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Sample records for irregularly shaped objects

  1. Laser cutting of irregular shape object based on stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-05-01

    Irregular shape objects with different 3-dimensional (3D) appearances are difficult to be shaped into customized uniform pattern by current laser machining approaches. A laser galvanometric scanning system (LGS) could be a potential candidate since it can easily achieve path-adjustable laser shaping. However, without knowing the actual 3D topography of the object, the processing result may still suffer from 3D shape distortion. It is desirable to have a versatile auxiliary tool that is capable of generating 3D-adjusted laser processing path by measuring the 3D geometry of those irregular shape objects. This paper proposed the stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system (SLGS), which takes the advantages of both the stereo vision solution and conventional LGS system. The 3D geometry of the object obtained by the stereo cameras is used to guide the scanning galvanometers for 3D-shape-adjusted laser processing. In order to achieve precise visual-servoed laser fabrication, these two independent components are integrated through a system calibration method using plastic thin film target. The flexibility of SLGS has been experimentally demonstrated by cutting duck feathers for badminton shuttle manufacture.

  2. Optimal design approach for heating irregular-shaped objects in three-dimensional radiant furnaces using a hybrid genetic algorithm-artificial neural network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishvand, Leila; Kamkari, Babak; Kowsary, Farshad

    2018-03-01

    In this article, a new hybrid method based on the combination of the genetic algorithm (GA) and artificial neural network (ANN) is developed to optimize the design of three-dimensional (3-D) radiant furnaces. A 3-D irregular shape design body (DB) heated inside a 3-D radiant furnace is considered as a case study. The uniform thermal conditions on the DB surfaces are obtained by minimizing an objective function. An ANN is developed to predict the objective function value which is trained through the data produced by applying the Monte Carlo method. The trained ANN is used in conjunction with the GA to find the optimal design variables. The results show that the computational time using the GA-ANN approach is significantly less than that of the conventional method. It is concluded that the integration of the ANN with GA is an efficient technique for optimization of the radiant furnaces.

  3. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  4. Quality inspection guided laser processing of irregular shape objects by stereo vision measurement: application in badminton shuttle manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Wang, Shun; Zhang, Yixin; Sun, Yingying; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-11-01

    The quality inspection process is usually carried out after first processing of the raw materials such as cutting and milling. This is because the parts of the materials to be used are unidentified until they have been trimmed. If the quality of the material is assessed before the laser process, then the energy and efforts wasted on defected materials can be saved. We proposed a new production scheme that can achieve quantitative quality inspection prior to primitive laser cutting by means of three-dimensional (3-D) vision measurement. First, the 3-D model of the object is reconstructed by the stereo cameras, from which the spatial cutting path is derived. Second, collaborating with another rear camera, the 3-D cutting path is reprojected to both the frontal and rear views of the object and thus generates the regions-of-interest (ROIs) for surface defect analysis. An accurate visual guided laser process and reprojection-based ROI segmentation are enabled by a global-optimization-based trinocular calibration method. The prototype system was built and tested with the processing of raw duck feathers for high-quality badminton shuttle manufacture. Incorporating with a two-dimensional wavelet-decomposition-based defect analysis algorithm, both the geometrical and appearance features of the raw feathers are quantified before they are cut into small patches, which result in fully automatic feather cutting and sorting.

  5. Evaporation From Soil Containers With Irregular Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from bare soils under laboratory conditions is generally studied using containers of regular shapes where the vertical edges are parallel to the flow lines in the drying domain. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of irregular container shapes, for which the flow lines either converge or diverge toward the surface. Evaporation from initially saturated sand and sandy loam soils packed in cones and inverted cones was compared to evaporation from corresponding cylindrical columns. The initial evaporation rate was higher in the cones, and close to potential evaporation. At the end of the experiment, the cumulative evaporation depth in the sand cone was equal to that in the column but higher than in the inverted cone, while in the sandy loam, the order was cone > column > inverted cone. By comparison to the column, stage 1 evaporation was longer in the cones, and practically similar in the inverted cones. Stage 2 evaporation rate decreased with the increase of the evaporating surface area. These results were more pronounced in the sandy loam. For the sand column, the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 evaporation occurred when the depth of the saturation front was approximately equal to the characteristic length of the soil. However, for the cone and the inverted cone, it occurred for a shallower depth of the saturation front. It seems therefore that the concept of the characteristic length derived from the soil hydraulic properties is related to drying systems of regular shapes.

  6. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  7. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiannakoulias, Niko; Wilson, Shona; Kariuki, H. Curtis

    2010-01-01

    of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the "greedy growth scan" is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis...... for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis...

  8. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, A. I.; van Gemert, M. J.; van der Meulen, F. W.; Gijsbers, G. H.; Beek, J. F.

    1997-01-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a

  9. Irregular Shaped Building Design Optimization with Building Information Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Xia Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is to recognise the function of Building Information Modelling (BIM in design optimization for irregular shaped buildings. The study focuses on a conceptual irregular shaped “twisted” building design similar to some existing sculpture-like architectures. Form and function are the two most important aspects of new buildings, which are becoming more sophisticated as parts of equally sophisticated “systems” that we are living in. Nowadays, it is common to have irregular shaped or sculpture-like buildings which are very different when compared to regular buildings. Construction industry stakeholders are facing stiff challenges in many aspects such as buildability, cost effectiveness, delivery time and facility management when dealing with irregular shaped building projects. Building Information Modelling (BIM is being utilized to enable architects, engineers and constructors to gain improved visualization for irregular shaped buildings; this has a purpose of identifying critical issues before initiating physical construction work. In this study, three variations of design options differing in rotating angle: 30 degrees, 60 degrees and 90 degrees are created to conduct quantifiable comparisons. Discussions are focused on three major aspects including structural planning, usable building space, and structural constructability. This research concludes that Building Information Modelling is instrumental in facilitating design optimization for irregular shaped building. In the process of comparing different design variations, instead of just giving “yes or no” type of response, stakeholders can now easily visualize, evaluate and decide to achieve the right balance based on their own criteria. Therefore, construction project stakeholders are empowered with superior evaluation and decision making capability.

  10. Uniform irradiation of irregularly shaped cavities for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rem, A I; van Gemert, M J; van der Meulen, F W; Gijsbers, G H; Beek, J F

    1997-03-01

    It is difficult to achieve a uniform light distribution in irregularly shaped cavities. We have conducted a study on the use of hollow 'integrating' moulds for more uniform light delivery of photodynamic therapy in irregularly shaped cavities such as the oral cavity. Simple geometries such as a cubical box, a sphere, a cylinder and a 'bottle-neck' geometry have been investigated experimentally and the results have been compared with computed light distributions obtained using the 'radiosity method'. A high reflection coefficient of the mould and the best uniform direct irradiance possible on the inside of the mould were found to be important determinants for achieving a uniform light distribution.

  11. Periods, poles, and shapes of Saturn's irregular moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    We report rotational-lightcurve observations of irregular moons of Saturn based on disk-integrated observations with the Narrow-Angle Camera of the Cassini spacecraft. From 24 measured rotation periods, 20 are now known with an accuracy of ~2% or better. The numbers are as follows (in hours; an '*' marks the less reliable periods): Hati 5.42; Mundilfari 6.74; Loge 6.94*; Skoll 7.26; Kari 7.70; Suttungr 7.82*, Bergelmir 8.13; Phoebe 9.274; Siarnaq 10.188; Narvi 10.21; Tarvos 10.69; Skathi 11.30; Ymir 11.922; Hyrrokkin 12.76; Greip 12.79*; Ijiraq 13.03; Albiorix 13.32; Bestla 14.624; Bebhionn 16.40; Paaliaq 18.75; Kiviuq 21.96; Erriapus 28.15; Thrymr 35 or >45* Tarqeq 76.8.More recent data strengthen the notion that objects in orbits with an inclination supplemental angle i' > 27° have significantly slower spin rates than those at i' 27°, Siarnaq, stands opposed to at least eight objects with faster spins and i' 27° bin contains all nine known prograde moons and four retrograde objects.A total of 25 out of 38 known outer moons has been observed with Cassini, and there is no chance to observe the 13 missing objects until end-of-mission. However, all unobserved objects are part of the i' 27° are known, and none of them is a fast rotator, with no exception.Several objects were observed repeatedly to determine pole directions, sidereal periods, and convex shapes. A few lightcurves have been observed to show three maxima and three minima even at low phase angles, suggesting objects with a triangular equatorial cross-section. Some objects with 2 maxima/ 2 minima are probably quite elongated. One moon even shows lightcurves with 4 maxima/ 4 minima.

  12. Wettability measurements of irregular shapes with Wilhelmy plate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Bonville, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the dynamic contact angle of liquids on solid surfaces is the Wilhelmy plate method. This method generally requires the use of rectangular samples having a constant perimeter in the liquid during advancing and receding cycles. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation to determine the contact angle for plate samples with irregular shapes has been developed. This method employs a profile plot obtained from an optical image to determine the perimeter (i.e. wetted length) of the sample as a function of the immersion depth. The raw force data measured by the force tensiometer is manipulated using the profile plot and the Wilhelmy equation to determine the wetting force and consequently advancing and the receding contact angle. This method is verified with both triangular and irregular PTFE samples in water, and measured contact angles are in good agreement with results from conventional regular shaped samples with a constant perimeter.

  13. Penalized likelihood and multi-objective spatial scans for the detection and inference of irregular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Carlos M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregularly shaped spatial clusters are difficult to delineate. A cluster found by an algorithm often spreads through large portions of the map, impacting its geographical meaning. Penalized likelihood methods for Kulldorff's spatial scan statistics have been used to control the excessive freedom of the shape of clusters. Penalty functions based on cluster geometry and non-connectivity have been proposed recently. Another approach involves the use of a multi-objective algorithm to maximize two objectives: the spatial scan statistics and the geometric penalty function. Results & Discussion We present a novel scan statistic algorithm employing a function based on the graph topology to penalize the presence of under-populated disconnection nodes in candidate clusters, the disconnection nodes cohesion function. A disconnection node is defined as a region within a cluster, such that its removal disconnects the cluster. By applying this function, the most geographically meaningful clusters are sifted through the immense set of possible irregularly shaped candidate cluster solutions. To evaluate the statistical significance of solutions for multi-objective scans, a statistical approach based on the concept of attainment function is used. In this paper we compared different penalized likelihoods employing the geometric and non-connectivity regularity functions and the novel disconnection nodes cohesion function. We also build multi-objective scans using those three functions and compare them with the previous penalized likelihood scans. An application is presented using comprehensive state-wide data for Chagas' disease in puerperal women in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Conclusions We show that, compared to the other single-objective algorithms, multi-objective scans present better performance, regarding power, sensitivity and positive predicted value. The multi-objective non-connectivity scan is faster and better suited for the

  14. Volume determination of irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attota, Ravi Kiran; Liu, Eileen Cherry

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in diverse application areas, such as medicine, engineering, and cosmetics. The size (or volume) of NPs is one of the most important parameters for their successful application. It is relatively straightforward to determine the volume of regular NPs such as spheres and cubes from a one-dimensional or two-dimensional measurement. However, due to the three-dimensional nature of NPs, it is challenging to determine the proper physical size of many types of regularly and irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical NPs at high-throughput using a single tool. Here, we present a relatively simple method that determines a better volume estimate of NPs by combining measurements from their top-down projection areas and peak heights using two tools. The proposed method is significantly faster and more economical than the electron tomography method. We demonstrate the improved accuracy of the combined method over scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM) alone by using modeling, simulations, and measurements. This study also exposes the existence of inherent measurement biases for both SEM and AFM, which usually produce larger measured diameters with SEM than with AFM. However, in some cases SEM measured diameters appear to have less error compared to AFM measured diameters, especially for widely used IS-NPs such as of gold, and silver. The method provides a much needed, proper high-throughput volumetric measurement method useful for many applications. Graphical Abstract The combined method for volume determination of irregularly-shaped quasi-spherical nanoparticles.

  15. Dynamics of landslides on comets of irregular shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    Landslides were observed on a few comet's nuclei, e.g. [1], [2]. The mechanism of their origin is not obvious because of very low gravity. According to [2] fluidization and multiphase transport of cometary material could be an explanation. We investigate here motion of the mass on a comet of irregular shape. The mechanism responsible for the low friction is not considered here. In fact, mass motion often occurs without contact with the surface. The motion could be triggered by meteoroids impacts or by the tidal forces. Comets nuclei are believed to be built of soft materials like snow and dust. The landing of Philae on the comet 67P/Czuriumow-Gierasimienko indicates a different situation. According to [1]: "thermal probe did not fully penetrate the near-surface layers, suggesting a local resistance of the ground to penetration of >4 megapascals, equivalent to >2 megapascal uniaxial compressive strength". Here we assume that elastic properties of comet's nuclei could be similar to elastic properties of dry snow, namely Young modulus is assumed to be 1 - 100 MPa, see [3] and [4]. We consider nucleus of the shape of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with density 470 kg/m3. The impact or tidal forces result in changing of rotation of the comet. In general, the vector of angular velocity will be a subject to nutation that results in changing of centrifugal force, and consequently could be a factor triggering landslides. Note that nucleus' shape does not resemble the shape of surface of constant value of gravitational potential (i.e. 'geoid'). Our numerical models indicate the parts of the nucleus where landslides start and other parts where landslides stop. Of course, the regolith from the first type of regions would be removed to the regions of the second class. The motion of the mass is often complicated because of complicated distribution of the gravity and complicated shape of the nucleus. Acknowledgement: The research is partly supported by Polish National Science Centre

  16. Shape of the nuclear magnetic resonance line in anisotropic superconductors with an irregular vortex lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, A.V.; Tsarevskij, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    For high-temperature superconductors the shape of a NMR spectrum line is built regarding for variation of inhomogeneity of irregular vortex lattice magnetic field near superconductor surface. It is shown that the shape of a NMR line is not simply widened but noticeably varies depending on the degree of irregularity of a superconductor vortex lattice. This variation is associated with a local symmetry decrease in an irregular vortex lattice of the superconductor. Taking into account these circumstances may considerably change conclusions about the type of a vortex lattice and superconductor parameters which are commonly gained from NMR line shape analysis [ru

  17. Monte Carlo Method with Heuristic Adjustment for Irregularly Shaped Food Product Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  18. Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment for irregularly shaped food product volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswantoro, Joko; Prabuwono, Anton Satria; Abdullah, Azizi; Idrus, Bahari

    2014-01-01

    Volume measurement plays an important role in the production and processing of food products. Various methods have been proposed to measure the volume of food products with irregular shapes based on 3D reconstruction. However, 3D reconstruction comes with a high-priced computational cost. Furthermore, some of the volume measurement methods based on 3D reconstruction have a low accuracy. Another method for measuring volume of objects uses Monte Carlo method. Monte Carlo method performs volume measurements using random points. Monte Carlo method only requires information regarding whether random points fall inside or outside an object and does not require a 3D reconstruction. This paper proposes volume measurement using a computer vision system for irregularly shaped food products without 3D reconstruction based on Monte Carlo method with heuristic adjustment. Five images of food product were captured using five cameras and processed to produce binary images. Monte Carlo integration with heuristic adjustment was performed to measure the volume based on the information extracted from binary images. The experimental results show that the proposed method provided high accuracy and precision compared to the water displacement method. In addition, the proposed method is more accurate and faster than the space carving method.

  19. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  20. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul [Dankook Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyoung Koo [The Catholic Univ., College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within {+-}1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within {+-}1.0% in most situations and within {+-}3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry.

  1. Modification of transmission dose algorithm for irregularly shaped radiation field and tissue deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geon; Shin, Kyo Chul; Huh, Soon Nyung; Woo, Hong Gyun; Ha, Sung Whan; Lee, Hyoung Koo

    2002-01-01

    Algorithm for estimation of transmission dose was modified for use in partially blocked radiation fields and in cases with tissue deficit. The beam data was measured with flat solid phantom in various conditions of beam block. And an algorithm for correction of transmission dose in cases of partially blocked radiation field was developed from the measured data. The algorithm was tested in some clinical settings with irregular shaped field. Also, another algorithm for correction of transmission dose for tissue deficit was developed by physical reasoning. This algorithm was tested in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer patients by using multiple sheets of solid phantoms. The algorithm for correction of beam block could accurately reflect the effect of beam block, with error within ±1.0%, both with square fields and irregularly shaped fields. The correction algorithm for tissue deficit could accurately reflect the effect of tissue deficit with errors within ±1.0% in most situations and within ±3.0% in experimental settings with irregular contours mimicking breast cancer treatment set-up. Developed algorithms could accurately estimate the transmission dose in most radiation treatment settings including irregularly shaped field and irregularly shaped body contour with tissue deficit in transmission dosimetry

  2. Dosimetry of irregular shaped fields of β rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Datta, S.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using various shapes and sizes of field limiting devices and collimators with β-ray eye applicators has necessitated the study of dosimetry for these fields. A method of calculating surface and depth doses for any shaped field from the data for circular fields is presented. The depth dose evaluation is based on a measured dose function which is defined as the dose rate at a particular depth for a particular circular field. The evaluated values for the surface and depth dose were compared with experimentally obtained values for three non-circular fields. The good agreement in these data indicates the practicability of the method suggested. (author)

  3. Eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by slow ramped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1979-01-01

    Theorems are presented for estimating eddy current heating of irregularly shaped plates by a perpendicular ramped field. The theorems, which are derived from two complementary variational principles, give upper and lower bounds to the eddy current heating. Illustrative results are given for rectangles, isosceles triangles, sectors of circular annuli, rhombuses, and L-shaped plates. A comparison is made with earlier work

  4. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Julie T; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A W; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J; Maal, Thomas J J

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by two observers. Conventional impressions were taken and digitized as a gold standard. The resulting surface models were aligned using an Iterative Closest Point approach. The absolute distance measurements between the intraoral models and the digitized impression were used to quantify the trueness and precision of intraoral scanning. The mean color of the palatal soft tissue was extracted in HSV (hue, saturation, value) format to establish the color precision. Finally, the mean curvature of the surface models was calculated and used for surface irregularity. Mean average distance error between the conventional impression models and the intraoral models was 0.02 ± 0.07 mm (p = 0.30). Mean interobserver color difference was - 0.08 ± 1.49° (p = 0.864), 0.28 ± 0.78% (p = 0.286), and 0.30 ± 1.14% (p = 0.426) for respectively hue, saturation, and value. The interobserver differences for overall and maximum surface irregularity were 0.01 ± 0.03 and 0.00 ± 0.05 mm. This study supports the hypothesis that the intraoral scan can perform a 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue in terms of shape, color, and curvature. An intraoral scanner can be an objective tool, adjunctive to the clinical examination of the palatal tissue.

  5. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Astronautic Dynamics, Xi’an Satellite Control Center, Xi’an 710043 (China); Baoyin, Hexi, E-mail: jiangyu_xian_china@163.com [School of Aerospace Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  6. PERIODIC ORBIT FAMILIES IN THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD OF IRREGULAR-SHAPED BODIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yu; Baoyin, Hexi

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of binary and triple asteroids in addition to the execution of space missions to minor celestial bodies in the past several years have focused increasing attention on periodic orbits around irregular-shaped celestial bodies. In the present work, we adopt a polyhedron shape model for providing an accurate representation of irregular-shaped bodies and employ the model to calculate their corresponding gravitational and effective potentials. We also investigate the characteristics of periodic orbit families and the continuation of periodic orbits. We prove a fact, which provides a conserved quantity that permits restricting the number of periodic orbits in a fixed energy curved surface about an irregular-shaped body. The collisions of Floquet multipliers are maintained during the continuation of periodic orbits around the comet 1P/Halley. Multiple bifurcations in the periodic orbit families about irregular-shaped bodies are also discussed. Three bifurcations in the periodic orbit family have been found around the asteroid 216 Kleopatra, which include two real saddle bifurcations and one period-doubling bifurcation.

  7. Photopolymerization of complex emulsions with irregular shapes fabricated by multiplex coaxial flow focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Yang, Chaoyu; Yang, Jianxin; Huang, Fangsheng; Liu, Guangli; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X.

    2018-02-01

    We fabricate complex emulsions with irregular shapes in the microscale by a simple but effective multiplex coaxial flow focusing process. A multiphase cone-jet structure is steadily formed, and the compound liquid jet eventually breaks up into Janus microdroplets due to the perturbations propagating along the jet interfaces. The microdroplet shapes can be exclusively controlled by interfacial tensions of adjacent phases. Crescent-moon-shaped microparticles and microcapsules with designated structural characteristics are further produced under ultraviolet light of photopolymerization after removing one hemisphere of the Janus microdroplets. These complex emulsions have potential applications in bioscience, food, functional materials, and controlled drug delivery.

  8. Toxicological effects of irregularly shaped and spherical microplastics in a marine teleost, the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Soo; Jung, Youn-Joo; Hong, Nam-Hui; Hong, Sang Hee; Park, June-Woo

    2018-04-01

    The increasing global contamination of plastics in marine environments is raising public concerns about the potential hazards of microplastics to environmental and human health. Microplastics formed by the breakdown of larger plastics are typically irregular in shape. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of spherical or irregular shapes of microplastics on changes in organ distribution, swimming behaviors, gene expression, and enzyme activities in sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus). Both types of microplastics accumulated in the digestive system, causing intestinal distention. However, when compared to spherical microplastics, irregular microplastics decreased swimming behavior (i.e., total distance travelled and maximum velocity) of sheepshead minnow. Both microplastics generated cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), while ROS-related molecular changes (i.e., transcriptional and enzymatic characteristics) differed. This study provides toxicological insights into the impacts of environmentally relevant (fragmented) microplastics on fish and improves our understanding of the environmental effects of microplastics in the ecosystem. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying irregularly shaped crime hot-spots using a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolan; Grubesic, Tony H.

    2010-12-01

    Spatial cluster detection techniques are widely used in criminology, geography, epidemiology, and other fields. In particular, spatial scan statistics are popular and efficient techniques for detecting areas of elevated crime or disease events. The majority of spatial scan approaches attempt to delineate geographic zones by evaluating the significance of clusters using likelihood ratio statistics tested with the Poisson distribution. While this can be effective, many scan statistics give preference to circular clusters, diminishing their ability to identify elongated and/or irregular shaped clusters. Although adjusting the shape of the scan window can mitigate some of these problems, both the significance of irregular clusters and their spatial structure must be accounted for in a meaningful way. This paper utilizes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm to find clusters with maximum significance while quantitatively tracking their geographic structure. Crime data for the city of Cincinnati are utilized to demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and highlight its benefits versus more traditional scan statistics.

  10. Measurements of linear attenuation coefficients of irregular shaped samples by two media method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficient values of regular and irregular shaped flyash materials have been measured without knowing the thickness of a sample using a new technique namely 'two media method'. These values have also been measured with a standard gamma ray transmission method and obtained theoretically with winXCOM computer code. From the comparison it is reported that the two media method has given accurate results of attenuation coefficients of flyash materials

  11. Evaluation of simplified two source model for relative electron output factor of irregular block shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Y. E.; Yi, B. Y.; Ahn, S. D.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, S. W.; Choi, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    A practical calculation algorithm which calculates the relative output factor (ROF) for electron irregular shaped-field has been developed and evaluated the accuracy and the effectiveness of the algorithm by comparing the measurements and the calculation results for irregular fields used in clinic. The algorithm assumes that the electron dose can be express as sum of the primary source component and the scattered component from the shielding block. The primary source is assumed to have Gaussian distribution, while the scattered component follows the inverse square law. Depth and angular dependency of the primary and the scattered are ignored for maximizing the practicability by reducing the number of parameters for the algorithm. Electron dose can be calculated with three parameters such as, the effective source distance, the variance of primary source, and the scattering power of the block. The coefficients are obtained from the square shaped-block measurements and these are confirmed from the rectangular or irregular shaped-fields. The results showed less than 1.5% difference between the calculation and measurements. The algorithm is proved to be practical, since one can acquire the full parameters with minimum measurements and generates accurate results within the clinically acceptable range

  12. Volume Measurement Algorithm for Food Product with Irregular Shape using Computer Vision based on Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Siswantoro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Volume is one of important issues in the production and processing of food product. Traditionally, volume measurement can be performed using water displacement method based on Archimedes’ principle. Water displacement method is inaccurate and considered as destructive method. Computer vision offers an accurate and nondestructive method in measuring volume of food product. This paper proposes algorithm for volume measurement of irregular shape food product using computer vision based on Monte Carlo method. Five images of object were acquired from five different views and then processed to obtain the silhouettes of object. From the silhouettes of object, Monte Carlo method was performed to approximate the volume of object. The simulation result shows that the algorithm produced high accuracy and precision for volume measurement.

  13. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...... system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches....

  14. Transformation of irregular shaped silver nanostructures into nanoparticles by under water pulsed laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavali, S.; Sandireddy, V. P.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-05-01

    The ability to easily manufacture nanostructures with a desirable attribute, such as well-defined size and shape, especially from any given initial shapes or sizes of the material, will be helpful towards accelerating the use of nanomaterials in various applications. In this work we report the transformation of discontinuous irregular nanostructures (DIN) of silver metal by rapid heating under a bulk fluid layer. Ag films were changed into DIN by dewetting in air and subsequently heated by nanosecond laser pulses under water. Our findings show that the DIN first ripens into elongated structures and then breaks up into nanoparticles. From the dependence of this behavior on laser fluence we found that under water irradiation reduced the rate of ripening and also decreased the characteristic break-up length scale of the elongated structures. This latter result was qualitatively interpreted as arising from a Rayleigh-Plateau instability modified to yield significantly smaller length scales than the classical process due to pressure gradients arising from the rapid evaporation of water during laser melting. These results demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate a dense collection of monomodally sized Ag nanoparticles with significantly enhanced plasmonic quality starting from the irregular shaped materials. This can be beneficial towards transforming discontinuous Ag films into nanostructures with useful plasmonic properties, that are relevant for biosensing applications.

  15. Fourier analysis of intracranial aneurysms: towards an objective and quantitative evaluation of the shape of aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Stefan; Lahmann, Katharina; Nafe, Reinhold; Yan, Bernard; Berkefeld, Joachim; Beck, Juergen; Raabe, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Shape irregularities of intracranial aneurysms may indicate an increased risk of rupture. To quantify morphological differences, Fourier analysis of the shape of intracranial aneurysms was introduced. We compared the morphology of 45 unruptured (UIA) and 46 ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIA) in 70 consecutive patients on the basis of 3D-rotational angiography. Fourier analysis, coefficient of roundness and qualitative shape assessment were determined for each aneurysm. Morphometric analysis revealed significantly smaller coefficient of roundness (P<0.02) and higher values for Fourier amplitudes numbers 2, 3 and 7 (P<0.01) in the RIA group, indicating more complex and irregular morphology in RIA. Qualitative assessment from 3D-reconstructions showed surface irregularities in 78% of RIA and 42% of UIA (P<0.05). Our data have shown significant differences in shape between RIA and UIA, and further developments of Fourier analysis may provide an objective factor for the assessment of the risk of rupture. (orig.)

  16. Capillary pressure at irregularly shaped pore throats: Implications for water retention characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyoung Suk; Kang, Dong Hun; Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Yun, Tae Sup

    2017-12-01

    The random shapes of pore throats in geomaterials hinder accurate estimation of capillary pressure, and conventional pore network models that simply use the Young-Laplace equation assuming circular pore throats overestimate the capillary pressure. As a solution to this problem that does not complicate the pore network model or slow its implementation, we propose a new morphological analysis method to correlate the capillary pressure at an irregular pore channel with its cross-sectional geometry using lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulation and Mayer and Stowe-Princen theory. Geometry-based shape factors for pore throats are shown here to correlate strongly with the capillary pressure obtained by LB simulation. Water retention curves obtained by incorporating the morphological calibration into conventional pore network simulation and their correlative scheme agree well with experimental data. The suggested method is relevant to pore-scale processes such as geological CO2 sequestration, methane bubbling from wetlands, and enhanced carbon recovery.

  17. The Withdrawal of Health Care from Irregular Immigrants and Medical Conscientious Objection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Garcìa Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis so strongly affecting some southern European countries has led to significant cuts in the system of universal public health care in Spain. Such measures particularly affect irregular immigrants and can also cause significant public health consequences. A form of civil resistance that deserves to be analyzed is the conscientious objection of Spanish doctors who have chosen to continue attending irregular immigrants in contravention of new the rules restricting their access to the public health system and their right to health. The aim of this paper is to analyze the new regulation which cut health care for irregular immigrants in Spain, the impact of this new regulation on the most vulnerable groups, and the response of doctors, who exercised their right to conscientious objection in relation to applying the new regulation. Finally to examine the announcement of change which came about as a consequence of international and domestic social pressure causing political risk to the Spanish National Government. La crisis económica, que ha afectado tan profundamente a algunos países del sur de Europa, ha dado lugar a significativos recortes en el sistema de atención sanitaria pública en España. Algunas de las medidas adoptadas han afectado específicamente a los inmigrantes irregulares y pueden tener, incluso, efectos en el ámbito de la salud pública. Una forma de desobediencia civil que merece ser analizada es la declaración de objeción de conciencia de determinados médicos y profesionales sanitarios españoles que han continuado atendiendo a los inmigrantes irregulares en contra de las nuevas  restricciones impuestas por el Gobierno que afectan al reconocimiento universal del derecho a la salud. El propósito de este artículo es el de analizar la nueva regulación que limita el acceso a la asistencia sanitaria de los inmigrantes irregulares en España, el impacto de esta nueva regulación en los grupos más vulnerables

  18. On the interpolation of light-scattering responses from irregularly shaped particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Evgenij; Arnold, Jessica A.; MacCall, Benjamin; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Muñoz, Olga

    2018-05-01

    Common particle characteristics needed for many applications may include size, eccentricity, porosity and refractive index. Determining such characteristics from scattered light is a primary goal of remote sensing. For other applications, like differentiating a hazardous particle from the natural background, information about higher fidelity particle characteristics may be required, including specific shape or chemical composition. While a complete characterization of a particle system from its scattered light through the inversion process remains unachievable, great strides have been made in providing information in the form of constraints on particle characteristics. Recent advances have been made in quantifying the characteristics of polydispersions of irregularly shaped particles by making comparisons of the light-scattering signals from model simulant particles. We show that when the refractive index is changed, the light-scattering characteristics from polydispersions of such particles behave monotonically over relatively large parameter ranges compared with those of monodisperse distributions of particles having regular shapes, like spheres, spheroids, etc. This allows for their properties to be interpolated, which results in a significant reduction of the computational load when performing inversions.

  19. An efficient algorithm for global periodic orbits generation near irregular-shaped asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Ren, Yuan; Shan, Jinjun

    2017-07-01

    Periodic orbits (POs) play an important role in understanding dynamical behaviors around natural celestial bodies. In this study, an efficient algorithm was presented to generate the global POs around irregular-shaped uniformly rotating asteroids. The algorithm was performed in three steps, namely global search, local refinement, and model continuation. First, a mascon model with a low number of particles and optimized mass distribution was constructed to remodel the exterior gravitational potential of the asteroid. Using this model, a multi-start differential evolution enhanced with a deflection strategy with strong global exploration and bypassing abilities was adopted. This algorithm can be regarded as a search engine to find multiple globally optimal regions in which potential POs were located. This was followed by applying a differential correction to locally refine global search solutions and generate the accurate POs in the mascon model in which an analytical Jacobian matrix was derived to improve convergence. Finally, the concept of numerical model continuation was introduced and used to convert the POs from the mascon model into a high-fidelity polyhedron model by sequentially correcting the initial states. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was substantiated by computing the global POs around an elongated shoe-shaped asteroid 433 Eros. Various global POs with different topological structures in the configuration space were successfully located. Specifically, the proposed algorithm was generic and could be conveniently extended to explore periodic motions in other gravitational systems.

  20. Experimental investigation of coolability behaviour of irregularly shaped particulate debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.; Nayak, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, the core can melt and form a particulate debris bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Due to the decay heat, the particle bed, if not cooled properly, can cause failure of the RPV. In order to avoid further propagation of the accident, complete coolability of the debris bed is necessary. For that, understanding of various phenomena taking place during the quenching is important. In the frame of the reactor safety research, fundamental experiments on the coolability of debris beds are carried out at IKE with the test facility 'DEBRIS'. In the present paper, the boiling and dry-out experimental results on a particle bed with irregularly shaped particles mixed with stainless steel balls have been reported. The pressure drops and dry-out heat fluxes of the irregular-particle bed are very similar to those for the single-sized 3 mm spheres bed, despite the fact that the irregular-particle bed is composed of particles with equivalent diameters ranging from 2 to 10 mm. Under top-flooding conditions, the pressure gradients are all smaller than the hydrostatic pressure gradient of water, indicating an important role of the counter-current interfacial drag force. For bottom-flooding with a liquid inflow velocity higher than about 2.7 mm/s, the pressure gradient generally increases consistently with the vapour velocity and the fluid-particle drag becomes important. The system pressures (1 and 3 bar) have negligible effects on qualitative behaviour of the pressure gradients. The coolability of debris beds is mainly limited by the counter-current flooding limit (CCFL) even under bottom-flooding conditions with low flow rates. The system pressure and the flow rate are found to have a distinct effect on the dry-out heat flux. Different classical models have been used to predict the pressure drop characteristics and the dry-out heat flux (DHF). Comparisons are made among the models and experimental results for

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of the conformation of the multileaf collimator to irregularly shaped fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, Arthur; Du, Maria; Wong, John; Vicini, Frank; Taylor, Roy; Yu, Cedric; Matter, Richard; Martinez, Alvaro; Yan Di

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of geometric MLC prescription strategies and compare them to those of conventional shielding block. Methods and Materials: Circular fields, square fields, and 12 irregular fields for patients with cancer of the head and neck, lung, and pelvis were included in this study. All fields were shaped using the MLC and conventional blocks. A geometric criterion was defined as the amount of area discrepancy between the MLC and the prescription outline. The 'least area discrepancy' (LAD) of the MLC conformation was searched by selecting the collimator angle, meanwhile keeping a preselected position along the width of the leaf into the prescribed field. Five LAD conventions were studied. These included the LAD-0, LAD-(1(3)), LAD-(1(2)), and LAD-(2(3)) that inserted the leaves at the 0, (1(3)), (1(2)), and (2(3)) of the leaf end into the prescription field, respectively. In addition, the LAD optimization was applied to the transecting (TRN) approach for leaf conformation that prescribed an equal area of overblocking and underblocking under each leaf. Film dosimetry was performed in a 20 cm polystyrene phantom at 10 cm depth 100 cm from source to axis distance (SAD) for both 6 and 18 MV photons with each of the above MLC conformations and conventional blocks. The field penumbra width, defined as the mean of the separation between the 20% and 80% isodose lines along the normal of the prescription field edge, was calculated using both the MLC and conventional block film dosimetry and compared. In a similar way, the d20 is defined as the mean separation between the 20% isodose line and the prescription field edge, and the d80 is defined as the mean separation between the 80% isodose line and the prescription field edge. Results: The field penumbra width for all MLC conventions was approximately 2 mm larger than that of the conventional block. However, there was a larger variation of the separation

  2. Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) wer...

  3. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  4. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes. PMID:23404158

  5. Calculating electronic tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles by mapping networks to arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghili Yajadda, Mir Massoud [CSIRO Manufacturing Flagship, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2014-10-21

    We have shown both theoretically and experimentally that tunnel currents in networks of disordered irregularly shaped nanoparticles (NPs) can be calculated by considering the networks as arrays of parallel nonlinear resistors. Each resistor is described by a one-dimensional or a two-dimensional array of equal size nanoparticles that the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles in each resistor is assumed to be equal. The number of tunnel junctions between two contact electrodes and the tunnel junction gaps between nanoparticles are found to be functions of Coulomb blockade energies. In addition, the tunnel barriers between nanoparticles were considered to be tilted at high voltages. Furthermore, the role of thermal expansion coefficient of the tunnel junction gaps on the tunnel current is taken into account. The model calculations fit very well to the experimental data of a network of disordered gold nanoparticles, a forest of multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and a network of few-layer graphene nanoplates over a wide temperature range (5-300 K) at low and high DC bias voltages (0.001 mV–50 V). Our investigations indicate, although electron cotunneling in networks of disordered irregularly shaped NPs may occur, non-Arrhenius behavior at low temperatures cannot be described by the cotunneling model due to size distribution in the networks and irregular shape of nanoparticles. Non-Arrhenius behavior of the samples at zero bias voltage limit was attributed to the disorder in the samples. Unlike the electron cotunneling model, we found that the crossover from Arrhenius to non-Arrhenius behavior occurs at two temperatures, one at a high temperature and the other at a low temperature.

  6. Irradiation of malignant lymphonuos with irregularly shaped fields (Yesterday gammatron-3, today theratron 780C cobalt unit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Rasonyi, J.; Pecsenye, B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors compare the technique of shaping irregular (Mantle) field irradiation using Gammatron-3 and Theratron 780C Co-60 units. Patients can be treated from both directions on the treating coach without changing their position as the collimator of Theratron 780C unit makes it possible. Earlier patients could be treated with large field irradiation in prone and supine position on the ground with the old Gammatron-3 unit. The authors prefer using individually casted shielding blocks to manufactured ones. These blocks make personal treatment possible. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Nasopharyngeal Cancers: Which Method Should be Used to Measure these Irregularly Shaped Tumors on Cross-Sectional Imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Ann D.; Zee, Benny; Yuen, Edmund H.Y.; Leung Singfai; Yeung, David K.W.; Ma, Brigette B.; Wong, Jeffrey K.T.; Kam, Michael K.M.; Ahuja, Anil T.; Chan, Anthony T.C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the standard techniques of measuring tumor size and change in size after treatment could be applied to the measurement of nasopharyngeal cancers, which are often irregular in shape. Methods and Materials: The standard measurements of bidimensional (BDM) (World Health Organization criteria) and unidimensional (UDM) (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors [RECIST] criteria), together with the maximum depth of the tumor perpendicular to the pharyngeal wall (DM), were acquired from axial magnetic resonance images of primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma in 44 patients at diagnosis and in 29 of these patients after treatment. Tumor volume measurements (VM), acquired from the summation of areas from the axial magnetic resonance images, were used as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant association between VM and BDM with respect to tumor size at diagnosis (p = 0.002), absolute change in tumor size after treatment (p < 0.001), and percentage change in tumor size after treatment (p = 0.044), but not between VM and UDM. There was also a significant association between VM and DM with respect to percentage change in tumor size after treatment (p = <0.0001) but not absolute change (p = 0.222). Conclusion: When using simple measurements to assess irregularly shaped nasopharyngeal cancers, the BDM should be used to measure size at diagnosis and the BDM and percentage change in size with treatment. Unidimensional measurement does not reflect size or change in size, and therefore the RECIST criteria may not be applicable to all tumor shapes. The use of DM requires further evaluation

  8. Evaluation of two intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices for irradiating additional and irregularly shaped volumes of breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Sharon M.; Scanderbeg, Daniel J.; Barna, Patrick; Yashar, William; Yashar, Catheryn

    2012-01-01

    The SAVI and Contura breast brachytherapy applicators represent 2 recent advancements in brachytherapy technology that have expanded the number of women eligible for accelerated partial breast irradiation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Early clinical experience with these 2 single-entry, multichannel high-dose-rate brachytherapy devices confirms their ease of use and dosimetric versatility. However, current clinical guidelines for SAVI and Contura brachytherapy may result in a smaller or less optimal volume of treated tissue compared with traditional interstitial brachytherapy. This study evaluates the feasibility of using the SAVI and Contura to irradiate larger and irregularly shaped target volumes, approaching what is treatable with the interstitial technique. To investigate whether additional tissue can be treated, 17 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected. For each patient, the planning target volume (PTV) was modified to extend 1.1 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.5 cm beyond the tumor bed cavity. To evaluate dose conformance to an irregularly shaped target volume, 9 patients treated with the SAVI and 3 with the Contura were selected from the original 20 patients. The following asymmetric PTV margin combinations were assessed for each patient: 1.5/0.3, 1.3/0.3, and 1.1/0.3 cm. For all patients, treatment planning was performed, adopting the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project guidelines, and dosimetric comparisons were made. The 6–1 and 8–1 SAVI devices can theoretically treat a maximal tissue margin of 1.5 cm and an asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 cm. The 10–1 SAVI and Contura can treat a maximal margin of 1.3 cm and 1.1 cm, respectively, and asymmetric PTV with margins ranging from 0.3–1.3 cm. Compared with the Contura, the SAVI demonstrated greater dosimetric flexibility. Risk of developing excessive hot spots increased with the size of the SAVI device. Both the SAVI and Contura

  9. Validation of 3D documentation of palatal soft tissue shape, color, and irregularity with intraoral scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deferm, Julie T.; Schreurs, Ruud; Baan, Frank; Bruggink, Robin; Merkx, Matthijs A. W.; Xi, Tong; Bergé, Stefaan J.; Maal, Thomas J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of 3D intraoral scanning for documentation of palatal soft tissue by evaluating the accuracy of shape, color, and curvature. Intraoral scans of ten participants' upper dentition and palate were acquired with the TRIOS® 3D intraoral scanner by

  10. Effects of object shape on the visual guidance of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloka, Owino; Franz, Volker H

    2011-04-22

    Little is known of how visual coding of the shape of an object affects grasping movements. We addressed this issue by investigating the influence of shape perturbations on grasping. Twenty-six participants grasped a disc or a bar that were chosen such that they could in principle be grasped with identical movements (i.e., relevant sizes were identical such that the final grips consisted of identical separations of the fingers and no parts of the objects constituted obstacles for the movement). Nevertheless, participants took object shape into account and grasped the bar with a larger maximum grip aperture and a different hand angle than the disc. In 20% of the trials, the object changed its shape from bar to disc or vice versa early or late during the movement. If there was enough time (early perturbations), grasps were often adapted in flight to the new shape. These results show that the motor system takes into account even small and seemingly irrelevant changes of object shape and adapts the movement in a fine-grained manner. Although this adaptation might seem computationally expensive, we presume that its benefits (e.g., a more comfortable and more accurate movement) outweigh the costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Introducing a novel method to estimate the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities utilizing thermoelectric modules; Special application in solar engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    The main objective of the present study is to introduce a novel method to measure the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities, used in solar applications, utilizing thermoelectric modules. Applying mathematical and thermodynamics modeling, the governing equations related...... to the total heat transfer coefficient between thermoelectric and glass cover as a function of ambient temperature, glass temperature, and output voltage has been derived. Investigating the accuracy of the proposed equation, an experimental case study has been performed. The experimental setup consists...... of three parts; a heat sink, a thermoelectric module, and a glass cover. All the experiments have been performed on the typical winter day and under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35° 33′ N, 53° 23′ E), Iran. The results showed that the proposed method has the ability to measure the total heat...

  12. The time course of activation of object shape and shape+colour representations during memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby J Lloyd-Jones

    Full Text Available Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP study. The main findings were as follows: (1 we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2 we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3 these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured - yellow banana and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry objects; and (4 neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects.

  13. The time course of activation of object shape and shape+colour representations during memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Roberts, Mark V; Leek, E Charles; Fouquet, Nathalie C; Truchanowicz, Ewa G

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP) study. The main findings were as follows: (1) we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2) we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3) these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured - yellow banana) and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry) objects; and (4) neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects.

  14. An Optimization Algorithm for the Design of an Irregularly-Shaped Bridge Based on the Orthogonal Test and Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Irregularly-shaped bridges are usually adopted to connect the main bridge and ramps in urban overpasses, which are under significant flexion-torsion coupling effects and in complicated stress states. In irregular-shaped bridge design, the parameters such as ramp radius, bifurcation diaphragm stiffness, box girder height, and supporting condition could affect structural performance in different manners. In this paper, the influence of various parameters on three indices, including maximum stress, the stress variation coefficient, and the fundamental frequency of torsional vibration, is investigated and analyzed based on orthogonal test method. Through orthogonal analysis, the major influence parameters and corresponding optimal values for these indices are achieved. Combining with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP, the hierarchical structure model of the multi-indices orthogonal test is established and a comprehensive weight analysis method is proposed to reflect the parameter influence on overall mechanical properties of an irregularly-shaped bridge. Influence order and optimal values of parameters for overall mechanical properties are determined based on the weight of factors and levels calculated by the comprehensive weight analysis method. The results indicate that the comprehensive weight analysis method is superior to the overall balance method, which verifies the effectiveness and accuracy of the comprehensive weight analysis in the parameter optimization of the multi-indices orthogonal test for an irregularly-shaped bridge. Optimal parameters obtained in this paper can provide reference and guidance for parameter control in irregularly-shaped bridge design.

  15. Planning of ''Mantle'' fields and shaping of other irregular fields of cobalt teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Austen; Singh, Kuldip

    1980-01-01

    Blocking radiation to the lungs which do not require any treatment is a major problem in shaping the mantle field employed in treatment of Hodgkin's disease. A simple method which gives a satisfactory accuracy in shaping is described. A perspex sheet impregnated with lead shots is used in the method. Six reference points are marked on the plate by using larger lead shots in such a manner that the top reference point falls on the middle of the sternal notch. The lead shots at the reference points are imaged along with the lungs on an X-ray film. The fields to be shielded are drawn on the X-ray film. The fields to be shielded are then traced on to the master perspex sheet which is used to support lead blocks during the treatment. The reference points are also tatooed on the patient's skin. (M.G.B.)

  16. Adaptive striping watershed segmentation method for processing microscopic images of overlapping irregular-shaped and multicentre particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, X; Bai, B; Xu, N; Wu, K

    2015-04-01

    Oversegmentation is a major drawback of the morphological watershed algorithm. Here, we study and reveal that the oversegmentation is not only because of the irregular shapes of the particle images, which people are familiar with, but also because of some particles, such as ellipses, with more than one centre. A new parameter, the striping level, is introduced and the criterion for striping parameter is built to help find the right markers prior to segmentation. An adaptive striping watershed algorithm is established by applying a procedure, called the marker searching algorithm, to find the markers, which can effectively suppress the oversegmentation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by analysing some typical particle images including the images of gold nanorod ensembles. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Objective models of compressed breast shapes undergoing mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Steve Si Jia; Patel, Bhavika; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography based on objective analysis, that are capable of accurately representing breast shapes in acquired clinical images and generating new, clinically realistic shapes. Methods: An automated edge detection algorithm was used to catalogue the breast shapes of clinically acquired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms from a large database of digital mammography images. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on these shapes to reduce the information contained within the shapes to a small number of linearly independent variables. The breast shape models, one of each view, were developed from the identified principal components, and their ability to reproduce the shape of breasts from an independent set of mammograms not used in the PCA, was assessed both visually and quantitatively by calculating the average distance error (ADE). Results: The PCA breast shape models of the CC and MLO mammographic views based on six principal components, in which 99.2% and 98.0%, respectively, of the total variance of the dataset is contained, were found to be able to reproduce breast shapes with strong fidelity (CC view mean ADE = 0.90 mm, MLO view mean ADE = 1.43 mm) and to generate new clinically realistic shapes. The PCA models based on fewer principal components were also successful, but to a lesser degree, as the two-component model exhibited a mean ADE = 2.99 mm for the CC view, and a mean ADE = 4.63 mm for the MLO view. The four-component models exhibited a mean ADE = 1.47 mm for the CC view and a mean ADE = 2.14 mm for the MLO view. Paired t-tests of the ADE values of each image between models showed that these differences were statistically significant (max p-value = 0.0247). Visual examination of modeled breast shapes confirmed these results. Histograms of the PCA parameters associated with the six principal components were fitted with Gaussian distributions. The six

  18. Objective models of compressed breast shapes undergoing mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Steve Si Jia [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University and Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Patel, Bhavika [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Sechopoulos, Ioannis [Departments of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Hematology and Medical Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To develop models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography based on objective analysis, that are capable of accurately representing breast shapes in acquired clinical images and generating new, clinically realistic shapes. Methods: An automated edge detection algorithm was used to catalogue the breast shapes of clinically acquired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms from a large database of digital mammography images. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on these shapes to reduce the information contained within the shapes to a small number of linearly independent variables. The breast shape models, one of each view, were developed from the identified principal components, and their ability to reproduce the shape of breasts from an independent set of mammograms not used in the PCA, was assessed both visually and quantitatively by calculating the average distance error (ADE). Results: The PCA breast shape models of the CC and MLO mammographic views based on six principal components, in which 99.2% and 98.0%, respectively, of the total variance of the dataset is contained, were found to be able to reproduce breast shapes with strong fidelity (CC view mean ADE = 0.90 mm, MLO view mean ADE = 1.43 mm) and to generate new clinically realistic shapes. The PCA models based on fewer principal components were also successful, but to a lesser degree, as the two-component model exhibited a mean ADE = 2.99 mm for the CC view, and a mean ADE = 4.63 mm for the MLO view. The four-component models exhibited a mean ADE = 1.47 mm for the CC view and a mean ADE = 2.14 mm for the MLO view. Paired t-tests of the ADE values of each image between models showed that these differences were statistically significant (max p-value = 0.0247). Visual examination of modeled breast shapes confirmed these results. Histograms of the PCA parameters associated with the six principal components were fitted with Gaussian distributions. The six

  19. Objective models of compressed breast shapes undergoing mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Steve Si Jia; Patel, Bhavika; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To develop models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography based on objective analysis, that are capable of accurately representing breast shapes in acquired clinical images and generating new, clinically realistic shapes. Methods: An automated edge detection algorithm was used to catalogue the breast shapes of clinically acquired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms from a large database of digital mammography images. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on these shapes to reduce the information contained within the shapes to a small number of linearly independent variables. The breast shape models, one of each view, were developed from the identified principal components, and their ability to reproduce the shape of breasts from an independent set of mammograms not used in the PCA, was assessed both visually and quantitatively by calculating the average distance error (ADE). Results: The PCA breast shape models of the CC and MLO mammographic views based on six principal components, in which 99.2% and 98.0%, respectively, of the total variance of the dataset is contained, were found to be able to reproduce breast shapes with strong fidelity (CC view mean ADE = 0.90 mm, MLO view mean ADE = 1.43 mm) and to generate new clinically realistic shapes. The PCA models based on fewer principal components were also successful, but to a lesser degree, as the two-component model exhibited a mean ADE = 2.99 mm for the CC view, and a mean ADE = 4.63 mm for the MLO view. The four-component models exhibited a mean ADE = 1.47 mm for the CC view and a mean ADE = 2.14 mm for the MLO view. Paired t-tests of the ADE values of each image between models showed that these differences were statistically significant (max p-value = 0.0247). Visual examination of modeled breast shapes confirmed these results. Histograms of the PCA parameters associated with the six principal components were fitted with Gaussian distributions. The six

  20. Dosimetric effects of sectional adjustments of collimator angles on volumetric modulated arc therapy for irregularly-shaped targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Seok Ahn

    Full Text Available To calculate an optimal collimator angle at each of sectional arcs in a full-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plan and evaluate dosimetric quality of these VMAT plans comparing full-arc VMAT plans with a fixed collimator angle.Seventeen patients who had irregularly-shaped target in abdominal, head and neck, and chest cases were selected retrospectively. To calculate an optimal collimator angle at each of sectional arcs in VMAT, integrated MLC apertures which could cover all shapes of target determined by beam's-eye view (BEV within angular sections were obtained for each VMAT plan. The angular sections were 40°, 60°, 90° and 120°. When the collimator settings were rotated at intervals of 2°, we obtained the optimal collimator angle to minimize area size difference between the integrated MLC aperture and collimator settings with 5 mm-margins to the integrated MLC aperture. The VMAT plans with the optimal collimator angles (Colli-VMAT were generated in the EclipseTM. For comparison purposes, one full-arc VMAT plans with a fixed collimator angles (Std-VMAT were generated. The dose-volumetric parameters and total MUs were evaluated.The mean dose-volumetric parameters for target volume of Colli-VMAT were comparable to Std-VMAT. Colli-VMAT improved sparing of most normal organs but for brain stem, compared to Std-VMAT for all cases. There were decreasing tendencies in mean total MUs with decreasing angular section. The mean total MUs for Colli-VMAT with the angular section of 40° (434 ± 95 MU, 317 ± 81 MU, and 371 ± 43 MU for abdominal, head and neck, and chest cases, respectively were lower than those for Std-VMAT (654 ± 182 MU, 517 ± 116 MU, and 533 ± 25 MU, respectively.For an irregularly-shaped target, Colli-VMAT with the angular section of 40° reduced total MUs and improved sparing of normal organs, compared to Std-VMAT.

  1. Efficient Coding of Shape and Transparency for Video Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A novel scheme for coding gray-level alpha planes in object-based video is presented. Gray-level alpha planes convey the shape and the transparency information, which are required for smooth composition of video objects. The algorithm proposed is based on the segmentation of the alpha plane...... in three layers: binary shape layer, opaque layer, and intermediate layer. Thus, the latter two layers replace the single transparency layer of MPEG-4 Part 2. Different encoding schemes are specifically designed for each layer, utilizing cross-layer correlations to reduce the bit rate. First, the binary...... demonstrating that the proposed techniques provide substantial bit rate savings coding shape and transparency when compared to the tools adopted in MPEG-4 Part 2....

  2. Language comprehenders retain implied shape and orientation of objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; van Dantzig, Saskia; Zwaan, Rolf A; Zeelenberg, René

    2009-06-01

    According to theories of embodied cognition, language comprehenders simulate sensorimotor experiences to represent the meaning of what they read. Previous studies have shown that picture recognition is better if the object in the picture matches the orientation or shape implied by a preceding sentence. In order to test whether strategic imagery may explain previous findings, language comprehenders first read a list of sentences in which objects were mentioned. Only once the complete list had been read was recognition memory tested with pictures. Recognition performance was better if the orientation or shape of the object matched that implied by the sentence, both immediately after reading the complete list of sentences and after a 45-min delay. These results suggest that previously found match effects were not due to strategic imagery and show that details of sensorimotor simulations are retained over longer periods.

  3. Exploiting object constancy: effects of active exploration and shape morphing on similarity judgments of novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haemy; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Humans are experts at shape processing. This expertise has been learned and fine tuned by actively manipulating and perceiving thousands of objects during development. Therefore, shape processing possesses an active component and a perceptual component. Here, we investigate both components in six experiments in which participants view and/or interact with novel, parametrically defined 3D objects using a touch-screen interface. For probing shape processing, we use a similarity rating task. In Experiments 1-3, we show that active manipulation leads to a better perceptual reconstruction of the physical parameter space than judging rotating objects, or passively viewing someone else's exploration pattern. In Experiment 4, we exploit object constancy-the fact that the visual system assumes that objects do not change their identity during manipulation. We show that slow morphing of an object during active manipulation systematically biases similarity ratings-despite the participants being unaware of the morphing. Experiments 5 and 6 investigate the time course of integrating shape information by restricting the morphing to the first and second half of the trial only. Interestingly, the results indicate that participants do not seem to integrate shape information beyond 5 s of exploration time. Finally, Experiment 7 uses a secondary task that suggests that the previous results are not simply due to lack of attention during the later parts of the trial. In summary, our results demonstrate the advantage of active manipulation for shape processing and indicate a continued, perceptual integration of complex shape information within a time window of a few seconds during object interactions.

  4. COLOR INFLUENCES IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOVING OBJECTS MORE THAN SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Zdravkovic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available When people track moving objects, they concentrate on different characteristics.Recent results show that people more often concentrate on spatiotemporalthan featural properties of the objects. In other words, location and directionof motion seem to be more informative properties than the stable featuralcharacteristics. This finding contradicts some of our knowledge about cognitivesystem. Current research was done in attempt to specify the effect of featuralcharacteristics, especially color and shape. In Experiment 1, subjects were askedto track four mobile targets presented with another four moving objects. Afterthe motion has stopped, they had to mark the initial four targets. Our resultshave shown that participants pay more attention to the featural properties thanto spatiotemporal characteristics. Since our task was more difficult than thetasks typically reported in the literature, the results might be interpreted as if thesubjects relied mostly on attentional processes. The task in Experiment 2 wasmade even more difficult: the subjects were asked to direct attention on identityof every target. Consequently, the task demanded more complex cognitiveprocesses and emphasizing effects of featural properties. Results suggest thatcolor and shape does not have the same influences on multiple object tracking,but that color has more significant effect.

  5. Automatic focusing of attention on object size and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Galera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In two experiments we investigated the automatic adjusting of the attentional focus to simple geometric shapes. The participants performed a visual search task with four stimuli (the target and three distractors presented always around the fixation point, inside an outlined frame not related to the search task. A cue informed the subject only about the possible size and shape of the frame, not about the target. The results of the first experiment showed faster target detection in the valid cue trials, suggesting that attention was captured automatically by the cue shape. In the second experiment, we introduced a flanker stimulus (compatible or incompatible with the target in order to determine if attentional resources spread homogenously inside and outside the frame. The results showed that performance depended both on cue validity and frame orientation. The flanker effect was dependent on compatibility and flanker position (vertical or horizontal meridian. The results of both experiments suggest that the form of an irrelevant object can capture attention despite participants’ intention and the results of the second experiment suggest that the attentional resources are more concentrated along the horizontal meridian.

  6. Functional dissociation between action and perception of object shape in developmental visual object agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Ganel, Tzvi; Avidan, Galia; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    According to the two visual systems model, the cortical visual system is segregated into a ventral pathway mediating object recognition, and a dorsal pathway mediating visuomotor control. In the present study we examined whether the visual control of action could develop normally even when visual perceptual abilities are compromised from early childhood onward. Using his fingers, LG, an individual with a rare developmental visual object agnosia, manually estimated (perceptual condition) the width of blocks that varied in width and length (but not in overall size), or simply picked them up across their width (grasping condition). LG's perceptual sensitivity to target width was profoundly impaired in the manual estimation task compared to matched controls. In contrast, the sensitivity to object shape during grasping, as measured by maximum grip aperture (MGA), the time to reach the MGA, the reaction time and the total movement time were all normal in LG. Further analysis, however, revealed that LG's sensitivity to object shape during grasping emerged at a later time stage during the movement compared to controls. Taken together, these results demonstrate a dissociation between action and perception of object shape, and also point to a distinction between different stages of the grasping movement, namely planning versus online control. Moreover, the present study implies that visuomotor abilities can develop normally even when perceptual abilities developed in a profoundly impaired fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional cinematography with control object of unknown shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapena, J; Harman, E A; Miller, J A

    1982-01-01

    A technique for reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) motion which involves a simple filming procedure but allows the deduction of coordinates in large object volumes was developed. Internal camera parameters are calculated from measurements of the film images of two calibrated crosses while external camera parameters are calculated from the film images of points in a control object of unknown shape but at least one known length. The control object, which includes the volume in which the activity is to take place, is formed by a series of poles placed at unknown locations, each carrying two targets. From the internal and external camera parameters, and from locations of the images of point in the films of the two cameras, 3D coordinates of the point can be calculated. Root mean square errors of the three coordinates of points in a large object volume (5m x 5m x 1.5m) were 15 mm, 13 mm, 13 mm and 6 mm, and relative errors in lengths averaged 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively.

  8. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing ......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  9. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing i......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  10. Color appearance of familiar objects: effects of object shape, texture, and illumination changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-05-26

    People perceive roughly constant surface colors despite large changes in illumination. The familiarity of colors of some natural objects might help achieve this feat through direct modulation of the objects' color appearance. Research on memory colors and color appearance has yielded controversial results and due to the employed methods has often confounded perceptual with semantic effects. We studied the effect of memory colors on color appearance by presenting photographs of fruit on a monitor under various simulated illuminations and by asking observers to make either achromatic or typical color settings without placing demands on short-term memory or semantic processing. In a control condition, we presented photographs of 3D fruit shapes without texture and 2D outline shapes. We found that (1) achromatic settings for fruit were systematically biased away from the gray point toward the opposite direction of a fruit's memory color; (2) the strength of the effect depended on the degree of naturalness of the stimuli; and (3) the effect was evident under all tested illuminations, being strongest for illuminations whose chromaticity was closest to the stimulus chromaticity. We conclude that the visual identity of an object has a measurable effect on color perception, and that this effect is robust under illuminant changes, indicating its potential significance as an additional mechanism for color constancy.

  11. A Hybrid Algorithm for Period Analysis from Multiband Data with Sparse and Irregular Sampling for Arbitrary Light-curve Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Vivas, A. Katherina

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing and future surveys with repeat imaging in multiple bands are producing (or will produce) time-spaced measurements of brightness, resulting in the identification of large numbers of variable sources in the sky. A large fraction of these are periodic variables: compilations of these are of scientific interest for a variety of purposes. Unavoidably, the data sets from many such surveys not only have sparse sampling, but also have embedded frequencies in the observing cadence that beat against the natural periodicities of any object under investigation. Such limitations can make period determination ambiguous and uncertain. For multiband data sets with asynchronous measurements in multiple passbands, we wish to maximally use the information on periodicity in a manner that is agnostic of differences in the light-curve shapes across the different channels. Given large volumes of data, computational efficiency is also at a premium. This paper develops and presents a computationally economic method for determining periodicity that combines the results from two different classes of period-determination algorithms. The underlying principles are illustrated through examples. The effectiveness of this approach for combining asynchronously sampled measurements in multiple observables that share an underlying fundamental frequency is also demonstrated.

  12. Evaluation of coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency of irregular-shaped drug particles coated in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Liew, Celine Valeria

    2015-01-01

    To explore the feasibility of coating irregular-shaped drug particles in a modified tangential spray fluidized bed processor (FS processor) and evaluate the coated particles for their coat uniformity and taste-masking efficiency. Paracetamol particles were coated to 20%, w/w weight gain using a taste-masking polymer insoluble in neutral and basic pH but soluble in acidic pH. In-process samples (5, 10 and 15%, w/w coat) and the resultant coated particles (20%, w/w coat) were collected to monitor the changes in their physicochemical attributes. After coating to 20%, w/w coat weight gain, the usable yield was 81% with minimal agglomeration (coat compared with the uncoated particles. A 15%, w/w coat was optimal for inhibiting drug release in salivary pH with subsequent fast dissolution in simulated gastric pH. The FS processor shows promise for direct coating of irregular-shaped drug particles with wide size distribution. The coated particles with 15% coat were sufficiently taste masked and could be useful for further application in orally disintegrating tablet platforms.

  13. Precision casting into disposable ceramic mold – a high efficiency method of production of castings of irregular shape

    OpenAIRE

    Уваров, Б. И.; Лущик, П. Е.; Андриц, А. А.; Долгий, Л. П.; Заблоцкий, А. В.

    2016-01-01

    The article shows the advantages and disadvantages of precision casting into disposable ceramic molds. The high quality shaped castings produced by modernized ceramic molding process are proved the reliability and prospects of this advanced technology.

  14. PRECISION CASTING INTO DISPOSABLE CERAMIC MOLD – A HIGH EFFICIENCY METHOD OF PRODUCTION OF CASTINGS OF IRREGULAR SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Uvarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages and disadvantages of precision casting into disposable ceramic molds. The high quality shaped castings produced by modernized ceramic molding process are proved the reliability and prospects of this advanced technology.

  15. A practical method to calculate head scatter factors in wedged rectangular and irregular MLC shaped beams for external and internal wedges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Olofsson, Joergen; Kuenzler, Thomas; Aiginger, Hannes; Karlsson, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Factor based methods for absorbed dose or monitor unit calculations are often based on separate data sets for open and wedged beams. The determination of basic beam parameters can be rather time consuming, unless equivalent square methods are applied. When considering irregular wedged beams shaped with a multileaf collimator, parametrization methods for dosimetric quantities, e.g. output ratios or wedge factors as a function of field size and shape, become even more important. A practical method is presented to derive wedged output ratios in air (S c,w ) for any rectangular field and for any irregular MLC shaped beam. This method was based on open field output ratios in air (S c ) for a field with the same collimator setting, and a relation f w between S c,w and S c . The relation f w can be determined from measured output ratios in air for a few open and wedged fields including the maximum wedged field size. The function f w and its parametrization were dependent on wedge angle and treatment head design, i.e. they were different for internal and external wedges. The proposed method was tested for rectangular wedged fields on three accelerators with internal wedges (GE, Elekta, BBC) and two accelerators with external wedges (Varian). For symmetric regular beams the average deviation between calculated and measured S c,w /S c ratios was 0.3% for external wedges and about 0.6% for internal wedges. Maximum deviations of 1.8% were obtained for elongated rectangular fields on the GE and ELEKTA linacs with an internal wedge. The same accuracy was achieved for irregular MLC shaped wedged beams on the accelerators with MLC and internal wedges (GE and Elekta), with an average deviation <1% for the fields tested. The proposed method to determine output ratios in air for wedged beams from output ratios of open beams, combined with equivalent square approaches, can be easily integrated in empirical or semi-empirical methods for monitor unit calculations

  16. Estimation methods for sound levels and reverberation time in a room with irregular shape or absorption distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerretsen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The reverberation time of an enclosed space is an important parameter to describe the acoustic quality in enclosed spaces. Mainly due to its simplicity Sabine’s equation is normally used even though the considered situations seldom comply with its preconditions: regular room shape, regular

  17. Object Representations in Human Visual Cortex Formed Through Temporal Integration of Dynamic Partial Shape Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Tanya; Zohary, Ehud

    2018-01-17

    We typically recognize visual objects using the spatial layout of their parts, which are present simultaneously on the retina. Therefore, shape extraction is based on integration of the relevant retinal information over space. The lateral occipital complex (LOC) can represent shape faithfully in such conditions. However, integration over time is sometimes required to determine object shape. To study shape extraction through temporal integration of successive partial shape views, we presented human participants (both men and women) with artificial shapes that moved behind a narrow vertical or horizontal slit. Only a tiny fraction of the shape was visible at any instant at the same retinal location. However, observers perceived a coherent whole shape instead of a jumbled pattern. Using fMRI and multivoxel pattern analysis, we searched for brain regions that encode temporally integrated shape identity. We further required that the representation of shape should be invariant to changes in the slit orientation. We show that slit-invariant shape information is most accurate in the LOC. Importantly, the slit-invariant shape representations matched the conventional whole-shape representations assessed during full-image runs. Moreover, when the same slit-dependent shape slivers were shuffled, thereby preventing their spatiotemporal integration, slit-invariant shape information was reduced dramatically. The slit-invariant representation of the various shapes also mirrored the structure of shape perceptual space as assessed by perceptual similarity judgment tests. Therefore, the LOC is likely to mediate temporal integration of slit-dependent shape views, generating a slit-invariant whole-shape percept. These findings provide strong evidence for a global encoding of shape in the LOC regardless of integration processes required to generate the shape percept. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual objects are recognized through spatial integration of features available simultaneously on

  18. Dependence of cosmological energy-density irregularities on the shape of the scalar-field potential during inflation and ''reheating''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratra, B.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates for the baryon-dominated epoch form of the large-scale adiabatic energy-density irregularities generated during an early scalar-field-dominated inflation epoch, in simple inflation-modified hot-big-bang models, are compared to the widely used approximate general expression, which is proportional to the large-scale, gauge-invariant part of H 2 left-angle φφ * right-angle/(Φ b ) 2 evaluated at the first Hubble radius crossing (here Φ b and φ are the spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts of the scalar field, H is the Hubble parameter, and an overdot represents a derivative with respect to time). In the de Sitter inflation limit, if the inflation-epoch background scalar-field solution is an ''attractor,'' or if there is sufficient inflation before the scale of interest leaves the Hubble radius, the approximate general expression identically reproduces what we have found. It is also less than an order of magnitude away from our expression in a large fraction of the parameter space of the inflation model we study and is within 2 orders of magnitude of our result in almost all of parameter space. We also show that the more accurate general expression (which the above formula is an approximation of) identically reproduces our results in the simple models studied, provided the inflation-epoch background scalar-field solution is an ''attractor'' or if there is sufficient inflation. The approximate general formula is used to restudy energy-density inhomogeneities in the quartic-potential scalar-field de Sitter inflation model; the difference between the standard result in this model and our result in related models is traced to a difference in the form of the part of the potential used to model ''reheating'' and the end of inflation

  19. A New 3D Object Pose Detection Method Using LIDAR Shape Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Un; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2018-03-16

    In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view. In this study, we use this shape set for two purposes. The first is to supplement the shape set with a LIDAR Feature map, and the second is to divide the entire shape set according to the gradient of the depth and density to create a 2D and 3D bounding box proposal for each object. We present a multimodal fusion framework that classifies objects and restores the 3D pose of each object using enhanced feature maps and shape-based proposals. The network structure consists of a VGG -based object classifier that receives multiple inputs and a LIDAR-based Region Proposal Networks (RPN) that identifies object poses. It works in a very intuitive and efficient manner and can be extended to other classes other than vehicles. Our research has outperformed object classification accuracy (Average Precision, AP) and 3D pose restoration accuracy (3D bounding box recall rate) based on the latest studies conducted with KITTI data sets.

  20. The shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional in optimal shape design problems of radiative heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukolaine, Sergey A.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal shape design problems of steady-state radiative heat transfer are considered. The optimal shape design problem (in the three-dimensional space) is formulated as an inverse one, i.e., in the form of an operator equation of the first kind with respect to a surface to be optimized. The operator equation is reduced to a minimization problem via a least-squares objective functional. The minimization problem has to be solved numerically. Gradient minimization methods need the gradient of a functional to be minimized. In this paper the shape gradient of the least-squares objective functional is derived with the help of the shape sensitivity analysis and adjoint problem method. In practice a surface to be optimized may be (or, most likely, is to be) given in a parametric form by a finite number of parameters. In this case the objective functional is, in fact, a function in a finite-dimensional space and the shape gradient becomes an ordinary gradient. The gradient of the objective functional, in the case that the surface to be optimized is given in a finite-parametric form, is derived from the shape gradient. A particular case, that a surface to be optimized is a 'two-dimensional' polyhedral one, is considered. The technique, developed in the paper, is applied to a synthetic problem of designing a 'two-dimensional' radiant enclosure.

  1. A Caulobacter MreB mutant with irregular cell shape exhibits compensatory widening to maintain a preferred surface area to volume ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leigh K.; Dye, Natalie A.; Theriot, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Rod-shaped bacteria typically elongate at a uniform width. To investigate the genetic and physiological determinants involved in this process, we studied a mutation in the morphogenetic protein MreB in Caulobacter crescentus that gives rise to cells with a variable-width phenotype, where cells have regions that are both thinner and wider than wild-type. During growth, individual cells develop a balance of wide and thin regions, and mutant MreB dynamically localizes to poles and thin regions. Surprisingly, the surface area to volume ratio of these irregularly-shaped cells is, on average, very similar to wild-type. We propose that, while mutant MreB localizes to thin regions and promotes rod-like growth there, wide regions develop as a compensatory mechanism, allowing cells to maintain a wild-type-like surface area to volume ratio. To support this model, we have shown that cell widening is abrogated in growth conditions that promote higher surface area to volume ratios, and we have observed individual cells with high ratios return to wild-type levels over several hours by developing wide regions, suggesting that compensation can take place at the level of individual cells. PMID:25266768

  2. Memory color of natural familiar objects: effects of surface texture and 3-D shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Milena; Ling, Yazhu; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2013-06-28

    Natural objects typically possess characteristic contours, chromatic surface textures, and three-dimensional shapes. These diagnostic features aid object recognition, as does memory color, the color most associated in memory with a particular object. Here we aim to determine whether polychromatic surface texture, 3-D shape, and contour diagnosticity improve memory color for familiar objects, separately and in combination. We use solid three-dimensional familiar objects rendered with their natural texture, which participants adjust in real time to match their memory color for the object. We analyze mean, accuracy, and precision of the memory color settings relative to the natural color of the objects under the same conditions. We find that in all conditions, memory colors deviate slightly but significantly in the same direction from the natural color. Surface polychromaticity, shape diagnosticity, and three dimensionality each improve memory color accuracy, relative to uniformly colored, generic, or two-dimensional shapes, respectively. Shape diagnosticity improves the precision of memory color also, and there is a trend for polychromaticity to do so as well. Differently from other studies, we find that the object contour alone also improves memory color. Thus, enhancing the naturalness of the stimulus, in terms of either surface or shape properties, enhances the accuracy and precision of memory color. The results support the hypothesis that memory color representations are polychromatic and are synergistically linked with diagnostic shape representations.

  3. Shape Analysis of Planar Multiply-Connected Objects Using Conformal Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok Ming Lui; Wei Zeng; Shing-Tung Yau; Xianfeng Gu

    2014-07-01

    Shape analysis is a central problem in the field of computer vision. In 2D shape analysis, classification and recognition of objects from their observed silhouettes are extremely crucial but difficult. It usually involves an efficient representation of 2D shape space with a metric, so that its mathematical structure can be used for further analysis. Although the study of 2D simply-connected shapes has been subject to a corpus of literatures, the analysis of multiply-connected shapes is comparatively less studied. In this work, we propose a representation for general 2D multiply-connected domains with arbitrary topologies using conformal welding. A metric can be defined on the proposed representation space, which gives a metric to measure dissimilarities between objects. The main idea is to map the exterior and interior of the domain conformally to unit disks and circle domains (unit disk with several inner disks removed), using holomorphic 1-forms. A set of diffeomorphisms of the unit circle S(1) can be obtained, which together with the conformal modules are used to define the shape signature. A shape distance between shape signatures can be defined to measure dissimilarities between shapes. We prove theoretically that the proposed shape signature uniquely determines the multiply-connected objects under suitable normalization. We also introduce a reconstruction algorithm to obtain shapes from their signatures. This completes our framework and allows us to move back and forth between shapes and signatures. With that, a morphing algorithm between shapes can be developed through the interpolation of the Beltrami coefficients associated with the signatures. Experiments have been carried out on shapes extracted from real images. Results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed algorithm as a stable shape representation scheme.

  4. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  5. Effect of the shape of a nano-object on quantum-size states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyuba, Vladimir; Kulchin, Yurii; Milichko, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an original functional method that makes it easy to determine the effect of any deviation in the shape of a nano-object from the well-studied shape (e.g., spherical) on the quantum characteristics of charge localized inside the nano-object. The maximum dimension of the object is determined by the magnitude of influence of quantum-size effects on quantum states of charge, and is limited by 100 nm. This method is ideologically similar to the perturbation theory, but the perturbation of the surface shape, rather than the potential, is used. Unlike the well-known variational methods of theoretical physics, this method is based on the assumption that the physical quantity is a functional of surface shape. Using the method developed, we present the quantum-size state of charges for two different complex shapes of nano-objects. The results from analyzing the quantum-size states of charge in the nano-objects with a deformed spherical shape indicated that the shape perturbations have a larger effect on the probability density of locating a particle inside the nano-object than on the surface energy spectrum and quantum density of the states.

  6. 78 FR 27470 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Shaping Power: Luba...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Determinations: ``Shaping Power: Luba Masterworks From the Royal Museum for Central Africa'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Shaping Power: Luba Masterworks from the Royal Museum for Central Africa,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  7. A computer graphics based model for scattering from objects of arbitrary shapes in the optical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Rozehnal, Ivan; Thompson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    A computer-graphics-based model, named DIANA, is presented for generation of objects of arbitrary shape and for calculating bidirectional reflectances and scattering from them, in the visible and infrared region. The computer generation is based on a modified Lindenmayer system approach which makes it possible to generate objects of arbitrary shapes and to simulate their growth, dynamics, and movement. Rendering techniques are used to display an object on a computer screen with appropriate shading and shadowing and to calculate the scattering and reflectance from the object. The technique is illustrated with scattering from canopies of simulated corn plants.

  8. Context based Coding of Binary Shapes by Object Boundary Straightness Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2004-01-01

    A new lossless compression scheme for bilevel images targeted at binary shapes of image and video objects is presented. The scheme is based on a local analysis of the digital straightness of the causal part of the object boundary, which is used in the context definition for arithmetic encoding....... Tested on individual images of binary shapes and binary layers of digital maps the algorithm outperforms PWC, JBIG and MPEG-4 CAE. On the binary shapes the code lengths are reduced by 21%, 25%, and 42%, respectively. On the maps the reductions are 34%, 32%, and 59%, respectively. The algorithm is also...

  9. Vibrotactile feedback for conveying object shape information as perceived by artificial sensing of robotic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnobish, Anwesha; Pal, Monalisa; Sardar, Dwaipayan; Tibarewala, D N; Konar, Amit

    2016-08-01

    This work is a preliminary study towards developing an alternative communication channel for conveying shape information to aid in recognition of items when tactile perception is hindered. Tactile data, acquired during object exploration by sensor fitted robot arm, are processed to recognize four basic geometric shapes. Patterns representing each shape, classified from tactile data, are generated using micro-controller-driven vibration motors which vibrotactually stimulate users to convey the particular shape information. These motors are attached on the subject's arm and their psychological (verbal) responses are recorded to assess the competence of the system to convey shape information to the user in form of vibrotactile stimulations. Object shapes are classified from tactile data with an average accuracy of 95.21 %. Three successive sessions of shape recognition from vibrotactile pattern depicted learning of the stimulus from subjects' psychological response which increased from 75 to 95 %. This observation substantiates the learning of vibrotactile stimulation in user over the sessions which in turn increase the system efficacy. The tactile sensing module and vibrotactile pattern generating module are integrated to complete the system whose operation is analysed in real-time. Thus, the work demonstrates a successful implementation of the complete schema of artificial tactile sensing system for object-shape recognition through vibrotactile stimulations.

  10. Combining Shape-Changing Interfaces and Spatial Augmented Reality Enables Extended Object Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindlbauer, David; Grønbæk, Jens Emil; Birk, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We propose combining shape-changing interfaces and spatial augmented reality for extending the space of appearances and interactions of actuated interfaces. While shape-changing interfaces can dynamically alter the physical appearance of objects, the integration of spatial augmented reality...... for increasing the realism of 3D objects such as bump mapping. This extensible framework helps us identify challenges of the two techniques and benefits of their combination. We utilize our prototype shape-changing device enriched with spatial augmented reality through projection mapping to demonstrate...... the concept. We present a novel mechanical distance-fields algorithm for real-time fitting of mechanically constrained shape-changing devices to arbitrary 3D graphics. Furthermore, we present a technique for increasing effective screen real estate for spatial augmented reality through view-dependent shape...

  11. Saturn's Irregular Moon Ymir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2012-10-01

    Ymir (diameter 18 km), Saturn's second largest retrograde outer or irregular moon, has been observed six times by the Cassini narrow-angle camera (NAC) during the first 7 months in 2012. The observations span phase angles from 2° up to 102° and were taken at ranges between 15 and 18 million kilometers. From such a distance, Ymir is smaller than a pixel in the Cassini NAC. The data reveal a sidereal rotation period of 11.93 hrs, which is 1.6x longer than the previously reported value (Denk et al. 2011, EPSC/DPS #1452). Reason for this discrepancy is that the rotational light curve shows a rather uncommon 3-maxima and 3-minima shape at least in the phase angle range 50° to 100°, which was not recognizable in earlier data. The data cover several rotations from different viewing and illumination geometries and allow for a convex shape inversion with possibly a unique solution for the pole direction. The model reproduces the observed light curves to a very good accuracy without requiring albedo variegation, thereby suggesting that the lightcurve is dominated by the shape of Ymir. Among Saturn's irregular moons, the phenomenon of more than two maxima and minima at moderate to high phase angles is not unique to Ymir. At least Siarnaq and Paaliaq also show light curves with a strong deviation from a double-sine curve. Their rotation periods, however, remain unknown until more data can be taken. The light curve of Phoebe is fundamentally different to Ymir's because it is mainly shaped by local albedo differences and not by shape. Other reliable rotation periods of irregular satellites measured by Cassini include: Mundilfari 6.74 h; Kari 7.70 h; Albiorix 13.32 h; Kiviuq 21.82 h. More uncertain values are: Skathi 12 h; Bebhionn 16 h; Thrymr 27 h; Erriapus 28 h.

  12. The Long War Concept: Using the Security Cooperation Marine Air Ground Task Force to Address Irregular Threats through Shaping and Deterrence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziegler, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... As the nation comes to grips with the momentous task of combating terrorism and other irregular threats in the Long War, it must continually assess the effectiveness of foreign policy, and especially...

  13. Numerical Models for Exact Description of in-situ Digital In-Line Holography Experiments with Irregularly-Shaped Arbitrarily-Located Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Brunel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the development of a numerical simulator for digital in-line holography applications. In-line holograms of arbitrarily shaped and arbitrarily located objects are calculated using generalized Huygens-Fresnel integrals. The objects are 2D opaque or phase objects. The optical set-up is described by its optical transfer matrix. A wide variety of optical systems, involving windows, spherical or cylindrical lenses, can thus be taken into account. It makes the simulator applicable for design and description of in situ experiments. We discuss future applications of this simulator for detection of nanoparticles in droplets, or calibration of airborne instruments that detect and measure ice crystals in the atmosphere.

  14. Highlight shapes and perception of gloss for real and photographed objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Assen, Jan Jaap R; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Pont, Sylvia C

    2016-01-01

    Gloss perception strongly depends on the three-dimensional shape and the illumination of the object under consideration. In this study we investigated the influence of the spatial structure of the illumination on gloss perception. A diffuse light box in combination with differently shaped masks was used to produce a set of six simple and complex highlight shapes. The geometry of the simple highlight shapes was inspired by conventional artistic practice (e.g., ring flash for photography, window shape for painting and disk or square for cartoons). In the box we placed spherical stimuli that were painted in six degrees of glossiness. This resulted in a stimulus set of six highlight shapes and six gloss levels, a total of 36 stimuli. We performed three experiments of which two took place using digital photographs on a computer monitor and one with the real spheres in the light box. The observers had to perform a comparison task in which they chose which of two stimuli was glossiest and a rating task in which they rated the glossiness. The results show that, perhaps surprisingly, more complex highlight shapes were perceived to produce a less glossy appearance than simple highlight shapes such as a disk or square. These findings were confirmed for both viewing conditions, on a computer display and in a real setting. The results show that variations in the spatial structure of "rather simple" illumination of the "extended source" type highlight influences perceived glossiness.

  15. Use of Image Based Modelling for Documentation of Intricately Shaped Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčiš, M.; Barták, P.; Valaška, D.; Fraštia, M.; Trhan, O.

    2016-06-01

    In the documentation of cultural heritage, we can encounter three dimensional shapes and structures which are complicated to measure. Such objects are for example spiral staircases, timber roof trusses, historical furniture or folk costume where it is nearly impossible to effectively use the traditional surveying or the terrestrial laser scanning due to the shape of the object, its dimensions and the crowded environment. The actual methods of digital photogrammetry can be very helpful in such cases with the emphasis on the automated processing of the extensive image data. The created high resolution 3D models and 2D orthophotos are very important for the documentation of architectural elements and they can serve as an ideal base for the vectorization and 2D drawing documentation. This contribution wants to describe the various usage of image based modelling in specific interior spaces and specific objects. The advantages and disadvantages of the photogrammetric measurement of such objects in comparison to other surveying methods are reviewed.

  16. Foundations of computer vision computational geometry, visual image structures and object shape detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamentals of computer vision (CV), with a focus on extracting useful information from digital images and videos. Including a wealth of methods used in detecting and classifying image objects and their shapes, it is the first book to apply a trio of tools (computational geometry, topology and algorithms) in solving CV problems, shape tracking in image object recognition and detecting the repetition of shapes in single images and video frames. Computational geometry provides a visualization of topological structures such as neighborhoods of points embedded in images, while image topology supplies us with structures useful in the analysis and classification of image regions. Algorithms provide a practical, step-by-step means of viewing image structures. The implementations of CV methods in Matlab and Mathematica, classification of chapter problems with the symbols (easily solved) and (challenging) and its extensive glossary of key words, examples and connections with the fabric of C...

  17. Efficient Cross-Modal Transfer of Shape Information in Visual and Haptic Object Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gaissert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Categorization has traditionally been studied in the visual domain with only a few studies focusing on the abilities of the haptic system in object categorization. During the first years of development, however, touch and vision are closely coupled in the exploratory procedures used by the infant to gather information about objects. Here, we investigate how well shape information can be transferred between those two modalities in a categorization task. Our stimuli consisted of amoeba-like objects that were parametrically morphed in well-defined steps. Participants explored the objects in a categorization task either visually or haptically. Interestingly, both modalities led to similar categorization behavior suggesting that similar shape processing might occur in vision and haptics. Next, participants received training on specific categories in one of the two modalities. As would be expected, training increased performance in the trained modality; however, we also found significant transfer of training to the other, untrained modality after only relatively few training trials. Taken together, our results demonstrate that complex shape information can be transferred efficiently across the two modalities, which speaks in favor of multisensory, higher-level representations of shape.

  18. Perceptual organization of shape, color, shade, and lighting in visual and pictorial objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Baingio

    2012-01-01

    THE MAIN QUESTIONS WE ASKED IN THIS WORK ARE THE FOLLOWING: Where are representations of shape, color, depth, and lighting mostly located? Does their formation take time to develop? How do they contribute to determining and defining a visual object, and how do they differ? How do visual artists use them to create objects and scenes? Is the way artists use them related to the way we perceive them? To answer these questions, we studied the microgenetic development of the object perception and formation. Our hypothesis is that the main object properties are extracted in sequential order and in the same order that these roles are also used by artists and children of different age to paint objects. The results supported the microgenesis of object formation according to the following sequence: contours, color, shading, and lighting.

  19. Perceptual Organization of Shape, Color, Shade, and Lighting in Visual and Pictorial Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baingio Pinna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main questions we asked in this work are the following: Where are representations of shape, color, depth, and lighting mostly located? Does their formation take time to develop? How do they contribute to determining and defining a visual object, and how do they differ? How do visual artists use them to create objects and scenes? Is the way artists use them related to the way we perceive them? To answer these questions, we studied the microgenetic development of the object perception and formation. Our hypothesis is that the main object properties are extracted in sequential order and in the same order that these roles are also used by artists and children of different age to paint objects. The results supported the microgenesis of object formation according to the following sequence: contours, color, shading, and lighting.

  20. Building and Programming a Smart Robotic System for Distinguishing Objects Based on their Shape and Colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharari, T. M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a robotic system designed for holding and placing objects based on their colour and shape. The presented robot is given a complete set of instructions of positions and orientation angles for each manipulation motion. The main feature in this paper is that the developed robot used a combination of vision and motion systems for holding and placing the work-objects, mounted on the flat work-plane, based on their shapes and colors. This combination improves the flexibility of manipulation which may help eliminate the use of some expensive manipulation tasks in a variety of industrial applications. The robotic system presented in this paper is designed as an educational robot that possesses the ability for holding-and-placing operations with limited load. To process the various instructions for holding and placing the work objects, a main control unit - Manipulation Control Unit (MCU) is used as well as a slave unit that performed the actual instructions from the MCU.

  1. Multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Du

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexure hinges made of superelastic materials is a promising candidate to enhance the movability of compliant mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on the multi-objective optimization of a type of ellipse-parabola shaped superelastic flexure hinge. The objective is to determine a set of optimal geometric parameters that maximizes the motion range and the relative compliance of the flexure hinge and minimizes the relative rotation error during the deformation as well. Firstly, the paper presents a new type of ellipse-parabola shaped flexure hinge which is constructed by an ellipse arc and a parabola curve. Then, the static responses of superelastic flexure hinges are solved via non-prismatic beam elements derived by the co-rotational approach. Finite element analysis (FEA and experiment tests are performed to verify the modeling method. Finally, a multi-objective optimization is performed and the Pareto frontier is found via the NSGA-II algorithm.

  2. Fast automated segmentation of multiple objects via spatially weighted shape learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Shekhar S.; Dowling, Jason A.; Greer, Peter B.; Martin, Jarad; Wratten, Chris; Pichler, Peter; Fripp, Jurgen; Crozier, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    Active shape models (ASMs) have proved successful in automatic segmentation by using shape and appearance priors in a number of areas such as prostate segmentation, where accurate contouring is important in treatment planning for prostate cancer. The ASM approach however, is heavily reliant on a good initialisation for achieving high segmentation quality. This initialisation often requires algorithms with high computational complexity, such as three dimensional (3D) image registration. In this work, we present a fast, self-initialised ASM approach that simultaneously fits multiple objects hierarchically controlled by spatially weighted shape learning. Prominent objects are targeted initially and spatial weights are progressively adjusted so that the next (more difficult, less visible) object is simultaneously initialised using a series of weighted shape models. The scheme was validated and compared to a multi-atlas approach on 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images of 38 cancer patients and had the same (mean, median, inter-rater) Dice’s similarity coefficients of (0.79, 0.81, 0.85), while having no registration error and a computational time of 12-15 min, nearly an order of magnitude faster than the multi-atlas approach.

  3. Shaping biomedical objects across history and philosophy:a conversation with Hans-Jörg Rheinberger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Miguel; González-Silva, Matiana; Jesús Santesmases, María; Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Historical epistemology, according to the historian of science Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, is a space through which "to take experimental laboratory work into the realm of philosophy". This key concept, together with the crucial events and challenges of his career, were discussed in a public conversation which took place on the occasion of Rheinberger's retirement. By making sense of natural phenomena in the laboratory, the act of experimenting shapes the object; it is this shaping which became the core of Rheinberger's own research across biology and philosophy into history. For his intellectual agenda, a history of the life sciences so constructed became "epistemologically demanding".

  4. A novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects using C-shape configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qujiang; Chen, Guangming; Meijer, Jonathan; Wisse, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    Increasing grasping efficiency is very important for the robots to grasp unknown objects especially subjected to unfamiliar environments. To achieve this, a new algorithm is proposed based on the C-shape configuration. Specifically, the geometric model of the used under-actuated gripper is approximated as a C-shape. To obtain an appropriate graspable position, this C-shape configuration is applied to fit geometric model of an unknown object. The geometric model of unknown object is constructed by using a single-view partial point cloud. To examine the algorithm using simulations, a comparison of the commonly used motion planners is made. The motion planner with the highest number of solved runs, lowest computing time and the shortest path length is chosen to execute grasps found by this grasping algorithm. The simulation results demonstrate that excellent grasping efficiency is achieved by adopting our algorithm. To validate this algorithm, experiment tests are carried out using a UR5 robot arm and an under-actuated gripper. The experimental results show that steady grasping actions are obtained. Hence, this research provides a novel algorithm for fast grasping of unknown objects.

  5. Encountered-Type Haptic Interface for Representation of Shape and Rigidity of 3D Virtual Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Naoki; Yano, Hiroaki; Iwata, Hiroo; Oshiro, Yukio; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an encountered-type haptic interface that can generate the physical characteristics, such as shape and rigidity, of three-dimensional (3D) virtual objects using an array of newly developed non-expandable balloons. To alter the rigidity of each non-expandable balloon, the volume of air in it is controlled through a linear actuator and a pressure sensor based on Hooke's law. Furthermore, to change the volume of each balloon, its exposed surface area is controlled by using another linear actuator with a trumpet-shaped tube. A position control mechanism is constructed to display virtual objects using the balloons. The 3D position of each balloon is controlled using a flexible tube and a string. The performance of the system is tested and the results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed principle and interface.

  6. Visual marking and change blindness : moving occluders and transient masks neutralize shape changes to ignored objects

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Derrick G.; Kunar, Melina A.

    2010-01-01

    Visual search efficiency improves by presenting (previewing) one set of distractors before the target and remaining distractor items (D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 1997). Previous work has shown that this preview benefit is abolished if the old items change their shape when the new items are added (e.g., D. G. Watson & G. W. Humphreys, 2002). Here we present 5 experiments that examined whether such object changes are still effective in recapturing attention if the changes occur while the pr...

  7. Monostatic Radar Cross Section Estimation of Missile Shaped Object Using Physical Optics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Bhushana Rao, G.; Nambari, Swathi; Kota, Srikanth; Ranga Rao, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Stealth Technology manages many signatures for a target in which most radar systems use radar cross section (RCS) for discriminating targets and classifying them with regard to Stealth. During a war target’s RCS has to be very small to make target invisible to enemy radar. In this study, Radar Cross Section of perfectly conducting objects like cylinder, truncated cone (frustum) and circular flat plate is estimated with respect to parameters like size, frequency and aspect angle. Due to the difficulties in exactly predicting the RCS, approximate methods become the alternative. Majority of approximate methods are valid in optical region and where optical region has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the analysis given in this study is purely based on far field monostatic RCS measurements in the optical region. Computation is done using Physical Optics (PO) method for determining RCS of simple models. In this study not only the RCS of simple models but also missile shaped and rocket shaped models obtained from the cascaded objects with backscatter has been computed using Matlab simulation. Rectangular plots are obtained for RCS in dbsm versus aspect angle for simple and missile shaped objects using Matlab simulation. Treatment of RCS, in this study is based on Narrow Band.

  8. 3D shape measurement of moving object with FFT-based spatial matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghua; Ruan, Yuxi; Xi, Jiangtao; Song, Limei; Zhu, Xinjun; Yu, Yanguang; Tong, Jun

    2018-03-01

    This work presents a new technique for 3D shape measurement of moving object in translational motion, which finds applications in online inspection, quality control, etc. A low-complexity 1D fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based spatial matching approach is devised to obtain accurate object displacement estimates, and it is combined with single shot fringe pattern prolometry (FPP) techniques to achieve high measurement performance with multiple captured images through coherent combining. The proposed technique overcomes some limitations of existing ones. Specifically, the placement of marks on object surface and synchronization between projector and camera are not needed, the velocity of the moving object is not required to be constant, and there is no restriction on the movement trajectory. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  9. USE OF IMAGE BASED MODELLING FOR DOCUMENTATION OF INTRICATELY SHAPED OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marčiš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the documentation of cultural heritage, we can encounter three dimensional shapes and structures which are complicated to measure. Such objects are for example spiral staircases, timber roof trusses, historical furniture or folk costume where it is nearly impossible to effectively use the traditional surveying or the terrestrial laser scanning due to the shape of the object, its dimensions and the crowded environment. The actual methods of digital photogrammetry can be very helpful in such cases with the emphasis on the automated processing of the extensive image data. The created high resolution 3D models and 2D orthophotos are very important for the documentation of architectural elements and they can serve as an ideal base for the vectorization and 2D drawing documentation. This contribution wants to describe the various usage of image based modelling in specific interior spaces and specific objects. The advantages and disadvantages of the photogrammetric measurement of such objects in comparison to other surveying methods are reviewed.

  10. Irregular Applications: Architectures & Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feo, John T.; Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone

    2012-02-06

    Irregular applications are characterized by irregular data structures, control and communication patterns. Novel irregular high performance applications which deal with large data sets and require have recently appeared. Unfortunately, current high performance systems and software infrastructures executes irregular algorithms poorly. Only coordinated efforts by end user, area specialists and computer scientists that consider both the architecture and the software stack may be able to provide solutions to the challenges of modern irregular applications.

  11. Femoral hip prosthesis design for Thais using multi-objective shape optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virulsri, Chanyaphan; Tangpornprasert, Pairat; Romtrairat, Parineak

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective shape optimization was proposed to design hip prosthesis for Thais. • The prosthesis design was optimized in terms of safety of both cement and prosthesis. • The objective functions used the Soderberg fatigue strength formulations. • Safety factors of the cement and prosthesis are 1.200 and 1.109 respectively. • The newly designed prosthesis also fits well with chosen small-sized Thai femurs. - Abstract: The long-term success of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) depends largely on how well the prosthetic components fit the bones. The majority of cemented femoral hip prosthesis failures are due to aseptic loosening, which is possibly caused by cracking of the cement mantle. The strength of cement components is a function of cement mantles having adequate thickness. Since the size and shape of cemented femoral hip prostheses used in Thailand are based on designs for a Caucasian population, they do not properly conform to most Thai patients’ physical requirements. For these reasons, prostheses designed specifically for Thai patients must consider the longevity and functionality of both cement and prosthesis. The objective of this study was to discover a new design for femoral hip prostheses which is not only optimal and safe in terms of both cement and prosthesis, but also fits the selected Thai femur. This study used a small-sized Thai femoral model as a reference model for a new design. Biocompatible stainless steel 316L (SS316L) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were selected as raw materials for the prosthesis and bone cement respectively. A multi-objective shape optimization program, which is an interface between optimization C program named NSGA-II and a finite element program named ANSYS, was used to optimize longevity of femoral hip prostheses by varying shape parameters at assigned cross-sections of the selected geometry. Maximum walking loads of sixty-kilograms were applied to a finite element model for stress and

  12. Object Recognition in Flight: How Do Bees Distinguish between 3D Shapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Annette; Stürzl, Wolfgang; Zanker, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera) discriminate multiple object features such as colour, pattern and 2D shape, but it remains unknown whether and how bees recover three-dimensional shape. Here we show that bees can recognize objects by their three-dimensional form, whereby they employ an active strategy to uncover the depth profiles. We trained individual, free flying honeybees to collect sugar water from small three-dimensional objects made of styrofoam (sphere, cylinder, cuboids) or folded paper (convex, concave, planar) and found that bees can easily discriminate between these stimuli. We also tested possible strategies employed by the bees to uncover the depth profiles. For the card stimuli, we excluded overall shape and pictorial features (shading, texture gradients) as cues for discrimination. Lacking sufficient stereo vision, bees are known to use speed gradients in optic flow to detect edges; could the bees apply this strategy also to recover the fine details of a surface depth profile? Analysing the bees' flight tracks in front of the stimuli revealed specific combinations of flight maneuvers (lateral translations in combination with yaw rotations), which are particularly suitable to extract depth cues from motion parallax. We modelled the generated optic flow and found characteristic patterns of angular displacement corresponding to the depth profiles of our stimuli: optic flow patterns from pure translations successfully recovered depth relations from the magnitude of angular displacements, additional rotation provided robust depth information based on the direction of the displacements; thus, the bees flight maneuvers may reflect an optimized visuo-motor strategy to extract depth structure from motion signals. The robustness and simplicity of this strategy offers an efficient solution for 3D-object-recognition without stereo vision, and could be employed by other flying insects, or mobile robots.

  13. Robotic system for non-destructive testing of complex shaped objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavalerov, B. V.; Fayzrakhmanov, R. A.; Murzakaev, R. T.; Polyakov, A. N.; Artemev, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article describes the positioning system of defectoscopic equipment for nondestructive examination of complex shaped parts made of polymer composite materials. The purpose of the system and features of the investigated objects are described. The rationale for the development of the system and the range of problems it solves are presented. The solution of the kinematics problem for a 5-DOF manipulator is considered. The original algorithms for solving the kinematics problem are demonstrated. Methods for resolving collisions for a manipulator system are described. The results obtained in the course of experiments and studies are presented.

  14. Improvements of an objective model of compressed breasts undergoing mammography: Generation and characterization of breast shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Alejandro; Feng, Steve Si Jia; van Zelst, Jan; Vreemann, Suzan; Mann, Jessica Rice; D'Orsi, Carl Joseph; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2017-06-01

    To develop a set of accurate 2D models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography or breast tomosynthesis, based on objective analysis, to accurately characterize mammograms with few linearly independent parameters, and to generate novel clinically realistic paired cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) views of the breast. We seek to improve on an existing model of compressed breasts by overcoming detector size bias, removing the nipple and non-mammary tissue, pairing the CC and MLO views from a single breast, and incorporating the pectoralis major muscle contour into the model. The outer breast shapes in 931 paired CC and MLO mammograms were automatically detected with an in-house developed segmentation algorithm. From these shapes three generic models (CC-only, MLO-only, and joint CC/MLO) with linearly independent components were constructed via principal component analysis (PCA). The ability of the models to represent mammograms not used for PCA was tested via leave-one-out cross-validation, by measuring the average distance error (ADE). The individual models based on six components were found to depict breast shapes with accuracy (mean ADE-CC = 0.81 mm, ADE-MLO = 1.64 mm, ADE-Pectoralis = 1.61 mm), outperforming the joint CC/MLO model (P ≤ 0.001). The joint model based on 12 principal components contains 99.5% of the total variance of the data, and can be used to generate new clinically realistic paired CC and MLO breast shapes. This is achieved by generating random sets of 12 principal components, following the Gaussian distributions of the histograms of each component, which were obtained from the component values determined from the images in the mammography database used. Our joint CC/MLO model can successfully generate paired CC and MLO view shapes of the same simulated breast, while the individual models can be used to represent with high accuracy clinical acquired mammograms with a small set of parameters. This is the first

  15. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A

    2016-12-01

    The "shape bias" describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based on shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N=72) and adults' (N=240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than the color and size of objects. Taken together, this work suggests that the development of a shape bias may engender better memory for shape information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. How we categorize objects is related to how we remember them: The shape bias as a memory bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlach, Haley A.

    2016-01-01

    The “shape bias” describes the phenomenon that, after a certain point in development, children and adults generalize object categories based upon shape to a greater degree than other perceptual features. The focus of research on the shape bias has been to examine the types of information that learners attend to in one moment in time. The current work takes a different approach by examining whether learners' categorical biases are related to their retention of information across time. In three experiments, children's (N = 72) and adults' (N = 240) memory performance for features of objects was examined in relation to their categorical biases. The results of these experiments demonstrated that the number of shape matches chosen during the shape bias task significantly predicted shape memory. Moreover, children and adults with a shape bias were more likely to remember the shape of objects than they were the color and size of objects. Taken together, this work suggests the development of a shape bias may engender better memory for shape information. PMID:27454236

  17. Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements of Specular Objects Using Phase-Measuring Deflectometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghua Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry has been widely studied and applied in many fields. Phase information coded in the reflected fringe patterns relates to the local slope and height of the measured specular objects. The 3D shape is obtained by integrating the local gradient data or directly calculating the depth data from the phase information. We present a review of the relevant techniques regarding classical PMD. The improved PMD technique is then used to measure specular objects having discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces. Some influential factors on the measured results are presented. The challenges and future research directions are discussed to further advance PMD techniques. Finally, the application fields of PMD are briefly introduced.

  18. Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements of Specular Objects Using Phase-Measuring Deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zonghua; Wang, Yuemin; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Chang, Caixia; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-12-07

    The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D) shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry) has been widely studied and applied in many fields. Phase information coded in the reflected fringe patterns relates to the local slope and height of the measured specular objects. The 3D shape is obtained by integrating the local gradient data or directly calculating the depth data from the phase information. We present a review of the relevant techniques regarding classical PMD. The improved PMD technique is then used to measure specular objects having discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces. Some influential factors on the measured results are presented. The challenges and future research directions are discussed to further advance PMD techniques. Finally, the application fields of PMD are briefly introduced.

  19. Trajectory Perception and Object Continuity: Effects of Shape and Color Change on 4-Month-Olds' Perception of Object Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.; Spring, Jo; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that infants use object trajectory continuity as a cue to the constant identity of an object, but results are equivocal regarding the role of object features, with some work suggesting that a change in the appearance of an object does not cue a change in identity. In an experiment involving 72 participants, we…

  20. Multi-objective shape optimization of runner blade for Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Semenova, A; Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (OJSC Power machines LMZ, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation))" >Pylev, I; Chirkov, D; Lyutov, A; Chemy, S; Skorospelov, V

    2014-01-01

    Automatic runner shape optimization based on extensive CFD analysis proved to be a useful design tool in hydraulic turbomachinery. Previously the authors developed an efficient method for Francis runner optimization. It was successfully applied to the design of several runners with different specific speeds. In present work this method is extended to the task of a Kaplan runner optimization. Despite of relatively simpler blade shape, Kaplan turbines have several features, complicating the optimization problem. First, Kaplan turbines normally operate in a wide range of discharges, thus CFD analysis of each variant of the runner should be carried out for several operation points. Next, due to a high specific speed, draft tube losses have a great impact on the overall turbine efficiency, and thus should be accurately evaluated. Then, the flow in blade tip and hub clearances significantly affects the velocity profile behind the runner and draft tube behavior. All these features are accounted in the present optimization technique. Parameterization of runner blade surface using 24 geometrical parameters is described in details. For each variant of runner geometry steady state three-dimensional turbulent flow computations are carried out in the domain, including wicket gate, runner, draft tube, blade tip and hub clearances. The objectives are maximization of efficiency in best efficiency and high discharge operation points, with simultaneous minimization of cavitation area on the suction side of the blade. Multiobjective genetic algorithm is used for the solution of optimization problem, requiring the analysis of several thousands of runner variants. The method is applied to optimization of runner shape for several Kaplan turbines with different heads

  1. Multi-objective shape optimization of runner blade for Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, A.; Chirkov, D.; Lyutov, A.; Chemy, S.; Skorospelov, V.; Pylev, I.

    2014-03-01

    Automatic runner shape optimization based on extensive CFD analysis proved to be a useful design tool in hydraulic turbomachinery. Previously the authors developed an efficient method for Francis runner optimization. It was successfully applied to the design of several runners with different specific speeds. In present work this method is extended to the task of a Kaplan runner optimization. Despite of relatively simpler blade shape, Kaplan turbines have several features, complicating the optimization problem. First, Kaplan turbines normally operate in a wide range of discharges, thus CFD analysis of each variant of the runner should be carried out for several operation points. Next, due to a high specific speed, draft tube losses have a great impact on the overall turbine efficiency, and thus should be accurately evaluated. Then, the flow in blade tip and hub clearances significantly affects the velocity profile behind the runner and draft tube behavior. All these features are accounted in the present optimization technique. Parameterization of runner blade surface using 24 geometrical parameters is described in details. For each variant of runner geometry steady state three-dimensional turbulent flow computations are carried out in the domain, including wicket gate, runner, draft tube, blade tip and hub clearances. The objectives are maximization of efficiency in best efficiency and high discharge operation points, with simultaneous minimization of cavitation area on the suction side of the blade. Multiobjective genetic algorithm is used for the solution of optimization problem, requiring the analysis of several thousands of runner variants. The method is applied to optimization of runner shape for several Kaplan turbines with different heads.

  2. Cortical activation to object shape and speed of motion during the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hawkins, Laura B; Hirshkowitz, Amy; Boas, David A

    2014-10-01

    A great deal is known about the functional organization of cortical networks that mediate visual object processing in the adult. The current research is part of a growing effort to identify the functional maturation of these pathways in the developing brain. The current research used near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate functional activation of the infant cortex during the processing of featural information (shape) and spatiotemporal information (speed of motion) during the first year of life. Our investigation focused on two areas that were implicated in previous studies: anterior temporal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. Neuroimaging data were collected with 207 infants across three age groups: 3-6 months (Experiment 1), 7-8 months (Experiment 2), and 10-12 months (Experiments 3 and 4). The neuroimaging data revealed age-related changes in patterns of activation to shape and speed information, mostly involving posterior parietal areas, some of which were predicted and others that were not. We suggest that these changes reflect age-related differences in the perceptual and/or cognitive processes engaged during the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Objective definition of rosette shape variation using a combined computer vision and data mining approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyela Camargo

    Full Text Available Computer-vision based measurements of phenotypic variation have implications for crop improvement and food security because they are intrinsically objective. It should be possible therefore to use such approaches to select robust genotypes. However, plants are morphologically complex and identification of meaningful traits from automatically acquired image data is not straightforward. Bespoke algorithms can be designed to capture and/or quantitate specific features but this approach is inflexible and is not generally applicable to a wide range of traits. In this paper, we have used industry-standard computer vision techniques to extract a wide range of features from images of genetically diverse Arabidopsis rosettes growing under non-stimulated conditions, and then used statistical analysis to identify those features that provide good discrimination between ecotypes. This analysis indicates that almost all the observed shape variation can be described by 5 principal components. We describe an easily implemented pipeline including image segmentation, feature extraction and statistical analysis. This pipeline provides a cost-effective and inherently scalable method to parameterise and analyse variation in rosette shape. The acquisition of images does not require any specialised equipment and the computer routines for image processing and data analysis have been implemented using open source software. Source code for data analysis is written using the R package. The equations to calculate image descriptors have been also provided.

  4. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  5. Shape optimization of high power centrifugal compressor using multi-objective optimal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Youn Jea [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this study, a method for optimal design of impeller and diffuser blades in the centrifugal compressor using response surface method (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was evaluated. A numerical simulation was conducted using ANSYS CFX with various values of impeller and diffuser parameters, which consist of leading edge (LE) angle, trailing edge (TE) angle, and blade thickness. Each of the parameters was divided into three levels. A total of 45 design points were planned using central composite design (CCD), which is one of the design of experiment (DOE) techniques. Response surfaces that were generated on the basis of the results of DOE were used to determine the optimal shape of impeller and diffuser blade. The entire process of optimization was conducted using ANSYS Design Xplorer (DX). Through the optimization, isentropic efficiency and pressure recovery coefficient, which are the main performance parameters of the centrifugal compressor, were increased by 0.3 and 5, respectively.

  6. MRT letter: Guided filtering of image focus volume for 3D shape recovery of microscopic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Muhammad Tariq

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, a shape from focus (SFF) method is proposed that utilizes the guided image filtering to enhance the image focus volume efficiently. First, image focus volume is computed using a conventional focus measure. Then each layer of image focus volume is filtered using guided filtering. In this work, the all-in-focus image, which can be obtained from the initial focus volume, is used as guidance image. Finally, improved depth map is obtained from the filtered image focus volume by maximizing the focus measure along the optical axis. The proposed SFF method is efficient and provides better depth maps. The improved performance is highlighted by conducting several experiments using image sequences of simulated and real microscopic objects. The comparative analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed SFF method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Shape optimization of high power centrifugal compressor using multi-objective optimal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Youn Jea

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method for optimal design of impeller and diffuser blades in the centrifugal compressor using response surface method (RSM) and multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) was evaluated. A numerical simulation was conducted using ANSYS CFX with various values of impeller and diffuser parameters, which consist of leading edge (LE) angle, trailing edge (TE) angle, and blade thickness. Each of the parameters was divided into three levels. A total of 45 design points were planned using central composite design (CCD), which is one of the design of experiment (DOE) techniques. Response surfaces that were generated on the basis of the results of DOE were used to determine the optimal shape of impeller and diffuser blade. The entire process of optimization was conducted using ANSYS Design Xplorer (DX). Through the optimization, isentropic efficiency and pressure recovery coefficient, which are the main performance parameters of the centrifugal compressor, were increased by 0.3 and 5, respectively

  8. The Role of Shape in Semantic Memory Organization of Objects: An Experimental Study Using PI-Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weelden, Lisanne; Schilperoord, Joost; Swerts, Marc; Pecher, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Visual information contributes fundamentally to the process of object categorization. The present study investigated whether the degree of activation of visual information in this process is dependent on the contextual relevance of this information. We used the Proactive Interference (PI-release) paradigm. In four experiments, we manipulated the information by which objects could be categorized and subsequently be retrieved from memory. The pattern of PI-release showed that if objects could be stored and retrieved both by (non-perceptual) semantic and (perceptual) shape information, then shape information was overruled by semantic information. If, however, semantic information could not be (satisfactorily) used to store and retrieve objects, then objects were stored in memory in terms of their shape. The latter effect was found to be strongest for objects from identical semantic categories.

  9. Global shape optimization of airfoil using multi-objective genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Sang Hwan; Park, Kyoung Woo

    2005-01-01

    The shape optimization of an airfoil has been performed for an incompressible viscous flow. In this study, Pareto frontier sets, which are global and non-dominated solutions, can be obtained without various weighting factors by using the multi-objective genetic algorithm. An NACA0012 airfoil is considered as a baseline model, and the profile of the airfoil is parameterized and rebuilt with four Bezier curves. Two curves, from leading to maximum thickness, are composed of five control points and the rest, from maximum thickness to tailing edge, are composed of four control points. There are eighteen design variables and two objective functions such as the lift and drag coefficients. A generation is made up of forty-five individuals. After fifteenth evolutions, the Pareto individuals of twenty can be achieved. One Pareto, which is the best of the reduction of the drag force, improves its drag to 13% and lift-drag ratio to 2%. Another Pareto, however, which is focused on increasing the lift force, can improve its lift force to 61%, while sustaining its drag force, compared to those of the baseline model

  10. Global shape optimization of airfoil using multi-objective genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Lee, Sang Hwan [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Woo [Hoseo Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-01

    The shape optimization of an airfoil has been performed for an incompressible viscous flow. In this study, Pareto frontier sets, which are global and non-dominated solutions, can be obtained without various weighting factors by using the multi-objective genetic algorithm. An NACA0012 airfoil is considered as a baseline model, and the profile of the airfoil is parameterized and rebuilt with four Bezier curves. Two curves, from leading to maximum thickness, are composed of five control points and the rest, from maximum thickness to tailing edge, are composed of four control points. There are eighteen design variables and two objective functions such as the lift and drag coefficients. A generation is made up of forty-five individuals. After fifteenth evolutions, the Pareto individuals of twenty can be achieved. One Pareto, which is the best of the reduction of the drag force, improves its drag to 13% and lift-drag ratio to 2%. Another Pareto, however, which is focused on increasing the lift force, can improve its lift force to 61%, while sustaining its drag force, compared to those of the baseline model.

  11. Computation of Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From Dielectric Objects of Uncertain Shapes Using MLMC Center for Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-05

    Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.

  12. Computation of Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From Dielectric Objects of Uncertain Shapes Using MLMC

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-01-06

    Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC [1]) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by balancing the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.

  13. Computation of Electromagnetic Fields Scattered From Dielectric Objects of Uncertain Shapes Using MLMC

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    Simulators capable of computing scattered fields from objects of uncertain shapes are highly useful in electromagnetics and photonics, where device designs are typically subject to fabrication tolerances. Knowledge of statistical variations in scattered fields is useful in ensuring error-free functioning of devices. Oftentimes such simulators use a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme to sample the random domain, where the variables parameterize the uncertainties in the geometry. At each sample, which corresponds to a realization of the geometry, a deterministic electromagnetic solver is executed to compute the scattered fields. However, to obtain accurate statistics of the scattered fields, the number of MC samples has to be large. This significantly increases the total execution time. In this work, to address this challenge, the Multilevel MC (MLMC [1]) scheme is used together with a (deterministic) surface integral equation solver. The MLMC achieves a higher efficiency by “balancing” the statistical errors due to sampling of the random domain and the numerical errors due to discretization of the geometry at each of these samples. Error balancing results in a smaller number of samples requiring coarser discretizations. Consequently, total execution time is significantly shortened.

  14. Compensatory Motor Control After Stroke: An Alternative Joint Strategy for Object-Dependent Shaping of Hand Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Preeti; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M.; Krakauer, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient grasping requires planned and accurate coordination of finger movements to approximate the shape of an object before contact. In healthy subjects, hand shaping is known to occur early in reach under predominantly feedforward control. In patients with hemiparesis after stroke, execution of coordinated digit motion during grasping is impaired as a result of damage to the corticospinal tract. The question addressed here is whether patients with hemiparesis are able to compensate for th...

  15. SU-E-I-58: Objective Models of Breast Shape Undergoing Mammography and Tomosynthesis Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ssj; Sechopoulos, I

    2012-06-01

    To develop an objective model of the shape of the compressed breast undergoing mammographic or tomosynthesis acquisition. Automated thresholding and edge detection was performed on 984 anonymized digital mammograms (492 craniocaudal (CC) view mammograms and 492 medial lateral oblique (MLO) view mammograms), to extract the edge of each breast. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed on these edge vectors to identify a limited set of parameters and eigenvectors that. These parameters and eigenvectors comprise a model that can be used to describe the breast shapes present in acquired mammograms and to generate realistic models of breasts undergoing acquisition. Sample breast shapes were then generated from this model and evaluated. The mammograms in the database were previously acquired for a separate study and authorized for use in further research. The PCA successfully identified two principal components and their corresponding eigenvectors, forming the basis for the breast shape model. The simulated breast shapes generated from the model are reasonable approximations of clinically acquired mammograms. Using PCA, we have obtained models of the compressed breast undergoing mammographic or tomosynthesis acquisition based on objective analysis of a large image database. Up to now, the breast in the CC view has been approximated as a semi-circular tube, while there has been no objectively-obtained model for the MLO view breast shape. Such models can be used for various breast imaging research applications, such as x-ray scatter estimation and correction, dosimetry estimates, and computer-aided detection and diagnosis. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  16. Target objects defined by a conjunction of colour and shape can be selected independently and in parallel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael; Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2017-11-01

    It is generally assumed that during search for targets defined by a feature conjunction, attention is allocated sequentially to individual objects. We tested this hypothesis by tracking the time course of attentional processing biases with the N2pc component in tasks where observers searched for two targets defined by a colour/shape conjunction. In Experiment 1, two displays presented in rapid succession (100 ms or 10 ms SOA) each contained a target and a colour-matching or shape-matching distractor on opposite sides. Target objects in both displays elicited N2pc components of similar size that overlapped in time when the SOA was 10 ms, suggesting that attention was allocated in parallel to both targets. Analogous results were found in Experiment 2, where targets and partially matching distractors were both accompanied by an object without target-matching features. Colour-matching and shape-matching distractors also elicited N2pc components, and the target N2pc was initially identical to the sum of the two distractor N2pcs, suggesting that the initial phase of attentional object selection was guided independently by feature templates for target colour and shape. Beyond 230 ms after display onset, the target N2pc became superadditive, indicating that attentional selection processes now started to be sensitive to the presence of feature conjunctions. Results show that independent attentional selection processes can be activated in parallel by two target objects in situations where these objects are defined by a feature conjunction.

  17. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  18. The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yue

    2014-01-01

    How can we design the shape of an object, in the framework of Newtonian gravity, in order to generate maximum gravity at a given point in space? In this work we present a study on this interesting problem. We obtain compact solutions for all dimensional cases. The results are commonly characterized by a simple "physical" feature that any mass element unit on the object surface generates the same gravity strength at the considered point, in the direction along the rotational symmetry axis.

  19. Acquisition and Neural Network Prediction of 3D Deformable Object Shape Using a Kinect and a Force-Torque Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawbe, Bilal; Cretu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-11

    The realistic representation of deformations is still an active area of research, especially for deformable objects whose behavior cannot be simply described in terms of elasticity parameters. This paper proposes a data-driven neural-network-based approach for capturing implicitly and predicting the deformations of an object subject to external forces. Visual data, in the form of 3D point clouds gathered by a Kinect sensor, is collected over an object while forces are exerted by means of the probing tip of a force-torque sensor. A novel approach based on neural gas fitting is proposed to describe the particularities of a deformation over the selectively simplified 3D surface of the object, without requiring knowledge of the object material. An alignment procedure, a distance-based clustering, and inspiration from stratified sampling support this process. The resulting representation is denser in the region of the deformation (an average of 96.6% perceptual similarity with the collected data in the deformed area), while still preserving the object's overall shape (86% similarity over the entire surface) and only using on average of 40% of the number of vertices in the mesh. A series of feedforward neural networks is then trained to predict the mapping between the force parameters characterizing the interaction with the object and the change in the object shape, as captured by the fitted neural gas nodes. This series of networks allows for the prediction of the deformation of an object when subject to unknown interactions.

  20. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  1. Spherical blurred shape model for 3-D object and pose recognition: quantitative analysis and HCI applications in smart environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Oscar; Reyes, Miguel; Escalera, Sergio; Gonzàlez, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    The use of depth maps is of increasing interest after the advent of cheap multisensor devices based on structured light, such as Kinect. In this context, there is a strong need of powerful 3-D shape descriptors able to generate rich object representations. Although several 3-D descriptors have been already proposed in the literature, the research of discriminative and computationally efficient descriptors is still an open issue. In this paper, we propose a novel point cloud descriptor called spherical blurred shape model (SBSM) that successfully encodes the structure density and local variabilities of an object based on shape voxel distances and a neighborhood propagation strategy. The proposed SBSM is proven to be rotation and scale invariant, robust to noise and occlusions, highly discriminative for multiple categories of complex objects like the human hand, and computationally efficient since the SBSM complexity is linear to the number of object voxels. Experimental evaluation in public depth multiclass object data, 3-D facial expressions data, and a novel hand poses data sets show significant performance improvements in relation to state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, the effectiveness of the proposal is also proved for object spotting in 3-D scenes and for real-time automatic hand pose recognition in human computer interaction scenarios.

  2. Compensatory motor control after stroke: an alternative joint strategy for object-dependent shaping of hand posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Preeti; Santello, Marco; Gordon, Andrew M; Krakauer, John W

    2010-06-01

    Efficient grasping requires planned and accurate coordination of finger movements to approximate the shape of an object before contact. In healthy subjects, hand shaping is known to occur early in reach under predominantly feedforward control. In patients with hemiparesis after stroke, execution of coordinated digit motion during grasping is impaired as a result of damage to the corticospinal tract. The question addressed here is whether patients with hemiparesis are able to compensate for their execution deficit with a qualitatively different grasp strategy that still allows them to differentiate hand posture to object shape. Subjects grasped a rectangular, concave, and convex object while wearing an instrumented glove. Reach-to-grasp was divided into three phases based on wrist kinematics: reach acceleration (reach onset to peak horizontal wrist velocity), reach deceleration (peak horizontal wrist velocity to reach offset), and grasp (reach offset to lift-off). Patients showed reduced finger abduction, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) flexion, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) extension at object grasp across all three shapes compared with controls; however, they were able to partially differentiate hand posture for the convex and concave shapes using a compensatory strategy that involved increased MCP flexion rather than the PIP flexion seen in controls. Interestingly, shape-specific hand postures did not unfold initially during reach acceleration as seen in controls, but instead evolved later during reach deceleration, which suggests increased reliance on sensory feedback. These results indicate that kinematic analysis can identify and quantify within-limb compensatory motor control strategies after stroke. From a clinical perspective, quantitative study of compensation is important to better understand the process of recovery from brain injury. From a motor control perspective, compensation can be considered a model for how joint redundancy is exploited

  3. Computational Modelling of the Neural Representation of Object Shape in the Primate Ventral Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro eEguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in successive stages of the primate ventral visual pathway encode the spatial structure of visual objects. In this paper, we investigate through computer simulation how these cell firing properties may develop through unsupervised visually-guided learning. Individual neurons in the model are shown to exploit statistical regularity and temporal continuity of the visual inputs during training to learn firing properties that are similar to neurons in V4 and TEO. Neurons in V4 encode the conformation of boundary contour elements at a particular position within an object regardless of the location of the object on the retina, while neurons in TEO integrate information from multiple boundary contour elements. This representation goes beyond mere object recognition, in which neurons simply respond to the presence of a whole object, but provides an essential foundation from which the brain is subsequently able to recognise the whole object.

  4. Measuring object shape by using in-plane electronic speckle pattern interferometry with divergent illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra-Michel, Jorge; Martínez, Amalia; Rayas, J A; Anguiano-Morales, Marcelino

    2010-01-01

    Electronic speckle pattern interferometry is a useful technique for displacement, deformation and contouring measurements. Traditionally, for contouring measurements, collimated illumination with a constant sensitivity vector is used, and the surface area analysis is limited to the illuminated area. In some industrial applications, large surfaces require to be analyzed in restricted space conditions. Considering this situation, an optical system with divergent illumination for whole-field measurements can be used. It is known that displacement fields and the optical phase are related by the sensitivity vector. Therefore, to compute the sensitivity vector, illumination position and superficial shape need to be considered, a condition that becomes an impediment for surface contouring if the superficial shape is unknown. In this work, a simple iterative algorithm based on the Gauss–Seidel technique is presented to compute contouring measurements. Contouring measurements from both ESPI and a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) are compared. In addition, a measurement comparison considering supposed collimated and divergent illumination is presented

  5. GPR Detection of Buried Symmetrically Shaped Mine-like Objects using Selective Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    from small-scale anti-personal (AP) mines to large-scale anti-tank (AT) mines were designed. Large-scale SF-GPR measurements on this series of mine-like objects buried in soil were performed. The SF-GPR data was acquired using a wideband monostatic bow-tie antenna operating in the frequency range 750......This paper addresses the detection of mine-like objects in stepped-frequency ground penetrating radar (SF-GPR) data as a function of object size, object content, and burial depth. The detection approach is based on a Selective Independent Component Analysis (SICA). SICA provides an automatic...... ranking of components, which enables the suppression of clutter, hence extraction of components carrying mine information. The goal of the investigation is to evaluate various time and frequency domain ICA approaches based on SICA. Performance comparison is based on a series of mine-like objects ranging...

  6. The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yue

    2015-01-01

    How can we design the shape of an object, in the framework of Newtonian gravity, in order to generate maximum gravity at a given point in space? In this work we present a study on this interesting problem. We obtain compact solutions for all dimensional cases. The results are commonly characterized by a simple ‘physical’ feature that any mass element unit on the object surface generates the same gravity strength at the considered point, in the direction along the rotational symmetry axis. (paper)

  7. 3D-shape of objects with straight line-motion by simultaneous projection of color coded patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jorge L.; Ayubi, Gaston A.; Di Martino, J. Matías; Castillo, Oscar E.; Ferrari, Jose A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel technique to retrieve the 3D shape of dynamic objects by the simultaneous projection of a fringe pattern and a homogeneous light pattern which are both coded in two of the color channels of a RGB image. The fringe pattern, red channel, is used to retrieve the phase by phase-shift algorithms with arbitrary phase-step, while the homogeneous pattern, blue channel, is used to match pixels from the test object in consecutive images, which are acquired at different positions, and thus, to determine the speed of the object. The proposed method successfully overcomes the standard requirement of projecting fringes of two different frequencies; one frequency to extract object information and the other one to retrieve the phase. Validation experiments are presented.

  8. Probabilistic information on object weight shapes force dynamics in a grip-lift task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampenau, Leif; Kuhtz-Buschbeck, Johann P; van Eimeren, Thilo

    2015-06-01

    Advance information, such as object weight, size and texture, modifies predictive scaling of grip forces in a grip-lift task. Here, we examined the influence of probabilistic advance information about object weight. Fifteen healthy volunteers repeatedly grasped and lifted an object equipped with a force transducer between their thumb and index finger. Three clearly distinguishable object weights were used. Prior to each lift, the probabilities for the three object weights were given by a visual cue. We examined the effect of probabilistic pre-cues on grip and lift force dynamics. We expected predictive scaling of grip force parameters to follow predicted values calculated according to probabilistic contingencies of the cues. We observed that probabilistic cues systematically influenced peak grip and load force rates, as an index of predictive motor scaling. However, the effects of probabilistic cues on force rates were nonlinear, and anticipatory adaptations of the motor output generally seemed to overestimate high probabilities and underestimate low probabilities. These findings support the suggestion that anticipatory adaptations and force scaling of the motor system can integrate probabilistic information. However, probabilistic information seems to influence motor programs in a nonlinear fashion.

  9. Scene grammar shapes the way we interact with objects, strengthens memories, and speeds search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2017-11-28

    Predictions of environmental rules (here referred to as "scene grammar") can come in different forms: seeing a toilet in a living room would violate semantic predictions, while finding a toilet brush next to the toothpaste would violate syntactic predictions. The existence of such predictions has usually been investigated by showing observers images containing such grammatical violations. Conversely, the generative process of creating an environment according to one's scene grammar and its effects on behavior and memory has received little attention. In a virtual reality paradigm, we either instructed participants to arrange objects according to their scene grammar or against it. Subsequently, participants' memory for the arrangements was probed using a surprise recall (Exp1), or repeated search (Exp2) task. As a result, participants' construction behavior showed strategic use of larger, static objects to anchor the location of smaller objects which are generally the goals of everyday actions. Further analysis of this scene construction data revealed possible commonalities between the rules governing word usage in language and object usage in naturalistic environments. Taken together, we revealed some of the building blocks of scene grammar necessary for efficient behavior, which differentially influence how we interact with objects and what we remember about scenes.

  10. Welcome to wonderland: the influence of the size and shape of a virtual hand on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkenauger, Sally A; Leyrer, Markus; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    The notion of body-based scaling suggests that our body and its action capabilities are used to scale the spatial layout of the environment. Here we present four studies supporting this perspective by showing that the hand acts as a metric which individuals use to scale the apparent sizes of objects in the environment. However to test this, one must be able to manipulate the size and/or dimensions of the perceiver's hand which is difficult in the real world due to impliability of hand dimensions. To overcome this limitation, we used virtual reality to manipulate dimensions of participants' fully-tracked, virtual hands to investigate its influence on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects. In a series of experiments, using several measures, we show that individuals' estimations of the sizes of virtual objects differ depending on the size of their virtual hand in the direction consistent with the body-based scaling hypothesis. Additionally, we found that these effects were specific to participants' virtual hands rather than another avatar's hands or a salient familiar-sized object. While these studies provide support for a body-based approach to the scaling of the spatial layout, they also demonstrate the influence of virtual bodies on perception of virtual environments.

  11. Welcome to wonderland: the influence of the size and shape of a virtual hand on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Linkenauger

    Full Text Available The notion of body-based scaling suggests that our body and its action capabilities are used to scale the spatial layout of the environment. Here we present four studies supporting this perspective by showing that the hand acts as a metric which individuals use to scale the apparent sizes of objects in the environment. However to test this, one must be able to manipulate the size and/or dimensions of the perceiver's hand which is difficult in the real world due to impliability of hand dimensions. To overcome this limitation, we used virtual reality to manipulate dimensions of participants' fully-tracked, virtual hands to investigate its influence on the perceived size and shape of virtual objects. In a series of experiments, using several measures, we show that individuals' estimations of the sizes of virtual objects differ depending on the size of their virtual hand in the direction consistent with the body-based scaling hypothesis. Additionally, we found that these effects were specific to participants' virtual hands rather than another avatar's hands or a salient familiar-sized object. While these studies provide support for a body-based approach to the scaling of the spatial layout, they also demonstrate the influence of virtual bodies on perception of virtual environments.

  12. Improvements of an objective model of compressed breasts undergoing mammography: Generation and characterization of breast shapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Ruiz, A.; Feng, S.S.J.; Zelst, J.C.M. van; Vreemann, S.; Mann, J.R.; D'Orsi, C.J.; Sechopoulos, I.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a set of accurate 2D models of compressed breasts undergoing mammography or breast tomosynthesis, based on objective analysis, to accurately characterize mammograms with few linearly independent parameters, and to generate novel clinically realistic paired cranio-caudal (CC) and

  13. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  14. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1996-05-31

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object`s geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object`s orientation

  15. Hydrodynamic discrimination of wakes caused by objects of different size or shape in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieskotten, S.; Mauck, B.; Miersch, L.

    2011-01-01

    Harbour seals can use their mystacial vibrissae to detect and track hydrodynamic wakes. We investigated the ability of a harbour seal to discriminate objects of different size or shape by their hydrodynamic signature and used particle image velocimetry to identify the hydrodynamic parameters...... that a seal may be using to do so. Hydrodynamic trails were generated by different sized or shaped paddles that were moved in the calm water of an experimental box to produce a characteristic signal. In a two-alternative forced-choice procedure the blindfolded subject was able to discriminate size differences...... of down to 3.6. cm (Weber fraction 0.6) when paddles were moved at the same speed. Furthermore the subject distinguished hydrodynamic signals generated by flat, cylindrical, triangular or undulated paddles of the same width. Particle image velocimetry measurements demonstrated that the seal could have...

  16. Displacement, distance, and shape measurements of fast-rotating rough objects by two mutually tilted interference fringe systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Philipp; Kuschmierz, Robert; Pfister, Thorsten; Czarske, Jürgen W

    2013-05-01

    The precise distance measurement of fast-moving rough surfaces is important in several applications such as lathe monitoring. A nonincremental interferometer based on two mutually tilted interference fringe systems has been realized for this task. The distance is coded in the phase difference between the generated interference signals corresponding to the fringe systems. Large tilting angles between the interference fringe systems are necessary for a high sensitivity. However, due to the speckle effect at rough surfaces, different envelopes and phase jumps of the interference signals occur. At large tilting angles, these signals become dissimilar, resulting in a small correlation coefficient and a high measurement uncertainty. Based on a matching of illumination and receiving optics, the correlation coefficient and the phase difference estimation have been improved significantly. For axial displacement measurements of recurring rough surfaces, laterally moving with velocities of 5 m/s, an uncertainty of 110 nm has been attained. For nonrecurring surfaces, a distance measurement uncertainty of 830 nm has been achieved. Incorporating the additionally measured lateral velocity and the rotational speed, the two-dimensional shape of rotating objects results. Since the measurement uncertainty of the displacement, distance, and shape is nearly independent of the lateral surface velocity, this technique is predestined for fast-rotating objects, such as crankshafts, camshafts, vacuum pump shafts, or turning parts of lathes.

  17. Multi-objective optimization of an arch dam shape under static loads using an evolutionary game method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Cheong, Kang Hao; Bao, Wei; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Wang, Lu; Xie, Neng-gang

    2018-06-01

    This article attempts to evaluate the safety and economic performance of an arch dam under the action of static loads. The geometric description of a crown cantilever section and the horizontal arch ring is presented. A three-objective optimization model of arch dam shape is established based on the arch dam volume, maximum principal tensile stress and total strain energy. The evolutionary game method is then applied to obtain the optimal solution. In the evolutionary game technique, a novel and more efficient exploration method of the game players' strategy space, named the 'sorting partition method under the threshold limit', is presented, with the game profit functions constructed according to both competitive and cooperative behaviour. By way of example, three optimization goals have all shown improvements over the initial solutions. In particular, the evolutionary game method has potentially faster convergence. This demonstrates the preliminary proof of principle of the evolutionary game method.

  18. Irregular Saturnian Moon Lightcurves from Cassini-ISS Observations: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2013-10-01

    Cassini ISS-NAC observations of the irregular moons of Saturn revealed various physical information on these objects. 16 synodic rotational periods: Hati (S43): 5.45 h; Mundilfari (S25): 6.74 h; Suttungr (S23): ~7.4 h; Kari (S45): 7.70 h; Siarnaq (S29): 10.14 h; Tarvos (S21): 10.66 h; Ymir (S19, sidereal period): 11.92220 h ± 0.1 s; Skathi (S27): ~12 h; Hyrrokkin (S44): 12.76 h; Ijiraq (S22): 13.03 h; Albiorix (S26): 13.32 h; Bestla (S39): 14.64 h; Bebhionn (S37): ~15.8 h; Kiviuq (S24): 21.82 h; Thrymr (S30): ~27 h; Erriapus (S28): ~28 h. The average period for the prograde-orbiting moons is ~16 h, for the retrograde moons ~11½ h (includes Phoebe's 9.2735 h from Bauer et al., AJ, 2004). Phase-angle dependent behavior of lightcurves: The phase angles of the observations range from 2° to 105°. The lightcurves which were obtained at low phase (<40°) show the 2-maxima/ 2-minima pattern expected for this kind of objects. At higher phases, more complicated lightcurves emerge, giving rough indications on shapes. Ymir pole and shape: For satellite Ymir, a convex-hull shape model and the pole-axis orientation have been derived. Ymir's north pole points toward λ = 230°±180°, β = -85°±10°, or RA = 100°±20°, Dec = -70°±10°. This is anti-parallel to the rotation axes of the major planets, indicating that Ymir not just orbits, but also rotates in a retrograde sense. The shape of Ymir resembles a triangular prism with edge lengths of ~20, ~24, and ~25 km. The ratio between the longest 25 km) and shortest axis (pole axis, ~15 km) is ~1.7. Erriapus seasons: The pole direction of object Erriapus has probably a low ecliptic latitude. This gives this moon seasons similar to the Uranian regular moons with periods where the sun stands very high in the sky over many years, and with years-long periods of permanent night. Hati density: The rotational frequency of the fastest rotator (Hati) is close to the frequency where the object would lose material from the surface if

  19. Developing shape analysis tools to assist complex spatial decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, H.E.; Ehler, G.B.; Cowen, D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and implement a shape identification measure within a geographic information system, specifically one that incorporates analytical modeling for site location planning. The application that was developed incorporated a location model within a raster-based GIS, which helped address critical performance issues for the decision support system. Binary matrices, which approximate the object's geometrical form, are passed over the grided data structure and allow identification of irregular and regularly shaped objects. Lastly, the issue of shape rotation is addressed and is resolved by constructing unique matrices corresponding to the object's orientation

  20. Irregular Migrants and the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Azizah; Mat Zin, Ragayah Hj.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines Malaysia`s policy on irregular migrants and its implementation, and discusses its impact. A survey and interview covering 404 respondents was conducted between July 2010 and June 2011 to ascertain the real situations surrounding irregular migrants in Malaysia, which is one of the major host countries of international migrants from developing nations. The policy on foreign workers was formulated in the mid-1980s to deal with the large number of irregular migrants and their ...

  1. Mathematics without... Irregular Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Heather

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on her session at the 2006 conference, including the learning styles and strategies she observed. In her session, they explored some of the more unusual aspects of convex polyhedra (with regular faces), including the notions of "valence" and "species". Although the session was about shape and space, there was…

  2. Strategic Analysis of Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the same mathematical equations used by Lanchester .10 Irregular Warfare Theory and Doctrine It is time to develop new analytical methods and models...basis on which to build, similar to what Lanchester provided almost 100 years ago. Figure 9 portrays both Lanchester’s approach and an irregular 17

  3. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  4. Estimate of the angular dimensions of objects and reconstruction of their shapes from the parameters of the fourth-order radiation correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buryi, E V; Kosygin, A A

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that, when the angular resolution of a receiving optical system is insufficient, the angular dimensions of a located object can be estimated and its shape can be reconstructed by estimating the parameters of the fourth-order correlation function (CF) of scattered coherent radiation. The reliability of the estimates of CF counts obtained by the method of a discrete spatial convolution of the intensity-field counts, the possibility of estimating the CF profile counts by the method of one-dimensional convolution of intensity counts, and the applicability of the method for reconstructing the object shape are confirmed experimentally. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  5. A generic, geometric cocalibration method for a combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography with arbitrarily shaped objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jianwei; Yang Xiaoquan; Wang Kan; Luo Qingming; Gong Hui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A combined system of fluorescence molecular tomography and microcomputed tomography (FMT and mCT) can provide molecular and anatomical information of small animals in a single study with intrinsically coregistered images. The anatomical information provided by the mCT subsystem is commonly used as a reference to locate the fluorophore distribution or as a priori structural information to improve the performance of FMT. Therefore, the transformation between the coordinate systems of the subsystem needs to be determined in advanced. Methods: A cocalibration method for the combined system of FMT and mCT is proposed. First, linear models are adopted to describe the galvano mirrors and the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in the FMT subsystem. Second, the position and orientation of the galvano mirrors are determined with the input voltages of the galvano mirrors and the markers, whose positions are predetermined. The position, orientation and normalized pixel size of the CCD camera are obtained by analysing the projections of a point-like marker at different positions. Finally, the orientation and position of sources and the corresponding relationship between the detectors and their projections on the image plane are predicted. Because the positions of the markers are acquired with mCT, the registration of the FMT and mCT could be realized by direct image fusion. Results: The accuracy and consistency of this method in the presence of noise is evaluated by computer simulation. Next, a practical implementation for an experimental FMT and mCT system is carried out and validated. The maximum prediction error of the source positions on the surface of a cylindrical phantom is within 0.375 mm and that of the projections of a point-like marker is within 0.629 pixel. Finally, imaging experiments of the fluorophore distribution in a cylindrical phantom and a phantom with a complex shape demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusions: This method is

  6. Object detection approach using generative sparse, hierarchical networks with top-down and lateral connections for combining texture/color detection and shape/contour detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiton, Dylan M.; Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; Schultz, Peter F.; George, John S.

    2015-07-28

    An approach to detecting objects in an image dataset may combine texture/color detection, shape/contour detection, and/or motion detection using sparse, generative, hierarchical models with lateral and top-down connections. A first independent representation of objects in an image dataset may be produced using a color/texture detection algorithm. A second independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a shape/contour detection algorithm. A third independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a motion detection algorithm. The first, second, and third independent representations may then be combined into a single coherent output using a combinatorial algorithm.

  7. Object detection approach using generative sparse, hierarchical networks with top-down and lateral connections for combining texture/color detection and shape/contour detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiton, Dylan M.; Kenyon, Garrett T.; Brumby, Steven P.; Schultz, Peter F.; George, John S.

    2016-10-25

    An approach to detecting objects in an image dataset may combine texture/color detection, shape/contour detection, and/or motion detection using sparse, generative, hierarchical models with lateral and top-down connections. A first independent representation of objects in an image dataset may be produced using a color/texture detection algorithm. A second independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a shape/contour detection algorithm. A third independent representation of objects in the image dataset may be produced using a motion detection algorithm. The first, second, and third independent representations may then be combined into a single coherent output using a combinatorial algorithm.

  8. Swiveling Lathe Jaw Concept for Holding Irregular Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, J.

    1966-01-01

    Clamp holds irregularly shaped pieces in lathe chuck without damage and eliminates excessive time in selecting optimum mounting. Interchangeable jaws ride in standard jaw slots but swivel so that the jaw face bears evenly against the workpiece regardless of contour. The jaws can be used on both engine and turret lathes.

  9. Massive target nuclei as disc-shaped slabs and spherical objects of intranuclear matter in high-energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zewislawski, Z.; Strugalski, Z.; Mausa, M.

    1990-01-01

    It has been found experimentally that a definite number of emitted nucleons corresponds to a definite impact parameter in hadron-nucleus collisions. This finding allows one: to treat the massive target nucleus as a piece of intranuclear matter of a definite thickness; to treat a numerous sample of collisions of monoenergetic identical hadrons with the nucleus as collection of interactions of a homogeneous beam of hadrons with disc-shaped slabs of intranuclear matter of definite thicknesses. 17 refs.; 1 fig

  10. Are Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Initially Attuned to Object Function Rather than Shape for Word Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Charlotte; Allen, Melissa L.; Lewis, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the function bias--generalising words to objects with the same function--in typically developing (TD) children, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with other developmental disorders. Across four trials, a novel object was named and its function was described and demonstrated. Children then selected the other…

  11. Are the senses enough for sense? Early high-level feedback shapes our comprehension of multisensory objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina eNaci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A key question in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain combines low-level features processed in remote sensory cortices to represent meaningful multisensory objects in our everyday environment. Models of visual object processing typically assume a feedforward cascade through the hierarchically organized ventral stream. We contrasted this feedforward view with an alternate hypothesis in which object processing is viewed as an interactive, feedforward and feedback process. We found that higher-order regions in anterior temporal and inferior prefrontal cortex performed audio-visual integration 100ms earlier than a sensory-driven region in the posterior occipital cortex, and were modulated by semantic variables (congruency, from as early as 50-100ms. We propose that the brain represents familiar and complex multisensory objects through early interactivity between higher-order and sensory-driven regions. This interactivity may underpin the enhanced behavioural performance reported for semantically congruent audio-visual objects.

  12. GARCH and Irregularly Spaced Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meddahi, N.; Renault, E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    An exact discretization of continuous time stochastic volatility processes observed at irregularly spaced times is used to give insights on how a coherent GARCH model can be specified for such data. The relation of our approach with those in the existing literature is studied.

  13. Comments on comet shapes and aggregation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    An important question for a comet mission is whether comet nuclei preserve information clarifying aggregation processes of planetary matter. New observational evidence shows that Trojan asteroids, as a group, display a higher fraction of highly-elongated objects than the belt. More recently evidence has accumulated that comet nuclei, as a group, also display highly-elongated shapes at macro-scale. This evidence comes from the several comets whose nuclear lightcurves or shapes have been well studied. Trojans and comet nuclei share other properties. Both groups have extremely low albedos and reddish-to neutral-black colors typical of asteroids of spectral class D, P, and C. Both groups may have had relatively low collision frequencies. An important problem to resolve with spacecraft imaging is whether these elongated shapes are primordial, or due to evolution of the objects. Two hypotheses that might be tested by a combination of global-scale and close-up imaging from various directions are: (1) The irregular shapes are primordial and related to the fact that these bodies have had lower collision frequencies than belt asteroids; or (2) The irregular shapes may be due to volatile loss

  14. Curvature and the visual perception of shape: theory on information along object boundaries and the minima rule revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E Charles

    2012-07-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately, Feldman and Singh (2005, Psychological Review, 112, 243-252) proposed a mathematical derivation to yield information content as a function of curvature along a contour. Here, we highlight several fundamental errors in their derivation and in its associated implementation, which are problematic in both mathematical and psychological senses. Instead, we propose an alternative mathematical formulation for information measure of contour curvature that addresses these issues. Additionally, unlike in previous work, we extend this approach to 3-dimensional (3D) shape by providing a formal measure of information content for surface curvature and outline a modified version of the minima rule relating to part segmentation using curvature in 3D shape. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Shape in Semantic Memory Organization of Objects : An Experimental Study Using PI-Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weelden, L.; Schilperoord, J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Pecher, D.

    2015-01-01

    Visual information contributes fundamentally to the process of object categorization. The present study investigated whether the degree of activation of visual information in this process is dependent on the contextual relevance of this information. We used the Proactive Interference (PI-release)

  16. Development of a vocabulary of object shapes in a child with a very-early-acquired visual agnosia: a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Elaine; Wilding, John

    2011-02-01

    We report a longitudinal study of an exceptional child (S.R.) whose early-acquired visual agnosia, following encephalitis at 8 weeks of age, did not prevent her from learning to construct an increasing vocabulary of visual object forms (drawn from different categories), albeit slowly. S.R. had problems perceiving subtle differences in shape; she was unable to segment local letters within global displays; and she would bring complex scenes close to her eyes: a symptom suggestive of an attempt to reduce visual crowding. Investigations revealed a robust ability to use the gestalt grouping factors of proximity and collinearity to detect fragmented forms in noisy backgrounds, compared with a very weak ability to segment fragmented forms on the basis of contrasts of shape. When contrasts in spatial grouping and shape were pitted against each other, shape made little contribution, consistent with problems in perceiving complex scenes, but when shape contrast was varied, and spatial grouping was held constant, S.R. showed the same hierarchy of difficulty as the controls, although her responses were slowed. This is the first report of a child's visual-perceptual development following very early neurological impairments to the visual cortex. Her ability to learn to perceive visual shape following damage at a rudimentary stage of perceptual development contrasts starkly with the loss of such ability in childhood cases of acquired visual agnosia that follow damage to the established perceptual system. Clearly, there is a critical period during which neurological damage to the highly active, early developing visual-perceptual system does not prevent but only impairs further learning.

  17. ESTIMATION OF WIDE BAND RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS OF REGULAR SHAPED OBJECTS USING METHOD OF MOMENTS (MOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern fighter aircrafts, ships, missiles etc need to be very low Radar Cross Section (RCS designs, to avoid detection by hostile radars. Hence accurate prediction of RCS of complex objects like aircrafts is essential to meet this requirement. A simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of wide band RCS prediction Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC objects is developed using Method of Moment (MoM. Implementation of MoM for prediction of RCS involves solving Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE for electric current using the vector and scalar potential solutions, which satisfy the boundary condition that the tangential electric field at the boundary of the PEC body is zero. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar triangular surfaces patches. Set of special sub-domain type basis functions are defined on pairs of adjacent triangular patches. These basis functions yield a current representation free of line or point charges at sub-domain boundaries. Once the current distribution is obtained, dipole model is used to find Scattering field in free space. RCS can be calculated from the scattered and incident fields. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth.

  18. NEOWISE: OBSERVATIONS OF THE IRREGULAR SATELLITES OF JUPITER AND SATURN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, J. R.; Sonnett, S.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M., E-mail: tgrav@psi.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-08-10

    We present thermal model fits for 11 Jovian and 3 Saturnian irregular satellites based on measurements from the WISE/NEOWISE data set. Our fits confirm spacecraft-measured diameters for the objects with in situ observations (Himalia and Phoebe) and provide diameters and albedo for 12 previously unmeasured objects, 10 Jovian and 2 Saturnian irregular satellites. The best-fit thermal model beaming parameters are comparable to what is observed for other small bodies in the outer solar system, while the visible, W1, and W2 albedos trace the taxonomic classifications previously established in the literature. Reflectance properties for the irregular satellites measured are similar to the Jovian Trojan and Hilda Populations, implying common origins.

  19. Multi-objective shape optimization of double pipe heat exchanger with inner corrugated tube using RSM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Huai-Zhi; Li, Bing-Xi; Wu, Hao; Shao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Integrated a fully developing three-dimensional heat transfer and flow model, a multi-objective optimization aims to fulfill the geometric design for double-tube heat exchangers with inner corrugated tube is investigated in this work with RSM. Dimensionless corrugation pitch (p/D), dimensionless corrugation height (H/D), dimensionless corrugation radius (r/D) and Reynolds number (Re) are considered as four design parameters. Considering the process parameters, the characteristic numbers involving heat transfer characteristic, resistance characteristic and overall heat transfer performance calculated by CFD, and are served as objective functions to the RSM (Nu c , f c , Nu c /Nu s , f c /f s and h in this paper). The results of optimal designs are a set of multiple optimum solutions, called 'Pareto optimal solutions'. It reveals the identical tendency of Nu c /Nu s and f c /f s reflecting the conflict between them that means augmenting the heat transfer performance with various design parameters in the optimal situation inevitably sacrificed the increase of flow resistance. According to the Pareto optimal curves, the optimum designing parameters of double pipe heat exchanger with inner corrugated tube under the constrains of Nu c /Nu s ≥1.2 are found to be P/D = 0.82, H/D = 0.22, r/D = 0.23, Re = 26,263, corresponding to the maximum value of η = 1.12. (authors)

  20. Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.

    2003-07-01

    instabilities operating on longer time spans. The average orbits calculated from this experiment were then used to probe the collisional evolution of the irregular satellite systems. We found that (1) the large irregular moons must have collisionally eliminated many small irregular moons, thus shaping their population to the currently observed structures; (2) some dynamical families of satellites could have been formed by catastrophic collisions among the irregular moons; and (3) Phoebe's surface must have been heavily cratered by impacts from an extinct population of Saturnian irregular moons, much larger than the present one. We therefore suggest that the Cassini imaging of Phoebe in 2004 can be used to determine the primordial population of small irregular moons of Saturn. In such a case, we will also better understand the overall efficiency of the formation process of the irregular satellites and the physical conditions that existed during planetary formation. We discovered two dynamical families of tightly clustered orbits within the Jovian retrograde group. We believe that these two clusters may be the remnants of two collisionally disrupted bodies. We found that the entire Jovian retrograde group and the Saturnian inclination groups were not produced by single breakups, because the ejection velocities derived from the orbital structures of these groups greatly exceed values calculated by modern numerical models of collisional breakups. Taken together, the evidence presented here suggests that many properties of the irregular moons previously assigned to their formation process may have resulted from their later dynamical and collisional evolution. Finally, we have found that several irregular moons, namely, Pasiphae, Sinope, S/2001 J10, S/2000 S5, S/2000 S6, and S/2000 S3, have orbits characterized by secular resonances. The orbits of some of these moons apparently evolved by some slow dissipative process in the past and became captured in tiny resonant volumes.

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of visual object construction and shape discrimination : relations among task, hemispheric lateralization, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A P; Whang, K; Georgopoulos, M A; Tagaris, G A; Amirikian, B; Richter, W; Kim, S G; Uğurbil, K

    2001-01-01

    We studied the brain activation patterns in two visual image processing tasks requiring judgements on object construction (FIT task) or object sameness (SAME task). Eight right-handed healthy human subjects (four women and four men) performed the two tasks in a randomized block design while 5-mm, multislice functional images of the whole brain were acquired using a 4-tesla system using blood oxygenation dependent (BOLD) activation. Pairs of objects were picked randomly from a set of 25 oriented fragments of a square and presented to the subjects approximately every 5 sec. In the FIT task, subjects had to indicate, by pushing one of two buttons, whether the two fragments could match to form a perfect square, whereas in the SAME task they had to decide whether they were the same or not. In a control task, preceding and following each of the two tasks above, a single square was presented at the same rate and subjects pushed any of the two keys at random. Functional activation maps were constructed based on a combination of conservative criteria. The areas with activated pixels were identified using Talairach coordinates and anatomical landmarks, and the number of activated pixels was determined for each area. Altogether, 379 pixels were activated. The counts of activated pixels did not differ significantly between the two tasks or between the two genders. However, there were significantly more activated pixels in the left (n = 218) than the right side of the brain (n = 161). Of the 379 activated pixels, 371 were located in the cerebral cortex. The Talairach coordinates of these pixels were analyzed with respect to their overall distribution in the two tasks. These distributions differed significantly between the two tasks. With respect to individual dimensions, the two tasks differed significantly in the anterior--posterior and superior--inferior distributions but not in the left--right (including mediolateral, within the left or right side) distribution. Specifically

  2. Self-similar slip distributions on irregular shaped faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A.; Murphy, S.

    2018-06-01

    We propose a strategy to place a self-similar slip distribution on a complex fault surface that is represented by an unstructured mesh. This is possible by applying a strategy based on the composite source model where a hierarchical set of asperities, each with its own slip function which is dependent on the distance from the asperity centre. Central to this technique is the efficient, accurate computation of distance between two points on the fault surface. This is known as the geodetic distance problem. We propose a method to compute the distance across complex non-planar surfaces based on a corollary of the Huygens' principle. The difference between this method compared to others sample-based algorithms which precede it is the use of a curved front at a local level to calculate the distance. This technique produces a highly accurate computation of the distance as the curvature of the front is linked to the distance from the source. Our local scheme is based on a sequence of two trilaterations, producing a robust algorithm which is highly precise. We test the strategy on a planar surface in order to assess its ability to keep the self-similarity properties of a slip distribution. We also present a synthetic self-similar slip distribution on a real slab topography for a M8.5 event. This method for computing distance may be extended to the estimation of first arrival times in both complex 3D surfaces or 3D volumes.

  3. Earlier and greater hand pre-shaping in the elderly: a study based on kinematic analysis of reaching movements to grasp objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Yoshiki; Naito, Yasuo; Nishikawa, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Elderly people are less able to manipulate objects skilfully than young adults. Although previous studies have examined age-related deterioration of hand movements with a focus on the phase after grasping objects, the changes in the reaching phase have not been studied thus far. We aimed to examine whether changes in hand shape patterns during the reaching phase of grasping movements differ between young adults and the elderly. Ten healthy elderly adults and 10 healthy young adults were examined using the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions and kinetic analysis of hand pre-shaping reach-to-grasp tasks. The results were then compared between the two groups. For kinetic analysis, we measured the time of peak tangential velocity of the wrist and the inter-fingertip distance (the distance between the tips of the thumb and index finger) at different time points. The results showed that the elderly group's performance on the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Functions was significantly lower than that of the young adult group, irrespective of whether the dominant or non-dominant hand was used, indicating deterioration of hand movement in the elderly. The peak tangential velocity of the wrist in either hand appeared significantly earlier in the elderly group than in the young adult group. The elderly group also showed larger inter-fingertip distances with arch-like fingertip trajectories compared to the young adult group for all object sizes. To perform accurate prehension, elderly people have an earlier peak tangential velocity point than young adults. This allows for a longer adjustment time for reaching and grasping movements and for reducing errors in object prehension by opening the hand and fingers wider. Elderly individuals gradually modify their strategy based on previous successes and failures during daily living to compensate for their decline in dexterity and operational capabilities. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Examining the Effects of Chromatic Aberration, Object Distance, and Eye Shape on Image-Formation in the Mirror-Based Eyes of the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Daniel I; Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Chhetri, Raghav K; Oldenburg, Amy L; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    The eyes of scallops form images using a concave spherical mirror and contain two separate retinas, one layered on top of the other. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that the images formed by these eyes have angular resolutions of about 2°. Based on previous ray-tracing models, it has been thought that the more distal of the two retinas lies near the focal point of the mirror and that the proximal retina, positioned closer to the mirror at the back of the eye, receives light that is out-of-focus. Here, we propose three mechanisms through which both retinas may receive focused light: (1) chromatic aberration produced by the lens may cause the focal points for longer and shorter wavelengths to fall near the distal and proximal retinas, respectively; (2) focused light from near and far objects may fall on the distal and proximal retinas, respectively; and (3) the eyes of scallops may be dynamic structures that change shape to determine which retina receives focused light. To test our hypotheses, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a method of near-infrared optical depth-ranging, to acquire virtual cross-sections of live, intact eyes from the bay scallop Argopecten irradians Next, we used a custom-built ray-tracing model to estimate the qualities of the images that fall on an eye's distal and proximal retinas as functions of the wavelengths of light entering the eye (400-700 nm), object distances (0.01-1 m), and the overall shape of the eye. When we assume 550 nm wavelength light and object distances greater than 0.01 m, our model predicts that the angular resolutions of the distal and proximal retinas are 2° and 7°, respectively. Our model also predicts that neither chromatic aberration nor differences in object distance lead to focused light falling on the distal and proximal retinas simultaneously. However, if scallops can manipulate the shapes of their eyes, perhaps through muscle contractions, we speculate that they may be able

  5. Irregular Migration in Jordan, 1995-2007

    OpenAIRE

    AROURI, Fathi A.

    2008-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) This paper tackles the question of irregular migration in Jordan through its four main aspects. The first concerns irregular labour migrants and has been approached by using figures showing the socio-economic profile of non Jordanians working in Jordan and, additionally, unemployment in Jordan. This is done by assuming close similarities between legal and irregular labour migrants. The second is an attemp...

  6. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  7. Ethical issues in irregular migration research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duvell, F.; Triandafyllidou, A.; Vollmer, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the ethical issues arising for researchers engaged in the study of irregular migration. Irregular migration is by definition an elusive phenomenon as it takes place in violation of the law and at the margins of society. This very nature of the phenomenon raises important

  8. Influence of initial stress, irregularity and heterogeneity on Love-type wave propagation in double pre-stressed irregular layers lying over a pre-stressed half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Das, Amrita; Parween, Zeenat; Chattopadhyay, Amares

    2015-10-01

    The present paper deals with the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed irregular vertically heterogeneous layer lying over an initially stressed isotropic layer and an initially stressed isotropic half-space. Two different types of irregularities, viz., rectangular and parabolic, are considered at the interface of uppermost initially stressed heterogeneous layer and intermediate initially stressed isotropic layer. Dispersion equations are obtained in closed form for both cases of irregularities, distinctly. The effect of size and shape of irregularity, horizontal compressive initial stress, horizontal tensile initial stress, heterogeneity of the uppermost layer and width ratio of the layers on phase velocity of Love-type wave are the major highlights of the study. Comparative study has been made to identify the effects of different shapes of irregularity, presence of heterogeneity and initial stresses. Numerical computations have been carried out and depicted by means of graphs for the present study.

  9. Using Little's Irregularity Index in orthodontics: outdated and inaccurate?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Macauley, Donal

    2012-12-01

    Little\\'s Irregularity Index (LII) was devised to objectively score mandibular incisor alignment for epidemiological studies but has been extended to assess the relative performance of orthodontic brackets, retainer or treatment modalities. Our aim was to examine the repeatability and precision of LII measurements of four independent examiners on the maxillary arch of orthodontic patients. The hypothesis was that the reproducibility of individual contact point displacement measurements, used to calculate the LII score, are inappropriate.

  10. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10 –8 . This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  11. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references

  12. Characterizing neural activities evoked by manual acupuncture through spiking irregularity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Ming; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Yu Hai-Tao; Chen Ying-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The neural system characterizes information in external stimulations by different spiking patterns. In order to examine how neural spiking patterns are related to acupuncture manipulations, experiments are designed in such a way that different types of manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are taken at the ‘Zusanli’ point of experimental rats, and the induced electrical signals in the spinal dorsal root ganglion are detected and recorded. The interspike interval (ISI) statistical histogram is fitted by the gamma distribution, which has two parameters: one is the time-dependent firing rate and the other is a shape parameter characterizing the spiking irregularities. The shape parameter is the measure of spiking irregularities and can be used to identify the type of MA manipulations. The coefficient of variation is mostly used to measure the spike time irregularity, but it overestimates the irregularity in the case of pronounced firing rate changes. However, experiments show that each acupuncture manipulation will lead to changes in the firing rate. So we combine four relatively rate-independent measures to study the irregularity of spike trains evoked by different types of MA manipulations. Results suggest that the MA manipulations possess unique spiking statistics and characteristics and can be distinguished according to the spiking irregularity measures. These studies have offered new insights into the coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Categorization for Faces and Tools—Two Classes of Objects Shaped by Different Experience—Differs in Processing Timing, Brain Areas Involved, and Repetition Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2018-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that integrate the separate features of sensory input into a meaningful percept depend upon the prior experience of interaction with the object and differ between categories of objects. Recent studies using representational similarity analysis (RSA) have characterized either the spatial patterns of brain activity for different categories of objects or described how category structure in neuronal representations emerges in time, but never simultaneously. Here we applied a novel, region-based, multivariate pattern classification approach in combination with RSA to magnetoencephalography data to extract activity associated with qualitatively distinct processing stages of visual perception. We asked participants to name what they see whilst viewing bitonal visual stimuli of two categories predominantly shaped by either value-dependent or sensorimotor experience, namely faces and tools, and meaningless images. We aimed to disambiguate the spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity between the meaningful categories and determine which differences in their processing were attributable to either perceptual categorization per se, or later-stage mentalizing-related processes. We have extracted three stages of cortical activity corresponding to low-level processing, category-specific feature binding, and supra-categorical processing. All face-specific spatiotemporal patterns were associated with bilateral activation of ventral occipito-temporal areas during the feature binding stage at 140–170 ms. The tool-specific activity was found both within the categorization stage and in a later period not thought to be associated with binding processes. The tool-specific binding-related activity was detected within a 210–220 ms window and was located to the intraparietal sulcus of the left hemisphere. Brain activity common for both meaningful categories started at 250 ms and included widely distributed assemblies within parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions

  14. Categorization for Faces and Tools-Two Classes of Objects Shaped by Different Experience-Differs in Processing Timing, Brain Areas Involved, and Repetition Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozunov, Vladimir; Nikolaeva, Anastasia; Stroganova, Tatiana A

    2017-01-01

    The brain mechanisms that integrate the separate features of sensory input into a meaningful percept depend upon the prior experience of interaction with the object and differ between categories of objects. Recent studies using representational similarity analysis (RSA) have characterized either the spatial patterns of brain activity for different categories of objects or described how category structure in neuronal representations emerges in time, but never simultaneously. Here we applied a novel, region-based, multivariate pattern classification approach in combination with RSA to magnetoencephalography data to extract activity associated with qualitatively distinct processing stages of visual perception. We asked participants to name what they see whilst viewing bitonal visual stimuli of two categories predominantly shaped by either value-dependent or sensorimotor experience, namely faces and tools, and meaningless images. We aimed to disambiguate the spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity between the meaningful categories and determine which differences in their processing were attributable to either perceptual categorization per se , or later-stage mentalizing-related processes. We have extracted three stages of cortical activity corresponding to low-level processing, category-specific feature binding, and supra-categorical processing. All face-specific spatiotemporal patterns were associated with bilateral activation of ventral occipito-temporal areas during the feature binding stage at 140-170 ms. The tool-specific activity was found both within the categorization stage and in a later period not thought to be associated with binding processes. The tool-specific binding-related activity was detected within a 210-220 ms window and was located to the intraparietal sulcus of the left hemisphere. Brain activity common for both meaningful categories started at 250 ms and included widely distributed assemblies within parietal, temporal, and prefrontal regions

  15. Examining U.S. Irregular Warfare Doctrine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimbrough, IV, James M

    2008-01-01

    ... of insurgency and terrorism. In response to the associated strategic challenges, a growing debate occurred among military historians, strategists, and leaders about the proper principles necessary for contemporary irregular...

  16. The dynamics of rings around small, irregular bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Stellar occultations revealed the presence of two dense rings around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo (Braga-Ribas et al., Nature 508, 72, 2014). This is the first ring system discovered around an object that is not a giant planet, suggesting that rings may exist around numerous bodies in the solar system. Chariklo's rings roughly reside at the outer limit of the Roche zone of the body. Moreover, the main ring has sharp edges, which call for the presence of putative shepherd satellites. Those characteristics give an image of Chariklo's rings that are rather similar, in terms of dynamics, to those surrounding the gaseous planets.An important difference exists, however, between giant planets and small bodies: the formers are highly axisymmetric, while the latters can support mass anomalies (eg surface topographic features) or non-spherical shapes (eg an ellipsoidal figure of equilibrium) that involve masses, relative to the body itself, as large as 10-4-10-3.We investigate the effect of non-axisymmetric terms in the potential of the body upon a collisional debris disk that initially surrounds a small irregular body. We show that the corotation points being maxima of energy, dissipative collisions remove the particles from the corotation zone over short time scales (< 106 years). Moreover, the Lindblad resonances inside the corotation radius create torques that drive the particles onto the surface of the central body. Conversely, the outer Lindblad resonances push the disk material beyond the outer 3/2 and 2/1 Lindblad resonances.Taking as an example Chariklo's ring system, for which recent data have been obtained from stellar occultations, we show that the Lindblad resonant torques actuate over short time scales (< 106 years). This general picture offers a natural explanation of the presence of dense rings at the outer limit of Chariklo's Roche zone, and their absence closer to the body.The work leading to this results has received funding from the European

  17. Near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures for cohesionless small bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    In a previous paper (Descamps, P. [2015]. Icarus 245, 64-79), we developed a specific method aimed to retrieve the main physical characteristics (shape, density, surface scattering properties) of highly elongated bodies from their rotational lightcurves through the use of dumb-bell-shaped equilibrium figures. The present work is a test of this method. For that purpose we introduce near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped figures which are base dumb-bell equilibrium shapes modulated by lognormal statistics. Such synthetic irregular models are used to generate lightcurves from which our method is successfully applied. Shape statistical parameters of such near-equilibrium dumb-bell-shaped objects are in good agreement with those calculated for example for the Asteroid (216) Kleopatra from its dog-bone radar model. It may suggest that such bilobed and elongated asteroids can be approached by equilibrium figures perturbed be the interplay with a substantial internal friction modeled by a Gaussian random sphere.

  18. Reproducibility of image quality for moving objects using respiratory-gated computed tomography. A study using a phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Ishida, Masaya; Terunuma, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the reproducibility of computed tomography (CT) imaging quality in respiratory-gated radiation treatment planning is essential in radiotherapy of movable tumors. Seven series of regular and six series of irregular respiratory motions were performed using a thorax dynamic phantom. For the regular respiratory motions, the respiratory cycle was changed from 2.5 to 4 s and the amplitude was changed from 4 to 10 mm. For the irregular respiratory motions, a cycle of 2.5 to 4 or an amplitude of 4 to 10 mm was added to the base data (id est (i.e.) 3.5-s cycle, 6-mm amplitude) every three cycles. Images of the object were acquired six times using respiratory-gated data acquisition. The volume of the object was calculated and the reproducibility of the volume was decided based on the variety. The registered image of the object was added and the reproducibility of the shape was decided based on the degree of overlap of objects. The variety in the volumes and shapes differed significantly as the respiratory cycle changed according to regular respiratory motions. In irregular respiratory motion, shape reproducibility was further inferior, and the percentage of overlap among the six images was 35.26% in the 2.5- and 3.5-s cycle mixed group. Amplitude changes did not produce significant differences in the variety of the volumes and shapes. Respiratory cycle changes reduced the reproducibility of the image quality in respiratory-gated CT. (author)

  19. Detecting chaos in irregularly sampled time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, C W

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Wiebe and Virgin [Chaos 22, 013136 (2012)] developed an algorithm which detects chaos by analyzing a time series' power spectrum which is computed using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Their algorithm, like other time series characterization algorithms, requires that the time series be regularly sampled. Real-world data, however, are often irregularly sampled, thus, making the detection of chaotic behavior difficult or impossible with those methods. In this paper, a characterization algorithm is presented, which effectively detects chaos in irregularly sampled time series. The work presented here is a modification of Wiebe and Virgin's algorithm and uses the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) to compute a series' power spectrum instead of the DFT. The DFT is not appropriate for irregularly sampled time series. However, the LSP is capable of computing the frequency content of irregularly sampled data. Furthermore, a new method of analyzing the power spectrum is developed, which can be useful for differentiating between chaotic and non-chaotic behavior. The new characterization algorithm is successfully applied to irregularly sampled data generated by a model as well as data consisting of observations of variable stars.

  20. Development of Computer Program for Analysis of Irregular Non Homogenous Radiation Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang Rozali; Nina Kusumah; Hendro Tjahjono; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    A computer program for radiation shielding analysis has been developed to obtain radiation attenuation calculation in non-homogenous radiation shielding and irregular geometry. By determining radiation source strength, geometrical shape of radiation source, location, dimension and geometrical shape of radiation shielding, radiation level of a point at certain position from radiation source can be calculated. By using a computer program, calculation result of radiation distribution analysis can be obtained for some analytical points simultaneously. (author)

  1. Irregular menstruation according to occupational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yeunhee; Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-07-06

    This cross-sectional study explored associations of irregular menstruation with occupational characteristics, using secondary analyses of data from 4,731 women aged 19-54 years, collected from a nationally representative sample, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V during 2010-2012. The associations between irregular menstruation and occupation were explored using multiple logistic regression. Compared to non-manual workers, service/sales workers had a greater odds of irregular menstruation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.44; 95percent confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.99) as did manual workers and unemployed women (aOR: 1.56; 95percent CI: 1.10-2.22, aOR: 1.46; 95percent CI: 1.14-1.89, respectively). Compared to regular workers, temporary workers and unemployed women had aORs of 1.52 (95percent CI: 1.08-2.13) and 1.33 (95percent CI: 1.05-1.69), respectively. Also, when compared to full-time workers, part-time workers and unemployed women had greater odds of irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.41; 95percent CI: 1.00-2.00 and aOR: 1.29; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.63, respectively). Furthermore, compared to daytime workers, shift workers and unemployed women had greater odds irregular menstruation (aOR: 1.39; 95percent CI: 1.03-1.88 and aOR: 1.28; 95percent CI: 1.04-1.59, respectively). Women with these occupational characteristics should be screened for early diagnosis and intervention for irregular menstruation.

  2. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez V, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm 2 with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  3. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.

    2018-03-01

    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  4. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  5. Protein Nano-Object Integrator: Generating atomic-style objects for use in molecular biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas David Fenimore

    As researchers obtain access to greater and greater amounts of computational power, focus has shifted towards modeling macroscopic objects while still maintaining atomic-level details. The Protein Nano-Object Integrator (ProNOI) presented here has been designed to provide a streamlined solution for creating and designing macro-scale objects with atomic-level details to be used in molecular simulations and tools. To accomplish this, two different interfaces were developed: a Protein Data Bank (PDB), PDB-focused interface for generating regularly-shaped three-dimensional atomic objects and a 2D image-based interface for tracing images with irregularly shaped objects and then extracting three-dimensional models from these images. Each interface is dependent upon the C++ backend utility for generating the objects and ensures that the output is consistent across each program. The objects are exported in a standard PDB format which allows for the visualization and manipulation of the objects via standard tools available in Molecular Computational Biophysics.

  6. Abstraction of man-made shapes

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Ravish; Zhou, Qingnan; Long, Jeremy; Sheffer, Alla; Gooch, Amy Ashurst; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Man-made objects are ubiquitous in the real world and in virtual environments. While such objects can be very detailed, capturing every small feature, they are often identified and characterized by a small set of defining curves. Compact, abstracted shape descriptions based on such curves are often visually more appealing than the original models, which can appear to be visually cluttered. We introduce a novel algorithm for abstracting three-dimensional geometric models using characteristic curves or contours as building blocks for the abstraction. Our method robustly handles models with poor connectivity, including the extreme cases of polygon soups, common in models of man-made objects taken from online repositories. In our algorithm, we use a two-step procedure that first approximates the input model using a manifold, closed envelope surface and then extracts from it a hierarchical abstraction curve network along with suitable normal information. The constructed curve networks form a compact, yet powerful, representation for the input shapes, retaining their key shape characteristics while discarding minor details and irregularities. © 2009 ACM.

  7. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2 , Herschel , and Spitzer Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Szakáts, R.; Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Konkoly Thege Miklós út 15-17, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary); Mommert, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Müller, T., E-mail: farkas.aniko@csfk.mta.hu [Max-Plank-Institut für extraterrestrsiche Pyhsik, Garching (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel /PACS and Spitzer /MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  8. Properties of the Irregular Satellite System around Uranus Inferred from K2, Herschel, and Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas-Takács, A.; Kiss, Cs.; Pál, A.; Molnár, L.; Szabó, Gy. M.; Hanyecz, O.; Sárneczky, K.; Szabó, R.; Marton, G.; Mommert, M.; Szakáts, R.; Müller, T.; Kiss, L. L.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present visible-range light curves of the irregular Uranian satellites Sycorax, Caliban, Prospero, Ferdinand, and Setebos taken with the Kepler Space Telescope over the course of the K2 mission. Thermal emission measurements obtained with the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS instruments of Sycorax and Caliban were also analyzed and used to determine size, albedo, and surface characteristics of these bodies. We compare these properties with the rotational and surface characteristics of irregular satellites in other giant planet systems and also with those of main belt and Trojan asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. Our results indicate that the Uranian irregular satellite system likely went through a more intense collisional evolution than the irregular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Surface characteristics of Uranian irregular satellites seem to resemble the Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects more than irregular satellites around other giant planets, suggesting the existence of a compositional discontinuity in the young solar system inside the orbit of Uranus.

  9. Synchronizing data from irregularly sampled sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluyol, Onder

    2017-07-11

    A system and method include receiving a set of sampled measurements for each of multiple sensors, wherein the sampled measurements are at irregular intervals or different rates, re-sampling the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors at a higher rate than one of the sensor's set of sampled measurements, and synchronizing the sampled measurements of each of the multiple sensors.

  10. Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal

    1990-01-01

    Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)

  11. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-09-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of archived MIPS observations of Phoebe reproduces Cassini results very accurately, thereby validating our method. For all targets, the geometric albedo is found to be low, probably below 10% and clearly below 15%. Irregular satellites are much darker than the large regular satellites. Their albedo is, however, quite similar to that of small bodies in the outer Solar System (such as cometary nuclei, Jupiter Trojans, or TNOs). This is consistent with color measurements as well as dynamical considerations which suggest a common origin of the said populations. There appear to be significant object-to-object albedo differences. Similar albedos found for some members of dynamical clusters support the idea that they may have originated in the breakup of a parent body. For three satellites, thermal data at two wavelengths are available, enabling us to constrain their thermal properties. Sub-solar temperatures are similar to that found from Cassini's Phoebe fly-by. This suggests a rather low thermal inertia, as expected for regolith-covered objects. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by JPL under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA.

  12. An Efficient Heuristic Approach for Irregular Cutting Stock Problem in Ship Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-xin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient approach for solving a real two-dimensional irregular cutting stock problem in ship building industry. Cutting stock problem is a common cutting and packing problem that arises in a variety of industrial applications. A modification of selection heuristic Exact Fit is applied in our research. In the case referring to irregular shapes, a placement heuristics is more important to construct a complete solution. A placement heuristic relating to bottom-left-fill is presented. We evaluate the proposed approach using generated instance only with convex shapes in literatures and some instances with nonconvex shapes based on real problem from ship building industry. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach are significantly better than some conventional heuristics.

  13. Bayesian object classification of gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Konomi, Bledar A.; Dhavala, Soma S.; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Kundu, Subrata; Huitink, David; Liang, Hong; Ding, Yu; Mallick, Bani K.

    2013-01-01

    The properties of materials synthesized with nanoparticles (NPs) are highly correlated to the sizes and shapes of the nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging technique can be used to measure the morphological characteristics of NPs, which can be simple circles or more complex irregular polygons with varying degrees of scales and sizes. A major difficulty in analyzing the TEM images is the overlapping of objects, having different morphological properties with no specific information about the number of objects present. Furthermore, the objects lying along the boundary render automated image analysis much more difficult. To overcome these challenges, we propose a Bayesian method based on the marked-point process representation of the objects. We derive models, both for the marks which parameterize the morphological aspects and the points which determine the location of the objects. The proposed model is an automatic image segmentation and classification procedure, which simultaneously detects the boundaries and classifies the NPs into one of the predetermined shape families. We execute the inference by sampling the posterior distribution using Markov chainMonte Carlo (MCMC) since the posterior is doubly intractable. We apply our novel method to several TEM imaging samples of gold NPs, producing the needed statistical characterization of their morphology. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2013.

  14. Bayesian object classification of gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Konomi, Bledar A.

    2013-06-01

    The properties of materials synthesized with nanoparticles (NPs) are highly correlated to the sizes and shapes of the nanoparticles. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging technique can be used to measure the morphological characteristics of NPs, which can be simple circles or more complex irregular polygons with varying degrees of scales and sizes. A major difficulty in analyzing the TEM images is the overlapping of objects, having different morphological properties with no specific information about the number of objects present. Furthermore, the objects lying along the boundary render automated image analysis much more difficult. To overcome these challenges, we propose a Bayesian method based on the marked-point process representation of the objects. We derive models, both for the marks which parameterize the morphological aspects and the points which determine the location of the objects. The proposed model is an automatic image segmentation and classification procedure, which simultaneously detects the boundaries and classifies the NPs into one of the predetermined shape families. We execute the inference by sampling the posterior distribution using Markov chainMonte Carlo (MCMC) since the posterior is doubly intractable. We apply our novel method to several TEM imaging samples of gold NPs, producing the needed statistical characterization of their morphology. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2013.

  15. Asymmetry and irregularity border as discrimination factor between melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrissa, David; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Salvio, Ana Gabriela; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvadori; Costa, Luciano Da Fontoura; Travieso, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Image processing tools have been widely used in systems supporting medical diagnosis. The use of mobile devices for the diagnosis of melanoma can assist doctors and improve their diagnosis of a melanocytic lesion. This study proposes a method of image analysis for melanoma discrimination from other types of melanocytic lesions, such as regular and atypical nevi. The process is based on extracting features related with asymmetry and border irregularity. It were collected 104 images, from medical database of two years. The images were obtained with standard digital cameras without lighting and scale control. Metrics relating to the characteristics of shape, asymmetry and curvature of the contour were extracted from segmented images. Linear Discriminant Analysis was performed for dimensionality reduction and data visualization. Segmentation results showed good efficiency in the process, with approximately 88:5% accuracy. Validation results presents sensibility and specificity 85% and 70% for melanoma detection, respectively.

  16. Manufacturing of Cast Metal Foams with Irregular Cell Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupová I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic foams are materials of which the research is still on-going, with the broad applicability in many different areas (e.g. automotive industry, building industry, medicine, etc.. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology (infiltration method, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with open pores and irregular cell structure made of ferrous and nonferrous alloys by use of various types of filler material (precursors.

  17. Kilometer-Spaced GNSS Array for Ionospheric Irregularity Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang

    This dissertation presents automated, systematic data collection, processing, and analysis methods for studying the spatial-temporal properties of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) scintillations produced by ionospheric irregularities at high latitudes using a closely spaced multi-receiver array deployed in the northern auroral zone. The main contributions include 1) automated scintillation monitoring, 2) estimation of drift and anisotropy of the irregularities, 3) error analysis of the drift estimates, and 4) multi-instrument study of the ionosphere. A radio wave propagating through the ionosphere, consisting of ionized plasma, may suffer from rapid signal amplitude and/or phase fluctuations known as scintillation. Caused by non-uniform structures in the ionosphere, intense scintillation can lead to GNSS navigation and high-frequency (HF) communication failures. With specialized GNSS receivers, scintillation can be studied to better understand the structure and dynamics of the ionospheric irregularities, which can be parameterized by altitude, drift motion, anisotropy of the shape, horizontal spatial extent and their time evolution. To study the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the sub-kilometer scale sizes that produce L-band scintillations, a closely-spaced GNSS array has been established in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska to investigate high latitude scintillation and irregularities. Routinely collecting low-rate scintillation statistics, the array database also provides 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1/L2C frequency. In this work, a survey of seasonal and hourly dependence of L1 scintillation events over the course of a year is discussed. To efficiently and systematically study scintillation events, an automated low-rate scintillation detection routine is established and performed for each day by screening the phase scintillation index. The spaced-receiver technique is applied to cross

  18. Generating Performance Models for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Ryan D.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2017-05-30

    Many applications have irregular behavior --- non-uniform input data, input-dependent solvers, irregular memory accesses, unbiased branches --- that cannot be captured using today's automated performance modeling techniques. We describe new hierarchical critical path analyses for the \\Palm model generation tool. To create a model's structure, we capture tasks along representative MPI critical paths. We create a histogram of critical tasks with parameterized task arguments and instance counts. To model each task, we identify hot instruction-level sub-paths and model each sub-path based on data flow, instruction scheduling, and data locality. We describe application models that generate accurate predictions for strong scaling when varying CPU speed, cache speed, memory speed, and architecture. We present results for the Sweep3D neutron transport benchmark; Page Rank on multiple graphs; Support Vector Machine with pruning; and PFLOTRAN's reactive flow/transport solver with domain-induced load imbalance.

  19. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    OpenAIRE

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, Bela G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach...

  20. Improving Transactional Memory Performance for Irregular Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrero, Manuel; Gutiérrez, Eladio; Romero, Sergio; Plata, Óscar

    2015-01-01

    Transactional memory (TM) offers optimistic concurrency support in modern multicore archi- tectures, helping the programmers to extract parallelism in irregular applications when data dependence information is not available before runtime. In fact, recent research focus on ex- ploiting thread-level parallelism using TM approaches. However, the proposed techniques are of general use, valid for any type of application. This work presents ReduxSTM, a software TM system specially d...

  1. Star formation histories of irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.S. III; Hunter, D.A.; Tutukov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    We explore the star formation histories of a selection of irregular and spiral galaxies by using three parameters that sample the star formation rate (SFR) at different epochs: (1) the mass of a galaxy in the form of stars measures the SFR integrated over a galaxy's lifetime; (2) the blue luminosity is dominated primarily by stars formed over the past few billion years; and (3) Lyman continuum photon fluxes derived from Hα luminosities give the current ( 8 yr) SFR

  2. Parallel Computing Strategies for Irregular Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid; Shan, Hongzhang; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Parallel computing promises several orders of magnitude increase in our ability to solve realistic computationally-intensive problems, but relies on their efficient mapping and execution on large-scale multiprocessor architectures. Unfortunately, many important applications are irregular and dynamic in nature, making their effective parallel implementation a daunting task. Moreover, with the proliferation of parallel architectures and programming paradigms, the typical scientist is faced with a plethora of questions that must be answered in order to obtain an acceptable parallel implementation of the solution algorithm. In this paper, we consider three representative irregular applications: unstructured remeshing, sparse matrix computations, and N-body problems, and parallelize them using various popular programming paradigms on a wide spectrum of computer platforms ranging from state-of-the-art supercomputers to PC clusters. We present the underlying problems, the solution algorithms, and the parallel implementation strategies. Smart load-balancing, partitioning, and ordering techniques are used to enhance parallel performance. Overall results demonstrate the complexity of efficiently parallelizing irregular algorithms.

  3. Application of the pothole DAF method to vehicles traversing periodic roadway irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesterev, A. V.; Bergman, L. A.; Tan, C. A.; Yang, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to the work discussed in Pesterev et al. (Journal of Sound and Vibration, in press). In that paper, it was suggested that the technique to determine the effect of a local road surface irregularity on the dynamics of a vehicle modelled as a linear multi-degree-of-freedom system relies on the so-called pothole dynamic amplification factor (DAF), which is a complex-valued function specific to the irregularity shape. This paper discusses the companion problem of how to determine the DAF function for an irregularity represented as a superposition of simpler ones. Another purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the pothole DAF functions technique to finding a priori estimates of the effect of irregularities with a repeated structure. Specifically, we solve the problem of finding the conditions under which the dynamic effect of two identical potholes located one after another is greater than that due to the single pothole. We also find the estimate for the number of periods of a periodic irregularity that are sufficient in order to consider the oscillator response as steady state. The discussions are illustrated by numerical examples.

  4. Rheological Modeling of Macro Viscous Flows of Granular Suspension of Regular and Irregular Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Pellegrino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to complex granular-fluid mixtures involved into geophysical flows, such as debris and hyper-concentrated flows. For such phenomena, the interstitial fluids play a role when they are in the viscous regime. Referring to experiments on granular-fluid mixture carried out with pressure imposed annular shear cell, we study the rheological behaviour of dense mixture involving both spheres and irregular-shaped particles. For the case of viscous suspensions with irregular grains, a significant scatter of data from the trend observed for mixtures with spherical particles was evident. In effect, the shape of the particles likely plays a fundamental role in the flow dynamics, and the constitutive laws proposed by the frictional theory for the spheres are no longer valid. Starting from the frictional approach successfully applied to suspension of spheres, we demonstrate that also in case of irregular particles the mixture rheology may be fully characterized by the two relationships involving friction coefficient µ and volume concentration Ф as a function of the dimensionless viscous number Iv. To this goal, we provided a new consistent general model, referring to the volume fraction law and friction law, which accounts for the particle shape. In this way, the fitting parameters reduce just to the static friction angle µ1, and the two parameters, k and fs related to the grain shape. The resulting general model may apply to steady fully developed flows of saturated granular fluid mixture in the viscous regime, no matter of granular characteristics.

  5. The Impact of Irregular Warfare on the US Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, III, Roger L

    2006-01-01

    Although the U.S. Army has yet to clearly define irregular warfare, it is imperative that the Army take near-term action to enhance the ability of Soldiers and units to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment...

  6. State reconstruction and irregular wavefunctions for the hydrogen atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krähmer, D. S.; Leonhardt, U.

    1997-07-01

    Inspired by a recently proposed procedure by Leonhardt and Raymer for wavepacket reconstruction, we calculate the irregular wavefunctions for the bound states of the Coulomb potential. We select the irregular solutions which have the simplest semiclassical limit.

  7. The normal squamocolumnar junction is circumferentially even and minimal irregularities are manifestations of gastroesophageal acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Garcia Hall, Mats; Wenner, Jörgen; Öberg, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    The macroscopic appearance of the normal squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) is often described as serrated with short projections of columnar mucosa that extend into the esophagus. As studies of the normal SCJ are sparse, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the normal SCJ is even and that irregularities are manifestations of acid reflux. Fifty asymptomatic subjects and 149 patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease underwent endoscopy and 48-h pH monitoring with a pH electrode positioned immediately above the SCJ. The shape of the SCJ was assessed according to the Z-line appearance classification and correlated with clinical characteristics and the degree of esophageal acid exposure in the most distal esophagus. Even SCJs without irregularities were significantly more common in asymptomatic subjects compared with patients (50% versus 10%, p acid exposure in individuals with an even SCJ was within normal limits. With increasing degree of irregularity of the SCJ, the frequency and duration of reflux episodes, the degree of distal esophageal acid exposure, and the prevalence of abnormal acid exposure increased progressively and significantly. The shape of the normal SCJ is even and also minimal irregularities are a consequence of acid reflux, likely due to the formation of small areas of metaplastic columnar mucosa.

  8. On irregularity strength of disjoint union of friendship graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the vertex total and edge total modication of the well-known irregularity strength of graphs. We have determined the exact values of the total vertex irregularity strength and the total edge irregularity strength of a disjoint union of friendship graphs.

  9. 16 CFR 501.6 - Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. 501... REQUIREMENTS AND PROHIBITIONS UNDER PART 500 § 501.6 Cellulose sponges, irregular dimensions. Variety packages of cellulose sponges of irregular dimensions, are exempted from the requirements of § 500.25 of this...

  10. Using Radio Irregularity for Increasing Residential Energy Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Miljković

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio irregularity phenomenon is often considered as a shortcoming of wireless networks. In this paper, the method of using radio irregularity as an efficient human presence detection sensor in smart homes is presented. The method is mainly based on monitoring variations of the received signal strength indicator (RSSI within the messages used for the communication between wireless smart power outlets. The radio signals used for the inter-outlets communication can be absorbed, diffracted or reflected by objects in their propagation paths. When a human enters the existing radio communication field, the variation of the signal strength at the receiver is even more expressed. Based on the detected changes and compared to the initial thresholds set during the initialization phase, the system detects human presence. The proposed solution increases user awareness and automates the power control in households, with the primary goal to contribute in residential energy savings. Compared to conventional sensor networks, this approach preserves the sensorial intelligence, simplicity and low installation costs, without the need for additional sensors integration.

  11. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  12. Feasibility study of flexible phased array ultrasonic technology using irregular surface specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Pyo; Moon, Yong Sik; Jung, Nam Du [NDE Performance Demonstration Team, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Nuclear power plant contain many dissimilar metal welds that connect carbon steel components with stainless steel pipes using alloy 600 welding materials. Primary water stress corrosion cracks at dissimilar metal welds have been continuously reported around the world. In periodic integrity evaluations, dissimilar metal welds are examined using a generic ultrasonic testing procedure, KPD-UT-10. In this procedure, the gap between the probe and examination surface is limited to 1/32 inch (0.8 mm). It is not easy to test some dissimilar metal welds in Korean plants applying ordinary technology because of their tapered shapes and irregular surface conditions. This paper introduces a method for applying a flexible phased array technology to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing results for various shapes and surface conditions. The artificial flaws in specimens with irregular surfaces were completely detected using the flexible phased array ultrasonic technology. Therefore, it can be said that the technology is applicable to field examination.

  13. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner

  14. Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities Study from ROCSAT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Ionospheric irregularity/scintillation occurrences can be caused by external driving ...Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan e-mail: chliu2@gate.sinica.edu.tw phone :886-3-4227151x34757 CoPI: Shin-Yi Su Institution: National Central...University, Chung-Li, Taiwan e-mail: sysu@csrsr.ncu.edu.tw phone :886-3-4227151x57643 CoPI: Lung-Chi Tsai Institution: National Central University, Chung-Li

  15. Artificial periodic irregularities in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Rietveld

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Artificial periodic irregularities (API are produced in the ionospheric plasma by a powerful standing electromagnetic wave reflected off the F region. The resulting electron-density irregularities can scatter other high-frequency waves if the Bragg scattering condition is met. Such measurements have been performed at mid-latitudes for two decades and have been developed into a useful ionospheric diagnostic technique. We report here the first measurements from a high-latitude station, using the EISCAT heating facility near Tromsø, Norway. Both F-region and lower-altitude ionospheric echoes have been obtained, but the bulk of the data has been in the E and D regions with echoes extending down to 52-km altitude. Examples of API are shown, mainly from the D region, together with simultaneous VHF incoherent-scatter-radar (ISR data. Vertical velocities derived from the rate of phase change during the irregularity decay are shown and compared with velocities derived from the ISR. Some of the API-derived velocities in the 75–115-km height range appear consistent with vertical neutral winds as shown by their magnitudes and by evidence of gravity waves, while other data in the 50–70-km range show an unrealistically large bias. For a comparison with ISR data it has proved difficult to get good quality data sets overlapping in height and time. The initial comparisons show some agreement, but discrepancies of several metres per second do not yet allow us to conclude that the two techniques are measuring the same quantity. The irregularity decay time-constants between about 53 and 70 km are compared with the results of an advanced ion-chemistry model, and height profiles of recorded signal power are compared with model estimates in the same altitude range. The calculated amplitude shows good agreement with the data in that the maximum occurs at about the same height as that of the measured amplitude. The calculated time-constant agrees very well with the

  16. Dispersion of the Himalia family of jovian irregular satellites by planetesimal encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daohai; Christou, Apostolos

    2017-06-01

    Giant planets are believed to have migrated significant radial distances due to interaction with a primordial planetesimal disk (Tsiganis et al. 2005). This process profoundly sculpted the solar system, shaping the distribution of the different types of heliocentric objects: the giant planets, the Trojans, the Main Asteroid Belt and the KBOs. Meanwhile, the same migration may have influenced the distribution of objects in the local planetocentric system as well. Since migration is achieved mainly by planet-planetesimal encounters, we focus on irregular satellites far from the host, thus susceptible to planetesimal perturbations. Specifically, we aim to reproduce a puzzling feature of the jovian Himalia group of prograde satellites: a wide spread in $a$ and $e$, with all group members being $>200$ m/s from Himalia and apparently too high to be consistent with a purely collisional origin. Here we investigate the evolution of a pre-existing Himalia group during planetary migration.We do this in a two-step procedure. Firstly, we perform migration simulations and record the states of planetesimals approaching Jupiter. Secondly, a nascent, closely-packed Himalia group with velocity dispersion of a few 10 m/s is integrated under the gravitational disturbance of the planetesimal fly-bys. We find that these planetesimal encounters disperse the group dramatically, bumping $\\sim 60\\%$ of the members to $>200$ m/s with respect to Himalia. Particularly, $a$ and $e$ suffer the most variation while the change in $i$ is often limited, matching the actual values for the observed group fairly well.Current models posit extensive collisional processing of the irregular satellite population following the planet migration phase (Bottke et al. 2010). In evaluating the collisional probability between a group member and Himalia, we find that the closer they are, the more likely that collisions occur. This suggests that members adjacent to Himalia are more likely to be collisionally

  17. Shape from touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of objects cannot only be recognized by vision, but also by touch. Vision has the advantage that shapes can be seen at a distance, but touch has the advantage that during exploration many additional object properties become available, such as temperature (Jones, 2009), texture (Bensmaia,

  18. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  19. Reproducibility of irregular radiation fields for malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Dieckmann, K.; Poetter, R.; Molitor, A.M.; Haverkamp, U.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation treatment for malignant lymphoma requires large field irradiation with irregular blocks according to the individual anatomy and tumor configuration. For determination of safety margins (PTV) we quantitatively analysed the accuracy of field and block placement with regard to different anatomical regions. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with malignant lymphoma were irradiated using the classical supra-/infradiaphragmatic field arrangements. Treatment was performed with 10-MeV photons and irregularly shaped, large opposing fields. We evaluated the accuracy of field and block placements during the treatment courses by comparing the regularly performed verification - with the simulation films. Deviations were determined with respect to the field edges and the central axis, along the x- and z-axis. Results: With regard to the field edges, mean deviations of 2.0 mm and 3.4 mm were found along the x- and z-axis. The corresponding standard deviations were 3.4 mm and 5.5 mm, respectively. With regard to the shielding blocks, mean displacement along the x- and z-axis was 2.2 mm and 3.8 mm. In addition, overall standard deviations of 5.7 mm (x-axis) and 7.1 mm (z-axis) were determined. During the course of time an improved accuracy of block placement was notable. Conclusion: Systematic analysis of port films gives information for a better defining safety margins in external radiotherapy. Evaluation of verification films on a regular basis improves set-up accuracy by reducing displacements. (orig.) [de

  20. Legal aspects of the EU policy on irregular immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinikov Vadim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the issues pertaining to the adoption and development of legislation on irregular migration in the context of uncontrolled growth in the number of immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East to the EU. The article attempts at studying the EU legislation on irregular migration, classifying it, and analysing the prospects of EU migration legislation in the light of an increase in irregular immigration into the EU. The author systematises, classifies the current EU legislation on irregular immigration, and analyses the conditions, in which this legislation was developed. Using the legislation analysis method, the author proposes the following system of EU legislation on irregular immigration: rules preventing assistance to irregular immigration, rules preventing employment of irregular immigrants, rules on the return of irregular migrants and readmission, rules on border control, and rules on collaboration with third countries. The author pays special attention to analysing the current state of irregular immigration to the EU, which was dubbed the ‘greatest migration crisis in Europe’. The conclusion is that the European Union succeeded in the development of pioneering legislation on irregular immigration, which can serve as the basis for reception by other states. However, changes in the political and economic situation in the EU’s southern borderlands made the current legal mechanisms incapable of withstanding new threats. It necessitates a radical reform of the legislation on irregular immigration.

  1. A program to compute the area of an irregular polygon on a spheroidal surface

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivakholundu, K.M.; Prabaharan, N.

    (MATLAB). Short Note824 lar shapes. The analytical integrations were carried out with the software package MATLAB on a SUN workstation. The comparisons were made to check: 1. The eC128ect of varying strip width for integration. 2. Variation of accuracy... this program can be used to calculate the area on the spheroidal surface for irregular shapes without losing accuracy. REFERENCES Bomford, G. (1977) Geodesy. Oxford University Press, 731 pp. Larkin, B. J. (1988) A FORTRAN 77 program to calcu- late areas...

  2. Computing proton dose to irregularly moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Justin; Gueorguiev, Gueorgui; Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Paganetti, Harald; Sharp, Gregory C; Shackleford, James A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: While four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and deformable registration can be used to assess the dose delivered to regularly moving targets, there are few methods available for irregularly moving targets. 4DCT captures an idealized waveform, but human respiration during treatment is characterized by gradual baseline shifts and other deviations from a periodic signal. This paper describes a method for computing the dose delivered to irregularly moving targets based on 1D or 3D waveforms captured at the time of delivery. Methods: The procedure uses CT or 4DCT images for dose calculation, and 1D or 3D respiratory waveforms of the target position at time of delivery. Dose volumes are converted from their Cartesian geometry into a beam-specific radiological depth space, parameterized in 2D by the beam aperture, and longitudinally by the radiological depth. In this new frame of reference, the proton doses are translated according to the motion found in the 1D or 3D trajectory. These translated dose volumes are weighted and summed, then transformed back into Cartesian space, yielding an estimate of the dose that includes the effect of the measured breathing motion. The method was validated using a synthetic lung phantom and a single representative patient CT. Simulated 4DCT was generated for the phantom with 2 cm peak-to-peak motion. Results: A passively-scattered proton treatment plan was generated using 6 mm and 5 mm smearing for the phantom and patient plans, respectively. The method was tested without motion, and with two simulated breathing signals: a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid, and a 2 cm amplitude sinusoid with 3 cm linear drift in the phantom. The tumor positions were equally weighted for the patient calculation. Motion-corrected dose was computed based on the mid-ventilation CT image in the phantom and the peak exhale position in the patient. Gamma evaluation was 97.8% without motion, 95.7% for 2 cm sinusoidal motion, 95.7% with 3 cm drift in

  3. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-01-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient (μ) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the μ determination. It consists of the μ determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of μ was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  4. The structure of plasma-density irregularities in the interplanetary medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The conflict in the literature as to whether the plasma-density spatial spectrum of the irregularities in the interplanetary medium is of Gaussian or power law form is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the interplanetary scintillation effects ascribed to these irregularities. It is shown that the phase-screen theory of scintillations can be invoked to devise a set of critical tests which provide a means of discriminating between the conflicting hypotheses. Differences in the predicted behaviour of the single sensor temporal spectra of the scintillations for the two irregularity forms provide the main tests of the conflicting hypotheses. However, it is also shown that the two hypotheses lead to different forms of the variation of scintillation index with the observing frequency and the solar elongation of the scintillating source. Consideration is given to the optimum conditions for observing the Fourier and Bessel temporal spectra modulation which is due to the Fresnel filtering of the spatial spectrum. Determination of irregularity shape, orientation and motion in terms of this modulation is also discussed. (author)

  5. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.; Fejer, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach or exceed the ion-acoustic velocity even though the horizontal phase velocity of the wave is considerably smaller. A straightforward extension to the long wavelength regime of the usual linear theory of the electrojet instability explains this and several other observed features of these dominant primary waves

  6. Irregular employment amongst migrants in Spanish cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, C; Ribas, N; Bergalli, V; Parella, S

    1998-04-01

    This article presents the irregular employment situation of non-European union immigrants in Spanish cities. Foreign labor is remarkable for its heterogeneity in terms of country of origin, demographic characteristics, and the different ways in which immigrants have entered the job market. Legal immigrants tend to concentrate in five different branches of activity, such as domestic service (mostly women), hotel and restaurant industry, agriculture, building and retail trade. Migrants who work in agriculture suffer the worst labor conditions than all other migrants. However, all migrants experience difficulty in obtaining residency and labor permits. Four integration strategies among Moroccan immigrants in Catalonia are discussed and can be viewed as support networks of the immigrants.

  7. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects

  8. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terman, D., E-mail: terman@math.ohio-state.edu [Department of Mathematics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Rubin, J. E., E-mail: jonrubin@pitt.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Diekman, C. O., E-mail: diekman@njit.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  9. Decomposing Oriented Graphs into Six Locally Irregular Oriented Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensmail, Julien; Renault, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    An undirected graph G is locally irregular if every two of its adjacent vertices have distinct degrees. We say that G is decomposable into k locally irregular graphs if there exists a partition E1∪E2∪⋯∪Ek of the edge set E(G) such that each Ei induces a locally irregular graph. It was recently co...

  10. Characteristics of ionospheric irregularities causing scintillations at VHF/UHF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vats, H.O.; Deshpande, M.R.; Rastogi, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some properties of ionization irregularities using amplitude scintillation records of radio beacons from ATS-6 (phase II) at Ootacamund, India have been investigated. For the estimation of scale-size and strength of the irregularities a simple diffraction model has been used which explains only weak and moderate equatorial scintillation observations. It was found that the scale sizes of day time E-region irregularities are smaller than those in the F-region during night time in addition, irregularities are generated initially at large scale sizes which later break up into smaller scale sizes

  11. Advances in electron dosimetry of irregular fields; Avances en dosimetria de electrones de campos irregulares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez V, J. [Departamento de Radioterapia, Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Avenida Angamos Este 2520, Lima 34 (Peru)

    1998-12-31

    In this work it is presented an advance in Electron dosimetry of irregular fields for beams emitted by linear accelerators. At present diverse methods exist which are coming to apply in the Radiotherapy centers. In this work it is proposed a method for irregular fields dosimetry. It will be allow to calculate the dose rate absorbed required for evaluating the time for the treatment of cancer patients. Utilizing the results obtained by the dosimetric system, it has been possible to prove the validity of the method describe for 12 MeV energy and for square field 7.5 x 7.5 cm{sup 2} with percentile error less than 1 % . (Author)

  12. Propagating star formation and irregular structure in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.W.; Arnett, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    A simple model is proposed which describes the irregular optical appearance often seen in late-type spiral galaxies. If high-mass stars produce spherical shock waves which induce star formation, new high-mass stars will be born which, in turn, produce new shock waves. When this process operates in a differentially rotating disk, our numerical model shows that large-scale spiral-shaped regions of star formation are built up. The structure is seen to be most sensitive to a parameter which governs how often a region of the interstellar medium can undergo star formation. For a proper choice of this parameter, large-scale features disappear before differential rotation winds them up. New spiral features continuously form, so some spiral structure is seen indefinitely. The structure is not the classical two-armed symmetric spiral pattern which the density-wave theory attempts to explain, but it is asymmetric and disorderly.The mechanism of propagating star formation used in our model is consistent with observations which connect young OB associations with expanding shells of gas. We discuss the possible interaction of this mechanism with density waves

  13. How Objects Shape Logics in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse

    2011-01-01

    The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study of the constr......The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....

  14. Irregular radiation response of a chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, J.J.; Kember, N.F.; Shaw, J.E.H.

    1980-01-01

    The DC II mouse chondrosarcoma was shown to be a potentially valuable radiobiological tumour system since it recovered from radiation injury by regrowth from clones that could be counted in histological sections. Unfortunately, the normal growth of this tumour following s.c. implantation in the thigh was irregular both in the time before growth became evident and in the rate of growth. The response to radiation was also unreliable since tumours irradiated with the same dose (e.g. 30 Gy) showed a range of responses from shrinkage to no detectable change in growth rate. The delay in normal growth can be attributed largely to delays in vascularization while changes in growth rate may be explained by differences in tumour architecture. Radiation response may depend on variations in hypoxic fraction and in relative cellularity. Tumours having the same external dimensions may differ by a factor of 80 in the numbers of tumour cells they contain. This chondrosarcoma may prove a closer model to some human tumours than many transplantable tumours that display regular growth patterns. (author)

  15. Regularities and irregularities in order flow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theissen, Martin; Krause, Sebastian M.; Guhr, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    We identify and analyze statistical regularities and irregularities in the recent order flow of different NASDAQ stocks, focusing on the positions where orders are placed in the order book. This includes limit orders being placed outside of the spread, inside the spread and (effective) market orders. Based on the pairwise comparison of the order flow of different stocks, we perform a clustering of stocks into groups with similar behavior. This is useful to assess systemic aspects of stock price dynamics. We find that limit order placement inside the spread is strongly determined by the dynamics of the spread size. Most orders, however, arrive outside of the spread. While for some stocks order placement on or next to the quotes is dominating, deeper price levels are more important for other stocks. As market orders are usually adjusted to the quote volume, the impact of market orders depends on the order book structure, which we find to be quite diverse among the analyzed stocks as a result of the way limit order placement takes place.

  16. Design strategies for irregularly adapting parallel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Sing, Jaswinder Pal

    2000-01-01

    Achieving scalable performance for dynamic irregular applications is eminently challenging. Traditional message-passing approaches have been making steady progress towards this goal; however, they suffer from complex implementation requirements. The use of a global address space greatly simplifies the programming task, but can degrade the performance of dynamically adapting computations. In this work, we examine two major classes of adaptive applications, under five competing programming methodologies and four leading parallel architectures. Results indicate that it is possible to achieve message-passing performance using shared-memory programming techniques by carefully following the same high level strategies. Adaptive applications have computational work loads and communication patterns which change unpredictably at runtime, requiring dynamic load balancing to achieve scalable performance on parallel machines. Efficient parallel implementations of such adaptive applications are therefore a challenging task. This work examines the implementation of two typical adaptive applications, Dynamic Remeshing and N-Body, across various programming paradigms and architectural platforms. We compare several critical factors of the parallel code development, including performance, programmability, scalability, algorithmic development, and portability

  17. Multiresolution Analysis Adapted to Irregularly Spaced Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anissa Mokraoui

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mathematical background of multiresolution analysis in the specific context where the signal is represented by irregularly sampled data at known locations. The study is related to the construction of nested piecewise polynomial multiresolution spaces represented by their corresponding orthonormal bases. Using simple spline basis orthonormalization procedures involves the construction of a large family of orthonormal spline scaling bases defined on consecutive bounded intervals. However, if no more additional conditions than those coming from multiresolution are imposed on each bounded interval, the orthonormal basis is represented by a set of discontinuous scaling functions. The spline wavelet basis also has the same problem. Moreover, the dimension of the corresponding wavelet basis increases with the spline degree. An appropriate orthonormalization procedure of the basic spline space basis, whatever the degree of the spline, allows us to (i provide continuous scaling and wavelet functions, (ii reduce the number of wavelets to only one, and (iii reduce the complexity of the filter bank. Examples of the multiresolution implementations illustrate that the main important features of the traditional multiresolution are also satisfied.

  18. Resolution optimization with irregularly sampled Fourier data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, Matthew; Parker, Jason T; Cheney, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Image acquisition systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and magnetic resonance imaging often measure irregularly spaced Fourier samples of the desired image. In this paper we show the relationship between sample locations, their associated backprojection weights, and image resolution as characterized by the resulting point spread function (PSF). Two new methods for computing data weights, based on different optimization criteria, are proposed. The first method, which solves a maximal-eigenvector problem, optimizes a PSF-derived resolution metric which is shown to be equivalent to the volume of the Cramer–Rao (positional) error ellipsoid in the uniform-weight case. The second approach utilizes as its performance metric the Frobenius error between the PSF operator and the ideal delta function, and is an extension of a previously reported algorithm. Our proposed extension appropriately regularizes the weight estimates in the presence of noisy data and eliminates the superfluous issue of image discretization in the choice of data weights. The Frobenius-error approach results in a Tikhonov-regularized inverse problem whose Tikhonov weights are dependent on the locations of the Fourier data as well as the noise variance. The two new methods are compared against several state-of-the-art weighting strategies for synthetic multistatic point-scatterer data, as well as an ‘interrupted SAR’ dataset representative of in-band interference commonly encountered in very high frequency radar applications. (paper)

  19. 14 CFR 135.65 - Reporting mechanical irregularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... irregularities and their correction. (b) The pilot in command shall enter or have entered in the aircraft maintenance log each mechanical irregularity that comes to the pilot's attention during flight time. Before each flight, the pilot in command shall, if the pilot does not already know, determine the status of...

  20. Software support for irregular and loosely synchronous problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, A.; Fox, G.; Hiranandani, S.; Kennedy, K.; Koelbel, C.; Ranka, S.; Saltz, J.

    1992-01-01

    A large class of scientific and engineering applications may be classified as irregular and loosely synchronous from the perspective of parallel processing. We present a partial classification of such problems. This classification has motivated us to enhance FORTRAN D to provide language support for irregular, loosely synchronous problems. We present techniques for parallelization of such problems in the context of FORTRAN D.

  1. Regularisation of irregular verbs in child English second language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected from the language of English medium preschool children. The study concludes that when the Blocking Principle interferes, children resort to a novel interlanguage rule that regularises irregular verbs. This interlanguage rule applies in a similar way to all irregular verbs, thus children produce utterances ...

  2. Shaping-lathe headrig now commercially available

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Koch

    1975-01-01

    On September 12, 1975, twenty-five sawmillers from throughout North America watched as a new headrig produced cants of various shapes and a usable residue of flakes from logs of irregular contour. The demonstration at the Stetson-Ross plant in Seattle, Washington, was the unveiling of the commercial model of a design introduced by the Southern Forest Experiment Station...

  3. Irregular conformal block, spectral curve and flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Kwan; Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Irregular conformal block is motivated by the Argyres-Douglas type of N=2 super conformal gauge theory. We investigate the classical/NS limit of irregular conformal block using the spectral curve on a Riemann surface with irregular punctures, which is equivalent to the loop equation of irregular matrix model. The spectral curve is reduced to the second order (Virasoro symmetry, SU(2) for the gauge theory) and third order (W_3 symmetry, SU(3)) differential equations of a polynomial with finite degree. The conformal and W symmetry generate the flow equations in the spectral curve and determine the irregular conformal block, hence the partition function of the Argyres-Douglas theory ala AGT conjecture.

  4. The calculation of relative output factor and depth dose for irregular electron fields in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunscombe, Peter; McGhee, Peter; Chu, Terence

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A technique, based on sector integration and interpolation, has been developed for the computation of both relative output factor and depth dose of irregular electron fields in water. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum experimental data set required for the technique to yield results within accepted dosimetric tolerances. Materials and Methods: PC based software has been written to perform the calculations necessary to dosimetrically characterize irregular shaped electron fields. The field outline is entered via digitiser and the SSD and energy via the keyboard. The irregular field is segmented into sectors of specified angle (2 deg. was used for this study) and the radius of each sector computed. The central ray depth dose is reconstructed by summing the contributions from each sector deduced from calibration depth doses measured for circular fields. Relative output factors and depth doses at SSDs at which calibrations were not performed are found by interpolation. Calibration data were measured for circular fields from 2 to 9 cm diameter at 100, 105, 110, and 115 cm SSD. A clinical cut out can be characterized in less than 2 minutes including entry of the outline using this software. The performance of the technique was evaluated by comparing calculated relative output factors, surface dose and the locations of d 80 , d 50 and d 20 with experimental measurements on a variety of cut out shapes at 9 and 18 MeV. The calibration data set (derived from circular cut outs) was systematically reduced to identify the minimum required to yield an accuracy consistent with current recommendations. Results: The figure illustrates the ability of the technique to calculate the depth dose for an irregular field (shown in the insert). It was found that to achieve an accuracy of 2% in relative output factor and 2% or 2 mm (our criterion) in percentage depth dose, calibration data from five circular fields at the four SSDs spanning the range 100-115 cm

  5. Star Formation Histories of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Evan

    1995-07-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFPC2 `BVI' color-magnitude diagrams {CMDs} for the dwarf irregular {dI} Local Group galaxies GR 8, Leo A, Pegasus, and Sextans A. In addition to resolved stars, we will use star clusters, and especially any globulars, to probe the history of intense star formation. These data will allow us to map the Pop I and Pop II stellar components, and thereby construct the first detailed star formation histories for non-interacting dI galaxies. Our results will bear on a variety of astrophysical problems, including the evolution of small galaxies, distances in the Local Group, age-metallicity distributions in small galaxies, ages of dIs, and the physics of star formation. The four target galaxies are typical dI systems in terms of luminosity, gas content, and H II region abundance, and represent a range in current star forming activity. They are sufficiently near to allow us to reach to stars at M_V = 0, have 0.1 of the luminosity of the SMC and 0.25 of its oxygen abundance. Unlike the SMC, these dIs are not near giant galaxies. This project will allow the extension of our knowledge of stellar populations in star forming galaxies from the spirals in the Local Group down to its smallest members. We plan to take maximum advantage of the unique data which this project will provide. Our investigator team brings extensive and varied experience in studies of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations, imaging photometry, and stellar evolution to this project.

  6. Gait Characteristics Associated with Trip-Induced Falls on Level and Sloped Irregular Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Merryweather

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Same level falls continue to contribute to an alarming number of slip/trip/fall injuries in the mining workforce. The objective of this study was to investigate how walking on different surface types and transverse slopes influences gait parameters that may be associated with a trip event. Gait analysis was performed for ten subjects on two orientations (level and sloped on smooth, hard surface (control and irregular (gravel, larger rocks surfaces. Walking on irregular surfaces significantly increased toe clearance compared to walking on the smooth surface. There was a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in cadence (steps/min, stride length (m, and speed (m/s from control to gravel to larger rocks. Significant changes in external rotation and increased knee flexion while walking on irregular surfaces were observed. Toe and heel clearance requirements increased on irregular surfaces, which may provide an explanation for trip-induced falls; however, the gait alterations observed in the experienced workers used as subjects would likely improve stability and recovery from a trip.

  7. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Min; Han, Kyungdo; Chung, Youn Jee; Yoon, Kun Ho; Park, Yong Gyu; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-06-01

    Menstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women. A total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity. Significantly higher ORs (95% CI) were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48) and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86) after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity. We found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  8. Association between Body Weight Changes and Menstrual Irregularity: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Min Ko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMenstrual irregularity is an indicator of endocrine disorders and reproductive health status. It is associated with various diseases and medical conditions, including obesity and underweight. We aimed to assess the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity in Korean women.MethodsA total of 4,621 women 19 to 54 years of age who participated in the 2010 to 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect medical information assessing menstrual health status and body weight changes. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated to evaluate the association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity.ResultsSignificantly higher ORs (95% CI were observed in the association between menstrual irregularity and both weight loss (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.48 and weight gain (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86 after adjusting for age, body mass index, current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking, regular exercise, calorie intake, education, income, metabolic syndrome, age of menarche, parity, and stress perception. Of note, significant associations were only observed in subjects with obesity and abdominal obesity, but not in non-obese or non-abdominally obese subjects. U-shaped patterns were demonstrated in both obese and abdominally obese subjects, indicating that greater changes in body weight are associated with higher odds of menstrual irregularity.ConclusionWe found a U-shaped pattern of association between body weight changes and menstrual irregularity among obese women in the general Korean population. This result indicates that not only proper weight management but also changes in body weight may influence the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

  9. The shape of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    For the class of nuclei which are 'strongly deformed' it is possible to introduce the idea of an empirically measurable static nuclear shape. The limitations of this concept as applied to nuclei (fundamentally quantum-mechanical objects) are discussed. These are basically the limitations of the rotational model which must be introduced in order to define and measure nuclear shape. A unified discussion of the ways in which the shape has been parametrized is given with emphasis on the fact that different parametrizations correspond to different nuclear structures. Accounts of the various theoretical procedures for calculating nuclear shapes and of the interaction between nuclear shapes and nuclear spectroscopy are given. A coherent account of a large subset of nuclei (strongly deformed nuclei) can be given by means of a model in which the concept of nuclear shape plays a central role. (author)

  10. TINITALY/01: a new Triangular Irregular Network of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Pareschi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Elevation Model (DEM of the natural landforms of Italy is presented. A methodology is discussed to build a DEM over wide areas where elevation data from non-homogeneous (in density and accuracy input sources are available. The input elevation data include contour lines and spot heights derived from the Italian Regional topographic maps, satellite-based global positioning system points, ground based and radar altimetry data. Owing to the great heterogeneity of the input data density, the DEM format that better preserves the original accuracy is a Triangular Irregular Network (TIN. A Delaunay-based TIN structure is improved by using the DEST algorithm that enhances input data by evaluating inferred break-lines. Accordingly to this approach, biased distributions in slopes and elevations are absent. To prevent discontinuities at the boundary between regions characterized by data with different resolution a cubic Hermite blending weight S-shaped function is adopted. The TIN of Italy consists of 1.39×109 triangles. The average triangle area ranges from 12 to about 13000 m2 accordingly to different morphologies and different sources. About 50% of the model has a local average triangle area <500 m2. The vertical accuracy of the obtained DEM is evaluated by more than 200000 sparse control points. The overall Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is less than 3.5 m. The obtained national-scale DEM constitutes an useful support to carry out accurate geomorphological and geological investigations over large areas. The problem of choosing the best step size in deriving a grid from a TIN is then discussed and a method to quantify the loss of vertical information is presented as a function of the grid step. Some examples of DEM application are outlined. Under request, an high resolution stereo image database of the whole Italian territory (derived from the presented DEM is available to browse via internet.

  11. A simple homogeneous model for regular and irregular metallic wire media samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosulnikov, S. Y.; Mirmoosa, M. S.; Simovski, C. R.

    2018-02-01

    To simplify the solution of electromagnetic problems with wire media samples, it is reasonable to treat them as the samples of a homogeneous material without spatial dispersion. The account of spatial dispersion implies additional boundary conditions and makes the solution of boundary problems difficult especially if the sample is not an infinitely extended layer. Moreover, for a novel type of wire media - arrays of randomly tilted wires - a spatially dispersive model has not been developed. Here, we introduce a simplistic heuristic model of wire media samples shaped as bricks. Our model covers WM of both regularly and irregularly stretched wires.

  12. HII regions in IC 1613: The ISM in a nearby dwarf irregular galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Mason, Stephen F.; Gullixson, Craig A.

    1990-01-01

    IC 1613, a nearby (725 kpc distant) dwarf irregular galaxy, has always been known to contain large, ring-shaped HII regions in its northeast corner. A new H alpha image has been obtained using the Bell Labs Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, an RCA 320 X 512 pixel-thinned, back-illuminated CCD, an H alpha filter of central wavelength 6562 A and width (full width half maximum) of 30 A, and the 42 inch telescope at Lowell Observatory. The low resolution images exhibit many new, faint features.

  13. Nickel powders shape effect upon their isostatic compaction behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytermann, R.; Auguin, B.; Defresne, A.; Gilles, P.

    1975-01-01

    Two carbonyl nickel powders of the same purity, one spherical, the other of very irregular shape, were isostatically compacted at pressures from 0.5 to 13Kbars with two compacting speeds: 1Kbar/s and 1Kbar/15s. The influence of the powder shapes on the electrical resistivity, tensile strength and microcalorimetric measurements was studied [fr

  14. Surface Irregularity Factor as a Parameter to Evaluate the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an optical non-contact technique to evaluate the fatigue damage state of CFRP structures measuring the irregularity factor of the surface. This factor includes information about surface topology and can be measured easily on field, by techniques such as optical perfilometers. The surface irregularity factor has been correlated with stiffness degradation, which is a well-accepted parameter for the evaluation of the fatigue damage state of composite materials. Constant amplitude fatigue loads (CAL) and realistic variable amplitude loads (VAL), representative of real in- flight conditions, have been applied to “dog bone” shaped tensile specimens. It has been shown that the measurement of the surface irregularity parameters can be applied to evaluate the damage state of a structure, and that it is independent of the type of fatigue load that has caused the damage. As a result, this measurement technique is applicable for a wide range of inspections of composite material structures, from pressurized tanks with constant amplitude loads, to variable amplitude loaded aeronautical structures such as wings and empennages, up to automotive and other industrial applications. PMID:28793655

  15. Surface Irregularity Factor as a Parameter to Evaluate the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Zuluaga-Ramírez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an optical non-contact technique to evaluate the fatigue damage state of CFRP structures measuring the irregularity factor of the surface. This factor includes information about surface topology and can be measured easily on field, by techniques such as optical perfilometers. The surface irregularity factor has been correlated with stiffness degradation, which is a well-accepted parameter for the evaluation of the fatigue damage state of composite materials. Constant amplitude fatigue loads (CAL and realistic variable amplitude loads (VAL, representative of real in- flight conditions, have been applied to “dog bone” shaped tensile specimens. It has been shown that the measurement of the surface irregularity parameters can be applied to evaluate the damage state of a structure, and that it is independent of the type of fatigue load that has caused the damage. As a result, this measurement technique is applicable for a wide range of inspections of composite material structures, from pressurized tanks with constant amplitude loads, to variable amplitude loaded aeronautical structures such as wings and empennages, up to automotive and other industrial applications.

  16. A novel method of the image processing on irregular triangular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnyakov, Sergey; Pekhterev, Vitaliy; Sokolova, Elizaveta

    2018-04-01

    The paper describes a novel method of the image processing based on irregular triangular meshes implementation. The triangular mesh is adaptive to the image content, least mean square linear approximation is proposed for the basic interpolation within the triangle. It is proposed to use triangular numbers to simplify using of the local (barycentric) coordinates for the further analysis - triangular element of the initial irregular mesh is to be represented through the set of the four equilateral triangles. This allows to use fast and simple pixels indexing in local coordinates, e.g. "for" or "while" loops for access to the pixels. Moreover, representation proposed allows to use discrete cosine transform of the simple "rectangular" symmetric form without additional pixels reordering (as it is used for shape-adaptive DCT forms). Furthermore, this approach leads to the simple form of the wavelet transform on triangular mesh. The results of the method application are presented. It is shown that advantage of the method proposed is a combination of the flexibility of the image-adaptive irregular meshes with the simple form of the pixel indexing in local triangular coordinates and the using of the common forms of the discrete transforms for triangular meshes. Method described is proposed for the image compression, pattern recognition, image quality improvement, image search and indexing. It also may be used as a part of video coding (intra-frame or inter-frame coding, motion detection).

  17. Effects of irregular-shift work and physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the putative effect of type of shift and its interaction with leisure-time physical activity on cardiovascular risk factors in truck drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken on 57 male truck drivers working at a transportation company, of whom 31 worked irregular shifts and 26 worked on the day-shift. Participants recorded their physical activity using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire along with measurements of blood pressure, body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Participants also provided a fasting blood sample for analysis of lipid-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using a factorial model which was covariate-controlled for age, smoking, work demand, control at work and social support. RESULTS: Most of the irregular-shift and day-shift workers worked more than 8 hours per day (67.7% and 73.1%, respectively. The mean duration of experience working the irregular schedule was 15.7 years. Day-shift workers had never engaged in irregular-shift work and had been working as a truck driver for 10.8 years on average. The irregular-shift drivers had lower work demand but less control compared to day-shift drivers (p < 0.05. Moderately-active irregular-shift workers had higher systolic and diastolic arterial pressures (143.7 and 93.2 mmHg, respectively than moderately-active day-shift workers (116 and 73.3 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.05 as well as higher total cholesterol concentrations (232.1 and 145 mg/dl, respectively (p = 0.01. Irrespective of their physical activity, irregular-shift drivers had higher total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations (211.8 and 135.7 mg/dl, respectively than day-shift workers (161.9 and 96.7 mg/dl, respectively (ANCOVA, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Truck drivers are exposed to cardiovascular risk factors due to the characteristics of the job, such as high work demand, long working hours and time in this profession, regardless of shift type or leisure-time physical

  18. The effect of earthquake on architecture geometry with non-parallel system irregularity configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddy, Livian; Hardiman, Gagoek; Nuroji; Tudjono, Sri

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is an area prone to earthquake that may cause casualties and damage to buildings. The fatalities or the injured are not largely caused by the earthquake, but by building collapse. The collapse of the building is resulted from the building behaviour against the earthquake, and it depends on many factors, such as architectural design, geometry configuration of structural elements in horizontal and vertical plans, earthquake zone, geographical location (distance to earthquake center), soil type, material quality, and construction quality. One of the geometry configurations that may lead to the collapse of the building is irregular configuration of non-parallel system. In accordance with FEMA-451B, irregular configuration in non-parallel system is defined to have existed if the vertical lateral force-retaining elements are neither parallel nor symmetric with main orthogonal axes of the earthquake-retaining axis system. Such configuration may lead to torque, diagonal translation and local damage to buildings. It does not mean that non-parallel irregular configuration should not be formed on architectural design; however the designer must know the consequence of earthquake behaviour against buildings with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research has the objective to identify earthquake behaviour in architectural geometry with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research was quantitative with simulation experimental method. It consisted of 5 models, where architectural data and model structure data were inputted and analyzed using the software SAP2000 in order to find out its performance, and ETAB2015 to determine the eccentricity occurred. The output of the software analysis was tabulated, graphed, compared and analyzed with relevant theories. For areas of strong earthquake zones, avoid designing buildings which wholly form irregular configuration of non-parallel system. If it is inevitable to design a

  19. Traffic dispersion through a series of signals with irregular split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We study the traffic behavior of a group of vehicles moving through a sequence of signals with irregular splits on a roadway. We present the stochastic model of vehicular traffic controlled by signals. The dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic is clarified by analyzing traffic pattern and travel time numerically. The group of vehicles breaks up more and more by the irregularity of signal's split. The traffic dispersion is induced by the irregular split. We show that the traffic dispersion depends highly on the cycle time and the strength of split's irregularity. Also, we study the traffic behavior through the series of signals at the green-wave strategy. The dependence of the travel time on offset time is derived for various values of cycle time. The region map of the traffic dispersion is shown in (cycle time, offset time)-space.

  20. Irregular Warfare: Impact on Future Professional Military Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschal, David G

    2006-01-01

    ... to operate effectively in an irregular warfare environment. The utility of a decisive war between nation states continues to decline and will eventually reach critical mass based upon the extreme imbalance of military power and a U.S. monopoly...

  1. Irregular Warfare: Special Operations Joint Professional Military Education Transformation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cannady, Bryan H

    2008-01-01

    ... on today's battlefront in Afghanistan and Iraq and in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). At the forefront of the GWOT and irregular warfare are the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM...

  2. Drug Intoxicated Irregular Fighters: Complications, Dangers, and Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Paul R

    2008-01-01

    .... Drug consumption in contemporary wars has coincided with the use of child soldiers, has led to increased unpredictability among irregular fighters, provided the conditions for the breakdown of social...

  3. Justice: A Problem for Military Ethics during Irregular War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, John W

    2008-01-01

    ... is?" or "Justice according to whom?" The relative nature of the term "justice" creates a problem for military ethics, particularly when soldiers try to determine what actions are morally acceptable when they are engaged in irregular warfare...

  4. Irregular Warfare: New Challenges for Civil-Military Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Patrick M

    2008-01-01

    .... Irregular warfare introduces new complications to what Eliot Cohen has called an unequal dialogue between civilian and military leaders in which civilian leaders hold the true power but must modulate...

  5. Role of parametric decay instabilities in generating ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.P.; Cheo, B.R.; Lee, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    We show that purely growing instabilities driven by the saturation spectrum of parametric decay instabilities can produce a broad spectrum of ionospheric irregularities. The threshold field Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Bar of the instabilities decreases with the scale lengths lambda of the ionospheric irregularities as Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Barproportionallambda -2 in the small-scale range ( -2 with scale lengths larger than a few kilometers. The excitation of kilometer-scale irregularities is strictly restricted by the instabilities themselves and by the spatial inhomogeneity of the medium. These results are drawn from the analyses of four-wave interaction. Ion-neutral collisions impose no net effect on the instabilities when the excited ionospheric irregularities have a field-aligned nature

  6. Shape evolution of a melting nonspherical particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintea, Daniel M.; Hauk, Tobias; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron

    2015-09-01

    In this study melting of irregular ice crystals was observed in an acoustic levitator. The evolution of the particle shape is captured using a high-speed video system. Several typical phenomena have been discovered: change of the particle shape, appearance of a capillary flow of the melted liquid on the particle surface leading to liquid collection at the particle midsection (where the interface curvature is smallest), and appearance of sharp cusps at the particle tips. No such phenomena can be observed during melting of spherical particles. An approximate theoretical model is developed which accounts for the main physical phenomena associated with melting of an irregular particle. The agreement between the theoretical predictions for the melting time, for the evolution of the particle shape, and the corresponding experimental data is rather good.

  7. METAL ABUNDANCES OF 12 DWARF IRREGULARS FROM THE ADBS SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 E. Third St., Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Rosenberg, Jessica, E-mail: nhaurber@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jrosenb4@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Science, George Mason University, MS 3F3, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We have analyzed long-slit spectra of 12 dwarf irregular galaxies from the Arecibo Dual Beam Survey (ADBS). These galaxies represent a heterogeneous sample of objects detected by ADBS, but on average are relatively gas-rich, low-surface-brightness, and low-mass, thus represent a region of the galaxian population that is not commonly included in optical surveys. The metallicity-luminosity relationship for these galaxies is analyzed; the galaxies discussed in this paper appear to be under-abundant at a given luminosity when compared to a sample from the literature. We attempt to identify a 'second parameter' responsible for the intrinsic scatter and apparent under-abundance of our galaxies. We do not find a definitive second parameter but note the possible indication that infall or mixing of pristine gas may be responsible. We derive oxygen abundances for multiple H II regions in many of our galaxies but do not find any strong indications of metallicity variation within the galaxies except in one case where we see variation between an isolated H II region and the rest of the galaxy. Our data set includes the galaxy with the largest known H I-to-optical size ratio, ADBS 113845+2008. Our abundance analysis of this galaxy reveals that it is strongly over-enriched compared to galaxies of similar luminosity, indicating it is not a young object and confirming the result from Cannon et al. that this galaxy appears to be intrinsically rare in the local universe.

  8. Edge irregular total labellings for graphs of linear size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Miškuf, J.

    2009-01-01

    As an edge variant of the well-known irregularity strength of a graph G = (V, E) we investigate edge irregular total labellings, i.e. functions f : V ∪ E → {1, 2, ..., k} such that f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) ≠ f (u) + f (u v) + f (v) for every pair of different edges u v, u v ∈ E. The smallest possi...

  9. Design Optimization of Irregular Cellular Structure for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-Hua; Jing, Shi-Kai; Zhao, Fang-Lei; Wang, Ye-Dong; Xing, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Tao

    2017-09-01

    Irregularcellular structurehas great potential to be considered in light-weight design field. However, the research on optimizing irregular cellular structures has not yet been reporteddue to the difficulties in their modeling technology. Based on the variable density topology optimization theory, an efficient method for optimizing the topology of irregular cellular structures fabricated through additive manufacturing processes is proposed. The proposed method utilizes tangent circles to automatically generate the main outline of irregular cellular structure. The topological layoutof each cellstructure is optimized using the relative density informationobtained from the proposed modified SIMP method. A mapping relationship between cell structure and relative densityelement is builtto determine the diameter of each cell structure. The results show that the irregular cellular structure can be optimized with the proposed method. The results of simulation and experimental test are similar for irregular cellular structure, which indicate that the maximum deformation value obtained using the modified Solid Isotropic Microstructures with Penalization (SIMP) approach is lower 5.4×10-5 mm than that using the SIMP approach under the same under the same external load. The proposed research provides the instruction to design the other irregular cellular structure.

  10. Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars Probed by MARSIS Topside Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.

    2018-01-01

    The upper ionosphere of Mars contains a variety of perturbations driven by solar wind forcing from above and upward propagating atmospheric waves from below. Here we explore the global distribution and variability of ionospheric irregularities around the exobase at Mars by analyzing topside sounding data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express. As irregular structure gives rise to off-vertical echoes with excess propagation time, the diffuseness of ionospheric echo traces can be used as a diagnostic tool for perturbed reflection surfaces. The observed properties of diffuse echoes above unmagnetized regions suggest that ionospheric irregularities with horizontal wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers are particularly enhanced in the winter hemisphere and at high solar zenith angles. Given the known inverse dependence of neutral gravity wave amplitudes on the background atmospheric temperature, the ionospheric irregularities probed by MARSIS are most likely associated with plasma perturbations driven by atmospheric gravity waves. Though extreme events with unusually diffuse echoes are more frequently observed for high solar wind dynamic pressures during some time intervals, the vast majority of the diffuse echo events are unaffected by varying solar wind conditions, implying limited influence of solar wind forcing on the generation of ionospheric irregularities. Combination of remote and in situ measurements of ionospheric irregularities would offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the ionospheric dynamics at Mars.

  11. Canonical Skeletons for Shape Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eede, M. van; Macrini, D.; Telea, A.; Sminchisescu, C.; Dickinson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal representations of 2-D shape, including shock graphs, have become increasingly popular for shape matching and object recognition. However, it is well known that skeletal structure can be unstable under minor boundary deformation, part articulation, and minor shape deformation (due to, for

  12. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  13. Circular blurred shape model for multiclass symbol recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Fornés, Alicia; Pujol, Oriol; Lladós, Josep; Radeva, Petia

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a circular blurred shape model descriptor to deal with the problem of symbol detection and classification as a particular case of object recognition. The feature extraction is performed by capturing the spatial arrangement of significant object characteristics in a correlogram structure. The shape information from objects is shared among correlogram regions, where a prior blurring degree defines the level of distortion allowed in the symbol, making the descriptor tolerant to irregular deformations. Moreover, the descriptor is rotation invariant by definition. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed descriptor in both the multiclass symbol recognition and symbol detection domains. In order to perform the symbol detection, the descriptors are learned using a cascade of classifiers. In the case of multiclass categorization, the new feature space is learned using a set of binary classifiers which are embedded in an error-correcting output code design. The results over four symbol data sets show the significant improvements of the proposed descriptor compared to the state-of-the-art descriptors. In particular, the results are even more significant in those cases where the symbols suffer from elastic deformations.

  14. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  15. Modeling the variability of shapes of a human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampolsky, M; Salafia, C M; Shlakhter, O; Haas, D; Eucker, B; Thorp, J

    2008-09-01

    Placentas are generally round/oval in shape, but "irregular" shapes are common. In the Collaborative Perinatal Project data, irregular shapes were associated with lower birth weight for placental weight, suggesting variably shaped placentas have altered function. (I) Using a 3D one-parameter model of placental vascular growth based on Diffusion Limited Aggregation (an accepted model for generating highly branched fractals), models were run with a branching density growth parameter either fixed or perturbed at either 5-7% or 50% of model growth. (II) In a data set with detailed measures of 1207 placental perimeters, radial standard deviations of placental shapes were calculated from the umbilical cord insertion, and from the centroid of the shape (a biologically arbitrary point). These two were compared to the difference between the observed scaling exponent and the Kleiber scaling exponent (0.75), considered optimal for vascular fractal transport systems. Spearman's rank correlation considered pcentroid) was associated with differences from the Kleiber exponent (p=0.006). A dynamical DLA model recapitulates multilobate and "star" placental shapes via changing fractal branching density. We suggest that (1) irregular placental outlines reflect deformation of the underlying placental fractal vascular network, (2) such irregularities in placental outline indicate sub-optimal branching structure of the vascular tree, and (3) this accounts for the lower birth weight observed in non-round/oval placentas in the Collaborative Perinatal Project.

  16. Fatigue damage estimation using irregularity factor. First report, irregularity factor calculations for narrow and broadband random time histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, I.

    1981-11-01

    The results of an analysis of the irregularity factors of stationary and Gaussian random processes which are generated by filtering the output of a pure or a band-limited white noise are presented. An ideal band pass filter, a trapezoidal filter, and a Butterworth type band pass filter were examined. It was found that the values of the irregularity factors were approximately equal among these filters if only the end-slopes were the same rates. As the band width of filters increases, irregularity factors increase monotonically and approach the respective constant values depending on the end-slopes. This implies that the noise characteristics relevant to the fatigue damage such as statistical aspects of the height of the rise and fall or the distribution of the peak values are not changed for a broad band random time history. It was also found that the effect of band limitation of input white noise on irregularity factors is negligibly small.

  17. Academic Degradation and the Retreat of the Editors: Academic Irregularities and the Spreading of Academic Corruption from an Editor's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Gong

    2007-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the grave academic crisis in China, editors have become the objects of wooing, favor-currying, connections-seeking, and collusions; they have been targeted for attacks, plots, extortions, and encroachments. Editing and publishing have become avenues for academic irregularities and academic corruption. Editors have the power…

  18. Accuracy limits of the equivalent field method for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Dario Esteban

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical approach is developed to evaluate the accuracy of the equivalent field method using basic clinical photon beam data. This paper presents an analytical calculation of dose errors arising when field equivalencies, calculated at a certain reference depth, are translated to other depths. The phantom scatter summation is expressed as a Riemann-Stieltjes integral and two categories of irregular fields are introduced: uniform and multiform. It is shown that multiform fields produce errors whose magnitudes are nearly twice those corresponding to uniform fields in extreme situations. For uniform field shapes, the maximum, local, relative dose errors, when the equivalencies are calculated at 10 cm depth on the central axis and translated to a depth of 30 cm, are 3.8% and 8.8% for 6 MV and cobalt-60 photon beams, respectively. In terms of maximum dose those errors are within 1-2%. This supports the conclusion that the equivalencies between rectangular fields, which are examples of uniform fields, are applicable to dose ratio functions irrespective of beam energy. However, the magnitude of such errors could be of importance when assessing the exit dose for in vivo monitoring. This work provides a better understanding of the influence of the irregular field shapes on the accuracy of the equivalent field method. (author)

  19. Comparison of models and measurements of angle-resolved scatter from irregular aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, Adam B.; Richardson, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed and validated a method for modeling the elastic scattering properties of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape at near- and mid-wave infrared wavelengths. The method, based on Gaussian random particles, calculates the ensemble-average optical cross section and Mueller scattering matrix, using the measured aerodynamic size distribution and previously-reported refractive index as inputs. The utility of the Gaussian particle model is that it is controlled by only two parameters (σ and Γ) which we have optimized such that the model best reproduces the full angle-resolved Mueller scattering matrices measured at λ=1.55 µm in the Standoff Aerosol Active Signature Testbed (SAAST). The method has been applied to wet-generated singlet biological spore samples, dry-generated biological spore clusters, and kaolin. The scattering computation is performed using the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), which requires significant computational resources, and is thus implemented on LLGrid, a large parallel grid computer. For the cases presented, the best fit Gaussian particle model is in good qualitative correspondence with microscopy images of the corresponding class of particles. The measured and computed cross sections agree well within a factor of two overall, with certain cases bearing closer correspondence. In particular, the DDA reproduces the shape of the measured scatter function more accurately than Mie predictions. The DDA-computed depolarization factors are also in good agreement with measurement. - Highlights: • We model elastic scattering of biological and inert aerosols of irregular shape. • We calculate cross sections and Mueller matrix using random particle shape model. • Scatter models employ refractive index and measured size distribution as inputs. • Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) with parallelization enables model calculations. • DDA-modeled cross section and Mueller matrix agree well with measurements at 1.55 μm

  20. Multi-objective genetic algorithm based innovative wind farm layout optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Li, Hua; He, Bang; Wang, Pengcheng; Jin, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Innovative optimization procedures for both regular and irregular shape wind farm. • Using real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. • Using multiple-objective genetic algorithm optimization method. • Optimize the selection of different wind turbine types and their hub heights. - Abstract: Layout optimization has become one of the critical approaches to increase power output and decrease total cost of a wind farm. Previous researches have applied intelligent algorithms to optimizing the wind farm layout. However, those wind conditions used in most of previous research are simplified and not accurate enough to match the real world wind conditions. In this paper, the authors propose an innovative optimization method based on multi-objective genetic algorithm, and test it with real wind condition and commercial wind turbine parameters. Four case studies are conducted to investigate the number of wind turbines needed in the given wind farm. Different cost models are also considered in the case studies. The results clearly demonstrate that the new method is able to optimize the layout of a given wind farm with real commercial data and wind conditions in both regular and irregular shapes, and achieve a better result by selecting different type and hub height wind turbines.

  1. Irregular meal pattern-effects on energy expenditure, metabolism and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women

    OpenAIRE

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A.; Taylor, Moira A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health.\\ud Objective: We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women.\\ud Design: Eleven normal-weight women (18–40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial w...

  2. Two media method for linear attenuation coefficient determination of irregular soil samples; Metodo dos dois meios para a determinacao do coeficiente de atenuacao linear de amostras irregulares de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vici, Carlos Henrique Georges

    2004-07-01

    In several situations of nuclear applications, the knowledge of gamma-ray linear attenuation coefficient for irregular samples is necessary, such as in soil physics and geology. This work presents the validation of a methodology for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient ({mu}) of irregular shape samples, in such a way that it is not necessary to know the thickness of the considered sample. With this methodology irregular soil samples (undeformed field samples) from Londrina region, north of Parana were studied. It was employed the two media method for the {mu} determination. It consists of the {mu} determination through the measurement of a gamma-ray beam attenuation by the sample sequentially immersed in two different media, with known and appropriately chosen attenuation coefficients. For comparison, the theoretical value of {mu} was calculated by the product of the mass attenuation coefficient, obtained by the WinXcom code, and the measured value of the density sample. This software employs the chemical composition of the samples and supplies a table of the mass attenuation coefficients versus the photon energy. To verify the validity of the two media method, compared with the simple gamma ray transmission method, regular pome stone samples were used. With these results for the attenuation coefficients and their respective deviations, it was possible to compare the two methods. In this way we concluded that the two media method is a good tool for the determination of the linear attenuation coefficient of irregular materials, particularly in the study of soils samples. (author)

  3. Continuum Models for Irregular Phase Boundary Motion in Shape-Memory Tensile Bars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosakis, Phoebus

    1997-01-01

    ... observed experimentally. We show that when the model involves a kinetic relation that is 'unstable' in a definite sense, 'stick-slip' motion of the interface between phases and serration of the accompanying stress-elongation...

  4. Geostatistical regularization operators for geophysical inverse problems on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, C.; Doetsch, J.; Günther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J. OA

    2018-05-01

    Irregular meshes allow to include complicated subsurface structures into geophysical modelling and inverse problems. The non-uniqueness of these inverse problems requires appropriate regularization that can incorporate a priori information. However, defining regularization operators for irregular discretizations is not trivial. Different schemes for calculating smoothness operators on irregular meshes have been proposed. In contrast to classical regularization constraints that are only defined using the nearest neighbours of a cell, geostatistical operators include a larger neighbourhood around a particular cell. A correlation model defines the extent of the neighbourhood and allows to incorporate information about geological structures. We propose an approach to calculate geostatistical operators for inverse problems on irregular meshes by eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix that contains the a priori geological information. Using our approach, the calculation of the operator matrix becomes tractable for 3-D inverse problems on irregular meshes. We tested the performance of the geostatistical regularization operators and compared them against the results of anisotropic smoothing in inversions of 2-D surface synthetic electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as well as in the inversion of a realistic 3-D cross-well synthetic ERT scenario. The inversions of 2-D ERT and seismic traveltime field data with geostatistical regularization provide results that are in good accordance with the expected geology and thus facilitate their interpretation. In particular, for layered structures the geostatistical regularization provides geologically more plausible results compared to the anisotropic smoothness constraints.

  5. Total edge irregularity strength of (n,t)-kite graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarsih, Tri; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a simple, connected, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ :V(G)\\cup E(G)\\to \\{1,2,\\ldots,k\\} of a graph G is a labeling of vertices and edges of G in such a way that for any different edges e and f, weights wt(e) and wt(f) are distinct. The weight wt(e) of an edge e = xy is the sum of the labels of vertices x and y and the label of the edge e. The total edge irregularity strength of G, tes(G), is defined as the minimum k for which a graph G has an edge irregular total k-labeling. An (n, t)-kite graph consist of a cycle of length n with a t-edge path (the tail) attached to one vertex of a cycle. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph, with n > 3 and t > 1. We obtain the total edge irregularity strength of the (n, t)-kite graph is tes((n, t)-kite) = \\lceil \\frac{n+t+2}{3}\\rceil .

  6. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  7. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  8. On the Automatic Parallelization of Sparse and Irregular Fortran Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic parallelization is usually believed to be less effective at exploiting implicit parallelism in sparse/irregular programs than in their dense/regular counterparts. However, not much is really known because there have been few research reports on this topic. In this work, we have studied the possibility of using an automatic parallelizing compiler to detect the parallelism in sparse/irregular programs. The study with a collection of sparse/irregular programs led us to some common loop patterns. Based on these patterns new techniques were derived that produced good speedups when manually applied to our benchmark codes. More importantly, these parallelization methods can be implemented in a parallelizing compiler and can be applied automatically.

  9. Measurement of Dynamic Friction Coefficient on the Irregular Free Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, S. H.; Seo, K. S.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, K. H.

    2007-01-01

    A spent fuel storage cask must be estimated for a structural integrity when an earthquake occurs because it freely stands on ground surface without a restriction condition. Usually the integrity estimation for a seismic load is performed by a FEM analysis, the friction coefficient for a standing surface is an important parameter in seismic analysis when a sliding happens. When a storage cask is placed on an irregular ground surface, measuring a friction coefficient of an irregular surface is very difficult because the friction coefficient is affected by the surface condition. In this research, dynamic friction coefficients on the irregular surfaces between a concrete cylinder block and a flat concrete slab are measured with two methods by one direction actuator

  10. Bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, C. E.; Hanson, W. B.; Mcclure, J. P.; Cragin, B. L.

    1983-01-01

    By using the Ogo 6 satellite, McClure and Hanson (1973) have discovered sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region ion number density. In the present investigation, a description is provided of the properties of a distinct category of sinusoidal irregularities found in equatorial data from the AE-C and AE-E satellites. The observed scale sizes vary from about 300 m to 3 km in the direction perpendicular to B, overlapping with and extending the range observed by using Ogo 6. Attention is given to low and high resolution data, a comparison with Huancayo ionograms, the confinement of 'bottomside sinusoidal' (BSS) irregularities essentially to the bottomside of the F layer, spectral characteristics, and BSS, scintillation, and ionosonde observations.

  11. Irregular flowering patterns in terrestrial orchids: theories vs. empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kindlmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on many species of terrestrial orchids suggest that their between-year flowering pattern is extremely irregular and unpredictable. A long search for the reason has hitherto proved inconclusive. Here we summarise and critically review the hypotheses that were put forward as explanations of this phenomenon: irregular flowering was attributed to costs associated with sexual reproduction, to herbivory, or to the chaotic behaviour of the system represented by difference equations describing growth of the vegetative and reproductive organs. None of these seems to explain fully the events of a transition from flowering one year to sterility or absence the next year. Data on the seasonal growth of leaves and inflorescence of two terrestrial orchid species, Epipactis albensis and Dactylorhiza fuchsii and our previous results are then used here to fill gaps in what has been published until now and to test alternative explanations of the irregular flowering patterns of orchids.

  12. Track Irregularity Time Series Analysis and Trend Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chaolong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The combination of linear and nonlinear methods is widely used in the prediction of time series data. This paper analyzes track irregularity time series data by using gray incidence degree models and methods of data transformation, trying to find the connotative relationship between the time series data. In this paper, GM (1,1 is based on first-order, single variable linear differential equations; after an adaptive improvement and error correction, it is used to predict the long-term changing trend of track irregularity at a fixed measuring point; the stochastic linear AR, Kalman filtering model, and artificial neural network model are applied to predict the short-term changing trend of track irregularity at unit section. Both long-term and short-term changes prove that the model is effective and can achieve the expected accuracy.

  13. Exploring Manycore Multinode Systems for Irregular Applications with FPGA Prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceriani, Marco; Palermo, Gianluca; Secchi, Simone; Tumeo, Antonino; Villa, Oreste

    2013-04-29

    We present a prototype of a multi-core architecture implemented on FPGA, designed to enable efficient execution of irregular applications on distributed shared memory machines, while maintaining high performance on regular workloads. The architecture is composed of off-the-shelf soft-core cores, local interconnection and memory interface, integrated with custom components that optimize it for irregular applications. It relies on three key elements: a global address space, multithreading, and fine-grained synchronization. Global addresses are scrambled to reduce the formation of network hot-spots, while the latency of the transactions is covered by integrating an hardware scheduler within the custom load/store buffers to take advantage from the availability of multiple executions threads, increasing the efficiency in a transparent way to the application. We evaluated a dual node system irregular kernels showing scalability in the number of cores and threads.

  14. Criticality predicts maximum irregularity in recurrent networks of excitatory nodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Karimipanah

    Full Text Available A rigorous understanding of brain dynamics and function requires a conceptual bridge between multiple levels of organization, including neural spiking and network-level population activity. Mounting evidence suggests that neural networks of cerebral cortex operate at a critical regime, which is defined as a transition point between two phases of short lasting and chaotic activity. However, despite the fact that criticality brings about certain functional advantages for information processing, its supporting evidence is still far from conclusive, as it has been mostly based on power law scaling of size and durations of cascades of activity. Moreover, to what degree such hypothesis could explain some fundamental features of neural activity is still largely unknown. One of the most prevalent features of cortical activity in vivo is known to be spike irregularity of spike trains, which is measured in terms of the coefficient of variation (CV larger than one. Here, using a minimal computational model of excitatory nodes, we show that irregular spiking (CV > 1 naturally emerges in a recurrent network operating at criticality. More importantly, we show that even at the presence of other sources of spike irregularity, being at criticality maximizes the mean coefficient of variation of neurons, thereby maximizing their spike irregularity. Furthermore, we also show that such a maximized irregularity results in maximum correlation between neuronal firing rates and their corresponding spike irregularity (measured in terms of CV. On the one hand, using a model in the universality class of directed percolation, we propose new hallmarks of criticality at single-unit level, which could be applicable to any network of excitable nodes. On the other hand, given the controversy of the neural criticality hypothesis, we discuss the limitation of this approach to neural systems and to what degree they support the criticality hypothesis in real neural networks. Finally

  15. Propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by the ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, A.Y.; Kuo, S.P.; Lee, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of wave propagation and scattering in the ionosphere is particularly important in the areas of communications, remote-sensing and detection. The ionosphere is often perturbed with coherently structured (quasiperiodic) density irregularities. Experimental observations suggest that these irregularities could give rise to significant ionospheric effect on wave propagation such as causing spread-F of the probing HF sounding signals and scintillation of beacon satellite signals. It was show by the latter that scintillation index S 4 ∼ 0.5 and may be as high as 0.8. In this work a quasi-particle theory is developed to study the scintillation phenomenon. A Wigner distribution function for the wave intensity in the (k,r) space is introduced and its governing equation is derived with an effective collision term giving rise to the attenuation and scattering of the wave. This kinetic equation leads to a hierarchy of moment equations in r space. This systems of equations is then truncated to the second moment which is equivalent to assuming a cold quasi-particle distribution In this analysis, the irregularities are modeled as a two dimensional density modulation on an uniform background plasma. The analysis shows that this two dimensional density grating, effectively modulates the intensity of the beacon satellite signals. This spatial modulation of the wave intensity is converted into time modulation due to the drift of the ionospheric irregularities, which then contributes to the scintillation of the beacon satellite signals. Using the proper plasma parameters and equatorial measured data of irregularities, it is shown that the scintillation index defined by S4=( 2 >- 2 )/ 2 where stands for spatial average over an irregularity wavelength is in the range of the experimentally detected values

  16. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobyns, York; Atmanspacher, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties

  17. Characterizing spontaneous irregular behavior in coupled map lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene Wilhelmstrasse 3a, Freiburg 79098 (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional coupled map lattices display, in a specific parameter range, a stable phase (quasi-) periodic in both space and time. With small changes to the model parameters, this stable phase develops spontaneous eruptions of non-periodic behavior. Although this behavior itself appears irregular, it can be characterized in a systematic fashion. In particular, parameter-independent features of the spontaneous eruptions may allow useful empirical characterizations of other phenomena that are intrinsically hard to predict and reproduce. Specific features of the distributions of lifetimes and emergence rates of irregular states display such parameter-independent properties.

  18. [Artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Yang, Lijie; Chen, Yajie; Li, Qing; Chen, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Through the discussion on TCM physiological characters of females in follicular, ovulatory, luteal and menstrual phases and treatment principles, the clinical application of artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion was introduced for irregular menstruation and the typical cases were attached. It is suggested that the menstrual cycle follows the growth-consumption rule of yin, yang, qi and blood. The corresponding treatment principles should be applied in accordance with the change rule of menstrual cycle. Hence, it is worth to adopt the artificial cycle therapy of acupuncture and moxibustion for irregular menstruation in clinical application.

  19. The exchangeability of shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba Dramane

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Landmark based geometric morphometrics (GM allows the quantitative comparison of organismal shapes. When applied to systematics, it is able to score shape changes which often are undetectable by traditional morphological studies and even by classical morphometric approaches. It has thus become a fast and low cost candidate to identify cryptic species. Due to inherent mathematical properties, shape variables derived from one set of coordinates cannot be compared with shape variables derived from another set. Raw coordinates which produce these shape variables could be used for data exchange, however they contain measurement error. The latter may represent a significant obstacle when the objective is to distinguish very similar species. Results We show here that a single user derived dataset produces much less classification error than a multiple one. The question then becomes how to circumvent the lack of exchangeability of shape variables while preserving a single user dataset. A solution to this question could lead to the creation of a relatively fast and inexpensive systematic tool adapted for the recognition of cryptic species. Conclusions To preserve both exchangeability of shape and a single user derived dataset, our suggestion is to create a free access bank of reference images from which one can produce raw coordinates and use them for comparison with external specimens. Thus, we propose an alternative geometric descriptive system that separates 2-D data gathering and analyzes.

  20. How life shaped Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  1. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S¯adhan¯a Vol. 40, Part 4, June 2015, pp. 1117–1137. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Runtime buffer management to improve the performance in irregular Network-on-Chip architecture. UMAMAHESWARI S1,∗, MEGANATHAN D2 and. RAJA PAUL PERINBAM J3. 1Department of Information Technology, Anna University, ...

  2. Structure Irregularity Impedes Drop Roll-Off at Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Simon Tylsgaard; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Søgaard, Emil

    2014-01-01

    -off angles is found to be caused by a decrease of the receding contact angle, which in turn is caused by an increase of the triple phase contact line of the drops for those more irregular surfaces. To understand the observation, we propose to treat the microdrops as rigid bodies and apply a torque balance...

  3. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2018-01-01

    inclusions, where the conductivity distribution has both more and less conductive parts relative to the background conductivity; one such method is the monotonicity method of Harrach, Seo, and Ullrich. We formulate the method for irregular indefinite inclusions, meaning that we make no regularity assumptions...

  4. Size and Albedo of Irregular Saturnian Satellites from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Grav, T.; Trilling, D.; Stansberry, J.; Sykes, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using MIPS onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the thermal emission (24 and, for some targets, 70 um) of eight irregular satellites of Saturn: Albiorix, Siarnaq, Paaliaq, Kiviuq, Ijiraq, Tarvos, Erriapus, and Ymir. We determined the size and albedo of all targets. An analysis of

  5. Interagency Cooperation for Irregular Warfare at the Combatant Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    enemy’s command capability.16 Salamoni argued that the term “irregular warfare” belies an ethnocentric perspective of conflict that will limit military...duty military staffing to form the nucleus of the organization, which would receive augmentation from additional assigned reservists and interagency

  6. Convection-diffusion lattice Boltzmann scheme for irregular lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.; Ernst, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann (LB) scheme for convection diffusion on irregular lattices is presented, which is free of any interpolation or coarse graining step. The scheme is derived using the axioma that the velocity moments of the equilibrium distribution equal those of the

  7. Why type 2 supernovae do not explode in irregular galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shklovskij, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    The conclusion is drawn that reason for an absence of type 2 supernovae explosions in irregular galaxies is their peculiar chemical composition. The observed lack of stellar wind from massive hot giants is due to relatively low heavy element abundance. For this reason evolving massive stars do not form an extended dense envelopes that is a necessary condition for the type 2 supernova phenomenon

  8. First stellar abundances in the dwarf irregular galaxy Sextans A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufer, A; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Pinte, C; Kudritzki, RP

    We present the abundance analyses of three isolated A-type supergiant stars in the dwarf irregular galaxy Sextans A (= DDO 75) from high-resolution spectra obtained with the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on the Kueyen telescope (UT2) of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Detailed

  9. Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Hui Geng

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... Abstract. A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the ...

  10. On the Total Edge Irregularity Strength of Generalized Butterfly Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Wahyuna, Hafidhyah; Indriati, Diari

    2018-04-01

    Let G(V, E) be a connected, simple, and undirected graph with vertex set V and edge set E. A total k-labeling is a map that carries vertices and edges of a graph G into a set of positive integer labels {1, 2, …, k}. An edge irregular total k-labeling λ: V(G) ∪ E(G) → {1, 2, …, k} of a graph G is a total k-labeling such that the weights calculated for all edges are distinct. The weight of an edge uv in G, denoted by wt(uv), is defined as the sum of the label of u, the label of v, and the label of uv. The total edge irregularity strength of G, denoted by tes(G), is the minimum value of the largest label k over all such edge irregular total k-labelings. A generalized butterfly graph, BFn , obtained by inserting vertices to every wing with assumption that sum of inserting vertices to every wing are same then it has 2n + 1 vertices and 4n ‑ 2 edges. In this paper, we investigate the total edge irregularity strength of generalized butterfly graph, BFn , for n > 2. The result is tes(B{F}n)=\\lceil \\frac{4n}{3}\\rceil .

  11. On a new process for cusp irregularity production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Carlson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Two plasma instability mechanisms were thought until 2007 to dominate the formation of plasma irregularities in the F region high latitude and polar ionosphere; the gradient-drift driven instability, and the velocity-shear driven instability. The former mechanism was accepted as accounting for plasma structuring in polar cap patches, the latter for plasma structuring in polar cap sun aligned arcs. Recent work has established the need to replace this view of the past two decades with a new patch plasma structuring process (not a new mechanism, whereby shear-driven instabilities first rapidly structure the entering plasma, after which gradient drift instabilities build on these large "seed" irregularities. Correct modeling of cusp and early polar cap patch structuring will not be accomplished without allowing for this compound process. This compound process explains several previously unexplained characteristics of cusp and early polar cap patch irregularities. Here we introduce additional data, coincident in time and space, to extend that work to smaller irregularity scale sizes and relate it to the structured cusp current system.

  12. Irregular ionization and scintillation of the ionosphere in equator region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinno, Kenji

    1974-01-01

    The latest studies on the scintillation in satellite communication and its related irregularities of ionosphere are reviewed. They were made clear by means of spread-F, the direct measurement with scientific satellites, VHF radar observation, and radio wave propagation in equator region. The fundamental occurrence mechanism may be instability of plasma caused by the interaction of movement of neutral atmosphere and magnetic field. Comparison of the main characteristics of scintillation, namely the dependence on region, solar activity, season, local time, geomagnetic activity, movement in ionosphere, scattering source, frequency and transmission mode, was made and the correlation among spread-F, TEP and scintillation was summarized. The latest principal studies were the observations made by Intelsat and by ATS. Scintillation of Syncom-3 and Intelsat-II-F2 and spread-F by ionosphere observation were compared by Huang. It is reasonable to consider that the occurrence of scintillation is caused by the irregularities in ionosphere which are particular in equator region, because of the similar characteristics of spread-F and VHF propagation in the equator region. These three phenomena may occur in relation to the irregularities of ionosphere. Interpretation of spread-F and the abnormal propagation wave across the equator are given. The study using VHF radar and the movement of irregular ionization by the direct observation with artificial satellites are reviewd. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A new third-order solution for multi-directional irregular water waves in finite water depth is presented. The solution includes explicit expressions for the surface elevation, the amplitude dispersion and the vertical variation of the velocity potential. Expressions for the velocity potential at...

  14. Irregular menses: an independent risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haver, Mary Claire; Locksmith, Gregory J; Emmet, Emily

    2003-05-01

    Our purpose was to determine whether a history of irregular menses predicts gestational diabetes mellitus independently of traditional risk factors. We analyzed demographic characteristics, body mass index, and menstrual history of 85 pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus and compared them with 85 systematically selected control subjects who were matched for age, race, and delivery year. Subjects with pregestational diabetes mellitus, previous gestational diabetes mellitus, family history of diabetes mellitus, weight >200 pounds, previous macrosomic infants, or previous stillbirth were excluded. Demographic characteristics between case and control groups were similar. Mean body mass index was higher among cases (26.5 kg/m(2)) versus control subjects (24.5 kg/m(2), P =.004). Irregular cycles were more prevalent in the cases (24% vs 7%, P =.006). With the use of body mass index as a stratification factor, menstrual irregularity maintained a strong association with gestational diabetes mellitus (P =.014). A history of irregular menstrual cycles was a significant independent predictor of gestational diabetes mellitus. If selective screening is implemented for gestational diabetes mellitus, such history should be considered in the decision of whom to test.

  15. Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the physical space are ...

  16. Characteristics of low latitude ionospheric E-region irregularities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    154°E, dip angle = 37.3°, sub-ionospheric dip = 34°) have been analyzed to study the behaviour of ionospheric E-region irregularities during the active solar and magnetic periods. The autocorrelation functions, power spectral densities, signal de-correlation times are computed to study the temporal features of ionospheric ...

  17. Classical limit of irregular blocks and Mathieu functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piątek, Marcin; Pietrykowski, Artur R.

    2016-01-01

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the N = 2 SU(2) pure gauge (Ω-deformed) super Yang-Mills theory encodes the information about the spectrum of the Mathieu operator. On the other hand, the Mathieu equation emerges entirely within the frame of two-dimensional conformal field theory (2d CFT) as the classical limit of the null vector decoupling equation for some degenerate irregular block. Therefore, it seems to be possible to investigate the spectrum of the Mathieu operator employing the techniques of 2d CFT. To exploit this strategy, a full correspondence between the Mathieu equation and its realization within 2d CFT has to be established. In our previous paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)032, we have found that the expression of the Mathieu eigenvalue given in terms of the classical irregular block exactly coincides with the well known weak coupling expansion of this eigenvalue in the case in which the auxiliary parameter is the noninteger Floquet exponent. In the present work we verify that the formula for the corresponding eigenfunction obtained from the irregular block reproduces the so-called Mathieu exponent from which the noninteger order elliptic cosine and sine functions may be constructed. The derivation of the Mathieu equation within the formalism of 2d CFT is based on conjectures concerning the asymptotic behaviour of irregular blocks in the classical limit. A proof of these hypotheses is sketched. Finally, we speculate on how it could be possible to use the methods of 2d CFT in order to get from the irregular block the eigenvalues of the Mathieu operator in other regions of the coupling constant.

  18. Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehfeld

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.

    All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.

    We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ18O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.

  19. Radiation technique in conservation of antique objects - achievement in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkowski, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the progress of the radiation technique in conservation of antique objects in Poland was presented. From two, quite different problems: radiation's disinfection or consolidation, only the first one was applied in our country. The technique of radiation disinfection and desinsection was applied only in the nine cases, in spite of numerous propaganda's information's and advertisement's actions. It were both wooden antiques (altars, sculptures, furniture), sandstone sculpture and prison footwear. In the first case it was connected with destruction of the wood's pest, in the second with bacteria which were destroying of the object inside and in the third with the elimination of the moulds, fungus and bacteria. Differ dose of gamma radiation was applied, depending on the kind and size of initial infection. The time of the operation depended on the quality of the dose rate which was connected first of all with the size and shape of the object. Decisive significance for obtained values of irregular distribution absorbed radiation dose had the type of the material in which the object was done and it's size. (author)

  20. X-ray pulsars in nearby irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Irregular Galaxy IC 10 are valuable laboratories to study the physical, temporal and statistical properties of the X-ray pulsar population with multi-satellite observations, in order to probe fundamental physics. The known distance of these galaxies can help us easily categorize the luminosity of the pulsars and their age difference can be helpful for for studying the origin and evolution of compact objects. Therefore, a complete archive of 116 XMM-Newton PN, 151 Chandra (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) ACIS, and 952 RXTE PCA observations for the pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) were collected and analyzed, along with 42 XMM-Newton and 30 Chandra observations for the Large Magellanic Cloud, spanning 1997-2014. From a sample of 67 SMC pulsars we generate a suite of products for each pulsar detection: spin period, flux, event list, high time-resolution light-curve, pulse-profile, periodogram, and X-ray spectrum. Combining all three satellites, I generated complete histories of the spin periods, pulse amplitudes, pulsed fractions and X-ray luminosities. Many of the pulsars show variations in pulse period due to the combination of orbital motion and accretion torques. Long-term spin-up/down trends are seen in 28/25 pulsars respectively, pointing to sustained transfer of mass and angular momentum to the neutron star on decadal timescales. The distributions of pulse detection and flux as functions of spin period provide interesting findings: mapping boundaries of accretion-driven X-ray luminosity, and showing that fast pulsars (P<10 s) are rarely detected, which yet are more prone to giant outbursts. In parallel we compare the observed pulse profiles to our general relativity (GR) model of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars.In addition, we conduct a search for optical counterparts to X-ray sources in the local dwarf galaxy IC 10 to form a comparison

  1. A second-order virtual node algorithm for nearly incompressible linear elasticity in irregular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongning; Wang, Yuting; Hellrung, Jeffrey; Cantarero, Alejandro; Sifakis, Eftychios; Teran, Joseph M.

    2012-08-01

    We present a cut cell method in R2 for enforcing Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions with nearly incompressible linear elastic materials in irregular domains. Virtual nodes on cut uniform grid cells are used to provide geometric flexibility in the domain boundary shape without sacrificing accuracy. We use a mixed formulation utilizing a MAC-type staggered grid with piecewise bilinear displacements centered at cell faces and piecewise constant pressures at cell centers. These discretization choices provide the necessary stability in the incompressible limit and the necessary accuracy in cut cells. Numerical experiments suggest second order accuracy in L∞. We target high-resolution problems and present a class of geometric multigrid methods for solving the discrete equations for displacements and pressures that achieves nearly optimal convergence rates independent of grid resolution.

  2. Shape memory effect alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.

    1992-01-01

    Although the pseudo- or super-elasticity phenomena and the shape memory effect were known since the 1940's, the enormous curiosity and the great interest to their practical applications emerged with the development of the NITINOL alloy (Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordance Laboratory) by the NASA during the 1960's. This fact marked the appearance of a new class of materials, popularly known as shape memory effect alloys (SMEA). The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art of the development and applications for the SMEA. (E.O.)

  3. Multiple patterns of diblock copolymer confined in irregular geometries with soft surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Sun, Min-Na; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Pan, Jun-Xing; Guo, Yu-Qi; Wang, Bao-Feng; Wu, Hai-Shun

    2015-12-01

    The different confinement shapes can induce the formation of various interesting and novel morphologies, which might inspire potential applications of materials. In this paper, we study the directed self-assembly of diblock copolymer confined in irregular geometries with a soft surface by using self-consistent field theory. Two types of confinement geometries are considered, namely, one is the concave pore with one groove and the other is the concave pore with two grooves. We obtain more novel and different structures which could not be produced in other two-dimensional (2D) confinements. Comparing these new structures with those obtained in regular square confinement, we find that the range of ordered lamellae is enlarged and the range of disordered structure is narrowed down under the concave pore confinement. We also compare the different structures obtained under the two types of confinement geometries, the results show that the effect of confinement would increase, which might induce the diblock copolymer to form novel structures. We construct the phase diagram as a function of the fraction of B block and the ratio of h/L of the groove. The simulation reveals that the wetting effect of brushes and the shape of confinement geometries play important roles in determining the morphologies of the system. Our results improve the applications in the directed self-assembly of diblock copolymer for fabricating the irregular structures. Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20121404110004), the Research Foundation for Excellent Talents of Shanxi Provincial Department of Human Resources and Social Security, China, and the Scientific and Technological Innovation Programs of Higher Education Institutions in Shanxi Province, China.

  4. Application of Ground-Penetrating Radar for Detecting Internal Anomalies in Tree Trunks with Irregular Contours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weilin; Wen, Jian; Xiao, Zhongliang; Xu, Shengxia

    2018-02-22

    To assess the health conditions of tree trunks, it is necessary to estimate the layers and anomalies of their internal structure. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the internal part of tree trunks considering their irregular contour. In this respect, we used ground penetrating radar (GPR) for non-invasive detection of defects and deteriorations in living trees trunks. The Hilbert transform algorithm and the reflection amplitudes were used to estimate the relative dielectric constant. The point cloud data technique was applied as well to extract the irregular contours of trunks. The feasibility and accuracy of the methods were examined through numerical simulations, laboratory and field measurements. The results demonstrated that the applied methodology allowed for accurate characterizations of the internal inhomogeneity. Furthermore, the point cloud technique resolved the trunk well by providing high-precision coordinate information. This study also demonstrated that cross-section tomography provided images with high resolution and accuracy. These integrated techniques thus proved to be promising for observing tree trunks and other cylindrical objects. The applied approaches offer a great promise for future 3D reconstruction of tomographic images with radar wave.

  5. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  6. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  7. Constructing C1 Continuous Surface on Irregular Quad Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GUO Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for surface construction on irregular quad meshes as extensions to uniform B-spline surfaces. Given a number of control points, which form a regular or irregular quad mesh, a weight function is constructed for each control point. The weight function is defined on a local domain and is C1 continuous. Then the whole surface is constructed by the weighted combination of all the control points. The property of the new method is that the surface is defined by piecewise C1 bi-cubic rational parametric polynomial with each quad face. It is an extension to uniform B-spline surfaces in the sense that its definition is an analogy of the B-spline surface, and it produces a uniform bi-cubic B-spline surface if the control mesh is a regular quad mesh. Examples produced by the new method are also included.

  8. Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    the body,” and the Geneva Protocol of 1925, bans the use of chemical and biological weapons .11 On 8 April 1975, President Ford issued Executive...E Funding – PE 63851M) (accessed 15 December 2006). The American Journal of Bioethics . “Medical Ethics and Non-Lethal Weapons .” Bioethics.net...CASUALTIES: NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN IRREGULAR WARFARE by Richard L. Scott September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Robert McNab Second Reader

  9. Active Absorption of Irregular Gravity Waves in BEM-Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    1992-01-01

    The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity to be presc...... to be prescribed at the boundary. By numerical examples it is shown that well designed filters can reduce the wave reflection to a few per cent over a frequency range corresponding to a Jonswap spectrum....

  10. Computing Homology Group Generators of Images Using Irregular Graph Pyramids

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier , Samuel; Ion , Adrian; Haxhimusa , Yll; Kropatsch , Walter; Damiand , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a method for computing homology groups and their generators of a 2D image, using a hierarchical structure i.e. irregular graph pyramid. Starting from an image, a hierarchy of the image is built, by two operations that preserve homology of each region. Instead of computing homology generators in the base where the number of entities (cells) is large, we first reduce the number of cells by a graph pyramid. Then homology generators are computed efficiently on...

  11. Analysis of irregular opacities of silicosis using computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shida, Hisao; Chiyotani, Keizo; Saito, Kenichi; Mishina, Michihito

    1983-01-01

    Classification in used to codify Chest CT images of abnormalities of the lung in a simple reproducible manner. Simbols to record CT features of importance are listed. We applied CT to 92 cases of silicosis and roentgenological analysis was performed. Bullae, honeycombing, cavity, emphysema, pleural thickning and calcification were more clearly demonstrated in CT images than routine chest roentgenograms. Irregular opacities were considered to be a combined profusion of small round and streak or strand. (author)

  12. Evaluation of irregular menses in perimenarcheal girls: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browner-Elhanan, Karen J; Epstein, Jonathan; Alderman, Elizabeth M

    2003-12-01

    Acyclic vaginal bleeding in girls within three years of menarche is most commonly attributed to an immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Assuming this diagnosis may preclude the practitioner from performing more definitive studies and thereby diagnosing other, treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. A retrospective chart review of 178 girls presenting to an inner-city hospital-based adolescent clinic within three years of menarche was performed. Personal and family medical and menarcheal history was assessed, and findings on physical and laboratory examination performed were evaluated. Of the 178 girls still perimenarcheal at presentation, 47 were the focus of this study. Of these, 39 had no significant findings on physical examination, while 3 had signs of functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) including obesity, hirsutism, and moderate acne with corresponding LH/FSH ratios>3, although pelvic ultrasound examination revealed normal ovaries. Four of the 39 patients with normal physical exams had LH/FSH testing done, and 1 of the 4 had an abnormal LH/FSH ratio, indicating possible FOH. Two of the 47 patients were pregnant. Other laboratory abnormalities included microcytic, hypochromic anemia in patients, and an elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in a patient later diagnosed with a rheumatologic disorder. Those perimenarcheal girls presenting with irregular menses and findings including obesity, acne, or pallor, were likely to have treatable causes of menstrual irregularities. In one of the four girls with a normal physical examination, hormonal testing indicated possible FOH, thus suggesting that hormonal evaluation of perimenarcheal girls with menstrual irregularities may be justified, as it may reveal previously unsuspected pathology.

  13. EFFECTS OF FORSTERITE GRAIN SHAPE ON INFRARED SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Suto, H.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 μm. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 μm bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 μm bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150 deg. C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200 deg. C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 μm, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  14. Backscatter measurements of 11-cm equatorial spread-F irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    In the equatorial F-region ionosphere, a turbulent cascade process has been found to exist that extends from irregularity spatial wavelengths longer than tens of kilometers down to wavelengths as short as 36 cm. To investigate the small-scale regime of wavelengths less than 36 cm, an equatorial radar experiment was conducted using a frequency of 1320 MHz that corresponds to an irregularity wavelength of 11 cm. The first observations of radar backscatter from 11-cm field-aligned irregularities (FAI) are described. These measurements extend the spatial wavelength regime of F-region FAI to lengths that approach both electron gyroradius and the Debye length. Agreement of these results with the theory of high-frequency drift waves suggests that these observations may be unique to the equatorial ionosphere. That is, the requirement of low electron densities for which the theroy calls may preclude the existence of 11-cm FAI elsewhere in the F-region ionosphere, except in equatorial plasma bubbles

  15. [Comparision of Different Methods of Area Measurement in Irregular Scar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, D; Li, W J; Sun, Q G; Li, J Q; Xia, Q

    2016-10-01

    To determine a measurement standard of irregular scar area by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods in measuring same irregular scar area. Irregular scar area was scanned by digital scanning and measured by coordinate reading method, AutoCAD pixel method, Photoshop lasso pixel method, Photoshop magic bar filled pixel method and Foxit PDF reading software, and some aspects of these methods such as measurement time, repeatability, whether could be recorded and whether could be traced were compared and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the scar areas by the measurement methods above. However, there was statistical difference in the measurement time and repeatability by one or multi performers and only Foxit PDF reading software could be traced back. The methods above can be used for measuring scar area, but each one has its advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to develop new measurement software for forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  16. Seismic performance for vertical geometric irregularity frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Mahmud, N. A.; Ishak, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    This research highlights the result of vertical geometric irregularity frame structures. The aid of finite element analysis software, LUSAS was used to analyse seismic performance by focusing particularly on type of irregular frame on the differences in height floors and continued in the middle of the building. Malaysia’s building structures were affected once the earthquake took place in the neighbouring country such as Indonesia (Sumatera Island). In Malaysia, concrete is widely used in building construction and limited tension resistance to prevent it. Analysing structural behavior with horizontal and vertical static load is commonly analyses by using the Plane Frame Analysis. The case study of this research is to determine the stress and displacement in the seismic response under this type of irregular frame structures. This study is based on seven-storey building of Clinical Training Centre located in Sungai Buloh, Selayang, Selangor. Since the largest earthquake occurs in Acheh, Indonesia on December 26, 2004, the data was recorded and used in conducting this research. The result of stress and displacement using IMPlus seismic analysis in LUSAS Modeller Software under the seismic response of a formwork frame system states that the building is safe to withstand the ground and in good condition under the variation of seismic performance.

  17. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  18. Irregular analytical errors in diagnostic testing - a novel concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeser, Michael; Seger, Christoph

    2018-02-23

    In laboratory medicine, routine periodic analyses for internal and external quality control measurements interpreted by statistical methods are mandatory for batch clearance. Data analysis of these process-oriented measurements allows for insight into random analytical variation and systematic calibration bias over time. However, in such a setting, any individual sample is not under individual quality control. The quality control measurements act only at the batch level. Quantitative or qualitative data derived for many effects and interferences associated with an individual diagnostic sample can compromise any analyte. It is obvious that a process for a quality-control-sample-based approach of quality assurance is not sensitive to such errors. To address the potential causes and nature of such analytical interference in individual samples more systematically, we suggest the introduction of a new term called the irregular (individual) analytical error. Practically, this term can be applied in any analytical assay that is traceable to a reference measurement system. For an individual sample an irregular analytical error is defined as an inaccuracy (which is the deviation from a reference measurement procedure result) of a test result that is so high it cannot be explained by measurement uncertainty of the utilized routine assay operating within the accepted limitations of the associated process quality control measurements. The deviation can be defined as the linear combination of the process measurement uncertainty and the method bias for the reference measurement system. Such errors should be coined irregular analytical errors of the individual sample. The measurement result is compromised either by an irregular effect associated with the individual composition (matrix) of the sample or an individual single sample associated processing error in the analytical process. Currently, the availability of reference measurement procedures is still highly limited, but LC

  19. Stromal haze, myofibroblasts, and surface irregularity after PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, Marcelo V; Mohan, Rajiv R; Sinha, Sunilima; Sharma, Ajay; Dupps, William; Wilson, Steven E

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the level of stromal surface irregularity after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and myofibroblast generation along with the development of corneal haze. Variable levels of stromal surface irregularity were generated in rabbit corneas by positioning a fine mesh screen in the path of excimer laser during ablation for a variable percentage of the terminal pulses of the treatment for myopia that does not otherwise generate significant opacity. Ninety-six rabbits were divided into eight groups: [see table in text]. Slit lamp analysis and haze grading were performed in all groups. Rabbits were sacrificed at 4 hr or 4 weeks after surgery and histochemical analysis was performed on corneas for apoptosis (TUNEL assay), myofibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and integrin alpha4 to delineate the epithelial basement membrane. Slit-lamp grading revealed severe haze formation in corneas in groups IV and VI, with significantly less haze in groups II, III, and VII and insignificant haze compared with the unwounded control in groups I and V. Analysis of SMA staining at 4 weeks after surgery, the approximate peak of haze formation in rabbits, revealed low myofibroblast formation in group I (1.2+/-0.2 cells/400x field) and group V (1.8+/-0.4), with significantly more in groups II (3.5+/-1.8), III (6.8+/-1.6), VII (7.9+/-3.8), IV (12.4+/-4.2) and VI (14.6+/-5.1). The screened groups were significantly different from each other (p PRK groups. The -9.0 diopter PRK group VI had significantly more myofibroblast generation than the -9.0 diopter PRK with PTK-smoothing group VII (p PRK and the level of stromal surface irregularity. PTK-smoothing with methylcellulose was an effective method to reduce stromal surface irregularity and decreased both haze and associated myofibroblast density. We hypothesize that stromal surface irregularity after PRK for high myopia results in defective basement membrane

  20. Women with minor menstrual irregularities have increased risk of preeclampsia and low birthweight in spontaneous pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Oddgeirsdóttir, Hanna L; Naver, Klara Vinsand

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Very few studies describe the obstetric and neonatal outcome of spontaneous pregnancies in women with irregular menstrual cycles. However, menstrual cycle irregularities are common and may be associated with increased risk, and women who develop pregnancy complications more frequent...

  1. Set Size, Individuation, and Attention to Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Lisa; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated a shape bias in categorizing and naming solid objects. This research has shown that when an entity is conceptualized as an individual object, adults and children attend to the object's shape. Separate research in the domain of numerical cognition suggest that there are distinct processes for quantifying small and…

  2. Category-specificity in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian

    2009-01-01

    binding of shape elements into elaborate shape descriptions) and selection (among competing representations in visual long-term memory), which are held to be differentially affected by the structural similarity between objects. Drawing on evidence from clinical studies, experimental studies...

  3. Poincaré surfaces of section around a 3D irregular body: the case of asteroid 4179 Toutatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borderes-Motta, G.; Winter, O. C.

    2018-02-01

    In general, small bodies of the Solar system, e.g. asteroids and comets, have a very irregular shape. This feature affects significantly the gravitational potential around these irregular bodies, which hinders dynamical studies. The Poincaré surface of section technique is often used to look for stable and chaotic regions in two-dimensional dynamic cases. In this work, we show that this tool can be useful for exploring the surroundings of irregular bodies such as the asteroid 4179 Toutatis. Considering a rotating system with a particle, under the effect of the gravitational field computed three dimensionally, we define a plane in the phase space to build the Poincaré surface of section. Despite the extra dimension, the sections created allow us to find trajectories and classify their stabilities. Thus, we have also been able to map stable and chaotic regions, as well as to find correlations between those regions and the contribution of the third dimension of the system to the trajectory dynamics as well. As examples, we show details of periodic (resonant or not) and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  4. readShape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitniak, J.; Pargac, M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Slovak Environmental Agency during relative short time originated the first version of software product using of GPS technology for monitoring of negative phenomena in nature. It was denominated as readShape and its primary goal is to minister for conservator of environment geographically strictly to observe endangered territories as are, for example, fire, fish kill, impact of motor vehicle accident or dangerous objects as are illegal stock-piles, wastes and other. Process of monitoring is described

  5. Study of Track Irregularity Time Series Calibration and Variation Pattern at Unit Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaolong Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on problems existing in track irregularity time series data quality, this paper first presents abnormal data identification, data offset correction algorithm, local outlier data identification, and noise cancellation algorithms. And then proposes track irregularity time series decomposition and reconstruction through the wavelet decomposition and reconstruction approach. Finally, the patterns and features of track irregularity standard deviation data sequence in unit sections are studied, and the changing trend of track irregularity time series is discovered and described.

  6. Imaging irregular magma reservoirs with InSAR and GPS observations: Application to Kilauea and Copahue volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, P.; Camacho, A.; Poland, M. P.; Miklius, A.; Samsonov, S. V.; Milillo, P.

    2013-12-01

    The availability of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) data has increased our awareness of the complexity of volcano deformation sources. InSAR's spatial completeness helps identify or clarify source process mechanisms at volcanoes (i.e. Mt. Etna east flank motion; Lazufre crustal magma body; Kilauea dike complexity) and also improves potential model realism. In recent years, Bayesian inference methods have gained widespread use because of their ability to constrain not only source model parameters, but also their uncertainties. They are computationally intensive, however, which tends to limit them to a few geometrically rather simple source representations (for example, spheres). An alternative approach involves solving for irregular pressure and/or density sources from a three-dimensional (3-D) grid of source/density cells. This method has the ability to solve for arbitrarily shaped bodies of constant absolute pressure/density difference. We compare results for both Bayesian (a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm) and the irregular source methods for two volcanoes: Kilauea, Hawaii, and Copahue, Argentina-Chile border. Kilauea has extensive InSAR and GPS databases from which to explore the results for the irregular method with respect to the Bayesian approach, prior models, and an extensive set of ancillary data. One caveat, however, is the current restriction in the irregular model inversion to volume-pressure sources (and at a single excess pressure change), which limits its application in cases where sources such as faults or dikes are present. Preliminary results for Kilauea summit deflation during the March 2011 Kamoamoa eruption suggests a northeast-elongated magma body lying roughly 1-1.5 km below the surface. Copahue is a southern Andes volcano that has been inflating since early 2012, with intermittent summit eruptive activity since late 2012. We have an extensive InSAR time series from RADARSAT-2 and COSMO-SkyMed data, although both are

  7. Elegant objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bugayenko, Yegor

    2017-01-01

    There are 23 practical recommendations for object-oriented programmers. Most of them are completely against everything you've read in other books. For example, static methods, NULL references, getters, setters, and mutable classes are called evil. Compound variable names, validators, private static literals, configurable objects, inheritance, annotations, MVC, dependency injection containers, reflection, ORM and even algorithms are our enemies.

  8. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  9. Bone conducted vibration selectively activates irregular primary otolithic vestibular neurons in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curthoys, Ian S; Kim, Juno; McPhedran, Samara K; Camp, Aaron J

    2006-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether bone-conducted vibration (BCV) is equally effective in activating both semicircular canal and otolith afferents in the guinea pig or whether there is preferential activation of one of these classes of vestibular afferents. To answer this question a large number (346) of single primary vestibular neurons were recorded extracellularly in anesthetized guinea pigs and were identified by their location in the vestibular nerve and classed as regular or irregular on the basis of the variability of their spontaneous discharge. If a neuron responded to angular acceleration it was classed as a semicircular canal neuron, if it responded to maintained roll or pitch tilts it was classified as an otolith neuron. Each neuron was then tested by BCV stimuli-either clicks, continuous pure tones (200-1,500 Hz) or short tone bursts (500 Hz lasting 7 ms)-delivered by a B-71 clinical bone-conduction oscillator cemented to the guinea pig's skull. All stimulus intensities were referred to that animal's own auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold to BCV clicks, and the maximum intensity used was within the animal's physiological range and was usually around 70 dB above BCV threshold. In addition two sensitive single axis linear accelerometers cemented to the skull gave absolute values of the stimulus acceleration in the rostro-caudal direction. The criterion for a neuron being classed as activated was an audible, stimulus-locked increase in firing rate (a 10% change was easily detectable) in response to the BCV stimulus. At the stimulus levels used in this study, semicircular canal neurons, both regular and irregular, were insensitive to BCV stimuli and very few responded: only nine of 189 semicircular canal neurons tested (4.7%) showed a detectable increase in firing in response to BCV stimuli up to the maximum 2 V peak-to-peak level we delivered to the B-71 oscillator (which produced a peak-to-peak skull acceleration of around

  10. Intuitive modeling of vaporish objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Dmitry; Gentil, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Attempts to model gases in computer graphics started in the late 1970s. Since that time, there have been many approaches developed. In this paper we present a non-physical method allowing to create vaporish objects like clouds or smoky characters. The idea is to create a few sketches describing the rough shape of the final vaporish object. These sketches will be used as condensation sets of Iterated Function Systems, providing intuitive control over the object. The advantages of the new method are: simplicity, good control of resulting shapes and ease of eventual object animation.

  11. Density and shape factor of sodium aerosol. Progress report, January 1, 1976--March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, W.; First, M.W.

    1976-05-01

    Several approaches for characterizing the physical and aerodynamic properties of irregularly shaped aerosol particles are reviewed. Measurements of density modification factor, dynamic shape factor, and particle density using an aerosol centrifuge and a scanning electron microscope are described. Calibration procedures for this characterization method are described and preliminary results reported

  12. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  13. Similarity estimators for irregular and age uncertain time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2013-09-01

    Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many datasets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel based cross correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011) and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013) against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF). We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60-55% (in the linear case) to 53-42% (for the nonlinear processes) of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time series irregularity

  14. Similarity estimators for irregular and age-uncertain time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.

    2014-01-01

    Paleoclimate time series are often irregularly sampled and age uncertain, which is an important technical challenge to overcome for successful reconstruction of past climate variability and dynamics. Visual comparison and interpolation-based linear correlation approaches have been used to infer dependencies from such proxy time series. While the first is subjective, not measurable and not suitable for the comparison of many data sets at a time, the latter introduces interpolation bias, and both face difficulties if the underlying dependencies are nonlinear. In this paper we investigate similarity estimators that could be suitable for the quantitative investigation of dependencies in irregular and age-uncertain time series. We compare the Gaussian-kernel-based cross-correlation (gXCF, Rehfeld et al., 2011) and mutual information (gMI, Rehfeld et al., 2013) against their interpolation-based counterparts and the new event synchronization function (ESF). We test the efficiency of the methods in estimating coupling strength and coupling lag numerically, using ensembles of synthetic stalagmites with short, autocorrelated, linear and nonlinearly coupled proxy time series, and in the application to real stalagmite time series. In the linear test case, coupling strength increases are identified consistently for all estimators, while in the nonlinear test case the correlation-based approaches fail. The lag at which the time series are coupled is identified correctly as the maximum of the similarity functions in around 60-55% (in the linear case) to 53-42% (for the nonlinear processes) of the cases when the dating of the synthetic stalagmite is perfectly precise. If the age uncertainty increases beyond 5% of the time series length, however, the true coupling lag is not identified more often than the others for which the similarity function was estimated. Age uncertainty contributes up to half of the uncertainty in the similarity estimation process. Time series irregularity

  15. Analysis of an Irregular RC Multi-storeyed Building Subjected to Dynamic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    AkashRaut; Pachpor, Prabodh; Dautkhani, Sanket

    2018-03-01

    Many buildings in the present scenario have irregular configurations both in plan and elevation. This in future may subject to devastating earthquakes. So it is necessary to analyze the structure. The present paper is made to study three type of irregularity wiz vertical, mass and plan irregularity as per clause 7.1 of IS 1893 (part1)2002 code. The paper discusses the analysis of RC (Reinforced Concrete) Buildings with vertical irregularity. The study as a whole makes an effort to evaluate the effect of vertical irregularity on RC buildings for which comparison of three parameters namely shear force, bending moment and deflection are taken into account.

  16. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  17. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, PHILIP L.; PIERSON, LYNDON G.; WITZKE, EDWARD L.

    1999-01-01

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  18. Design and development of a content-based medical image retrieval system for spine vertebrae irregularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Aouache; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina Abdul; Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Diyana Wan Zaki, Wan Mimi; Hamid, Hamzaini Abdul

    2015-01-16

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) system enables medical practitioners to perform fast diagnosis through quantitative assessment of the visual information of various modalities. In this paper, a more robust CBMIR system that deals with both cervical and lumbar vertebrae irregularity is afforded. It comprises three main phases, namely modelling, indexing and retrieval of the vertebrae image. The main tasks in the modelling phase are to improve and enhance the visibility of the x-ray image for better segmentation results using active shape model (ASM). The segmented vertebral fractures are then characterized in the indexing phase using region-based fracture characterization (RB-FC) and contour-based fracture characterization (CB-FC). Upon a query, the characterized features are compared to the query image. Effectiveness of the retrieval phase is determined by its retrieval, thus, we propose an integration of the predictor model based cross validation neural network (PMCVNN) and similarity matching (SM) in this stage. The PMCVNN task is to identify the correct vertebral irregularity class through classification allowing the SM process to be more efficient. Retrieval performance between the proposed and the standard retrieval architectures are then compared using retrieval precision (Pr@M) and average group score (AGS) measures. Experimental results show that the new integrated retrieval architecture performs better than those of the standard CBMIR architecture with retrieval results of cervical (AGS > 87%) and lumbar (AGS > 82%) datasets. The proposed CBMIR architecture shows encouraging results with high Pr@M accuracy. As a result, images from the same visualization class are returned for further used by the medical personnel.

  19. Nonlinear radiated MHD flow of nanoliquids due to a rotating disk with irregular heat source and heat flux condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.; Shehzad, S. A.; Rauf, A.; Kumar, P. B. Sampath

    2018-05-01

    This research is made to visualize the nonlinear radiated flow of hydromagnetic nano-fluid induced due to rotation of the disk. The considered nano-fluid is a mixture of water and Ti6Al4V or AA7072 nano-particles. The various shapes of nanoparticles like lamina, column, sphere, tetrahedron and hexahedron are chosen in the analysis. The irregular heat source and nonlinear radiative terms are accounted in the law of energy. We used the heat flux condition instead of constant surface temperature condition. Heat flux condition is more relativistic and according to physical nature of the problem. The problem is made dimensionless with the help of suitable similarity constraints. The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg scheme is adopted to find the numerical solutions of governing nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The solutions are plotted by considering the various values of emerging physical constraints. The effects of various shapes of nanoparticles are drawn and discussed.

  20. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  1. The Biosynthetic Origin of Irregular Monoterpenes in Lavandula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zerihun A.; Erland, Lauren A. E.; Rheault, Mark R.; Mahmoud, Soheil S.

    2013-01-01

    Lavender essential oils are constituted predominantly of regular monoterpenes, for example linalool, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. However, they also contain irregular monoterpenes including lavandulol and lavandulyl acetate. Although the majority of genes responsible for the production of regular monoterpenes in lavenders are now known, enzymes (including lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LPPS)) catalyzing the biosynthesis of irregular monoterpenes in these plants have not been described. Here, we report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel cis-prenyl diphosphate synthase cDNA, termed Lavandula x intermedia lavandulyl diphosphate synthase (LiLPPS), through a homology-based cloning strategy. The LiLPPS ORF, encoding for a 305-amino acid long protein, was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. The approximately 34.5-kDa bacterially produced protein specifically catalyzed the head-to-middle condensation of two dimethylallyl diphosphate units to LPP in vitro with apparent Km and kcat values of 208 ± 12 μm and 0.1 s−1, respectively. LiLPPS is a homodimeric enzyme with a sigmoidal saturation curve and Hill coefficient of 2.7, suggesting a positive co-operative interaction among its catalytic sites. LiLPPS could be used to modulate the production of lavandulol and its derivatives in plants through metabolic engineering. PMID:23306202

  2. Non-storm irregular variation of the Dst index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nakano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dst index has a long-term variation that is not associated with magnetic storms. We estimated the long-term non-storm component of the Dst variation by removing the short-term variation related to magnetic storms. The results indicate that the variation of the non-storm component includes not only a seasonal variation but also an irregular variation. The irregular long-term variation is likely to be due to an anti-correlation with the long-term variation of solar-wind activity. In particular, a clear anti-correlation is observed between the non-storm component of Dst and the long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure. This means that in the long term, the Dst index tends to increase when the solar-wind dynamic pressure decreases. We interpret this anti-correlation as an indication that the long-term non-storm variation of Dst is influenced by the tail current variation. The long-term variation of the solar-wind dynamic pressure controls the plasma sheet thermal pressure, and the change of the plasma sheet thermal pressure would cause the non-storm tail current variation, resulting in the non-storm variation of Dst.

  3. Irregular working hours and fatigue of cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marta; Carvalhais, José; Teles, Júlia

    2015-01-01

    Beyond workload and specific environmental factors, flight attendants can be exposed to irregular working hours, conflicting with their circadian rhythms and having a negative impact in sleep, fatigue, health, social and family life, and performance which is critical to both safety and security in flight operations. This study focuses on the irregular schedules of cabin crew as a trigger of fatigue symptoms in a wet lease Portuguese airline. The aim was to analyze: what are the requirements of the cabin crew work; whether the schedules being observed and effective resting timeouts are triggering factors of fatigue; and the existence of fatigue symptoms in the cabin crew. A questionnaire has been adapted and applied to a sample of 73 cabin crew-members (representing 61.9% of the population), 39 females and 34 males, with an average age of 27.68 ± 4.27 years. Our data indicate the presence of fatigue and corresponding health symptoms among the airline cabin crew, despite of the sample favorable characteristics. Senior workers and women are more affected. Countermeasures are required. Recommendations can be made regarding the fatigue risk management, including work organization, education and awareness training programmes and specific countermeasures.

  4. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  5. Colombia: la guerra irregular en el fin de siglo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo RANGEL SUÁREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza las transformaciones de la guerra irregular de las guerrillas colombianas en las últimas décadas. Para ello, se estudian los cambios que han afectado a distintos factores, como los objetivos estratégicos, los medios financieros, militares, las relaciones que mantienen con los partidos políticos tradicionales en el nivel local, sus parámetros ideológicos, el origen social de sus miembros. Con esta perspectiva, se analiza el cálculo político/temporal que la guerrilla hace en la actual coyuntura y sus consecuencias para el proceso de paz.ABSTRACT: This article examines the transformations of the irregular war of the colombian guerrillas, studying the changes of several factors such as the strategic goals, the financial and army resources, the relationship among the political parties in the local level, the evolution of their ideological parameters and of the social origin of their members. With this perspectiva, the author analyses temporal and political calculation that the guerrilla makes at this point, and its consequences for the peace process.

  6. Nonadiabatic two-electron transfer mediated by an irregular bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, E.G.; Shevchenko, Ye.V.; May, V.

    2004-01-01

    Nonadiabatic two-electron transfer (TET) mediated by a linear molecular bridge is studied theoretically. Special attention is put on the case of a irregular distribution of bridge site energies as well as on the inter-site Coulomb interaction. Based on the unified description of electron transfer reactions [J. Chem. Phys. 115 (2001) 7107] a closed set of kinetic equations describing the TET process is derived. A reduction of this set to a single exponential donor-acceptor (D-A) TET is performed together with a derivation of an overall D-A TET rate. The latter contains a contribution of the stepwise as well as of the concerted route of D-A TET. The stepwise contribution is determined by two single-electron steps each of them associated with a sequential and a superexchange pathway. A two-electron unistep superexchange transition between the D and A forms the concerted contribution to the overall rate. Both contributions are analyzed in their dependency on the bridge length. The irregular distribution of the bridge site energies as well as the influence of the Coulomb interaction facilitates the D-A TET via a modification of the stepwise and the concerted part of the overall rate. At low temperatures and for short bridges with a single or two units the concerted contribution exceeds the stepwise contribution. If the bridge contains more than two units, the stepwise contribution dominates the overall rate

  7. Designing Next Generation Massively Multithreaded Architectures for Irregular Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumeo, Antonino; Secchi, Simone; Villa, Oreste

    2012-08-31

    Irregular applications, such as data mining or graph-based computations, show unpredictable memory/network access patterns and control structures. Massively multi-threaded architectures with large node count, like the Cray XMT, have been shown to address their requirements better than commodity clusters. In this paper we present the approaches that we are currently pursuing to design future generations of these architectures. First, we introduce the Cray XMT and compare it to other multithreaded architectures. We then propose an evolution of the architecture, integrating multiple cores per node and next generation network interconnect. We advocate the use of hardware support for remote memory reference aggregation to optimize network utilization. For this evaluation we developed a highly parallel, custom simulation infrastructure for multi-threaded systems. Our simulator executes unmodified XMT binaries with very large datasets, capturing effects due to contention and hot-spotting, while predicting execution times with greater than 90% accuracy. We also discuss the FPGA prototyping approach that we are employing to study efficient support for irregular applications in next generation manycore processors.

  8. Determination of Slake Durability Index (Sdi) Values on Different Shape of Laminated Marl Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hüseyin; Çiçek, Fatma; Talha Deniz, İsmail; Uçak, Emre; Yerel Kandemir, Süheyla

    2016-10-01

    The slake durability index (SDI) test is widely used to determine the disintegration characteristic of the weak and clay-bearing rocks in geo-engineering problems. However, due to the different shapes of sample pieces, such as, irregular shapes displayed mechanical breakages in the slaking process, the SDI test has some limitations that affect the index values. In addition, shape and surface roughness of laminated marl samples have a severe influence on the SDI. In this study, a new sample preparation method called Pasha Method was used to prepare spherical specimens from the laminated marl collected from Seyitomer collar (SLI). Moreover the SDI tests were performed on equal size and weight specimens: three sets with different shapes were used. The three different sets were prepared as the test samples which had sphere shape, parallel to the layers in irregular shape, and vertical to the layers in irregular shape. Index values were determined for the three different sets subjected to the SDI test for 4 cycles. The index values at the end of fourth cycle were found to be 98.43, 98.39 and 97.20 %, respectively. As seen, the index values of the sphere sample set were found to be higher than irregular sample sets.

  9. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  10. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  11. A Marked Poisson Process Driven Latent Shape Model for 3D Segmentation of Reflectance Confocal Microscopy Image Stacks of Human Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanta, Sindhu; Jordan, Michael I.; Kose, Kivanc; Brooks, Dana H.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dy, Jennifer G.

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting objects of interest from 3D datasets is a common problem encountered in biological data. Small field of view and intrinsic biological variability combined with optically subtle changes of intensity, resolution and low contrast in images make the task of segmentation difficult, especially for microscopy of unstained living or freshly excised thick tissues. Incorporating shape information in addition to the appearance of the object of interest can often help improve segmentation performance. However, shapes of objects in tissue can be highly variable and design of a flexible shape model that encompasses these variations is challenging. To address such complex segmentation problems, we propose a unified probabilistic framework that can incorporate the uncertainty associated with complex shapes, variable appearance and unknown locations. The driving application which inspired the development of this framework is a biologically important segmentation problem: the task of automatically detecting and segmenting the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ) in 3D reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) images of human skin. RCM imaging allows noninvasive observation of cellular, nuclear and morphological detail. The DEJ is an important morphological feature as it is where disorder, disease and cancer usually start. Detecting the DEJ is challenging because it is a 2D surface in a 3D volume which has strong but highly variable number of irregularly spaced and variably shaped “peaks and valleys”. In addition, RCM imaging resolution, contrast and intensity vary with depth. Thus a prior model needs to incorporate the intrinsic structure while allowing variability in essentially all its parameters. We propose a model which can incorporate objects of interest with complex shapes and variable appearance in an unsupervised setting by utilizing domain knowledge to build appropriate priors of the model. Our novel strategy to model this structure combines a spatial Poisson process

  12. Reliable and Accurate Release of Micro-Sized Objects with a Gripper that Uses the Capillary-Force Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Uran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been recent developments in grippers that are based on capillary force and condensed water droplets. These are used for manipulating micro-sized objects. Recently, one-finger grippers have been produced that are able to reliably grip using the capillary force. To release objects, either the van der Waals, gravitational or inertial-forces method is used. This article presents methods for reliably gripping and releasing micro-objects using the capillary force. The moisture from the surrounding air is condensed into a thin layer of water on the contact surfaces of the objects. From the thin layer of water, a water meniscus between the micro-sized object, the gripper and the releasing surface is created. Consequently, the water meniscus between the object and the releasing surface produces a high enough capillary force to release the micro-sized object from the tip of the one-finger gripper. In this case, either polystyrene, glass beads with diameters between 5–60 µm, or irregularly shaped dust particles of similar sizes were used. 3D structures made up of micro-sized objects could be constructed using this method. This method is reliable for releasing during assembly and also for gripping, when the objects are removed from the top of the 3D structure—the so-called “disassembling gripping” process. The accuracy of the release was lower than 0.5 µm.

  13. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  14. Compensation for unfavorable characteristics of irregular individual shift rotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauth, Peter; Jung, Detlev; Bopp, Winfried; Gauderer, Patric C; Gissel, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Some employees of TV companies, such as those who produce remote TV programs, have to cope with very irregular rotas and many short-term schedule deviations. Many of these employees complain about the negative effects of such on their wellbeing and private life. Therefore, a working group of employers, council representatives, and researchers developed a so-called bonus system. Based on the criteria of the BESIAK system, the following list of criteria for the ergonomic assessment of irregular shift systems was developed: proportion of night hours worked between 22 : 00 and 01 : 00 h and between 06 : 00 and 07 : 00 h, proportion of night hours worked between 01 : 00 and 06 : 00 h, number of successive night shifts, number of successive working days, number of shifts longer than 9 h, proportion of phase advances, off hours on weekends, work hours between 17 : 00 and 23 : 00 h from Monday to Friday, number of working days with leisure time at remote places, and sudden deviations from the planned shift rota. Each individual rota was evaluated in retrospect. If pre-defined thresholds of criteria were surpassed, bonus points were added to the worker's account. In general, more bonus points add up to more free time. Only in particular cases was monetary compensation possible for some criteria. The bonus point system, which was implemented in the year 2002 for about 850 employees of the TV company, has the advantages of more transparency concerning the unfavorable characteristics of working-time arrangements, incentive for superiors to design "good" rosters that avoid the bonus point thresholds (to reduce costs), positive short-term effects on the employee social life, and expected positive long-term effects on the employee health. In general, the most promising approach to cope with the problems of shift workers in irregular and flexible shift systems seems to be to increase their influence on the arrangement of working times. If this is not possible, bonus point systems

  15. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma irregularities in the SEEK-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available During the Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu 2 (SEEK-2 campaign, field-aligned irregularities (FAIs associated with midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers were observed with two backscatter radars, the Lower Thermosphere Profiler Radar (LTPR and the Frequency Agile Radar (FAR, which were located 40 km apart in Tanegashima, Japan. We conducted observations of FAI echoes from 31 July to 24 August 2002, and the radar data were used to determine launch timing of two sounding rockets on 3 August 2002. Our comparison of echoes obtained by the LTPR and the FAR revealed that echoes often appeared at the FAR about 10min earlier than they did at the LTPR and were well correlated. This indicates that echoing regions drift with a southward velocity component that maintains the spatial shape. Interferometry observations that were conducted with the LTPR from 3 to 8 August 2002, revealed that the quasi-periodic (QP striations in the Range-Time-Intensity (RTI plots were due to the apparent motion of echoing regions across the radar beam including both main and side lobes. In most cases, the echo moved to the east-southeast at an almost constant altitude of 100–110 km, which was along the locus of perpendicularity of the radar line-of-sight to the geomagnetic field line. We found that the QP pattern on the RTI plot reflects the horizontal structure and motion of the (Es layer, and that echoing regions seemed to be in one-dimensionally elongated shapes or in chains of patches. Neutral wind velocities from 75 to 105 km altitude were simultaneously derived with meteor echoes from the LTPR. This is the first time-continuous simultaneous observation FAIs and neutral wind with interferometry measurements. Assuming that the echoing regions were drifting with an ambient neutral wind, we found that the echoing region was aligned east-northeast-west-southwest in eight out of ten QP echo events during the SEEK-2 campaign. A range rate was

  16. Genesis of nanostructured, magnetically tunable ceramics from the pyrolysis of cross-linked polyferrocenylsilane networks and formation of shaped macroscopic objects and micron scale patterns by micromolding inside silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Madlen; MacLachlan, Mark J; Yang, San Ming; Coombs, Neil; Coyle, Thomas W; Raju, Nandyala P; Greedan, John E; Herber, Rolfe H; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Manners, Ian

    2002-03-20

    The ability to form molded or patterned metal-containing ceramics with tunable properties is desirable for many applications. In this paper we describe the evolution of a ceramic from a metal-containing polymer in which the variation of pyrolysis conditions facilitates control of ceramic structure and composition, influencing magnetic and mechanical properties. We have found that pyrolysis under nitrogen of a well-characterized cross-linked polyferrocenylsilane network derived from the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of a spirocyclic [1]ferrocenophane precursor gives shaped macroscopic magnetic ceramics consisting of alpha-Fe nanoparticles embedded in a SiC/C/Si(3)N(4) matrix in greater than 90% yield up to 1000 degrees C. Variation of the pyrolysis temperature and time permitted control over the nucleation and growth of alpha-Fe particles, which ranged in size from around 15 to 700 A, and the crystallization of the surrounding matrix. The ceramics contained smaller alpha-Fe particles when prepared at temperatures lower than 900 degrees C and displayed superparamagnetic behavior, whereas the materials prepared at 1000 degrees C contained larger alpha-Fe particles and were ferromagnetic. This flexibility may be useful for particular materials applications. In addition, the composition of the ceramic was altered by changing the pyrolysis atmosphere to argon, which yielded ceramics that contain Fe(3)Si(5). The ceramics have been characterized by a combination of physical techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, TEM, reflectance UV-vis/near-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, XPS, SQUID magnetometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and SEM. Micromolding of the spirocyclic [1]ferrocenophane precursor within soft lithographically patterned channels housed inside silicon wafers followed by thermal ROP and pyrolysis enabled the formation of predetermined micron scale designs of the magnetic ceramic.

  17. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    -- an outline which at the same time indicates the need for transformations of the Durkheimian model on decisive points. Thus, thirdly, it returns to Durkheim and undertakes to develop his concepts in a direction suitable for a sociological theory of fashion. Finally, it discusses the theoretical implications......This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...

  18. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  19. Nonfeed application of rendered animal proteins for microbial production of eicosapentaenoic acid by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Garcia, Rafael A; Piazza, George J; Wen, Zhiyou

    2011-11-23

    Rendered animal proteins are well suited for animal nutrition applications, but the market is maturing, and there is a need to develop new uses for these products. The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of using animal proteins as a nutrient source for microbial production of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum and the fungus Pythium irregulare. To be absorbed by the microorganisms, the proteins needed to be hydrolyzed into small peptides and free amino acids. The utility of the protein hydrolysates for microorganisms depended on the hydrolysis method used and the type of microorganism. The enzymatic hydrolysates supported better cell growth performance than the alkali hydrolysates did. P. irregulare displayed better overall growth performance on the experimental hydrolysates compared to S. limacinum. When P. irregulare was grown in medium containing 10 g/L enzymatic hydrolysate derived from meat and bone meal or feather meal, the performance of cell growth, lipid synthesis, and omega-3 fatty acid production was comparable to the that of culture using commercial yeast extract. The fungal biomass derived from the animal proteins had 26-29% lipid, 32-34% protein, 34-39% carbohydrate, and industrial microorganisms which can produce omega-3 fatty acids for making omega-3-fortified foods or feeds.

  20. Airway surface irregularities promote particle diffusion in the human lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonen, T.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC; Zhang, Z.; Yang, Y.; Bottei, G.

    1995-01-01

    Current NCRP and ICRP particle deposition models employed in risk assessment analyses treat the airways of the human lung as smooth-walled tubes. However, the upper airways of the tracheobronchial (TB) tree are line with cartilaginous rings. Recent supercomputer simulations of in vivo conditions (cited herein), where cartilaginous ring morphologies were based upon fibre-optic bronchoscope examinations, have clearly demonstrated their profound effects upon fluid dynamics. A physiologically based analytical model of fluid dynamics is presented, focusing upon applications to particle diffusion within the TB tree. The new model is the first to describe particle motion while simultaneously simulating effects of wall irregularities, entrance conditions and tube curvatures. This study may explain the enhanced deposition by particle diffusion detected in replica case experiments and have salient implications for the clinically observed preferential distributions of bronchogenic carcinomas associated with inhaled radionuclides. (author)

  1. Massive stars in the Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    Low metallicity massive stars hold the key to interpret numerous processes in the past Universe including re-ionization, starburst galaxies, high-redshift supernovae, and γ-ray bursts. The Sagittarius Dwarf Irregular Galaxy [SagDIG, 12+log(O/H) = 7.37] represents an important landmark in the quest for analogues accessible with 10-m class telescopes. This Letter presents low-resolution spectroscopy executed with the Gran Telescopio Canarias that confirms that SagDIG hosts massive stars. The observations unveiled three OBA-type stars and one red supergiant candidate. Pending confirmation from high-resolution follow-up studies, these could be the most metal-poor massive stars of the Local Group.

  2. Evaluation of Surface Slope Irregularity in Linear Parabolic Solar Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a methodology, very simple in its application, for measuring surface irregularities of linear parabolic collectors. This technique was principally developed to be applied in cases where it is difficult to use cumbersome instruments and to facilitate logistic management. The instruments to be employed are a digital camera and a grating. If the reflector surface is defective, the image of the grating, reflected on the solar collector, appears distorted. Analyzing the reflected image, we can obtain the local slope of the defective surface. These profilometric tests are useful to identify and monitor the mirror portions under mechanical stress and to estimate the losses caused by the light rays deflected outside the absorber.

  3. Constructing a logical, regular axis topology from an irregular topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Daniel A.

    2014-07-01

    Constructing a logical regular topology from an irregular topology including, for each axial dimension and recursively, for each compute node in a subcommunicator until returning to a first node: adding to a logical line of the axial dimension a neighbor specified in a nearest neighbor list; calling the added compute node; determining, by the called node, whether any neighbor in the node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line; if a neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, adding, by the called compute node to the logical line, any neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list for the axial dimension not already added to the logical line; and, if no neighbor in the called compute node's nearest neighbor list is available to add to the logical line, returning to the calling compute node.

  4. Irregularities of ionospheric VTEC during lightning activity over Antarctic Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, W; Wan Mohd Nor, W N A

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the irregularities of vertical total electron content (VTEC) during lightning activity and geomagnetic quiet days over Antarctic Peninsula in year 2014. During the lightning event, the ionosphere may be disturbed which may cause disruption in the radio signal. Thus, it is important to understand the influence of lightning on VTEC in the study of upper-lower interaction. The lightning data is obtained from World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the VTEC data has analyzed from Global Positioning System (GPS) for O’Higgins (OHI3), Palmer (PALV), and Rothera (ROTH). The results demonstrate the VTEC variation of ∼0.2 TECU during low lightning activity which could be caused by energy dissipation through lightning discharges from troposphere into the thermosphere. (paper)

  5. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulinets, Sergey A.; Depuev, Victor H.

    2003-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstorm electric fields onto the Earth's ionosphere. (author)

  6. Global scale ionospheric irregularities associated with thunderstorm activity

    CERN Document Server

    Pulinets, S A

    2002-01-01

    The potential difference near 280 kV exists between ground and ionosphere. This potential difference is generated by thunderstorm discharges all over the world, and return current closes the circuit in the areas of fair weather (so-called fair weather current). The model calculations and experimental measurements clearly demonstrate non-uniform latitude-longitude distribution of electric field within the atmosphere. The recent calculations show that the strong large scale vertical atmospheric electric field can penetrate into the ionosphere and create large scale irregularities of the electron concentration. To check this the global distributions of thunderstorm activity obtained with the satellite monitoring for different seasons were compared with the global distributions of ionosphere critical frequency (which is equivalent to peak electron concentration) obtained with the help of satellite topside sounding. The similarity of the obtained global distributions clearly demonstrates the effects of thunderstor...

  7. Irregular Migration - between legal status and social practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Thomsen, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Arnfinn H. and Rogstad, Jon 2.Book reviews by null 3.INVISIBLE IMMIGRANTS, VISIBLE EXPATS? Americans in Finnish discourses on immigration and internationalization by Leinonen, Johanna 4.Migrants in the Scandinavian Welfare State by Brochmann, Grete and Hagelund, Anniken 5.TOWARD AN IDENTITY STRESS....... Language and religious affiliations of an immigrant adolescent in Norway by Haque, Shahzaman View Top 20 Most Downloaded Articles Previous Article Next Article Go to table of contents Download full text pdf (PDF, 425 KB) Irregular Migration – Between Legal Status and Social Practices Narratives of Polish...... connected to the specific area of activity and to the accumulated capital of the individual. The aim is to identify how opportunity structures affect the migration process and how migrants react to them depending on the available capital and biographical knowledge and experiences. The horizon of experience...

  8. New Computational Approach to Electron Transport in Irregular Graphene Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Douglas; Heller, Eric; Prendergast, David; Neaton, Jeffrey

    2009-03-01

    For novel graphene devices of nanoscale-to-macroscopic scale, many aspects of their transport properties are not easily understood due to difficulties in fabricating devices with regular edges. Here we develop a framework to efficiently calculate and potentially screen electronic transport properties of arbitrary nanoscale graphene device structures. A generalization of the established recursive Green's function method is presented, providing access to arbitrary device and lead geometries with substantial computer-time savings. Using single-orbital nearest-neighbor tight-binding models and the Green's function-Landauer scattering formalism, we will explore the transmission function of irregular two-dimensional graphene-based nanostructures with arbitrary lead orientation. Prepared by LBNL under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy Computer Science Graduate Fellowship under grant DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  9. Kriging for interpolation of sparse and irregularly distributed geologic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.

    1986-12-31

    For many geologic problems, subsurface observations are available only from a small number of irregularly distributed locations, for example from a handful of drill holes in the region of interest. These observations will be interpolated one way or another, for example by hand-drawn stratigraphic cross-sections, by trend-fitting techniques, or by simple averaging which ignores spatial correlation. In this paper we consider an interpolation technique for such situations which provides, in addition to point estimates, the error estimates which are lacking from other ad hoc methods. The proposed estimator is like a kriging estimator in form, but because direct estimation of the spatial covariance function is not possible the parameters of the estimator are selected by cross-validation. Its use in estimating subsurface stratigraphy at a candidate site for geologic waste repository provides an example.

  10. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  11. Combined radar observations of equatorial electrojet irregularities at Jicamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Daytime equatorial electrojet plasma irregularities were investigated using five distinct radar diagnostics at Jicamarca including range-time-intensity (RTI mapping, Faraday rotation, radar imaging, oblique scattering, and multiple-frequency scattering using the new AMISR prototype UHF radar. Data suggest the existence of plasma density striations separated by 3–5 km and propagating slowly downward. The striations may be caused by neutral atmospheric turbulence, and a possible scenario for their formation is discussed. The Doppler shifts of type 1 echoes observed at VHF and UHF frequencies are compared and interpreted in light of a model of Farley Buneman waves based on kinetic ions and fluid electrons with thermal effects included. Finally, the up-down and east-west asymmetries evident in the radar observations are described and quantified.

  12. Comparison of different dose calculation methods for irregular photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, G.A.; Schuette, W.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, 4 calculation methods (Wrede method, Clarskon method of sector integration, beam-zone method of Quast and pencil-beam method of Ahnesjoe) are introduced to calculate point doses in different irregular photon fields. The calculations cover a typical mantle field, an inverted Y-field and different blocked fields for 4 and 10 MV photon energies. The results are compared to those of measurements in a water phantom. The Clarkson and the pencil-beam method have been proved to be the methods of equal standard in relation to accuracy. Both of these methods are being distinguished by minimum deviations and applied in our clinical routine work. The Wrede and beam-zone methods deliver useful results to central beam and yet provide larger deviations in calculating points beyond the central axis. (orig.) [de

  13. Modeling self-occlusions in dynamic shape and appearance tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a method to track the precise shape of a dynamic object in video. Joint dynamic shape and appearance models, in which a template of the object is propagated to match the object shape and radiance in the next frame, are advantageous over

  14. Experimental Study of Irregular Waves on a Gravel Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nai-Ren; Wu, Yun-Ta; Hwung, Hwung-Hweng; Yang, Ray-Yeng

    2017-04-01

    In the east coast of Taiwan, the sort grain size more belongs to cobble or gravel, which is physically distinct compared to the sandy beach in the west coast of Taiwan. Although gravel beaches can dissipate more of wave energy, gravel beaches were eroded and coastal road were damaged especially during typhoons. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphological response of gravel beach due to irregular waves. This experiment was carry out in a 21m long, 50 cm wide, 70 cm high wave tank at Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory, National Cheng-Kung University, Taiwan. To simulate of the geometry in the east coast of Taiwan, a physical model with 1/36 scale-down was used, in which the seawall was 10cm built upon a 1:10 slope and gravel grains with D50 being 3.87 mm was nourished in front of the seawall. In terms of typhoon-scale wave condition, irregular waves with scale-down conditions were generated for 600 s for each scenarios and, three different water levels with respect to the gravel beach are designed. Application of laser combined with image processing to produce 3D topographic map, the erosion zone and accretion zone would be found. The resulting morphological change of gravel beach will be measured using an integrated laser and image processing tool to have 3D topographic maps. It is expected to have more understanding about under what conditions the gravel coasts suffer the least damage. In particular, the relation between erosion rates of gravel beach, the angle of gravel slope and the length of the plane on the gravel slope will be achieved

  15. Tamoxifen treatment of bleeding irregularities associated with Norplant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Shaaban, Omar M; Amin, Ahmed F; Abdel-Aleem, Aly M

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the possible role of tamoxifen (selective estrogen receptor modulators, SERM) in treating bleeding irregularities associated with Norplant contraceptive use. Randomized clinical trial including 100 Norplant users complaining of vaginal bleeding irregularities. The trial was conducted in the Family Planning Clinic of Assiut University Hospital. Women were assigned at random to receive tamoxifen tablets (10 mg) twice daily for 10 days or similar placebo. Women were followed-up for 3 months. The end points were percentage of women who stopped bleeding during treatment, bleeding/spotting days during the period of follow-up, effect of treatment on their lifestyle, and side effects and discontinuation of contraception. There was good compliance with treatment. At the end of treatment, a significantly higher percentage of tamoxifen users stopped bleeding in comparison to the control group (88% vs. 68%, respectively; p=.016). Women who used tamoxifen had significantly less bleeding and/or spotting days than women who used placebo, during the first and second months. During the third month, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Women who used tamoxifen reported improvement in performing household activities, religious duties and in sexual life, during the first 2 months. In the third month, there were no differences between the two groups. There were no significant differences between tamoxifen and placebo groups in reporting side effects. In the group who used tamoxifen, two women discontinued Norplant use because of bleeding vs. nine women in the placebo group. Tamoxifen use at a dose of 10 mg twice daily orally, for 10 days, has a beneficial effect on vaginal bleeding associated with Norplant use. In addition, the bleeding pattern was better in women who used tamoxifen for the following 2 months after treatment. However, these results have to be confirmed in a larger trial before advocating this line of treatment.

  16. Measurements of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere of Jupiter by Pioneer 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Yang, F.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that when the frequency spectrum of the log amplitude fluctuations is used, the radio occultation experiment is a powerful tool for detecting, identifying, and studying ionospheric irregularities. Analysis of the Pioneer 10 radio occultation measurements reveals that the Jovian ionosphere possesses electron density irregularities which are very similar to those found in the earth's ionosphere. This is the first time such irregularities have been found in a planetary ionosphere other than that of earth. The Pioneer 10 results indicate that the spatial wave number spectrum of the electron density irregularities is close to the Kolmogorov spectrum and that the outer scale size is greater than the Fresnel size (6.15 km). This type of spectrum suggests that the irregularities are probably produced by the turbulent dissipation of irregularities larger than the outer scale size

  17. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    OpenAIRE

    Leerkes, Arjen; Engbersen, Godfried; Leun, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBoth the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular immigrants from the formal labour market and public provisions. At the same time the registered crime among irregular migrants rose. The 'marginalisation thesis' asserts that a larger number of migrants hav...

  18. Effects of magnetic storm phases on F layer irregularities below the auroral oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarons, J.; Gurgiolo, C.; Rodger, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of F-layer irregularity development and intensity were obtained between September and October 1981, primarily over subauroral latitudes in the area of the plasmapause. The results reveal the descent of the auroral irregularity region to include subauroral latitudes in the general area of the plasmapause during the main phases of a series of magnetic storms. Irregularities were found primarily at lower latitudes during the subauroral or plasmapause storm. A model for the subauroral irregularities in recovery phases of magnetic storms is proposed in which energy stored in the ring current is slowly released. 27 references

  19. Dependence on zenith angle of the strength of 3-meter equatorial electrojet irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierkic, H.M.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    Radar measurements in Peru were used to deduce the zenith angle dependence of the scattering cross section of plasma irregularities generated by instabilities in the equatorial electrojet. The irregularities probed by the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar had a wavelength of 3m. The cross section for the type 2 irregularities was isotopic in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the cross section for the stronger type 1 irregularities varied with zenith angle at a rate of approximately 0.3 dB/degree; the horizontally traveling waves were more than 100 times stronger than those traveling vertically

  20. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by Voyager radio occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1982-01-01

    Radio scintillations (at 3.6 and 13 cm) produced by scattering from ionospheric irregularities during the Voyager occultations are interpreted using a weak-scattering theory. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yield estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. It is shown that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  1. Structure of modes of smoothly irregular three-dimensional integrated optical four-layer waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.A.; Ajryan, Eh.A.; Sevast'yanov, A.L.; Sevast'yanov, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    As a method of research of an integrated optical multilayer waveguide, satisfying the condition of smooth modification of the shape of the studied three-dimensional structure, an asymptotic method is used. Three-dimensional fields of smoothly deforming modes of the integrated optical waveguide are circumscribed analytically. An evident dependence of the contributions of the first order of smallness in the amplitudes of the electrical and magnetic fields of the quasi-waveguide modes is obtained. The canonical type of the equations circumscribing propagation of quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes in the smoothly irregular part of a four-layer integrated optical waveguide is represented for an asymptotic method. With the help of the method of coupled waves and perturbation theory method, the shifts of complex propagation constants for quasi-TE and quasi-TM modes are obtained in an explicit form. The elaborated theory is applicable for the analysis of similar structures of dielectric, magnetic and metamaterials in a sufficiently broad band of electromagnetic wavelengths

  2. Forward and inverse viscoelastic wave scattering by irregular inclusions for shear wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Simon; Cloutier, Guy

    2017-10-01

    Inversion methods in shear wave elastography use simplifying assumptions to recover the mechanical properties of soft tissues. Consequently, these methods suffer from artifacts when applied to media containing strong stiffness contrasts, and do not provide a map of the viscosity. In this work, the shear wave field recorded inside and around an inclusion was used to estimate the viscoelastic properties of the inclusion and surrounding medium, based on an inverse problem approach assuming local homogeneity of both media. An efficient semi-analytical method was developed to model the scattering of an elastic wave by an irregular inclusion, based on a decomposition of the field by Bessel functions and on a decomposition of the boundaries as Fourier series. This model was validated against finite element modeling. Shear waves were experimentally induced by acoustic radiation force in soft tissue phantoms containing stiff and soft inclusions, and the displacement field was imaged at a high frame rate using plane wave imaging. A nonlinear least-squares algorithm compared the model to the experimental data and adjusted the geometrical and mechanical parameters. The estimated shear storage and loss moduli were in good agreement with reference measurements, as well as the estimated inclusion shape. This approach provides an accurate estimation of geometry and viscoelastic properties for a single inclusion in a homogeneous background in the context of radiation force elastography.

  3. Surfzone Currents Over Irregular Bathymetry: Drifter Observations and Numerical Model Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W. E.; Slinn, D. N.; Guza, R. T.

    2002-12-01

    Surfzone currents on alongshore variable bathymetry were observed with recently developed GPS-tracked drifters and numerically modeled with the time-dependent, nonlinear shallow water equations. These currents, forced by alongshore inhomogeneous pressure and radiation stress gradients, contain flow features difficult to resolve with fixed instrument arrays, such as rips, eddies, and meanders. Drifters were repeatedly released and recovered near Scripps Beach, La Jolla, California, in July 2000, 2001, and 2002. The most recent deployment of 10 drifters yielded about 32 hours of drifter data for each 5 hour deployment day. Offshore wave heights were moderate, between 0.3-1.0 m. The bathymetry, measured over a 600-700 m alongshore span with a GPS- and sonar-equipped jetski (2001 and 2002 deployments), was alongshore inhomogeneous primarily where an irregularly shaped bar-trough feature spanned the surf zone. The model simulations suggest that the alongshore inhomogeneous bathymetry strongly influences the location and strength of the observed flow features. Research supported by the California Sea Grant College Program and the Office of Naval Research.

  4. Deterministic diffusion in flower-shaped billiards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harayama, Takahisa; Klages, Rainer; Gaspard, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    We propose a flower-shaped billiard in order to study the irregular parameter dependence of chaotic normal diffusion. Our model is an open system consisting of periodically distributed obstacles in the shape of a flower, and it is strongly chaotic for almost all parameter values. We compute the parameter dependent diffusion coefficient of this model from computer simulations and analyze its functional form using different schemes, all generalizing the simple random walk approximation of Machta and Zwanzig. The improved methods we use are based either on heuristic higher-order corrections to the simple random walk model, on lattice gas simulation methods, or they start from a suitable Green-Kubo formula for diffusion. We show that dynamical correlations, or memory effects, are of crucial importance in reproducing the precise parameter dependence of the diffusion coefficent.

  5. Extended Schmidt law holds for faint dwarf irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Shi, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Context. The extended Schmidt law (ESL) is a variant of the Schmidt which relates the surface densities of gas and star formation, with the surface density of stellar mass added as an extra parameter. Although ESL has been shown to be valid for a wide range of galaxy properties, its validity in low-metallicity galaxies has not been comprehensively tested. This is important because metallicity affects the crucial atomic-to-molecular transition step in the process of conversion of gas to stars. Aims: We empirically investigate for the first time whether low metallicity faint dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) from the local universe follow the ESL. Here we consider the "global" law where surface densities are averaged over the galactic discs. dIrrs are unique not only because they are at the lowest end of mass and star formation scales for galaxies, but also because they are metal-poor compared to the general population of galaxies. Methods: Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) which is the largest survey of atomic hydrogen in such galaxies. The gas surface densities are determined using their atomic hydrogen content. The star formation rates are calculated using GALEX far ultraviolet fluxes after correcting for dust extinction, whereas the stellar surface densities are calculated using Spitzer 3.6 μm fluxes. The surface densities are calculated over the stellar discs defined by the 3.6 μm images. Results: We find dIrrs indeed follow the ESL. The mean deviation of the FIGGS galaxies from the relation is 0.01 dex, with a scatter around the relation of less than half that seen in the original relation. In comparison, we also show that the FIGGS galaxies are much more deviant when compared to the "canonical" Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Conclusions: Our results help strengthen the universality of the ESL, especially for galaxies with low metallicities. We suggest that models of star formation in which feedback from previous generations

  6. A Stochastic Grammar for Natural Shapes

    OpenAIRE

    Felzenszwalb, Pedro F.

    2013-01-01

    We consider object detection using a generic model for natural shapes. A common approach for object recognition involves matching object models directly to images. Another approach involves building intermediate representations via a generic grouping processes. We argue that these two processes (model-based recognition and grouping) may use similar computational mechanisms. By defining a generic model for shapes we can use model-based techniques to implement a mid-level vision grouping process.

  7. TACTILE SENSING FOR OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Marian, Nicolae; Bilberg, Arne

    2009-01-01

    The artificial sense of touch is a research area that can be considered still in demand, compared with the human dexterity of grasping a wide variety of shapes and sizes, perform complex tasks, and switch between grasps in response to changing task requirements. For handling unknown objects...... in unstructured environments, tactile sensing can provide more than valuable to complementary vision information about mechanical properties such as recognition and characterization, force, pressure, torque, compliance, friction, and mass as well as object shape, texture, position and pose. In this paper, we...

  8. A theory of shape identification

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Frédéric; Morel, Jean-Michel; Musé, Pablo; Sur, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic progress in shape recognition algorithms applied to ever-growing image databases. They have been applied to image stitching, stereo vision, image mosaics, solid object recognition and video or web image retrieval. More fundamentally, the ability of humans and animals to detect and recognize shapes is one of the enigmas of perception. The book describes a complete method that starts from a query image and an image database and yields a list of the images in the database containing shapes present in the query image. A false alarm number is associated to each detection. Many experiments will show that familiar simple shapes or images can reliably be identified with false alarm numbers ranging from 10-5 to less than 10-300. Technically speaking, there are two main issues. The first is extracting invariant shape descriptors from digital images. The second is deciding whether two shape descriptors are identifiable as the same shape or not. A perceptual principle, the Helmholtz princi...

  9. Clinical dosimetry of large shaped 60Co irradiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination is described of absorbed doses in the Alderson-Rando phantom by thermoluminescent dosemeters in patients irradiated with irregularly shaped large-surface fields of Co 60 . In a range of 3 to 5% the measured values correspond to the values calculated with the aid of relations presented by Bukowitz. Non-homogeneity of irradiation when two supradiaphragmatic fields are used and its improvement are discussed. (author)

  10. ON THE STAR FORMATION LAW FOR SPIRAL AND IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A dynamical model for star formation on a galactic scale is proposed in which the interstellar medium is constantly condensing to star-forming clouds on the dynamical time of the average midplane density, and the clouds are constantly being disrupted on the dynamical timescale appropriate for their higher density. In this model, the areal star formation rate scales with the 1.5 power of the total gas column density throughout the main regions of spiral galaxies, and with a steeper power, 2, in the far outer regions and in dwarf irregular galaxies because of the flaring disks. At the same time, there is a molecular star formation law that is linear in the main and outer parts of disks and in dIrrs because the duration of individual structures in the molecular phase is also the dynamical timescale, canceling the additional 0.5 power of surface density. The total gas consumption time scales directly with the midplane dynamical time, quenching star formation in the inner regions if there is no accretion, and sustaining star formation for ∼100 Gyr or more in the outer regions with no qualitative change in gas stability or molecular cloud properties. The ULIRG track follows from high densities in galaxy collisions.

  11. Influence of Ionospheric Irregularities on GNSS Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have used numerical simulation to study the effects of ionospheric irregularities on accuracy of global navigation satellite system (GNSS measurements, using ionosphere-free (in atmospheric research and geometry-free (in ionospheric research dual-frequency phase combinations. It is known that elimination of these effects from multifrequency GNSS measurements is handi-capped by diffraction effects during signal propagation through turbulent ionospheric plasma with the inner scale being smaller than the Fresnel radius. We demonstrated the possibility of reducing the residual ionospheric error in dual-frequency GNSS remote sensing in ionosphere-free combination by Fresnel inversion. The inversion parameter, the distance to the virtual screen, may be selected from the minimum of amplitude fluctuations. This suggests the possibility of improving the accuracy of GNSS remote sensing in meteorology. In the study of ionospheric disturbances with the aid of geometry-free combination, the Fresnel inversion eliminates only the third-order error. To eliminate the random TEC component which, like the measured average TEC, is the first-order correction, we should use temporal filtering (averaging.

  12. Timing irregularities of PSR J1705-1906

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, J. B.; Liu, X. W.; Wang, N.; Yuen, R.

    2018-05-01

    Timing analysis of PSR J1705-1906 using data from Nanshan 25-m and Parkes 64-m radio telescopes, which span over fourteen years, shows that the pulsar exhibits significant proper motion, and rotation instability. We updated the astrometry parameters and the spin parameters of the pulsar. In order to minimize the effect of timing irregularities on measuring its position, we employ the Cholesky method to analyse the timing noise. We obtain the proper motion of -77(3) mas yr-1 in right ascension and -38(29) mas yr-1 in declination. The power spectrum of timing noise is analyzed for the first time, which gives the spectral exponent α =-5.2 for the power-law model indicating that the fluctuations in spin frequency and spin-down rate dominate the red noise. We detect two small glitches from this pulsar with fractional jump in spin frequency of Δ ν /ν ˜ 2.9 × 10^{-10} around MJD 55199 and Δ ν /ν ˜ 2.7× 10^{-10} around MJD 55953. Investigations of pulse profile at different time segments suggest no significant changes in the pulse profiles around the two glitches.

  13. Distributed sensing of ionospheric irregularities with a GNSS receiver array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Datta-Barua, Seebany; Bust, Gary S.; Deshpande, Kshitija B.

    2017-08-01

    We present analysis methods for studying the structuring and motion of ionospheric irregularities at the subkilometer scale sizes that produce L band scintillations. Spaced-receiver methods are used for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers' phase measurements over approximately subkilometer to kilometer length baselines for the first time. The quantities estimated by these techniques are plasma drift velocity, diffraction anisotropy magnitude and orientation, and characteristic velocity. Uncertainties are quantified by ensemble simulation of noise on the phase signals carried through to the observations of the spaced-receiver linear system. These covariances are then propagated through to uncertainties on drifts through linearization about the estimated values of the state. Five receivers of SAGA, the Scintillation Auroral Global Positioning System (GPS) Array, provide 100 Hz power and phase data for each channel at L1 frequency. The array is sited in the auroral zone at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska. A case study of a single scintillating satellite observed by the array is used to demonstrate the spaced-receiver and uncertainty estimation process. A second case study estimates drifts as measured by multiple scintillating channels. These scintillations are correlated with auroral activity, based on all-sky camera images. Measurements and uncertainty estimates made over a 30 min period are compared to a collocated incoherent scatter radar and show good agreement in horizontal drift speed and direction during periods of scintillation for which the characteristic velocity is less than the drift velocity.

  14. Metallicity of Young and Old Stars in Irregular Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Based on archived images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, stellar photometry for 105 irregular galaxies has been conducted. We have shown the red supergiant and giant branches in the obtained Hertzsprung-Russel diagrams. Using the TRGB method, distances to galaxies and metallicity of red giants have been determined. The color index ( V - I) of the supergiant branch at the luminosity level M I = -7 was chosen as the metallicity index of red supergiants. For the galaxies under study, the diagrams have been built, in which the correlation can be seen between the luminosity of galaxies ( M B ) and metallicity of red giants and supergiants. The main source of variance of the results in the obtained diagrams is, in our opinion, uncertainty inmeasurements of galaxy luminosities and star-forming outburst. The relation between metallicity of young and old stars shows that main enrichment of galaxies with metals has taken place in the remote past. Deviations of some galaxies in the obtained relation can possibly be explained with the fall of the intergalactic gas on them, although, this inconsiderably affects metallicities of the stellar content.

  15. Climatic irregular staircases: generalized acceleration of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Saedeleer, Bernard

    2016-01-27

    Global warming rates mentioned in the literature are often restricted to a couple of arbitrary periods of time, or of isolated values of the starting year, lacking a global view. In this study, we perform on the contrary an exhaustive parametric analysis of the NASA GISS LOTI data, and also of the HadCRUT4 data. The starting year systematically varies between 1880 and 2002, and the averaging period from 5 to 30 yr - not only decades; the ending year also varies . In this way, we uncover a whole unexplored space of values for the global warming rate, and access the full picture. Additionally, stairstep averaging and linear least squares fitting to determine climatic trends have been sofar exclusive. We propose here an original hybrid method which combines both approaches in order to derive a new type of climatic trend. We find that there is an overall acceleration of the global warming whatever the value of the averaging period, and that 99.9% of the 3029 Earth's climatic irregular staircases are rising. Graphical evidence is also given that choosing an El Niño year as starting year gives lower global warming rates - except if there is a volcanic cooling in parallel. Our rates agree and generalize several results mentioned in the literature.

  16. Effects of Irregular Bridge Columns and Feasibility of Seismic Regularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Abey E.

    2018-05-01

    Bridges with unequal column height is one of the main irregularities in bridge design particularly while negotiating steep valleys, making the bridges vulnerable to seismic action. The desirable behaviour of bridge columns towards seismic loading is that, they should perform in a regular fashion, i.e. the capacity of each column should be utilized evenly. But, this type of behaviour is often missing when the column heights are unequal along the length of the bridge, allowing short columns to bear the maximum lateral load. In the present study, the effects of unequal column height on the global seismic performance of bridges are studied using pushover analysis. Codes such as CalTrans (Engineering service center, earthquake engineering branch, 2013) and EC-8 (EN 1998-2: design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 2: bridges, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, 2005) suggests seismic regularity criterion for achieving regular seismic performance level at all the bridge columns. The feasibility of adopting these seismic regularity criterions along with those mentioned in literatures will be assessed for bridges designed as per the Indian Standards in the present study.

  17. Weighted statistical parameters for irregularly sampled time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldini, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Unevenly spaced time series are common in astronomy because of the day-night cycle, weather conditions, dependence on the source position in the sky, allocated telescope time and corrupt measurements, for example, or inherent to the scanning law of satellites like Hipparcos and the forthcoming Gaia. Irregular sampling often causes clumps of measurements and gaps with no data which can severely disrupt the values of estimators. This paper aims at improving the accuracy of common statistical parameters when linear interpolation (in time or phase) can be considered an acceptable approximation of a deterministic signal. A pragmatic solution is formulated in terms of a simple weighting scheme, adapting to the sampling density and noise level, applicable to large data volumes at minimal computational cost. Tests on time series from the Hipparcos periodic catalogue led to significant improvements in the overall accuracy and precision of the estimators with respect to the unweighted counterparts and those weighted by inverse-squared uncertainties. Automated classification procedures employing statistical parameters weighted by the suggested scheme confirmed the benefits of the improved input attributes. The classification of eclipsing binaries, Mira, RR Lyrae, Delta Cephei and Alpha2 Canum Venaticorum stars employing exclusively weighted descriptive statistics achieved an overall accuracy of 92 per cent, about 6 per cent higher than with unweighted estimators.

  18. Irregular persistent activity induced by synaptic excitatory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barbieri

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological experiments on monkeys have reported highly irregular persistent activity during the performance of an oculomotor delayed-response task. These experiments show that during the delay period the coefficient of variation (CV of interspike intervals (ISI of prefrontal neurons is above 1, on average, and larger than during the fixation period. In the present paper, we show that this feature can be reproduced in a network in which persistent activity is induced by excitatory feedback, provided that (i the post-spike reset is close enough to threshold , (ii synaptic efficacies are a non-linear function of the pre-synaptic firing rate. Non-linearity between presynaptic rate and effective synaptic strength is implemented by a standard short-term depression mechanism (STD. First, we consider the simplest possible network with excitatory feedback: a fully connected homogeneous network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, using both numerical simulations and analytical techniques. The results are then confirmed in a network with selective excitatory neurons and inhibition. In both the cases there is a large range of values of the synaptic efficacies for which the statistics of firing of single cells is similar to experimental data.

  19. Tipologías residenciales en comunidades chilenas en condiciones de precariedad habitacional Residential typologies in Chilean irregular settlements with precarious housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Burgos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar dimensiones residenciales que caractericen el ambiente físico y social en los campamentos de Chile y construir tipologías que permitan elaborar perfiles con esos atributos residenciales distintivos. MÉTODOS: Se estudió el universo de campamentos (n = 122 de la Región Metropolitana (Chile a partir del Catastro Nacional de Campamentos realizado por la fundación "Un Techo para Chile" en 2007. Se recolectó información proveniente de informantes clave sobre las comunidades y los lugares de emplazamiento, variables que fueron modeladas empleando un análisis factorial para identificar dimensiones residenciales, las que a su vez fueron refinadas con la técnica de agrupamientos de k-medias. RESULTADOS: El análisis factorial destacó tres dimensiones subyacentes: respuesta social local, ambiente extracomunitario y servicios básicos. Las variables centrales en la formación de esas categorías fueron la existencia de proyectos habitacionales, el área urbana y el acceso a electricidad, respectivamente. El análisis de agrupamientos generó cuatro perfiles que combinaron las tres dimensiones: perfil urbano con baja precariedad de servicios básicos (n = 30, perfil urbano-rural con alto potencial de respuesta social local (n = 32, perfil urbano con alta amenaza ambiental (n = 43 y perfil rural con bajo potencial de respuesta social local (n = 17. CONCLUSIONES: Las dimensiones residenciales formadas son consistentes con el modelo teórico revisado y sugieren indicadores relevantes para el seguimiento de estas comunidades. La identificación de perfiles permite dimensionar la heterogeneidad de realidades residenciales contribuyendo a la priorización de dominios de déficit o riesgos que pueden estar presentes en cada grupo, para con ello profundizar en su investigación y oportunidades de acción.OBJECTIVE: To identify residential parameters that characterize the physical and social environment in Chile's irregular

  20. Evaluation of the accuracy of the calculation of irregular photon fields in a radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, D.P.; Verlinde, P.H.; Storchi, P.; Woudstra, E.; Puurunen, H.

    1995-01-01

    In the Cadplan external beam planning system, irregular fields are calculated using the pencil beam convolution model. This model uses measured PDDs, profiles, and peak scatter factor data to extract pencil beam kernels. The scatter kernel is convolved with a matrix describing the field shape to calculate the PDD of the irregular field. The boundary kernel is used in the calculation of the off-axis ratios. The field matrix used in the convolution has a value of 1 in the open parts of the field a value of zero outside the field and equals the transmission in the blocked part. The evaluation of the model was done using two test cases. Both test cases are based on a 20x20 cm 2 field. In the first case, the central part of the field is blocked by an 8x8 cm 2 block. On one side this block is connected to the field edge by another block with a width of 3 cm. In the second case, two corners of the field are blocked by an 8x8.5 cm 2 block. There is a gap of 3 cm between the two blocks. The two cases were measured in a waterphantom for open and 45 deg. wedged beams of 4 different energies. 4, 6 and 23 MV were measured on conventional accelerators using customized blocks. 25 MV was measured on a scanned beam MM50 using a multileaf collimator. For all fields PDDs, and profiles were measured centrally and at 2 or more off-axis distances. All the measured doses are relative to the normalisation dose of a 20x20 cm 2 open field at d max . The PDDs and profiles measured for the two test cases were compared to results of the calculation of the pencil beam convolution model. The profiles were compared at four depths: d max , 5, 10, and 20 cm. The difference found between measurement and calculation was within acceptable limits, making it possible to use the model in routine clinical planning

  1. "Needed Not Wanted": An Interdisciplinary Examination of the Work-Related Challenges Faced by Irregular Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfleet, Philip; Blustein, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Using an integrative perspective drawn from vocational psychology and migration studies, this article explores the lives of irregular migrants, which represents a unique aspect of work-based migration. Irregular migrants are those individuals who travel from regions without much work to states that offer some means of employment, without formal…

  2. Lateralized effects of orthographical irregularity and auditory memory load on the kinematics of transciption typewriting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemsaat, J.G.; Galen, G.P. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the combined effects of orthographical irregularity and auditory memory load on the kinematics of finger movements in a transcription-typewriting task. Eight right-handed touch-typists were asked to type 80 strings of ten seven-letter words. In half the trials an irregularly

  3. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  4. Influence of initial stress, irregularity and heterogeneity on Love-type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present paper deals with the propagation of Love-type wave in an initially stressed irregular vertically heterogeneous layer lying over an initially stressed isotropic layer and an initially stressed isotropic half- space. Two different types of irregularities, viz., rectangular and parabolic, are considered at the interface.

  5. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerkes, A.S.; Engbersen, G.; Leun, van der J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Both the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular immigrants

  6. Crime among irregular immigrants and the influence of internal border control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Leerkes (Arjen); G.B.M. Engbersen (Godfried); J.P. van der Leun (Joanne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBoth the number of crime suspects without legal status and the number of irregular or undocumented immigrants held in detention facilities increased substantially in theNetherlands between 1997 and 2003. In this period, theDutch state increasingly attempted to exclude irregular

  7. Breaking Down Anonymity: Digital surveillance on irregular migrants in Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.J. Broeders (Dennis)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe presence of irregular migrants causes a tough problem for policy makers. Political and popular aversion against the presence of irregular migrants has mounted in most West-European societies for years, yet their presence remains. Their exact numbers are obviously unknown - only

  8. Dynamics of long-period irregular pulsations in high latitudes during strong magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurazhkovskaya, N.A.; Klajn, B.I.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of strong magnetic storms within np type high-latitudinal long-period irregular pulsations at Mirny studied using data obtained at observatory of the magnetosphere south hemisphere. Variation of long-period irregular pulsation amplitude is shown to depend essentially on duration of storm initial phase and on the nature of solar wind heterogeneity enabling growth of strong storm. 14 refs

  9. Spectral classification of medium-scale high-latitude F region plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Rodriguez, P.; Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Sachs Freeman Associates, Bowie, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The high-latitude ionosphere represents a highly structured plasma. Rodriguez and Szuszczewicz (1984) reported a wide range of plasma density irregularities (150 km to 75 m) at high latitudes near 200 km. They have shown that the small-scale irregularities (7.5 km to 75 m) populated the dayside oval more often than the other phenomenological regions. It was suggested that in the lower F region the chemical recombination is fast enough to remove small-scale irregularities before convection can transport them large distances, leaving structured particle precipitation as the dominant source term for irregularities. The present paper provides the results of spectral analyses of pulsed plasma probe data collected in situ aboard the STP/S3-4 satellite during the period March-September 1978. A quantitative description of irregularity spectra in the high-latitude lower F region plasma density is given. 22 references

  10. Significance of scatter radar studies of E and F region irregularities at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwald, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter considers the mechanisms by which electron density irregularities may be generated in the high latitude ionosphere and the techniques through which they are observed with ground base radars. The capabilities of radars used for studying these irregularities are compared with the capabilities of radars used for incoherent scatter measurements. The use of irregularity scatter techniques for dynamic studies of larger scale structured phenomena is discussed. Topics considered include E-region irregularities, observations with auroral radars, plasma drifts associated with a westward travelling surge, and ionospheric plasma motions associated with resonant waves. It is shown why high latitude F-region irregularity studies must be made in the HF frequency band (3-30 MHz). The joint use of the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT), STARE and SAFARI facilities is examined, and it is concluded that the various techniques will enhance each other and provide a better understanding of the various processes being studied

  11. New Opportunities for Remote Sensing Ionospheric Irregularities by Fitting Scintillation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrano, C. S.; Rino, C. L.; Groves, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    In a recent paper, we presented a phase screen theory for the spectrum of intensity scintillations when the refractive index irregularities follow a two-component power law [Carrano and Rino, DOI: 10.1002/2015RS005903]. More recently we have investigated the inverse problem, whereby phase screen parameters are inferred from scintillation time series. This is accomplished by fitting the spectrum of intensity fluctuations with a parametrized theoretical model using Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods. The Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo technique provides a-posteriori errors and confidence intervals. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) provides justification for the use of one- or two-component irregularity models. We refer to this fitting as Irregularity Parameter Estimation (IPE) since it provides a statistical description of the irregularities from the scintillations they produce. In this talk, we explore some new opportunities for remote sensing ionospheric irregularities afforded by IPE. Statistical characterization of irregularities and the plasma bubbles in which they are embedded provides insight into the development of the underlying instability. In a companion paper by Rino et al., IPE is used to interpret scintillation due to simulated EPB structure. IPE can be used to reconcile multi-frequency scintillation observations and to construct high fidelity scintillation simulation tools. In space-to-ground propagation scenarios, for which an estimate of the distance to the scattering region is available a-priori, IPE enables retrieval of zonal irregularity drift. In radio occultation scenarios, the distance to the irregularities is generally unknown but IPE enables retrieval of Fresnel frequency. A geometric model for the effective scan velocity maps Fresnel frequency to Fresnel scale, yielding the distance to the irregularities. We demonstrate this approach by geolocating irregularities observed by the CORISS instrument onboard the C/NOFS satellite.

  12. Object width modulates object-based attentional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Joseph C; Neppi-Modona, Marco; Strother, Lars; Behrmann, Marlene; Shomstein, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    Visual input typically includes a myriad of objects, some of which are selected for further processing. While these objects vary in shape and size, most evidence supporting object-based guidance of attention is drawn from paradigms employing two identical objects. Importantly, object size is a readily perceived stimulus dimension, and whether it modulates the distribution of attention remains an open question. Across four experiments, the size of the objects in the display was manipulated in a modified version of the two-rectangle paradigm. In Experiment 1, two identical parallel rectangles of two sizes (thin or thick) were presented. Experiments 2-4 employed identical trapezoids (each having a thin and thick end), inverted in orientation. In the experiments, one end of an object was cued and participants performed either a T/L discrimination or a simple target-detection task. Combined results show that, in addition to the standard object-based attentional advantage, there was a further attentional benefit for processing information contained in the thick versus thin end of objects. Additionally, eye-tracking measures demonstrated increased saccade precision towards thick object ends, suggesting that Fitts's Law may play a role in object-based attentional shifts. Taken together, these results suggest that object-based attentional selection is modulated by object width.

  13. Shape analysis of isoseismals based on empirical and synthetic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molchan, G.; Panza, G.F.

    2000-11-01

    We present an attempt to compare modeled ground motion acceleration fields with macroseismic observations. Two techniques for the representation of the observed intensities by isoseismals, a smoothing technique and one which visualizes the local uncertainty of an isoseismal, are tested with synthetic and observed data. We show how noise in the data and irregularities in the distribution of observation sites affect the resolution of the isoseismal's shape. In addition to ''standard'' elongated shapes, we identify cross-like patterns in the macroseismic observations for two Italian earthquakes of strike-slip type; similar patterns are displayed by the theoretical peak acceleration fields calculated assuming the point source models given in the literature. (author)

  14. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  15. Feedback Limiting the Coastal Response to Irregularities in Shelf Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J. H.; Benedet, L.

    2007-12-01

    Observations and engineering studies have shown that non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry can influence longshore sediment transport gradients and create patterns of shoreline change. One classic example is from Grand Isle, Louisiana, where two offshore borrow pits caused two zones of shoreline accretion landward of the pits. In addition to anthropogenic cases, many natural situations exist in which irregularities in coastal planform are thought to result from offshore shoals or depressions. Recent studies using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D have successfully simulated the observed nearshore erosion and accretion patterns landward of an inner shelf borrow pit. An analysis of the momentum balance in a steady-state simulation has demonstrated that both alongshore pressure gradients (due to alongshore variations in wave setup) and radiation stress gradients (terms relevant to alongshore forcing) are important for forcing the initial pattern of nearshore sedimentation in response to the borrow pit. The response of the coast to non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry appears to be limited, however, because observed shoreline undulations are often rather subtle. (An exception may exist in the case of a very high angle wave climate.) Therefore, feedbacks in processes must exist such that growth of the shoreline salient itself modifies the transport processes in a way that limits further growth (assuming the perturbation in inner shelf bathymetry itself remains unchanged). Examination of the Delft3D momentum balance for an inner shelf pit test case demonstrates that after a certain degree of morphologic development the forcing associated with the well-known shoreline smoothing process (a.k.a., diffusion) counteracts the forcing associated with the inner shelf pit, producing a negative feedback which arrests further growth of the shoreline salient. These results provide insights into the physical processes that control shoreline changes behind inner shelf bathymetric anomalies (i

  16. THE MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF THE HORIZONTAL IRREGULARITIES IN PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Patlasov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Across the track superstructure (TSS there are structures where standard approach to the decision on the future of their operation is not entirely correct or acceptable. In particular, it concerns the track sections which are sufficiently quickly change their geometric parameters: the radius of curvature, angle of rotation, and the like. As an example, such portions of TSS may include crossovers where their component is within the so-called connecting part, which at a sufficiently short length, substantially changes curvature. The estimation of the position in terms of a design on the basis of the existing technique (by the difference in the adjacent arrows bending is virtually impossible. Therefore it is proposed to complement and improve the methodology for assessing the situation of the curve in plan upon difference in the adjacent versine. Methodology. The possible options for measuring horizontal curves in the plan were analyzed. The most adequate method, which does not contradict existing on the criterion of the possibility of using established standards was determined. The ease of measurement and calculation was took into account. Findings. Qualitative and quantitative verification of the proposed and existing methods showed very good agreement of the measurement results. This gives grounds to assert that this methodology can be recommended to the workers of track facilities in the assessment of horizontal irregularities in plan not only curves, but also within the connecting part of switch congresses. Originality. The existing method of valuation of the geometric position of the curves in the plan was improved. It does not create new regulations, and all results are evaluated by existing norms. Practical value. The proposed technique makes it possible, without creating a new regulatory framework, to be attached to existing one, and expanding the boundaries of its application. This method can be used not only for ordinary curves

  17. Contribution of tropical instability waves to ENSO irregularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan M.; McGregor, Shayne; Santoso, Agus; England, Matthew H.

    2018-05-01

    Tropical instability waves (TIWs) are a major source of internally-generated oceanic variability in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. These non-linear phenomena play an important role in the sea surface temperature (SST) budget in a region critical for low-frequency modes of variability such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, the direct contribution of TIW-driven stochastic variability to ENSO has received little attention. Here, we investigate the influence of TIWs on ENSO using a 1/4° ocean model coupled to a simple atmosphere. The use of a simple atmosphere removes complex intrinsic atmospheric variability while allowing the dominant mode of air-sea coupling to be represented as a statistical relationship between SST and wind stress anomalies. Using this hybrid coupled model, we perform a suite of coupled ensemble forecast experiments initiated with wind bursts in the western Pacific, where individual ensemble members differ only due to internal oceanic variability. We find that TIWs can induce a spread in the forecast amplitude of the Niño 3 SST anomaly 6-months after a given sequence of WWBs of approximately ± 45% the size of the ensemble mean anomaly. Further, when various estimates of stochastic atmospheric forcing are added, oceanic internal variability is found to contribute between about 20% and 70% of the ensemble forecast spread, with the remainder attributable to the atmospheric variability. While the oceanic contribution to ENSO stochastic forcing requires further quantification beyond the idealized approach used here, our results nevertheless suggest that TIWs may impact ENSO irregularity and predictability. This has implications for ENSO representation in low-resolution coupled models.

  18. Ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes in the American sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the atomic oxigem airglow emission at the wavelength of 6300 A observed at Cachoeira Paulista (22 0 41'S, 45 0 00'W) shows that intensity perturbations frequently occur and propagate from north to south and from west to east. Such irregularities originated in the ionospheric F region and occur essencially during the premidnight period. These perturbations have a high frequency of occurrence during spring and summer and are rare during winter and fall. The disturbances are correlated with range type spread F detected over Cachoeira Paulista, and have characteristics similar to equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles (i.e., similar seazonal variation, time of occurrence, ionogram signatures, direction and speed of propagation, etc.). A numerical simulation is carried out for the generation and evolution of ionospheric bubbles based on the theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability for the equatorial and Cachoeira Paulista regions. Also a study was made of the, evolution of the bubble as a function of the electron density profile and as a function of the amplitude of the initial density perturbation. Assuming the electron density profile perturbed by the bubble, the [OI] 6300 A intensity was calculated for various latitudes arbitrarily taken within the photometer scanning range. The bubble was assumed to be aligned with the Earth's magnetic field and extending from higher altitudes at the equatorial region down to be arbitrary height of 150 Km at which a negligible conductivity is assumed. It was also assumed that the bubble was moving upwards with the velocity of 120 m/s, which in turn was estimated from initial numerical simulation results. The airglow calculation results show that as the bubble goes up, the disturbances in the airglow intensity propagate from north to south, in accord with observed experimental results. (Author) [pt

  19. Plasma Irregularity Production in the Polar Cap F-Region Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche, Leslie

    Plasma in the Earth's ionosphere is highly irregular on scales ranging between a few centimeters and hundreds of kilometers. Small-scale irregularities or plasma waves can scatter radio waves resulting in a loss of signal for navigation and communication networks. The polar region is particularly susceptible to strong disturbances due to its direct connection with the Sun's magnetic field and energetic particles. In this thesis, factors that contribute to the production of decameter-scale plasma irregularities in the polar F region ionosphere are investigated. Both global and local control of irregularity production are studied, i.e. we consider global solar control through solar illumination and solar wind as well as much more local control by plasma density gradients and convection electric field. In the first experimental study, solar control of irregularity production is investigated using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar at McMurdo, Antarctica. The occurrence trends for irregularities are analyzed statistically and a model is developed that describes the location of radar echoes within the radar's field-of-view. The trends are explained through variations in background plasma density with solar illumination affecting radar beam propagation. However, it is found that the irregularity occurrence during the night is higher than expected from ray tracing simulations based on a standard ionospheric density model. The high occurrence at night implies an additional source of plasma density and it is proposed that large-scale density enhancements called polar patches may be the source of this density. Additionally, occurrence maximizes around the terminator due to different competing irregularity production processes that favor a more or less sunlit ionosphere. The second study is concerned with modeling irregularity characteristics near a large-scale density gradient reversal, such as those expected near polar patches, with a particular focus on

  20. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    . Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent

  1. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...

  2. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  3. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  4. Oriented active shape models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Udupa, Jayaram K

    2009-04-01

    Active shape models (ASM) are widely employed for recognizing anatomic structures and for delineating them in medical images. In this paper, a novel strategy called oriented active shape models (OASM) is presented in an attempt to overcome the following five limitations of ASM: 1) lower delineation accuracy, 2) the requirement of a large number of landmarks, 3) sensitivity to search range, 4) sensitivity to initialization, and 5) inability to fully exploit the specific information present in the given image to be segmented. OASM effectively combines the rich statistical shape information embodied in ASM with the boundary orientedness property and the globally optimal delineation capability of the live wire methodology of boundary segmentation. The latter characteristics allow live wire to effectively separate an object boundary from other nonobject boundaries with similar properties especially when they come very close in the image domain. The approach leads to a two-level dynamic programming method, wherein the first level corresponds to boundary recognition and the second level corresponds to boundary delineation, and to an effective automatic initialization method. The method outputs a globally optimal boundary that agrees with the shape model if the recognition step is successful in bringing the model close to the boundary in the image. Extensive evaluation experiments have been conducted by utilizing 40 image (magnetic resonance and computed tomography) data sets in each of five different application areas for segmenting breast, liver, bones of the foot, and cervical vertebrae of the spine. Comparisons are made between OASM and ASM based on precision, accuracy, and efficiency of segmentation. Accuracy is assessed using both region-based false positive and false negative measures and boundary-based distance measures. The results indicate the following: 1) The accuracy of segmentation via OASM is considerably better than that of ASM; 2) The number of landmarks

  5. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Block Shape Irregularity and its Effects on Block Impacts Using an Energy-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Zaobao; Shi, Chong; Shao, Jianfu

    2018-04-01

    This study is devoted to three-dimensional modeling of small falling rocks in block impact analysis in energy view using the particle flow method. The restitution coefficient of rockfall collision is introduced from the energy consumption mechanism to describe rockfall-impacting properties. Three-dimensional reconstruction of falling block is conducted with the help of spherical harmonic functions that have satisfactory mathematical properties such as orthogonality and rotation invariance. Numerical modeling of the block impact to the bedrock is analyzed with both the sphere-simplified model and the 3D reconstructed model. Comparisons of the obtained results suggest that the 3D reconstructed model is advantageous in considering the combination effects of rockfall velocity and rotations during colliding process. Verification of the modeling is carried out with the results obtained from other experiments. In addition, the effects of rockfall morphology, surface characteristics, velocity, and volume, colliding damping and relative angle are investigated. A three-dimensional reconstruction modulus of falling blocks is to be developed and incorporated into the rockfall simulation tools in order to extend the modeling results at block scale to slope scale.

  6. Isogeometric shape optimization in fluid mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Peter; Gravesen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this work is numerical shape optimization in fluid mechanics, based on isogeometric analysis. The generic goal is to design the shape of a 2-dimensional flow domain to minimize some prescribed objective while satisfying given geometric constraints. As part of the design problem...

  7. Spatial irregularities in Jupiter's upper ionosphere observed by voyager radio occultations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson, D.P.; Tyler, G.L.

    1982-07-01

    Dual frequency radio occultation experiments carried out with Voyagers 1 and 2 provided data on the spatial irregularities in Jupiter's ionosphere at four different locations. Sample spectra of weak fluctuations in amplitude and phase of the 3.6-cm and 13-cm wavelength radio signals can be interpreted by using the theory for scattering from an anisotropic power law phase screen. Least squares solutions for ionospheric parameters derived from the observed fluctuation spectra yielded estimates of (1) the axial ratio, (2) angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities, (3) the power law exponent of the spatial spectrum of irregularities, and (4) the magnitude of the spatial variations in electron density. Equipment limitations and the method of analysis constrain the observations to irregularities of approximate size 1--200 km. No evidence of the inner or outer scale of the irregularities was found. For length scales in the range given, the three-dimensional spatial spectrum obeys a power law with exponent varying from -3.0 to -3.7, and the root mean square fractional variations in electron density are 1--15%. All observed irregularities appear to be anisotropic with axial ratios between 2:1 and 10:1. Ionospheric parameters vary with altitude and latitude. We conclude that the measured angular orientation of the anisotropic irregularities indicates magnetic field direction and may provide a basis for refining Jovian magnetic field models.

  8. Manufacture of Regularly Shaped Sol-Gel Pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kinder, James D.

    2006-01-01

    An extrusion batch process for manufacturing regularly shaped sol-gel pellets has been devised as an improved alternative to a spray process that yields irregularly shaped pellets. The aspect ratio of regularly shaped pellets can be controlled more easily, while regularly shaped pellets pack more efficiently. In the extrusion process, a wet gel is pushed out of a mold and chopped repetitively into short, cylindrical pieces as it emerges from the mold. The pieces are collected and can be either (1) dried at ambient pressure to xerogel, (2) solvent exchanged and dried under ambient pressure to ambigels, or (3) supercritically dried to aerogel. Advantageously, the extruded pellets can be dropped directly in a cross-linking bath, where they develop a conformal polymer coating around the skeletal framework of the wet gel via reaction with the cross linker. These pellets can be dried to mechanically robust X-Aerogel.

  9. Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Per E; Wennberg, Patrik; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82·1% of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Luleå in 1981. Adolescents (age 16 years). Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1·74; 95% CI 1·12, 2·71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR=1·67; 95% CI 1·00, 2·80). Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.

  10. Voting based object boundary reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qi; Zhang, Like; Ma, Jingsheng

    2005-07-01

    A voting-based object boundary reconstruction approach is proposed in this paper. Morphological technique was adopted in many applications for video object extraction to reconstruct the missing pixels. However, when the missing areas become large, the morphological processing cannot bring us good results. Recently, Tensor voting has attracted people"s attention, and it can be used for boundary estimation on curves or irregular trajectories. However, the complexity of saliency tensor creation limits its applications in real-time systems. An alternative approach based on tensor voting is introduced in this paper. Rather than creating saliency tensors, we use a "2-pass" method for orientation estimation. For the first pass, Sobel d*etector is applied on a coarse boundary image to get the gradient map. In the second pass, each pixel puts decreasing weights based on its gradient information, and the direction with maximum weights sum is selected as the correct orientation of the pixel. After the orientation map is obtained, pixels begin linking edges or intersections along their direction. The approach is applied to various video surveillance clips under different conditions, and the experimental results demonstrate significant improvement on the final extracted objects accuracy.

  11. Effect of Changes in Layout Shape on Unit Construction Cost of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The conclusions of previous studies on the cost implication of building shape have been premised on the knowledge of building morphological and geometrical characteristics, and have lacked empirical authentication. This study used empirical data to investigate the effect of layout narrowness and complexity (irregularity) ...

  12. Proper Elements and Secular Resonances for Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaugé, C.; Nesvorný, D.

    2007-06-01

    We present results of an analytical study of proper elements and secular resonances for the irregular satellites of the outer planets. In the case of the Jovian system we identify three satellite families, two of them previously known (Carme and Ananke), plus a new agglomeration of four bodies that includes Pasiphae as its largest member. While the distribution of proper elements for Saturn's moons seems to be more random, a small cluster was found for the direct moons formed by Albiorix, Erriapo, and 2004 S1, slightly different from the so-called Gaulish cluster. No significant families are detected in the present study for the Uranian or Neptunian satellite systems. For each satellite system we determine the location of several secular resonances in the proper element space. Apart from the well-known resonance locks of Pasiphae, Sinope, and Siarnaq, a comparison between the resonance locations and proper elements shows that Saturn's satellite Narvi also exhibits temporary librations in the ϖ-ϖsolar resonance. However, unlike the resonant Jovian moons that are located in the same configuration, Narvi's critical argument librates alternately around values near 90° and 270°. Neither the Uranian nor Neptunian systems seem to have resonant moons. The resonant dynamics of the real satellites in the vicinity of ϖ˙-ϖ˙solar=0 is studied with a simple model for secular resonances based on the restricted three-body problem. Depending on the initial conditions, we show the existence of one or two modes of libration that can occur at different values of the critical angle, showing a good correspondence with the observed behavior of all the resonant moons. Finally, we discuss the global distribution of the real satellites with respect to the secular resonances, as compared with synthetic populations of bodies drawn solely from stability conditions. For Saturn, we find that the present satellite population appears compatible with simple random distributions. Although

  13. Dynamic stability of passive dynamic walking on an irregular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy Li-Shin; Dingwell, Jonathan B

    2007-12-01

    Falls that occur during walking are a significant health problem. One of the greatest impediments to solve this problem is that there is no single obviously "correct" way to quantify walking stability. While many people use variability as a proxy for stability, measures of variability do not quantify how the locomotor system responds to perturbations. The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in walking surface variability affect changes in both locomotor variability and stability. We modified an irreducibly simple model of walking to apply random perturbations that simulated walking over an irregular surface. Because the model's global basin of attraction remained fixed, increasing the amplitude of the applied perturbations directly increased the risk of falling in the model. We generated ten simulations of 300 consecutive strides of walking at each of six perturbation amplitudes ranging from zero (i.e., a smooth continuous surface) up to the maximum level the model could tolerate without falling over. Orbital stability defines how a system responds to small (i.e., "local") perturbations from one cycle to the next and was quantified by calculating the maximum Floquet multipliers for the model. Local stability defines how a system responds to similar perturbations in real time and was quantified by calculating short-term and long-term local exponential rates of divergence for the model. As perturbation amplitudes increased, no changes were seen in orbital stability (r(2)=2.43%; p=0.280) or long-term local instability (r(2)=1.0%; p=0.441). These measures essentially reflected the fact that the model never actually "fell" during any of our simulations. Conversely, the variability of the walker's kinematics increased exponentially (r(2)>or=99.6%; psimulated conditions, the walker remained orbitally stable, while exhibiting substantial local instability. This was because very small initial perturbations diverged away from the limit cycle, while larger

  14. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Advanced Near Net Shape Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Advanced Near Net Shape Technology (ANNST) project is to radically improve near net shape manufacturing methods from the current...

  15. Shape tracking with occlusions via coarse-to-fine region-based sobolev descent

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yanchao; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to track the shape of an object from video. The method uses a joint shape and appearance model of the object, which is propagated to match shape and radiance in subsequent frames, determining object shape. Self-occlusions and dis

  16. Natural element method for radiative heat transfer in a semitransparent medium with irregular geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yong [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Yi, Hong-Liang, E-mail: yihongliang@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Tan, He-Ping, E-mail: tanheping@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-05-15

    This paper develops a numerical solution to the radiative heat transfer problem coupled with conduction in an absorbing, emitting and isotropically scattering medium with the irregular geometries using the natural element method (NEM). The walls of the enclosures, having temperature and mixed boundary conditions, are considered to be opaque, diffuse as well as gray. The NEM as a meshless method is a new numerical scheme in the field of computational mechanics. Different from most of other meshless methods such as element-free Galerkin method or those based on radial basis functions, the shape functions used in NEM are constructed by the natural neighbor interpolations, which are strictly interpolant and the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. The natural element solutions in dealing with the coupled heat transfer problem for the mixed boundary conditions have been validated by comparison with those from Monte Carlo method (MCM) generated by the authors. For the validation of the NEM solution to radiative heat transfer in the semicircular medium with an inner circle, the results by NEM have been compared with those reported in the literatures. For pure radiative transfer, the upwind scheme is employed to overcome the oscillatory behavior of the solutions in some conditions. The steady state and transient heat transfer problem combined with radiation and conduction in the semicircular enclosure with an inner circle are studied. Effects of various parameters such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo, the conduction–radiation parameter and the boundary emissivity are analyzed on the radiative and conductive heat fluxes and transient temperature distributions.

  17. DSMC Simulations of Irregular Source Geometries for Io's Pele Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoniel, William; Goldstein, D. B.; Varghese, P. L.; Trafton, L. M.; Buchta, D. A.; Freund, J.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2010-10-01

    Volcanic plumes on Io represent a complex rarefied flow into a near-vacuum in the presence of gravity. A 3D rarefied gas dynamics method (DSMC) is used to investigate the gas dynamics of such plumes, with a focus on the effects of source geometry on far-field deposition patterns. These deposition patterns, such as the deposition ring's shape and orientation, as well as the presence and shape of ash deposits around the vent, are linked to the shape of the vent from which the plume material arises. We will present three-dimensional simulations for a variety of possible vent geometries for Pele based on observations of the volcano's caldera. One is a curved line source corresponding to a Galileo IR image of a particularly hot region in the volcano's caldera and the other is a large area source corresponding to the entire lava lake at the center of the plume. The curvature of the former is seen to be sufficient to produce the features seen in observations of Pele's deposition pattern, but the particular orientation of the source is found to be such that it cannot match the orientation of these features on Io's surface. The latter corrects the error in orientation while losing some of the structure, suggesting that the actual source may correspond well with part of the shore of the lava lake. In addition, we are collaborating with a group at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to develop a hybrid method to link the continuum flow beneath Io's surface and very close to the vent to the more rarefied flow in the large volcanic plumes. This work was funded by NASA-PATM grant NNX08AE72G.

  18. Randomness control of vehicular motion through a sequence of traffic signals at irregular intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    We study the regularization of irregular motion of a vehicle moving through the sequence of traffic signals with a disordered configuration. Each traffic signal is controlled by both cycle time and phase shift. The cycle time is the same for all signals, while the phase shift varies from signal to signal by synchronizing with intervals between a signal and the next signal. The nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by the stochastic nonlinear map. The vehicle exhibits the very complex behavior with varying both cycle time and strength of irregular intervals. The irregular motion induced by the disordered configuration is regularized by adjusting the phase shift within the regularization regions.

  19. Scintillations associated with bottomside sinusoidal irregularities in the equatorial F region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Valladares, C. E.; Dasgupta, A.; Whitney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    Multisatellite scintillation observations and spaced receiver drift measurements are presented for a category of equatorial F region plasma irregularities characterized by nearly sinusoidal waveforms in the ion number density. The observations were made at Huancayo, Peru, and the measurements at Ancon, Peru, associated with irregularities observed by the Atmospheric-Explorer-E satellite on a few nights in December 1979. Utilizing ray paths to various geostationary satellites, it was found that the irregularities grow and decay almost simultaneously in long-lived patches extending at least 1000 km in the east-west direction.

  20. Target Tracking of a Linear Time Invariant System under Irregular Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xue-Bo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to event-triggered sampling in a system, or maybe with the aim of reducing data storage, tracking many applications will encounter irregular sampling time. By calculating the matrix exponential using an inverse Laplace transform, this paper transforms the irregular sampling tracking problem to the problem of tracking with time-varying parameters of a system. Using the common Kalman filter, the developed method is used to track a target for the simulated trajectory and video tracking. The results of simulation experiments have shown that it can obtain good estimation performance even at a very high irregular rate of measurement sampling time.

  1. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  2. A Tabu Search WSN Deployment Method for Monitoring Geographically Irregular Distributed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsaadi, Nadjib; Achir, Nadjib; Boussetta, Khaled; Pujolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we address the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) deployment issue. We assume that the observed area is characterized by the geographical irregularity of the sensed events. Formally, we consider that each point in the deployment area is associated a differentiated detection probability threshold, which must be satisfied by our deployment method. Our resulting WSN deployment problem is formulated as a Multi-Objectives Optimization problem, which seeks to reduce the gap between the generated events detection probabilities and the required thresholds while minimizing the number of deployed sensors. To overcome the computational complexity of an exact resolution, we propose an original pseudo-random approach based on the Tabu Search heuristic. Simulations show that our proposal achieves better performances than several other approaches proposed in the literature. In the last part of this paper, we generalize the deployment problem by including the wireless communication network connectivity constraint. Thus, we extend our proposal to ensure that the resulting WSN topology is connected even if a sensor communication range takes small values.

  3. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  4. Synchronous contextual irregularities affect early scene processing: replication and extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrik, Liad; Shalgi, Shani; Lamy, Dominique; Deouell, Leon Y

    2014-04-01

    Whether contextual regularities facilitate perceptual stages of scene processing is widely debated, and empirical evidence is still inconclusive. Specifically, it was recently suggested that contextual violations affect early processing of a scene only when the incongruent object and the scene are presented a-synchronously, creating expectations. We compared event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by scenes that depicted a person performing an action using either a congruent or an incongruent object (e.g., a man shaving with a razor or with a fork) when scene and object were presented simultaneously. We also explored the role of attention in contextual processing by using a pre-cue to direct subjects׳ attention towards or away from the congruent/incongruent object. Subjects׳ task was to determine how many hands the person in the picture used in order to perform the action. We replicated our previous findings of frontocentral negativity for incongruent scenes that started ~ 210 ms post stimulus presentation, even earlier than previously found. Surprisingly, this incongruency ERP effect was negatively correlated with the reaction times cost on incongruent scenes. The results did not allow us to draw conclusions about the role of attention in detecting the regularity, due to a weak attention manipulation. By replicating the 200-300 ms incongruity effect with a new group of subjects at even earlier latencies than previously reported, the results strengthen the evidence for contextual processing during this time window even when simultaneous presentation of the scene and object prevent the formation of prior expectations. We discuss possible methodological limitations that may account for previous failures to find this an effect, and conclude that contextual information affects object model selection processes prior to full object identification, with semantic knowledge activation stages unfolding only later on. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electromagnetic wave scattering by aerial and ground radar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Sukharevsky, Oleg I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic Wave Scattering by Aerial and Ground Radar Objects presents the theory, original calculation methods, and computational results of the scattering characteristics of different aerial and ground radar objects. This must-have book provides essential background for computing electromagnetic wave scattering in the presence of different kinds of irregularities, as well as Summarizes fundamental electromagnetic statements such as the Lorentz reciprocity theorem and the image principleContains integral field representations enabling the study of scattering from various layered structur

  6. Geophysics-based method of locating a stationary earth object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM; Novak, James L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A geophysics-based method for determining the position of a stationary earth object uses the periodic changes in the gravity vector of the earth caused by the sun- and moon-orbits. Because the local gravity field is highly irregular over a global scale, a model of local tidal accelerations can be compared to actual accelerometer measurements to determine the latitude and longitude of the stationary object.

  7. Synthesis of shape memory alloys using electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, Timothy Roy

    Shape memory alloys are used in a variety of applications. The area of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is a developing field for thin film shape memory alloys for making actuators, valves and pumps. Until recently thin film shape memory alloys could only be made by rapid solidification or sputtering techniques which have the disadvantage of being "line of sight". At the University of Missouri-Rolla, electrolytic techniques have been developed that allow the production of shape memory alloys in thin film form. The advantages of this techniques are in-situ, non "line of sight" and the ability to make differing properties of the shape memory alloys from one bath. This research focused on the electrodeposition of In-Cd shape memory alloys. The primary objective was to characterize the electrodeposited shape memory effect for an electrodeposited shape memory alloy. The effect of various operating parameters such as peak current density, temperature, pulsing, substrate and agitation were investigated and discussed. The electrodeposited alloys were characterized by relative shape memory effect, phase transformation, morphology and phases present. Further tests were performed to optimize the shape memory by the use of a statistically designed experiment. An optimized shape memory effect for an In-Cd alloy is reported for the conditions of the experiments.

  8. Spelling pronunciation and visual preview both facilitate learning to spell irregular word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilte, M.; Reitsma, P.

    2006-01-01

    Spelling pronunciations are hypothesized to be helpful in building up relatively stable phonologically underpinned orthographic representations, particularly for learning words with irregular phoneme-grapheme correspondences. In a four-week computer-based training, the efficacy of spelling

  9. On Impulsive Boundary Value Problems of Fractional Differential Equations with Irregular Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guotao Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study nonlinear impulsive differential equations of fractional order with irregular boundary conditions. Some existence and uniqueness results are obtained by applying standard fixed-point theorems. For illustration of the results, some examples are discussed.

  10. Inter-hospital Cross-validation of Irregular Discharge Patterns for Young vs. Old Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozdzierz, Gerald J.; Davis, William E.

    1975-01-01

    Type of discharge (irregular vs. regular) and length of time hospitalized were used as unobtrusive measures of psychiatric patient acceptance of hospital treatment regime among two groups (18-27 years and 45 years and above) of patients. (Author)

  11. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, D. [Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), Princeton, NJ (United States); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S{sup 4}. (orig.)

  12. Conflict management among irregular immigrants: the micro politics of intercultural respect.

    OpenAIRE

    Clough, Paul; Works in Progress Seminars Series

    2010-01-01

    A talk in the Works in Progress Seminars Series with the title of "Conflict management among irregular immigrants: the micro politics of intercultural respect". This talk is given by Prof Paul Clough.

  13. Irregular singularities in Liouville theory and Argyres-Douglas type gauge theories, I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, D.; Teschner, J.

    2012-03-01

    Motivated by problems arising in the study of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories we introduce and study irregular singularities in two-dimensional conformal field theory, here Liouville theory. Irregular singularities are associated to representations of the Virasoro algebra in which a subset of the annihilation part of the algebra act diagonally. In this paper we define natural bases for the space of conformal blocks in the presence of irregular singularities, describe how to calculate their series expansions, and how such conformal blocks can be constructed by some delicate limiting procedure from ordinary conformal blocks. This leads us to a proposal for the structure functions appearing in the decomposition of physical correlation functions with irregular singularities into conformal blocks. Taken together, we get a precise prediction for the partition functions of some Argyres-Douglas type theories on S 4 . (orig.)

  14. Effect of surface stress and irregularity of the interface on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface stress; irregularity of the interface; magneto-elastic crustal ... stress plays a vital role in the propagation of waves due to the fact that the surface of a ...... Mumbai, for his computational help towards the numerical calculations and graphs.

  15. Ordinal-Measure Based Shape Correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Alaya Cheikh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel approach to shape similarity estimation based on distance transformation and ordinal correlation. The proposed method operates in three steps: object alignment, contour to multilevel image transformation, and similarity evaluation. This approach is suitable for use in shape classification, content-based image retrieval and performance evaluation of segmentation algorithms. The two latter applications are addressed in this papers. Simulation results show that in both applications our proposed measure performs quite well in quantifying shape similarity. The scores obtained using this technique reflect well the correspondence between object contours as humans perceive it.

  16. Shape-changing interfaces:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Pedersen, Esben Warming; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2015-01-01

    Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address these shortc......Shape change is increasingly used in physical user interfaces, both as input and output. Yet, the progress made and the key research questions for shape-changing interfaces are rarely analyzed systematically. We review a sample of existing work on shape-changing interfaces to address...... these shortcomings. We identify eight types of shape that are transformed in various ways to serve both functional and hedonic design purposes. Interaction with shape-changing interfaces is simple and rarely merges input and output. Three questions are discussed based on the review: (a) which design purposes may...

  17. Self-erecting shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Matthew W.

    2017-07-04

    Technologies for making self-erecting structures are described herein. An exemplary self-erecting structure comprises a plurality of shape-memory members that connect two or more hub components. When forces are applied to the self-erecting structure, the shape-memory members can deform, and when the forces are removed the shape-memory members can return to their original pre-deformation shape, allowing the self-erecting structure to return to its own original shape under its own power. A shape of the self-erecting structure depends on a spatial orientation of the hub components, and a relative orientation of the shape-memory members, which in turn depends on an orientation of joining of the shape-memory members with the hub components.

  18. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  19. Statistical shape analysis with applications in R

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, Ian L

    2016-01-01

    A thoroughly revised and updated edition of this introduction to modern statistical methods for shape analysis Shape analysis is an important tool in the many disciplines where objects are compared using geometrical features. Examples include comparing brain shape in schizophrenia; investigating protein molecules in bioinformatics; and describing growth of organisms in biology. This book is a significant update of the highly-regarded `Statistical Shape Analysis’ by the same authors. The new edition lays the foundations of landmark shape analysis, including geometrical concepts and statistical techniques, and extends to include analysis of curves, surfaces, images and other types of object data. Key definitions and concepts are discussed throughout, and the relative merits of different approaches are presented. The authors have included substantial new material on recent statistical developments and offer numerous examples throughout the text. Concepts are introduced in an accessible manner, while reta...

  20. Efficient irregular wavefront propagation algorithms on Intel® Xeon Phi™

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Jeremias M.; Teodoro, George; de Melo, Alba; Kong, Jun; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the execution of the Irregular Wavefront Propagation Pattern (IWPP), a fundamental computing structure used in several image analysis operations, on the Intel® Xeon Phi™ co-processor. An efficient implementation of IWPP on the Xeon Phi is a challenging problem because of IWPP’s irregularity and the use of atomic instructions in the original IWPP algorithm to resolve race conditions. On the Xeon Phi, the use of SIMD and vectorization instructions is critical to attain high perfo...