamic visual noise (DVN) technique known to disrupt visual imagery (Quinn & McConnell, 1996b). Experiment I replicated the effect of DVN on pegword imagery. Experiments 2 and 3 showed no effect of DVN on recall of static matrix patterns, despite a significant effect of a concurrent spatial tapping task. Experiment 4 showed no effect of DVN on encoding or maintenance of arrays of matrix patterns, despite testing memory by a recognition procedure to encourage visual rather than spatial processing. Serial position curves showed a one-item recency effect typical of visual short-term memory. Experiment 5 showed no effect of DVN on short-term recognition of Chinese characters, despite effects of visual similarity and a concurrent colour memory task that confirmed visual processing of the characters. We conclude that irrelevant visual noise does not impair visual short-term memory. Visual working memory may not be functionally analogous to verbal working memory, and different cognitive processes may underlie visual short-term memory and visual imagery.

  5. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Durka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research.

  6. Inhibition of irrelevant information is not necessary to performance of expert chess players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postal, Virginie

    2012-08-01

    Some studies on expertise have demonstrated that the difference between novices and experts can be partly due to a lack of knowledge about which information is relevant for a given situation. This lack of knowledge seems to be associated with the selection of correct information and with inhibitory processes. However, while the efficiency of inhibitory processes can lead to better performance in the normal population, it seems that experts in chess do not base their performance on this process but rather on an automatic and parallel encoding of information. Two experiments investigated the processes involved in a check detection task. The congruence of the information was manipulated in a Stroop situation similar to Reingold, Charness, Scheltetus, & Stampe (2001). The results showed that the experts did not benefit from cuing with a congruent cue and that they did not show any interference effect by the incongruent cue, contrary to less skilled chess players who benefited from cuing (Exp. 1). An attentional priming procedure confirmed the automatic encoding of chess relations in the more skilled chess players by showing no advantage from the prime in this group (Exp. 2). Taken together, the results indicate that the processing was serial for the less skilled chess players and that it was automatic and parallel for the more expert chess players. The inhibition of irrelevant information does not seem necessary to process information rapidly and efficiently.

  7. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  8. Utilization of Probabilistic Cues in the Presence of Irrelevant Information: A Comparison of Risky Choice in Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Tilmann; Lang, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We studied risky choices in preschoolers, elementary schoolers, and adults using an information board paradigm crossing two options with two cues that differ in their probability of making valid predictions (p = 0.50 vs. p = 0.83). We also varied the presence of normatively irrelevant information. Choice patterns indicate that preschoolers were…

  9. Neuroscience-informed psychoeducation for addiction medicine: A neurocognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtiari, Hamed; Rezapour, Tara; Aupperle, Robin L; Paulus, Martin P

    2017-01-01

    Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes. However, the actual impact of neuroscience in the real-life clinical practice of addiction medicine is minimal. In this chapter, we provide a perspective on how PE in addiction medicine can be informed by neuroscience in two dimensions: content (knowledge we transfer in PE) and structure (methods we use to deliver PE). The content of conventional PE targets knowledge about etiology of illness, treatment process, adverse effects of prescribed medications, coping strategies, family education, and life skill training. Adding neuroscience evidence to the content of PE could be helpful in communicating not only the impact of drug use but also the beneficial impact of various treatments (i.e., on brain function), thus enhancing motivation for compliance and further destigmatizing their symptoms. PE can also be optimized in its "structure" by implicitly and explicitly engaging different neurocognitive processes, including salience/attention, memory, and self-awareness. There are many interactions between these two dimensions, structure and content, in the delivery of neuroscience-informed psychoeducation (NIPE). We explore these interactions in the development of a cartoon-based NIPE to promote brain recovery during addiction treatment as a part of the brain awareness for addiction recovery initiative. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. From Capture to Inhibition: How does Irrelevant Information Influence Visual Search? Evidence from a Spatial Cuing Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Christine; Wascher, Edmund; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Even though information is spatially and temporally irrelevant, it can influence the processing of subsequent information. The present study used a spatial cuing paradigm to investigate the origins of this persisting influence by means of event-related potentials (ERPs) of the EEG. An irrelevant color cue that was either contingent (color search) or non-contingent (shape search) on attentional sets was presented prior to a target array with different stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOA; 200, 400, 800 ms). Behavioral results indicated that color cues captured attention only when they shared target-defining properties. These same-location effects persisted over time but were pronounced when cue and target array were presented in close succession. N2 posterior contralateral (N2pc) showed that the color cue generally drew attention, but was strongest in the contingent condition. A subsequently emerging contralateral posterior positivity referred to the irrelevant cue (i.e., distractor positivity, Pd) was unaffected by the attentional set and therefore interpreted as an inhibitory process required to enable a re-direction of the attentional focus. Contralateral delay activity (CDA) was only observable in the contingent condition, indicating the transfer of spatial information into working memory and thus providing an explanation for the same-location effect for longer SOAs. Inhibition of this irrelevant information was reflected by a second contralateral positivity triggered through target presentation. The results suggest that distracting information is actively maintained when it resembles a sought-after object. However, two independent attentional processes are at work to compensate for attentional distraction: the timely inhibition of attentional capture and the active inhibition of mental representation of irrelevant information.

  11. From capture to inhibition: How does irrelevant information influence visual search? Evidence from a spatial cuing paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eMertes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though information is spatially and temporally irrelevant, it can influence the processing of subsequent information. The present study used a spatial cuing paradigm to investigate the origins of this persisting influence by means of event-related potentials (ERPs of the EEG. An irrelevant color cue that was either contingent (color search or non-contingent (shape search on attentional sets was presented prior to a target array with different stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOA; 200, 400, 800 ms. Behavioral results indicated that color cues captured attention only when they shared target-defining properties. These same-location effects persisted over time but were pronounced when cue and target array were presented in close succession. N2pc showed that the color cue generally drew attention, but was strongest in the contingent condition. A subsequently emerging contralateral posterior positivity referred to the irrelevant cue (i.e. distractor positivity; Pd was unaffected by the attentional set and therefore interpreted as an inhibitory process required to enable a re-direction of the attentional focus. CDA was only observable in the contingent condition, indicating the transfer of spatial information into working memory and thus providing an explanation for the same-location effect for longer SOAs. Inhibition of this irrelevant information was reflected by a second contralateral positivity triggered through target presentation. The results suggest that distracting information is actively maintained when it resembles a sought-after object. However, two independent attentional processes are at work to compensate for attentional distraction: The timely inhibition of attentional capture and the active inhibition of mental representation of irrelevant information.

  12. Preferential processing of task-irrelevant beloved-related information and task performance: Two event-related potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2017-09-18

    People who are in love have better attention for beloved-related information, but report having trouble focusing on other tasks, such as (home)work. So, romantic love can both improve and hurt cognition. Emotional information is preferentially processed, which improves task performance when the information is task-relevant, but hurts task performance when it is task-irrelevant. Because beloved-related information is highly emotional, the effects of romantic love on cognition may resemble these effects of emotion on cognition. We examined whether beloved-related information is preferentially processed even when it is task-irrelevant and whether this hurts task performance. In two event-related potential studies, participants who had recently fallen in love performed a visuospatial short-term memory task. Task-irrelevant beloved, friend, and stranger faces were presented during maintenance (Study 1), or encoding (Study 2). The Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) reflecting early automatic attentional capturing and the Late Positive Potential (LPP) reflecting sustained motivated attention were largest for beloved pictures. Thus, beloved pictures are preferentially processed even when they are task-irrelevant. Task performance and reaction times did not differ between beloved, friend, and stranger conditions. Nevertheless, self-reported obsessive thinking about the beloved tended to correlate negatively with task performance, and positively with reaction times, across conditions. So, although task-irrelevant beloved-related information does not impact task performance, more obsessive thinking about the beloved might relate to poorer and slower overall task performance. More research is needed to clarify why people experience trouble focusing on beloved-unrelated tasks and how this negative effect of love on cognition could be reduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Science and Society Bridging the Information Gap in Neuroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    In the final Science and Society Colloquium of 2000, Professor Mark Ellisman of the University of California in San Diego will examine the ways that information technology is bringing about changes in the field of neuroscience. Professor Ellisman is Director of the US National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, and is involved in several projects that merge advanced computing and networking technologies with advanced forms of microscopy. These include the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored Human Brain Project that aims to fill the gap in our understanding of how low-level operations of individual neurons scale up to higher-level mental activity. In his talk, Professor Ellisman will describe the promise offered by advanced informatics. Parallel processing and distributed computing, for example, are allowing new advances in visualising and understanding 3-D neuronal structures, while progress in the field of remote access to highly specialized and expensive instruments - like high voltage ...

  14. Differential impact of relevant and irrelevant dimension primes on rule-based and information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Lisa R; Maddox, W Todd

    2013-11-01

    Research has identified multiple category-learning systems with each being "tuned" for learning categories with different task demands and each governed by different neurobiological systems. Rule-based (RB) classification involves testing verbalizable rules for category membership while information-integration (II) classification requires the implicit learning of stimulus-response mappings. In the first study to directly test rule priming with RB and II category learning, we investigated the influence of the availability of information presented at the beginning of the task. Participants viewed lines that varied in length, orientation, and position on the screen, and were primed to focus on stimulus dimensions that were relevant or irrelevant to the correct classification rule. In Experiment 1, we used an RB category structure, and in Experiment 2, we used an II category structure. Accuracy and model-based analyses suggested that a focus on relevant dimensions improves RB task performance later in learning while a focus on an irrelevant dimension improves II task performance early in learning. © 2013.

  15. An introductory review of information theory in the context of computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark D; Ikeda, Shiro; Manton, Jonathan H

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces several fundamental concepts in information theory from the perspective of their origins in engineering. Understanding such concepts is important in neuroscience for two reasons. Simply applying formulae from information theory without understanding the assumptions behind their definitions can lead to erroneous results and conclusions. Furthermore, this century will see a convergence of information theory and neuroscience; information theory will expand its foundations to incorporate more comprehensively biological processes thereby helping reveal how neuronal networks achieve their remarkable information processing abilities.

  16. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Rop (Gertjan); M. van Wermeskerken (Margot); J.A. de Nooijer (Jacqueline); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter); T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractResearch on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking

  17. Task Experience as a Boundary Condition for the Negative Effects of Irrelevant Information on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, Gertjan; van Wermeskerken, Margot; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.; van Gog, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Research on multimedia learning has shown that learning is hampered when a multimedia message includes extraneous information that is not relevant for the task, because processing the extraneous information uses up scarce attention and working memory resources. However, eye-tracking research suggests that task experience might be a boundary…

  18. YouTube provides irrelevant information for the diagnosis and treatment of hip arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Ulrich; Waldstein, Wenzel; Schatz, Klaus-Dieter; Windhager, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    YouTube is increasingly becoming a key source for people to satisfy the need for additional information concerning their medical condition. This study analyses the completeness of accurate information found on YouTube pertaining to hip arthritis. The present study analyzed 133 YouTube videos using the search terms: hip arthritis, hip arthritis symptoms, hip arthritis diagnosis, hip arthritis treatment and hip replacement. Two quality assessment checklists with a scale of 0 to 12 points were developed to evaluate available video content for the diagnosis and the treatment of hip arthritis. Videos were grouped into poor quality (grade 0-3), moderate quality (grade 4-7) and excellent quality (grade 8-12), respectively. Three independent observers assessed all videos using the new grading system and independently scored all videos. Discrepancies regarding the categories were clarified by consensus discussion. For intra-observer reliabilities, grading was performed at two occasions separated by four weeks. Eighty-four percent (n = 112) had a poor diagnostic information quality, 14% (n = 19) a moderate quality and only 2% (n = 2) an excellent quality, respectively. In 86% (n = 114), videos provided poor treatment information quality. Eleven percent (n = 15) of videos had a moderate quality and only 3% (n = 4) an excellent quality, respectively. The present study demonstrates that YouTube is a poor source for accurate information pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of hip arthritis. These finding are of high relevance for clinicians as videos are going to become the primary source of information for patients. Therefore, high quality educational videos are needed to further guide patients on the way from the diagnosis of hip arthritis to its proper treatment.

  19. Untuned But Not Irrelevant: The Role of Untuned Neurons In Sensory Information Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Zylberberg, Joel

    2017-01-01

    In the sensory systems, most neurons' firing rates are tuned to at least one aspect of the stimulus. Other neurons are appear to be untuned, meaning that their firing rates do not depend on the stimulus. Previous work on information coding in neural populations has ignored untuned neurons, based on the tacit assumption that they are unimportant. Recent experimental work has questioned this assumption, showing that in some circumstances, neurons with no apparent stimulus tuning can contribute ...

  20. Adaptation of thermal power plants: The (ir)relevance of climate (change) information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate and hydrological projections, is then numerically solved to analyze the adaptation decisions of a selection of real power plants. We find that operators that base their decisions on current climatic conditions are likely to make identical choices and perform just as well as operators that are fully ‘informed’ about climate change. Where electricity supply is mainly generated by thermal power plants, heat waves, droughts and low river flow may impact electricity supply for decades to come. - Highlights: • We analyze adaptation to climate change by thermal power plants. • A numerical investment model is applied to a coal plant and a nuclear power plant. • The numerical analysis is based on climate and hydrological projections. • Climate change information has a relatively small effect on a power plant's NPV. • Uncertainty and no-regret benefits lower the value of climate change information.

  1. Federated access to heterogeneous information resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bug, William; Marenco, Luis; Qian, Xufei; Condit, Christopher; Rangarajan, Arun; Müller, Hans Michael; Miller, Perry L; Sanders, Brian; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Astakhov, Vadim; Shepherd, Gordon; Sternberg, Paul W; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    The overarching goal of the NIF (Neuroscience Information Framework) project is to be a one-stop-shop for Neuroscience. This paper provides a technical overview of how the system is designed. The technical goal of the first version of the NIF system was to develop an information system that a neuroscientist can use to locate relevant information from a wide variety of information sources by simple keyword queries. Although the user would provide only keywords to retrieve information, the NIF system is designed to treat them as concepts whose meanings are interpreted by the system. Thus, a search for term should find a record containing synonyms of the term. The system is targeted to find information from web pages, publications, databases, web sites built upon databases, XML documents and any other modality in which such information may be published. We have designed a system to achieve this functionality. A central element in the system is an ontology called NIFSTD (for NIF Standard) constructed by amalgamating a number of known and newly developed ontologies. NIFSTD is used by our ontology management module, called OntoQuest to perform ontology-based search over data sources. The NIF architecture currently provides three different mechanisms for searching heterogeneous data sources including relational databases, web sites, XML documents and full text of publications. Version 1.0 of the NIF system is currently in beta test and may be accessed through http://nif.nih.gov.

  2. Rumination impairs the control of stimulus-induced retrieval of irrelevant information, but not attention, control, or response selection in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Steenbergen, Laura; Hommel, Bernhard

    2018-01-23

    The aim of the study was to throw more light on the relationship between rumination and cognitive-control processes. Seventy-eight adults were assessed with respect to rumination tendencies by means of the LEIDS-r before performing a Stroop task, an event-file task assessing the automatic retrieval of irrelevant information, an attentional set-shifting task, and the Attentional Network Task, which provided scores for alerting, orienting, and executive control functioning. The size of the Stroop effect and irrelevant retrieval in the event-five task were positively correlated with the tendency to ruminate, while all other scores did not correlate with any rumination scale. Controlling for depressive tendencies eliminated the Stroop-related finding (an observation that may account for previous failures to replicate), but not the event-file finding. Taken altogether, our results suggest that rumination does not affect attention, executive control, or response selection in general, but rather selectively impairs the control of stimulus-induced retrieval of irrelevant information.

  3. The brain at the centre of the information universe: lessons from popular neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of ‘scientific’ theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  4. Altered visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant information is associated with falls risk in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Munkacsy, Michelle; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Handy, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Executive cognitive functions play a critical role in falls risk – a pressing health care issue in seniors. In particular, intact attentional processing is integral for safe mobility and navigation. However, the specific contribution of impaired visual-spatial attention in falls remains unclear. In this study, we examined the association between visual-spatial attention to task-irrelevant stimuli and falls risk in community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed a visual target discrimination task at fixation while task-irrelevant probes were presented in both visual fields. We assessed attention to left and right peripheral probes using event-related potentials (ERPs). Falls risk was determined using the valid and reliable Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). We found a significantly positive association between reduced attentional facilitation, as measured by the N1 ERP component, and falls risk. This relationship was specific to probes presented in the left visual field and measured at ipsilateral electrode sites. Our results suggest that fallers exhibit reduced attention to the left side of visual space and provide evidence that impaired right hemispheric function and/or structure may contribute to falls. PMID:24436970

  5. A hybrid human and machine resource curation pipeline for the Neuroscience Information Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrowski, A E; Cachat, J; Li, Y; Müller, H M; Sternberg, P W; Ciccarese, P; Clark, T; Marenco, L; Wang, R; Astakhov, V; Grethe, J S; Martone, M E

    2012-01-01

    The breadth of information resources available to researchers on the Internet continues to expand, particularly in light of recently implemented data-sharing policies required by funding agencies. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of contemporary search engine systems makes efficient, reliable and relevant discovery of such information a significant challenge. This challenge is specifically pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is 'hidden' from search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF; http://www.neuinfo.org) was funded by the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research to address the problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources such as software tools, data sets, experimental animals and antibodies across the Internet. From the outset, NIF sought to provide an accounting of available resources, whereas developing technical solutions to finding, accessing and utilizing them. The curators therefore, are tasked with identifying and registering resources, examining data, writing configuration files to index and display data and keeping the contents current. In the initial phases of the project, all aspects of the registration and curation processes were manual. However, as the number of resources grew, manual curation became impractical. This report describes our experiences and successes with developing automated resource discovery and semiautomated type characterization with text-mining scripts that facilitate curation team efforts to discover, integrate and display new content. We also describe the DISCO framework, a suite of automated web services that significantly reduce manual curation efforts to periodically check for resource updates. Lastly, we discuss DOMEO, a semi-automated annotation tool that improves the discovery and curation of resources that are not necessarily website-based (i.e. reagents, software tools). Although the ultimate goal of automation was to

  6. Leveraging Neuroscience to Inform Adolescent Health: The Need for an Innovative Transdisciplinary Developmental Science of Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Ahna Ballonoff; Dahl, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we consider how to leverage some of the rapid advances in developmental neuroscience in ways that can improve adolescent health. We provide a brief overview of several key areas of scientific progress relevant to these issues. We then focus on two examples of important health problems that increase sharply during adolescence: sleep problems and affective disorders. These examples illustrate how an integrative, developmental science approach provides new insights into treatment and intervention. They also highlight a cornerstone principle: how a deeper understanding of potentially modifiable factors-at key developmental inflection points along the trajectory toward clinical disorders-is beginning to inform, and may eventually transform, a broad range of innovative early intervention strategies to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Value-based choice: An integrative, neuroscience-informed model of health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T

    2018-01-01

    Traditional models of health behaviour focus on the roles of cognitive, personality and social-cognitive constructs (e.g. executive function, grit, self-efficacy), and give less attention to the process by which these constructs interact in the moment that a health-relevant choice is made. Health psychology needs a process-focused account of how various factors are integrated to produce the decisions that determine health behaviour. I present an integrative value-based choice model of health behaviour, which characterises the mechanism by which a variety of factors come together to determine behaviour. This model imports knowledge from research on behavioural economics and neuroscience about how choices are made to the study of health behaviour, and uses that knowledge to generate novel predictions about how to change health behaviour. I describe anomalies in value-based choice that can be exploited for health promotion, and review neuroimaging evidence about the involvement of midline dopamine structures in tracking and integrating value-related information during choice. I highlight how this knowledge can bring insights to health psychology using illustrative case of healthy eating. Value-based choice is a viable model for health behaviour and opens new avenues for mechanism-focused intervention.

  8. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  9. Control processes through the suppression of the automatic response activation triggered by task-irrelevant information in the Simon-type tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanga; Lee, Sang Ho; Cho, Yang Seok

    2015-11-01

    The congruency sequence effect, one of the indices of cognitive control, refers to a smaller congruency effect after an incongruent than congruent trial. Although the effect has been found across a variety of conflict tasks, there is not yet agreement on the underlying mechanism. The present study investigated the mechanism underlying cognitive control by using a cross-task paradigm. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3, participants performed a modified Simon task and a spatial Stroop task alternately in a trial-by-trial manner. The task-irrelevant dimension of the two tasks was perceptually and conceptually identical in Experiment 1, whereas it was perceptually different but conceptually identical in Experiment 2. The response sets for both tasks were different in Experiment 3. In Experiment 4, participants performed two Simon tasks with different task-relevant dimensions. In all experiments in which the task-irrelevant dimension and response mode were shared, significant congruency sequence effects were found between the two different congruencies, indicating that Simon-type conflicts were resolved by a control mechanism, which is specific to an abstract task-irrelevant stimulus spatial dimension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Children's Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience and Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Little of 150 years of research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Human Factors, and the mathematics of Production Management have found their way into educational policy and certainly not into the classroom or in the production of educational materials in any meaningful or practical fashion. Whilst more mundane concepts of timing, sequencing, spatial…

  11. Layers of Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumoulin, Serge O

    2017-01-01

    In a patch of cortex, laminae connect to different parts of the brain. Huber et al. (2017) demonstrate the ability of human neuroimaging to derive laminar information flow between brain regions, paving the way for human neuroscience applications.

  12. Autobiographical Memory and Consumer Information Processing - What can Cognitive Neuroscience tell us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

      Recent findings in cognitive neuroscience have contributed to new knowledge in areas concerned with human behavior especially decision making and choice; within consumer research focus has primarily been directed at judgment and choice of brands and products. Research in consumer behavior has...... demonstrated that consumers use prior experiences when forming judgment and making choices and that emotions are important components in this. However the complete nature of autobiographical memories is not unfolded and further research is called for. The purpose of the present paper is to explore...

  13. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  14. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Extending the NIF DISCO framework to automate complex workflow: coordinating the harvest and integration of data from diverse neuroscience information resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis N; Wang, Rixin; Bandrowski, Anita E; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes how DISCO, the data aggregator that supports the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), has been extended to play a central role in automating the complex workflow required to support and coordinate the NIF's data integration capabilities. The NIF is an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative designed to help researchers access the wealth of data related to the neurosciences available via the Internet. A central component is the NIF Federation, a searchable database that currently contains data from 231 data and information resources regularly harvested, updated, and warehoused in the DISCO system. In the past several years, DISCO has greatly extended its functionality and has evolved to play a central role in automating the complex, ongoing process of harvesting, validating, integrating, and displaying neuroscience data from a growing set of participating resources. This paper provides an overview of DISCO's current capabilities and discusses a number of the challenges and future directions related to the process of coordinating the integration of neuroscience data within the NIF Federation.

  16. Culture in the mind's mirror: how anthropology and neuroscience can inform a model of the neural substrate for cultural imitative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A Reynolds; Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience, the study of how cultural experience shapes the brain, is an emerging subdiscipline in the neurosciences. Yet, a foundational question to the study of culture and the brain remains neglected by neuroscientific inquiry: "How does cultural information get into the brain in the first place?" Fortunately, the tools needed to explore the neural architecture of cultural learning - anthropological theories and cognitive neuroscience methodologies - already exist; they are merely separated by disciplinary boundaries. Here we review anthropological theories of cultural learning derived from fieldwork and modeling; since cultural learning theory suggests that sophisticated imitation abilities are at the core of human cultural learning, we focus our review on cultural imitative learning. Accordingly we proceed to discuss the neural underpinnings of imitation and other mechanisms important for cultural learning: learning biases, mental state attribution, and reinforcement learning. Using cultural neuroscience theory and cognitive neuroscience research as our guides, we then propose a preliminary model of the neural architecture of cultural learning. Finally, we discuss future studies needed to test this model and fully explore and explain the neural underpinnings of cultural imitative learning.

  17. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  18. Saving emissions trading from irrelevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindale, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled climate change is the greatest risk that humanity faces. The main burden will fall on developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. But Europe and its residents will also be damaged in many ways, including extreme weather, heat waves, and the spread of tropical diseases. Climate change is a quintessentially global challenge. If pollution shifts from one part of the world to another - from Europe to China, for example - the global climate is no better off. The main EU climate policy, the Emissions Trading System, now stipulates such a low carbon price that it has become essentially irrelevant. The European Commission should propose a Europe-wide carbon price floor of euro 30 per tonne, high enough to influence investment decisions and encourage energy efficiency and low-carbon energy supply. The Commission should also propose border tax adjustments, with the revenue returned to the country of origin

  19. Task-irrelevant emotion facilitates face discrimination learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzino, Martina; Caudek, Corrado

    2015-03-01

    We understand poorly how the ability to discriminate faces from one another is shaped by visual experience. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether face discrimination learning can be facilitated by facial emotions. To answer this question, we used a task-irrelevant perceptual learning paradigm because it closely mimics the learning processes that, in daily life, occur without a conscious intention to learn and without an attentional focus on specific facial features. We measured face discrimination thresholds before and after training. During the training phase (4 days), participants performed a contrast discrimination task on face images. They were not informed that we introduced (task-irrelevant) subtle variations in the face images from trial to trial. For the Identity group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along a morphing continuum of facial identity. For the Emotion group, the task-irrelevant features were variations along an emotional expression morphing continuum. The Control group did not undergo contrast discrimination learning and only performed the pre-training and post-training tests, with the same temporal gap between them as the other two groups. Results indicate that face discrimination improved, but only for the Emotion group. Participants in the Emotion group, moreover, showed face discrimination improvements also for stimulus variations along the facial identity dimension, even if these (task-irrelevant) stimulus features had not been presented during training. The present results highlight the importance of emotions for face discrimination learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lateralized Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex in Controlling Task-Irrelevant Information during Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Tasks: rTMS Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…

  1. Integrated neuroscience program: an alternative approach to teaching neurosciences to chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaohua; La Rose, James; Zhang, Niu

    2009-01-01

    Most chiropractic colleges do not offer independent neuroscience courses because of an already crowded curriculum. The Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida has developed and implemented an integrated neuroscience program that incorporates neurosciences into different courses. The goals of the program have been to bring neurosciences to students, excite students about the interrelationship of neuroscience and chiropractic, improve students' understanding of neuroscience, and help the students understand the mechanisms underpinning the chiropractic practice. This study provides a descriptive analysis on how the integrated neuroscience program is taught via students' attitudes toward neuroscience and the comparison of students' perceptions of neuroscience content knowledge at different points in the program. A questionnaire consisting of 58 questions regarding the neuroscience courses was conducted among 339 students. The questionnaire was developed by faculty members who were involved in teaching neuroscience and administered in the classroom by faculty members who were not involved in the study. Student perceptions of their neuroscience knowledge, self-confidence, learning strategies, and knowledge application increased considerably through the quarters, especially among the 2nd-year students. The integrated neuroscience program achieved several of its goals, including an increase in students' confidence, positive attitude, ability to learn, and perception of neuroscience content knowledge. The authors believe that such gains can expand student ability to interpret clinical cases and inspire students to become excited about chiropractic research. The survey provides valuable information for teaching faculty to make the course content more relevant to chiropractic students.

  2. Beyond Bayes: On the Need for a Unified and Jaynesian Definition of Probability and Information within Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Fiorillo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the general function of the brain is inference, which corresponds quantitatively to the minimization of uncertainty (or the maximization of information. However, there has been a lack of clarity about exactly what this means. Efforts to quantify information have been in agreement that it depends on probabilities (through Shannon entropy, but there has long been a dispute about the definition of probabilities themselves. The “frequentist” view is that probabilities are (or can be essentially equivalent to frequencies, and that they are therefore properties of a physical system, independent of any observer of the system. E.T. Jaynes developed the alternate “Bayesian” definition, in which probabilities are always conditional on a state of knowledge through the rules of logic, as expressed in the maximum entropy principle. In doing so, Jaynes and others provided the objective means for deriving probabilities, as well as a unified account of information and logic (knowledge and reason. However, neuroscience literature virtually never specifies any definition of probability, nor does it acknowledge any dispute concerning the definition. Although there has recently been tremendous interest in Bayesian approaches to the brain, even in the Bayesian literature it is common to find probabilities that are purported to come directly and unconditionally from frequencies. As a result, scientists have mistakenly attributed their own information to the neural systems they study. Here I argue that the adoption of a strictly Jaynesian approach will prevent such errors and will provide us with the philosophical and mathematical framework that is needed to understand the general function of the brain. Accordingly, our challenge becomes the identification of the biophysical basis of Jaynesian information and logic. I begin to address this issue by suggesting how we might identify a probability distribution over states of one physical

  3. Mindfulness and Coping Are Inversely Related to Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients and Informal Caregivers in the Neuroscience ICU: Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-11-01

    To assess the correlation of psychosocial resiliency factors (mindfulness and coping) with symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression in patients recently admitted to the neuroscience ICU and their primary informal caregivers. A descriptive, cross-sectional correlational study. Neuroscience ICU in a major medical center. A total of 78 dyads of patients (total n = 81) and their primary caregivers (total n = 92) from June to December 2015. Study enrollment occurred within the first 2 weeks of patient admission to the neuroscience ICU. None. Dyads completed self-report measures of mindfulness (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised), coping (Measure of Coping Status-A), posttraumatic stress (Posttraumatic Checklist-Specific Stressor), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A), and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D). Rates of clinically significant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were high and comparable between patient and caregiver samples. Own psychological resilience factors and psychiatric symptoms were strongly correlated for both patients and caregivers. Depressive symptoms were interdependent between patients and their caregivers, and one's own mindfulness was independently related to one's partner's depressive symptoms. Rates of clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were high, equally prevalent in patients and caregivers, and interdependent between patients and their caregivers. For both patients and caregivers, psychological resiliency factors were associated with both self and partner psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest that attending to the psychiatric health of both patients and caregivers in the neuroscience ICU is a priority and that patients and their caregivers must be considered together in a system to fully address either individual's psychiatric symptoms.

  4. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  5. Weight and see: Loading working memory improves incidental identification of irrelevant faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eCarmel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Are task-irrelevant stimuli processed to a level enabling individual identification? This question is central both for perceptual processing models and for applied settings (e.g., eyewitness testimony. Lavie’s load theory proposes that working memory actively maintains attentional prioritization of relevant over irrelevant information. Loading working memory thus impairs attentional prioritization, leading to increased processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. Previous research has shown that increased working memory load leads to greater interference effects from response competing distractors. Here we test the novel prediction that increased processing of irrelevant stimuli under high working memory load should lead to a greater likelihood of incidental identification of entirely irrelevant stimuli. To test this, we asked participants to perform a word-categorization task while ignoring task-irrelevant images. The categorization task was performed during the retention interval of a working memory task with either low or high load (defined by memory set size. Following the final experimental trial, a surprise question assessed incidental identification of the irrelevant image. Loading working memory was found to improve identification of task-irrelevant faces, but not of building stimuli (shown in a separate experiment to be less distracting. These findings suggest that working memory plays a critical role in determining whether distracting stimuli will be subsequently identified.

  6. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  7. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need.

  8. Behaviorism and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard F.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of behaviorism's methods and theories on theory and research in the neurosciences is examined, partly in light of John B. Watson's 1913 essay. An attempt is made to reconcile classical behaviorism and modern cognitive psychology and neuroscience. (SLD)

  9. Neuroscience in the public sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-04-26

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neuroscience in the Public Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Cliodhna; Rees, Geraint; Joffe, Helene

    2012-01-01

    The media are increasingly fascinated by neuroscience. Here, we consider how neuroscientific discoveries are thematically represented in the popular press and the implications this has for society. In communicating research, neuroscientists should be sensitive to the social consequences neuroscientific information may have once it enters the public sphere.

  11. The practical and principled problems with educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2016-10-01

    The core claim of educational neuroscience is that neuroscience can improve teaching in the classroom. Many strong claims are made about the successes and the promise of this new discipline. By contrast, I show that there are no current examples of neuroscience motivating new and effective teaching methods, and argue that neuroscience is unlikely to improve teaching in the future. The reasons are twofold. First, in practice, it is easier to characterize the cognitive capacities of children on the basis of behavioral measures than on the basis of brain measures. As a consequence, neuroscience rarely offers insights into instruction above and beyond psychology. Second, in principle, the theoretical motivations underpinning educational neuroscience are misguided, and this makes it difficult to design or assess new teaching methods on the basis of neuroscience. Regarding the design of instruction, it is widely assumed that remedial instruction should target the underlying deficits associated with learning disorders, and neuroscience is used to characterize the deficit. However, the most effective forms of instruction may often rely on developing compensatory (nonimpaired) skills. Neuroscience cannot determine whether instruction should target impaired or nonimpaired skills. More importantly, regarding the assessment of instruction, the only relevant issue is whether the child learns, as reflected in behavior. Evidence that the brain changed in response to instruction is irrelevant. At the same time, an important goal for neuroscience is to characterize how the brain changes in response to learning, and this includes learning in the classroom. Neuroscientists cannot help educators, but educators can help neuroscientists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Ethical issues in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas

    2006-11-01

    The study gives an overview of ethical questions raised by the progress of neuroscience in identifying and intervening in neural correlates of the mind. Ethical problems resulting from brain research have induced the emergence of a new discipline termed neuroethics. Critical questions concern issues, such as prediction of disease, psychopharmacological enhancement of attention, memory or mood, and technologies such as psychosurgery, deep-brain stimulation or brain implants. Such techniques are capable of affecting the individual's sense of privacy, autonomy and identity. Moreover, reductionist interpretations of neuroscientific results challenge notions of free will, responsibility, personhood and the self which are essential for western culture and society. They may also gradually change psychiatric concepts of mental health and illness. These tendencies call for thorough, philosophically informed analyses of research findings and critical evaluation of their underlying conceptions of humans. Advances in neuroscience raise ethical, social and legal issues in relation to the human person and the brain. Potential benefits of applying neuroimaging, psychopharmacology and neurotechnology to mentally ill and healthy persons have to be carefully weighed against their potential harm. Questions concerning underlying concepts of humans should be actively dealt with by interdisciplinary and public debate.

  13. Irrelevant speech does not interfere with serial recall in early blind listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Phonological working memory is known be (a) inversely related to the duration of the items to be learned (word-length effect), and (b) impaired by the presence of irrelevant speech-like sounds (irrelevant-speech effect). As it is discussed controversially whether these memory disruptions are subject to attentional control, both effects were studied in sighted participants and in a sample of early blind individuals who are expected to be superior in selectively attending to auditory stimuli. Results show that, while performance depended on word length in both groups, irrelevant speech interfered with recall only in the sighted group, but not in blind participants. This suggests that blind listeners may be able to effectively prevent irrelevant sound from being encoded in the phonological store, presumably due to superior auditory processing. The occurrence of a word-length effect, however, implies that blind and sighted listeners are utilizing the same phonological rehearsal mechanism in order to maintain information in the phonological store.

  14. On the irrelevance of the leverage effect

    OpenAIRE

    Nippel, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Financial leverage increases the expected return on equity. We show that this leverage effect is not only irrelevant for shareholders' present wealth but also for the return on their investments. This result is straightforward if we do not only look at the return on equity but at the return on shareholders' total wealth. Any relevance leverage may have is definitely due to market imperfections. These may simply cause differences in market access for firms and individuals or lead to agency pro...

  15. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  16. Cognitive conflict increases processing of negative, task-irrelevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, Tomasz S; Wyczesany, Miroslaw

    2017-10-01

    The detection of cognitive conflict is thought to trigger adjustments in executive control. It has been recently shown that cognitive conflict increases processing of stimuli that are relevant to the ongoing task and that these modulations are exerted by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). However, it is still unclear whether such control influences are unspecific and might also affect the processing of task-irrelevant stimuli. The aim of the study was to examine if cognitive conflict affects processing of neutral and negative, task-irrelevant pictures. Participants responded to congruent (non-conflict) or to incongruent (conflict-eliciting) trials of a modified flanker task. Each response was followed by a presentation of a neutral or negative picture. The late positive potential (LPP) in response to picture presentation was used to assess the level of picture processing after conflict vs non-conflict trials. Connectivity between the DLPFC and attentional and perceptual areas during picture presentation was analysed to check if the DLPFC might be a source of these modulations. ERP results showed an effect of cognitive conflict only on processing of negative pictures: LPP in response to negative pictures was increased after conflict trials, whereas LPP in response to neutral pictures remained unchanged. Cortical connectivity analysis showed that conflict trials intensified information flow from the DLPFC towards attentional and perceptual regions. Results suggest that cognitive conflict increases processing of task-irrelevant stimuli; however, they must display high biological salience. Increase in cognitive control exerted by the DLPFC over attentional and perceptual regions is a probable mechanism of the effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  18. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.

    2006-10-01

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  19. Attitudes toward neuroscience education among psychiatry residents and fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the attitudes of psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in psychiatry residency and subsequent training in order to inform neuroscience education approaches in the future. This online survey was designed to capture demographic information, self-assessed neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interest in specific neuroscience topics. Volunteers were identified through the American Psychiatric Association, which invited 2,563 psychiatry trainees among their members. Four hundred thirty-six trainees completed the survey. Nearly all agreed that there is a need for more neuroscience education in psychiatry residency training (94%) and that neuroscience education could help destigmatize mental illness (91%). Nearly all (94%) expressed interest in attending a 3-day course on neuroscience. Many neuroscience topics and modes of learning were viewed favorably by participants. Residents in their first 2 years of training expressed attitudes similar to those of more advanced residents and fellows. Some differences were found based on the level of interest in a future academic role. This web-based study demonstrates that psychiatry residents see neuroscience education as important in their training and worthy of greater attention. Our results suggest potential opportunities for advancing neuroscience education.

  20. Psychosocial resiliency is associated with lower emotional distress among dyads of patients and their informal caregivers in the neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Riklin, Eric; Jacobs, Jamie M; Rosand, Jonathan; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of patients' and their informal caregivers' psychosocial resiliency factors with their own and their partners' emotion domains (distress, anxiety, depression, and anger) after admission to the neuroscience intensive care unit (Neuro-ICU). Eighty-three dyads of patients (total n = 87) and their informal caregivers (total n = 99) participated in this observational, cross-sectional study by self-reporting demographics and measures of resiliency factors (mindfulness [Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale Revised], coping [Measure of Coping Status-A], intimate bond [Intimate Bond Measure], self-efficacy [patients: General Self-Efficacy Scale; caregivers: Revised Caregiver Self-Efficacy Scale]) and emotion domains (Emotion Thermometers) within 2 weeks of Neuro-ICU admission. There were no differences between patients' and caregivers' levels of psychosocial resiliency, distress, or anxiety. Patients reported greater depression and anger relative to their caregivers. Overall, roughly half of patients (50.6%) and caregivers (42.4%) reported clinically significant emotional distress. Patients' and caregivers' own psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with their own, but not their partner's, emotion domains. Findings of high distress among both patients and caregivers at admission emphasize the importance of attending to the mental health of both patients and caregivers in the Neuro-ICU. As modifiable psychosocial resiliency factors were associated with emotion domains for both patients and caregivers, interventions to enhance these factors may ameliorate emotional distress among these vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  2. On the Cramér–Rao bound applicability and the role of Fisher information in computational neuroscience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilarski, Stevan; Pokora, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 136, Oct 2015 (2015), s. 11-22 ISSN 0303-2647 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Fisher information * neuronal coding * Cramér–Rao admissibility Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2015

  3. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  4. Emotional prosody of task-irrelevant speech interferes with the retention of serial order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2018-04-09

    Task-irrelevant speech and other temporally changing sounds are known to interfere with the short-term memorization of ordered verbal materials, as compared to silence or stationary sounds. It has been argued that this disruption of short-term memory (STM) may be due to (a) interference of automatically encoded acoustical fluctuations with the process of serial rehearsal or (b) attentional capture by salient task-irrelevant information. To disentangle the contributions of these 2 processes, the authors investigated whether the disruption of serial recall is due to the semantic or acoustical properties of task-irrelevant speech (Experiment 1). They found that performance was affected by the prosody (emotional intonation), but not by the semantics (word meaning), of irrelevant speech, suggesting that the disruption of serial recall is due to interference of precategorically encoded changing-state sound (with higher fluctuation strength of emotionally intonated speech). The authors further demonstrated a functional distinction between this form of distraction and attentional capture by contrasting the effect of (a) speech prosody and (b) sudden prosody deviations on both serial and nonserial STM tasks (Experiment 2). Although serial recall was again sensitive to the emotional prosody of irrelevant speech, performance on a nonserial missing-item task was unaffected by the presence of neutral or emotionally intonated speech sounds. In contrast, sudden prosody changes tended to impair performance on both tasks, suggesting an independent effect of attentional capture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Behavioral neuroscience and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Sandra; DiChristina, Mariette; Raeburn, Paul; Lambert, Kelly

    2012-12-05

    To provide assurance that accurate summaries of behavioral neuroscience findings are presented in mainstream news sources, it is important for scientists to cooperate with science journalists and, on occasion, write informative articles for lay audiences or contribute scientific knowledge in other relevant venues. Accordingly, three influential science journalists were invited to a special Presidential Symposium at the 2011 IBNS annual meeting to discuss (1) the importance of public dissemination of scientific knowledge, (2) insightful recommendations for effective science writing for mainstream audiences and (3) the potential impact of science blogs on the communication of science information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rational Choice and the Relevance of Irrelevant Alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, C.; Traub, S.

    1996-01-01

    This experimental study investigates the inuence of irrelevant or phantom al- ternatives on subjects' choices in sequential decision making. Using experimental data from 45 subjects, we found that irrelevant alternatives bear significant rele- vance for decision making. We observe that only 38% of

  7. Oculomotor guidance and capture by irrelevant faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Devue

    Full Text Available Even though it is generally agreed that face stimuli constitute a special class of stimuli, which are treated preferentially by our visual system, it remains unclear whether faces can capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. Moreover, there is a long-standing debate regarding the mechanism underlying the preferential bias of selecting faces. Some claim that faces constitute a set of special low-level features to which our visual system is tuned; others claim that the visual system is capable of extracting the meaning of faces very rapidly, driving attentional selection. Those debates continue because many studies contain methodological peculiarities and manipulations that prevent a definitive conclusion. Here, we present a new visual search task in which observers had to make a saccade to a uniquely colored circle while completely irrelevant objects were also present in the visual field. The results indicate that faces capture and guide the eyes more than other animated objects and that our visual system is not only tuned to the low-level features that make up a face but also to its meaning.

  8. Vulnerability to the Irrelevant Sound Effect in Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Marie-France; Hodgetts, Helen M; Lafleur, Martin F; Vincent, Annick; Tremblay, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    An ecologically valid adaptation of the irrelevant sound effect paradigm was employed to examine the relative roles of short-term memory, selective attention, and sustained attention in ADHD. In all, 32 adults with ADHD and 32 control participants completed a serial recall task in silence or while ignoring irrelevant background sound. Serial recall performance in adults with ADHD was reduced relative to controls in both conditions. The degree of interference due to irrelevant sound was greater for adults with ADHD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between task performance under conditions of irrelevant sound and the extent of attentional problems reported by patients on a clinical symptom scale. The results demonstrate that adults with ADHD exhibit impaired short-term memory and a low resistance to distraction; however, their capacity for sustained attention is preserved as the impact of irrelevant sound diminished over the course of the task. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Neuroscience is Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    The title is telling: I will argue first that ‘traditional’ cognitive neuroscience is conceptually flawed and secondly – as an open question – inquire whether theories of brain plasticity are scientifically more sound and more apt to enter into collaboration with the social sciences. The ascripti......The title is telling: I will argue first that ‘traditional’ cognitive neuroscience is conceptually flawed and secondly – as an open question – inquire whether theories of brain plasticity are scientifically more sound and more apt to enter into collaboration with the social sciences...

  10. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  11. Similarities between the irrelevant sound effect and the suffix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard; Bourgaize, Jake

    2018-03-29

    Although articulatory suppression abolishes the effect of irrelevant sound (ISE) on serial recall when sequences are presented visually, the effect persists with auditory presentation of list items. Two experiments were designed to test the claim that, when articulation is suppressed, the effect of irrelevant sound on the retention of auditory lists resembles a suffix effect. A suffix is a spoken word that immediately follows the final item in a list. Even though participants are told to ignore it, the suffix impairs serial recall of auditory lists. In Experiment 1, the irrelevant sound consisted of instrumental music. The music generated a significant ISE that was abolished by articulatory suppression. It therefore appears that, when articulation is suppressed, irrelevant sound must contain speech for it to have any effect on recall. This is consistent with what is known about the suffix effect. In Experiment 2, the effect of irrelevant sound under articulatory suppression was greater when the irrelevant sound was spoken by the same voice that presented the list items. This outcome is again consistent with the known characteristics of the suffix effect. It therefore appears that, when rehearsal is suppressed, irrelevant sound disrupts the acoustic-perceptual encoding of auditorily presented list items. There is no evidence that the persistence of the ISE under suppression is a result of interference to the representation of list items in a postcategorical phonological store.

  12. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  13. From Cognitive to Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several theoretical discussions as to the relationship between neuroscience and education have been held. Researchers have started to have cooperation over neuroscience and the interdisciplinary researches in which education is included. It was found that there were interactions between cognitive neuroscience and educational…

  14. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  15. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  16. The Neuroscience of Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Andrew T.; Limb, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Current research in the neuroscience of musical creativity reveals promising implications for the value of learning to improvise. This article outlines the neuroscientific literature on musical improvisation and relates these findings to the benefits of musical creativity. We begin by describing the neural substrates of flow with respect to the…

  17. [Social neuroscience and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2013-01-01

    The topics of emotion, decision-making, and consciousness have been traditionally dealt with in the humanities and social sciences. With the dissemination of noninvasive human neuroimaging techniques such as fMRI and the advancement of cognitive science, neuroimaging studies focusing on emotions, social cognition, and decision-making have become established. I overviewed the history of social neurosciences. The emerging field of social brain research or social neuroscience will greatly contribute to clinical psychiatry. In the first part. I introduced our early fMRI studies on social emotions such as guilt, embarrassment, pride, and envy. Dysfunction of social emotions can be observed in various forms of psychiatric disorder, and the findings should contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric conditions. In the second part, I introduced our recent interdisciplinary neuroscience approach combining molecular neuroimaging techniques(positron emission tomography: PET), cognitive sciences, and economics to understand the neural as well as molecular basis of altered decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders. An interdisciplinary approach combing molecular imaging techniques and cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychiatry will provide new perspectives for understanding the neurobiology of impaired decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders and drug development.

  18. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  19. Visual thinking and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U M

    2008-01-01

    After a consideration of visual thinking in science the role of such thinking in neuroscience is discussed. Three instances are examined - cortical column, retina, impulse - and it is argued that visual thinking is employed, though in different ways, in each. It lies at the core of neurobiological thought.

  20. Neuroanatomy and Global Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelipe, Javier

    2017-07-05

    Our brains are like a dense forest-a complex, seemingly impenetrable terrain of interacting cells mediating cognition and behavior. However, we should view the challenge of understanding the brain with optimism, provided that we choose appropriate strategies for the development of global neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Open-plan office noise: The susceptibility and suitability of different cognitive tasks for work in the presence of irrelevant speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Jahncke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test which tasks are suitable for work in open-plan offices according to how susceptible they are to disruption produced by the mere presence of irrelevant speech. The tasks were chosen to tap fundamental capacities of office work involving: search for relevant information, remembering material, counting, and generation of words. The hypothesis was that tasks requiring semantic processing should be impaired by irrelevant speech. To determine the magnitude of performance decrease, two sound conditions (quiet, irrelevant speech were compared. The results showed that tasks based on episodic short-term-memory and rehearsal of the presented material were more sensitive to disruption by irrelevant speech than tasks which did not require rehearsal or were based on long-term memory retrieval. The present study points to the inappropriateness of tasks, such as information search and remembering of material, for work environments within which irrelevant speech is ubiquitous.

  2. Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-12-01

    The question of whether a stimulus onset may capture attention when it is entirely irrelevant to the task and even in the absence of any attentional settings for abrupt onset or any dynamic changes has been highly controversial. In the present study, we designed a novel irrelevant capture task to address this question. Participants engaged in a continuous task making sequential forced choice (letter or digit) responses to each item in an alphanumeric matrix that remained on screen throughout many responses. This task therefore involved no attentional settings for onset or indeed any dynamic changes, yet the brief onset of an entirely irrelevant distractor (a cartoon picture) resulted in significant slowing of the two (Experiment 1) or three (Experiment 2) responses immediately following distractor appearance These findings provide a clear demonstration of attention being captured and captivated by a distractor that is entirely irrelevant to any attentional settings of the task.

  3. Neuroscience and education: myths and messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    For several decades, myths about the brain - neuromyths - have persisted in schools and colleges, often being used to justify ineffective approaches to teaching. Many of these myths are biased distortions of scientific fact. Cultural conditions, such as differences in terminology and language, have contributed to a 'gap' between neuroscience and education that has shielded these distortions from scrutiny. In recent years, scientific communications across this gap have increased, although the messages are often distorted by the same conditions and biases as those responsible for neuromyths. In the future, the establishment of a new field of inquiry that is dedicated to bridging neuroscience and education may help to inform and to improve these communications.

  4. Entirely irrelevant distractors can capture and captivate attention

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Sophie; Lavie, Nilli

    2011-01-01

    The question of whether a stimulus onset may capture attention when it is entirely irrelevant to the task and even in the absence of any attentional settings for abrupt onset or any dynamic changes has been highly controversial. In the present study, we designed a novel irrelevant capture task to address this question. Participants engaged in a continuous task making sequential forced choice (letter or digit) responses to each item in an alphanumeric matrix that remained on screen throughout ...

  5. Three requirements for justifying an educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G

    2012-03-01

    Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to generate both empirical research and theoretical syntheses of noteworthy promise. Nonetheless, thoughtful and critical scholars in education have expressed concern about both the intellectual coherence and ethical dangers of this new area. It is still an open question whether educational neuroscience is for some time yet to remain only a formative study area for adventurous scholars or is already a fully fledged field of educational scholarship. In this paper, I suggest that to be a worthy field of educational research, educational neuroscience will need to address three issues: intellectual coherence, mutually informing and respected scholarly expertise, and an ethical commitment to the moral implications and obligations shared within educational research generally. I shall set forth some examples of lapses in this regard, focusing primarily on work on reading development, as that is my area of expertise, and make recommendations for due diligence. Arguments. First, intellectual coherence requires both precision in definition of technical terms (so that diverse scholars and professionals may communicate findings and insights consistently across fields), and precision in the logical warrants by which educational implications are drawn from empirical data from the neurosciences. Both needs are facilitated by careful attention to categorical boundary and avoidance of category error. Second, educational neuroscientists require focused and broad expertise in both the neurosciences and educational scholarship on teaching and learning in classrooms (and/or ancillary fields). If history is our guide, neuroscience implications for practice will

  6. Neuroscience and Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Matthew

    2017-03-01

    A number of people believe that results from neuroscience have the potential to settle seemingly intractable debates concerning the nature, practice, and reliability of moral judgments. In particular, Joshua Greene has argued that evidence from neuroscience can be used to advance the long-standing debate between consequentialism and deontology. This paper first argues that charitably interpreted, Greene's neuroscientific evidence can contribute to substantive ethical discussions by being part of an epistemic debunking argument. It then argues that taken as an epistemic debunking argument, Greene's argument falls short in undermining deontological judgments. Lastly, it proposes that accepting Greene's methodology at face value, neuroimaging results may in fact call into question the reliability of consequentialist judgments. The upshot is that Greene's empirical results do not undermine deontology and that Greene's project points toward a way by which empirical evidence such as neuroscientific evidence can play a role in normative debates.

  7. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras , Harold

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  8. Some revolutions in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Charles

    2013-01-01

    In the long history of the study of the nervous system, there have been a number of major developments that involved radical and permanent changes in fundamental beliefs and assumptions about the nervous system and in tactics and strategies for studying it. These may be termed Revolutions in Neuroscience. This essay considers eight of these, ranging from the 6th century BCE to the end of the 20th century.

  9. Emotion and false memory: How goal-irrelevance can be relevant for what people remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Ilse; Kaplan, Robin L; Levine, Linda J; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2017-02-01

    Elaborating on misleading information concerning emotional events can lead people to form false memories. The present experiment compared participants' susceptibility to false memories when they elaborated on information associated with positive versus negative emotion and pregoal versus postgoal emotion. Pregoal emotion reflects appraisals that goal attainment or failure is anticipated but has not yet occurred (e.g., hope and fear). Postgoal emotion reflects appraisals that goal attainment or failure has already occurred (e.g., happiness and devastation). Participants watched a slideshow depicting an interaction between a couple and were asked to empathise with the protagonist's feelings of hope (positive pregoal), happiness (positive postgoal), fear (negative pregoal), or devastation (negative postgoal); in control conditions, no emotion was mentioned. Participants were then asked to reflect on details of the interaction that had occurred (true) or had not occurred (false), and that were relevant or irrelevant to the protagonist's goal. Irrespective of emotional valence, participants in the pregoal conditions were more susceptible to false memories concerning goal-irrelevant details than were participants in the other conditions. These findings support the view that pregoal emotions narrow attention to information relevant to goal pursuit, increasing susceptibility to false memories for irrelevant information.

  10. Feasibility of PRIME: A Cognitive Neuroscience-Informed Mobile App Intervention to Enhance Motivated Behavior and Improve Quality of Life in Recent Onset Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Danielle; Campellone, Timothy; Kim, Daniel; Truong, Brandy; Vergani, Silvia; Ward, Charlie; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-04-28

    psychosocial domains, (3) social networking via direct peer-to-peer messaging, and (4) community "moments feed" to capture and reinforce rewarding experiences and goal achievements. Users preferred an experience that highlighted several of the principles of self-determination theory, including the desire for more control of their future (autonomy and competence) and an approach that helps them improve existing relationships (relatedness). IDEO, also recommended an approach that was casual, friendly, and nonstigmatizing, which is in line with the recovery model of psychosis. After 12-weeks of using PRIME, participants used the app, on average, every other day, were actively engaged with its various features each time they logged in and retention and satisfaction was high (20/20, 100% retention, high satisfaction ratings). The iterative design process lead to a 2- to 3-fold increase in engagement from Stage 1 to Stage 2 in almost each aspect of the platform. These results indicate that the neuroscience-informed mobile app, PRIME, is a feasible and acceptable intervention for young people with schizophrenia.

  11. Computational neuroscience a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2013-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience - A First Course provides an essential introduction to computational neuroscience and  equips readers with a fundamental understanding of modeling the nervous system at the membrane, cellular, and network level. The book, which grew out of a lecture series held regularly for more than ten years to graduate students in neuroscience with backgrounds in biology, psychology and medicine, takes its readers on a journey through three fundamental domains of computational neuroscience: membrane biophysics, systems theory and artificial neural networks. The required mathematical concepts are kept as intuitive and simple as possible throughout the book, making it fully accessible to readers who are less familiar with mathematics. Overall, Computational Neuroscience - A First Course represents an essential reference guide for all neuroscientists who use computational methods in their daily work, as well as for any theoretical scientist approaching the field of computational neuroscience.

  12. Intact memory for irrelevant information impairs perception in amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barense, M.D.; Groen, I.I.A.; Lee, A.C.H.; Yeung, L.K.; Brady, S.M.; Gregory, M.; Kapur, N.; Bussey, T.J.; Saksida, L.M.; Henson, R.N.A.

    2012-01-01

    Memory and perception have long been considered separate cognitive processes, and amnesia resulting from medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage is thought to reflect damage to a dedicated memory system. Recent work has questioned these views, suggesting that amnesia can result from impoverished

  13. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  14. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects.

  15. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  16. Numeracy moderates the influence of task-irrelevant affect on probability weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traczyk, Jakub; Fulawka, Kamil

    2016-06-01

    Statistical numeracy, defined as the ability to understand and process statistical and probability information, plays a significant role in superior decision making. However, recent research has demonstrated that statistical numeracy goes beyond simple comprehension of numbers and mathematical operations. On the contrary to previous studies that were focused on emotions integral to risky prospects, we hypothesized that highly numerate individuals would exhibit more linear probability weighting because they would be less biased by incidental and decision-irrelevant affect. Participants were instructed to make a series of insurance decisions preceded by negative (i.e., fear-inducing) or neutral stimuli. We found that incidental negative affect increased the curvature of the probability weighting function (PWF). Interestingly, this effect was significant only for less numerate individuals, while probability weighting in more numerate people was not altered by decision-irrelevant affect. We propose two candidate mechanisms for the observed effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  18. Iranians' contribution to world literature on neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Farzad; Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Shokraneh, Farhad; Valinejadi, Ali; Johari, Karim; Saemi, Nazanin; Zali, Alireza; Mohaghegh, Niloofar; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse Iranian scientific publications in the neuroscience subfields by librarians and neuroscientists, using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) via Web of Science data over the period, 2002-2008. Data were retrieved from the SCIE. Data were collected from the 'subject area' of the database and classified by neuroscience experts into 14 subfields. To identify the citation patterns, we applied the 'impact factor' and the 'number of publication'. Data were also analysed using HISTCITE, Excel 2007 and SPSS. Seven hundred and thirty-four papers have been published by Iranian between 2002 and 2008. Findings showed a growing trend of neuroscience papers in the last 3 years with most papers (264) classified in the neuropharmacology subfield. There were fewer papers in neurohistory, psychopharmacology and artificial intelligence. International contributions of authors were mostly in the neurology subfield, and 'Collaboration Coefficient' for the neuroscience subfields in Iran was 0.686 which is acceptable. Most international collaboration between Iranians and developed countries was from USA. Eighty-seven percent of the published papers were in journals with the impact factor between 0 and 4; 25% of papers were published by the researchers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Progress of neuroscience in Iran is mostly seen in the neuropharmacology and the neurology subfields. Other subfields should also be considered as a research priority by health policymakers. As this study was carried out by the collaboration of librarians and neuroscientists, it has been proved valuable for both librarians and policymakers. This study may be encouraging for librarians from other developing countries. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  19. Irrelevant Auditory and Visual Events Induce a Visual Attentional Blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Theeuwes, Jan; Olivers, Christian N. L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether a task-irrelevant distractor can induce a visual attentional blink pattern. Participants were asked to detect only a visual target letter (A, B, or C) and to ignore the preceding auditory, visual, or audiovisual distractor. An attentional blink was

  20. Independence of irrelevant alternatives and revealed group preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Peters, H.J.M.; Ichiishi, A.N.; Neyman, A.; Tauman, Y.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that a Pareto optimal and continuous single-valued choice function defined on the compact convex subsets of the positive orthant of the plane maximizes a real-valued function if and only if it satisfies the independence of irrelevant alternatives condition. Further, this real-valued

  1. Attentional control during visual search: The effect of irrelevant singletons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Burger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether a highly salient color singleton can be ignored during serial search. Observers searched for a target letter among nontarget letters and were instructed to ignore an irrelevant, highly salient color singleton that was either compatible or incompatible with the

  2. Distinct Temporal Processing of Task-Irrelevant Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Koster, Ernst H. W.; Wessel, Ineke; Martens, Sander

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which emotional faces automatically attract attention. Using a single-target Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) methodology, it has been found that presentation of task-irrelevant positive or negative emotionally salient stimuli (e. g.,

  3. Attentional capture by irrelevant transients leads to perceptual errors in a competitive change detection task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSchneider

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories on visual change detection imply that attention is a necessary but not sufficient prerequisite for aware perception. Misguidance of attention due to salient irrelevant distractors can therefore lead to severe deficits in change detection. The present study investigates the mechanisms behind such perceptual errors and their relation to error processing on higher cognitive levels. Participants had to detect a luminance change that occasionally occurred simultaneously with an irrelevant orientation change in the opposite hemi-field (conflict condition. By analyzing event-related potentials in the EEG separately in those error prone conflict trials for correct and erroneous change detection, we demonstrate that only correct change detection was associated with the allocation of attention to the relevant luminance change. Erroneous change detection was associated with an initial capture of attention towards the irrelevant orientation change in the N1 time window and a lack of subsequent target selection processes (N2pc. Errors were additionally accompanied by an increase of the fronto-central N2 and a kind of error negativity (Ne or ERN, which, however, peaked prior to the response. These results suggest that a strong perceptual conflict by salient distractors can disrupt the further processing of relevant information and thus affect its aware perception. Yet, it does not impair higher cognitive processes for conflict and error detection, indicating that these processes are independent from awareness.

  4. Increased Early Processing of Task-Irrelevant Auditory Stimuli in Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich S Tusch

    Full Text Available The inhibitory deficit hypothesis of cognitive aging posits that older adults' inability to adequately suppress processing of irrelevant information is a major source of cognitive decline. Prior research has demonstrated that in response to task-irrelevant auditory stimuli there is an age-associated increase in the amplitude of the N1 wave, an ERP marker of early perceptual processing. Here, we tested predictions derived from the inhibitory deficit hypothesis that the age-related increase in N1 would be 1 observed under an auditory-ignore, but not auditory-attend condition, 2 attenuated in individuals with high executive capacity (EC, and 3 augmented by increasing cognitive load of the primary visual task. ERPs were measured in 114 well-matched young, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old adults, designated as having high or average EC based on neuropsychological testing. Under the auditory-ignore (visual-attend task, participants ignored auditory stimuli and responded to rare target letters under low and high load. Under the auditory-attend task, participants ignored visual stimuli and responded to rare target tones. Results confirmed an age-associated increase in N1 amplitude to auditory stimuli under the auditory-ignore but not auditory-attend task. Contrary to predictions, EC did not modulate the N1 response. The load effect was the opposite of expectation: the N1 to task-irrelevant auditory events was smaller under high load. Finally, older adults did not simply fail to suppress the N1 to auditory stimuli in the task-irrelevant modality; they generated a larger response than to identical stimuli in the task-relevant modality. In summary, several of the study's findings do not fit the inhibitory-deficit hypothesis of cognitive aging, which may need to be refined or supplemented by alternative accounts.

  5. Wavelets in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Hramov, Alexander E; Makarov, Valeri A; Pavlov, Alexey N; Sitnikova, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and applied aspects of wavelet analysis in neurophysics, describing in detail different practical applications of the wavelet theory in the areas of neurodynamics and neurophysiology and providing a review of fundamental work that has been carried out in these fields over the last decade. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce and review the relevant foundations of neurophysics and wavelet theory, respectively, pointing on one hand to the various current challenges in neuroscience and introducing on the other the mathematical techniques of the wavelet transform in its two variants (discrete and continuous) as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating the relevant neuronal dynamics. Chapter 3 then analyzes results from examining individual neuron dynamics and intracellular processes. The principles for recognizing neuronal spikes from extracellular recordings and the advantages of using wavelets to address these issues are described and combined with approaches based on wavelet neural ...

  6. Neuroscience, brains, and computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorno Maria Innocenti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of the neurosciences in establishing what the brain is and how states of the brain relate to states of the mind. The brain is viewed as a computational deviceperforming operations on symbols. However, the brain is a special purpose computational devicedesigned by evolution and development for survival and reproduction, in close interaction with theenvironment. The hardware of the brain (its structure is very different from that of man-made computers.The computational style of the brain is also very different from traditional computers: the computationalalgorithms, instead of being sets of external instructions, are embedded in brain structure. Concerningthe relationships between brain and mind a number of questions lie ahead. One of them is why andhow, only the human brain grasped the notion of God, probably only at the evolutionary stage attainedby Homo sapiens.

  7. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  8. Neuroscience research on aging and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  10. Original article Temperamental variation in learned irrelevance in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gruszka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Learned irrelevance (LIRR represents one of the mechanisms of attentional set-shifting and refers to the inability to attend to, or to learn about, any aspect of a stimulus previously experienced as irrelevant. Although it has been extensively studied in the context of clinical populations, not much is known about LIRR effects in relation to normal variation in individual differences. The present study was designed to assess how temperamental factors may modulate LIRR. Participants and procedures Sixty-eight healthy volunteers performed a visual discrimination learning task modelled after Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. To test the susceptibility to learned irrelevance, participants were expected to shift their attention either to a dimension that prior to the extra-dimensional shift was completely irrelevant, or to a dimension that was previously partly correlated with reinforcement. Temperamental traits were assessed using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory (Zawadzki & Strelau, 1997. Intelligence level was stratified according to Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices (Raven, Raven, & Court, 2003. Results Low level of Briskness and high level of Perseverance were related to enhanced susceptibility to LIRR. High levels of Activity and Emotional Reactivity were related to the poorer performance on the extra-dimensional set-shifting. No effects of other temperament characteristics or intelligence on LIRR were observed. Conclusions The results confirm a strong variation in LIRR related to individual differences in temperament, which appears to be unrelated to DA function. Our results highlight the importance of considering individual differences in studies on cognitive control.

  11. Maximum margin semi-supervised learning with irrelevant data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiqin; Huang, Kaizhu; King, Irwin; Lyu, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Semi-supervised learning (SSL) is a typical learning paradigms training a model from both labeled and unlabeled data. The traditional SSL models usually assume unlabeled data are relevant to the labeled data, i.e., following the same distributions of the targeted labeled data. In this paper, we address a different, yet formidable scenario in semi-supervised classification, where the unlabeled data may contain irrelevant data to the labeled data. To tackle this problem, we develop a maximum margin model, named tri-class support vector machine (3C-SVM), to utilize the available training data, while seeking a hyperplane for separating the targeted data well. Our 3C-SVM exhibits several characteristics and advantages. First, it does not need any prior knowledge and explicit assumption on the data relatedness. On the contrary, it can relieve the effect of irrelevant unlabeled data based on the logistic principle and maximum entropy principle. That is, 3C-SVM approaches an ideal classifier. This classifier relies heavily on labeled data and is confident on the relevant data lying far away from the decision hyperplane, while maximally ignoring the irrelevant data, which are hardly distinguished. Second, theoretical analysis is provided to prove that in what condition, the irrelevant data can help to seek the hyperplane. Third, 3C-SVM is a generalized model that unifies several popular maximum margin models, including standard SVMs, Semi-supervised SVMs (S(3)VMs), and SVMs learned from the universum (U-SVMs) as its special cases. More importantly, we deploy a concave-convex produce to solve the proposed 3C-SVM, transforming the original mixed integer programming, to a semi-definite programming relaxation, and finally to a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, which yields the same worst case time complexity as that of S(3)VMs. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed 3C-SVM through systematical experimental comparisons. Copyright

  12. [Neurosciences and philosophy of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saal, Aarón

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we argue that the interaction between neurosciences and philosophy of the mind is on the way to understand consciousness, and to solve the mind-body or mind-brain problem. Naturalism is the view that mental processes are just brain processes and that consciousness is a natural phenomenon. It is possible to construct a theory about its nature by blending insights from neuroscience, philosophy of the mind, phenomenology, psychology and evolutionary biology.

  13. Opera and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanotechnology, nanotoxicology, and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Won Hyuk; Suslick, Kenneth S; Stucky, Galen D; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2009-02-01

    Nanotechnology, which deals with features as small as a 1 billionth of a meter, began to enter into mainstream physical sciences and engineering some 20 years ago. Recent applications of nanoscience include the use of nanoscale materials in electronics, catalysis, and biomedical research. Among these applications, strong interest has been shown to biological processes such as blood coagulation control and multimodal bioimaging, which has brought about a new and exciting research field called nanobiotechnology. Biotechnology, which itself also dates back approximately 30 years, involves the manipulation of macroscopic biological systems such as cells and mice in order to understand why and how molecular level mechanisms affect specific biological functions, e.g., the role of APP (amyloid precursor protein) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review aims (1) to introduce key concepts and materials from nanotechnology to a non-physical sciences community; (2) to introduce several state-of-the-art examples of current nanotechnology that were either constructed for use in biological systems or that can, in time, be utilized for biomedical research; (3) to provide recent excerpts in nanotoxicology and multifunctional nanoparticle systems (MFNPSs); and (4) to propose areas in neuroscience that may benefit from research at the interface of neurobiologically important systems and nanostructured materials.

  15. [Social impact of recent advances in neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience opened up new technical possibilities, such as enabling possible human mindreading, neuroenhancement, and application of brain-machine-interface into everyday life, as well as the advent of new powerful psychotropic drugs. In addition to the conventional problems in bioethics, such as obtaining informed consent, neuroscience technology has generated new array of ethical questions. The social impact of advanced brain science or neuroscience and its technological applications is a major topic in bioethics, which is frequently termed as "Neuroethics." Here, we summarize the ethical, legal, and social issues of cutting-edge brain science by analyzing a classic science fiction novel entitled "Flowers for Algernon" authored by Daniel Keyes (1966). Three aspects of social problems faced by brain science are apparent: biomedical risk assessment, issues related to human subjectivity and identity, and socio-cultural value of brain science technology. To understand this last aspect, enhancement-achievement and/or enhancement-treatment dichotomy can prove useful. In addition, we introduced the first national poll results in Japan (n=2,500) on the social impact of brain science. Although half the respondents believed that the advancement of brain science can aid individuals in the future, 56% of respondents suggested the necessity for guidelines or regulation policies mediating brain science. Technological application of brain science in treatment is generally accepted; however, not just for the personal purpose or enhancement of the normal function. In this regard, it is important to hold further discussions including the general public.

  16. Social neuroscience and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol E

    2014-01-01

    The role of theory of mind (ToM) in autism spectrum disorders and other communication impairments has been an active area of research in the last 30 years. Advances in neuroimaging in the last 10 years have led to the rise of the field of social neuroscience, which has markedly increased the understanding of the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical and neurochemical nature of ToM functioning and deficits in typically developing individuals and in children and adults with a variety of social and communication impairments. The goal of this paper is to (a) describe the current concepts of ToM based on neuroscience research, and (b) present a framework for the dimensions of ToM that have been identified, which can be used to guide assessment and intervention for persons with deficits in ToM that affect social interactions. This article presents neuroscience research that has documented the neurophysiological/neuroanatomical bases for cognitive and affective ToM and interpersonal and intrapersonal ToM as well as neurochemical and epigenetic influences on ToM. This information provides an important framework for assessing ToM deficits in persons with social and communication impairments and developing interventions that target the specific dimensions of ToM deficits. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Can Neuroscience Contribute to Practical Ethics? A Critical Review and Discussion of the Methodological and Translational Challenges of the Neuroscience of Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Eric; Dubljević, Veljko; Jox, Ralf J; Baertschi, Bernard; Christensen, Julia F; Farisco, Michele; Jotterand, Fabrice; Kahane, Guy; Müller, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    Neuroethics is an interdisciplinary field that arose in response to novel ethical challenges posed by advances in neuroscience. Historically, neuroethics has provided an opportunity to synergize different disciplines, notably proposing a two-way dialogue between an 'ethics of neuroscience' and a 'neuroscience of ethics'. However, questions surface as to whether a 'neuroscience of ethics' is a useful and unified branch of research and whether it can actually inform or lead to theoretical insights and transferable practical knowledge to help resolve ethical questions. In this article, we examine why the neuroscience of ethics is a promising area of research and summarize what we have learned so far regarding its most promising goals and contributions. We then review some of the key methodological challenges which may have hindered the use of results generated thus far by the neuroscience of ethics. Strategies are suggested to address these challenges and improve the quality of research and increase neuroscience's usefulness for applied ethics and society at large. Finally, we reflect on potential outcomes of a neuroscience of ethics and discuss the different strategies that could be used to support knowledge transfer to help different stakeholders integrate knowledge from the neuroscience of ethics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  19. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  20. Brain processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Triñanes, Yolanda; Zurrón, Montserrat; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence for preferential perceptual processing of written emotional information, the effects of attentional manipulations and the time course of affective processing require further clarification. In this study, we attempted to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates cerebral functioning (event-related potentials, ERPs) and behavior (reaction times, RTs) when the content is task-irrelevant (emotional Stroop Task, EST) or task-relevant (emotional categorization task, ECT), in a sample of healthy middle-aged women. In the EST, the RTs were longer for emotional words than for neutral words, and in the ECT, they were longer for neutral and negative words than for positive words. A principal components analysis of the ERPs identified various temporospatial factors that were differentially modified by emotional content. P2 was the first emotion-sensitive component, with enhanced factor scores for negative nouns across tasks. The N2 and late positive complex had enhanced factor scores for emotional relative to neutral information only in the ECT. The results reinforce the idea that written emotional information has a preferential processing route, both when it is task-irrelevant (producing behavioral interference) and when it is task-relevant (facilitating the categorization). After early automatic processing of the emotional content, late ERPs become more emotionally modulated as the level of attention to the valence increases.

  1. Obligatory encoding of task-irrelevant features depletes working memory resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Louise; Bays, Paul M

    2013-02-18

    Selective attention is often considered the "gateway" to visual working memory (VWM). However, the extent to which we can voluntarily control which of an object's features enter memory remains subject to debate. Recent research has converged on the concept of VWM as a limited commodity distributed between elements of a visual scene. Consequently, as memory load increases, the fidelity with which each visual feature is stored decreases. Here we used changes in recall precision to probe whether task-irrelevant features were encoded into VWM when individuals were asked to store specific feature dimensions. Recall precision for both color and orientation was significantly enhanced when task-irrelevant features were removed, but knowledge of which features would be probed provided no advantage over having to memorize both features of all items. Next, we assessed the effect an interpolated orientation-or color-matching task had on the resolution with which orientations in a memory array were stored. We found that the presence of orientation information in the second array disrupted memory of the first array. The cost to recall precision was identical whether the interfering features had to be remembered, attended to, or could be ignored. Therefore, it appears that storing, or merely attending to, one feature of an object is sufficient to promote automatic encoding of all its features, depleting VWM resources. However, the precision cost was abolished when the match task preceded the memory array. So, while encoding is automatic, maintenance is voluntary, allowing resources to be reallocated to store new visual information.

  2. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  3. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Marshall W; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Haggarty, Stephen J

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of haloperidol catalyzed a breakthrough in our understanding of the biochemical basis of schizophrenia, improved the treatment of psychosis, and facilitated deinstitutionalization. In doing so, it solidified the role for chemical neuroscience as a means to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. In this Review, we will cover aspects of haloperidol's synthesis, manufacturing, metabolism, pharmacology, approved and off-label indications, and adverse effects. We will also convey the fascinating history of this classic molecule and the influence that it has had on the evolution of neuropsychopharmacology and neuroscience.

  4. Neuroscience-Inspired Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassabis, Demis; Kumaran, Dharshan; Summerfield, Christopher; Botvinick, Matthew

    2017-07-19

    The fields of neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI) have a long and intertwined history. In more recent times, however, communication and collaboration between the two fields has become less commonplace. In this article, we argue that better understanding biological brains could play a vital role in building intelligent machines. We survey historical interactions between the AI and neuroscience fields and emphasize current advances in AI that have been inspired by the study of neural computation in humans and other animals. We conclude by highlighting shared themes that may be key for advancing future research in both fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Betsy

    2018-01-26

    Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  6. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Ng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Our actions can be triggered by intentions, incentives or intrinsic values. Recent neuroscientific research has yielded some results about the growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. With the advances in neuroscience and motivational studies, there is a global need to utilize this information to inform educational practice and research. Yet, little is known about the neuroscientific interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation. This paper attempts to draw on the theories of growth mindset and intrinsic motivation, together with contemporary ideas in neuroscience, outline the potential for neuroscientific research in education. It aims to shed light on the relationship between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation in terms of supporting a growth mindset to facilitate intrinsic motivation through neural responses. Recent empirical research from the educational neuroscience perspective that provides insights into the interplay between growth mindset and intrinsic motivation will also be discussed.

  7. Facilitation of responses by task-irrelevant complex deviant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, J; Meeter, M

    2014-05-01

    Novel stimuli reliably attract attention, suggesting that novelty may disrupt performance when it is task-irrelevant. However, under certain circumstances novel stimuli can also elicit a general alerting response having beneficial effects on performance. In a series of experiments we investigated whether different aspects of novelty--stimulus novelty, contextual novelty, surprise, deviance, and relative complexity--lead to distraction or facilitation. We used a version of the visual oddball paradigm in which participants responded to an occasional auditory target. Participants responded faster to this auditory target when it occurred during the presentation of novel visual stimuli than of standard stimuli, especially at SOAs of 0 and 200 ms (Experiment 1). Facilitation was absent for both infrequent simple deviants and frequent complex images (Experiment 2). However, repeated complex deviant images did facilitate responses to the auditory target at the 200 ms SOA (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that task-irrelevant deviant visual stimuli can facilitate responses to an unrelated auditory target in a short 0-200 millisecond time-window after presentation. This only occurs when the deviant stimuli are complex relative to standard stimuli. We link our findings to the novelty P3, which is generated under the same circumstances, and to the adaptive gain theory of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005), which may explain the timing of the effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Task-irrelevant auditory feedback facilitates motor performance in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia eConde

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and fast auditory–motor network is a basic resource for trained musicians due to the importance of motor anticipation of sound production in musical performance. When playing an instrument, motor performance always goes along with the production of sounds and the integration between both modalities plays an essential role in the course of musical training. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of task-irrelevant auditory feedback during motor performance in musicians using a serial reaction time task (SRTT. Our hypothesis was that musicians, due to their extensive auditory–motor practice routine during musical training, have a superior performance and learning capabilities when receiving auditory feedback during SRTT relative to musicians performing the SRTT without any auditory feedback. Here we provide novel evidence that task-irrelevant auditory feedback is capable to reinforce SRTT performance but not learning, a finding that might provide further insight into auditory-motor integration in musicians on a behavioral level.

  9. Effects of irrelevant speech and traffic noise on speech perception and cognitive performance in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatte, Maria; Meis, Markus; Sukowski, Helga; Schick, August

    2007-01-01

    The effects of background noise of moderate intensity on short-term storage and processing of verbal information were analyzed in 6 to 8 year old children. In line with adult studies on "irrelevant sound effect" (ISE), serial recall of visually presented digits was severely disrupted by background speech that the children did not understand. Train noises of equal Intensity however, had no effect. Similar results were demonstrated with tasks requiring storage and processing of heard information. Memory for nonwords, execution of oral instructions and categorizing speech sounds were significantly disrupted by irrelevant speech. The affected functions play a fundamental role in the acquisition of spoken and written language. Implications concerning current models of the ISE and the acoustic conditions in schools and kindergardens are discussed.

  10. Relevance of the Irrelevant : Using Task-Irrelevant Emotional Stimuli to Test the Load-Hypothesis through ERP’s

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Per

    2010-01-01

    The role of attention and perceptual resources were studied in a one-back task and a letter-search task, both using the same stimuli. In the letter task, pictures were used as task-irrelevant and distracting emotional stimuli. The emotional processing of the pictures was measured through the Late Positive Potential (LPP), an event-related potential (ERP) recorded with EEG. LPP activity was significantly greater to emotional than neutral stimuli during the one-back task; this shows that emotio...

  11. Principles of Curriculum Design and Construction Based on the Concepts of Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watagodakumbura, Chandana

    2017-01-01

    With the emergence of a wealth of research-based information in the field of educational neuroscience, educators are now able to make more evidence-based decisions in the important area of curriculum design and construction. By viewing from the perspective of educational neuroscience, we can give a more meaningful and lasting purpose of leading to…

  12. Explain the Brain: Websites to Help Scientists Teach Neuroscience to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. Educators look to neuroscience to become better teachers; lawyers and judges explore the literature to gain insight into court cases; and marketers consider the use of brain scans to glean information about consumer preferences. With this increased interest in…

  13. Neuropsychiatry and neuroscience education of psychiatry trainees: attitudes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon; Travis, Michael J; Cooper, Joseph J; Dickey, Chandlee C; Reardon, Claudia L

    2014-04-01

    The American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT) Task Force on Neuropsychiatry and Neuroscience Education of Psychiatry Residents was established in 2011 with the charge to seek information about what the field of psychiatry considers the core topics in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience to which psychiatry residents should be exposed; whether there are any "competencies" in this area on which the field agrees; whether psychiatry departments have the internal capacity to teach these topics if they are desirable; and what the reception would be for "portable curricula" in neuroscience. The task force reviewed the literature and developed a survey instrument to be administered nationwide to all psychiatry residency program directors. The AADPRT Executive Committee assisted with the survey review, and their feedback was incorporated into the final instrument. In 2011-2012, 226 adult and child and adolescent psychiatry residency program directors responded to the survey, representing over half of all US adult and child psychiatry training directors. About three quarters indicated that faculty resources were available in their departments but 39% felt the lack of neuropsychiatry faculty and 36% felt the absence of neuroscience faculty to be significant barriers. Respectively, 64 and 60% felt that neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience knowledge were very important or critically important to the provision of excellent care. Ninety-two percent were interested in access to portable neuroscience curricula. There is widespread agreement among training directors on the importance of neuropsychiatry and neuroscience knowledge to general psychiatrists but barriers to training exist, including some programs that lack faculty resources and a dearth of portable curricula in these areas.

  14. Neuroscience research in Africa: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Allah, Foad; Kissani, Najib; William, Anthony; Oraby, Mohammed Ibrahim; Moustafa, Ramez Reda; Shaker, Ehab; El-Tamawy, Mohamed Soliman; Shakir, Raad

    2015-01-01

    There are limited data on the contribution of the African continent to neuroscience research and publications. This review aims to provide a clear view on the state of neuroscience research among African countries, and to compare neuroscience research within the 52 African countries. A literature review search was conducted for all published articles by African authors in both local and international journals using Medline and other primary databases. Neuroscience represents 9.1% of the total...

  15. Attitudes toward neuroscience education in psychiatry: a national multi-stakeholder survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Akil, Mayada; Widge, Alik; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Etkin, Amit

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes of chairs of psychiatry departments, psychiatrists, and psychiatry trainees toward neuroscience education in residency programs and beyond in order to inform future neuroscience education approaches. This multi-stakeholder survey captured data on demographics, self-assessments of neuroscience knowledge, attitudes toward neuroscience education, preferences in learning modalities, and interests in specific neuroscience topics. In 2012, the authors distributed the surveys: by paper to 133 US psychiatry department chairs and electronically through the American Psychiatric Association to 3,563 of its members (1,000 psychiatrists and 2,563 trainees). The response rates for the chair, psychiatrist, and trainee surveys were 53, 9, and 18 %, respectively. A large majority of respondents agreed with the need for more neuroscience education in general and with respect to their own training. Most respondents believed that neuroscience will help destigmatize mental illness and begin producing new treatments or personalized medicines in 5-10 years. Only a small proportion of trainees and psychiatrists, however, reported a strong knowledge base in neuroscience. Respondents also reported broad enthusiasm for transdiagnostic topics in neuroscience (such as emotion regulation and attention/cognition) and description at the level of neural circuits. This study demonstrates the opportunity and enthusiasm for teaching more neuroscience in psychiatry among a broad range of stakeholder groups. A high level of interest was also found for transdiagnostic topics and approaches. We suggest that a transdiagnostic framework may be an effective way to deliver neuroscience education to the psychiatric community and illustrate this through a case example, drawing the similarity between this neuroscience approach and problem-based formulations familiar to clinicians.

  16. Evidence for habituation of the irrelevant-sound effect on serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röer, Jan P; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Working memory theories make opposing predictions as to whether the disruptive effect of task-irrelevant sound on serial recall should be attenuated after repeated exposure to the auditory distractors. Although evidence of habituation has emerged after a passive listening phase, previous attempts to observe habituation to to-be ignored distractors on a trial-by-trial basis have proven to be fruitless. With the present study, we suggest that habituation to auditory distractors occurs, but has often been overlooked because past attempts to measure habituation in the irrelevant-sound paradigm were not sensitive enough. In a series of four experiments, the disruptive effects of to-be-ignored speech and music relative to a quiet control condition were markedly reduced after eight repetitions, regardless of whether trials were presented in blocks (Exp. 1) or in a random order (Exp. 2). The auditory distractor's playback direction (forward, backward) had no effect (Exp. 3). The same results were obtained when the auditory distractors were only presented in a retention interval after the presentation of the to-be-remembered items (Exp. 4). This pattern is only consistent with theoretical accounts that allow for attentional processes to interfere with the maintenance of information in working memory.

  17. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-03

    For more than 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a working memory to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory by allocating attention to internal representations, whether semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The "control of the controller" emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals.

  18. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…

  19. Neuroscience challenges to philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Orantos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a possible framework to critically define the concept of human nature and person in dialogue with Neuroscience. He tries to help meet the challenge of the naturalism in the current thought.

  20. Psychological constructionism and cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2012-06-01

    Lindquist et al. argue that emotional categories do not map onto distinct regions within the brain, but rather, arise from basic psychological processes, including conceptualization, executive attention, and core affect. Here, we use examples from cultural neuroscience to argue that psychological constructionism, not locationism, captures the essential role of emotion in the social and cultural brain.

  1. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  2. Neuroscience, Education and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboccó de los Heros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We…

  3. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  4. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  5. Population Neuroscience: Dementia Epidemiology Serving Precision Medicine and Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Mary; Albanese, Emiliano; Seshadri, Sudha; Bennett, David A; Lyketsos, Constantine; Kukull, Walter A; Skoog, Ingmar; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2018-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiology has made significant contributions to our understanding of dementia, translating scientific discoveries into population health. Here, we propose reframing dementia epidemiology as "population neuroscience," blending techniques and models from contemporary neuroscience with those of epidemiology and biostatistics. On the basis of emerging evidence and newer paradigms and methods, population neuroscience will minimize the bias typical of traditional clinical research, identify the relatively homogenous subgroups that comprise the general population, and investigate broader and denser phenotypes of dementia and cognitive impairment. Long-term follow-up of sufficiently large study cohorts will allow the identification of cohort effects and critical windows of exposure. Molecular epidemiology and omics will allow us to unravel the key distinctions within and among subgroups and better understand individuals' risk profiles. Interventional epidemiology will allow us to identify the different subgroups that respond to different treatment/prevention strategies. These strategies will inform precision medicine. In addition, insights into interactions between disease biology, personal and environmental factors, and social determinants of health will allow us to measure and track disease in communities and improve population health. By placing neuroscience within a real-world context, population neuroscience can fulfill its potential to serve both precision medicine and population health.

  6. The neuroscience of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K I Mathai

    2015-01-01

    The capability of the human brain to process the varying levels of information, knowledge and wisdom anagrams bestows upon it a potential for ‘Fuzzy Logic’ and the ability to create ‘Blue Ocean’ strategies.

  7. Task-Based Listening Assessment and the Influence of Construct-Irrelevant Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshya Keyvanfar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Task-based listening tests such as IELTS require testees to listen to some information on a CD and simultaneously answer the related items. To answer such items, testees are expected to comprehend, analyze, compare and infer pieces of information while listening to the incoming audio material. The present research attempted to investigate whether the two major characteristics of question type and consecutive/simultaneous performance have any impact on the listening performance of Iranian EFL learners. Findings indicated that participants had a significantly better performance when they tackled the tasks consecutively, and performed even better in listening MC items rather than in listening task-based items. The researchers, thus, concluded that task-based listening tests such as IELTS listening module may be under the influence of construct-irrelevant variance.

  8. What is important in transdisciplinary pain neuroscience education? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, Amarins J; Speksnijder, Caroline M; Crom-Ottens, Astrid F; Knulst-Verlaan, J M Corine; Keizer, Doeke; Nijs, Jo; van Wilgen, C Paul

    2017-05-19

    Neuroscience Education. Repetitions of Pain Neuroscience Education, in different forms (verbal and written information, examples, drawings, etc.) help patients to understand the theory of neurophysiology. Pain Neuroscience Education induces insight into the patient's complaints, improved coping with complaints, improved self-control, and induces in some cases peace of mind. Healthcare professionals providing Pain Neuroscience Education should be aware of the possible confronting nature of the contributing factors.

  9. XML for data representation and model specification in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Sharon M; Howell, Fred W

    2007-01-01

    EXtensible Markup Language (XML) technology provides an ideal representation for the complex structure of models and neuroscience data, as it is an open file format and provides a language-independent method for storing arbitrarily complex structured information. XML is composed of text and tags that explicitly describe the structure and semantics of the content of the document. In this chapter, we describe some of the common uses of XML in neuroscience, with case studies in representing neuroscience data and defining model descriptions based on examples from NeuroML. The specific methods that we discuss include (1) reading and writing XML from applications, (2) exporting XML from databases, (3) using XML standards to represent neuronal morphology data, (4) using XML to represent experimental metadata, and (5) creating new XML specifications for models.

  10. An Algebra-Based Introductory Computational Neuroscience Course with Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian G

    2017-01-01

    A course in computational neuroscience has been developed at Ohio Wesleyan University which requires no previous experience with calculus or computer programming, and which exposes students to theoretical models of neural information processing and techniques for analyzing neural data. The exploration of theoretical models of neural processes is conducted in the classroom portion of the course, while data analysis techniques are covered in lab. Students learn to program in MATLAB and are offered the opportunity to conclude the course with a final project in which they explore a topic of their choice within computational neuroscience. Results from a questionnaire administered at the beginning and end of the course indicate significant gains in student facility with core concepts in computational neuroscience, as well as with analysis techniques applied to neural data.

  11. The Cognitive Atlas: Towards a knowledge foundation for cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A Poldrack

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience aims to map mental processes onto brain function, which begs the question of what ``mental processes'' exist and how they relate to the tasks that are used to manipulate and measure them. This topic has been addressed informally in prior work, but we propose that cumulative progress in cognitive neuroscience requires a more systematic approach to representing the mental entities that are being mapped to brain function and the tasks used to manipulate and measure mental processes. We describe a new open collaborative project that aims to provide a knowledge base for cognitive neuroscience, called the Cognitive Atlas (accessible online at http://www.cognitiveatlas.org, and outline how this project has the potential to drive novel discoveries about both mind and brain.

  12. Cognitive neuroscience robotics B analytic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume B describes to what extent cognitive science and neuroscience have revealed the underlying mechanism of human cognition, and investigates how development of neural engineering and advances in other disciplines could lead to deep understanding of human cognition.

  13. Optimising, generalising and integrating educational practice using neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Practical collaboration at the intersection of education and neuroscience research is difficult because the combined discipline encompasses both the activity of microscopic neurons and the complex social interactions of teachers and students in a classroom. Taking a pragmatic view, this paper discusses three education objectives to which neuroscience can be effectively applied: optimising, generalising and integrating instructional techniques. These objectives are characterised by: (1) being of practical importance; (2) building on existing education and cognitive research; and (3) being infeasible to address based on behavioural experiments alone. The focus of the neuroscientific aspect of collaborative research should be on the activity of the brain before, during and after learning a task, as opposed to performance of a task. The objectives are informed by literature that highlights possible pitfalls with educational neuroscience research, and are described with respect to the static and dynamic aspects of brain physiology that can be measured by current technology.

  14. The neuroscience of management

    OpenAIRE

    K I Mathai

    2015-01-01

    Behaviour is wired into and a product of our brain's circuitry. In this paper we discuss the neuroanatomical templates of education, training and decision making. This awareness is important and could influence the way we train young minds, to take over the mantle of tomorrow's leadership. The bulk of our brain's volume is in two cerebral hemispheres, constituted by the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes. These hemispheres (the neocortex) act as centres of information processing and sto...

  15. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  16. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential.

  17. Coherence of the irrelevant-sound effect: individual profiles of short-term memory and susceptibility to task-irrelevant materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily M; Cowan, Nelson

    2005-06-01

    We examined individual and developmental differences in the disruptive effects of irrelevant sounds on serial recall of printed lists. In Experiment 1, we examined adults (N = 205) receiving eight-item lists to be recalled. Although their susceptibility to disruption of recall by irrelevant sounds was only slightly related to memory span, regression analyses documented highly reliable individual differences in this susceptibility across speech and tone distractors, even with variance from span level removed. In Experiment 2, we examined adults (n = 64) and 8-year-old children (n = 63) receiving lists of a length equal to a predetermined span and one item shorter (span-1). We again found significant relationships between measures of span and susceptibility to irrelevant sounds, although in only two of the measures. We conclude that some of the cognitive processes helpful in performing a span task may not be beneficial in the presence of irrelevant sounds.

  18. Neuroscience, Education and Metal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arboccó de los Heros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We hope them to be of interest and a promoter of new thoughts.

  19. The future of network neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the brain represents one of the most profound and pressing scientific challenges of the 21st century. As brain data have increased in volume and complexity, the tools and methods of network science have become indispensable for mapping and modeling brain structure and function, for bridging scales of organization, and for integrating across empirical and computational methodologies. The creation of a new journal, Network Neuroscience, will contribute to guiding this emerging and interdisciplinary field in new directions.

  20. Registered Replication Report: Testing Disruptive Effects of Irrelevant Speech on Visual-Spatial Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kvetnaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A Partial Replication of “Functional Equivalence of Verbal and Spatial Information in Serial Short-Term Memory (Jones, Farrand, Stuart, & Morris, 1995; Experiment 4” The irrelevant speech effect (ISE—the phenomenon that background speech impairs serial recall of visually presented material—has been widely used for examining the structure of short-term memory. In Experiment 4, Jones, Farrand, Stuart, and Morris (1995 employed the ISE to demonstrate that impairment of performance is determined by the changing-state characteristics of the material, rather than its modality of origin. The present study directly replicated the spatial condition of Experiment 4 with 'N' = 40 German participants. In contrast to the original findings, no main effect of sound type was observed, 'F'(2, 78 = 0.81, 'p' = .450, η2'p' = .02. The absence of an ISE in the spatial domain does not support the changing state hypothesis.

  1. Reflections on 50 Years of Neuroscience Nursing: Publication Trends in Neurotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly; Keiser, Megan; Douglas, Heather; McNair, Norma D

    2018-04-01

    In 2018, the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses will celebrate its 50th anniversary as the premier member organization for neuroscience nurses. In recent decades, one of the highest rated member benefits has been the ability for members to join special focus groups (SFGs). The SFGs were initiated to allow an avenue for information sharing and communication for neuroscience nurses in a variety of subspecialties. In this anniversary edition, the neurotrauma SFG presents a review of trends in the publication of articles in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing related to neurotrauma. Findings from this article illustrate how these publications have impacted the nursing care of patients who have sustained traumatic injuries of the central and peripheral nervous system and the integral role of neuroscience nurses throughout the decades.

  2. Not all choices are created equal: Task-relevant choices enhance motor learning compared to task-irrelevant choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michael J; Ste-Marie, Diane M

    2017-12-01

    Lewthwaite et al. (2015) reported that the learning benefits of exercising choice (i.e., their self-controlled condition) are not restricted to task-relevant features (e.g., feedback). They found that choosing one's golf ball color (Exp. 1) or choosing which of two tasks to perform at a later time plus which of two artworks to hang (Exp. 2) resulted in better retention than did being denied these same choices (i.e., yoked condition). The researchers concluded that the learning benefits derived from choice, whether irrelevant or relevant to the to-be-learned task, are predominantly motivational because choice is intrinsically rewarding and satisfies basic psychological needs. However, the absence of a group that made task-relevant choices and the lack of psychological measures significantly weakened their conclusions. Here, we investigated how task-relevant and task-irrelevant choices affect motor-skill learning. Participants practiced a spatiotemporal motor task in either a task-relevant group (choice over feedback schedule), a task-irrelevant group (choice over the color of an arm-wrap plus game selection), or a no-choice group. The results showed significantly greater learning in the task-relevant group than in both the task-irrelevant and no-choice groups, who did not differ significantly. Critically, these learning differences were not attributed to differences in perceptions of competence or autonomy, but instead to superior error-estimation abilities. These results challenge the perspective that motivational influences are the root cause of self-controlled learning advantages. Instead, the findings add to the growing evidence highlighting that the informational value gained from task-relevant choices makes a greater relative contribution to these advantages than motivational influences do.

  3. Irrelevant Singletons in Pop-Out Search: Attentional Capture or Filtering Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stefanie I.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether costs invoked by the presence of an irrelevant singleton distractor in a visual search task are due to attentional capture by the irrelevant singleton or spatially unrelated filtering costs. Measures of spatial effects were based on distance effects, compatibility effects, and differences…

  4. Cognitive neuroscience: the troubled marriage of cognitive science and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P; Shallice, Tim

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the development of cognitive neuroscience in terms of the tension between the greater sophistication in cognitive concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences and the increasing power of more standard biological approaches to understanding brain structure and function. There have been major technological developments in brain imaging and advances in simulation, but there have also been shifts in emphasis, with topics such as thinking, consciousness, and social cognition becoming fashionable within the brain sciences. The discipline has great promise in terms of applications to mental health and education, provided it does not abandon the cognitive perspective and succumb to reductionism. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Irrelevant stimulus processing in ADHD: catecholamine dynamics and attentional networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardinal symptom of Attenion Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a general distractibility where children and adults shift their attentional focus to stimuli that are irrelevant to the ongoing behavior. This has been attributed to a deficit in dopaminergic signaling in cortico-striatal networks that regulate goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, recent imaging evidence points to an impairment of large scale, antagonistic brain networks that normally contribute to attentional engagement and disengagement, such as the task-positive networks and the Default Mode Network (DMN. Related networks are the ventral attentional network (VAN involved in attentional shifting, and the salience network (SN related to task expectancy. Here we discuss the tonic-phasic dynamics of catecholaminergic signaling in the brain, and attempt to provide a link between this and the activities of the large-scale cortical networks that regulate behavior. More specifically, we propose that a disbalance of tonic catecholamine levels during task performance produce an emphasis of phasic signaling and increased excitability of the VAN, yielding distractibility symptoms. Likewise, immaturity of the SN may relate to abnormal tonic signaling and an incapacity to build up a proper executive system during task performance. We discuss different lines of evidence including pharmacology, brain imaging and electrophysiology, that are consistent with our proposal. Finally, restoring the pharmacodynamics of catecholaminergic signaling seems crucial to alleviate ADHD symptoms; however, the possibility is open to explore cognitive rehabilitation strategies to top-down modulate network dynamics compensating the pharmacological deficits.

  6. Notes on relevant, irrelevant, marginal and extremal double trace perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, Massimo; Yu, Cedric C.Y. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics,Department of Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Double trace deformations, that is products of two local operators, define perturbations of conformal field theories that can be studied exactly in the large-N limit. Even when the double trace deformation is irrelevant in the infrared, it is believed to flow to an ultraviolet fixed point. In this note we define the Källen-Lehmann representation of the two-point function of a local operator O in a theory perturbed by the square of such operator. We use such representation to discover potential pathologies at intermediate points in the flow that may prevent to reach the UV fixed point. We apply the method to an “extremal” deformation that naively would flow to a UV fixed point where the operator O would saturate the unitarity bound Δ=(d/2)−1. We find that the UV fixed point is not conformal and that the deformed two-point function propagates unphysical modes. We interpret the result as showing that the flow to the UV fixed point does not exist. This resolves a potential puzzle in the holographic interpretation of the deformation.

  7. Implications of Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for the Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Obesity and Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    2018-05-07

    This article examines psychological sequelae underlying dysregulated eating in the overweight and obese patient and proposes a psychotherapy approach informed by classical and modern attachment theory, developmental trauma, and neuroscience to address these structural deficits.

  8. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen D.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review. In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex. PMID:24009581

  9. NeuroLex.org: An online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review.In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  10. Neuroethics: the institutionalization of ethics in neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Amer Cavalheiro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in neuroscience have led to numerous ethical questions. Neuroethics is the study of ethical, legal and social advancements in neuroscience which, despite being a recently developed discipline, has a long historical tradition. The concern with ethical issues in neuroscience is extremely old and dates back to the philosophical and scientific traditions that originally sought to understand the relationship between the brain and behavior. More recently, the field of neuro...

  11. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate...... of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself....

  12. Involuntary top-down control by search-irrelevant features: Visual working memory biases attention in an object-based manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Rebecca M; Schneider, Werner X

    2018-03-01

    Many everyday tasks involve successive visual-search episodes with changing targets. Converging evidence suggests that these targets are retained in visual working memory (VWM) and bias attention from there. It is unknown whether all or only search-relevant features of a VWM template bias attention during search. Bias signals might be configured exclusively to task-relevant features so that only search-relevant features bias attention. Alternatively, VWM might maintain objects in the form of bound features. Then, all template features will bias attention in an object-based manner, so that biasing effects are ranked by feature relevance. Here, we investigated whether search-irrelevant VWM template features bias attention. Participants had to saccade to a target opposite a distractor. A colored cue depicted the target prior to each search trial. The target was predefined only by its identity, while its color was irrelevant. When target and cue matched not only in identity (search-relevant) but also in color (search-irrelevant), saccades went more often and faster directly to the target than without any color match (Experiment 1). When introducing a cue-distractor color match (Experiment 2), direct target saccades were most likely when target and cue matched in the search-irrelevant color and least likely in case of a cue-distractor color match. When cue and target were never colored the same (Experiment 3), cue-colored distractors still captured the eyes more often than different-colored distractors despite color being search-irrelevant. As participants were informed about the misleading color, the result argues against a strategical and voluntary usage of color. Instead, search-irrelevant features biased attention obligatorily arguing for involuntary top-down control by object-based VWM templates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant stimuli in spider-fearful individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eMosig

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Avoidance is considered as a central hallmark of all anxiety disorders. The acquisition and expression of avoidance which leads to the maintenance and exacerbation of pathological fear is closely linked to Pavlovian and operant conditioning processes. Changes in conditionability might represent a key feature of all anxiety disorders but the exact nature of these alterations might vary across different disorders. To date, no information is available on specific changes in conditionability for disorder-irrelevant stimuli in specific phobia (SP. The first aim of this study was to investigate changes in fear acquisition and extinction in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful participants by using the de novo fear conditioning paradigm. Secondly, we aimed to determine whether differences in the magnitude of context-dependent fear retrieval exist between spider-fearful and non-fearful individuals. Our findings point to an enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals as compared to non-fearful individuals at both the physiological and subjective level. The enhanced fear discrimination in spider-fearful individuals was neither mediated by increased state anxiety, depression, nor stress tension. Spider-fearful individuals displayed no changes in extinction learning and/or fear retrieval. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for context-dependent modulation of fear retrieval in either group. Here we provide first evidence that spider-fearful individuals show an enhanced discriminative fear learning of phobia-irrelevant (de novo stimuli. Our findings provide novel insights into the role of fear acquisition and expression for the development and maintenance of maladaptive responses in the course of SP.

  14. [Elements for a history of neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The spectacular progress ofthe neurosciences, as well as the intense process of popularization by the media of images and information that associate cerebral activity with practically every aspect of life, have produced a growing perception of the brain as the site and agent of all the properties and actions that define us as human beings. Today's socio-cultural context has seen increased interest in 'neuroascese' that is, discourses and practices aimed at maximizing brain performance. Tracing elements of the history of'brain ascese' back to historical moments of the nineteenth century in which neuroascetic practices were commonplace, the article examines their continued use today, taking into account the social, cultural, and historical contexts in which they originated.

  15. The neuroscience of social decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Sanfey, Alan G

    2011-01-01

    Given that we live in highly complex social environments, many of our most important decisions are made in the context of social interactions. Simple but sophisticated tasks from a branch of experimental economics known as game theory have been used to study social decision-making in the laboratory setting, and a variety of neuroscience methods have been used to probe the underlying neural systems. This approach is informing our knowledge of the neural mechanisms that support decisions about trust, reciprocity, altruism, fairness, revenge, social punishment, social norm conformity, social learning, and competition. Neural systems involved in reward and reinforcement, pain and punishment, mentalizing, delaying gratification, and emotion regulation are commonly recruited for social decisions. This review also highlights the role of the prefrontal cortex in prudent social decision-making, at least when social environments are relatively stable. In addition, recent progress has been made in understanding the neural bases of individual variation in social decision-making.

  16. Best Practices: The Neuroscience Program at Central Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    The original design of our program at Central Michigan University (CMU) and its evolving curriculum were directly influenced by Faculty for Undergraduate (FUN) workshops at Davidson College, Oberlin College, Trinity College, and Macalester College. The course content, laboratory exercises, and pedagogy used were informed by excellent articles in the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE) and presentations at these FUN workshops and meetings over the years. Like the program at Baldwin-Wallace College, which was a previous winner of the Undergraduate Neuroscience Program of the Year Award, as selected by the Committee on Neuroscience Departments and Programs (CNDP) of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN, our program stresses the importance of inquiry-based, hands-on research experience for our undergraduates and utilizes a peer-mentoring system. A distinct advantage that is employed at CMU is the use of graduate student mentors, which allows us to expand our peer-mentorship to distinct research teams that are focused on a specific research project. Developing our program was not easy. The present manuscript reviews the long and arduous journey (including ways in which we navigated some difficult internal political issues) we made to build a strong program. Hopefully, this description may prove helpful for other evolving programs, in terms of avoiding certain pitfalls and overcoming obstacles, as well as selecting practices that have proven to be successful at our institution. PMID:26240523

  17. Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences: a topical debate on dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, M

    1999-12-01

    The author begins by pointing out that, whereas Freud first turned his attention to dreams in 1895, they became an object of neuroscientific interest only in the 1950s, after the discovery of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and the observation that a subject woken in an REM phase could remember and narrate them. He discusses the various brain structures found by the neuroscientists to be implicated in dreaming and the associated hypotheses about their involvement in the processes of remembering dreams, their spatial construction and semantic organisation, and the dreamer's emotional participation in and narration of dreams. Attention is drawn to recent psychophysiological research findings indicating that dreaming occurs in all sleep phases and not only in REM episodes. The cognitivist contribution is also discussed. The author goes on to demonstrate the difference between the neuroscientific and psychoanalytic approaches to dreams. Whereas the neuroscientists are interested in the structures involved in dream production and in dream organisation and narratability, psychoanalysis concentrates on the meaning of dreams and on placing them in the context of the analytic relationship in accordance with the affective history of the dreamer and the transference. The brain structures and functions of interest to the neurosciences, while constituting the physical and biological substrate of these aspects, are stated to be irrelevant to their psychoanalytic understanding.

  18. Attentional Capture and Inhibition of Saccades after Irrelevant and Relevant Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Werner Priess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional capture is usually stronger for task-relevant than irrelevant stimuli, whereas irrelevant stimuli can trigger equal or even stronger amounts of inhibition than relevant stimuli. Capture and inhibition, however, are typically assessed in separate trials, leaving it open whether or not inhibition of irrelevant stimuli is a consequence of preceding attentional capture by the same stimuli or whether inhibition is the only response to these stimuli. Here, we tested the relationship between capture and inhibition in a setup allowing for estimates of the capture and inhibition based on the very same trials. We recorded saccadic inhibition after relevant and irrelevant stimuli. At the same time, we recorded the N2pc, an event-related potential, reflecting initial capture of attention. We found attentional capture not only for, relevant but importantly also for irrelevant stimuli, although the N2pc was stronger for relevant than irrelevant stimuli. In addition, inhibition of saccades was the same for relevant and irrelevant stimuli. We conclude with a discussion of the mechanisms that are responsible for these effects.

  19. Promoting a Dialogue between Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A.

    2011-01-01

    There have been a number of calls for a 'dialogue' between neuroscience and education. However, 'dialogue' implies an equal conversation between partners. The outcome of collaboration between neuroscientists and educators not normally expected to be so balanced. Educationists are expected to learn from neuroscience how to conduct research with…

  20. Reflections on Neuroscience in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna

    2018-01-01

    The majority of teacher preparation programs do not address neuroscience in their curricula. This is curious, as learning occurs in the brain in context and teachers fundamentally foster and facilitate learning. On the one hand, merging neuroscience knowledge into teacher training programs is fraught with challenges, such as reconciling how…

  1. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  2. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  3. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  4. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  5. Attachment Theory and Neuroscience for Care Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Thomas J; Dziadosz, Gregory M

    2016-09-01

    This article describes a model for care managers that is based on attachment theory supplemented by knowledge from neuroscience. Together, attachment theory and basic knowledge from neuroscience provide for both an organizing conceptual framework and a scientific, measureable approach to assessment and planning interventions in a care plan.

  6. Educational Neuroscience: Its position, aims and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A.N.; Krabbendam, L.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these

  7. Mathematical and theoretical neuroscience cell, network and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This volume gathers contributions from theoretical, experimental and computational researchers who are working on various topics in theoretical/computational/mathematical neuroscience. The focus is on mathematical modeling, analytical and numerical topics, and statistical analysis in neuroscience with applications. The following subjects are considered: mathematical modelling in Neuroscience, analytical  and numerical topics;  statistical analysis in Neuroscience; Neural Networks; Theoretical Neuroscience. The book is addressed to researchers involved in mathematical models applied to neuroscience.

  8. THE COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE OF WORKING MEMORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Esposito, Mark; Postle, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, psychologists and neuroscientists have recognized the importance of a “working memory” to coordinate processing when multiple goals are active, and to guide behavior with information that is not present in the immediate environment. In recent years, psychological theory and cognitive neuroscience data have converged on the idea that information is encoded into working memory via the allocation of attention to internal representations – be they semantic long-term memory (e.g., letters, digits, words), sensory, or motoric. Thus, information-based multivariate analyses of human functional MRI data typically find evidence for the temporary representation of stimuli in regions that also process this information in nonworking-memory contexts. The prefrontal cortex, on the other hand, exerts control over behavior by biasing the salience of mnemonic representations, and adjudicating among competing, context-dependent rules. The “control of the controller” emerges from a complex interplay between PFC and striatal circuits, and ascending dopaminergic neuromodulatory signals. PMID:25251486

  9. Integrating cognitive (neuroscience using mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Miłkowski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an account of theoretical integration in cognitive (neuroscience from the mechanistic perspective is defended. It is argued that mechanistic patterns of integration can be better understood in terms of constraints on representations of mechanisms, not just on the space of possible mechanisms, as previous accounts of integration had it. This way, integration can be analyzed in more detail with the help of constraintsatisfaction account of coherence between scientific represen-tations. In particular, the account has resources to talk of idealizations and research heuristics employed by researchers to combine separate results and theoretical frameworks. The account is subsequently applied to an example of successful integration in the research on hippocampus and memory, and to a failure of integration in the research on mirror neurons as purportedly explanatory of sexual orientation.

  10. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressed individuals improves suppression of irrelevant mental-sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jonathan; Shapero, Benjamin G; Mischoulon, David; Lazar, Sara W

    2017-04-01

    An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group. Improvements in mental-set-suppression were associated with improvements in depression scores. Results provide the first evidence that MBCT can improve suppression of irrelevant mental-sets and that such improvements are associated with depressive alleviation.

  11. Positive and negative affect produce opposing task-irrelevant stimulus preexposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Josef; Kaplan, Oren; Sternberg, Terri; Lubow, R E

    2012-06-01

    In three experiments, groups were exposed to either positive or negative affect video clips, after which they were presented with a series of task-irrelevant stimuli. In the subsequent test task, subjects were required to learn an association between the previously irrelevant stimulus and a consequence, and between a new stimulus and a consequence. Induced positive affect produced a latent inhibition effect (poorer evidence of learning with the previously irrelevant stimulus than with the novel stimulus). In opposition to this, induced negative affect resulted in better evidence of learning with a previously irrelevant stimulus than with a novel stimulus. In general, the opposing effects also were present in participants scoring high on self-report questionnaires of depression (Experiments 2 and 3). These unique findings were predicted and accounted for on the basis of two principles: (a) positive affect broadens the attentional field and negative affect contracts it; and (b) task-irrelevant stimuli are processed in two successive stages, the first encodes stimulus properties, and the second encodes stimulus relationships. The opposing influences of negative and positive mood on the processing of irrelevant stimuli have implications for the role of emotion in general theories of cognition, and possibly for resolving some of the inconsistent findings in research with schizophrenia patients.

  12. Preserved suppression of salient irrelevant stimuli during visual search in Age-Associated Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eLorenzo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that older adults with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI may show a significant decline in attentional resource capacity and inhibitory processes in addition to memory impairment. In the present paper, the potential attentional capture by task-irrelevant stimuli was examined in older adults with AAMI compared to healthy older adults using scalp-recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs. ERPs were recorded during the execution of a visual search task, in which the participants had to detect the presence of a target stimulus that differed from distractors by orientation. To explore the automatic attentional capture phenomenon, an irrelevant distractor stimulus defined by a different feature (color was also presented without previous knowledge of the participants. A consistent N2pc, an electrophysiological indicator of attentional deployment, was present for target stimuli but not for task-irrelevant color stimuli, suggesting that these irrelevant distractors did not attract attention in AAMI older adults. Furthermore, the N2pc for targets was significantly delayed in AAMI patients compared to healthy older controls. Together, these findings suggest a specific impairment of the attentional selection process of relevant target stimuli in these individuals and indicate that the mechanism of top-down suppression of entirely task-irrelevant stimuli is preserved, at least when the target and the irrelevant stimuli are perceptually very different.

  13. Neuroscience and humanistic psychiatry: a residency curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L

    2014-04-01

    Psychiatry residencies with a commitment to humanism commonly prioritize training in psychotherapy, cultural psychiatry, mental health policy, promotion of human rights, and similar areas reliant upon dialogue and collaborative therapeutic relationships. The advent of neuroscience as a defining paradigm for psychiatry has challenged residencies with a humanistic focus due to common perceptions that it would entail constriction of psychiatric practice to diagnostic and psychopharmacology roles. The author describes a neuroscience curriculum that has taught psychopharmacology effectively, while also advancing effectiveness of language-based and relationship-based therapeutics. In 2000, the George Washington University psychiatry residency initiated a neuroscience curriculum consisting of (1) a foundational postgraduate year 2 seminar teaching cognitive and social neuroscience and its integration into clinical psychopharmacology, (2) advanced seminars that utilized a neuroscience perspective in teaching specific psychotherapeutic skill sets, and (3) case-based teaching in outpatient clinical supervisions that incorporated a neuroscience perspective into traditional psychotherapy supervisions. Curricular assessment was conducted by (1) RRC reaccreditation site visit feedback, (2) examining career trajectories of residency graduates, (3) comparing PRITE exam Somatic Treatments subscale scores for 2010-2012 residents with pre-implementation residents, and (4) postresidency survey assessment by 2010-2012 graduates. The 2011 RRC site visit report recommended a "notable practice" citation for "innovative neurosciences curriculum." Three of twenty 2010-2012 graduates entered neuroscience research fellowships, as compared to none before the new curriculum. PRITE Somatic Treatments subscale scores improved from the 23rd percentile to the 62nd percentile in pre- to post-implementation of curriculum (p neuroscience curriculum for a residency committed to humanistic psychiatry

  14. Challenges and opportunities in social neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T.; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species are so characterized because they form organizations that extend beyond the individual. The goal of social neuroscience is to investigate the biological mechanisms that underlie these social structures, processes, and behavior and the influences between social and neural structures and processes. Such an endeavor is challenging because it necessitates the integration of multiple levels. Mapping across systems and levels (from genome to social groups and cultures) requires interdisciplinary expertise, comparative studies, innovative methods, and integrative conceptual analysis. Examples of how social neuroscience is contributing to our understanding of the functions of the brain and nervous system are described, and societal implications of social neuroscience are considered. PMID:21251011

  15. Blocking of irrelevant memories by posterior alpha activity boosts memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyojin; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eunjoo; Kang, Hyejin; Hahm, Jarang; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Jensen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    In our daily lives, we are confronted with a large amount of information. Because only a small fraction can be encoded in long-term memory, the brain must rely on powerful mechanisms to filter out irrelevant information. To understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying the gating of information into long-term memory, we employed a paradigm where the encoding was directed by a "Remember" or a "No-Remember" cue. We found that posterior alpha activity increased prior to the "No-Remember" stimuli, whereas it decreased prior to the "Remember" stimuli. The sources were localized in the parietal cortex included in the dorsal attention network. Subjects with a larger cue-modulation of the alpha activity had better memory for the to-be-remembered items. Interestingly, alpha activity reflecting successful inhibition following the "No-Remember" cue was observed in the frontal midline structures suggesting preparatory inhibition was mediated by anterior parts of the dorsal attention network. During the presentation of the memory items, there was more gamma activity for the "Remember" compared to the "No-Remember" items in the same regions. Importantly, the anticipatory alpha power during cue predicted the gamma power during item. Our findings suggest that top-down controlled alpha activity reflects attentional inhibition of sensory processing in the dorsal attention network, which then finally gates information to long-term memory. This gating is achieved by inhibiting the processing of visual information reflected by neuronal synchronization in the gamma band. In conclusion, the functional architecture revealed by region-specific changes in the alpha activity reflects attentional modulation which has consequences for long-term memory encoding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Task-irrelevant expectation violations in sequential manual actions: Evidence for a “check-after-surprise” mode of visual attention and eye-hand decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Martina Foerster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When performing sequential manual actions (e.g., cooking, visual information is prioritized according to the task determining where and when to attend, look, and act. In well-practiced sequential actions, long-term memory (LTM-based expectations specify which action targets might be found where and when. We have previously demonstrated (Foerster and Schneider, 2015b that violations of such expectations that are task-relevant (e.g., target location change cause a regression from a memory-based mode of attentional selection to visual search. How might task-irrelevant expectation violations in such well-practiced sequential manual actions modify attentional selection? This question was investigated by a computerized version of the number-connection test. Participants clicked on nine spatially-distributed numbered target circles in ascending order while eye movements were recorded as proxy for covert attention. Target’s visual features and locations stayed constant for 65 prechange-trials, allowing practicing the manual action sequence. Consecutively, a task-irrelevant expectation violation occurred and stayed for 20 change-trials. Specifically, action target number 4 appeared in a different font. In 15 reversion-trials, number 4 returned to the original font. During the first task-irrelevant change trial, manual clicking was slower and eye scanpaths were larger and contained more fixations. The additional fixations were mainly checking fixations on the changed target while acting on later targets. Whereas the eyes repeatedly revisited the task-irrelevant change, cursor-paths remained completely unaffected. Effects lasted for 2-3 change trials and did not reappear during reversion. In conclusion, an unexpected task-irrelevant change on a task-defining feature of a well-practiced manual sequence leads to eye-hand decoupling and a check-after-surprise mode of attentional selection.

  17. Load-Dependent Increases in Delay-Period Alpha-Band Power Track the Gating of Task-Irrelevant Inputs to Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Heinz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies exploring the role of neural oscillations in cognition have revealed sustained increases in alpha-band power (ABP during the delay period of verbal and visual working memory (VWM tasks. There have been various proposals regarding the functional significance of such increases, including the inhibition of task-irrelevant cortical areas as well as the active retention of information in VWM. The present study examines the role of delay-period ABP in mediating the effects of interference arising from on-going visual processing during a concurrent VWM task. Specifically, we reasoned that, if set-size dependent increases in ABP represent the gating out of on-going task-irrelevant visual inputs, they should be predictive with respect to some modulation in visual evoked potentials resulting from a task-irrelevant delay period probe stimulus. In order to investigate this possibility, we recorded the electroencephalogram while subjects performed a change detection task requiring the retention of two or four novel shapes. On a portion of trials, a novel, task-irrelevant bilateral checkerboard probe was presented mid-way through the delay. Analyses focused on examining correlations between set-size dependent increases in ABP and changes in the magnitude of the P1, N1 and P3a components of the probe-evoked response and how such increases might be related to behavior. Results revealed that increased delay-period ABP was associated with changes in the amplitude of the N1 and P3a event-related potential (ERP components, and with load-dependent changes in capacity when the probe was presented during the delay. We conclude that load-dependent increases in ABP likely play a role in supporting short-term retention by gating task-irrelevant sensory inputs and suppressing potential sources of disruptive interference.

  18. Task-irrelevant distractors in the delay period interfere selectively with visual short-term memory for spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Scott, Jerry; Aron, Adam R; Ester, Edward F

    2017-07-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables the representation of information in a readily accessible state. VSTM is typically conceptualized as a form of "active" storage that is resistant to interference or disruption, yet several recent studies have shown that under some circumstances task-irrelevant distractors may indeed disrupt performance. Here, we investigated how task-irrelevant visual distractors affected VSTM by asking whether distractors induce a general loss of remembered information or selectively interfere with memory representations. In a VSTM task, participants recalled the spatial location of a target visual stimulus after a delay in which distractors were presented on 75% of trials. Notably, the distractor's eccentricity always matched the eccentricity of the target, while in the critical conditions the distractor's angular position was shifted either clockwise or counterclockwise relative to the target. We then computed estimates of recall error for both eccentricity and polar angle. A general interference model would predict an effect of distractors on both polar angle and eccentricity errors, while a selective interference model would predict effects of distractors on angle but not on eccentricity errors. Results showed that for stimulus angle there was an increase in the magnitude and variability of recall errors. However, distractors had no effect on estimates of stimulus eccentricity. Our results suggest that distractors selectively interfere with VSTM for spatial locations.

  19. The principles and practices of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Varma, Sashank; Ansari, Daniel; Butterworth, Brian; De Smedt, Bert; Goswami, Usha; Laurillard, Diana; Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-10-01

    In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers' assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in this new field. We suggest that, by contrast, psychological and neural levels of explanation complement rather than compete with each other. Bowers' analysis also fails to include a role for educational expertise-a guiding principle of our new field. On this basis, we conclude that his critique is potentially misleading. We set out the well-documented goals of research in Educational Neuroscience, and show how, in collaboration with educators, significant progress has already been achieved, with the prospect of even greater progress in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse. PMID:21350673

  1. Culture, attribution and automaticity: a social cognitive neuroscience view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Malia F; Morris, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    A fundamental challenge facing social perceivers is identifying the cause underlying other people's behavior. Evidence indicates that East Asian perceivers are more likely than Western perceivers to reference the social context when attributing a cause to a target person's actions. One outstanding question is whether this reflects a culture's influence on automatic or on controlled components of causal attribution. After reviewing behavioral evidence that culture can shape automatic mental processes as well as controlled reasoning, we discuss the evidence in favor of cultural differences in automatic and controlled components of causal attribution more specifically. We contend that insights emerging from social cognitive neuroscience research can inform this debate. After introducing an attribution framework popular among social neuroscientists, we consider findings relevant to the automaticity of attribution, before speculating how one could use a social neuroscience approach to clarify whether culture affects automatic, controlled or both types of attribution processes.

  2. Cognitive neuroscience robotics A synthetic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume A describes how human cognitive functions can be replicated in artificial systems such as robots, and investigates how artificial systems could acquire intelligent behaviors through interaction with others and their environment.

  3. The Psychology and Neuroscience of Curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Celeste; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2015-11-04

    Curiosity is a basic element of our cognition, but its biological function, mechanisms, and neural underpinning remain poorly understood. It is nonetheless a motivator for learning, influential in decision-making, and crucial for healthy development. One factor limiting our understanding of it is the lack of a widely agreed upon delineation of what is and is not curiosity. Another factor is the dearth of standardized laboratory tasks that manipulate curiosity in the lab. Despite these barriers, recent years have seen a major growth of interest in both the neuroscience and psychology of curiosity. In this Perspective, we advocate for the importance of the field, provide a selective overview of its current state, and describe tasks that are used to study curiosity and information-seeking. We propose that, rather than worry about defining curiosity, it is more helpful to consider the motivations for information-seeking behavior and to study it in its ethological context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Educational neuroscience: definitional, methodological, and interpretive issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, James P; Vu, Lien T

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we hope to accomplish three aims as follows: (1) provide greater clarity regarding the nature and scope of the field of educational neuroscience, (2) propose a framework for understanding when and how neuroscientific research could be informative for educational practice, and (3) describe some examples of neuroscientific findings from the domains of reading and mathematics that are informative according to this framework. We propose that psychological models of learning-related processes should be the basis of instructional decisions, and that neuroscientific evidence in combination with traditional evidence from psychological experiments should be used to decide among competing psychological models. Our review of the neuroscientific evidence for both reading and mathematics suggests that while much has been learned over the past 20 years, there is still a 'disconnect' between contemporary psychological models that emphasize higher level skills and neuroscientific studies that focus on lower level skills. Moreover, few researchers have used neuroscientific evidence to decide among psychological models, but have focused instead on identifying the brain regions that subtend component skills of reading and math. Nevertheless, neuroscientific studies have confirmed the intrinsic relationship between reading and spoken language, revealed interesting predictive relationships between anatomical structures and reading and math disabilities, and there is the potential for fruitful collaborations between neuroscientists and psychologists in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The NIF DISCO Framework: facilitating automated integration of neuroscience content on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are "harvested" on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource's content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) "LinkOut" to a resource's data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource's lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource's database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research.

  6. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, George

    2010-01-15

    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  7. Socio-emotionally Significant Experience and Children’s Processing of Irrelevant Auditory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Bates, John E.; Puce, Aina; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and research indicate considerable influence of socio-emotionally significant experiences on children’s functioning and adaptation. In the current study, we examined neurophysiological correlates of children’s allocation of information processing resources to socio-emotionally significant events, specifically, simulated marital interactions. We presented 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 24; 11 females) with 15 videos of interactions between two actors posing as a married couple. Task-irrelevant brief auditory probes were presented during the videos, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to the auditory probes were measured. As hypothesized, exposure to higher levels of interparental conflict was associated with smaller P1, P2, and N2 ERPs to the probes. This finding is consistent with the idea that children who had been exposed to more interparental conflict attended more to the videos and diverted fewer cognitive resources to processing the probes, thereby producing smaller ERPs to the probes. In addition, smaller N2s were associated with more child behavior problems, suggesting that allocating fewer processing resources to the probes was associated with more problem behavior. Results are discussed in terms of implications of socio-emotionally significant experiences for children’s processing of interpersonal interactions. PMID:27993611

  8. Implementation of an Integrated Neuroscience Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Rory P; Franker, Lauren; Sterchi, Suzanne; Sani, Sepehr

    2016-02-01

    Many challenges exist in today's health care delivery system, and much focus and research are invested into ways to improve care with cost-effective measures. Specialty-specific dedicated care units are one solution for inpatient hospital care because they improve outcomes and decrease mortality. The neuroscience population encompasses a wide variety of diagnoses of spinal to cranial issues with a wide spectrum of needs varying from one patient to the next. Neuroscience care must be patient-specific during the course of frequent acuity changes, and one way to achieve this is through a neuroscience-focused unit. Few resources are available on how to implement this type of unit. Advanced practice nurses are committed to providing high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care and are instrumental in the success of instituting a unit dedicated to the care of neuroscience patients.

  9. A new research trend in social neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2014-01-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding...

  10. Culture in social neuroscience: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Nicholas O; Freeman, Jonathan B; Ambady, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight an emerging field: the neuroscience of culture. This new field links cross-cultural psychology with cognitive neuroscience across fundamental domains of cognitive and social psychology. We present a summary of studies on emotion, perspective-taking, memory, object perception, attention, language, and the self, showing cultural differences in behavior as well as in neural activation. Although it is still nascent, the broad impact of merging the study of culture with cognitive neuroscience holds mutual distributed benefits for multiple related fields. Thus, cultural neuroscience may be uniquely poised to provide insights and breakthroughs for longstanding questions and problems in the study of behavior and thought, and its capacity for integration across multiple levels of analysis is especially high. These findings attest to the plasticity of the brain and its adaptation to cultural contexts.

  11. Development of response inhibition in the context of relevant versus irrelevant emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot A Schel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the influence of relevant and irrelevant emotions on response inhibition from childhood to early adulthood. Ninety-four participants between 6 and 25 years of age performed two go/nogo tasks with emotional faces (neutral, happy, and fearful as stimuli. In one go/nogo task emotion formed a relevant dimension of the task and in the other go/nogo task emotion was irrelevant and participants had to respond to the color of the faces instead. A special feature of the latter task, in which emotion was irrelevant, was the inclusion of free choice trials, in which participants could freely decide between acting and inhibiting. Results showed a linear increase in response inhibition performance with increasing age both in relevant and irrelevant affective contexts. Relevant emotions had a pronounced influence on performance across age, whereas irrelevant emotions did not. Overall, participants made more false alarms on trials with fearful faces than happy faces, and happy faces were associated with better performance on go trials (higher percentage correct and faster RTs than fearful faces. The latter effect was stronger for young children in terms of accuracy. Finally, during the free choice trials participants did not base their decisions on affective context, confirming that irrelevant emotions do not have a strong impact on inhibition. Together, these findings suggest that across development relevant affective context has a larger influence on response inhibition than irrelevant affective context. When emotions are relevant, a context of positive emotions is associated with better performance compared to a context with negative emotions, especially in young children.

  12. Når neuroscience bliver til neuromyter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2016-01-01

    Det kan være svært at skelne mellem sandt og usandt, når forskningselementer fra neuroscience bliver inddraget som argumenter for bestemte metoder indenfor undervisning. Således er det med Jo Boalers nye bog Mathematical Mindset (2016). Boalers ideer bliver brugt meget i Danmark, fordi hendes...... matematikdidaktikske pointer er både interessante og inspirerende, men hendes inddragen af begreber fra neuroscience holder desværre ikke vand....

  13. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning.

  15. Serial recall of rhythms and verbal sequences: Impacts of concurrent tasks and irrelevant sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Debbora; Gathercole, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Rhythmic grouping enhances verbal serial recall, yet very little is known about memory for rhythmic patterns. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive processes supporting memory for rhythmic and verbal sequences using a range of concurrent tasks and irrelevant sounds. In Experiment 1, both concurrent articulation and paced finger tapping during presentation and during a retention interval impaired rhythm recall, while letter recall was only impaired by concurrent articulation. In Experiments 2 and 3, irrelevant sound consisted of irrelevant speech or tones, changing-state or steady-state sound, and syncopated or paced sound during presentation and during a retention interval. Irrelevant speech was more damaging to rhythm and letter recall than was irrelevant tone sound, but there was no effect of changing state on rhythm recall, while letter recall accuracy was disrupted by changing-state sound. Pacing of sound did not consistently affect either rhythm or letter recall. There are similarities in the way speech and rhythms are processed that appear to extend beyond reliance on temporal coding mechanisms involved in serial-order recall.

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Counterfactual Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eVan Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame. Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease.

  17. Computational neuroscience for advancing artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Ponce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available resumen del libro de Alonso, E. y Mondragón, E. (2011. Hershey, NY: Medical Information Science Reference. La neurociencia como disciplinapersigue el entendimiento del cerebro y su relación con el funcionamiento de la mente a través del análisis de la comprensión de la interacción de diversos procesos físicos, químicos y biológicos (Bassett & Gazzaniga, 2011. Por otra parte, numerosas disciplinasprogresivamente han realizado significativas contribuciones en esta empresa tales como la matemática, la psicología o la filosofía, entre otras. Producto de este esfuerzo, es que junto con la neurociencia tradicional han aparecido disciplinas complementarias como la neurociencia cognitiva, la neuropsicología o la neurocienciacomputacional (Bengio, 2007; Dayan & Abbott, 2005. En el contexto de la neurociencia computacional como disciplina complementaria a laneurociencia tradicional. Alonso y Mondragón (2011 editan el libroComputacional Neuroscience for Advancing Artificial Intelligence: Models, Methods and Applications.

  18. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    'Neuromarketing' is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods 'neuromarketing' and scientific ones 'consumer neuroscience'. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology:First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson's disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington's disease.Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson's disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom.Third, trust research in the medical context lacks

  19. The journal of undergraduate neuroscience education: history, challenges, and future developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Gary L; Lom, Barbara; Grisham, William; Ramirez, Julio J

    2009-01-01

    The 'JUNE and You' sessions presented at the July 2008 Undergraduate Neuroscience Education workshop, sponsored jointly by Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) and Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL), featured background information about the history and mission of the Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education (JUNE), followed by an informative discussion about the challenges facing JUNE, including new ideas for future developments. This article will highlight some of the information and ideas generated and shared at this conference. Critical discussion points included the need to keep members of FUN actively engaged in submitting and reviewing articles for JUNE. Ways in which authors, reviewers, and interested faculty members could best help in promoting the mission and vision of JUNE were discussed. Concerns about recent hackings into the JUNE website were also raised, and possible solutions and measures that can be taken to minimize this in the future were discussed. In addition, ideas for expanding the role of JUNE to provide a forum to evaluate new and emerging website information that is pertinent to undergraduate neuroscience education was discussed. Ideas for future developments of JUNE included revolving postings of articles as they are accepted, providing links to several related websites, and allowing updates for articles that have been previously published in JUNE. Finally, ideas for maintaining and expanding JUNE's stature as the resource for undergraduate neuroscience education included ensuring that JUNE is listed on important search vehicles, such as PubMed.

  20. Critical neuroscience-or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline's actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some

  1. Are There Ways out of the Self-inflicted Irrelevance of the Qualitative Off-stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Groeben

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative paradigm is relatively irrelevant in psychological research and teaching, which is not only due to the hegemony of the quantitative paradigm. This irrelevance also arises from the fragmentation within the qualitative research paradigm, which is a result of the principle of a close interdependence of research object and method; this fragmentation is evident in the lack of a systematic approach to the concept of method. The conviction to conduct a superior psychological approach leads to destructive competition both within the qualitative paradigm and in relation to the quantitative paradigm. Instead, I recommend the pursuit of approaches that attempt to integrate qualitative and quantitative research methods on the basis of the idea of ontological layers, clearly distinct from esoteric approaches. Above all, the development of sophisticated and complex methods of statistical analysis appears a promising way to overcome the self-inflicted irrelevance of the qualitative research paradigm. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604347

  2. The irrelevant sound phenomenon revisited: what role for working memory capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip

    2004-09-01

    High-span individuals (as measured by the operation span [OSPAN] technique) are less likely than low-span individuals to notice their own names in an unattended auditory stream (A. R. A. Conway, N. Cowan, & M. F. Bunting, 2001). The possibility that OSPAN accounts for individual differences in auditory distraction on an immediate recall test was examined. There was no evidence that high-OSPAN participants were more resistant to the disruption caused by irrelevant speech in serial or in free recall. Low-OSPAN participants did, however, make more semantically related intrusion errors from the irrelevant sound stream in a free recall test (Experiment 4). Results suggest that OSPAN mediates semantic components of auditory distraction dissociable from other aspects of the irrelevant sound effect. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  3. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: The case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1 neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2 implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities

  4. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: the case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1) neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience) that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2) implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities or math anxiety).

  5. An evaluation of post-registration neuroscience focused education and neuroscience nurses' perceived educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braine, Mary E; Cook, Neal

    2015-11-01

    People with complex neurological conditions require co-ordinated care provided by nurses educated in meeting service needs, understanding the pathophysiological processes of disease and the preparation to care for those with complex needs. However, evidence suggests that neuroscience specific education provision is largely unregulated and set outside of a cohesive professional development context. Furthermore, it largely seems to only address the induction phase into working within neurosciences. To evaluate the nature of post-registration neuroscience focused education across Europe and neuroscience nurses' perceived educational needs. Post qualifying nurses working in the field of neurosciences were invited to complete a self-reported 29-item on-line questionnaire that contained closed and open-ended questions exploring professional background, clinical and educational experience, educational opportunities available to them and their perspectives on their educational needs. 154 participants from fourteen countries across Europe completed the survey. 75% (n=110) of respondents had undertaken neuroscience focused education with the most accessible education opportunities found to be conferences 77% (n=96) and study days 69% (n=86). Overall, 52.6% of courses were multidisciplinary in nature, and 47.4% were exclusively nursing. Most identified that their courses were funded by their employer (57%, n=63) or partly funded by their employer. Results illustrate a significant variance across Europe, highlighting the need for more effective communication between neuroscience nurses across Europe. Implications for future education provision, recruitment/retention, and funding are discussed, resulting in recommendations for the future of neuroscience nursing. This study, the largest of its kind to survey neuroscience nurses, illustrates the absence of a cohesive career development pathway for neuroscience nurses in Europe. Nurses need quality assured specialist education to

  6. Trigger Foods: The Influence of “Irrelevant†Alternatives in School Lunchrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Rational choice theory commonly assumes that the presence of unselected choices cannot impact which among the remaining choices is selected–-often referred to as “independence of irrelevant alternatives.†We show that such seemingly irrelevant alternatives influence choice in a school lunch setting. In these lunchrooms, we provide evidence that the presence of specific side dishes-–trigger foods-–can strongly increase the sales of unhealthy à la carte options, even when the trigger foods a...

  7. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  8. How neuroscience is taught to North American dental students: results of the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.

  9. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience to understanding functional mechanisms of visual search.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humphreys, G.W.; Hodsoll, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Yoon, E.Y.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that cognitive neuroscience can contribute not only information about the neural localization of processes underlying visual search, but also information about the functional nature of these processes. First we present an overview of recent work on whether search for form - colour

  10. Clinical management departments for the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J; García-Ramos, R; Ramos, M; Soto, J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience-related clinical management departments (UGC in Spanish) represent a means of organising hospitals to deliver patient-centred care as well as specific clinical and administrative management models. The authors review the different UGC models in Spain and their implementation processes as well as any functional problems. We pay special attention to departments treating neurological patients. Neuroscience-related specialties may offer a good framework for the units that they contain. This may be due to the inherent variability and costs associated with neurological patients, the vital level of coordination that must be present between units providing care, and probably to the dynamic nature of the neurosciences as well. Difficulties associated with implementing and gaining acceptance for the new model have limited such UGCs until now. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Neuroscience and the fallacies of functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, William M

    2010-01-01

    Smail's "On Deep History and the Brain" is rightly critical of the functionalist fallacies that have plagued evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. However, his attempt to improve on these efforts relies on functional explanations that themselves oversimplify the lessons of neuroscience. In addition, like explanations in evolutionary psychology, they are highly speculative and cannot be confirmed or disproved by evidence. Neuroscience research is too diverse to yield a single picture of brain functioning. Some recent developments in neuroscience research, however, do suggest that cognitive processing provides a kind of “operating system” that can support a great diversity of cultural material. These developments include evidence of “top-down” processing in motor control, in visual processing, in speech recognition, and in “emotion regulation.” The constraints that such a system may place on cultural learning and transmission are worth investigating. At the same time, historians are well advised to remain wary of the pitfalls of functionalism.

  12. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  13. Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, David

    This chapter identifies retributive and consequentialist purposes of the criminal law, and it outlines arguments that retribution should be abandoned, in cluding arguments, based on philosophy and neuroscience, that free will and re sponsibility are illusions. The author suggests that there are good reasons to retain retribution, and identifies ways in which this might be supported, including com patibilist and libertarian views of free will. The author gives reasons for preferring libertarian views, and concludes by considering the role that neuroscience may be expected to play in the future development of the law.

  14. Cognitive neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R; Taylor, Stephan F

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience investigates neural responses to cognitive and emotional probes, an approach that has yielded critical insights into the neurobiological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. This article reviews some of the major findings from neuroimaging studies using a cognitive neuroscience approach to investigate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). It evaluates the consistency of results and interprets findings within the context of OCD symptoms, and proposes a model of OCD involving inflexibility of internally focused cognition. Although further research is needed, this body of work probing cognitive-emotional processes in OCD has already shed considerable light on the underlying mechanisms of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Proof-Irrelevant Model of Martin-Löf's Logical Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridlender, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    objects with different degree of relevance: those that denote proofs are irrelevant whereas those that denote types are not. In fact a whole hierarchy of relevance exists. Another difference is the higher level of detail in the formulation of the formal theory, such as the explicit manipulation...

  16. When Does Between-Sequence Phonological Similarity Promote Irrelevant Sound Disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Vachon, Francois; Jones, Dylan M.

    2008-01-01

    Typically, the phonological similarity between to-be-recalled items and TBI auditory stimuli has no impact if recall in serial order is required. However, in the present study, the authors have shown that the free recall, but not serial recall, of lists of phonologically related to-be-remembered items was disrupted by an irrelevant sound stream…

  17. The fate of task-irrelevant visual motion: perceptual load versus feature-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Shuichiro; Adams, Wendy J; Graf, Erich W; Lavie, Nilli

    2009-11-18

    We tested contrasting predictions derived from perceptual load theory and from recent feature-based selection accounts. Observers viewed moving, colored stimuli and performed low or high load tasks associated with one stimulus feature, either color or motion. The resultant motion aftereffect (MAE) was used to evaluate attentional allocation. We found that task-irrelevant visual features received less attention than co-localized task-relevant features of the same objects. Moreover, when color and motion features were co-localized yet perceived to belong to two distinct surfaces, feature-based selection was further increased at the expense of object-based co-selection. Load theory predicts that the MAE for task-irrelevant motion would be reduced with a higher load color task. However, this was not seen for co-localized features; perceptual load only modulated the MAE for task-irrelevant motion when this was spatially separated from the attended color location. Our results suggest that perceptual load effects are mediated by spatial selection and do not generalize to the feature domain. Feature-based selection operates to suppress processing of task-irrelevant, co-localized features, irrespective of perceptual load.

  18. Risk Sensitivity, Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives and Continuity of Bargaining Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); H.J.M. Peters (Hans); S.H. Tijs; P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractBargaining solutions are considered which have the following four properties: individual rationality, Pareto optimality, independence of equivalent utility representations, and independence of irrelevant alternatives. A main result of this paper is a simple proof of the fact that all

  19. Reflections on 50 Years of Neuroscience Nursing: The Growth of Stroke Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nancy; Haxton, Elaine; Morrison, Kathy; Markey, Erin; Andreoli, Linda J; Maloney, Theresa; Omelchenko, Nataliya; Aroose, Amanda; Stevens, Lynn B

    2018-05-10

    Over the past 50 years, the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (JNN) has grown from a neurosurgical focus to the broader neuroscience focus alongside the professional nursing organization that it supports. Stroke care in JNN focused on the surgical treatment and nursing care for cranial treatment of conditions such as cerebral aneurysm, carotid disease, arteriovenous malformation, and artery bypass procedures. As medical science has grown and new medications and treatment modalities have been successfully trialed, JNN has brought to its readership this information about recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, endovascular trials, and new assessment tools such as the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. JNN is on the forefront of publishing nursing research in the areas of stroke caregiver needs and community education for rapid treatment of stroke and stroke risk reduction. The journal has been timely and informative in keeping neuroscience nurses on the forefront of the changing world of stroke nursing.

  20. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elliot C.; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e., by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one's own and observing other's actions, rewards, errors, and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the “predictive brain” are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed in this article. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a “social predictive brain” are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioral and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain, and potential strategies for treating

  1. Model-based cognitive neuroscience: a conceptual introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter shows how the separate fields of mathematical psychology and cognitive neuroscience can interact to their mutual benefit. Historically, the field of mathematical psychology is mostly concerned with formal theories of behavior, whereas cognitive neuroscience is mostly concerned

  2. Construct Relevant or Irrelevant? The Role of Linguistic Complexity in the Assessment of English Language Learners' Science Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenia-Tapper, Brianna; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of language-related construct-irrelevant variance on content area tests from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics. We propose that the construct relevance of language used in content area assessments, and consequent claims of construct-irrelevant variance and bias, should be determined according to…

  3. Undergraduate Neuroscience Education: Blueprints for the 21(st) Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertelak, Eric P; Ramirez, Julio J

    2008-01-01

    Paralleling the explosive growth of neuroscientific knowledge over the last two decades, numerous institutions from liberal arts colleges to research universities have either implemented or begun exploring the possibility of implementing undergraduate programs in neuroscience. In 1995, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) partnered with Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) to offer a workshop exploring how undergraduate neuroscience education should proceed. Four blueprints were created to provide direction to the burgeoning interest in developing programs in undergraduate neuroscience education: 1) Neuroscience nested in psychology; 2) Neuroscience nested in biology; 3) Neuroscience as a minor; and 4) Neuroscience as a major. In 2005, FUN again partnered with PKAL to revisit the blueprints in order to align the blueprints with modern pedagogical philosophy and technology. The original four blueprints were modified and updated. One particularly exciting outgrowth of the 2005 workshop was the introduction of a fifth curricular blueprint that strongly emphasizes the integration of the humanities and social sciences into neuroscience: Neuroscience Studies. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of neuroscience, an education in neuroscience will prepare the next generation of students to think critically, synthetically, and creatively as they confront the problems facing humanity in the 21(st) century.

  4. Foundationalism and neuroscience: silence and language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Cowley, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience offers more than new empirical evidence about the details of cognitive functions such as language, perception and action. Since it also shows many functions to be highly distributed, interconnected and dependent on mechanisms at different levels of processing, it challenges concepts

  5. Special issue on Computational Neuroscience - PREFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering contains ten selected papers presented at the Neural Coding 2012 workshop. Neuroscience is traditionally very close to mathematics which stems from the famous theoretical work of McCulloch--Pitts and Hodgkin--Huxley in the middle...

  6. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  7. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Janet M.; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2013-01-01

    Bruer advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: The neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of "plasticity," have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to…

  8. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway...

  9. Global mental health and neuroscience: potential synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram

    2015-02-01

    Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...

  11. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in…

  12. [Neuroethics as the neuroscience of ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto

    2013-10-16

    The neurosciences have developed at a stunningly fast rate. Key points accounting for this progression include the introduction of functional neuroimaging techniques and the boost resulting from the Decade of the Brain project. This expansion has also allowed new disciplines such as neuroethics to appear. Those who have worked on neuroethics can be divided into three groups (neuroreductionists, neurosceptics and neurocritics), and each group has its own standpoint as regards what neuroethics is, with several scopes and limitations in their proposals. Neuroethics is a discipline that, prior to the year 2002, was understood only as an ethics of neuroscience (a branch of bioethics). As of that date, however, it is also understood as a neuroscience of ethics (a new discipline). Neuroreductionism proposes that all ethical life has a basis in the brain that determines ethical actions; neuroscepticism holds that neuroscience cannot be considered a normative function; and neurocriticism considers that the neuroscientific advances cannot be ignored and must be taken into account in some way in order to draw up ethical theories.

  13. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  14. Further evidence for the case against neuropsychoanalysis: How Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's response to our critique confirms the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B; Carmeli, Zvi

    2015-12-01

    In their paper "The case for neuropsychoanalysis" Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou (2015) respond to our critique of neuropsychoanalysis (Blass & Carmeli, 2007), setting forth evidence and arguments which, they claim, demonstrate why neuroscience is relevant and important for psychoanalysis and hence why dialogue between the fields is necessary. In the present paper we carefully examine their evidence and arguments and demonstrate how and why their claim is completely mistaken. In fact, Yovell, Solms, and Fotopoulou's paper only confirms our position on the irrelevance and harmfulness to psychoanalysis of the contemporary neuroscientific trend. We show how this trend perverts the essential nature of psychoanalysis and of how it is practiced. The clinical impact and its detrimental nature is highlighted by discussion of clinical material presented by Yovell et al (2015). In the light of this we argue that the debate over neuropsychoanalysis should be of interest to all psychoanalysts, not only those concerned with biology or interdisciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  15. Neuroscience and leadership : awareness, relevance and applications of neuroscience principles within leadership development in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dürrbeck, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis aimed to elaborate the current importance-level of neuroscience within leadership development as well as its future potential. Thereby awareness of leaders and human resource executives, general relevance for organisational success, and current applications of neuroscience principles within development programmes were identified. Additionally, existent and emergent triggers and forces that impede leadership or organisational success were investigated, in order to examin...

  16. Inhibition in movement plan competition: reach trajectories curve away from remembered and task-irrelevant present but not from task-irrelevant past visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, Tobias; Fiehler, Katja

    2017-11-01

    The current study investigated the role of automatic encoding and maintenance of remembered, past, and present visual distractors for reach movement planning. The previous research on eye movements showed that saccades curve away from locations actively kept in working memory and also from task-irrelevant perceptually present visual distractors, but not from task-irrelevant past distractors. Curvature away has been associated with an inhibitory mechanism resolving the competition between multiple active movement plans. Here, we examined whether reach movements underlie a similar inhibitory mechanism and thus show systematic modulation of reach trajectories when the location of a previously presented distractor has to be (a) maintained in working memory or (b) ignored, or (c) when the distractor is perceptually present. Participants performed vertical reach movements on a computer monitor from a home to a target location. Distractors appeared laterally and near or far from the target (equidistant from central fixation). We found that reaches curved away from the distractors located close to the target when the distractor location had to be memorized and when it was perceptually present, but not when the past distractor had to be ignored. Our findings suggest that automatically encoding present distractors and actively maintaining the location of past distractors in working memory evoke a similar response competition resolved by inhibition, as has been previously shown for saccadic eye movements.

  17. Cognitive Neuroscience and the "Mind-Body problem"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grega Repovš

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed an upsurge of interest in the study of the human mind and how it relates to the material body, the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that tries to explain how the mind arises from the structure and workings of the brain. Can we equate the study of mind-body relationship with cognitive neuroscience? Are there aspects of mind-body relationship that are not covered by cognitive neuroscience? Is cognitive neuroscience able to explain human behaviour and experience? These are the questions that are addressed in this "Beginner's Guide to Cognitive neuroscience and it's relation to the Body-Mind question".

  18. A new research trend in social neuroscience: Towards an interactive-brain neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying social perception and social emotions, much of the dynamic nature of interactions between persons remains beyond the reach of single-brain studies. This has led to a growing argument for a shift to the simultaneous measurement of the brain activity of two or more individuals in realistic social interactions-an approach termed "hyperscanning." Although this approach offers important promise in unlocking the brain's role in truly social situations, there are multiple procedural and theoretical questions that require review and analysis. In this paper we discuss this research trend from four aspects: hyperscanning apparatus, experimental task, quantification method, and theoretical interpretation. We also give four suggestions for future research: (a) electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy are useful tools by which to explore the interactive brain in more ecological settings; (b) games are an appropriate method to simulate daily life interactions; (c) transfer entropy may be an important method by which to quantify directed exchange of information between brains; and (d) more explanation is needed of the results of interbrain synchronization itself. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Basic Neuroscience Research with Nonhuman Primates: A Small but Indispensable Component of Biomedical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, P.R.; Treue, S.

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to

  20. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates: a small but indispensable component of biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R.; Treue, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to

  1. Basic neuroscience research with nonhuman primates : a small but indispensable component of biomedical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, Pieter R; Treue, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Research with nonhuman primates represents a small component of neuroscience with far-reaching relevance that is irreplaceable for essential insights into cognitive functions, brain disease, and therapy. Transparency and widespread information about this research and its importance is central to

  2. Reflections on Empathy in Medical Education: What Can We Learn from Social Neurosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preusche, Ingrid; Lamm, Claus

    2016-01-01

    The role of empathy in human social interaction has been examined in several research fields, including medical education (ME) and social neuroscience (SN). SN yields insights into empathy based on neurobiological processes, and such information may also be relevant to ME. In this reflection article, the authors first critically review current…

  3. Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking (ICArUS): Transition to the Intelligence Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Case Study P U Pc Pt Ft Pa 1 Clinical vs. Actuarial Geospatial Profiling Strategies X X 2 Route Security in Baghdad X X X X 3 International...Information Sciences , 176, 1570-1589. Burns, K., & Bonaceto, C. (2014). Integrated Cognitive-neuroscience Architectures for Understanding Sensemaking

  4. On the Neuroscience of Self-Regulation in Children with Disruptive Behavior Problems: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltering, Steven; Shi, Qinxin

    2016-01-01

    Self-regulation is increasingly recognized as a key predictor of academic and social competence. A multidisciplinary understanding of this ability is timely and can strengthen theory and practice. The present review aims to inform educators on what cognitive neuroscience can teach us about self-regulation. To do so, we will focus on a decade-long…

  5. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  6. Irrelevant sensory stimuli interfere with working memory storage: evidence from a computational model of prefrontal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The encoding of irrelevant stimuli into the memory store has previously been suggested as a mechanism of interference in working memory (e.g., Lange & Oberauer, Memory, 13, 333-339, 2005; Nairne, Memory & Cognition, 18, 251-269, 1990). Recently, Bancroft and Servos (Experimental Brain Research, 208, 529-532, 2011) used a tactile working memory task to provide experimental evidence that irrelevant stimuli were, in fact, encoded into working memory. In the present study, we replicated Bancroft and Servos's experimental findings using a biologically based computational model of prefrontal neurons, providing a neurocomputational model of overwriting in working memory. Furthermore, our modeling results show that inhibition acts to protect the contents of working memory, and they suggest a need for further experimental research into the capacity of vibrotactile working memory.

  7. Structure D'Ensemble, Multiple Classification, Multiple Seriation and Amount of Irrelevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, B. Remmo; Van Der Veer, M. A. A.

    1972-01-01

    A significant positive correlation between multiple classification was found, in testing 65 children aged 6 to 8 years, at the stage of concrete operations. This is interpreted as support for the existence of a structure d'ensemble of operational schemes in the period of concrete operations. (Authors)

  8. Rational over-imitation: Preschoolers consider material costs and copy causally irrelevant actions selectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupp, Stefanie; Bancken, Christin; Schillmöller, Jelka; Rakoczy, Hannes; Behne, Tanya

    2016-02-01

    Children's strong tendency to over-imitate - i.e., to reproduce causally irrelevant actions - presents a well-documented, yet puzzling, phenomenon. On first sight this instrumentally inefficient behavior seems maladaptive and different accounts have been put forward to explain it. Causal accounts claim that children are misled by an adult's demonstration, mistake the superfluous actions as causally necessary, and therefore imitate them. Other accounts emphasize cognitive-motivational aspects underlying over-imitation, e.g. social motivations to affiliate with the model, or to adhere to normative conventions. Since all accounts predict the occurrence of over-imitation under typical conditions, different parameters and circumstances have to be considered to distinguish between them. Thus, we investigated children's over-imitation and their spontaneous verbal reactions to a puppet's behavior, in contexts in which a causally irrelevant action either led to the destruction of a valuable object belonging to the experimenter, or not. In addition, children saw the full action sequence being demonstrated either with an instrumental or a conventional focus. Causal accounts predict no flexibility across these contexts, because over-imitation is said to occur automatically. Normative accounts claim that different normative considerations affect children's behavior and action parsing, and therefore predict different response patterns across conditions. We found that over-imitation was less frequent in costly and instrumental conditions. Children criticized the puppet for omitting irrelevant actions more often in the non-costly condition, but criticized her more often for performing irrelevant actions in the costly condition, often expressing their moral concern. The results support the rational normative action interpretation account of over-imitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard; Griffiths, Oren; Le Pelley, Michael E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    Many modern learning theories assume that the amount of attention to a cue depends on how well that cue predicted important events in the past. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in attention and recent theories of psychosis have argued that positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations are related to a failure of selective attention. However, evidence demonstrating that attention to irrelevant cues is related to positive symptoms in schizophrenia is lacking. We used a novel method of measuring attention to nonpredictive (and thus irrelevant) cues in a causal learning test (Le Pelley ME, McLaren IP. Learned associability and associative change in human causal learning. Q J Exp Psychol B. 2003;56:68-79) to assess whether healthy adults and people with schizophrenia discriminate previously predictive and nonpredictive cues. In a series of experiments with independent samples, we demonstrated: (1) when people with schizophrenia who had severe positive symptoms successfully distinguished between predictive and nonpredictive cues during training, they failed to discriminate between predictive and nonpredictive cues relative to healthy adults during subsequent testing and (2) learning about nonpredictive cues was correlated with more severe positive symptoms scores in schizophrenia. These results suggest that positive symptoms of schizophrenia are related to increased attention to nonpredictive cues during causal learning. This deficit in selective attention results in learning irrelevant causal associations and may be the basis of positive symptoms in schizophrenia.

  10. Task-irrelevant memory load induces inattentional blindness without temporo-parietal suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Takashi; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2010-08-01

    We often fail to consciously detect an unexpected object when we are engaged in an attention-demanding task (inattentional blindness). The inattentional blindness which is induced by visual short-term memory (VSTM) load has been proposed to result from a suppression of temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) activity that involves stimulus-driven attention. However, the fact that, inversely proportional to TPJ activity, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) activity correlates with VSTM load renders questionable the account of inattentional blindness based only on TPJ activity. Here, we investigated whether the TPJ is solely responsible for inattentional blindness by decoupling IPS and TPJ responses to VSTM load and then using the same manipulation to test the behavioral inattentional blindness performance. Experiment 1 showed that TPJ activity was not suppressed by task-irrelevant load while the IPS responded to both task-relevant and task-irrelevant load. Although the TPJ account of inattentional blindness predicts that the degree of inattentional blindness should track TPJ activity, we found in Experiment 2 that inattentional blindness was induced not only by task-relevant load but also by task-irrelevant load, showing inconsistency between the extent of inattentional blindness and TPJ response. These findings suggest that inattentional blindness can be induced without suppression of TPJ activity and seem to offer the possibility that the IPS contributes to conscious perception. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing barriers to ethics in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Illes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is a growing interest for neuroscientists, but rather than signifying a commitment to the protection of human subjects, care of animals, and public understanding to which the professional community is engaged in a fundamental way, interest has been consumed by administrative overhead and the mission creep of institutional ethics reviews. Faculty, trainees, and staff (N=605 whose work involves brain imaging and brain stimulation completed an online survey about ethics in their research. Using factor analysis and linear regression, we found significant effects for invasiveness of imaging technique, professional position, gender, and local presence of bioethics centers. We propose strategies for improving communication between the neuroscience community and ethics review boards, collaborations between neuroscientists and biomedical ethicists, and ethics training in graduate neuroscience programs to revitalize mutual goals and interests.

  12. Neuroscience within companies: some case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emanuela Salati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to understand many crucial processes within organizations such as change planning and management, training, decision making and leadership thanks to organisational neuroscience. For example, poorly managed change can result in alarm messages within our brains. Managers must be aware of how their words, emotions and conduct have a significant impact on team mood and results. Another fast-growing area of research is neuromarketing, thanks to company investments. This article presents a success story: a company that, faced with the need to change its selling proposition, uses neurometric techniques to analyse possible resistance of the sales force and then acted accordingly. Even training can significantly improve company efficiency thanks to neuroscience. This article also discusses some experiments carried out by the Training Department of a large public transport company.

  13. Unformed minds: juveniles, neuroscience, and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Oren

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the question of adolescent culpability has been brought before the Supreme Court of the United States for reconsideration. Neuroscience, adolescent advocates claim, is teaching us that young people cannot be found fully responsible for their actions. The reason: their brains are not fully formed. Here I consider the history of the use of scientific evidence in the courtroom, a number of adolescent murder cases, and the data now emerging from neuroscience, and argue that when it comes to brains, judges, just like the rest of us, are unnecessarily impressed. Ultimately, how we determine culpability should rest on normative and ethical considerations rather than on scientific ones. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adopting neuroscience : parenting and affective indeterminacy

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Adrian Bruce; Roberts, Celia Mary

    2017-01-01

    What happens when neuroscientific knowledges move from laboratories and clinics into therapeutic settings concerned with the care of children? ‘Brain-based parenting’ is a set of discourses and practices emerging at the confluence of attachment theory, neuroscience, psychotherapy and social work. The neuroscientific knowledges involved understand affective states such as fear, anger and intimacy as dynamic patterns of coordination between brain localities, as well as flows of biochemical sign...

  15. Towards a two-body neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Recent work from our interdisciplinary research group has revealed the emergence of inter-brain synchronization across multiple frequency bands during social interaction.1 Our findings result from the close collaboration between experts who study neural dynamics and developmental psychology. The initial aim of the collaboration was to combine knowledge from these two fields in order to move from a classical one-brain neuroscience towards a novel two-body approach. A new technique called hyper...

  16. Education and Neuroscience: An Incompatible Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Cuthbert, Alka Sehgal

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Wiley at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/soc4.12233/abstract. To date there has been little opposition to the growing influence of cognitive neuroscience in education from the education profession itself. However there is growing criticism from the fields of psychology and philosophy. This paper aims to summarize the central arguments found in literature critical of the claims made by cognitive neuroscientists...

  17. Critical Neuroscience – or Critical Science? A Perspective on the Perceived Normative Significance of Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSchleim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (immoral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system.

  18. Where Evolutionary Psychology Meets Cognitive Neuroscience: A Précis to Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen L. Krill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience, the study of brain-behavior relationships, has long attempted to map the brain. The discipline is flourishing, with an increasing number of functional neuroimaging studies appearing in the scientific literature daily. Unlike biology and even psychology, the cognitive neurosciences have only recently begun to apply evolutionary meta-theory and methodological guidance. Approaching cognitive neuroscience from an evolutionary perspective allows scientists to apply biologically based theoretical guidance to their investigations and can be conducted in both humans and nonhuman animals. In fact, several investigations of this sort are underway in laboratories around the world. This paper and two new volumes (Platek, Keenan, and Shackelford [Eds.], 2007; Platek and Shackelford [Eds.], under contract represent the first formal attempts to document the burgeoning field of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience. Here, we briefly review the current state of the science of evolutionary cognitive neuroscience, the methods available to the evolutionary cognitive neuroscientist, and what we foresee as the future directions of the discipline.

  19. Neuroscience, power and culture: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrecko, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In line with their vast expansion over the last few decades, the brain sciences -- including neurobiology, psychopharmacology, biological psychiatry, and brain imaging -- are becoming increasingly prominent in a variety of cultural formations, from self-help guides and the arts to advertising and public health programmes. This article, which introduces the special issue of "History of the Human Science" on "Neuroscience, Power and Culture," considers the ways that social and historical research can, through empirical investigations grounded in the observation of what is actually happening and has already happened in the sciences of mind and brain, complement speculative discussions of the possible social implications of neuroscience that now appear regularly in the media and in philosophical bioethics. It suggests that the neurosciences are best understood in terms of their lineage within the "psy"-disciplines, and that, accordingly, our analyses of them will be strengthened by drawing on existing literatures on the history and politics of psychology -- particularly those that analyze formations of knowledge, power and subjectivity associated with the discipline and its practical applications. Additionally, it argues against taking today's neuroscientific facts and brain-targetting technologies as starting points for analysis, and for greater recognition of the ways that these are shaped by historical, cultural and political-economic forces.

  20. Using personality neuroscience to study personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Samantha V; DeYoung, Colin G

    2017-01-01

    Personality neuroscience integrates techniques from personality psychology and neuroscience to elucidate the neural basis of individual differences in cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. This endeavor is pertinent not only to our understanding of healthy personality variation, but also to the aberrant trait manifestations present in personality disorders and severe psychopathology. In the current review, we focus on the advances and limitations of neuroimaging methods with respect to personality neuroscience. We discuss the value of personality theory as a means to link specific neural mechanisms with various traits (e.g., the neural basis of the "Big Five"). Given the overlap between dimensional models of normal personality and psychopathology, we also describe how researchers can reconceptualize psychopathological disorders along key dimensions, and, in turn, formulate specific neural hypotheses, extended from personality theory. Examples from the borderline personality disorder literature are used to illustrate this approach. We provide recommendations for utilizing neuroimaging methods to capture the neural mechanisms that underlie continuous traits across the spectrum from healthy to maladaptive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J

    2009-04-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management.

  2. Behavior analysis and neuroscience: Complementary disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, John W

    2017-05-01

    Behavior analysis and neuroscience are disciplines in their own right but are united in that both are subfields of a common overarching field-biology. What most fundamentally unites these disciplines is a shared commitment to selectionism, the Darwinian mode of explanation. In selectionism, the order and complexity observed in nature are seen as the cumulative products of selection processes acting over time on a population of variants-favoring some and disfavoring others-with the affected variants contributing to the population on which future selections operate. In the case of behavior analysis, the central selection process is selection by reinforcement; in neuroscience it is natural selection. The two selection processes are inter-related in that selection by reinforcement is itself the product of natural selection. The present paper illustrates the complementary nature of behavior analysis and neuroscience through considering their joint contributions to three central problem areas: reinforcement-including conditioned reinforcement, stimulus control-including equivalence classes, and memory-including reminding and remembering. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Neuroscience applied to nuclear energy teaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabás, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Science and technology play a key role in helping countries increase the quality of life of their inhabitants. The development of peaceful nuclear applications offers important contribution for several fields. However, nuclear accidents are reported as factors that lead to the formation of prejudiced beliefs and attitudes against nuclear technology. The media also influence on what people believe about it. Holding prejudice against nuclear technology will lead to misconceptions and interfere with authorities' decision on the development of new technology. There are evidences in the literature that implicit prejudices might be avoidable, reduced and even reversed. Interest in prejudice and stereotyping is currently shared by emerging disciplines such as neuroscience. The field of educational neuroscience has developed several types of implicit association tests aiming to assess implicit prejudices that individuals are consciously unaware. As far as prejudices are reported in the nuclear energy education scenario implicit measurement techniques can be an effective tool to identify and measure prejudices against nuclear technology. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a valuable tool used worldwide as a measurement technique to assess implicit attitude toward discriminatory behaviors. This study aims to demonstrate the design and development of a neuroscience-based methodology, which will include a future administration of the IAT to school teachers to assess their implicit associations regarding nuclear energy. The procedure will contribute for understanding implicit prejudices interfering with teaching practices. Teaching a balanced view about the applications of the nuclear technology will contribute for the acceptance of nuclear technology. (author)

  4. Neuroscience applied to nuclear energy teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabás, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaianê

    2017-01-01

    Science and technology play a key role in helping countries increase the quality of life of their inhabitants. The development of peaceful nuclear applications offers important contribution for several fields. However, nuclear accidents are reported as factors that lead to the formation of prejudiced beliefs and attitudes against nuclear technology. The media also influence on what people believe about it. Holding prejudice against nuclear technology will lead to misconceptions and interfere with authorities' decision on the development of new technology. There are evidences in the literature that implicit prejudices might be avoidable, reduced and even reversed. Interest in prejudice and stereotyping is currently shared by emerging disciplines such as neuroscience. The field of educational neuroscience has developed several types of implicit association tests aiming to assess implicit prejudices that individuals are consciously unaware. As far as prejudices are reported in the nuclear energy education scenario implicit measurement techniques can be an effective tool to identify and measure prejudices against nuclear technology. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a valuable tool used worldwide as a measurement technique to assess implicit attitude toward discriminatory behaviors. This study aims to demonstrate the design and development of a neuroscience-based methodology, which will include a future administration of the IAT to school teachers to assess their implicit associations regarding nuclear energy. The procedure will contribute for understanding implicit prejudices interfering with teaching practices. Teaching a balanced view about the applications of the nuclear technology will contribute for the acceptance of nuclear technology. (author)

  5. The Future of Psychiatry as Clinical Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F.; Lewis, David A.; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics. The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry’s mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  6. The neuroscience of learning: beyond the Hebbian synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-01-01

    From the traditional perspective of associative learning theory, the hypothesis linking modifications of synaptic transmission to learning and memory is plausible. It is less so from an information-processing perspective, in which learning is mediated by computations that make implicit commitments to physical and mathematical principles governing the domains where domain-specific cognitive mechanisms operate. We compare the properties of associative learning and memory to the properties of long-term potentiation, concluding that the properties of the latter do not explain the fundamental properties of the former. We briefly review the neuroscience of reinforcement learning, emphasizing the representational implications of the neuroscientific findings. We then review more extensively findings that confirm the existence of complex computations in three information-processing domains: probabilistic inference, the representation of uncertainty, and the representation of space. We argue for a change in the conceptual framework within which neuroscientists approach the study of learning mechanisms in the brain.

  7. Media reporting of neuroscience depends on timing, topic and newspaper type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke M van Atteveldt

    Full Text Available The rapid developments in neuroscientific techniques raise high expectations among the general public and therefore warrant close monitoring of the translation to the media and daily-life applications. The need of empirical research into neuroscience communication is emphasized by its susceptibility to evoke misconceptions and polarized beliefs. As the mass media are the main sources of information about (neuro-science for a majority of the general public, the objective of the current research is to quantify how critically and accurately newspapers report on neuroscience as a function of the timing of publication (within or outside of periods of heightened media attention to neuroscience, termed "news waves", the topic of the research (e.g. development, health, law and the newspaper type (quality, popular, free newspapers. The results show that articles published during neuroscience news waves were less neutral and more optimistic, but not different in accuracy. Furthermore, the overall tone and accuracy of articles depended on the topic; for example, articles on development often had an optimistic tone whereas articles on law were often skeptical or balanced, and articles on health care had highest accuracy. Average accuracy was rather low, but articles in quality newspapers were relatively more accurate than in popular and free newspapers. Our results provide specific recommendations for researchers and science communicators, to improve the translation of neuroscience findings through the media: 1 Caution is warranted during periods of heightened attention (news waves, as reporting tends to be more optimistic; 2 Caution is also warranted not to follow topic-related biases in optimism (e.g., development or skepticism (e.g., law; 3 Researchers should keep in mind that overall accuracy of reporting is low, and especially articles in popular and free newspapers provide a minimal amount of details. This indicates that researchers themselves may

  8. Media Reporting of Neuroscience Depends on Timing, Topic and Newspaper Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M.; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Jacobi, Carina; Ruigrok, Nel

    2014-01-01

    The rapid developments in neuroscientific techniques raise high expectations among the general public and therefore warrant close monitoring of the translation to the media and daily-life applications. The need of empirical research into neuroscience communication is emphasized by its susceptibility to evoke misconceptions and polarized beliefs. As the mass media are the main sources of information about (neuro-)science for a majority of the general public, the objective of the current research is to quantify how critically and accurately newspapers report on neuroscience as a function of the timing of publication (within or outside of periods of heightened media attention to neuroscience, termed “news waves”), the topic of the research (e.g. development, health, law) and the newspaper type (quality, popular, free newspapers). The results show that articles published during neuroscience news waves were less neutral and more optimistic, but not different in accuracy. Furthermore, the overall tone and accuracy of articles depended on the topic; for example, articles on development often had an optimistic tone whereas articles on law were often skeptical or balanced, and articles on health care had highest accuracy. Average accuracy was rather low, but articles in quality newspapers were relatively more accurate than in popular and free newspapers. Our results provide specific recommendations for researchers and science communicators, to improve the translation of neuroscience findings through the media: 1) Caution is warranted during periods of heightened attention (news waves), as reporting tends to be more optimistic; 2) Caution is also warranted not to follow topic-related biases in optimism (e.g., development) or skepticism (e.g., law); 3) Researchers should keep in mind that overall accuracy of reporting is low, and especially articles in popular and free newspapers provide a minimal amount of details. This indicates that researchers themselves may need to

  9. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure–function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging, has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example, more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments, including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. Such future developments may offer an expanded set of tools with which to investigate structure–function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualize testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal roles in cognition. PMID:23631540

  10. An analysis of the abstracts presented at the annual meetings of the Society for Neuroscience from 2001 to 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Lin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Annual meeting abstracts published by scientific societies often contain rich arrays of information that can be computationally mined and distilled to elucidate the state and dynamics of the subject field. We extracted and processed abstract data from the Society for Neuroscience (SFN annual meeting abstracts during the period 2001-2006 in order to gain an objective view of contemporary neuroscience. An important first step in the process was the application of data cleaning and disambiguation methods to construct a unified database, since the data were too noisy to be of full utility in the raw form initially available. Using natural language processing, text mining, and other data analysis techniques, we then examined the demographics and structure of the scientific collaboration network, the dynamics of the field over time, major research trends, and the structure of the sources of research funding. Some interesting findings include a high geographical concentration of neuroscience research in the north eastern United States, a surprisingly large transient population (66% of the authors appear in only one out of the six studied years, the central role played by the study of neurodegenerative disorders in the neuroscience community, and an apparent growth of behavioral/systems neuroscience with a corresponding shrinkage of cellular/molecular neuroscience over the six year period. The results from this work will prove useful for scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies seeking to gain a complete and unbiased picture of the community structure and body of knowledge encapsulated by a specific scientific domain.

  11. Theory and method at the intersection of anthropology and cultural neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have become increasingly interested in embodiment—that is, the ways that socio-cultural factors influence the form, behavior and subjective experience of human bodies. At the same time, social cognitive neuroscience has begun to reveal the mechanisms of embodiment by investigating the neural underpinnings and consequences of social experience. Despite this overlap, the two fields have barely engaged one another. We suggest three interconnected domains of inquiry in which the intersection of neuroscience and anthropology can productively inform our understanding of the relationship between human brains and their socio-cultural contexts. These are: the social construction of emotion, cultural psychiatry, and the embodiment of ritual. We build on both current research findings in cultural neuroscience and ethnographic data on cultural differences in thought and behavior, to generate novel, ecologically informed hypotheses for future study. In addition, we lay out a specific suggestion for operationalizing insights from anthropology in the context of cultural neuroscience research. Specifically, we advocate the development of field studies that use portable measurement technologies to connect individual patterns of biological response with socio-cultural processes. We illustrate the potential of such an approach with data from a study of psychophysiology and religious devotion in Northeastern Brazil. PMID:19965815

  12. Neurotree: a collaborative, graphical database of the academic genealogy of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Stephen V; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2012-01-01

    Neurotree is an online database that documents the lineage of academic mentorship in neuroscience. Modeled on the tree format typically used to describe biological genealogies, the Neurotree web site provides a concise summary of the intellectual history of neuroscience and relationships between individuals in the current neuroscience community. The contents of the database are entirely crowd-sourced: any internet user can add information about researchers and the connections between them. As of July 2012, Neurotree has collected information from 10,000 users about 35,000 researchers and 50,000 mentor relationships, and continues to grow. The present report serves to highlight the utility of Neurotree as a resource for academic research and to summarize some basic analysis of its data. The tree structure of the database permits a variety of graphical analyses. We find that the connectivity and graphical distance between researchers entered into Neurotree early has stabilized and thus appears to be mostly complete. The connectivity of more recent entries continues to mature. A ranking of researcher fecundity based on their mentorship reveals a sustained period of influential researchers from 1850-1950, with the most influential individuals active at the later end of that period. Finally, a clustering analysis reveals that some subfields of neuroscience are reflected in tightly interconnected mentor-trainee groups.

  13. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Seavey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Journal of Sports Medicine & Allied Health Sciences, 2016;2(1 ISSN: 2376-9289 Seavey, Beatty, Lenhoff, & Krause. Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Neuroscience Knowledge Among Athletic Training Professional Programs Douglas M. Seavey, AT, Christopher T. Beatty, Tyler L. Lenhoff, & Bentley A. Krause, PhD, AT Ohio University, College of Health Sciences & Professions, Division of Athletic Training. ____________________________________________________________________ Context: Athletic trainers (ATs, more than any other healthcare professional, has expertise in areas of on-field assessment and management of sport related concussion and spinal cord injury. A search of the key words “brain” (n=>100 or “spinal cord/spine” (n=~50 were identified in National Athletic Trainers’ Association Position Statements on Concussion and Spinal Cord Injury. However, a significant gap exists in the basic science knowledge of neuroscience and neuroanatomy. Objective: The goal of this study is to identify the basic science coursework in professional and post-professional athletic training curricula. Design and Setting: This is a descriptive, curricula analysis of CAATE Professional and Post-Professional Athletic Training Programs using web-based search and review. Participants: Curricula for accredited Professional (n=336 and Post-Professional (n=15 Athletic Training Programs were reviewed and analyzed to characteristics basic science content. Interventions: This web-based program review of CAATE standard course content and elective options occurred. Main Outcome Measures: Course titles, numbers and descriptions were accessed at CAATE.net and offerings of anatomy, gross anatomy, neuroanatomy and neuroscience, human physiology, exercise physiology, psychology, chemistry and physics content were quantified. Main outcome measures include frequencies and distributions of courses in each subject area. Results: We reviewed 309

  14. [Food behaviour and obesity: insights from decision neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivia; Basso, Frédéric; Huguet, Pascal; Plassmann, Hilke; Oullier, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Neuroimaging allows to estimate brain activity when individuals are doing something. The location and intensity of this estimated activity provides information on the dynamics and processes that guide choice behaviour and associated actions that should be considered a complement to behavioural studies. Decision neuroscience therefore sheds new light on whether the brain evaluates and compares alternatives when decisions are made, or if other processes are at stake. This work helped to demonstrate that the situations faced by individuals (risky, uncertain, delayed in time) do not all have the same (behavioural) complexity, and are not underlined by activity in the cerebral networks. Taking into account brain dynamics of people (suffering from obesity or not) when making food consumption decisions might allow for improved strategies in public health prevention, far from the rational choice theory promoted by neoclassical economics. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  15. Reading beyond the glance: eye tracking in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Livia; Selejan, Ovidiu; Scott, Allan; Mureşanu, Dafin F; Balea, Maria; Rafila, Alexandru

    2015-05-01

    From an interdisciplinary approach, the neurosciences (NSs) represent the junction of many fields (biology, chemistry, medicine, computer science, and psychology) and aim to explore the structural and functional aspects of the nervous system. Among modern neurophysiological methods that "measure" different processes of the human brain to salience stimuli, a special place belongs to eye tracking (ET). By detecting eye position, gaze direction, sequence of eye movement and visual adaptation during cognitive activities, ET is an effective tool for experimental psychology and neurological research. It provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the gaze, which is very useful in understanding choice behavior and perceptual decision making. In the high tech era, ET has several applications related to the interaction between humans and computers. Herein, ET is used to evaluate the spatial orienting of attention, the performance in visual tasks, the reactions to information on websites, the customer response to advertising, and the emotional and cognitive impact of various spurs to the brain.

  16. Optogenetic Approaches to Drug Discovery in Neuroscience and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkang; Cohen, Adam E

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in optogenetics have opened new routes to drug discovery, particularly in neuroscience. Physiological cellular assays probe functional phenotypes that connect genomic data to patient health. Optogenetic tools, in particular tools for all-optical electrophysiology, now provide a means to probe cellular disease models with unprecedented throughput and information content. These techniques promise to identify functional phenotypes associated with disease states and to identify compounds that improve cellular function regardless of whether the compound acts directly on a target or through a bypass mechanism. This review discusses opportunities and unresolved challenges in applying optogenetic techniques throughout the discovery pipeline - from target identification and validation, to target-based and phenotypic screens, to clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  18. Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberger, M.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular imaging in neurology and neuroscience is a suspenseful and fast developing tool in order to quantitatively image genomics and proteomics by means of direct and indirect markers. Because of its high-sensitive tracer principle, nuclear medicine imaging has the pioneering task for the methodical progression of molecular imaging. The current development of molecular imaging in neurology changes from the use of indirect markers of gene and protein expression to the direct imaging of the molecular mechanisms. It is the aim of this article to give a short review on the status quo of molecular imaging in neurology with emphasis on clinically relevant aspects. (orig.)

  19. A geographical history of social cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-06-01

    The history of social cognitive neuroscience (SCN) began with isolated islands of research in Europe and the United States in the 1990s. In the decade between 1995 and 2004 most of the major areas of current SCN research were identified in a series of high profile first studies. This paper reviews the timeline as well as the geography of important moments in the short history of this field. Of note is the different focus seen in European contributions (theory of mind, mirror neurons, and empathy) and the more self-focused U.S. contributions (self-knowledge, emotion regulation, implicit attitudes). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational and cognitive neuroscience of vision

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Despite a plethora of scientific literature devoted to vision research and the trend toward integrative research, the borders between disciplines remain a practical difficulty. To address this problem, this book provides a systematic and comprehensive overview of vision from various perspectives, ranging from neuroscience to cognition, and from computational principles to engineering developments. It is written by leading international researchers in the field, with an emphasis on linking multiple disciplines and the impact such synergy can lead to in terms of both scientific breakthroughs and technology innovations. It is aimed at active researchers and interested scientists and engineers in related fields.

  1. Prosody and synchronization in cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsucci Franco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce our methodological study with a short review of the main literature on embodied language, including some recent studies in neuroscience. We investigated this component of natural language using Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA. RQA is a relatively new statistical methodology, particularly effective in complex systems. RQA provided a reliable quantitative description of recurrences in text sequences at the orthographic level. In order to provide examples of the potential impact of this methodology, we used RQA to measure structural coupling and synchronization in natural and clinical verbal interactions. Results show the efficacy of this methodology and possible implications.

  2. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2009-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience data sharing. Datasets, data analysis tools, web resources, and other entities are characterized by multiple descriptors, each addressing core concepts, including data type, acquisition technique, neuroanatomy, and cell class. Terms for each concept are organized in a tree structure, providing is-a and has-a relations. Broad general terms near each root span the category or concept and spawn more detailed entries for specificity. Related but distinct concepts (e.g., brain area and depth) are specified by separate trees, for easier navigation than would be required by graph representation. Semantics enabling NIF data discovery were selected at one or more workshops by investigators expert in particular systems (vision, olfaction, behavioral neuroscience, neurodevelopment), brain areas (cerebellum, thalamus, hippocampus), preparations (molluscs, fly), diseases (neurodegenerative disease), or techniques (microscopy, computation and modeling, neurogenetics). Workshop-derived integrated term lists are available Open Source at http://brainml.org; a complete list of participants is at http://brainml.org/workshops. PMID:18958630

  3. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Systems Neuroscience of Psychosis: Mapping Schizophrenia Symptoms onto Brain Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strik, Werner; Stegmayer, Katharina; Walther, Sebastian; Dierks, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Schizophrenia research has been in a deadlock for many decades. Despite important advances in clinical treatment, there are still major concerns regarding long-term psychosocial reintegration and disease management, biological heterogeneity, unsatisfactory predictors of individual course and treatment strategies, and a confusing variety of controversial theories about its etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms. In the present perspective on schizophrenia research, we first discuss a methodological pitfall in contemporary schizophrenia research inherent in the attempt to link mental phenomena with the brain: we claim that the time-honored phenomenological method of defining mental symptoms should not be contaminated with the naturalistic approach of modern neuroscience. We then describe our Systems Neuroscience of Psychosis (SyNoPsis) project, which aims to overcome this intrinsic problem of psychiatric research. Considering schizophrenia primarily as a disorder of interindividual communication, we developed a neurobiologically informed semiotics of psychotic disorders, as well as an operational clinical rating scale. The novel psychopathology allows disentangling the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia into behavioral domains matching the functions of three well-described higher-order corticobasal brain systems involved in interindividual human communication, namely, the limbic, associative, and motor loops, including their corticocortical sensorimotor connections. The results of several empirical studies support the hypothesis that the proposed three-dimensional symptom structure, segregated into the affective, the language, and the motor domain, can be specifically mapped onto structural and functional abnormalities of the respective brain systems. New pathophysiological hypotheses derived from this brain system-oriented approach have helped to develop and improve novel treatment strategies with noninvasive brain stimulation and practicable clinical

  5. Task-irrelevant novel sounds improve attentional performance in children with and without ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eTegelbeckers

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Task-irrelevant salient stimuli involuntarily capture attention and can lead to distraction from an ongoing task, especially in children with ADHD. However, there has been tentative evidence that the presentation of novel sounds can have beneficial effects on cognitive performance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of novel sounds compared to no sound and a repeatedly presented standard sound on attentional performance in children and adolescents with and without ADHD. We therefore had 32 patients with ADHD and 32 typically developing children and adolescents (8 to 13 years executed a flanker task in which each trial was preceded either by a repeatedly presented standard sound (33%, an unrepeated novel sound (33% or no auditory stimulation (33%. Task-irrelevant novel sounds facilitated attentional performance similarly in children with and without ADHD, as indicated by reduced omission error rates, reaction times, and reaction time variability without compromising performance accuracy. By contrast, standard sounds, while also reducing omission error rates and reaction times, led to increased commission error rates. Therefore, the beneficial effect of novel sounds exceeds cueing of the target display by potentially increased alerting and/or enhanced behavioral control.

  6. Algorithmic modeling of the irrelevant sound effect (ISE) by the hearing sensation fluctuation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weissgerber, Tobias; Kerber, Stefan; Fastl, Hugo; Hellbrück, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background sounds, such as narration, music with prominent staccato passages, and office noise impair verbal short-term memory even when these sounds are irrelevant. This irrelevant sound effect (ISE) is evoked by so-called changing-state sounds that are characterized by a distinct temporal structure with varying successive auditory-perceptive tokens. However, because of the absence of an appropriate psychoacoustically based instrumental measure, the disturbing impact of a given speech or nonspeech sound could not be predicted until now, but necessitated behavioral testing. Our database for parametric modeling of the ISE included approximately 40 background sounds (e.g., speech, music, tone sequences, office noise, traffic noise) and corresponding performance data that was collected from 70 behavioral measurements of verbal short-term memory. The hearing sensation fluctuation strength was chosen to model the ISE and describes the percept of fluctuations when listening to slowly modulated sounds (f(mod) background sounds, the algorithm estimated behavioral performance data in 63 of 70 cases within the interquartile ranges. In particular, all real-world sounds were modeled adequately, whereas the algorithm overestimated the (non-)disturbance impact of synthetic steady-state sounds that were constituted by a repeated vowel or tone. Implications of the algorithm's strengths and prediction errors are discussed.

  7. Synchronized brain activity during rehearsal and short-term memory disruption by irrelevant speech is affected by recall mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Schröger, Erich; Lipka, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    EEG coherence as a measure of synchronization of brain activity was used to investigate effects of irrelevant speech. In a delayed serial recall paradigm 21 healthy participants retained verbal items over a 10-s delay with and without interfering irrelevant speech. Recall after the delay was varied in two modes (spoken vs. written). Behavioral data showed the classic irrelevant speech effect and a superiority of written over spoken recall mode. Coherence, however, was more sensitive to processing characteristics and showed interactions between the irrelevant speech effect and recall mode during the rehearsal delay in theta (4-7.5 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (13-20 Hz), and gamma (35-47 Hz) frequency bands. For gamma, a rehearsal-related decrease of the duration of high coherence due to presentation of irrelevant speech was found in a left-lateralized fronto-central and centro-temporal network only in spoken but not in written recall. In theta, coherence at predominantly fronto-parietal electrode combinations was indicative for memory demands and varied with individual working memory capacity assessed by digit span. Alpha coherence revealed similar results and patterns as theta coherence. In beta, a left-hemispheric network showed longer high synchronizations due to irrelevant speech only in written recall mode. EEG results suggest that mode of recall is critical for processing already during the retention period of a delayed serial recall task. Moreover, the finding that different networks are engaged with different recall modes shows that the disrupting effect of irrelevant speech is not a unitary mechanism.

  8. History and neuroscience: an integrative legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Stephen T

    2014-03-01

    The attitudes that characterize the contemporary "neuro-turn" were strikingly commonplace as part of the self-fashioning of social identity in the biographies and personal papers of past neurologists and neuroscientists. Indeed, one fundamental connection between nineteenth- and twentieth-century neurology and contemporary neuroscience appears to be the value that workers in both domains attach to the idea of integration, a vision of neural science and medicine that connected reductionist science to broader inquiries about the mind, brain, and human nature and in so doing supposedly resolved once and for all questions germane to the human sciences, humanities, and arts. How those attitudes were produced and reproduced first in neurology and then in neuroscience; in what way they were constructed and disciplined, thereby eventuating in the contested sciences and medicines of the mind, brain, and nervous system; and even how they garnered ever-wider contemporary purchase in cultures and societies are thus fascinating problems for historians of science and medicine. Such problems shed light on ethics, practices, controversies, and the uneasy social relations within those scientific and medical domains. But more to the point of this essay: they also account for the apparent epistemological weight now accorded "the neuro" in our contemporary moment. They thus illuminate in a rather different way why historians have suddenly discovered the value of "the neuro".

  9. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. "Scientific roots" of dualism in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2006-07-01

    Although the dualistic concept is unpopular among neuroscientists involved in experimental studies of the brain, neurophysiological literature is full of covert dualistic statements on the possibility of understanding neural mechanisms of human consciousness. Particularly, the covert dualistic attitude is exhibited in the unwillingness to discuss neural mechanisms of consciousness, leaving the problem of consciousness to psychologists and philosophers. This covert dualism seems to be rooted in the main paradigm of neuroscience that suggests that cognitive functions, such as language production and comprehension, face recognition, declarative memory, emotions, etc., are performed by neural networks consisting of simple elements. I argue that neural networks of any complexity consisting of neurons whose function is limited to the generation of electrical potentials and the transmission of signals to other neurons are hardly capable of producing human mental activity, including consciousness. Based on results obtained in physiological, morphological, clinical, and genetic studies of cognitive functions (mainly linguistic ones), I advocate the hypothesis that the performance of cognitive functions is based on complex cooperative activity of "complex" neurons that are carriers of "elementary cognition." The uniqueness of human cognitive functions, which has a genetic basis, is determined by the specificity of genes expressed by these "complex" neurons. The main goal of the review is to show that the identification of the genes implicated in cognitive functions and the understanding of a functional role of their products is a possible way to overcome covert dualism in neuroscience.

  11. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  12. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching “applied creativity” and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity) than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%. PMID:24137120

  13. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  14. Brain Matters: A Journey with Neuroscience and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to enjoy a renaissance of study and a range of responses, both in explorations of religious experience and in educational practice. Neuroscience, as an interdisciplinary field, attained a new ascendancy at the end of the 20th century, known as the decade of the brain. New insights continue to influence education and public…

  15. Towards an Understanding of Neuroscience for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience have brought new insights to the development of cognitive functions. These data are of considerable interest to educators concerned with how students learn. This review documents some of the recent findings in neuroscience, which is richer in describing cognitive functions than affective aspects of learning. A brief…

  16. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  17. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  18. Bridging media psychology and cognitive neuroscience: Challenges and opportunities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, R.; Eden, A.L.; Huskey, R; Mangus, J.M; Falk, E

    2015-01-01

    Media neuroscience has emerged as a new area of study at the intersection of media psychology and cognitive neuroscience. In previous work, we have addressed this trend from a methodological perspective. In this paper, we outline the progression of scholarship in systematic investigations of mass

  19. Applying Neuroscience to Enhance Tactical Leader Cognitive Performance in Combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    highlights works inspired by neuroscience discoveries in the last twenty years. Neuroscience Literature and Research In his 1994 book, Descartes ’ Error...http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ facts.html (accessed 9 October 2011). Damasio, Antonio. 1994. Descartes ’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human

  20. Arkheia: Data Management and Communication for Open Computational Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolík, Ján; Davison, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    Two trends have been unfolding in computational neuroscience during the last decade. First, a shift of focus to increasingly complex and heterogeneous neural network models, with a concomitant increase in the level of collaboration within the field (whether direct or in the form of building on top of existing tools and results). Second, a general trend in science toward more open communication, both internally, with other potential scientific collaborators, and externally, with the wider public. This multi-faceted development toward more integrative approaches and more intense communication within and outside of the field poses major new challenges for modelers, as currently there is a severe lack of tools to help with automatic communication and sharing of all aspects of a simulation workflow to the rest of the community. To address this important gap in the current computational modeling software infrastructure, here we introduce Arkheia. Arkheia is a web-based open science platform for computational models in systems neuroscience. It provides an automatic, interactive, graphical presentation of simulation results, experimental protocols, and interactive exploration of parameter searches, in a web browser-based application. Arkheia is focused on automatic presentation of these resources with minimal manual input from users. Arkheia is written in a modular fashion with a focus on future development of the platform. The platform is designed in an open manner, with a clearly defined and separated API for database access, so that any project can write its own backend translating its data into the Arkheia database format. Arkheia is not a centralized platform, but allows any user (or group of users) to set up their own repository, either for public access by the general population, or locally for internal use. Overall, Arkheia provides users with an automatic means to communicate information about not only their models but also individual simulation results and the

  1. Intranasal oxytocin impedes the ability to ignore task-irrelevant facial expressions of sadness in students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie; Cardoso, Christopher; Joober, Ridha

    2013-03-01

    The administration of oxytocin promotes prosocial behavior in humans. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown, but it likely involves changes in social information processing. In a randomized placebo-controlled study, we examined the influence of intranasal oxytocin and placebo on the interference control component of inhibition (i.e. ability to ignore task-irrelevant information) in 102 participants using a negative affective priming task with sad, angry, and happy faces. In this task, participants are instructed to respond to a facial expression of emotion while simultaneously ignoring another emotional face. On the subsequent trial, the previously-ignored emotional valence may become the emotional valence of the target face. Inhibition is operationalized as the differential delay between responding to a previously-ignored emotional valence and responding to an emotional valence unrelated to the previous one. Although no main effect of drug administration on inhibition was observed, a drug × depressive symptom interaction (β = -0.25; t = -2.6, p < 0.05) predicted the inhibition of sad faces. Relative to placebo, participants with high depression scores who were administered oxytocin were unable to inhibit the processing of sad faces. There was no relationship between drug administration and inhibition among those with low depression scores. These findings are consistent with increasing evidence that oxytocin alters social information processing in ways that have both positive and negative social outcomes. Because elevated depression scores are associated with an increased risk for major depressive disorder, difficulties inhibiting mood-congruent stimuli following oxytocin administration may be associated with risk for depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Integrated Neuroscience Perspective on Formulation and Treatment Planning for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Educational Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Travis, Michael J; Dwyer, Jennifer B; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric illness, increasingly in the public spotlight in the United States due its prevalence in the soldiers returning from combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. This educational review presents a contemporary approach for how to incorporate a modern neuroscience perspective into an integrative case formulation. The article is organized around key neuroscience "themes" most relevant for PTSD. Within each theme, the article highlights how seemingly diverse biological, psychological, and social perspectives all intersect with our current understanding of neuroscience. Any contemporary neuroscience formulation of PTSD should include an understanding of fear conditioning, dysregulated circuits, memory reconsolidation, epigenetics, and genetic factors. Fear conditioning and other elements of basic learning theory offer a framework for understanding how traumatic events can lead to a range of behaviors associated with PTSD. A circuit dysregulation framework focuses more broadly on aberrant network connectivity, including between the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures. In the process of memory reconsolidation, it is now clear that every time a memory is reactivated it becomes momentarily labile-with implications for the genesis, maintenance, and treatment of PTSD. Epigenetic changes secondary to various experiences, especially early in life, can have long-term effects, including on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, thereby affecting an individual's ability to regulate the stress response. Genetic factors are surprisingly relevant: PTSD has been shown to be highly heritable despite being definitionally linked to specific experiences. The relevance of each of these themes to current clinical practice and its potential to transform future care are discussed. Together, these perspectives contribute to an integrative, neuroscience-informed approach to case formulation and treatment planning. This may

  3. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching "applied creativity" and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied Neuro...... in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training...... is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait...

  4. Constructivist developmental theory is needed in developmental neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Neuroscience techniques provide an open window previously unavailable to the origin of thoughts and actions in children. Developmental cognitive neuroscience is booming, and knowledge from human brain mapping is finding its way into education and pediatric practice. Promises of application in developmental cognitive neuroscience rests however on better theory-guided data interpretation. Massive amounts of neuroimaging data from children are being processed, yet published studies often do not frame their work within developmental models—in detriment, we believe, to progress in this field. Here we describe some core challenges in interpreting the data from developmental cognitive neuroscience, and advocate the use of constructivist developmental theories of human cognition with a neuroscience interpretation.

  5. Irrelevant sound disrupts speech production: exploring the relationship between short-term memory and experimentally induced slips of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Satoru; Baddeley, Alan

    2004-10-01

    To explore the relationship between short-term memory and speech production, we developed a speech error induction technique. The technique, which was adapted from a Japanese word game, exposed participants to an auditory distractor word immediately before the utterance of a target word. In Experiment 1, the distractor words that were phonologically similar to the target word led to a greater number of errors in speaking the target than did the dissimilar distractor words. Furthermore, the speech error scores were significantly correlated with memory span scores. In Experiment 2, memory span scores were again correlated with the rate of the speech errors that were induced from the task-irrelevant speech sounds. Experiment 3 showed a strong irrelevant-sound effect in the serial recall of nonwords. The magnitude of the irrelevant-sound effects was not affected by phonological similarity between the to-be-remembered nonwords and the irrelevant-sound materials. Analysis of recall errors in Experiment 3 also suggested that there were no essential differences in recall error patterns between the dissimilar and similar irrelevant-sound conditions. We proposed two different underlying mechanisms in immediate memory, one operating via the phonological short-term memory store and the other via the processes underpinning speech production.

  6. A short history of neurosciences in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, K A

    2006-03-01

    Based on internal medicine and psychiatry and in close connection with pathology, the neurosciences in Austria began to develop in the 18(th) century, e.g. with the description of inflammation of the central nervous system by J. P. Franck (1745-1823) and the "phrenology" by F. J. Gall (1745-1823). Under the influence of the great pathologist C. Rokitansky (1804-1878), the tripode of the Vienna neurology - L. Türck (1810-1868), as initiator, Th. v. Meynert (1833-1892) the activator, and H. Obersteiner (1847-1922) as the founder of the Vienna Neurological Institute, presented basic contributions to the morphology and pathology of the nervous system. At the end of the 19(th) and in the early 20(th) century, they were followed by important publications by S. Fred (aphasia), C. Redlich (tabes dorsalis), F. Sträussler (CNS syphilis), A. Spitzer (fiber anatomy of the brain), P. Schilder (diffuse sclerosis), R. Barany (Nobel price for physiology and medicine 1914), J. Wagner v. Jauregg (Nobel price for medicine, 1927), O. Loewi (Nobel Price for Physiology and Medicine together with Sir H. Dale, 1936), A. Schüller (histiocytosis X), C. v. Economo (encephalitis lethargica and cytoarchitectonics of the human cerebral cortex), E. Pollak (Wilson disease), E. Gamper (mesencephalic subject), J. Gerstmann (Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and Gerstmann parietal syndrome), H. Hoff with L. Schönbauer (brain tumors and surgery), and others. Major research institutions were the departments of psychiatry I and II at the University of Vienna School of Medicine (foundation 1870), unification 1911, separation into departments of neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychiatry of children and adolescents in 1971), the Obersteiner Institute in Vienna (foundation 1882, separation 1993), the university departments at Graz and Innsbruck, both founded in 1891, and other laboratories, where renouned clinicans and neuroscientists, like O. Marburg, H. Hoff, O. Pötzl, O. Kauders, F

  7. Neurogenethics: An emerging discipline at the intersection of ethics, neuroscience, and genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Canli, Turhan

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) associated with genetics (?genethics?) has focused on traditional concerns in bioethics, such as privacy and informed consent. The analysis of ELSI associated with neuroscience (?neuroethics?) has focused on concerns related to personhood, such as free will or cognitive enhancement. With neurogenomics coming of age, this is an appropriate time to attend to the set of novel concerns that arises when we consider the confluence of th...

  8. Empirical assessment of published effect sizes and power in the recent cognitive neuroscience and psychology literature

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Ioannidis, JPA

    2017-01-01

    Author summary Biomedical science, psychology, and many other fields may be suffering from a serious replication crisis. In order to gain insight into some factors behind this crisis, we have analyzed statistical information extracted from thousands of cognitive neuroscience and psychology research papers. We established that the statistical power to discover existing relationships has not improved during the past half century. A consequence of low statistical power is that research studies a...

  9. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Davison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  10. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  11. Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience Then and Now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Margaret E

    2017-02-15

    The 16th International Conference on Monitoring Molecules in Neuroscience (MMiN) was held in Gothenburg, Sweden in late spring 2016. This conference originated as a methods meeting focused on in vivo voltammetric techniques and microdialysis. Over time, however, the scope has evolved to include a number of other methods for neurochemical detection that range from single-cell fluorescence in vitro and in vivo in animal models to whole-brain imaging in humans. Overall, MMiN provides a unique forum for introducing new developments in neurochemical detection, as well as for reporting exciting neurobiological insights provided by established and novel methods. This Viewpoint includes a brief history of the meeting, factors that have contributed its evolution, and some highlights of MMiN 2016.

  12. Concerns about cultural neurosciences: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Mateo, Marina; Cabanis, Maurice; Cruz de Echeverría Loebell, Nicole; Krach, Sören

    2012-01-01

    Ten years ago, neuroscientists began to study cultural phenomena by using functional MRI. Since then the number of publications in this field, termed cultural neuroscience (CN), has tremendously increased. In these studies, particular concepts of culture are implied, but rarely explicitly discussed. We argue that it is necessary to make these concepts a topic of debate in order to unravel the foundations of CN. From 40 fMRI studies we extracted two strands of reasoning: models investigating universal mechanisms for the formation of cultural groups and habits and, models assessing differences in characteristics among cultural groups. Both strands simplify culture as an inflexible set of traits and specificities. We question this rigid understanding of culture and highlight its hidden evaluative nature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optogenetic Tools for Subcellular Applications in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Benjamin R; Schneider-Warme, Franziska; Schmitz, Dietmar; Hegemann, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The ability to study cellular physiology using photosensitive, genetically encoded molecules has profoundly transformed neuroscience. The modern optogenetic toolbox includes fluorescent sensors to visualize signaling events in living cells and optogenetic actuators enabling manipulation of numerous cellular activities. Most optogenetic tools are not targeted to specific subcellular compartments but are localized with limited discrimination throughout the cell. Therefore, optogenetic activation often does not reflect context-dependent effects of highly localized intracellular signaling events. Subcellular targeting is required to achieve more specific optogenetic readouts and photomanipulation. Here we first provide a detailed overview of the available optogenetic tools with a focus on optogenetic actuators. Second, we review established strategies for targeting these tools to specific subcellular compartments. Finally, we discuss useful tools and targeting strategies that are currently missing from the optogenetics repertoire and provide suggestions for novel subcellular optogenetic applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Neuroeconomics: Bringing Neuroscience and Economics Together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelengül KOÇASLAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There are revealed situations in economics where the key axioms of mainstream theory are violated. Bandwagon, snob and Veblen effects are the examples from the demand theory . Maurice Allais and Daniel Ellsberg have determined the behavior anomalies under risk and uncertainty in 1953 and in 1962 respectively. Deviations from the optimal economic behavior have been argued by several economists and psychologists. Currently the components of economic behavior is being discussed at a neural base by neuroeconomists combining the methods of neuroscience and economics. This study is designed to understand neuroeconomics, its techniques and applications and also it is aimed to better understand the basic motives underlying economic behavior in real life situations

  15. Mechanisms, determination and the metaphysics of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soom, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, I evaluate recently defended mechanistic accounts of the unity of neuroscience from a metaphysical point of view. Considering the mechanistic framework in general (Sections 2 and 3), I argue that explanations of this kind are essentially reductive (Section 4). The reductive character of mechanistic explanations provides a sufficiency criterion, according to which the mechanism underlying a certain phenomenon is sufficient for the latter. Thus, the concept of supervenience can be used in order to describe the relation between mechanisms and phenomena (Section 5). Against this background, I show that the mechanistic framework is subject to the causal exclusion problem and faces the classical metaphysical options when it comes to the relations obtaining between different levels of mechanisms (Section 6). Finally, an attempt to improve the metaphysics of mechanisms is made (Section 7) and further difficulties are pointed out (Section 8). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-07-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway) were resistance fighters, tortured by the Gestapo: Thygesen was imprisoned in concentration camps and Sæthre executed. Jan Jansen (Norway), another neuroscientist resistor, escaped to Sweden, returning under disguise to continue fighting. Fritz Buchthal (Denmark) was one of almost 8000 Jews escaping deportation by fleeing from Copenhagen to Sweden. In contrast, Carl Værnet (Denmark) became a collaborator, conducting inhuman experiments in Buchenwald concentration camp, and Herman Lundborg (Sweden) and Thorleif Østrem (Norway) advanced racial hygiene in order to maintain the "superior genetic pool of the Nordic race." Compared to other Nazi-occupied countries, there was a high ratio of resistance fighters to collaborators and victims among the neuroscientists in Scandinavia.

  17. Neural networks engaged in short-term memory rehearsal are disrupted by irrelevant speech in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Schröger, Erich; Lipka, Sigrid

    2004-01-02

    Rehearsal mechanisms in human short-term memory are increasingly understood in the light of both behavioural and neuroanatomical findings. However, little is known about the cooperation of participating brain structures and how such cooperations are affected when memory performance is disrupted. In this paper we use EEG coherence as a measure of synchronization to investigate rehearsal processes and their disruption by irrelevant speech in a delayed serial recall paradigm. Fronto-central and fronto-parietal theta (4-7.5 Hz), beta (13-20 Hz), and gamma (35-47 Hz) synchronizations are shown to be involved in our short-term memory task. Moreover, the impairment in serial recall due to irrelevant speech was preceded by a reduction of gamma band coherence. Results suggest that the irrelevant speech effect has its neural basis in the disruption of left-lateralized fronto-central networks. This stresses the importance of gamma band activity for short-term memory operations.

  18. [Spanish neuroscience in times of Don Quixote].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, Antonio; Mikola, Yvett; Almendral-Doncel, Raquel; Campos-Bueno, Javier

    2016-02-16

    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra published his immortal work Don Quixote of La Mancha in a time of crisis and decadence in Spain that occurred during the transition between the 16th and 17th centuries. In 2016 we commemorate the fourth centenary of the death of our distinguished man of letters, and thus in this article we analyse the status of Hispanic neuroscience, both in the Quixote itself and in other works by the most significant contemporary writers of that time. Despite the adverse historical circumstances, the shift from the Renaissance to the Baroque periods, in the Crown of Castile, was a flourishing period for literature (Spanish Golden Age) and other Hispanic arts (painting, sculpture, architecture and music), as well as bearing witness to a prodigious creativity in the field of neuroscience, including the field of natural philosophy. In his book Antoniana Margarita the physician Gomez Pereira laid the foundations for brain mechanism and the concept of conditioned reflexes several decades ahead of his time. The apothecary Miguel Sabuco also anticipated the concept of neurotransmission centuries ahead of his time in his New Philosophy. The physician Juan Huarte de San Juan was the founder of neuropsychology and experimental psychology, and his Examination of Men's Wits has been one of the most influential and widely translated scientific texts of all times. Its concepts are clearly reflected in Cervantes' Quixote. This analysis of Cervantes' work within the cultural setting of the book is intended as a homage to the immortal figure of our 'Prince of Wits' in the fourth centenary of his death.

  19. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current educational issues in the clinical neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, R; Elleker, M G; Goldsand, G; Hugenholtz, H; Puddester, D; Toyota, B; Findlay, J M

    2001-11-01

    Canadian training in the clinical neurosciences, neurology and neurosurgery, faces significant challenges. New balances are being set by residents, their associations and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada between clinical service, education and personal time. The nature of hospital-provided medical service has changed significantly over the past decade, impacting importantly on resident training. Finally, future manpower needs are of concern, especially in the field of neurosurgery, where it appears that soon more specialists will be trained than can be absorbed into the Canadian health care system. A special symposium on current challenges in clinical neuroscience training was held at the Canadian Congress of Neurological Sciences in June 2000. Representatives from the Canadian Association of Interns and Residents, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and English and French neurology and neurosurgery training programs made presentations, which are summarized in this report. Residency training has become less service-oriented, and this trend will continue. In order to manage the increasingly sophisticated hospital services of neurology and neurosurgery, resident-alternatives in the form of physician "moonlighters" or more permanent hospital-based clinicians or "hospitalists" will be necessary in order to operate major neuroclinical units. Health authorities and hospitals will need to recognize and assume this responsibility. As clinical experience diminishes during residency training, inevitably so will the concept of the fully competent "generalist" at the end of specialty training. Additional subspecialty training is being increasingly sought by graduates, particularly in neurosurgery. Training in neurology and neurosurgery, as in all medical specialties, has changed significantly in recent years and continues to change. Programs and hospitals need to adapt to these changes in order to ensure the production of fully

  1. Retroactive effects of irrelevant speech on serial recall from short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dennis; Baddeley, Alan D; Page, Michael P A

    2004-09-01

    The authors report 5 serial-recall experiments. In 4 of the 5 experiments, they show that irrelevant sound (IS) has a retroactive effect on material already in memory. In Experiment 1, IS presented during a filled retention interval had a reliable effect on list recall. Four further experiments, 3 of which used retroactive IS, showed that IS continued to-have an effect on recall following a long, filled retention interval. Articulatory suppression during visual input was found to abolish the long-lasting, retroactive effect of IS, supporting the idea that IS affects the phonological-loop component of short-term memory. IS also, therefore, seems to affect a longer term memory system with which the loop interacts. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  2. Monetary reward modulates task-irrelevant perceptual learning for invisible stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pascucci

    Full Text Available Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.

  3. Monetary reward modulates task-irrelevant perceptual learning for invisible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, David; Mastropasqua, Tommaso; Turatto, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Task Irrelevant Perceptual Learning (TIPL) shows that the brain's discriminative capacity can improve also for invisible and unattended visual stimuli. It has been hypothesized that this form of "unconscious" neural plasticity is mediated by an endogenous reward mechanism triggered by the correct task performance. Although this result has challenged the mandatory role of attention in perceptual learning, no direct evidence exists of the hypothesized link between target recognition, reward and TIPL. Here, we manipulated the reward value associated with a target to demonstrate the involvement of reinforcement mechanisms in sensory plasticity for invisible inputs. Participants were trained in a central task associated with either high or low monetary incentives, provided only at the end of the experiment, while subliminal stimuli were presented peripherally. Our results showed that high incentive-value targets induced a greater degree of perceptual improvement for the subliminal stimuli, supporting the role of reinforcement mechanisms in TIPL.

  4. Effects of task-irrelevant grouping on visual selection in partial report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Rasmus; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    and the selection criterion was luminance. This effect was accompanied by impaired selectivity in unsorted-color trials. Overall, the results suggest that the benefit of task-irrelevant color grouping of targets is contingent on the processing locus of the selection criterion....... the color of the elements in these trials. In the sorted-color condition, the color of the display elements was arranged according to the selection criterion, and in the unsorted-color condition, colors were randomly assigned. The distractor cost was inferred by subtracting performance in partial......-report trials from performance in a control condition that had no distractors in the display. Across five experiments, we manipulated trial order, selection criterion, and exposure duration, and found that attentional selectivity was improved in sorted-color trials when the exposure duration was 200 ms...

  5. Individual differences in the influence of task-irrelevant Pavlovian cues on human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) refers to the process of a Pavlovian reward-paired cue acquiring incentive motivational proprieties that drive choices. It represents a crucial phenomenon for understanding cue-controlled behavior, and it has both adaptive and maladaptive implications (i.e., drug-taking). In animals, individual differences in the degree to which such cues bias performance have been identified in two types of individuals that exhibit distinct Conditioned Responses (CR) during Pavlovian conditioning: Sign-Trackers (ST) and Goal-Trackers (GT). Using an appetitive PIT procedure with a monetary reward, the present study investigated, for the first time, the extent to which such individual differences might affect the influence of reward-paired cues in humans. In a first task, participants learned an instrumental response leading to reward; then, in a second task, a visual Pavlovian cue was associated with the same reward; finally, in a third task, PIT was tested by measuring the preference for the reward-paired instrumental response when the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue was presented, in the absence of the reward itself. In ST individuals, but not in GT individuals, reward-related cues biased behavior, resulting in an increased likelihood to perform the instrumental response independently paired with the same reward when presented with the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue, even if the reward itself was no longer available (i.e., stronger PIT effect). This finding has important implications for developing individualized treatment for maladaptive behaviors, such as addiction.

  6. Individual differences in the influence of task-irrelevant Pavlovian cues on human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eGarofalo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT refers to the process of a Pavlovian reward-paired cue acquiring incentive motivational proprieties that drive choices. It represents a crucial phenomenon for understanding cue-controlled behavior, and it has both adaptive and maladaptive implications (i.e., drug-taking. In animals, individual differences in the degree to which such cues bias performance have been identified in two types of individuals that exhibit distinct Conditioned Responses during Pavlovian conditioning: Sign-Trackers (ST and Goal-Trackers (GT. Using an appetitive PIT procedure with a monetary reward, the present study investigated, for the first time, the extent to which such individual differences might affect the influence of reward-paired cues in humans. In a first task, participants learned an instrumental response leading to reward; then, in a second task, a visual Pavlovian cue was associated with the same reward; finally, in a third task, PIT was tested by measuring the preference for the reward-paired instrumental response when the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue was presented, in the absence of the reward itself. In ST individuals, but not in GT individuals, reward-related cues biased behavior, resulting in an increased likelihood to perform the instrumental response independently paired with the same reward when presented with the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue, even if the reward itself was no longer available (i.e., stronger PIT effect. This finding has important implications for developing individualized treatment for maladaptive behaviors, such as addiction.

  7. Resistance irrelevant CYP417A2v2 was found degrading insecticide in Laodelphax striatellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad Asaduzzaman; Elzaki, Mohammed Esmail Abdalla; Han, Zhaojun

    2017-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) usually overexpressed in resistant strain were found involved in oxidative detoxification of insecticides. In this study, an investigation was conducted to confirm if resistance irrelevant CYPs which were not overexpressed in resistant strain before, were capable of degrading insecticides. Three resistance irrelevant CYPs viz. CYP417A2v2, CYP425A1v2, and CYP4DJ1 from CYP4 family of Laodelphax striatellus were randomly selected for experiments. CYP417A2v2 and CYP425A1v2 were found expressed successfully in Sf9 cell line while CYP4DJ1 was not expressed successfully and out of two expressed CYPs, only CYP417A2v2 showed its efficient catalytic activity. For catalytic activity, three traditional model probe substrates and five insecticides were assayed. For the probe substrates screened, p -nitroanisole and ethoxycoumarin were preferentially metabolized by CYP417A2v2 (specific activity 3.76 ± 1.22 and 1.63 ± 0.37 nmol min -1  mg protein -1 , respectively) and they may be potential diagnostic probes for this enzyme. Among insecticides, only imidacloprid was efficiently degraded by CYP417A2v2. Incubation of imidacloprid with CYP417A2v2 of L. striatellus and subsequent HPLC, LC-MS, and MS/MS analysis revealed the formation of imidacloprid metabolites, that is, 4' or 5'hydroxy-imidacloprid by hydroxylation. This result implies the exemption of CYPs character that it is not always, all the CYPs degrading insecticides being selected and overexpressed in resistant strains and the degrading CYPs without mutations to upregulate could be candidates during insecticide resistance evolution. This characterization of individual insect CYPs in insecticide degradation can provide insight for better understand of insecticide resistance development.

  8. Individual differences in the influence of task-irrelevant Pavlovian cues on human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) refers to the process of a Pavlovian reward-paired cue acquiring incentive motivational proprieties that drive choices. It represents a crucial phenomenon for understanding cue-controlled behavior, and it has both adaptive and maladaptive implications (i.e., drug-taking). In animals, individual differences in the degree to which such cues bias performance have been identified in two types of individuals that exhibit distinct Conditioned Responses (CR) during Pavlovian conditioning: Sign-Trackers (ST) and Goal-Trackers (GT). Using an appetitive PIT procedure with a monetary reward, the present study investigated, for the first time, the extent to which such individual differences might affect the influence of reward-paired cues in humans. In a first task, participants learned an instrumental response leading to reward; then, in a second task, a visual Pavlovian cue was associated with the same reward; finally, in a third task, PIT was tested by measuring the preference for the reward-paired instrumental response when the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue was presented, in the absence of the reward itself. In ST individuals, but not in GT individuals, reward-related cues biased behavior, resulting in an increased likelihood to perform the instrumental response independently paired with the same reward when presented with the task-irrelevant reward-paired cue, even if the reward itself was no longer available (i.e., stronger PIT effect). This finding has important implications for developing individualized treatment for maladaptive behaviors, such as addiction. PMID:26157371

  9. Intentional Excellence in the Baldwin Wallace University Neuroscience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jacqueline K.; Peppers, Kieth; Mickley, G. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Society for Neuroscience recognized Baldwin Wallace University’s (BWU) undergraduate Neuroscience program as their Program of the Year for 2012. This award acknowledged the “accomplishments of a neuroscience department or program for excellence in educating neuroscientists and providing innovative models to which other programs can aspire.” The Neuroscience program grew out of students interested in studying the biological basis of behavior. BWU’s neuroscience major is research-intensive, and all students are required to produce an empirically-based senior thesis. This requirement challenges program resources, and the demand for faculty attention is high. Thus, we developed an intentional 3-step peer mentoring system that encourages our students to collaborate with and learn from, not only faculty, but each other. Peer mentoring occurs in the curriculum, faculty research labs, and as students complete their senior theses. As the program has grown with over 80 current majors, we have developed a new Neuroscience Methods course to train students on the safety, ethics, and practice of research in the neuroscience laboratory space. Students in this course leave with the skills and knowledge to assist senior level students with their theses and to begin the process of developing their own projects in the laboratory. Further, our students indicate that their “peer mentorship was excellent,” “helped them gain confidence,” and “allowed them to be more successful in their research.” PMID:26240522

  10. A physiological perspective on the neuroscience of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Nori

    2014-09-01

    I present the thesis that 'being physiological,' i.e., analyzing eating under conditions that do not perturb, or minimally perturb, the organism's endogenous processes, should be a central goal of the neuroscience of eating. I describe my understanding of 'being physiological' based on [i] the central neural-network heuristic of CNS function that traces back to Cajal and Sherrington, [ii] research on one of the simpler problems in the neuroscience of eating, identification of endocrine signals that control eating. In this context I consider natural meals, physiological doses and ranges, and antagonist studies. Several examples involve CCK. Next I describe my view of the cutting edge in the molecular neuroscience of eating as it has evolved from the discovery of leptin signaling through the application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods. Finally I describe some novel approaches that may advance the neuroscience of eating in the foreseeable future. I conclude that [i] the neuroscience of eating may soon be able to discern 'physiological' function in the operation of CNS networks mediating eating, [ii] the neuroscience of eating should capitalize on methods developed in other areas of neuroscience, e.g., improved methods to record and manipulate CNS function in behaving animals, identification of canonical regional circuits, use of population electrophysiology, etc., and [iii] subjective aspects of eating are crucial aspects of eating science, but remain beyond mechanistic understanding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. NeuroTalk: Improving the Communication of Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Mary Anne; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Racine, Eric; Blakeslee, Sandra; Caplan, Arthur; Hayden, Erika Check; Ingram, Jay; Lohwater, Tiffany; McKnight, Peter; Nicholson, Christie; Phillips, Anthony; Sauvé, Kevin D.; Snell, Elaine; Weiss, Sam

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure for neuroscientists to communicate their research and the societal implications of their findings to the public. Communicating science is challenging and the transformation of communication by digital and interactive media makes the challenge even greater. To successfully facilitate dialogue with the public in this new media landscape we suggest three courses of action for the neuroscience community: a cultural shift that explicitly recognizes and rewards public outreach, the identification and development of neuroscience communication experts, and ongoing empirical research on public communication of neuroscience. PMID:19953102

  13. Towards new human rights in the age of neuroscience and neurotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienca, Marcello; Andorno, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    Rapid advancements in human neuroscience and neurotechnology open unprecedented possibilities for accessing, collecting, sharing and manipulating information from the human brain. Such applications raise important challenges to human rights principles that need to be addressed to prevent unintended consequences. This paper assesses the implications of emerging neurotechnology applications in the context of the human rights framework and suggests that existing human rights may not be sufficient to respond to these emerging issues. After analysing the relationship between neuroscience and human rights, we identify four new rights that may become of great relevance in the coming decades: the right to cognitive liberty, the right to mental privacy, the right to mental integrity, and the right to psychological continuity.

  14. Inference in the age of big data: Future perspectives on neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzdok, Danilo; Yeo, B T Thomas

    2017-07-15

    Neuroscience is undergoing faster changes than ever before. Over 100 years our field qualitatively described and invasively manipulated single or few organisms to gain anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological insights. In the last 10 years neuroscience spawned quantitative datasets of unprecedented breadth (e.g., microanatomy, synaptic connections, and optogenetic brain-behavior assays) and size (e.g., cognition, brain imaging, and genetics). While growing data availability and information granularity have been amply discussed, we direct attention to a less explored question: How will the unprecedented data richness shape data analysis practices? Statistical reasoning is becoming more important to distill neurobiological knowledge from healthy and pathological brain measurements. We argue that large-scale data analysis will use more statistical models that are non-parametric, generative, and mixing frequentist and Bayesian aspects, while supplementing classical hypothesis testing with out-of-sample predictions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated recognition of brain region mentions in neuroscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions, previously unseen words and brain regions of less commonly studied organisms. We found context windows, lemmatization and abbreviation expansion to be the most informative techniques. The corpus is freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/.

  16. The influence of Dr. Hsiang-Tung Chang on neuroscience in Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun

    2012-10-25

    As one of the founders of Chinese neuroscience, Dr. Hsiang-Tung Chang's return to China has a profound impact on neuroscience in China. As many people expected, this action also may have influenced the development of neuroscience in other Eastern countries. Therefore, Dr. Chang's move may have changed the history of neuroscience in a greater area than China.

  17. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases.

  18. NeuroMorpho.Org implementation of digital neuroscience: dense coverage and integration with the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2008-09-01

    Neuronal morphology affects network connectivity, plasticity, and information processing. Uncovering the design principles and functional consequences of dendritic and axonal shape necessitates quantitative analysis and computational modeling of detailed experimental data. Digital reconstructions provide the required neuromorphological descriptions in a parsimonious, comprehensive, and reliable numerical format. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest web-accessible repository service for digitally reconstructed neurons and one of the integrated resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). Here we describe the NeuroMorpho.Org approach as an exemplary experience in designing, creating, populating, and curating a neuroscience digital resource. The simple three-tier architecture of NeuroMorpho.Org (web client, web server, and relational database) encompasses all necessary elements to support a large-scale, integrate-able repository. The data content, while heterogeneous in scientific scope and experimental origin, is unified in format and presentation by an in house standardization protocol. The server application (MRALD) is secure, customizable, and developer-friendly. Centralized processing and expert annotation yields a comprehensive set of metadata that enriches and complements the raw data. The thoroughly tested interface design allows for optimal and effective data search and retrieval. Availability of data in both original and standardized formats ensures compatibility with existing resources and fosters further tool development. Other key functions enable extensive exploration and discovery, including 3D and interactive visualization of branching, frequently measured morphometrics, and reciprocal links to the original PubMed publications. The integration of NeuroMorpho.Org with version-1 of the NIF (NIFv1) provides the opportunity to access morphological data in the context of other relevant resources and diverse subdomains of neuroscience, opening

  19. [Felice Fontana precursor of neurosciences (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disertori, B; Piazza, M

    1981-01-01

    The A.A. insert the life and work of the naturalist and chemist Felice Fontana, born in Pomarolo (Trentino), in the frame of 18th century sciences, beside other great names of that century like Carolus Linnaeus, Réaumur, von Haller, Spallanzani, Morgagni, Priestley and Lavoisier. In the field of general biology, the discovery of nucleus and nucleolus and consequently the discovery of the eukaryotic cell, as we say in our days, in his, as well as the one of anabiosis. The A.A. enucleate and analyse the contributions of Fontana to the neurosciences; he has discovered the axon and the myelinic sheath half century before Remak and Purknije; he found out that the white matter of the brain is made of fibres alike those of nerves and the grey matter is made of globules (i.e. cells) mixed up with fibres; he discovered in the retina a part of coming out from the brain; he described the transversal bands of fibres of the skeletal muscles; he was the first to introduce into physiology the law of "all and nothing"; he attributed the irritability to the whole animal life; he identified the pupillar reflexes to the light, the reflex of accommodation, the consensual reflex, the psycho-emotive mydriasis and at last the myosis of sleep. He made experimental searches about nerves and recognised their regeneration, he enumerated various pathological intracranial masses, he made an important anatomopathological research about hydatid cyst in the brain of the sheep affected by "capostorno" and madness, he demonstrated their parasitical nature (he said that the hydated cysts were covered inside by small animals), he come out to formulate the hypothesis that some neuropsychiatric diseases of man can depend from similar aetiology. He declared that passions may have pathological effects (psyco-somatic aetiology), but he has also drawned the attention against the danager of aprioristical generalisation of neurogenical causes in all diseases. The A.A. give to Fontana the palm of precursor

  20. Approach-avoidance of facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, S.B.; de Jong, P.J.; Pijnenborg, G.H.M.

    This study examined whether approach-avoidance related behaviour elicited by facial affect is moderated by the presence of an observer-irrelevant trigger that may influence the observer's attributions of the actor's emotion. Participants were shown happy, disgusted, and neutral facial expressions.

  1. Neuroscience-driven discovery and development of sleep therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dresler, M.; Spoormaker, V.I.; Beitinger, P.; Czisch, M.; Kimura, M.; Steiger, A.; Holsboer, F.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, neuroscience has given sleep research and discovery of better treatments of sleep disturbances little attention, despite the fact that disturbed sleep has overwhelming impact on human health. Sleep is a complex phenomenon in which specific psychological, electrophysiological,

  2. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  3. Bientot un doctorat commun Geneve-Lausanne en neuroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Interview with Maurice Bourquin and Jean Dominique Vassali, principle and vice principle of Geneva university over plans to combine the neuroscience departments at Geneva with Lausanne University (1 p).

  4. Notes on the Recent History of Neuroscience in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne A. Russell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience began with neuroanatomy and neurosurgery in Egypt more than 5000 years ago. Knowledge grew over time and specialized neurosurgery centers were established in north Africa in the eleventh century. However, it was not until the twentieth century that neuroscience research became established in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, clinical research focused on understanding the rationale and improving treatment of epilepsy, infections, nutritional neuropathies, stroke and tumors. Significant advances were made. In the twenty-first century, African knowledge expanded to include all branches of neuroscience, contributing to genetic, biochemical and inflammatory determinants of brain disorders. A major focus of basic neuroscience research has been, and is, investigation of plant extracts, drugs and stress in animal models, providing insight and identifying potential novel therapies. A significant event in the history of African neuroscience was the founding of the Society of Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA in 1993. The International Brain Research Organization (IBRO supported SONA conferences, as well as workshops and neuroscience training schools in Africa. Thanks to their investment, as well as that of funding agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH, International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS, World Federation of Neurology (WFN and the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE, neuroscience research is well-established in Africa today. However, in order to continue to develop, African neuroscience needs continued international support and African neuroscientists need to engage in policy and decision-making to persuade governments to fund studies that address the unique regional needs in Africa.

  5. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balder eOnarheim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching 'applied creativity' and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concepts of creativity, before applying these concepts to a relevant real world creative problem. The novelty in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present two sets of empirical data, suggesting that principles from neuroscience can contribute effectively to creativity training and produce measurable results on creativity tests: 1 an experiment demonstrating how an ANC lecture on the neurobiology of creativity significantly decreased the number of fixations in a creative task, 2 pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait creativity than those in highly similar courses without the neuroscience component. The evidence presented indicates that the inclusion of neuroscience principles in a creativity course can in 8 weeks increase divergent thinking skills with an individual relative average of 28.5%.

  6. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks.......Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...

  7. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the fi eld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology...

  8. Why Do Irrelevant Alternatives Matter? An fMRI-TMS Study of Context-Dependent Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hui-Kuan; Sjöström, Tomas; Lee, Hsin-Ju; Lu, Yi-Ta; Tsuo, Fu-Yun; Chen, Tzai-Shuen; Chang, Chi-Fu; Juan, Chi-Hung; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Huang, Chen-Ying

    2017-11-29

    Both humans and animals are known to exhibit a violation of rationality known as "decoy effect": introducing an irrelevant option (a decoy) can influence choices among other (relevant) options. Exactly how and why decoys trigger this effect is not known. It may be an example of fast heuristic decision-making, which is adaptive in natural environments, but may lead to biased choices in certain markets or experiments. We used fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation to investigate the neural underpinning of the decoy effect of both sexes. The left ventral striatum was more active when the chosen option dominated the decoy. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of a decoy option influences the valuation of other options, making valuation context-dependent even when choices appear fully rational. Consistent with the idea that control is recruited to prevent heuristics from producing biased choices, the right inferior frontal gyrus, often implicated in inhibiting prepotent responses, connected more strongly with the striatum when subjects successfully overrode the decoy effect and made unbiased choices. This is further supported by our transcranial magnetic stimulation experiment: subjects whose right inferior frontal gyrus was temporarily disrupted made biased choices more often than a control group. Our results suggest that the neural basis of the decoy effect could be the context-dependent activation of the valuation area. But the differential connectivity from the frontal area may indicate how deliberate control monitors and corrects errors and biases in decision-making. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Standard theories of rational decision-making assume context-independent valuations of available options. Motivated by the importance of this basic assumption, we used fMRI to study how the human brain assigns values to available options. We found activity in the valuation area to be consistent with the hypothesis that values depend on irrelevant aspects

  9. The Social Neuroscience of Interpersonal Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören; Krämer, Ulrike M; Paulus, Frieder M

    In our daily lives, we constantly engage in reciprocal interactions with other individuals and represent ourselves in the context of our surrounding social world. Within social interactions, humans often experience interpersonal emotions such as embarrassment, shame, guilt, or pride. How interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level is of major interest for social neuroscience research. While the configuration of laboratory settings in general is constraining for emotion research, recent neuroimaging investigations came up with new approaches to implement socially interactive and immersive scenarios for the real-life investigation of interpersonal emotions. These studies could show that among other brain regions the so-called mentalizing network, which is typically involved when we represent and make sense of others' states of mind, is associated with interpersonal emotions. The anterior insula/anterior cingulate cortex network at the same time processes one's own bodily arousal during such interpersonal emotional experiences. Current research aimed to explore how we make sense of others' emotional states during social interactions and investigates the modulating factors of our emotional experiences during social interactions. Understanding how interpersonal emotions are processed on the neural systems level may yield significant implications for neuropsychiatric disorders that affect social behavior such as social anxiety disorders or autism.

  10. [Cognitive neuroscience of aging. Contributions and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Fernando; Pereiro, Arturo X

    The cognitive neuroscience of aging is a young discipline that has emerged as a result of the combination of: A) the theoretical and explanatory frameworks proposed by the cognitive psychology perspective throughout the second half of the twentieth century; B) the designs and methodological procedures arising from experimental psychology and the need to test the hypotheses proposed from the cognitive psychology perspective; C) the contributions of the computer sciences to the explanation of brain functions; and D) the development and use of neuroimaging techniques that have enabled the recording of brain activity in humans while tasks that test some cognitive process or function are performed. An analysis on the impact of research conducted from this perspective over the last 3decades has been carried out, including its shortcomings, as well as the potential directions and usefulness that will advantageously continue to drive this discipline in its description and explanation of the process es of cerebral and cognitive aging. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Reproducibility in Computational Neuroscience Models and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougal, Robert A.; Bulanova, Anna S.; Lytton, William W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Like all scientific research, computational neuroscience research must be reproducible. Big data science, including simulation research, cannot depend exclusively on journal articles as the method to provide the sharing and transparency required for reproducibility. Methods Ensuring model reproducibility requires the use of multiple standard software practices and tools, including version control, strong commenting and documentation, and code modularity. Results Building on these standard practices, model sharing sites and tools have been developed that fit into several categories: 1. standardized neural simulators, 2. shared computational resources, 3. declarative model descriptors, ontologies and standardized annotations; 4. model sharing repositories and sharing standards. Conclusion A number of complementary innovations have been proposed to enhance sharing, transparency and reproducibility. The individual user can be encouraged to make use of version control, commenting, documentation and modularity in development of models. The community can help by requiring model sharing as a condition of publication and funding. Significance Model management will become increasingly important as multiscale models become larger, more detailed and correspondingly more difficult to manage by any single investigator or single laboratory. Additional big data management complexity will come as the models become more useful in interpreting experiments, thus increasing the need to ensure clear alignment between modeling data, both parameters and results, and experiment. PMID:27046845

  12. The neurosciences in Averroes principles of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental advances of the transition of the Middle Ages to the Renaissance was the rediscovery of the Greek philosophers. Among the greatest representatives of this epoch we find the Cordovan doctor and philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) who, with his commentaries on the works of Aristotle, brought a new philosophical vision to Western Europe. His contribution to medicine has been overshadowed to some extent by this great work of philosophy. Our intention is to evaluate, in the context of the neurosciences, the vision of health and sickness that he left us in his book "The Book of the Principles of Medicine. The organisation of the Kulliyat is based on Aristotelian concepts. Averroes regarded the nervous system not as single entity but rather as a complex of various elements. The anatomy of the nervous system is studied in two parts: the encephalus and the periphery. Both the encephalic nervous system and the sensory organs are regarded as heterogeneous organs. Averroes structures the anatomical order without taking into account the local movements of the living body. The mission of the senses is to maintain contact between external reality and the structure of the organism. This requires an external process, a point of union and an internal process. The ultimate goal is the preservation of health in a balanced disposition and the cure of disease in the organism in disequilibrium.

  13. PET-based molecular imaging in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.H.; Heiss, W.D.; Li, H.; Knoess, C.; Schaller, B.; Kracht, L.; Monfared, P.; Vollmar, S.; Bauer, B.; Wagner, R.; Graf, R.; Wienhard, K.; Winkeler, A.; Rueger, A.; Klein, M.; Hilker, R.; Galldiks, N.; Herholz, K.; Sobesky, J.

    2003-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows non-invasive assessment of physiological, metabolic and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. Advances in detector technology have led to a considerable improvement in the spatial resolution of PET (1-2 mm), enabling for the first time investigations in small experimental animals such as mice. With the developments in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analysed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly evolving field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. The main and most intriguing advantage of molecular imaging is the kinetic analysis of a given molecular event in the same experimental subject over time. This will allow non-invasive characterisation and ''phenotyping'' of animal models of human disease at various disease stages, under certain pathophysiological stimuli and after therapeutic intervention. The potential broad applications of imaging molecular events in vivo lie in the study of cell biology, biochemistry, gene/protein function and regulation, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation and characterisation of transgenic animals. Most importantly, molecular imaging will have great implications for the identification of potential molecular therapeutic targets, in the development of new treatment strategies, and in their successful implementation into clinical application. Here, the potential impact of molecular imaging by PET in applications in neuroscience research with a special focus on neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology is reviewed. (orig.)

  14. Ayahuasca: Pharmacology, neuroscience and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Clavé, Elisabet; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Pascual, Juan C; Álvarez, Enrique; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is the Quechua name for a tea obtained from the vine Banisteriopsis caapi, and used for ritual purposes by the indigenous populations of the Amazon. The use of a variation of the tea that combines B. caapi with the leaves of the shrub Psychotria viridis has experienced unprecedented expansion worldwide for its psychotropic properties. This preparation contains the psychedelic 5-HT 2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) from P. viridis, plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase-inhibiting properties from B. caapi. Acute administration induces a transient modified state of consciousness characterized by introspection, visions, enhanced emotions and recollection of personal memories. A growing body of evidence suggests that ayahuasca may be useful to treat substance use disorders, anxiety and depression. Here we review the pharmacology and neuroscience of ayahuasca, and the potential psychological mechanisms underlying its therapeutic potential. We discuss recent findings indicating that ayahuasca intake increases certain mindfulness facets related to acceptance and to the ability to take a detached view of one's own thoughts and emotions. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that ayahuasca shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe exposure to emotional events. We postulate that ayahuasca could be of use in the treatment of impulse-related, personality and substance use disorders and also in the handling of trauma. More research is needed to assess the full potential of ayahuasca in the treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "Me & my brain": exposing neuroscience's closet dualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Maoz, Uri

    2015-02-01

    Our intuitive concept of the relations between brain and mind is increasingly challenged by the scientific world view. Yet, although few neuroscientists openly endorse Cartesian dualism, careful reading reveals dualistic intuitions in prominent neuroscientific texts. Here, we present the "double-subject fallacy": treating the brain and the entire person as two independent subjects who can simultaneously occupy divergent psychological states and even have complex interactions with each other-as in "my brain knew before I did." Although at first, such writing may appear like harmless, or even cute, shorthand, a closer look suggests that it can be seriously misleading. Surprisingly, this confused writing appears in various cognitive-neuroscience texts, from prominent peer-reviewed articles to books intended for lay audience. Far from being merely metaphorical or figurative, this type of writing demonstrates that dualistic intuitions are still deeply rooted in contemporary thought, affecting even the most rigorous practitioners of the neuroscientific method. We discuss the origins of such writing and its effects on the scientific arena as well as demonstrate its relevance to the debate on legal and moral responsibility.

  16. Over-imitation is not automatic: context sensitivity in children's overimitation and action interpretation of causally irrelevant actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupp, Stefanie; Behne, Tanya; Zachow, Joanna; Kasbohm, Alina; Rakoczy, Hannes

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has documented the robust tendency of children to "over-imitate," that is, to copy causally irrelevant action elements in goal-directed action sequences. Different explanations for over-imitation have been proposed. Causal accounts claim that children mistakenly perceive such action elements as causally relevant and, therefore, imitate them. Affiliation accounts claim that children over-imitate to affiliate with the model. Normative accounts claim that children conceive of causally irrelevant actions as essential parts of an overarching conventional activity. These different accounts generally hold the same predictions regarding children's imitative response. However, it is possible to distinguish between them when one considers additional parameters. The normative account predicts wide-ranging flexibility with regard to action interpretation and the occurrence of over-imitation. First, it predicts spontaneous protest against norm violators who omit the causally irrelevant actions. Second, children should perform the causally irrelevant actions less frequently, and criticize others less frequently for omitting them, when the actions take place in a different context from the one of the initial demonstration. Such flexibility is not predicted by causal accounts and is predicted for only a limited range of contexts by affiliation accounts. Study 1 investigated children's own imitative response and found less over-imitation when children acted in a different context from when they acted in the same context as the initial demonstration. In Study 2, children criticized a puppet less frequently for omitting irrelevant actions when the puppet acted in a different context. The results support the notion that over-imitation is not an automatic and inflexible phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. And the Winner Is: Inviting Hollywood into the Neuroscience Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2002-01-01

    Both short excerpts from, and full-length presentation of feature films have been used with success in undergraduate instruction. Studies of such use of films has revealed that incorporation of film viewing within courses can promote both content mastery and the development of critical thinking skills. This article discusses and provides examples of successful use of two methods that may be used to incorporate a variety of full-length feature films into neuroscience instruction. One, the “neuro-cinema” pairs the presentation of a film featuring extensive neuroscience content with primary literature reading assignments, group discussion and writing exercises. The second, a neuroscience film series, features group discussion of movies of perhaps more limited relevance to neuroscience. An additional goal of this article is provide the reader with initial resources for the selection of potential film titles for use in neuroscience education. Three extensive tables are included to provide a wide range of title suggestions appropriate for use in activities such as the neuro-cinema, the neuroscience film series, or for more limited use as short “clips” in classroom instruction. PMID:23493171

  18. Attending, learning, and socioeconomic disadvantage: developmental cognitive and social neuroscience of resilience and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibli, Kylie; Wong, Kyle; Hedayati, Nina; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2017-05-01

    We review current findings associating socioeconomic status (SES), development of neurocognitive functions, and neurobiological pathways. A sizeable interdisciplinary literature was organized through a bifurcated developmental trajectory (BiDeT) framework, an account of the external and internal variables associated with low SES that may lead to difficulties with attention and learning, along with buffers that may protect against negative outcomes. A consistent neurocognitive finding is that low-SES children attend to information nonselectively, and engage in late filtering out of task-irrelevant information. Attentional preferences influence the development of latent inhibition (LI), an aspect of learning that involves reassigning meaningful associations to previously learned but irrelevant stimuli. LI reflects learning processes clarifying the relationship between neurobiological mechanisms related to attention and socioeconomic disadvantage during child development. Notably, changes in both selective attention and typical LI development may occur via the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MsCL-DA) system. Chaotic environments, social isolation, and deprivation associated with low SES trigger stress responses implicating imbalances in the MsCL-DA and consolidating anxiety traits. BiDeT describes plausible interactions between socioemotional traits and low-SES environments that modify selective attention and LI, predisposing individuals to vulnerability in cognitive development and academic achievement. However, positive role models, parental style, and self-regulation training are proposed as potential promoters of resilience. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Working Memory From the Psychological and Neurosciences Perspectives: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen Jia; Abd Hamid, Aini Ismafairus; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2018-01-01

    Since the concept of working memory was introduced over 50 years ago, different schools of thought have offered different definitions for working memory based on the various cognitive domains that it encompasses. The general consensus regarding working memory supports the idea that working memory is extensively involved in goal-directed behaviors in which information must be retained and manipulated to ensure successful task execution. Before the emergence of other competing models, the concept of working memory was described by the multicomponent working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. In the present article, the authors provide an overview of several working memory-relevant studies in order to harmonize the findings of working memory from the neurosciences and psychological standpoints, especially after citing evidence from past studies of healthy, aging, diseased, and/or lesioned brains. In particular, the theoretical framework behind working memory, in which the related domains that are considered to play a part in different frameworks (such as memory's capacity limit and temporary storage) are presented and discussed. From the neuroscience perspective, it has been established that working memory activates the fronto-parietal brain regions, including the prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices. Recent studies have subsequently implicated the roles of subcortical regions (such as the midbrain and cerebellum) in working memory. Aging also appears to have modulatory effects on working memory; age interactions with emotion, caffeine and hormones appear to affect working memory performances at the neurobiological level. Moreover, working memory deficits are apparent in older individuals, who are susceptible to cognitive deterioration. Another younger population with working memory impairment consists of those with mental, developmental, and/or neurological disorders such as major depressive disorder and others. A less coherent and organized neural

  20. Working Memory From the Psychological and Neurosciences Perspectives: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Wen Jia; Abd Hamid, Aini Ismafairus; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2018-01-01

    Since the concept of working memory was introduced over 50 years ago, different schools of thought have offered different definitions for working memory based on the various cognitive domains that it encompasses. The general consensus regarding working memory supports the idea that working memory is extensively involved in goal-directed behaviors in which information must be retained and manipulated to ensure successful task execution. Before the emergence of other competing models, the concept of working memory was described by the multicomponent working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. In the present article, the authors provide an overview of several working memory-relevant studies in order to harmonize the findings of working memory from the neurosciences and psychological standpoints, especially after citing evidence from past studies of healthy, aging, diseased, and/or lesioned brains. In particular, the theoretical framework behind working memory, in which the related domains that are considered to play a part in different frameworks (such as memory’s capacity limit and temporary storage) are presented and discussed. From the neuroscience perspective, it has been established that working memory activates the fronto-parietal brain regions, including the prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices. Recent studies have subsequently implicated the roles of subcortical regions (such as the midbrain and cerebellum) in working memory. Aging also appears to have modulatory effects on working memory; age interactions with emotion, caffeine and hormones appear to affect working memory performances at the neurobiological level. Moreover, working memory deficits are apparent in older individuals, who are susceptible to cognitive deterioration. Another younger population with working memory impairment consists of those with mental, developmental, and/or neurological disorders such as major depressive disorder and others. A less coherent and organized

  1. Working Memory From the Psychological and Neurosciences Perspectives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jia Chai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the concept of working memory was introduced over 50 years ago, different schools of thought have offered different definitions for working memory based on the various cognitive domains that it encompasses. The general consensus regarding working memory supports the idea that working memory is extensively involved in goal-directed behaviors in which information must be retained and manipulated to ensure successful task execution. Before the emergence of other competing models, the concept of working memory was described by the multicomponent working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. In the present article, the authors provide an overview of several working memory-relevant studies in order to harmonize the findings of working memory from the neurosciences and psychological standpoints, especially after citing evidence from past studies of healthy, aging, diseased, and/or lesioned brains. In particular, the theoretical framework behind working memory, in which the related domains that are considered to play a part in different frameworks (such as memory’s capacity limit and temporary storage are presented and discussed. From the neuroscience perspective, it has been established that working memory activates the fronto-parietal brain regions, including the prefrontal, cingulate, and parietal cortices. Recent studies have subsequently implicated the roles of subcortical regions (such as the midbrain and cerebellum in working memory. Aging also appears to have modulatory effects on working memory; age interactions with emotion, caffeine and hormones appear to affect working memory performances at the neurobiological level. Moreover, working memory deficits are apparent in older individuals, who are susceptible to cognitive deterioration. Another younger population with working memory impairment consists of those with mental, developmental, and/or neurological disorders such as major depressive disorder and others. A less coherent

  2. Semantic SenseLab: Implementing the vision of the Semantic Web in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samwald, Matthias; Chen, Huajun; Ruttenberg, Alan; Lim, Ernest; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry; Shepherd, Gordon; Cheung, Kei-Hoi

    2010-01-01

    Integrative neuroscience research needs a scalable informatics framework that enables semantic integration of diverse types of neuroscience data. This paper describes the use of the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and other Semantic Web technologies for the representation and integration of molecular-level data provided by several of SenseLab suite of neuroscience databases. Based on the original database structure, we semi-automatically translated the databases into OWL ontologies with manual addition of semantic enrichment. The SenseLab ontologies are extensively linked to other biomedical Semantic Web resources, including the Subcellular Anatomy Ontology, Brain Architecture Management System, the Gene Ontology, BIRNLex and UniProt. The SenseLab ontologies have also been mapped to the Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which helps ease interoperability with many other existing and future biomedical ontologies for the Semantic Web. In addition, approaches to representing contradictory research statements are described. The SenseLab ontologies are designed for use on the Semantic Web that enables their integration into a growing collection of biomedical information resources. We demonstrate that our approach can yield significant potential benefits and that the Semantic Web is rapidly becoming mature enough to realize its anticipated promises. The ontologies are available online at http://neuroweb.med.yale.edu/senselab/. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Techniques and Technology to Revise Content Delivery and Model Critical Thinking in the Neuroscience Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. If one goal of undergraduate neuroscience education is to foster critical thinking skills, then the classroom should be a place where students and instructors can work together to develop them. Students learn how to think critically by directly engaging with course material, and by discussing evidence with their peers, but taking classroom time for these activities requires that an instructor find a way to provide course materials outside of class. Using technology as an on-demand provider of course materials can give instructors the freedom to restructure classroom time, allowing students to work together in small groups and to have discussions that foster critical thinking, and allowing the instructor to model these skills. In this paper, I provide a rationale for reducing the use of traditional lectures in favor of more student-centered activities, I present several methods that can be used to deliver course materials outside of class and discuss their use, and I provide a few examples of how these techniques and technologies can help improve learning outcomes.

  4. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  5. The capture of attention by entirely irrelevant pictures of calorie-dense foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Egeth, Howard E

    2018-04-01

    Inborn preference for palatable energy-dense food is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation. One way this preference manifests itself is through the control of visual attention. In the present study, we investigated how attentional capture is influenced by changes in naturally occurring goal-states, in this case desire for energy-dense foods (typically high fat and/or high sugar). We demonstrate that even when distractors are entirely irrelevant, participants were significantly more distracted by energy-dense foods compared with non-food objects and even low-energy foods. Additionally, we show the lability of these goal-states by having a separate set of participants consume a small amount of calorie-dense food prior to the task. The amount of distraction by the energy-dense food images in this case was significantly reduced and no different than distraction by images of low-energy foods and images of non-food objects. While naturally occurring goal-states can be difficult to ignore, they also are highly flexible.

  6. Is there proof that backreaction of inhomogeneities is irrelevant in cosmology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchert, T; Ostrowski, J J; Roukema, B F; Carfora, M; Ellis, G F R; Kolb, E W; MacCallum, M A H; Räsänen, S; Andersson, L; Coley, A A; Wiltshire, D L

    2015-01-01

    No. In a number of papers, Green and Wald argue that the standard FLRW model approximates our Universe extremely well on all scales, except close to strong-field astrophysical objects. In particular, they argue that the effect of inhomogeneities on average properties of the Universe (backreaction) is irrelevant. We show that this latter claim is not valid. Specifically, we demonstrate, referring to their recent review paper, that (i) their two-dimensional example used to illustrate the fitting problem differs from the actual problem in important respects, and it assumes what is to be proven; (ii) the proof of the trace-free property of backreaction is unphysical and the theorem about it fails to be a mathematically general statement; (iii) the scheme that underlies the trace-free theorem does not involve averaging and therefore does not capture crucial non-local effects; (iv) their arguments are to a large extent coordinate-dependent, and (v) many of their criticisms of backreaction frameworks do not apply to the published definitions of these frameworks. It is therefore incorrect to infer that Green and Wald have proven a general result that addresses the essential physical questions of backreaction in cosmology. (paper)

  7. Are objects the same as groups? ERP correlates of spatial attentional guidance by irrelevant feature similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Tetsuko; Moriya, Hiroki; Hirano, Shingo

    2011-07-05

    It has been proposed that the most fundamental units of attentional selection are "objects" that are grouped according to Gestalt factors such as similarity or connectedness. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have shown that object-based attention is associated with modulations of the visual-evoked N1 component, which reflects an early cortical mechanism that is shared with spatial attention. However, these studies only examined the case of perceptually continuous objects. The present study examined the case of separate objects that are grouped according to feature similarity (color, shape) by indexing lateralized potentials at posterior sites in a sustained-attention task that involved bilateral stimulus arrays. A behavioral object effect was found only for task-relevant shape similarity. Electrophysiological results indicated that attention was guided to the task-irrelevant side of the visual field due to achromatic-color similarity in N1 (155-205 ms post-stimulus) and early N2 (210-260 ms) and due to shape similarity in early N2 and late N2 (280-400 ms) latency ranges. These results are discussed in terms of selection mechanisms and object/group representations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenau, Aleksandra; Weindling, Paul J

    Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.

  9. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  10. Information at a cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robalo, P.; Sayag, R.

    2012-01-01

    The supposed irrelevance of historical costs for rational decision making has been the subject of much interest in the economic literature. In this paper we explore whether individual decision making under risk is affected by the cost of the supplied information. Outside of the lab, it is difficult

  11. Undergraduate Neuroscience Majors: A Missed Opportunity for Psychiatry Workforce Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Matthew N; Krystal, John H

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to determine whether and to what extent medical students with an undergraduate college major in neuroscience, relative to other college majors, pursue psychiatry relative to other brain-based specialties (neurology and neurosurgery) and internal medicine. The authors analyzed data from AAMC matriculation and graduation surveys for all students who graduated from US medical schools in 2013 and 2014 (n = 29,714). Students who majored in neuroscience, psychology, and biology were compared to all other students in terms of their specialty choice at both time points. For each major, the authors determined rates of specialty choice of psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and, for comparison, internal medicine. This study employed Chi-square statistic to compare odds of various specialty choices among different majors. Among medical students with an undergraduate neuroscience major (3.5% of all medical students), only 2.3% preferred psychiatry at matriculation, compared to 21.5% who chose neurology, 13.1% neurosurgery, and 11% internal medicine. By graduation, psychiatry specialty choice increased to 5.1% among neuroscience majors while choice of neurology and neurosurgery declined. Psychology majors (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 2.60-4.47) but not neuroscience majors (OR 1.28, 0.92-1.77) were more likely than their peers to choose psychiatry. Psychiatry struggles to attract neuroscience majors to the specialty. This missed opportunity is an obstacle to developing the neuroscience literacy of the workforce and jeopardizes the neuroscientific future of our field. Several potential strategies to address the recruitment challenges exist.

  12. Effect of tDCS on task relevant and irrelevant perceptual learning of complex objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Chayenne; Daniels, Nicky; de Beeck, Hans Op; Baeck, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    During perceptual learning the visual representations in the brain are altered, but these changes' causal role has not yet been fully characterized. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to investigate the role of higher visual regions in lateral occipital cortex (LO) in perceptual learning with complex objects. We also investigated whether object learning is dependent on the relevance of the objects for the learning task. Participants were trained in two tasks: object recognition using a backward masking paradigm and an orientation judgment task. During both tasks, an object with a red line on top of it were presented in each trial. The crucial difference between both tasks was the relevance of the object: the object was relevant for the object recognition task, but not for the orientation judgment task. During training, half of the participants received anodal tDCS stimulation targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LO). Afterwards, participants were tested on how well they recognized the trained objects, the irrelevant objects presented during the orientation judgment task and a set of completely new objects. Participants stimulated with tDCS during training showed larger improvements of performance compared to participants in the sham condition. No learning effect was found for the objects presented during the orientation judgment task. To conclude, this study suggests a causal role of LO in relevant object learning, but given the rather low spatial resolution of tDCS, more research on the specificity of this effect is needed. Further, mere exposure is not sufficient to train object recognition in our paradigm.

  13. A simple approach to ignoring irrelevant variables by population decoding based on multisensory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyungGoo R.; Pitkow, Xaq; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory input reflects events that occur in the environment, but multiple events may be confounded in sensory signals. For example, under many natural viewing conditions, retinal image motion reflects some combination of self-motion and movement of objects in the world. To estimate one stimulus event and ignore others, the brain can perform marginalization operations, but the neural bases of these operations are poorly understood. Using computational modeling, we examine how multisensory signals may be processed to estimate the direction of self-motion (i.e., heading) and to marginalize out effects of object motion. Multisensory neurons represent heading based on both visual and vestibular inputs and come in two basic types: “congruent” and “opposite” cells. Congruent cells have matched heading tuning for visual and vestibular cues and have been linked to perceptual benefits of cue integration during heading discrimination. Opposite cells have mismatched visual and vestibular heading preferences and are ill-suited for cue integration. We show that decoding a mixed population of congruent and opposite cells substantially reduces errors in heading estimation caused by object motion. In addition, we present a general formulation of an optimal linear decoding scheme that approximates marginalization and can be implemented biologically by simple reinforcement learning mechanisms. We also show that neural response correlations induced by task-irrelevant variables may greatly exceed intrinsic noise correlations. Overall, our findings suggest a general computational strategy by which neurons with mismatched tuning for two different sensory cues may be decoded to perform marginalization operations that dissociate possible causes of sensory inputs. PMID:27334948

  14. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  15. Advancing Neuroscience Research in Africa: Invertebrate Species to the Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan; Cobham, Ansa Emmanuel; Amin, Abdulbasit; Seeni, Azman

    2018-03-15

    Neuroscience research and training in many African countries are difficult due to funding and infrastructure deficit. This has resulted in few neuroscientists within Africa. However, invertebrates such as Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans could provide the perfect answer to these difficulties. These organisms are cheap, easy to handle and offer a comparable advantage over vertebrates in neuroscience research modeling because they have a simple nervous system and exhibit well-defined behaviors. Studies using invertebrates have helped to understand neurosciences and the complexes associated with it. If Africa wants to catch up with the rest of the world in neuroscience research, it needs to employ this innovative cost-effective approach in its research. To improve invertebrate neuroscience within the Africa continent, the authors advocated the establishment of invertebrate research centers either at regional or national level across Africa. Finally, there is also a need to provide public funding to consolidate the gains that have been made by not-for-profit international organizations over the years. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Plea for Cross-species Social Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the question of how our brain makes us sensitive to the state of conspecifics and how that affects our behaviour has undergone a profound change. Twenty years ago what would now be called social neuroscience was focused on the visual processing of facial expressions and body movements in temporal lobe structures of primates (Puce and Perrett 2003). With the discovery of mirror neurons, this changed rapidly towards the modern field of social neuroscience, in which high-level vision is but one of many focuses of interest. In this essay, we will argue that for the further progress of the field, the integration of animal neuroscience and human neuroscience is paramount. We will do so, by focusing on the field of embodied social cognition. We will first show how the combination of animal and human neuroscience was critical in how the discovery of mirror neurons placed the motor system on the map of social cognition. We will then argue why an integrated cross-species approach will be pivotal to our understanding of the neural basis of emotional empathy and its link to prosocial behaviour.

  17. Extending the Mind: A Review of Ethnographies of Neuroscience Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eMahfoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews ethnographies of neuroscience laboratories in the United States and Europe, organizing them into three main sections: 1 descriptions of the capabilities and limitations of technologies used in neuroimaging laboratories to map ‘activity’ or ‘function’ onto structural models of the brain, 2 discussions of the ‘distributed’ or ‘extended’ mind in neuroscience practice, and 3 the implications of neuroscience research and the power of brain images outside the laboratory. I will try to show the importance of ethnographic work in such settings, and place this body of ethnographic work within its historical framework - such ethnographies largely emerged within the Decade of the Brain, as announced by former President of the United States George H. W. Bush in 1990. The main argument is that neuroscience research and the context within which it is taking place has changed since the 1990’s - specifically with the launch of ‘big science’ projects such as the Human Brain Project in the European Union and the BRAIN initiative in the United States. There is an opportunity for more research into the institutional and politico-economic context within which neuroscience research is taking place, and for continued engagement between the social and biological sciences.

  18. Women in neuroscience (WIN): the first twenty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, Laurel L

    2002-03-01

    Women in Neuroscience (WIN) is an international organization whose major goal is to promote the professional advancement of women neuroscientists. To this end, WIN facilitates contacts and communication among women working in neuroscience, and organizes appropriate activities at the annual Society for Neuroscience (SfN) meeting. WIN was created in 1980, when despite major changes and advances in 'equal opportunities', women were still not achieving a proportionate level of success in the subdiscipline of neurosciences. In 1980, women made up 40 to 50% of entering classes in medical schools or graduate programs, but often comprised only 5 to 15% of leadership in respective organizations. Although there had been women elected to serve as SfN presidents, council, and committee members, women were under-represented in other positions of the Society, such as symposium and session chairs. There was an even lesser degree of representation in leadership positions at universities and medical schools in terms of full professorships, chairs, and program directors, as well as on editorial boards, advisory boards, and councils. Over the years, WIN has worked with success toward increasing the participation of women in neuroscience.

  19. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  20. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  1. What characterizes changing-state speech in affecting short-term memory? An EEG study on the irrelevant sound effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlittmeier, Sabine J; Weisz, Nathan; Bertrand, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    The irrelevant sound effect (ISE) describes reduced verbal short-term memory during irrelevant changing-state sounds which consist of different and distinct auditory tokens. Steady-state sounds lack such changing-state features and do not impair performance. An EEG experiment (N=16) explored the distinguishing neurophysiological aspects of detrimental changing-state speech (3-token sequence) compared to ineffective steady-state speech (1-token sequence) on serial recall performance. We analyzed evoked and induced activity related to the memory items as well as spectral activity during the retention phase. The main finding is that the behavioral sound effect was exclusively reflected by attenuated token-induced gamma activation most pronounced between 50-60 Hz and 50-100 ms post-stimulus onset. Changing-state speech seems to disrupt a behaviorally relevant ongoing process during target presentation (e.g., the serial binding of the items). Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. The effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on teachers' attention, episodic and semantic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enmarker, Ingela

    2004-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to examine the effects of meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise on attention, episodic and semantic memory, and also to examine whether the noise effects were age-dependent. A total of 96 male and female teachers in the age range of 35-45 and 55-65 years were randomly assigned to a silent or the two noise conditions. Noise effects found in episodic memory were limited to a meaningful text, where cued recall contrary to expectations was equally impaired by the two types of noise. However, meaningful irrelevant speech also deteriorated recognition of the text, whereas road traffic noise caused no decrement. Retrieval from two word fluency tests in semantic memory showed strong effects of noise exposure, one affected by meaningful irrelevant speech and the other by road traffic noise. The results implied that both acoustic variation and the semantic interference could be of importance for noise impairments. The expected age-dependent noise effects did not show up.

  3. Affective psychotherapy in post-traumatic reactions guided by affective neuroscience: memory reconsolidation and play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göran Högberg1,2, Davide Nardo3, Tore Hällström4,5, Marco Pagani6,71Department of Women's and Children's Health, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2BUP Huddinge Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Psychiatry/Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Unit for Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This paper reviews the affective neuroscience dealing with the effects of traumatic events. We give an overview of the normal fear reactions, the pathological fear reaction, and the character of emotional episodic memories. We find that both emotions and emotional memories are a tripartite unit of sensory information, autonomic reaction, and motor impulse (the PRM complex. We propose that emotions and movements are part and parcel of the same complex. This is our main finding from the review of affective neuroscience, and from here we focus on psychotherapy with post-trauma reactions. The finding of the process of memory reconsolidation opens up a new treatment approach: affective psychotherapy focused on reconsolidation. The meaning of reconsolidation is that an emotional memory, when retrieved and being active, will rest in a labile form, amenable to change, for a brief period of time, until it reconsolidates in the memory. This leads us to the conclusion that emotions, affects, must be evoked during the treatment session and that positive emotion must come first, because safety must be part of the new memories. In the proposed protocol of affective

  4. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness and neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Magee, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    , there is little evidence to support music therapy in rehabilitation programmes. In contrast, advances in neuroscience have improved our understanding of both brain damage and brain/music interactions. There is increasing support for the role of musical activity in promoting neuroplasticity and functional...... improvements for people with neuro-disabilities, although music therapy specific studies are lacking. Collaborations between the fields of neuroscience and music therapy may yield fruitful progress for both disciplines as well as for patient populations. By outlining the key findings and the remaining...... questions offered by the neuroscience literature, this paper sets out the future challenges to address for clinicians and researchers in developing evidence-based approaches to their work....

  5. Buildings, Beauty, and the Brain: A Neuroscience of Architectural Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Alex; Vartanian, Oshin; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2017-09-01

    A burgeoning interest in the intersection of neuroscience and architecture promises to offer biologically inspired insights into the design of spaces. The goal of such interdisciplinary approaches to architecture is to motivate construction of environments that would contribute to peoples' flourishing in behavior, health, and well-being. We suggest that this nascent field of neuroarchitecture is at a pivotal point in which neuroscience and architecture are poised to extend to a neuroscience of architecture. In such a research program, architectural experiences themselves are the target of neuroscientific inquiry. Here, we draw lessons from recent developments in neuroaesthetics to suggest how neuroarchitecture might mature into an experimental science. We review the extant literature and offer an initial framework from which to contextualize such research. Finally, we outline theoretical and technical challenges that lie ahead.

  6. Information Society for the South | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) for development or, more broadly, the information society, has focused on situations commonly found in the North (developed countries). As a result, many of the prescriptions and recommended solutions are irrelevant to the needs and ...

  7. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Hyde, Luke W; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M; Keating, Daniel P; Langa, Kenneth M; Martz, Meghan E; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J; Noll, Douglas C; Patrick, Megan E; Pfeffer, Fabian T; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Thomason, Moriah E; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Monk, Christopher S; Schulenberg, John

    2013-10-29

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain-behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective--population neuroscience--that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas.

  8. From computer to brain foundations of computational neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Lytton, William W

    2002-01-01

    Biology undergraduates, medical students and life-science graduate students often have limited mathematical skills. Similarly, physics, math and engineering students have little patience for the detailed facts that make up much of biological knowledge. Teaching computational neuroscience as an integrated discipline requires that both groups be brought forward onto common ground. This book does this by making ancillary material available in an appendix and providing basic explanations without becoming bogged down in unnecessary details. The book will be suitable for undergraduates and beginning graduate students taking a computational neuroscience course and also to anyone with an interest in the uses of the computer in modeling the nervous system.

  9. Mental illness from the perspective of theoretical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thagard, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical neuroscience, which characterizes neural mechanisms using mathematical and computational models, is highly relevant to central problems in the philosophy of psychiatry. These models can help to solve the explanation problem of causally connecting neural processes with the behaviors and experiences found in mental illnesses. Such explanations will also be useful for generating better classifications and treatments of psychiatric disorders. The result should help to eliminate concerns that mental illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia are not objectively real. A philosophical approach to mental illness based on neuroscience need not neglect the inherently social and historical nature of mental phenomena.

  10. Contemplative Neuroscience as an Approach to Volitional Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Evan

    This chapter presents a methodological approach to volitional consciousness for cognitive neuroscience based on studying the voluntary self-generation and self-regulation of mental states in meditation. Called contemplative neuroscience, this approach views attention, awareness, and emotion regulation as flexible and trainable skills, and works with experimental participants who have undergone training in contemplative practices designed to hone these skills. Drawing from research on the dynamical neural correlates of contemplative mental states and theories of large-scale neural coordination dynamics, I argue for the importance of global system causation in brain activity and present an "interventionist" approach to intentional causation.

  11. Behavioural Economics, Neuroscience, and the Unfair Commercial Practises Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests how and to what extent insights from behavioural economics and neuroscience may be used for the interpretation of the 2005 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. These disciplines provide useful insight in how the average consumer’s decisions are influenced by commercial...... that courts are to make is normative, and that behavioural economics and neuroscience is of a more descriptive nature. Thus these disciplines may not help draw the fine line between the legitimate influence of commercial activities and the illegal distortion of the average consumer’s behaviour. However...

  12. Brainhack: a collaborative workshop for the open neuroscience community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron Craddock, R; S Margulies, Daniel; Bellec, Pierre; Nolan Nichols, B; Alcauter, Sarael; A Barrios, Fernando; Burnod, Yves; J Cannistraci, Christopher; Cohen-Adad, Julien; De Leener, Benjamin; Dery, Sebastien; Downar, Jonathan; Dunlop, Katharine; R Franco, Alexandre; Seligman Froehlich, Caroline; J Gerber, Andrew; S Ghosh, Satrajit; J Grabowski, Thomas; Hill, Sean; Sólon Heinsfeld, Anibal; Matthew Hutchison, R; Kundu, Prantik; R Laird, Angela; Liew, Sook-Lei; J Lurie, Daniel; G McLaren, Donald; Meneguzzi, Felipe; Mennes, Maarten; Mesmoudi, Salma; O'Connor, David; H Pasaye, Erick; Peltier, Scott; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Prasad, Gautam; Fraga Pereira, Ramon; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Rokem, Ariel; S Saad, Ziad; Shi, Yonggang; C Strother, Stephen; Toro, Roberto; Q Uddin, Lucina; D Van Horn, John; W Van Meter, John; C Welsh, Robert; Xu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Brainhack events offer a novel workshop format with participant-generated content that caters to the rapidly growing open neuroscience community. Including components from hackathons and unconferences, as well as parallel educational sessions, Brainhack fosters novel collaborations around the interests of its attendees. Here we provide an overview of its structure, past events, and example projects. Additionally, we outline current innovations such as regional events and post-conference publications. Through introducing Brainhack to the wider neuroscience community, we hope to provide a unique conference format that promotes the features of collaborative, open science.

  13. Empathy Examined From Perspectives of Neuroscience and Artistic Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael A; Grossenbacher, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    This response to Ian E. Wickramasekera II's article, Mysteries of Hypnosis and the Self Are Revealed by the Psychology and Neuroscience of Empathy, is addressed from a joint perspective on consciousness comprising two related orientations: neuroscience and artistic imagination. We find that the central importance of empathy to empathic involvement theory (Wickramasekera II, 2015) reflects the pivotal nature of empathy in the brain and in the relational exchange implicit in the psychotherapeutic process, particularly when using art in therapy. We offer a preliminary unpacking of the roles related to key psychological processes, such as imagination, that are implicated in clinical uses of verbal and visual empathic resonance.

  14. Some historical crossroads between astronomy and visual neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, G.

    The histories of astronomy and visual neuroscience share some important events. Observation of the sky provided early basic information about visual acuity and sensitivity to light and their variations at different retinal locations. Some of the early tests of visual functions were inspired by astronomical knowledge existing since antiquity and possibly since human prehistory. After science became a hallmark of human civilization, astronomy played a crucial part in the discovery of the laws of nature. At the turn of the 19th century, astronomers discovered interindividual variability in detecting the time of stellar transit and tried to measure the so-called personal equation, a supposedly inherent individual bias in making observations, judgements and measurements. Convinced that the reliability of scientific observations depended on the reliability of the observer, they were the first scientists to realize that studying man and human psychophysiology was essential for achieving accuracy and objectivity in astronomy and other sciences alike. There is general consensus that the science of experimental psychology grew out of astronomy and physiology in connection with the development of the reaction time method and the so-called mental chronometry. The crucial role of the observer in astronomical observations appears to have been neglected by astronomers in the second half of the 19th century after Giovanni Schiaparelli described ``canals" on the surface of the planet Mars. Percival Lowell and others thought that these canals had been constructed by a Martian intelligent population in order to distribute water from the polar regions to the equatorial deserts on the planet. Since it has been ascertained that the Mars canals seen by Schiaparelli do not exist, some speculations are offered from a neuroscientific viewpoint as to why he and others were mistaken in their observations of Mars.

  15. Medical imaging. From nuclear medicine to neuro-sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Nuclear medicine and functional imaging were born of the CEA's ambition to promote and develop nuclear applications in the fields of biology and health. Nuclear medicine is based on the use of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It could never have developed so rapidly without the progress made in atomic and nuclear physics. One major breakthrough was the discovery of artificial radioelements by Irene and Frederic Joliot in 1934, when a short-lived radioactive isotope was created for the first time ever. Whether natural or synthetic, isotopes possess the same chemical properties as their non-radioactive counterparts. The only difference is that they are unstable and this instability causes disintegration, leading to radiation emission. All we need are suitable detection tools to keep track of them. 'The discovery of artificial radioelements is at the root of the most advanced medical imaging techniques'. The notion of tracer dates back to 1913. Invented by George de Hevesy, it lies at the root of nuclear medicine. By discovering how to produce radioactive isotopes, Irene and Frederic Joliot provided biology researchers with nuclear tools of unrivalled efficiency. Today, nuclear medicine and functional imaging are the only techniques capable of giving us extremely precise information about living organisms in a non-traumatic manner and without upsetting their balance. Positron emission tomography (PET) and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the main imaging techniques used at the CEA in its neuro-imaging research activities. These techniques are now developing rapidly and becoming increasingly important not only in the neuroscience world, but also for innovative therapies and cancer treatment. (authors)

  16. Challenges of microtome‐based serial block‐face scanning electron microscopy in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANNER, A. A.; KIRSCHMANN, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Serial block‐face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) is becoming increasingly popular for a wide range of applications in many disciplines from biology to material sciences. This review focuses on applications for circuit reconstruction in neuroscience, which is one of the major driving forces advancing SBEM. Neuronal circuit reconstruction poses exceptional challenges to volume EM in terms of resolution, field of view, acquisition time and sample preparation. Mapping the connections between neurons in the brain is crucial for understanding information flow and information processing in the brain. However, information on the connectivity between hundreds or even thousands of neurons densely packed in neuronal microcircuits is still largely missing. Volume EM techniques such as serial section TEM, automated tape‐collecting ultramicrotome, focused ion‐beam scanning electron microscopy and SBEM (microtome serial block‐face scanning electron microscopy) are the techniques that provide sufficient resolution to resolve ultrastructural details such as synapses and provides sufficient field of view for dense reconstruction of neuronal circuits. While volume EM techniques are advancing, they are generating large data sets on the terabyte scale that require new image processing workflows and analysis tools. In this review, we present the recent advances in SBEM for circuit reconstruction in neuroscience and an overview of existing image processing and analysis pipelines. PMID:25907464

  17. Neuroscience in its context. Neuroscience and psychology in the work of Wilhelm Wundt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziche, P

    1999-01-01

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920), the first to establish an Institute devoted exclusively to psychological research in Germany, started his career as a (neuro)physiologist. He gradually turned into a psychologist in the 1860's and 1870's, at a time when neuroscience had to deal with the problem of giving an adequate physiological interpretation of the data accumulated by neuroanatomy. Neither the functional interpretation of brain morphology, nor the options provided by the reflex model seemed acceptable to Wundt. In his Physiological Psychology, first published in 1874, Wundt adds another aspect to this discussion by showing that psychology may help, and indeed is required, to clarify some of the most controversial problems in brain research. He thus became a key figure in neuroscience's struggle to locate itself within the various research traditions. The following theses will be argued for: 1. Wundt's turn to psychology resulted from his view that the methodological basis of physiological brain research of the time was unsatisfactory. 2. Psychology, in its attempt to solve these problems, implied a new conception of an interaction between experimental and theoretical brain research. 3. Wundt tried to demonstrate the necessity of psychological considerations for experimental brain research. These points are discussed with reference to Wundt's treatment of the localization of functions in the brain. According to Wundt, psychology can show, by analyzing the complex structure of intellect and will, that mental phenomena can be realized in the brain only in the form of complex interations of the elements of the brain. The results of the psychological considerations imply that a strict localizations cannot be correct; but they are also turned against the conception of a complete functional equivalence of the various parts of the cortext. For Wundt, a reconstruction of brain processes cannot start with neurones, but only with patterns of a functional organization of brain

  18. History of neurosciences at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Badrisyah; Sayuti, Sani; Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2007-02-01

    Universiti Sains Malaysia is the only institution in Malaysia which incorporates all fields of the neurosciences under one roof. The integration of basic and clinical neurosciences has made it possible for this institution to become an excellent academic and research centre. This article describes the history, academic contributions and scientific progress of neurosciences at Universiti Sains Malaysia.

  19. Can the Differences between Education and Neuroscience Be Overcome by Mind, Brain, and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Boba M.

    2009-01-01

    The new field of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE)--sometimes called educational neuroscience--is posited as a mediator between neuroscience and education. Several foundational concerns, however, can be raised about this emerging field. The differences between neuroscience and education are many, including differences in their histories,…

  20. Mirroring, Mentalizing, and the Social Neuroscience of Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spunt, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Listening to another speak is a basic process in social cognition. In the social neurosciences, there are relatively few studies that directly bear on listening; however, numerous studies have investigated the neural bases of some of the likely constituents of successful listening. In this article, I review some of this work as it relates to…

  1. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with courses…

  2. A POST-MODERNIST ANALYSIS OF THE NEURO-SCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support

    Senior Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Rand Afrikaans University. Anita Stuart. D Litt et Phil ... of neuro-science, including the assumptive framework upon which the dominant discourse in this field is based, which ultimately serves to maintain .... 1978:52; 1979:67). Each narrative or text, once embraced, “invites certain.

  3. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelenbosch, R.M.; Kupper, J.F.H.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Broerse, J.E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning

  4. Empathy at the confluence of neuroscience and empirical literary studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, M.; Mangen, Anne; Kuzmicova, Anezka; Schilhab, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review extant empirical studies of empathy in narrative reading in light of (a) contemporary literary theory, and (b) neuroscientific studies of empathy, and to discuss how a closer interplay between neuroscience and literary studies may enhance our understanding

  5. A developmental social neuroscience model for understanding loneliness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nichol M L; Yeung, Patcy P S; Lee, Tatia M C

    2018-02-01

    Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world. In this review, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model that extends from the social neuroscience model of loneliness. In particular, we argue that the social brain and social skills are both important for the development of adolescents' perceived loneliness and that adolescents' familial attachment sets the baseline for neurobiological development. By reviewing the related behavioral and neuroimaging literature, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model to explain the heightened perception of loneliness in adolescents using social skills and attachment style as neurobiological moderators. We encourage future researchers to investigate adolescents' perceived social connectedness from the developmental neuroscience perspective.

  6. The Legacy of Patient H.M. for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    H.M. is probably the best known single patient in the history of neuroscience. His severe memory impairment, which resulted from experimental neurosurgery to control seizures, was the subject of study for five decades until his death in December 2008. Work with H.M. established fundamental principles about how memory functions are organized in the brain. PMID:19146808

  7. Neuroscience in the HBSE Sequence: Mandate and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs-Orme, Terri; Lefmann, Tess; Pilkay, Stefanie; Strong, Joe; Thompson, Phyllis; Veerman, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Important findings from neuroscience research provide valuable knowledge for social work practice, and although these findings are already being incorporated into practice in many other disciplines, social work has been slow to integrate this content into foundation professional education. This article describes how one social work program…

  8. A Primer on Concepts and Applications of Proteomics in Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosp, Fabian; Mann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The enormous complexity of the central nervous system has impeded its systemic exploration for decades but powerful "omic" technologies are now pushing forward the frontiers of neuroscience research at an increasing pace. This Primer reviews the most recent progress in mass spectrometry (MS...

  9. Neuroscience in the residency curriculum: the psychoanalytic psychotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Michels, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Educators of future psychiatrists tend to teach an array of approaches to the mind and brain, including among them the neurobiologic perspective and the psychoanalytic perspective. These may be considered at opposite ends of many spectra, including the fact that psychoanalysis takes a large-scale and treatment-oriented perspective and has helped countless patients over the years, while neuroscience has tended to be reductionistic, focused on understanding, and has helped very few people. A tension, therefore, exists for the educator in teaching neuroscience: is it wise to spend valuable time and energy teaching this interesting but, thus far, impractical field to future practitioners? Here, we argue that neuroscience is re-orienting itself towards more psychoanalytically relevant questions and is likely, in future years, to give new insights into the nature of basic drives and social relations. We additionally argue for balance on the part of providers in both acknowledging biologic underpinnings for clinical phenomena and yet continuing to take a stance oriented towards appropriate change. Given the burgeoning new focus within neuroscience on topics directly relating to the human internal experience and the novel challenges in both understanding those advances and appropriately using them, we encourage educators to continue to give future psychiatrists the educational foundation they need to follow neuroscientific discoveries into the future.

  10. Point of View: Taking a Cue from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Eleanor A.

    2015-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This article encourages teachers to use emerging scientific evidence to change classroom culture--accept the evidence from neuroscience and find ways to make classrooms less stressful and more successful.

  11. A Plea for Cross-species Social Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the question of how our brain makes us sensitive to the state of conspecifics and how that affects our behaviour has undergone a profound change. Twenty years ago what would now be called social neuroscience was focused on the visual processing of facial expressions and

  12. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Kupper, Frank; Krabbendam, Lydia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on…

  13. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  14. Fuzzy logic: A "simple" solution for complexities in neurosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godil, Saniya Siraj; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Enam, Syed Ather; Qidwai, Uvais

    2011-02-26

    Fuzzy logic is a multi-valued logic which is similar to human thinking and interpretation. It has the potential of combining human heuristics into computer-assisted decision making, which is applicable to individual patients as it takes into account all the factors and complexities of individuals. Fuzzy logic has been applied in all disciplines of medicine in some form and recently its applicability in neurosciences has also gained momentum. This review focuses on the use of this concept in various branches of neurosciences including basic neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology. The applicability of fuzzy logic is not limited to research related to neuroanatomy, imaging nerve fibers and understanding neurophysiology, but it is also a sensitive and specific tool for interpretation of EEGs, EMGs and MRIs and an effective controller device in intensive care units. It has been used for risk stratification of stroke, diagnosis of different psychiatric illnesses and even planning neurosurgical procedures. In the future, fuzzy logic has the potential of becoming the basis of all clinical decision making and our understanding of neurosciences.

  15. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  16. Ruthless reductionism: Review essay of John Bickle - Philosophy and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looren De Jong, H.

    2005-01-01

    John Bickle's new book on philosophy and neuroscience is aptly subtitled 'a ruthlessly reductive account'. His 'new wave metascience' is a massive attack on the relative autonomy that psychology enjoyed until recently, and goes even beyond his previous (Bickle, J. (1998). Psychoneural reduction: The

  17. Pathological choice: the neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling

  18. Neuroscience for Content Innovation on European Public Service Broadcasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Pereira, Verónica; Martínez-Fernández, Valentín-Alejandro; Campos-Freire, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The new media landscape is characterized by the fragmentation and disaffection of the audience towards traditional television. Such a context requires innovative strategies to meet the needs of the public and connect with it. This article analyses the ability of Neuroscience to optimize the production of content adapted to audiences. For this…

  19. The Use of Animal Models in Behavioural Neuroscience Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, B.; Kaldewaij, F.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are

  20. The Use of Animal Models in Behavioural Neuroscience Research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenkerk, Bernice; Kaldewaij, Frederike

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are used in experiments in the behavioural neurosciences that aim to contribute to the prevention and treatment of cognitive and affective disorders in human beings, such as anxiety and depression. Ironically, those animals that are likely to be the best models for psychopathology are

  1. Learning with Interactive Computer Graphics in the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of…

  2. Neuroscience and education: an ideal partnership for producing evidence-based solutions to Guide 21(st) Century Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carew, Thomas J; Magsamen, Susan H

    2010-09-09

    Neuro-Education is a nascent discipline that seeks to blend the collective fields of neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science, and education to create a better understanding of how we learn and how this information can be used to create more effective teaching methods, curricula, and educational policy. Though still in its infancy as a research discipline, this initiative is already opening critical new dialog between teachers, administrators, parents, and brain scientists. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Tretter, Felix; Braun, Hans A.; Buchheim, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Fuchs, Thomas; Hasler, Felix; Hastedt, Heiner; Hinterberger, Thilo; Northoff, Georg; Rentschler, Ingo; Schleim, Stephan; Sellmaier, Stephan; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge, rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather aggravate them by the complexity problem. The present article is devoted to methodological and epistemic problems that obstruct the development of human neuroscience. We neither discuss ontological questions (e.g., the nature of the mind) nor review data, except when it is necessary to demonstrate a methodological issue. As regards intradisciplinary methodological problems, we concentrate on those within neurobiology (e.g., the gap between electrical and chemical approaches to neurophysiological processes) and psychology (missing theoretical concepts). As regards interdisciplinary problems, we suggest that core disciplines of neuroscience can be integrated using systemic concepts that also entail human-environment relations. We emphasize the necessity of a meta-discussion that should entail a closer cooperation with philosophy as a discipline of systematic reflection. The atomistic reduction should be complemented by the explicit consideration of the embodiedness of the brain and the embeddedness of humans. The discussion is aimed at the development of an explicit methodology of integrative human neuroscience, which will not only link different fields and levels, but also help in understanding clinical phenomena. PMID:27965548

  4. Methodological Problems on the Way to Integrative Human Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Tretter, Felix; Braun, Hans A; Buchheim, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Fuchs, Thomas; Hasler, Felix; Hastedt, Heiner; Hinterberger, Thilo; Northoff, Georg; Rentschler, Ingo; Schleim, Stephan; Sellmaier, Stephan; Tebartz Van Elst, Ludger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary effort to understand the structures and functions of the brain and brain-mind relations. This effort results in an increasing amount of data, generated by sophisticated technologies. However, these data enhance our descriptive knowledge , rather than improve our understanding of brain functions. This is caused by methodological gaps both within and between subdisciplines constituting neuroscience, and the atomistic approach that limits the study of macro- and mesoscopic issues. Whole-brain measurement technologies do not resolve these issues, but rather aggravate them by the complexity problem. The present article is devoted to methodological and epistemic problems that obstruct the development of human neuroscience. We neither discuss ontological questions (e.g., the nature of the mind) nor review data, except when it is necessary to demonstrate a methodological issue. As regards intradisciplinary methodological problems, we concentrate on those within neurobiology (e.g., the gap between electrical and chemical approaches to neurophysiological processes) and psychology (missing theoretical concepts). As regards interdisciplinary problems, we suggest that core disciplines of neuroscience can be integrated using systemic concepts that also entail human-environment relations. We emphasize the necessity of a meta-discussion that should entail a closer cooperation with philosophy as a discipline of systematic reflection. The atomistic reduction should be complemented by the explicit consideration of the embodiedness of the brain and the embeddedness of humans. The discussion is aimed at the development of an explicit methodology of integrative human neuroscience , which will not only link different fields and levels, but also help in understanding clinical phenomena.

  5. Chassis organism from Corynebacterium glutamicum--a top-down approach to identify and delete irrelevant gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unthan, Simon; Baumgart, Meike; Radek, Andreas; Herbst, Marius; Siebert, Daniel; Brühl, Natalie; Bartsch, Anna; Bott, Michael; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Marin, Kay; Hans, Stephan; Krämer, Reinhard; Seibold, Gerd; Frunzke, Julia; Kalinowski, Jörn; Rückert, Christian; Wendisch, Volker F; Noack, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    For synthetic biology applications, a robust structural basis is required, which can be constructed either from scratch or in a top-down approach starting from any existing organism. In this study, we initiated the top-down construction of a chassis organism from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032, aiming for the relevant gene set to maintain its fast growth on defined medium. We evaluated each native gene for its essentiality considering expression levels, phylogenetic conservation, and knockout data. Based on this classification, we determined 41 gene clusters ranging from 3.7 to 49.7 kbp as target sites for deletion. 36 deletions were successful and 10 genome-reduced strains showed impaired growth rates, indicating that genes were hit, which are relevant to maintain biological fitness at wild-type level. In contrast, 26 deleted clusters were found to include exclusively irrelevant genes for growth on defined medium. A combinatory deletion of all irrelevant gene clusters would, in a prophage-free strain, decrease the size of the native genome by about 722 kbp (22%) to 2561 kbp. Finally, five combinatory deletions of irrelevant gene clusters were investigated. The study introduces the novel concept of relevant genes and demonstrates general strategies to construct a chassis suitable for biotechnological application. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-NoDerivs Licence, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non- commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  6. Mind the fish: zebrafish as a model in cognitive social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how the brain implements social behavior on one hand, and how social processes feedback on the brain to promote fine-tuning of behavioural output according to changes in the social environment is a major challenge in contemporary neuroscience. A critical step to take this challenge successfully is finding the appropriate level of analysis when relating social to biological phenomena. Given the enormous complexity of both the neural networks of the brain and social systems, the use of a cognitive level of analysis (in an information processing perspective is proposed here as an explanatory interface between brain and behavior. A conceptual framework for a cognitive approach to comparative social neuroscience is proposed, consisting of the following steps to be taken across different species with varying social systems: (1 identification of the functional building blocks of social skills; (2 identification of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the previously identified social skills; and (3 mapping these information processing mechanisms onto the brain. Teleost fish are presented here as a group of choice to develop this approach, given the diversity of social systems present in closely related species that allows for planned phylogenetic comparisons, and the availability of neurogenetic tools that allows the visualization and manipulation of selected neural circuits in model species such as the zebrafish. Finally, the state-of-the art of zebrafish social cognition and of the tools available to map social cognitive abilities to neural circuits in zebrafish are reviewed.

  7. Speech perception under adverse conditions: Insights from behavioral, computational and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eGuediche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this review article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. In particular, we consider several domains of neuroscience research that offer insight into how perception can be adaptively tuned to short-term deviations while also maintaining without affecting the long-term learned regularities for mapping sensory input. We review several literatures to highlight the potential role of learning algorithms that rely on prediction error signals and discuss specific neural structures that are likely to contribute to such learning. Already, a few studies have alluded to a potential role of these mechanisms in adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Better understanding the application and limitations of these algorithms for the challenges of flexible speech perception under adverse conditions promises to inform theoretical models of speech.

  8. Using brain-computer interfaces and brain-state dependent stimulation as tools in cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole eJensen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Large efforts are currently being made to develop and improve online analysis of brain activity which can be used e.g. for brain-computer interfacing (BCI. A BCI allows a subject to control a device by willfully changing his/her own brain activity. BCI therefore holds the promise as a tool for aiding the disabled and for augmenting human performance. While technical developments obviously are important, we will here argue that new insight gained from cognitive neuroscience can be used to identify signatures of neural activation which reliably can be modulated by the subject at will. This review will focus mainly on oscillatory activity in the alpha band which is strongly modulated by changes in covert attention. Besides developing BCIs for their traditional purpose, they might also be used as a research tool for cognitive neuroscience. There is currently a strong interest in how brain state fluctuations impact cognition. These state fluctuations are partly reflected by ongoing oscillatory activity. The functional role of the brain state can be investigated by introducing stimuli in real time to subjects depending on the actual state of the brain. This principle of brain-state dependent stimulation may also be used as a practical tool for augmenting human behavior. In conclusion, new approaches based on online analysis of ongoing brain activity are currently in rapid development. These approaches are amongst others informed by new insight gained from EEG/MEG studies in cognitive neuroscience and hold the promise of providing new ways for investigating the brain at work.

  9. Writing to Learn: An Evaluation of the Calibrated Peer Review™ Program in Two Neuroscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, J. Roxanne

    2005-01-01

    Although the majority of scientific information is communicated in written form, and peer review is the primary process by which it is validated, undergraduate students may receive little direct training in science writing or peer review. Here, I describe the use of Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR), a free, web-based writing and peer review program designed to alleviate instructor workload, in two undergraduate neuroscience courses: an upper- level sensation and perception course (41 students, three assignments) and an introductory neuroscience course (50 students; two assignments). Using CPR online, students reviewed primary research articles on assigned ‘hot’ topics, wrote short essays in response to specific guiding questions, reviewed standard ‘calibration’ essays, and provided anonymous quantitative and qualitative peer reviews. An automated grading system calculated the final scores based on a student’s essay quality (as determined by the average of three peer reviews) and his or her accuracy in evaluating 1) three standard calibration essays, 2) three anonymous peer reviews, and 3) his or her self review. Thus, students were assessed not only on their skill at constructing logical, evidence-based arguments, but also on their ability to accurately evaluate their peers’ writing. According to both student self-reports and instructor observation, students’ writing and peer review skills improved over the course of the semester. Student evaluation of the CPR program was mixed; while some students felt like the peer review process enhanced their understanding of the material and improved their writing, others felt as though the process was biased and required too much time. Despite student critiques of the program, I still recommend the CPR program as an excellent and free resource for incorporating more writing, peer review, and critical thinking into an undergraduate neuroscience curriculum. PMID:23493247

  10. Effectiveness of interactive, online games in learning neuroscience and students' perception of the games as learning tools. A pre-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Marilyn E; Ford, Ruth; Webster, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Neurological concepts applicable to a doctorate in occupational therapy are often challenging to comprehend, and students are required to demonstrate critical reasoning skills beyond simply recalling the information. To achieve this, various learning and teaching strategies are used, including the use of technology in the classroom. The availability of technology in academic settings has allowed for diverse and active teaching approaches. This includes videos, web-based instruction, and interactive online games. In this quantitative pre-experimental analysis, the learning and retention of neuroscience concepts by 30 occupational therapy doctoral students, who participated in an interactive online learning experience, were assessed. The results suggest that student use of these tools may enhance their learning of neuroscience. Furthermore, the students felt that the sites were appropriate, beneficial to them, and easy to use. Thus, the use of online, interactive neuroscience games may be effective in reinforcing lecture materials. This needs to be further assessed in a larger sample size.

  11. Neuroscience Fiction as Eidolá: Social Reflection and Neuroethical Obligations in Depictions of Neuroscience in Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurzman, Rachel; Yaden, David; Giordano, James

    2017-04-01

    Neuroscience and neurotechnology are increasingly being employed to assess and alter cognition, emotions, and behaviors, and the knowledge and implications of neuroscience have the potential to radically affect, if not redefine, notions of what constitutes humanity, the human condition, and the "self." Such capability renders neuroscience a compelling theme that is becoming ubiquitous in literary and cinematic fiction. Such neuro-SciFi (or "NeuroS/F") may be seen as eidolá: a created likeness that can either accurately-or superficially, in a limited way-represent that which it depicts. Such eidolá assume discursive properties implicitly, as emotionally salient references for responding to cultural events and technological objects reminiscent of fictional portrayal; and explicitly, through characters and plots that consider the influence of neurotechnological advances from various perspectives. We argue that in this way, neuroS/F eidolá serve as allegorical discourse on sociopolitical or cultural phenomena, have power to restructure technological constructs, and thereby alter the trajectory of technological development. This fosters neuroethical responsibility for monitoring neuroS/F eidolá and the sociocultural context from which-and into which-the ideas of eidolá are projected. We propose three approaches to this: evaluating reciprocal effects of imaginary depictions on real-world neurotechnological development; tracking changing sociocultural expectations of neuroscience and its uses; and analyzing the actual process of social interpretation of neuroscience to reveal shifts in heuristics, ideas, and attitudes. Neuroethicists are further obliged to engage with other discourse actors about neuroS/F interpretations to ensure that meanings assigned to neuroscientific advances are well communicated and more fully appreciated.

  12. Selective attention to task-irrelevant emotional distractors is unaffected by the perceptual load associated with a foreground task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi Attar, Catherine; Müller, Matthias M

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load) or discrimination (high load) task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.

  13. Selective attention to task-irrelevant emotional distractors is unaffected by the perceptual load associated with a foreground task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hindi Attar

    Full Text Available A number of studies have shown that emotionally arousing stimuli are preferentially processed in the human brain. Whether or not this preference persists under increased perceptual load associated with a task at hand remains an open question. Here we manipulated two possible determinants of the attentional selection process, perceptual load associated with a foreground task and the emotional valence of concurrently presented task-irrelevant distractors. As a direct measure of sustained attentional resource allocation in early visual cortex we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs elicited by distinct flicker frequencies of task and distractor stimuli. Subjects either performed a detection (low load or discrimination (high load task at a centrally presented symbol stream that flickered at 8.6 Hz while task-irrelevant neutral or unpleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS flickered at a frequency of 12 Hz in the background of the stream. As reflected in target detection rates and SSVEP amplitudes to both task and distractor stimuli, unpleasant relative to neutral background pictures more strongly withdrew processing resources from the foreground task. Importantly, this finding was unaffected by the factor 'load' which turned out to be a weak modulator of attentional processing in human visual cortex.

  14. The effect of age on involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds: a test of the frontal hypothesis of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Pilar; Parmentier, Fabrice B R; Escera, Carles

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on the involuntary capture of attention by irrelevant sounds (distraction) and the use of these sounds as warning cues (alertness) in an oddball paradigm. We compared the performance of older and younger participants on a well-characterized auditory-visual distraction task. Based on the dissociations observed in aging between attentional processes sustained by the anterior and posterior attentional networks, our prediction was that distraction by irrelevant novel sounds would be stronger in older adults than in young adults while both groups would be equally able to use sound as an alert to prepare for upcoming stimuli. The results confirmed both predictions: there was a larger distraction effect in the older participants, but the alert effect was equivalent in both groups. These results give support to the frontal hypothesis of aging [Raz, N. (2000). Aging of the brain and its impact on cognitive performance: integration of structural and functional finding. In F.I.M. Craik & T.A. Salthouse (Eds.) Handbook of aging and cognition (pp. 1-90). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; West, R. (1996). An application of prefrontal cortex function theory to cognitive aging. Psychological Bulletin, 120, 272-292].

  15. Temporal and spatial predictability of an irrelevant event differently affect detection and memory of items in a visual sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji eOhyama

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined how the temporal and spatial predictability of a task-irrelevant visual event affects the detection and memory of a visual item embedded in a continuously changing sequence. Participants observed 11 sequentially presented letters, during which a task-irrelevant visual event was either present or absent. Predictabilities of spatial location and temporal position of the event were controlled in 2 × 2 conditions. In the spatially predictable conditions, the event occurred at the same location within the stimulus sequence or at another location, while, in the spatially unpredictable conditions, it occurred at random locations. In the temporally predictable conditions, the event timing was fixed relative to the order of the letters, while in the temporally unpredictable condition, it could not be predicted from the letter order. Participants performed a working memory task and a target detection reaction time task. Memory accuracy was higher for a letter simultaneously presented at the same location as the event in the temporally unpredictable conditions, irrespective of the spatial predictability of the event. On the other hand, the detection reaction times were only faster for a letter simultaneously presented at the same location as the event when the event was both temporally and spatially predictable. Thus, to facilitate ongoing detection processes, an event must be predictable both in space and time, while memory processes are enhanced by temporally unpredictable (i.e., surprising events. Evidently, temporal predictability has differential effects on detection and memory of a visual item embedded in a sequence of images.

  16. The problem of latent attentional capture: Easy visual search conceals capture by task-irrelevant abrupt onsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Lien, Mei-Ching

    2016-08-01

    Researchers are sharply divided regarding whether irrelevant abrupt onsets capture spatial attention. Numerous studies report that they do and a roughly equal number report that they do not. This puzzle has inspired numerous attempts at reconciliation, none gaining general acceptance. The authors propose that abrupt onsets routinely capture attention, but the size of observed capture effects depends critically on how long attention dwells on distractor items which, in turn, depends critically on search difficulty. In a series of spatial cuing experiments, the authors show that irrelevant abrupt onsets produce robust capture effects when visual search is difficult, but not when search is easy. Critically, this effect occurs even when search difficulty varies randomly across trials, preventing any strategic adjustments of the attentional set that could modulate probability of capture by the onset cue. The authors argue that easy visual search provides an insensitive test for stimulus-driven capture by abrupt onsets: even though onsets truly capture attention, the effects of capture can be latent. This observation helps to explain previous failures to find capture by onsets, nearly all of which used an easy visual search. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Population disparities in mental health: insights from cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-10-01

    By 2050, nearly 1 in 5 Americans (19%) will be an immigrant, including Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, compared to the 1 in 8 (12%) in 2005. They will vary in the extent to which they are at risk for mental health disorders. Given this increase in cultural diversity within the United States and costly population health disparities across cultural groups, it is essential to develop a more comprehensive understanding of how culture affects basic psychological and biological mechanisms. We examine these basic mechanisms that underlie population disparities in mental health through cultural neuroscience. We discuss the challenges to and opportunities for cultural neuroscience research to determine sociocultural and biological factors that confer risk for and resilience to mental health disorders across the globe.

  18. Biochemistry and neuroscience: the twain need to meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mary B

    2017-04-01

    Neuroscience has come to mean the study of electrophysiology of neurons and synapses, micro and macro-scale neuroanatomy, and the functional organization of brain areas. The molecular axis of the field, as reflected in textbooks, often includes only descriptions of the structure and function of individual channels and receptor proteins, and the extracellular signals that guide development and repair. Studies of cytosolic 'molecular machines', large assemblies of proteins that orchestrate regulation of neuronal functions, have been neglected. However, a complete understanding of brain function that will enable new strategies for treatment of the most intractable neural disorders will require that in vitro biochemical studies of molecular machines be reintegrated into the field of neuroscience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han B; Sundberg, Brynn N; Sigafoos, Ashley N; Clark, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

  20. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han B.; Sundberg, Brynn N.; Sigafoos, Ashley N.; Clark, Karl J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience. PMID:27092173

  1. The metaphysical lessons of synthetic biology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baertschi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine some important metaphysical lessons that are often presented as derived from two new scientific disciplines: synthetic biology and neuroscience. I analyse four of them: the nature of life, the existence of a soul (the mind-body problem), personhood, and free will. Many caveats are in order, and each 'advance' or each case should be assessed for itself. I conclude that a main lesson can nevertheless be learned: in conjunction with modern science, neuroscience and synthetic biology allow us to enrich old metaphysical debates, to deepen and even renew them. In particular, it becomes less and less plausible to consider life, mind, person, and agency as non-natural or non-physical entities. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. New frontiers in the neuroscience of the sense of agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDavid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense that I am the author of my own actions, including the ability to distinguish my own from other people’s actions, is a fundamental building block of our sense of self, on the one hand, and successful social interactions, on the other. Using cognitive neuroscience techniques, researchers have attempted to elucidate the functional basis of this intriguing phenomenon, also trying to explain pathological abnormalities of action awareness in certain psychiatric and neurological disturbances. Recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances suggest several interesting and necessary new leads for future research on the neuroscience of agency. Here I will describe new frontiers for the field such as the need for novel and multifactorial paradigms, anatomically plausible network models for the sense of agency, investigations of the temporal dynamics during agentic processing and ecologically valid virtual reality applications.

  3. Development of Self-made LSM Software using in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronin, Maxim; Makovkin, Sergey; Popov, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    One of the main and modern visualization method in neuroscience is two-photon microscopy. However, scientists need to upgrade their microscopy system so regular because they are interested to get more specific data. Self-developed microscopy system allows to modify the construction of microscope in not-complicated manner depending on specialized experimental models and scientific tasks. Earlier we reported about building of self-made laser scanning microscope (LSM) using in neuroscience both for in vivo and in vitro experiments. Here we will report how to create software AMAScan for LSM controlling in MATLAB. The work was performed with financial support of the government represented by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the unique identifier of the project is RFMEFI58115X0016, the agreement on granting a subsidy №14.581.21.0016 dated 14.10.2015.

  4. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Lyric A.; Newsome, William T.; Anderson, David J.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Brown, Emery N.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Hudson, Kathy L.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; MacLeish, Peter R.; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A.; Sanes, Joshua R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tank, David W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  5. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: applications in basic neuroscience and neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisanby, Sarah H.; Luber, Bruce; Perera, Tarique; Sackeim, Harold A.

    2000-09-01

    Introduced 15 years ago, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive means of stimulating the cortex that has proved to be a unique tool for probing brain-behaviour relationships. While a therapeutic role for TMS in neuropsychiatry is uncertain, the utility of TMS in studying brain function has been demonstrated in diverse neuroscience applications. We review studies in animals on the mechanisms of action of TMS, and present a summary of the applications of TMS in basic neuroscience. TMS is still a relatively young technique, and unanswered questions remain regarding its acute and chronic impact on neural excitability and various aspects of brain function. Nonetheless, recent work with TMS has demonstrated its unique role in complementing other tools for studying brain function. As a brain intervention tool, TMS holds the promise of moving beyond correlative studies to help define the functional role of cortical regions in selected cognitive and affective processes.

  6. Generating Stimuli for Neuroscience Using PsychoPy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Jonathan W

    2008-01-01

    PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.). The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.

  7. Generating stimuli for neuroscience using PsychoPy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Peirce

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PsychoPy is a software library written in Python, using OpenGL to generate very precise visual stimuli on standard personal computers. It is designed to allow the construction of as wide a variety of neuroscience experiments as possible, with the least effort. By writing scripts in standard Python syntax users can generate an enormous variety of visual and auditory stimuli and can interact with a wide range of external hardware (enabling its use in fMRI, EEG, MEG etc.. The structure of scripts is simple and intuitive. As a result, new experiments can be written very quickly, and trying to understand a previously written script is easy, even with minimal code comments. PsychoPy can also generate movies and image sequences to be used in demos or simulated neuroscience experiments. This paper describes the range of tools and stimuli that it provides and the environment in which experiments are conducted.

  8. Pathological choice: the neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke; Averbeck, Bruno; Payer, Doris; Sescousse, Guillaume; Winstanley, Catharine A; Xue, Gui

    2013-11-06

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogenous drug effects. This article is a summary of topics covered in a Society for Neuroscience minisymposium, focusing on recent advances in understanding the neural basis of gambling behavior, including translational findings in rodents and nonhuman primates, which have begun to delineate neural circuitry and neurochemistry involved.

  9. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Psychometrics and the neuroscience of individual differences: Internal consistency limits between-subjects effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajcak, Greg; Meyer, Alexandria; Kotov, Roman

    2017-08-01

    In the clinical neuroscience literature, between-subjects differences in neural activity are presumed to reflect reliable measures-even though the psychometric properties of neural measures are almost never reported. The current article focuses on the critical importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency reliability-the homogeneity of "items" that comprise a neural "score." We demonstrate how variability in the internal consistency of neural measures limits between-subjects (i.e., individual differences) effects. To this end, we utilize error-related brain activity (i.e., the error-related negativity or ERN) in both healthy and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) participants to demonstrate options for psychometric analyses of neural measures; we examine between-groups differences in internal consistency, between-groups effect sizes, and between-groups discriminability (i.e., ROC analyses)-all as a function of increasing items (i.e., number of trials). Overall, internal consistency should be used to inform experimental design and the choice of neural measures in individual differences research. The internal consistency of neural measures is necessary for interpreting results and guiding progress in clinical neuroscience-and should be routinely reported in all individual differences studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Incorporating modern neuroscience findings to improve brain-computer interfaces: tracking auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronkiewicz, Mark; Larson, Eric; Lee, Adrian Kc

    2016-10-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology allows users to generate actions based solely on their brain signals. However, current non-invasive BCIs generally classify brain activity recorded from surface electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes, which can hinder the application of findings from modern neuroscience research. In this study, we use source imaging-a neuroimaging technique that projects EEG signals onto the surface of the brain-in a BCI classification framework. This allowed us to incorporate prior research from functional neuroimaging to target activity from a cortical region involved in auditory attention. Classifiers trained to detect attention switches performed better with source imaging projections than with EEG sensor signals. Within source imaging, including subject-specific anatomical MRI information (instead of using a generic head model) further improved classification performance. This source-based strategy also reduced accuracy variability across three dimensionality reduction techniques-a major design choice in most BCIs. Our work shows that source imaging provides clear quantitative and qualitative advantages to BCIs and highlights the value of incorporating modern neuroscience knowledge and methods into BCI systems.

  12. Recent advances in basic neurosciences and brain disease: from synapses to behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salter Michael W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Understanding basic neuronal mechanisms hold the hope for future treatment of brain disease. The 1st international conference on synapse, memory, drug addiction and pain was held in beautiful downtown Toronto, Canada on August 21–23, 2006. Unlike other traditional conferences, this new meeting focused on three major aims: (1 to promote new and cutting edge research in neuroscience; (2 to encourage international information exchange and scientific collaborations; and (3 to provide a platform for active scientists to discuss new findings. Up to 64 investigators presented their recent discoveries, from basic synaptic mechanisms to genes related to human brain disease. This meeting was in part sponsored by Molecular Pain, together with University of Toronto (Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology as well as Center for the Study of Pain. Our goal for this meeting is to promote future active scientific collaborations and improve human health through fundamental basic neuroscience researches. The second international meeting on Neurons and Brain Disease will be held in Toronto (August 29–31, 2007.

  13. Neuroscience Evidence for Economic Humanism in Management Science: Organizational Implications and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Nicola; Menicagli, Dario; Dal Maso, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Globalization phenomena and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are producing deep changes worldwide. The economic environment and society where firms both cooperate and compete with each other are rapidly changing leading firms towards recognizing the role of intangible resources as a source of fresh competitive advantage. Experience, innovation and the ability to create new knowledge completely arise from the act of human resources inviting firms to focus on how to generate and shape knowledge. Therefore, the future of firms depends greatly on how managers are able to explore and exploit human resources. However, without a clear understanding of the nature of human beings and the complexity behind human interactions, we cannot understand the theory of organizational knowledge creation. Thus, how can firms discover, manage and valorize this "human advantage"? Neuroscience can increase the understanding of how cognitive and emotional processes work; in doing so, we may be able to better understand how individuals involved in a business organization make decisions and how external factors influence their behavior, especially in terms of commitment activation and engagement level. In this respect, a neuroscientific approach to business can support managers in decision-making processes. In a scenario where economic humanism plays a central role in the process of fostering firms' competitiveness and emerging strategies, we believe that a neuroscience approach in a business organization could be a valid source of value and inspiration for manager decision-making processes.

  14. Constructing Memory, Imagination, and Empathy: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gaesser, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Studies on memory, imagination, and empathy have largely progressed in isolation. Consequently, humans’ empathic tendencies to care about and help other people are considered independent of our ability to remember and imagine events. Despite this theoretical autonomy, work from across psychology, and neuroscience suggests that these cognitive abilities may be linked. In the present paper, I tentatively propose that humans’ ability to vividly imagine specific events (as supported by constructi...

  15. Introductory life science mathematics and quantitative neuroscience courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffus, Dwight; Olifer, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    We describe two sets of courses designed to enhance the mathematical, statistical, and computational training of life science undergraduates at Emory College. The first course is an introductory sequence in differential and integral calculus, modeling with differential equations, probability, and inferential statistics. The second is an upper-division course in computational neuroscience. We provide a description of each course, detailed syllabi, examples of content, and a brief discussion of the main issues encountered in developing and offering the courses.

  16. Plastic Neuroscience: Studying What the Brain Cares About

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eDumit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Allan Newell’s You can’t play 20 questions with nature and win, this article proposes that neuroscience needs to go beyond binary hypothesis testing and design experiments that follow what neurons care about. Examples from Lettvin et. al. are used to demonstrate that one can experimentally play with neurons and generate surprising results. In this manner, brains are not confused with persons, rather, persons are understood to do things with their brains.

  17. A competency-based longitudinal core curriculum in medical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Lisa R; Horak, Holli A; Milligan, Tracey A; Kraakevik, Jeff A; Ali, Imran I

    2014-07-29

    Current medical educational theory encourages the development of competency-based curricula. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 6 core competencies for resident education (medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, practice-based learning, and systems-based practice) have been embraced by medical schools as the building blocks necessary for becoming a competent licensed physician. Many medical schools are therefore changing their educational approach to an integrated model in which students demonstrate incremental acquisition and mastery of all competencies as they progress through medical school. Challenges to medical schools include integration of preclinical and clinical studies as well as development of learning objectives and assessment measures for each competency. The Undergraduate Education Subcommittee (UES) of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) assembled a group of neuroscience educators to outline a longitudinal competency-based curriculum in medical neuroscience encompassing both preclinical and clinical coursework. In development of this curriculum, the committee reviewed United States Medical Licensing Examination content outlines, Liaison Committee on Medical Education requirements, prior AAN-mandated core curricula for basic neuroscience and clinical neurology, and survey responses from educators in US medical schools. The newly recommended curriculum provides an outline of learning objectives for each of the 6 competencies, listing each learning objective in active terms. Documentation of experiences is emphasized, and assessment measures are suggested to demonstrate adequate achievement in each competency. These guidelines, widely vetted and approved by the UES membership, aspire to be both useful as a stand-alone curriculum and also provide a framework for neuroscience educators who wish to develop a more detailed focus in certain areas of study. © 2014 American Academy

  18. Essentializing the binary self: individualism and collectivism in cultural neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Mateo, M.; Cabanis, M.; Stenmanns, J.; Krach, S.

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of Cultural Neurosciences (CN) one branch of research focuses on the neural underpinnings of "individualistic/Western" versus "collectivistic/Eastern" self-views. These studies uncritically adopt essentialist assumptions from classic cross-cultural research, mainly following the tradition of Markus & Kitayama (1991), into the domain of functional neuroimaging. In this comment we analyze recent publications and conference proceedings of the 18t...

  19. Soul, butterfly, mythological nymph: psyche in philosophy and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, Elena I; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2017-03-01

    The term "psyche" and its derivatives - including "Psychology" and "Psychiatry" - are rooted in classical philosophy and in mythology. Over the centuries, psyche has been the subject of discourse and contemplation, and of fable; it has also come to signify, in entomology, the order of Lepidoptera. In the current surge of research on brain and mind, there is a gradual transition from the psyche (or the "soul") to the specified descriptors defined by the fields of Behavioral, Cognitive and Integrative Neuroscience.

  20. Time to connect: bringing social context into addiction neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Markus; Epstein, David H; Nader, Michael A; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-09-01

    Research on the neural substrates of drug reward, withdrawal and relapse has yet to be translated into significant advances in the treatment of addiction. One potential reason is that this research has not captured a common feature of human addiction: progressive social exclusion and marginalization. We propose that research aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms that link these processes to drug seeking and drug taking would help to make addiction neuroscience research more clinically relevant.