WorldWideScience

Sample records for irreducible water saturation

  1. Determination of Irreducible Water Saturation from nuclear magnetic resonance based on fractal theory — a case study of sandstone with complex pore structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, L.; Pan, H.; Ma, H.; Zhao, P.; Qin, R.; Deng, C.

    2017-12-01

    The irreducible water saturation (Swir) is a vital parameter for permeability prediction and original oil and gas estimation. However, the complex pore structure of the rocks makes the parameter difficult to be calculated from both laboratory and conventional well logging methods. In this study, an effective statistical method to predict Swir is derived directly from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data based on fractal theory. The spectrum of transversal relaxation time (T2) is normally considered as an indicator of pore size distribution, and the micro- and meso-pore's fractal dimension in two specific range of T2 spectrum distribution are calculated. Based on the analysis of the fractal characteristics of 22 core samples, which were drilled from four boreholes of tight lithologic oil reservoirs of Ordos Basin in China, the positive correlation between Swir and porosity is derived. Afterwards a predicting model for Swir based on linear regressions of fractal dimensions is proposed. It reveals that the Swir is controlled by the pore size and the roughness of the pore. The reliability of this model is tested and an ideal consistency between predicted results and experimental data is found. This model is a reliable supplementary to predict the irreducible water saturation in the case that T2 cutoff value cannot be accurately determined.

  2. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    , preferably while the drilling of the brand new wells (logging-while-drilling, LWD). The MRIL-WD Tool can accomplish any tasks reliably and in a timely manner thus saving drilling time and reducing the overall risk for the well. Control of water production and identification of pay zones with high irreducible water saturation are also very important for formation evaluation and petrophysical analysis in oil fields located in the Azerbaijan Republic and also other fields around the world. Sometimes above-mentioned problems can cause delay in completion decisions which will create additional expenses for field management. In many wells, breakthroughs in reservoir characterization have been achieved in directly determining hydrocarbon volumes, net permeability thickness, and hydrocarbon type, thus circumventing the problems associated with obtaining wireline data and the considerable amount of rig time required (so MRIL-WD can considerably reduce the NPT). Some reservoir zones with relatively low water saturation, which calculated from the other conventional logs, can produce with relatively high percentage of water cut, primarily because much of the water is movable. However, other zones with high calculated water saturation produce water free hydrocarbons. The difficulty in predicting water production can be related with the producing from the complex lithology, which can contain low-permeability, medium- to fine-grained shaly sands. Where grains are small, the formations have high surface to volume ratios that result in high irreducible water saturation and due to this we can see low resistivity values. As a result the use of resistivity logs as pay indicator, sometimes can cause low resistivity pay zones might be overlooked and consequently net field pay could be underestimated. In the last few years, nuclear magnetic resonance logs have shown great promise in solving problems of formation evaluation that could not be directly resolved with conventional logs. The capability

  3. Research on evaluation method for water saturation of tight sandstone in Suxi region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hong; Lai, Fuqiang; Chen, Liang; Li, Chao; Li, Jie; Yi, Heping

    2017-05-01

    The evaluation of irreducible water saturation is important for qualitative and quantitative prediction of residual oil distribution. However, it is to be improved for the accuracy of experimental measuring the irreducible water saturation and logging evaluation. In this paper, firstly the multi-functional core flooding experiment and the nuclear magnetic resonance centrifugation experiment are carried out in the west of Sulige gas field. Then, the influence was discussed about particle size, porosity and permeability on the water saturation. Finally, the evaluation model was established about irreducible water saturation and the evaluation of irreducible water saturation was carried out. The results show that the results of two experiments are both reliable. It is inversely proportional to the median particle size, porosity and permeability, and is most affected by the median particle size. The water saturation of the dry layer is higher than that of the general reservoir. The worse the reservoir property, the greater the water saturation. The test results show that the irreducible water saturation model can be used to evaluate the water floor.

  4. Water saturation in shaly sands: logging parameters from log-derived values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyairi, M.; Itoh, T.; Okabe, F.

    1976-01-01

    The methods are presented for determining the relation of porosity to formation factor and that of true resistivity of formation to water saturation, which were investigated through the log interpretation of one of the oil and gas fields of northern Japan Sea. The values of the coefficients ''a'' and ''m'' in porosity-formation factor relation are derived from cross-plot of porosity and resistivity of formation corrected by clay content. The saturation exponent ''n'' is determined from cross-plot of porosity and resistivity index on the assumption that the product of porosity and irreducible water saturation is constant. The relation of porosity to irreducible water saturation is also investigated from core analysis. The new logging parameters determined from the methods, a = 1, m = 2, n = 1.4, improved the values of water saturation by 6 percent in average, and made it easy to distinguish the points which belong to the productive zone and ones belonging to the nonproductive zone

  5. Irreducibility conditions for extended superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1981-05-01

    The irreducible supermultiplets contained in an extended superfield are presented as sets of covariant derivatives of the superfield. Differential irreducibility constraints are easily obtained from this decomposition. (author)

  6. Mass transfer in water-saturated concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Claisse, P.A.; Harris, A.W.; Nickerson, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Cements and concretes are often considered as components of barriers for the containment of radioactive waste. The performance of such materials as mainly physical barriers to the transport of dissolved radionuclides depends on the mass transfer characteristics of the material. In particular the diffusion and sorption behavior of the radionuclides and the water permeability are important. These parameters also influence how the chemistry of the concrete is imposed on the repository. In addition, the transport of gas through concrete controls the way in which gases escape from the repository. Diffusion and gas transport have been measured in a variety of cementitious materials, covering both structural concretes and cementitious backfills; all possible repository construction materials. Measurements have been made using aqueous iodide, strontium and caesium ions and tritiated water as diffusants. The results show that the diffusion of tritiated water is more rapid than that of other species, whilst the transport of strontium and caesium is hindered by sorption; particularly in materials containing blast furnace slag. The transport of gas in these materials has been found to be very sensitive to the degree of water saturation and is extremely low in fully saturated structural concretes. Cementitious backfills have, nevertheless, been identified that have appreciable gas transport even when almost water saturated. The consequences of the results for the performance of cementitious barriers are discussed

  7. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  8. The irreducible photon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.

    2009-08-01

    In recent years it has become evident that the primary concept of the photon has multiple interpretations, with widely differing secondary connotations. Despite the all-pervasive nature of this concept in science, some of the ancillary properties with which the photon is attributed in certain areas of application sit uneasily alongside those invoked in other areas. Certainly the range of applications extends far beyond what was envisaged in the original conception, now entering subjects extending from elementary particle physics and cosmology through to spectroscopy, statistical mechanics and photochemistry. Addressing this diverse context invites the question: What is there, that it is possible to assert as incontrovertibly true about the photon? Which properties are non-controversial, if others are the subject of debate? This paper describes an attempt to answer these questions, establishing as far as possible an irreducible core of what can rightly be asserted about the photon, and setting aside some of what often is, but should never be so asserted. Some of the more bewildering difficulties and differences of interpretation owe their origin to careless descriptions, highlighting a need to guard semantic precision; although simplifications are frequently and naturally expedient for didactic purposes, they carry the risk of becoming indelible. Focusing on such issues, the aim is to identify how much or how little about the photon can be regarded as truly non-controversial.

  9. On the water saturation calculation in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalheim, Stein Ottar

    2002-07-01

    The main goal of this work was to identify the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation and examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations or possibility to develop methods to remove weaknesses and uncertainties in existing S{sub w} - equations. Due to the need for industrial applicability of the equations we aimed for results with the following properties: The accuracy in S{sub w} should increase compared with existing S{sub w} - equations. The equations should be simple to use in petrophysical evaluations. The equations should be based on conventional logs and use as few as possible input parameters. The equations should be numerical stable. This thesis includes an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the most common S{sub w} equations. The results are addressed in chapter 3 and were intended to find the most important uncertainty sources in water saturation calculation. To increase the knowledge of the relationship between R{sub t} and S{sub w} in hydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs and to understand how the pore geometry affects the conductivity (n and m) of the rock a theoretical study was done. It was also an aim to examine the possibility for developing new S{sub w} - equations (or investigation an effective medium model) valid inhydrocarbon sandstone reservoirs. The results are presented in paper 1. A new equation for water saturation calculation in clean sandstone oil reservoirs is addressed in paper 2. A recommendation for best practice of water saturation calculation in non water wet formation is addressed in paper 3. Finally a new equation for water saturation calculation in thinly interbedded sandstone/mudstone reservoirs is presented in paper 4. The papers are titled: 1) Is the saturation exponent n a constant. 2) A New Model for Calculating Water Saturation In 3) Influence of wettability on water saturation modeling. 4) Water Saturation Calculations in Thinly Interbedded Sandstone/mudstone Reservoirs. A

  10. Nonlinear acoustics of water-saturated marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1976-01-01

    Interest in the acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments has increased considerably during recent years. The use of sources of high-intensity sound in oil propsecting, in geophysical and geological studies of bottom and subbottom materials and profiles and recently in marine...... archaeology has emphasized the need of information about the nonlinear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine sediments. While the acoustic experiments and theoretical investigations hitherto performed have concentrated on a determination of the linear acoustic qualities of water-saturated marine...... sediments, their parameters of nonlinear acoustics are still unexplored. The strong absorption, increasing about linearly with frequency, found in most marine sediments and the occurrence of velocity dispersion by some marine sediments restrict the number of nonlinear acoustic test methods traditionally...

  11. Tracer diffusion in compacted, water-saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, Ian C.; Sposito, Garrison; Bourg, Alain C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compacted Na-bentonite clay barriers, widely used in the isolation of solid-waste landfills and other contaminated sites, have been proposed for a similar use in the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Molecular diffusion through the pore space in these barriers plays a key role in their performance, thus motivating recent measurements of the apparent diffusion coefficient tensor of water tracers in compacted, water-saturated Na-bentonites. In the present study, we introduce a conceptual model in which the pore space of water-saturated bentonite is divided into 'macropore' and 'interlayer nanopore' compartments. With this model we determine quantitatively the relative contributions of pore-network geometry (expressed as a geometric factor) and of the diffusive behavior of water molecules near montmorillonite basal surfaces(expressed as a contrastivity factor) to the apparent diffusion coefficient tensor. Our model predicts, in agreement with experiment, that the mean principal value of the apparent diffusion coefficient tensor follows a single relationship when plotted against the partial montmorillonite dry density (mass of montmorillonite per combined volume of montmorillonite and pore space). Using a single fitted parameter, the mean principal geometric factor, our model successfully describes this relationship for a broad range of bentonite-water system, from dilute gel to highly-compacted bentonite with 80 percent of its pore water in interlayer nanopores

  12. [Determination of the redox potential of water saturated with hydrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskarev, I M; Ushkanov, V A; Aristova, N A; Likhachev, P P; Myslivets, T C

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that the redox potential of water saturated with hydrogen is -500--700 mV. The time of the establishment of the potential is 24 h. The potential somewhat increases with increasing volume of hydrogen introduced to a reservoir with water and practically does not depend on the presence of additions in water, provided these additions are not reduced by hydrogen. The pH value of water does not change after the addition of water. In a glass vessel with a metallic cover resting on the side, no decrease in potential during the 2.5-month storage was observed. In plastic bottles, the content of hydrogen decreased; on storage for more than two weeks, it disappeared almost completely, and as a result, the potential increased after storage for three to four weeks to a level near zero. In an open vessel, the potential remained negative for two days.

  13. Parallel Construction of Irreducible Polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    Let arithmetic pseudo-NC^k denote the problems that can be solved by log space uniform arithmetic circuits over the finite prime field GF(p) of depth O(log^k (n + p)) and size polynomial in (n + p). We show that the problem of constructing an irreducible polynomial of specified degree over GF(p) ...... of polynomials is in arithmetic NC^3. Our algorithm works over any field and compared to other known algorithms it does not assume the ability to take p'th roots when the field has characteristic p....

  14. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and

  15. SU(N) Irreducible Schwinger Bosons

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Manu; Raychowdhury, Indrakshi; Anishetty, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    We construct SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons satisfying certain U(N-1) constraints which implement the symmetries of SU(N) Young tableaues. As a result all SU(N) irreducible representations are simple monomials of $(N-1)$ types of SU(N) irreducible Schwinger bosons. Further, we show that these representations are free of multiplicity problems. Thus all SU(N) representations are made as simple as SU(2).

  16. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  17. Ultrasonic Characterization of Water Saturated Double Porosity Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ruonan; Tinel, Alain; Alem, Abdellah; Franklin, Hervé; Wang, Huaqing

    Wave propagation through a multilayered structure consisting of a water saturated double porosity medium in an aluminum rectangular box immersed in water is studied. By assuming a plane incident wave from water onto the structure, the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived by application of the boundary conditions at each interface. Numerical computations are done for two particular double porosity media, ROBU® and Tobermorite 11 Å, that are assumed to obey Berryman's extension of Biot's theory [Berryman 1995, 2000]. The influence of the thickness of double porosity medium is investigated. To compare experiments to computations, two comparison coefficients Cnum and Cexp are introduced. The theoretical one Cnum is defined as the ratio of the transmission coefficient of the structure to the transmission coefficient of the box filled exclusively with water. The experimental comparison coefficient Cexp is defined as the ratio of the Fourier transforms of the transmitted signals by the box filled with the double porous medium to that of the transmitted signals by the box filled with water. A method of minimization based on a gradient descent algorithm is used to optimize some of the parameters of the double porosity media such as the bulk moduli.

  18. Flow and fracture in water-saturated, unconstrained granular beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán eVaras

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The injection of gas in a liquid-saturated granular bed gives rise to a wide variety of invasion patterns. Many studies have focused on constrained porous media, in which the grains are fixed in the bed and only the interstitial fluid flows when the gas invades the system. With a free upper boundary, however, the grains can be entrained by the ascending gas or fluid motion, and the competition between the upward motion of grains and sedimentation leads to new patterns. We propose a brief review of the experimental investigation of the dynamics of air rising through a water-saturated, unconstrained granular bed, in both two and three dimensions. After describing the invasion pattern at short and long time, a tentative regime-diagram is proposed. We report original results showing a dependence of the fluidized zone shape, at long times, on the injection flow rate and grain size. A method based on image analysis makes it possible to detect not only the fluidized zone profile in the stationary regime, but also to follow the transient dynamics of its formation. Finally, we describe the degassing dynamics inside the fluidized zone, in the stationary regime. Depending on the experimental conditions, regular bubbling, continuous degassing, intermittent regime or even spontaneous flow-to-fracture transition are observed.

  19. Freezing heat transfer within water-saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Akira; Aiba, Shinya; Fukusako, Shoichiro.

    1990-01-01

    In the present study, analytical and experimental investigations were performed so as to clarify the characteristics of freezing heat transfer in porous media saturated with water in a vertical rectangular cavity. In order to establish the momentum equation, the law of conservation of momentum was applied to the fluid in our control volume, and the equation took into account Forchheimer's extension as the resistance to flow in the porous media. Three different sizes of glass, iron and copper beads were used as the porous media in this study. The temperature of the cold wall was kept at -10degC, while that of the hot wall was varied from 2degC to 22 degC. Comparisons between the analytical results and the experimental ones show good agreement with the exception of the copper bead results. (author)

  20. Archaeol: An Indicator of Methanogenesis in Water-Saturated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L. H. Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxic soils typically are a sink for methane due to the presence of high-affinity methanotrophic Bacteria capable of oxidising methane. However, soils experiencing water saturation are able to host significant methanogenic archaeal communities, potentially affecting the capacity of the soil to act as a methane sink. In order to provide insight into methanogenic populations in such soils, the distribution of archaeol in free and conjugated forms was investigated as an indicator of fossilised and living methanogenic biomass using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Of three soils studied, only one organic matter-rich site contained archaeol in quantifiable amounts. Assessment of the subsurface profile revealed a dominance of archaeol bound by glycosidic headgroups over phospholipids implying derivation from fossilised biomass. Moisture content, through control of organic carbon and anoxia, seemed to govern trends in methanogen biomass. Archaeol and crenarchaeol profiles differed, implying the former was not of thaumarcheotal origin. Based on these results, we propose the use of intact archaeol as a useful biomarker for methanogen biomass in soil and to track changes in moisture status and aeration related to climate change.

  1. Irreducible Traumatic Posterior Shoulder Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Collier

    2017-01-01

    coracoid, marked limitation of abduction, and complete absence of external rotation with a fixed internal rotation deformity.2 Lesions commonly associated with traumatic posterior subluxation/dislocation are the reverse Hill-Sachs,3 a posterior labral detachment, glenohumeral ligament lesions,4 rotator cuff tears or posterior bony fractures.1 In order to make an accurate diagnosis it is important to obtain adequate x-ray imaging, including a “Y” view.2 Anteroposterior x-rays may show widening of the glenohumeral joint resembling a “light bulb” shape of the humeral head. However, definitive diagnosis is made by the “Y” view which shows the humeral head displaced posteriorly and no longer covering the glenoid fossa6. Irreducible acute posterior dislocation of the shoulder is extremely rare5 and only one other case has been reported in the literature.7

  2. Flashing of high-pressure saturated water into the pool water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi; Aya, Izuo.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on a saturated high-pressure water discharging into a water pool. The purpose of the experiment is to clarify the phenomena that occur by a blow-down of the water from the pressure vessel into the water-filled containment in the case of a wall-crack accident or a LOCA in a passive safety reactor. The results show that a flashing oscillation (FO) occurs when the water discharges into the pool, under specified experimental conditions. The range of the flashing location oscillates between a point very close to and some distance away from the vent hole. The pressures in the vent tube and water pool constantly fluctuate due to the flashing oscillation. The pressure oscillation and alternating flashing location might be caused by the balancing action between the supply of saturated water, flashing at the control volume and steam condensation on the steam-water interface. The frequencies of FO, or frequencies of pressure oscillation and alternating flashing location, increased as water subcooling increased, and as discharging pressure and vent hole diameter decreased. A linear analysis was conducted using a spherical flashing bubble model in which the motion of bubble is controlled by steam condensation. The effects of these parameters on the period of FO in the experiments can be predicted well by the analysis. (author)

  3. Irreducible geometric subgroups of classical algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Burness, Timothy C; Testerman, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a simple classical algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p \\ge 0 with natural module W. Let H be a closed subgroup of G and let V be a non-trivial irreducible tensor-indecomposable p-restricted rational KG-module such that the restriction of V to H is irreducible. In this paper the authors classify the triples (G,H,V) of this form, where H is a disconnected maximal positive-dimensional closed subgroup of G preserving a natural geometric structure on W.

  4. Transport of water and ions in partially water-saturated porous media. Part 2. Filtration effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A.

    2017-05-01

    A new set of constitutive equations describing the transport of the ions and water through charged porous media and considering the effect of ion filtration is applied to the problem of reverse osmosis and diffusion of a salt. Starting with the constitutive equations derived in Paper 1, I first determine specific formula for the osmotic coefficient and effective diffusion coefficient of a binary symmetric 1:1 salt (such as KCl or NaCl) as a function of a dimensionless number Θ corresponding to the ratio between the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the salinity. The modeling is first carried with the Donnan model used to describe the concentrations of the charge carriers in the pore water phase. Then a new model is developed in the thin double layer approximation to determine these concentrations. These models provide explicit relationships between the concentration of the ionic species in the pore space and those in a neutral reservoir in local equilibrium with the pore space and the CEC. The case of reverse osmosis and diffusion coefficient are analyzed in details for the case of saturated and partially saturated porous materials. Comparisons are done with experimental data from the literature obtained on bentonite. The model predicts correctly the influence of salinity (including membrane behavior at high salinities), porosity, cation type (K+ versus Na+), and water saturation on the osmotic coefficient. It also correctly predicts the dependence of the diffusion coefficient of the salt with the salinity.

  5. Irreducible multivariate polynomials obtained from polynomials in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hall, 1409 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. E-mail: Nicolae. ... Theorem A. If we write an irreducible polynomial f ∈ K[X] as a sum of polynomials a0,..., an ..... This shows us that deg ai = (n − i) deg f2 for each i = 0,..., n, so min k>0.

  6. Some extensions and applications of Eisenstein Irreducibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. Some extensions and applications of Eisenstein Irreducibility. Criterion. Sudesh Kaur Khanduja ..... Beginning from the individual theorems, I grew ac- customed to delve more deeply into their relationships and to grasp whole theories as a single entity. That is how I conceived the idea of mathematical beauty .

  7. Densities, Viscosities and Derived Thermophysical Properties of Water-Saturated Imidazolium-Based Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mónia A R; Neves, Catarina M S S; Kurnia, Kiki A; Carvalho, Pedro J; Rocha, Marisa A A; Santos, Luís M N B F; Pinho, Simão P; Freire, Mara G

    2016-01-15

    In order to evaluate the impact of the alkyl side chain length and symmetry of the cation on the thermophysical properties of water-saturated ionic liquids (ILs), densities and viscosities as a function of temperature were measured at atmospheric pressure and in the (298.15 to 363.15) K temperature range, for systems containing two series of bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide-based compounds: the symmetric [C n C n im][NTf 2 ] (with n = 1-8 and 10) and asymmetric [C n C 1 im][NTf 2 ] (with n = 2-5, 7, 9 and 11) ILs. For water-saturated ILs, the density decreases with the increase of the alkyl side chain length while the viscosity increases with the size of the aliphatic tails. The saturation water solubility in each IL was further estimated with a reasonable agreement based on the densities of water-saturated ILs, further confirming that for the ILs investigated the volumetric mixing properties of ILs and water follow a near ideal behaviour. The water-saturated symmetric ILs generally present lower densities and viscosities than their asymmetric counterparts. From the experimental data, the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and energy barrier were also estimated. A close correlation between the difference in the energy barrier values between the water-saturated and pure ILs and the water content in each IL was found, supporting that the decrease in the viscosity of ILs in presence of water is directly related with the decrease of the energy barrier.

  8. Relation between electric properties and water saturation for hematitic sandstone with frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Gomaa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of water saturation on A. C. electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of fully and partially saturated hematitic sandstone sample (Aswan area, Egypt. The saturation of the sample was changed from partial to full saturation. Complex resistivity measurements at room temperature (~16°C, were performed in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 100 KHz. Experimental electrical spectra indicate, generally, that the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant vary strongly with water saturations and frequency. The low frequency electrical conductivity and dielectric constant are mainly controlled by surface conduction and polarization of the electrical double layer. The behaviour of the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant, with increasing water content, were argued to the orientational polarization of bound water for very low saturations, displacement of the excess surface charges for relatively low saturations, and free exchange of excess ions in double layer with the bulk electrolyte and generation of transient diffusion potentials which lag behind the applied field for high saturations.

  9. The Slice Algorithm For Irreducible Decomposition of Monomial Ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    2009-01-01

    Irreducible decomposition of monomial ideals has an increasing number of applications from biology to pure math. This paper presents the Slice Algorithm for computing irreducible decompositions, Alexander duals and socles of monomial ideals. The paper includes experiments showing good performance...

  10. Irreducible Inguinal Hernias in the Paediatric Age Group | Ezomike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: An inguinal hernia is said to be irreducible when the content fails to return into the peritoneal cavity without surgical intervention. Irreducibility is an ever present risk in untreated inguinal hernias and its management remains an important part of pediatric surgery practice. When a hernia is irreducible ...

  11. Water Flow in Karst Aquifer Considering Dynamically Variable Saturation Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoqun; Hu, Bill X.

    2017-04-01

    The karst system is generally conceptualized as dual-porosity system, which is characterized by low conductivity and high storage continuum matrix and high conductivity and quick flow conduit networks. And so far, a common numerical model for simulating flow in karst aquifer is MODFLOW2005-CFP, which is released by USGS in 2008. However, the steady-state approach for conduit flow in CFP is physically impractical when simulating very dynamic hydraulics with variable saturation conduit. So, we adopt the method proposed by Reimann et al. (2011) to improve current model, in which Saint-Venant equations are used to model the flow in conduit. Considering the actual background that the conduit is very big and varies along flow path and the Dirichlet boundary varies with rainfall in our study area in Southwest China, we further investigate the influence of conduit diameter and outflow boundary on numerical model. And we also analyze the hydraulic process in multi-precipitation events. We find that the numerical model here corresponds well with CFP for saturated conduit, and it could depict the interaction between matrix and conduit during very dynamic hydraulics pretty well compare with CFP.

  12. Irreducible projective representations and their physical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Zheng-Xin

    2018-01-01

    An eigenfunction method is applied to reduce the regular projective representations (Reps) of finite groups to obtain their irreducible projective Reps. Anti-unitary groups are treated specially, where the decoupled factor systems and modified Schur’s lemma are introduced. We discuss the applications of irreducible Reps in many-body physics. It is shown that in symmetry protected topological phases, geometric defects or symmetry defects may carry projective Rep of the symmetry group; while in symmetry enriched topological phases, intrinsic excitations (such as spinons or visons) may carry projective Rep of the symmetry group. We also discuss the applications of projective Reps in problems related to spectrum degeneracy, such as in search of models without sign problem in quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Measurement of water transport from saturated pumice aggregates to hardening cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lura, Pietro; Bentz, Dale; Lange, David A.

    2006-01-01

    In internal water curing of High Performance Concrete, it is fundamental to know how and when the water contained in the internal curing agent is released into the hydrating cement paste. In this study, X-ray absorption measurements showed that considerable transport of water from saturated pumice...... the crucial factor to avoid self-desiccation shrinkage at early-age....

  14. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  15. Flow of gasoline-in-water microemulsion through water-saturated soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Y.; Mansell, R.S.; Rhue, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Much consideration has been given to the use of surfactants to clean up nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from contaminated soil and ground water. Although this emulsification technique has shown significant potential for application in environmental remediation practices, a major obstacle leading to low washing efficiency is the potential formation of macroemulsion with unfavorable flow characteristics in porous media. This study investigated influences of the flow of leaded-gasoline-in-water (LG/W) microemulsion upon the transport of gasoline and lead (Pb) species in water-saturated soil columns. Two experiments were performed: (1) the immiscible displacement of leaded gasoline and (2) the miscible displacement of LG/W microemulsion through soil columns, followed by sequentially flushing with NaCl solution and a water/surfactant/cosurfactant (W/S/CoS) mixture. Comparison of breakthrough curves (BTC) for gasoline between the two experiments shows that about 90% of gasoline and total Pb were removed from the soil columns by NaCl solution in the LG/W microemulsion experiment as compared to 40% removal of gasoline and 10% removal of total Pb at the same process in the leaded gasoline experiment. Results indicate that gasoline and Pb species moved much more effectively through soil during miscible flow of LG/W microemulsion than during immiscible flow of leaded gasoline. In contrast to the adverse effects of macroemulsion on the transport of NAPLs, microemulsion was found to enhance the transport of gasoline through water-saturated soil. Mass balance analysis shows that the W/S/CoS mixture had a high capacity for removing residual gasoline and Pb species from contaminated soil. Comparison of water-pressure differences across the soil columns for the two experiments indicates that pore clogging by gasoline droplets was greatly minimized in the LG/W microemulsion experiment

  16. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Steam injection into water-saturated porous rock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Marchesin, D.; Duijn, van C.J.

    2003-01-01

    We formulate conservation laws governing steam injection in a linear porous medium containing water. Heat losses to the outside are neglected. We find a complete and systematic description of all solutions of the Riemann problem for the injection of a mixture of steam and water into a

  18. Use of azeotropic distillation for isotopic analysis of deuterium in soil water and saturate saline solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Antonio Vieira dos.

    1995-05-01

    The azeotropic distillation technique was adapted to extract soil water and saturate saline solution, which is similar to the sea water for the Isotopic Determination of Deuterium (D). A soil test was used to determine the precision and the nature of the methodology to extract soil water for stable isotopic analysis, using the azeotropic distillation and comparing with traditional methodology of heating under vacuum. This methodology has been very useful for several kinds of soil or saturate saline solution. The apparatus does not have a memory effect, and the chemical reagents do not affect the isotopic composition of soil water. (author). 43 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  19. Potential for saturated ground-water system contamination at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, R.; Ruggieri, M.R.; Rogers, L.L.; Emerson, D.O.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A program of hydrogeologic investigation has been carried out to determine the likelihood of contaminant movement to the saturated zone from near the ground surface at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). A companion survey of potential contaminant sources was also conducted at the LLNL. Water samples from selected LLNL wells were analyzed to test the water quality in the uppermost part of the saturated zone, which is from 14 to 48 m (45 to 158 ft) beneath the surface. Only nitrate and tritium were found in concentrations above natural background. In one well, the nitrate was slightly more concentrated than the drinking water limit. The nitrate source has not been found. The tritium in all ground-water samples from wells was found far less concentrated than the drinking water limit. The extent of infiltration of surface water was traced with environmental tritium. The thickness and stratigraphy of the unsaturated zone beneath the LLNL, and nearby area, was determined with specially constructed wells and boreholes. Well hydrograph analysis indicated where infiltration of surface water reached the saturated ground-water system. The investigation indicates that water infiltrating from the surface, through alluvial deposits, reaches the saturated zone along the course of Arroyo Seco, Arroyo Las Positas, and from the depression near the center of the site where seasonal water accumulates. Several potential contaminant sources were identified, and it is likely that contaminants could move from near the ground surface to the saturated zone beneath LLNL. Additional ground-water sampling and analysis will be performed and ongoing investigations will provide estimates of the speed with which potential contaminants can flow laterally in the saturated zone beneath LLNL. 34 references, 61 figures, 16 tables

  20. Capillary pressure as a unique function of electric permittivity and water saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.J.; Slob, E.; Van Turnhout, J.; Bruining, J.

    2007-01-01

    The relation between capillary pressure (Pc) and interfacial area has been investigated by measuring Pc and the electric permittivity at 100 kHz simultaneously as function of the water saturation, (Sw). Drainage and imbibition experiments have been conducted for sand-distilled water-gas (CO2/N2)

  1. Experimental techniques for characterising water in wood covering the range from dry to fully water-saturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund; Kymäläinen, Maija; Rautkari, Lauri

    2018-01-01

    focuses on selected experimental techniques that can give deeper insights into various aspects of water in wood in the entire moisture domain from dry to fully water-saturated. These techniques fall into three broad categories: (1) gravimetric techniques that determine how much water is absorbed, (2...

  2. On relativistic irreducible quantum fields fulfilling CCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1987-01-01

    Let phi be a relativistic scalar field fulfilling canonical commutation relations (CCR). Furthermore it is assumed that the time zero fields and momenta form an irreducible set. Based on estimates given by Herbst [I. W. Herbst, J. Math. Phys. 17, 1210 (1976)], and by methods developed by Powers [R. T. Powers, Commun. Math. Phys. 4, 145 (1967)], it is shown that phi has to be a free field in n>3 space dimensions. For n = 3 (resp. n = 2) restrictions that look similar to the restriction in a formal :phi 4 : 3 /sub +/ 1 (resp. :phi 6 : 2 /sub +/ 1 ) theory are obtained

  3. Alteration of borosilicate glass under water saturated condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukimura, K.; Matsuhisa, Y.; Kanai, Y.; Hirai, H.

    1991-01-01

    In the long term of the high-level nuclear waste disposal, the dissolving rates of radionuclides from the waste will be controlled by crystalline phases secondarily formed in the borosilicate glass by reaction with ground water. We have determined the crystalline phases formed from borosilicate glass in a hydrothermal experiment. Borosilicate glass powder (50 mg, Si 40 B 20 Al 4 Li 12 Na 14 K 3 Ca 2 Fe 5 O 140 ) and 200 ml of water were reacted at 300degC and 300 bars for 2 weeks with a cold-seal type hydrothermal high pressure apparatus. After the reaction the liquid phase was analyzed with atomic absorption spectroscopy and the solid phases with x-ray powder diffraction and analytical electron microscopy. The liquid phase contains 58 % of Na, 14 % of Li and 11 % of K but less than 1 % of Ca and Fe. The solid phases were found to be zeolite and smectite. The zeolite is isostructural with analcime Na 2 Al 2 (SiO 3 ) 4 · 2H 2 O or wairakite CaAl 2 (SiO 3 ) 4 · 2H 2 O and contains Ca and Si as major constituents but does not contain Al. Although no direct analytical evidence is available, logical induction of the experimental results indicates that the chemical composition of the zeolite is CaB 2 (SiO 3 ) 4 . The remaining x-ray powder diffraction peaks are same as those of smectite Na 06.7 (Al 3.33 Mg 0.67 )Si 8 O 20 (OH) 4 . However, since our starting material was free of Mg, and Na was not detected by AEM, the smectite may contain Fe instead of Mg, and Li instead of Na. (author)

  4. The Intrinsic Variability in the Water Vapor Saturation Ratio due to Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. C.; Cantrell, W. H.; Chandrakar, K. K.; Kostinski, A. B.; Niedermeier, D.; Shaw, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the atmosphere, the concentration of water vapor plays an important role in Earth's weather and climate. The mean concentration of water vapor is key to its efficiency as a greenhouse gas; the fluctuations about the mean are important for heat fluxes near the surface of earth. In boundary layer clouds, fluctuations in the water vapor concentration are linked to turbulence. Conditions representative of boundary layer clouds are simulated in Michigan Tech's multiphase, turbulent reaction chamber, the ∏ chamber, where the boundary conditions are controlled and repeatable. Measurements for temperature and water vapor concentration were recorded under forced Rayleigh-Bénard convection. As expected, the distributions for temperature and water vapor concentration broaden as the turbulence becomes more vigorous. From these two measurements the saturation ratio can be calculated. The fluctuations in the water vapor concentration are more important to the variability in the saturation ratio than fluctuations in temperature. In a cloud, these fluctuations in the saturation ratio can result in some cloud droplets experiencing much higher supersaturations. Those "lucky" droplets grow by condensation at a faster rate than other cloud droplets. The difference in the droplet growth rate could contribute to a broadened droplet distribution, which leads to the onset of collision-coalescence. With more intense turbulence these effect will become more pronounced as the fluctuations about the mean saturation ratio become more pronounced.

  5. Products of Irreducible Characters Having Complex-Valued Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hendrixson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First, we prove that when a finite solvable group $G$ has a faithful irreducible character $\\chi$ such that $\\chi\\overline{\\chi}$ has two irreducible constituents, both must be real-valued. Then, we study the situation where $\\chi\\overline{\\chi}$ has exactly three distinct nonprincipal irreducible constituents, two of which are complex conjugates. In this case, we prove that $G$ has derived length bounded above by $6$.

  6. Infiltration behaviour of elemental mercury DNAPL in fully and partially water saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Andrea; Hartog, Niels; Sweijen, Thomas; Pianese, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a contaminant of global concern due to its harmful effects on human health and for the detrimental consequences of its release in the environment. Sources of liquid elemental mercury are usually anthropogenic, such as chlor-alkali plants. To date insight into the infiltration behaviour of liquid elemental mercury in the subsurface is lacking, although this is critical for assessing both characterization and remediation approaches for mercury DNAPL contaminated sites. Therefore, in this study the infiltration behaviour of elemental mercury in fully and partially water saturated systems was investigated using column experiments. The properties affecting the constitutive relations governing the infiltration behaviour of liquid Hg0, and PCE for comparison, were determined using Pc(S) experiments with different granular porous media (glass beads and sands) for different two- and three-phase configurations. Results showed that, in water saturated porous media, elemental mercury, as PCE, acted as a non-wetting fluid. The required entry head for elemental mercury was higher (from about 5 to 7 times). However, due to the almost tenfold higher density of mercury, the required NAPL entry heads of 6.19 cm and 12.51 cm for mercury to infiltrate were 37.5% to 20.7% lower than for PCE for the same porous media. Although Leverett scaling was able to reproduce the natural tendency of Hg0 to be more prone than PCE to infiltrate in water saturated porous media, it considerably underestimated Hg0 infiltration capacity in comparison with the experimental results. In the partially water saturated system, in contrast with PCE, elemental mercury also acted as a nonwetting fluid, therefore having to overcome an entry head to infiltrate. The required Hg0 entry heads (10.45 and 15.74 cm) were considerably higher (68.9% and 25.8%) than for the water saturated porous systems. Furthermore, in the partially water saturated systems, experiments showed that elemental mercury displaced

  7. Simulation of gas hydrogen diffusion through partially water saturated mono-modal materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boher, C.; Lorente, S.; Frizon, F.; Bart, F.

    2012-01-01

    Concerning the disposal of nuclear wastes, it is important to design concrete envelopes with pore networks that allow the diffusion of hydrogen towards the outside. This work documents the relationship between geo-polymers, which are materials with a quasi mono-modal pore network, and their gaseous diffusivity capacities. Using a mono-modal material allows studying a specific pore size contribution to gaseous diffusion. The pore network is characterized by mercury porosimetry. These experimental results are used as data in a model named MOHYCAN. The modeling work consists of creating a virtual pore network. Then, water layers are deposited in this network to simulate variable water saturation levels. Finally hydrogen is transported through the virtual network using a combination of ordinary diffusion and Knudsen diffusion. MOHYCAN calculates the hydrogen diffusion coefficient for water saturation degree from 0% to 100%. The impacts of the pore network arrangement or the pore network discretization have been studied. The results are, for a quasi mono-modal material: -) the diffusion coefficient is not sensitive to different virtual pore network arrangement; -) the diffusion coefficient values have a sharp drop at specific water saturation (this is due to the water saturation of the main and unique pore family); -) a 2 pores family based model is sufficient to represent the pore network. Theses observations will not be valid if we consider a material with a large pore size distribution, like cementitious materials

  8. Seasonal variation in aragonite saturation in surface waters of Puget Sound – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Pelletier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pilot study of sampling, using monthly marine flights over spatially distributed stations, was conducted with the aim to characterize the carbonate system in Puget Sound over a full year-long period. Surface waters of Puget Sound were found to be under-saturated with respect to aragonite during October–March, and super-saturated during April–September. Highest pCO2 and lowest pH occurred during the corrosive October–March period. Lowest pCO2 and highest pH occurred during the super-saturated April–September period. The monthly variations in pCO2 , pH, and aragonite saturation state closely followed the variations in monthly average chlorophyll a. Super-saturated conditions during April–September are likely strongly influenced by photosynthetic uptake of CO2 during the phytoplankton growing season. The relationship between phytoplankton production, the carbonate system, and aragonite saturation state suggests that long-term trends in eutrophication processes may contribute to trends in ocean acidification in Puget Sound

  9. A methodology to calibrate water saturation estimated from 4D seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Maschio, Célio; José Schiozer, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic data can be used to estimate saturation changes within a reservoir, which is valuable information for reservoir management as it plays an important role in updating reservoir simulation models. The process of updating reservoir properties, history matching, can incorporate estimated saturation changes qualitatively or quantitatively. For quantitative approaches, reliable information from 4D seismic data is important. This work proposes a methodology to calibrate the volume of water in the estimated saturation maps, as these maps can be wrongly estimated due to problems with seismic signals (such as noise, errors associated with data processing and resolution issues). The idea is to condition the 4D seismic data to known information provided by engineering, in this case the known amount of injected and produced water in the field. The application of the proposed methodology in an inversion process (previously published) that estimates saturation from 4D seismic data is presented, followed by a discussion concerning the use of such data in a history matching process. The methodology is applied to a synthetic dataset to validate the results, the main of which are: (1) reduction of the effects of noise and errors in the estimated saturation, yielding more reliable data to be used quantitatively or qualitatively and (2) an improvement in the properties update after using this data in a history matching procedure. (paper)

  10. Prediction of the saturated hydraulic conductivity from Brooks and Corey’s water retention parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasta, P.; Vrugt, J.A.; Romano, N.

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of flow through variably saturated porous media requires accurate knowledge of the soil hydraulic properties, namely the water retention function (WRF) and the hydraulic conductivity function (HCF). Unfortunately, direct measurement of the HCF is time consuming and expensive. In this

  11. The effect of water saturation deficit on the volume of intercellular space in laeves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volume of intercellular spaces in leaves at various stages of water saturation was determined by method of Czerski (1964, 1968. The investigation were performed with the following plant species: Vicia faba L., Nicotiana tabacum L. var. rustica, Solarium tuberosum L. var. Flisak, Helichrysum bracteatum Wild., Bmssica napus L. var. oleifera, Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera.

  12. Sample dimensions effect on prediction of soil water retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water retention curve (SWRC) and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) are key hydraulic properties for unsaturated zone hydrology and groundwater. Not only are the SWRC and SHC measurements time-consuming, their results are scale dependent. Although prediction of the SWRC and SHC from availab...

  13. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Dry and Water Saturated Igneous Rock with Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniaxial cyclic loading tests have been conducted to study the mechanical behavior of dry and water saturated igneous rock with acoustic emission (AE monitoring. The igneous rock samples are dried, naturally immersed, and boiled to get specimens with different water contents for the testing. The mineral compositions and the microstructures of the dry and water saturated igneous rock are also presented. The dry specimens present higher strength, fewer strains, and rapid increase of AE count subjected to the cyclic loading, which reflects the hard and brittle behavior and strong burst proneness of igneous rock. The water saturated specimens have lower peak strength, more accumulated strains, and increase of AE count during the cyclic loading. The damage of the igneous rocks with different water contents has been identified by the Felicity Ratio Analysis. The cyclic loading and unloading increase the dislocation between the mineral aggregates and the water-rock interactions further break the adhesion of the clay minerals, which jointly promote the inner damage of the igneous rock. The results suggest that the groundwater can reduce the burst proneness of the igneous rock but increase the potential support failure of the surrounding rock in igneous invading area. In addition, the results inspire the fact that the water injection method is feasible for softening the igneous rock and for preventing the dynamic disasters within the roadways and working faces located in the igneous intrusion area.

  14. Determination of water saturation in subsurface earth formations adjacent well boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Hubert D.

    1982-01-01

    There is provided a method of determining the water saturation of an earth formation surrounding a well borehole, comprising the steps of: (a) bombarding the earth formation with repetitive pulses of fast neutrons which are slowed down and thereafter engage in neutron capture reactions with materials in the vicinity of the borehole; (b) obtaining by use of a germanium gamma ray detector gamma ray spectra of the materials in the vicinity of the borehole; (c) obtaining from the gamma ray spectra a measure of the relative presence of chlorine to that of hydrogen in the formation; (d) obtaining a measure of apparent formation water salinity from the measure of relative presence of chlorine to hydrogen in the formation; and (e) obtaining the water saturation of the formation utilizing the apparent formation water salinity

  15. Relationship between 222Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Komae, Takami

    1996-01-01

    The object of the researches an analyzing downward flow to groundwater using 222 Rn concentration in water as an indicator has been saturated flow. However, when groundwater table is low, downward flow from surface is unsaturated flow. In this paper, the authors represented the relationship between 222 Rn concentration in soil water and degree of saturation, and measured the vertical distributions of 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater and 222 Rn concentration in water table in the fields. As the results, it was found that 222 Rn concentrations in the vicinity of groundwater table decreased by unsaturated downward flow. Moreover, from the variation of 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater table, it was possible to show the occurrence of the unsaturated downward flow by paddy fields irrigation, i.e., the downward flow of the soil water pushed out by irrigation water, the unsaturated percolation in the irrigation period, and the redistribution of the soil water after the release of ponding water. The degree of saturation in downward flow was calculated to be about 50% from 222 Rn concentrations in the irrigation period and in the non-irrigation period. It was deduced that the value was within reasonable range considering the difference of the hydraulic conductivities between of the upper layer and of the lower layer. These results proved that the relationship between 222 Rn concentrations in soil water and degree of saturation represented by the authors was reasonable and that the analytical method using 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater table as an indicator was useful 10 analyze the actual stale of unsaturated downward flow. (author)

  16. Variables of state and charateristics for isentropic discharge phenomena of water, starting with saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudisch, H.

    1968-03-15

    The tables presented in this report contain the thermodynamic values of isentropic change of state for water in the two-phase region starting from the saturation line down to 0.01 at. The variables have been computed in the pressure range from 5-100 at. in equal pressure intervals of 5 at. and in the range from 100-170 at. in intervals of 10 at. Assuming a one-dimensional flow and a known saturation pressure, the dimensions of a discharge nozzle may be determined by interpolation of the calculated values for an isentropic discharge. 4 figs., 29 tabs., 23 refs.

  17. An irreducible ankle fracture dislocation: the Bosworth injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Hagenaars, Tjebbe; den Hartog, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Irreducible fracture dislocations of the ankle are rare and represent true orthopedic emergencies. We present a case of a fracture dislocation that was irreducible owing to a fixed dislocation of the proximal fibular fragment posterior to the lateral ridge of the tibia. This particular type of

  18. The Dependence of Water Permeability in Quartz Sand on Gas Hydrate Saturation in the Pore Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossel, E.; Deusner, C.; Bigalke, N.; Haeckel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Transport of fluids in gas hydrate bearing sediments is largely defined by the reduction of the permeability due to gas hydrate crystals in the pore space. Although the exact knowledge of the permeability behavior as a function of gas hydrate saturation is of crucial importance, state-of-the-art simulation codes for gas production scenarios use theoretically derived permeability equations that are hardly backed by experimental data. The reason for the insufficient validation of the model equations is the difficulty to create gas hydrate bearing sediments that have undergone formation mechanisms equivalent to the natural process and that have well-defined gas hydrate saturations. We formed methane hydrates in quartz sand from a methane-saturated aqueous solution and used magnetic resonance imaging to obtain time-resolved, three-dimensional maps of the gas hydrate saturation distribution. These maps were fed into 3-D finite element method simulations of the water flow. In our simulations, we tested the five most well-known permeability equations. All of the suitable permeability equations include the term (1-SH)n, where SH is the gas hydrate saturation and n is a parameter that needs to be constrained. The most basic equation describing the permeability behavior of water flow through gas hydrate bearing sand is k = k0 (1-SH)n. In our experiments, n was determined to be 11.4 (±0.3). Results from this study can be directly applied to bulk flow analysis under the assumption of homogeneous gas hydrate saturation and can be further used to derive effective permeability models for heterogeneous gas hydrate distributions at different scales.

  19. Contrast of dry and water-saturated arabidopsis seeds irradiated by MeV energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Tao; Qin Huaili; Xue Jianming; Wang Yugang

    2007-01-01

    The dry and water-saturated seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana were irradiated by H + ions with 6.5 MeV in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can penetrate the whole seed. The experiment shows that the fluence-response curves for the dry seeds and water-saturated seeds had distinct shoulders and reduced rapidly. The experimental results show that the water-imbibed seeds were more sensitive than the dry seeds and the reason is from free radicals reaction. A model has been constructed, and primely simulates the experiment data. (authors)

  20. The Parabolic Variational Inequalities for Variably Saturated Water Flow in Heterogeneous Fracture Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyang Ye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractures are ubiquitous in geological formations and have a substantial influence on water seepage flow in unsaturated fractured rocks. While the matrix permeability is small enough to be ignored during the partially saturated flow process, water seepage in heterogeneous fracture systems may occur in a non-volume-average manner as distinguished from a macroscale continuum model. This paper presents a systematic numerical method which aims to provide a better understanding of the effect of fracture distribution on the water seepage behavior in such media. Based on the partial differential equation (PDE formulations with a Signorini-type complementary condition on the variably saturated water flow in heterogeneous fracture networks, the equivalent parabolic variational inequality (PVI formulations are proposed and the related numerical algorithm in the context of the finite element scheme is established. With the application to the continuum porous media, the results of the numerical simulation for one-dimensional infiltration fracture are compared to the analytical solutions and good agreements are obtained. From the application to intricate fracture systems, it is found that water seepage flow can move rapidly along preferential pathways in a nonuniform fashion and the variably saturated seepage behavior is intimately related to the geometrical characteristics orientation of fractures.

  1. Explosion Amplitude Reduction due to Fractures in Water-Saturated and Dry Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Empirical observations made at the Semipalatinsk Test Site suggest that nuclear tests in the fracture zones left by previous explosions ('repeat shots') show reduced seismic amplitudes compared to the nuclear tests in virgin rocks. Likely mechanisms for the amplitude reduction in the repeat shots include increased porosity and reduced strength and elastic moduli, leading to pore closing and frictional sliding. Presence of pore water significantly decreases rock compressibility and strength, thus affecting seismic amplitudes. A series of explosion experiments were conducted in order to define the physical mechanism responsible for the amplitude reduction and to quantify the degree of the amplitude reduction in fracture zones of previously detonated explosions. Explosions in water-saturated granite were conducted in central New Hampshire in 2011 and 2012. Additional explosions in dry granite were detonated in Barre, VT in 2013. The amplitude reduction is different between dry and water-saturated crystalline rocks. Significant reduction in seismic amplitudes (by a factor of 2-3) in water-saturated rocks was achieved only when the repeat shot was detonated in the extensive damage zone created by a significantly larger (by a factor of 5) explosion. In case where the first and the second explosions were similar in yield, the amplitude reduction was relatively modest (5-20%). In dry rocks the amplitude reduction reached a factor of 2 even in less extensive damage zones. In addition there are differences in frequency dependence of the spectral amplitude ratios between explosions in dry and water-saturated rocks. Thus the amplitude reduction is sensitive to the extent of the damage zone as well as the pore water content.

  2. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Predicting the occurrence of mixed mode failure associated with hydraulic fracturing, part 2 water saturated tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choens, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barrow, Perry Carl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Seven water-saturated triaxial extension experiments were conducted on four sedimentary rocks. This experimental condition was hypothesized more representative of that existing for downhole hydrofracture and thus it may improve our understanding of the phenomena. In all tests the pore pressure was 10 MPa and confirming pressure was adjusted to achieve tensile and transitional failure mode conditions. Using previous work in this LDRD for comparison, the law of effective stress is demonstrated in extension using this sample geometry. In three of the four lithologies, no apparent chemo-mechanical effect of water is apparent, and in the fourth lithology test results indicate some chemo-mechanical effect of water.

  4. Hydraulic Properties of Porous Media Saturated with Nanoparticle-Stabilized Air-Water Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglei Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The foam generated by the mixture of air and water has a much higher viscosity and lower mobility than those of pure water or gas that constitutes the air-water foam. The possibility of using the air-water foam as a flow barrier for the purpose of groundwater and soil remediation is explored in this paper. A nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam was fabricated by vigorously stirring the nano-fluid in pressurized condition. The foam bubble size distribution was analyzed with a microscope. The viscosities of foams generated with the solutions with several nanoparticle concentrations were measured as a function of time. The breakthrough pressure of foam-saturated microfluidic chips and sand columns were obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of a foam-filled sand column was measured after foam breakthrough. The results show that: (1 bubble coalescence and the Ostwald ripening are believed to be the reason of bubble size distribution change; (2 the viscosity of nanoparticle-stabilized foam and the breakthrough pressures decreased with time once the foam was generated; (3 the hydraulic conductivity of the foam-filled sand column was almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of a water-saturated sand column even after the foam-breakthrough. Based on the results in this study, the nanoparticle-stabilized air-water foam could be injected into contaminated soils to generate vertical barriers for temporary hydraulic conductivity reduction.

  5. Multifactorial modelling of high-temperature treatment of timber in the saturated water steam medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosvirnikov, D. B.; Safin, R. G.; Ziatdinova, D. F.; Timerbaev, N. F.; Lashkov, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses experimental data obtained in studies of high-temperature treatment of softwood and hardwood in an environment of saturated water steam. Data were processed in the Curve Expert software for the purpose of statistical modelling of processes and phenomena occurring during this process. The multifactorial modelling resulted in the empirical dependences, allowing determining the main parameters of this type of hydrothermal treatment with high accuracy.

  6. CO2 saturated water as two-phase flow for fouling control in reverse electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J; de Hart, N; Saakes, M; Nijmeijer, K

    2017-11-15

    When natural feed waters are used in the operation of a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack, severe fouling on the ion exchange membranes and spacers occurs. Fouling of the RED stack has a strong influence on the gross power density output; which can decrease up to 50%. Moreover, an increase in the pressure loss occurs between the feed water inlet and outlet, increasing the pumping energy and thus decreasing the net power density that can be obtained. In this work, we extensively investigated the use of CO 2 saturated water as two-phase flow cleaning for fouling mitigation in RED using natural feed waters. Experiments were performed in the REDstack research facility located at the Afsluitdijk (the Netherlands) using natural feed waters for a period of 60 days. Two different gas combinations were experimentally investigated, water/air sparging and water/CO 2 (saturated) injection. Air is an inert gas mixture and induces air sparging in the stack. In the case of CO 2 , nucleation, i.e. the spontaneous formation of bubbles, occurs at the spacer filaments due to depressurization of CO 2 saturated water, inducing cleaning. Results showed that stacks equipped with CO 2 saturated water can produce an average net power density of 0.18 W/m 2 under real fouling conditions with minimal pre-treatment and at a low outside temperature of only 8 °C, whereas the stacks equipped with air sparging could only produce an average net power density of 0.04 W/m 2 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that the stacks equipped with air sparging increased in stack resistance due to the presence of stagnant bubbles remaining in the stack after every air injection. Furthermore, the introduction of CO 2 gas in the feed water introduces a pH decrease in the system (carbonated solution) adding an additional cleaning effect in the system, thus avoiding the use of environmentally unwanted cleaning chemicals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  7. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucci, P.

    2001-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) documents an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the saturated-zone, site-scale flow and transport model (CRWMS M and O 2000) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for model calibration. The previous analysis was presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01, Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model (USGS 2001). This analysis is designed to use updated water-level data as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain. The objectives of this revision are to develop computer files containing (1) water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002), (2) a table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS0109083 12332.003), and (3) a potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternate concept from that presented in ANL-NBS-HS-000034, Rev 00 ICN 01 for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) and data from borehole USW WT-24. In addition to being utilized by the SZ site-scale flow and transport model, the water-level data and potentiometric-surface map contained within this report will be available to other government agencies and water users for ground-water management purposes. The potentiometric surface defines an upper boundary of the site-scale flow model, as well as provides information useful to estimation of the magnitude and direction of lateral ground-water flow within the flow system. Therefore, the analysis documented in this revision is important to SZ flow and transport calculations in support of total system performance assessment

  8. Evaluation of water transfer from saturated lightweight aggregate to cement paste matrix by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, I.; Kanematsu, M.; Noguchi, T.; Iikura, H.; Teramoto, A.; Hayano, H.

    2009-01-01

    In high-strength concrete with low water-cement ratio, self-desiccation occurs due to cement hydration and causes shrinkage and an increased risk of cracking. While high-strength concrete has a denser matrix than normal-strength concrete, resulting in lower permeability, early-age cracks would cancel out this advantage. For the mitigation of this self-desiccation and resultant shrinkage, water-saturated porous aggregate, such as artificial lightweight aggregate, may be used in high-strength concrete. In this contribution, for the purpose of clarification of the volume change of high-strength concrete containing water-saturated lightweight aggregate, water transfer from the lightweight aggregate to cement paste matrix is visualized by neutron radiography. As a result, it is clear that water was supplied to the cement paste matrix in the range 3-8 mm from the surface of the aggregate, and the osmotic forces may yield water transfer around lightweight aggregate in a few hours after mixing.

  9. Ice versus liquid water saturation in simulations of the indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Russell H.; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2018-02-01

    At the same temperature, below 0 °C, the saturation vapor pressure (SVP) over ice is slightly less than the SVP over liquid water. Numerical models use the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to calculate the SVP and relative humidity, but there is not a consistent method for the treatment of saturation above the freezing level where ice and mixed-phase clouds may be present. In the context of current challenges presented by cloud microphysics in climate models, we argue that a better understanding of the impact that this treatment has on saturation-related processes like cloud formation and precipitation, is needed. This study explores the importance of the SVP calculation through model simulations of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) using the regional spectral model (RSM) at 15 km grid spacing. A combination of seasonal and multiyear simulations is conducted with two saturation parameterizations. In one, the SVP over liquid water is prescribed through the entire atmospheric column (woIce), and in another the SVP over ice is used above the freezing level (wIce). When SVP over ice is prescribed, a thermodynamic drying of the middle and upper troposphere above the freezing level occurs due to increased condensation. In the wIce runs, the model responds to the slight decrease in the saturation condition by increasing, relative to the SVP over liquid water only run, grid-scale condensation of water. Increased grid-scale mean seasonal precipitation is noted across the ISM region in the simulation with SVP over ice prescribed. Modification of the middle and upper troposphere moisture results in a decrease in mean seasonal mid-level cloud amount and an increase in high cloud amount when SVP over ice is prescribed. Multiyear simulations strongly corroborate the qualitative results found in the seasonal simulations regarding the impact of ice versus liquid water SVP on the ISM's mean precipitation and moisture field. The mean seasonal rainfall difference over All India between w

  10. Cibicidodes Pachyderma B/Ca as a Shalow Water Carbonate Saturation State Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, D. E.; Flower, B. P.; Moyer, R. P.; Byrne, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Since the industrial revolution, the oceans have absorbed about 25% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, leading to a decrease in seawater pH (termed ocean acidification: OA) as well as many associated effects, including decreased saturation states. Assessment of the effects of OA on marine ecosystems is presently based on chemistry and its impact on biota over much longer time scales can provide essential context for likely future consequences of OA. Reliable oceanic paleo-proxies for influential chemical variables such as pH and carbonate saturation state are crucial components for examining ancient environments affected by OA. Addition of CO2 to seawater leads to not only decreases in seawater pH and saturation state, but also the extent to which boron (B) is incorporated into CaCO3 during biotic calcification. Consequently, the abundance of B in calcite could reflect pH and/or saturation state of the water in which calcification occurred. Recent studies indicate a linear relationship between the ratio of boron to calcium (B/Ca) in benthic foraminifera shells ( Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, C. mundulus) and the degree of carbonate saturation (Δ[CO32-]), defined as a difference between [CO32-]in situ and [CO32-]saturation. However, the observed relationship between B/Ca and Δ[CO32-] was only established for depths >1000m. Thus, since OA most immediately affects the upper 1000 m of the water column, a reliable shallow water (chemistry proxy is desirable. We are testing the utility of B/Ca in Cibicidoides pachyderma as a shallow water Δ[CO32-] proxy. C. pachyderma is an epibenthic species and therefore records the composition of bottom, rather than interstitial, waters. It usually inhabits depths between 200 and 1000 m, and is a common species in the Gulf of Mexico. The gently sloping West Florida Shelf (WFS) is an excellent setting for this kind of study as it provides a full range of depths habitable by C.pachyderma. Nine surface sediment samples

  11. The tree technique and irreducible tensor operators for the quantum algebra suq (2). The algebra of irreducible tensor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.F.; Tolstoi, V.N.; Kharitonov, Yu.I.

    1993-01-01

    The tree technique for the quantum algebra su q (2) developed in an earlier study is used to construct the q analog of the algebra of irreducible tensor operators. The adjoint action of the algebra su q (2) on irreducible tensor operators is discussed, and the adjoint R matrix is introduced. A set of expressions is obtained for the matrix elements of various irreducible tensor operators and combinations of them. As an application, the recursion relations for the Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients of the algebra su q (2) are derived. 16 refs

  12. Irreducible multiqutrit correlations in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin [Physics Department, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Jing-Ling [Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2011-12-15

    Following the idea of the continuity approach by D. L. Zhou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180505 (2008)], we obtain the degrees of irreducible multiparty correlations in two families of n-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states. For the pure states in one of the families, the irreducible 2-party, n-party, and (n-m)-party (0irreducible n-qutrit correlation in the maximal slice state. This enlightens us to give a discussion about how to characterize the pure states with irreducible n-party correlation in arbitrarily high-dimensional systems by the way of the continuity approach.

  13. Irreducible multiqutrit correlations in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Following the idea of the continuity approach by D. L. Zhou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180505 (2008)], we obtain the degrees of irreducible multiparty correlations in two families of n-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states. For the pure states in one of the families, the irreducible 2-party, n-party, and (n-m)-party (0< m< n-2) correlations are nonzero, which is different from the n-qubit case. We also derive the correlation distributions in the n-qutrit maximal slice state, which can be uniquely determined by its (n-1)-qutrit-reduced density matrices among pure states. It is proved that there is no irreducible n-qutrit correlation in the maximal slice state. This enlightens us to give a discussion about how to characterize the pure states with irreducible n-party correlation in arbitrarily high-dimensional systems by the way of the continuity approach.

  14. Irreducible Tests for Space Mission Sequencing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    As missions extend further into space, the modeling and simulation of their every action and instruction becomes critical. The greater the distance between Earth and the spacecraft, the smaller the window for communication becomes. Therefore, through modeling and simulating the planned operations, the most efficient sequence of commands can be sent to the spacecraft. The Space Mission Sequencing Software is being developed as the next generation of sequencing software to ensure the most efficient communication to interplanetary and deep space mission spacecraft. Aside from efficiency, the software also checks to make sure that communication during a specified time is even possible, meaning that there is not a planet or moon preventing reception of a signal from Earth or that two opposing commands are being given simultaneously. In this way, the software not only models the proposed instructions to the spacecraft, but also validates the commands as well.To ensure that all spacecraft communications are sequenced properly, a timeline is used to structure the data. The created timelines are immutable and once data is as-signed to a timeline, it shall never be deleted nor renamed. This is to prevent the need for storing and filing the timelines for use by other programs. Several types of timelines can be created to accommodate different types of communications (activities, measurements, commands, states, events). Each of these timeline types requires specific parameters and all have options for additional parameters if needed. With so many combinations of parameters available, the robustness and stability of the software is a necessity. Therefore a baseline must be established to ensure the full functionality of the software and it is here where the irreducible tests come into use.

  15. Evidence of water vapor in excess of saturation in the atmosphere of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltagliati, L; Montmessin, F; Fedorova, A; Korablev, O; Forget, F; Bertaux, J-L

    2011-09-30

    The vertical distribution of water vapor is key to the study of Mars' hydrological cycle. To date, it has been explored mainly through global climate models because of a lack of direct measurements. However, these models assume the absence of supersaturation in the atmosphere of Mars. Here, we report observations made using the SPICAM (Spectroscopy for the Investigation of the Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars) instrument onboard Mars Express that provide evidence of the frequent presence of water vapor in excess of saturation, by an amount far surpassing that encountered in Earth's atmosphere. This result contradicts the widespread assumption that atmospheric water on Mars cannot exist in a supersaturated state, directly affecting our long-term representation of water transport, accumulation, escape, and chemistry on a global scale.

  16. Influence of the tension-saturated zone on contaminant migration in shallow water-table regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Groundwater discharge represents a major pathway for the return to the biosphere of contaminants that are released to the subsurface environment. An understanding of the transport processes in groundwater discharge zones is therefore an important consideration in pathway analyses associated with the environmental assessment of proposed waste-management facilities. Shallow water tables are a common characteristic of groundwater discharge zones, particularly in humid climatic regions. In this paper, the results of field tests, laboratory tests and numerical simulations are used to show that under shallow water-table conditions, the zone of tension saturation can result in a rapid and highly disproportionate water-table response to precipitation. It is further shown that this response can result in complex migration patterns that would not be predicted by the classical approaches to solute transport modelling and that the response could result in large and highly transient inputs to surface water

  17. Irreducible almost simple subgroups of classical algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Burness, Timothy C; Marion, Claude; Testerman, Donna M

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a simple classical algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p\\geq 0 with natural module W. Let H be a closed subgroup of G and let V be a nontrivial p-restricted irreducible tensor indecomposable rational KG-module such that the restriction of V to H is irreducible. In this paper the authors classify the triples (G,H,V) of this form, where V \

  18. Numerical study of saturation steam/water mixture flow and flashing initial sub-cooled water flow inside throttling devices

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) approach to model this phenomenon inside throttling devices is proposed. To validate CFD results, different nozzle geometries are analyzed, comparing numerical results with experimental data. Two cases are studied: Case 1: saturation steam/water mixture flow inside 2D convergent-divergent nozzle (inlet, outlet and throat diameter of nozzle are 0.1213m, 0.0452m and 0.0191m respectively). In this benchmark, a range of total inle...

  19. An innovative technique for estimating water saturation from capillary pressure in clastic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoti, Lukumon; Ayolabi, Elijah Adebowale; James, Logan

    2017-11-01

    A major drawback of old resistivity tools is the poor vertical resolution and estimation of hydrocarbon when applying water saturation (Sw) from historical resistivity method. In this study, we have provided an alternative method called saturation height function to estimate hydrocarbon in some clastic reservoirs in the Niger Delta. The saturation height function was derived from pseudo capillary pressure curves generated using modern wells with complete log data. Our method was based on the determination of rock type from log derived porosity-permeability relationship, supported by volume of shale for its classification into different zones. Leverette-J functions were derived for each rock type. Our results show good correlation between Sw from resistivity based method and Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves in wells with modern log data. The resistivity based model overestimates Sw in some wells while Sw from the pseudo capillary pressure curves validates and predicts more accurate Sw. In addition, the result of Sw from pseudo capillary pressure curves replaces that of resistivity based model in a well where the resistivity equipment failed. The plot of hydrocarbon pore volume (HCPV) from J-function against HCPV from Archie shows that wells with high HCPV have high sand qualities and vice versa. This was further used to predict the geometry of stratigraphic units. The model presented here freshly addresses the gap in the estimation of Sw and is applicable to reservoirs of similar rock type in other frontier basins worldwide.

  20. Water uptake, migration and swelling characteristics of unsaturated and saturated, highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1980-09-01

    The report presents the results of a number of laboratory tests and field observations to form the basis of a physical and mathematical model that can be used for predicting water uptake and swelling in highly compacted bentonite components of an actual deposition plant. The clay buffer masses have been suggested as barriers in the Swedish KBS concepts. Two commercially available bentonites were used for the production of samples. The rate of water uptake suggests a mathematical model based on a simple diffusion equation. The rate is determined by the access of water and thousands of years may pass before saturation is obtained. The rate of swelling is governed by the negative pore pressure and the permeability. There is reasonable agreement with field observations. The observed swelling potential of old smectite-rich clays has offered the evidence. (G.B.)

  1. Diffusion under water-saturated conditions in PFA/OPC-based structural concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.; Nickerson, A.K.

    1990-05-01

    A substantial proportion of the volume of the UK radioactive waste repository is likely to be composed of materials based on hydraulic cements. This includes the structural components, which are likely to be manufactured from concrete. The mass transport characteristics of dissolved species for a typical structural concrete, based on a mixture of pulverised fuel ash and ordinary Portland cement, have been measured in a water-saturated condition. Both the water permeability and the diffusion parameters (for caesium, strontium and iodide ion and tritiated water diffusion) are low compared to values obtained for other structural concretes. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients for iodide and caesium ions are in the range 2-5x10 -14 m 2 s -1 . There is no evidence of significant sorption of any of the diffusants studied. (author)

  2. Saturated flow boiling heat transfer in water-heated vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Licheng; Yan Changqi; Sun Zhonning

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the saturated flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of water at 1 atm and low velocities in water-heated vertical annuli with equivalent diameters of 10 mm and 6 mm. Test section is consisted of two concentric circular tubes outer of which is made of quartz, so the whole test courses can be visualized. There are three main flow patterns of bubble flow, churn flow and churn-annular flow in the annuli, most important of which is churn flow. Flooding is the mechanism of churn flow and churn can enhance the heat transport between steam and water; Among the three factors of mass flux, inlet subcooling and annulus width, the last one has great effect on heat transport, moderately decreasing the annulus width can enhance the heat transfer; Combined annular flow model with theory of flooding and turbulent Prandtl Number, the numerical value of heat flux is given, the shape of test boiling curve and that of calculated by model is very alike, but there is large discrepancy between test data and calculated results, the most possible reason is that some parameters given by fluid flooding model are based on experimental data of common circular tubes, but not of annuli. Doing more research on flooding in annulus, particularly narrow annulus, is necessary for calculating the saturated boiling in annulus. (authors)

  3. Using Neutron Radiography to Quantify Water Transport and the Degree of Saturation in Entrained Air Cement Based Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Catherine L.; Bentz, Dale P.; Hussey, Daniel S.; Jacobson, David L.; Weiss, W. Jason

    Air entrainment is commonly added to concrete to help in reducing the potential for freeze thaw damage. It is hypothesized that the entrained air voids remain unsaturated or partially saturated long after the smaller pores fill with water. Small gel and capillary pores in the cement matrix fill quickly on exposure to water, but larger pores (entrapped and entrained air voids) require longer times or other methods to achieve saturation. As such, it is important to quantitatively determine the water content and degree of saturation in air entrained cementitious materials. In order to further investigate properties of cement-based mortar, a model based on Beer's Law has been developed to interpret neutron radiographs. This model is a powerful tool for analyzing images acquired from neutron radiography. A mortar with a known volume of aggregate, water to cement ratio and degree of hydration can be imaged and the degree of saturation can be estimated.

  4. Turbulence enhancement by ultrasonically induced gaseous cavitation in the CO2 saturated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Youp; Choi, Young Don

    2002-01-01

    Recent primary concern for the design of high performance heat exchanger and highly integrated electronic equipment is to develop an active and creative technologies which enhance the heat transfer without obstructing the coolant flows. In this study, we found through the LDV measurement that the gaseous cavitation induced by ultrasonic vibration applied to the CO 2 saturated water in the square cross-sectioned straight duct flow enhances the turbulence much more than the case of non-ultrasonic or normal ultrasonic conditions without gaseous cavitation does. We also found that gaseous cavitation can enhance effectively the turbulent heat transfer between the heating surfaces and coolants by destructing the viscous sublayer

  5. Studies on plant extracts as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in air saturated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Daud; Abdul Razak Daud; Zainal Abidin Sidi

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness in inhibiting corrosion by garlic, soya bean, and tobacco extracts and their combinations in air saturated water at ambient temperature were studied by using electrochemical corrosion test. The range of inhibitor concentration studied was from 0.1 to 1.0 g/l. The variations of corrosion potential and corrosion current density was recorded and the results showed that the extracts have inhibitive properties in the corrosion of mild stee. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is in the following order: extract mixture > tobacco > garlic > soya bean extracts. (author)

  6. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-01-01

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In addition to being utilized

  7. Water-Level Data Analysis for the Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow and Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rehfeldt

    2004-10-08

    This report is an updated analysis of water-level data performed to provide the ''Saturated Zone Site-Scale Flow Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]) (referred to as the saturated zone (SZ) site-scale flow model or site-scale SZ flow model in this report) with the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target water-level data, and hydraulic gradients for calibration of groundwater flow models. This report also contains an expanded discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. The analysis of the potentiometric data presented in Revision 00 of this report (USGS 2001 [DIRS 154625]) provides the configuration of the potentiometric surface, target heads, and hydraulic gradients for the calibration of the SZ site-scale flow model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]). Revision 01 of this report (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) used updated water-level data for selected wells through the year 2000 as the basis for estimating water-level altitudes and the potentiometric surface in the SZ site-scale flow and transport model domain based on an alternative interpretation of perched water conditions. That revision developed computer files containing: Water-level data within the model area (DTN: GS010908312332.002); A table of known vertical head differences (DTN: GS010908312332.003); and A potentiometric-surface map (DTN: GS010608312332.001) using an alternative concept from that presented by USGS (2001 [DIRS 154625]) for the area north of Yucca Mountain. The updated water-level data presented in USGS (2004 [DIRS 168473]) include data obtained from the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program (EWDP) Phases I and II and data from Borehole USW WT-24. This document is based on Revision 01 (USGS 2004 [DIRS 168473]) and expands the discussion of uncertainty in the potentiometric-surface map. This uncertainty assessment includes an analysis of the impact of more recent water-level data and the impact of adding data from the EWDP Phases III and IV wells. In

  8. Characteristics of soil under variations in clay, water saturation, and water flow rates, and the implications upon soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikman, M.; Mirotchnik, K.; Kantzas, A.

    1997-01-01

    A potential remediation method for hydrocarbon contaminated soils was discussed. The new method was based on the use of proven and economic petroleum reservoir engineering methods for soil remediation. The methods that were applied included water and gas displacement methods together with horizontal boreholes as the flow inlet and outlets. This system could be used in the case of spills that seep beneath a plant or other immovable infrastructure which requires in-situ treatment schemes to decontaminate the soil. A study was conducted to characterize native soils and water samples from industrial plants in central Alberta and Sarnia, Ontario and to determine the variables that impact upon the flow conditions of synthetic test materials. The methods used to characterize the soils included X-Ray computed tomographic analysis, grain size and density measurements, and X-Ray diffraction. Clay content, initial water saturation, and water and gas flow rate were the variables that impacted on the flow conditions

  9. Elasticity of water-saturated rocks as a function of temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, S.; Simmons, G.

    1973-01-01

    Compressional and shear wave velocities of water-saturated rocks were measured as a function of both pressure and temperature near the melting point of ice to confining pressure of 2 kb. The pore pressure was kept at about 1 bar before the water froze. The presence of a liquid phase (rather than ice) in microcracks of about 0.3% porosity affected the compressional wave velocity by about 5% and the shear wave velocity by about 10%. The calculated effective bulk modulus of the rocks changes rapidly over a narrow range of temperature near the melting point of ice, but the effective shear modulus changes gradually over a wider range of temperature. This phenomenon, termed elastic anomaly, is attributed to the existence of liquid on the boundary between rock and ice due to local stresses and anomalous melting of ice under pressure.

  10. Strength and Biot's coefficient for high-porosity oil- or water-saturated chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Katrine Alling

    . The Biot coefficient states the degree of cementation or how the pore pressure contributes to the strain resulting from an external load for a porous material. It is here calculated from dynamic measurements and correlated with the strength of outcrop chalk characterized by the onset of pore collapse...... during hydrostatic loading. The hypothesis is that the Biot coefficient and the theory of poroelasticity may cover the fluid effect by including the increased fluid bulk modulus from oil to water. A high number of test results for both oil- and water-saturated high-porosity outcrop chalk show correlation......In the petroleum industry it is relevant to know the Biot coefficient for establishing the effective stresses present in both the overburden and for the reservoir interval. When depleting a reservoir it is important to estimate the settlement through the strain imposed by the effective stress. Also...

  11. Numerical evaluation of the water saturation in a high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benet, L.V.; Bouillet, Ch.; Tulita, C.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work is a contribution of the ANDRA's program of numerical simulations of the evolution in time of hydrogeological flows in a radioactive waste repository in deep clay formations. This study aims at evaluating the water contact areas with steel for corrosion modeling in a High-Level radioactive waste disposal, from the building to the total saturation, more than 100 000 years later [HSPA6b]. Energy release by radioactive spent fuel and thermal expansion of the interstitial water is taken into account in the models. Thermal transfers in the porous media and free convection in the gaps (Navier-Stokes equations) are computed with a linear Finite Element scheme. The mass transfers in the porous media are solved with a P0-P1 Mixed Finite Element method (Richard's equations during exploitation and two phases flow equations after the closure). All numerical simulations are performed with the Cast3M code (http://wwwcast3m. cea.fr/). During the exploitation, the H-L radioactive waste storage cell is not supposed to be hermetically closed. The pressure in the storage cell remains atmospheric and mass transfers towards the main gallery are possible. So a seepage boundary condition is used on excavation surface in order to provide evolution in time of saturation limit along the storage cell. For each cell of the boundary mesh: - No water flux is imposed in contact with unsaturated media. - Atmospheric pressure is imposed in contact with saturated media. A relative humidity of 50% is imposed for the atmosphere in the gallery. Vapour diffusive flux is implemented in Richard's equations with a suction pressure formula according to Kelvin law. Temperature impact on vapour flux is neglected. Vapour diffusive flux is significant in the concrete wall of gallery due to the ventilation. The free convection steady state in the gap is solved at different times of the thermal transient to evaluate location of

  12. Effect of percolation rate on water-travel time in deep, partially saturated zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.R.; Gauthier, J.H.; Dudley, A.L.

    1986-02-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nye county, Nevada, as a prospective site for a radioactive-waste repository. The Yucca Mountain site is unique among those currently being investigated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in that the prospective repository location is in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. The rock units at Yucca Mountain can be grouped into three types: (1) vitric tuffs with high matrix conductivity and few fractures; (2) zeolitized tuffs with low matrix conductivity and few fractures; and (3) densely welded tuffs with low matrix conductivities and many fractures. The prospective repository zone is in densely welded tuff; the units between it and the water table are of types 1 and 2. Current percolation rates through Yucca Mountain, and those that are currently postulated under future climatic conditions, are thought to be of the order of the saturated matrix conductivity of some of the units. Although it is probable that there is now little or no water movement in fracture, it is necessary to investigate the potential for fracture flow, especially that which could be initiated under future climatic conditions. Significant fracture flow, if present, could reduce the water travel time between the repository and the water table. A composite-porosity, continuum model was developed to model flow in a fractured, porous medium. Simulations using data from the Yucca Mountain site and this model in the one-dimensional code TOSPAC indicate that current estimates of the percolation rate result in water movement confined to the matrix and that the water-travel time from the repository to the water table is on the order of hundreds of thousands of years. this result is sensitive to the percolation rate; an increase in percolation rate of a factor of 10 many initiate water movement in the fractures, reducing the travel time significantly

  13. Irreducible descriptive sets of attributes for information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    The maximal consistent extension Ext(S) of a given information system S consists of all objects corresponding to attribute values from S which are consistent with all true and realizable rules extracted from the original information system S. An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B. We show that there exists only one irreducible descriptive set of attributes. We present a polynomial algorithm for this set construction. We also study relationships between the cardinality of irreducible descriptive set of attributes and the number of attributes in S. The obtained results will be useful for the design of concurrent data models from experimental data. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  14. A Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Gas Pressure on the Water Saturation of Compacted Bentonite-Sand Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Feng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In deep geological disposal for high-level radioactive waste, the generated gas can potentially affect the sealing ability of bentonite buffers. There is a competition between water and gas: the former provides sealing by swelling bentonite, and the latter attempts to desaturate the bentonite buffer. Thus, this study focused on numerically modelling the coupling effects of water and gas on the water saturation and sealing efficiency of compacted bentonite-sand samples. Different gas pressures were applied to the top surface of an upper sample, whereas the water pressure on the bottom side of the lower sample was maintained at 4 MPa. The results indicated that gas pressure did not significantly affect the saturation of the bentonite-sand sample until 2 MPa. At 2 MPa, the degree of water saturation of the upper sample was close to 1.0. As the gas pressure increased, this influence was more apparent. When the gas pressure was 6 MPa or higher, it was difficult for the upper sample to become fully saturated. Additionally, the lower sample was desaturated due to the high gas pressure. This indicated that gas pressure played an important role in the water saturation process and can affect the sealing efficiency of bentonite-based buffer materials.

  15. Strengthening and Stabilization of the Weak Water Saturated Soils Using Stone Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinyakov Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers innovative modern materials and structures for strengthening of weak soils. In this paper describes a method of strengthening of weak saturated soils using stone columns. The method of calculating the physical-mechanical characteristics of reinforced soil mass is presented. Two approaches to determining the stress-strain state and timeframe of consolidation of strengthened soil foundation using the finite element technique in two-dimensional formulation are proposed. The first one approach it is a modeling of reinforced soil mass, where each pile is represented as a separate 2D stripe. The second approach is to the simulation of the strengthened mass the equivalent composite block with improved physical-mechanical characteristics. The use of the equivalent composite block can significantly reduce the time spent on the preparation of a design scheme. The results of calculations were compared. They show the allowable divergence of results of calculation by two methods were presented, and the efficiency of the strengthening of weak water saturated soils by stone column is proved.

  16. Dissolution of spherical cap CO2 bubbles attached to flat surfaces in air-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Pablo; Parrales, Miguel A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Bubbles attached to flat surfaces immersed in quiescent liquid environments often display a spherical cap (SC) shape. Their dissolution is a phenomenon commonly observed experimentally. Modelling these bubbles as fully spherical may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the bubble dissolution rate. We develop a theoretical model for the diffusion-driven dissolution or growth of such multi-component SC gas bubbles under constant pressure and temperature conditions. Provided the contact angle of the bubble with the surface is large, the concentration gradients in the liquid may be approximated as spherically symmetric. The area available for mass transfer depends on the instantaneous bubble contact angle, whose dynamics is computed from the adhesion hysteresis model [Hong et al., Langmuir, vol. 27, 6890-6896 (2011)]. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements on the dissolution of SC CO2 bubbles immersed in air-saturated water support the validity of our model. We verify that contact line pinning slows down the dissolution rate, and the fact that any bubble immersed in a saturated gas-liquid solution eventually attains a final equilibrium size. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Grant DPI2011-28356-C03-0.

  17. Radiation-induced polymerization of water-saturated styrene in a wide range of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezaki, J.; Okada, T.; Sakurada, I.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization of water-saturated styrene (water content 3.5 x 10 -2 mole/liter) was carried out in a wide range of dose rate between 1.2 x 10 3 and 1.8 x 10 7 rad/sec, and compared with the polymerization of the moderately dried styrene (water content 3.2 x 10 -3 mole/liter). Molecular weight distribution curves of the polymerization products showed that they were generally consisted of four parts, namely, oligomers, radical, cationic, and super polymers. Contributions of the four constituents to the polymerization and the number average degrees of polymerization (DP) of the four kinds of polymers were calculated by the graphical analysis of the curves. The rate of radical polymerization and DP of radical polymers are independent of the water content; the dose rate dependences of the polymerization rate and DP agree with the well known square root and inverse square root laws, respectively, of the radical polymerization of styrene. The rate of ionic polymerization is directly proportional to the dose rate, but it decreases, at a given dose rate, inversely proportional to the water content of styrene. DP of ionic polymer is independent of the dose rate but decreases with increasing water content. The super polymer of DP about 10 4 is not formed in the case of the moderately dried styrene. G values for the initiating radical and ion formation are calculated to be independently of the dose rate and water content, 0.66 and 0.027, respectively. It was suggested that oligomer was formed in the early stage by the interaction of cation with anion and only those cations which had survived underwent polymerization. 10 figures, 4 tables

  18. Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs of irreducible sextics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyral, Christophe; Oka, Mutsuo

    2009-01-01

    The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example.......The existence of Alexander-equivalent Zariski pairs dealing with irreducible curves of degree 6 was proved by Degtyarev. However, no explicit example of such a pair is available (only the existence is known) in the literature. In this paper, we construct the first concrete example....

  19. Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

    2009-05-01

    In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline

  20. Thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam-water mixture in pressure vessel during injection of cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam water mixture in a pressure vessel during injection of cold water was experimentally investigated with the Facility for Mixing Effect of Emergency Core Cooling Water. The dimensions of the pressure vessel used in the experiments were 284mm ID and 1,971mm height. 11 experiments were conducted without blowdown in order to comprehend the basic process excluding the effect of blowdown at injection of cold water. The initial pressure and water level, the injection flow rate and the size of injection nozzle were chosen as experimental parameters. Temperatures and void fractions at 6 elevations as well as pressure in the pressure vessel were measured, and new data especially on the pressure undershoot just after the initation of water injection and the vertical distribution of temperature and void fraction were gotten. The transients of pressure, average temperature and void fraction were caluculated using single-volume analysis code BLODAC-1V which is based on thermal equilibrium and so-called bubble gradient model. Some input parameters included in the analysis code were evaluated through the comparison of analysis with experimental data. Moreover, the observed pressure undershoot which is evaluated to be induced by a time lag of vapourization in water due to thermal nonequilibrium, was also discussed with the aid of another simple analysis model. (author)

  1. Rock Physics of Reservoir Rocks with Varying Pore Water Saturation and Pore Water Salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina

    experiments, the rock is subjected to high external stresses that resemble the reservoir stresses; 2) the fluid distribution within the pore space changes during the flow through experiments and wettability alterations may occur; 3) different ions, present in the salt water injected in the core, interact......Advanced waterflooding (injection of water with selective ions in reservoirs) is a method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) that has attracted the interest of oil and gas companies that exploit the Danish oil and gas reservoirs. This method has been applied successfully in oil reservoirs...... and in the Smart Water project performed in a laboratory scale in order to evaluate the EOR processes in selected core plugs. A major step towards this evaluation is to identify the composition of the injected water that leads to increased oil recovery in reservoirs and to define changes in the petrophysical...

  2. Stability of the barium–benzo-15-crown-5 complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MAKRLÍK

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available From extraction experiments and g-activity measurements, the exchange extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium Ba2+(aq + SrL22+(nb D BaL22+(nb + Sr2+(aq occurring in the two-phase water–nitrobenzene system (L =benzo-15-crown-5; aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase was evaluated as log Kex (Ba2+, SrL22+ = 0.3 ± 0.1. Furthermore, the stability constant of the benzo-15-crown-5–barium complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for the temperature of 25 °C: log bnb (BaL22+=13.3±0.1.

  3. Using saturation water percentage data to predict mechanical composition of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.; Okafor, D.O.

    1995-04-01

    One hundred and sixty-six soil samples representing eleven textural classes and having wide variations in organic matter (OM) contents and other physico-chemical properties were collected from different locations in southeastern Nigeria to study the relationship between mechanical composition and saturation water percentage (SP). The objective was to develop a prediction model for silt + clay (SC) and clay (C) contents of these soils using the SP values. The magnitude of the correlation coefficients (r) between SC or C and SP was dependent on the amount of organic matter (OM) present in the soils. For soils with ≤ 1.00% OM, the correlation (r) between SC and SP was 0.9659 (p ≤ 0.001) and that between C and SP was 0.9539 (p ≤ 0.001). For soils with ≥ 2.00% OM, the 'r' values were generally low, varying between 0.5320 and 0.2665 for SC and 0.6008 and 0.3000 for C. The best-fit regression models for predicting SC and C were developed with soils having ≤ 1.00% OM. An independent data set from 25 soil samples collected from other parts of the study area was used to test the predictive ability of the best-fit models. These models predicted SC and C accurately in soils having between 0.28 and 1.10% OM, but poorly in soils having between 1.31 and 3.91% OM. These results show that the use of saturation water percentage to predict the mechanical composition of soils is most reliable for soils with low (≤ 1.00%) OM contents. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendow, G; Veizaga, N S; Sánchez, B S; Querini, C A

    2012-08-01

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO(2), a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Deuterium used as artificial tracer in column studies under saturated water flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeniger, P.; Geiges, M.; Leibundgut, Ch.

    2003-04-01

    In contrast to numerous investigations using deuterium as an environmental tracer, hydrological investigations with deuterium-labelled water are rather rare. Currently applications in groundwater studies are restricted due to increasing costs of spiking large water quantities but an application as intelligent tracer might be of advantage especially in combination with other tracers and under distinct environmental conditions. Therefore deuterium was applied as artificial tracer in column experiments that are well proved as a tool to characterise tracer behaviour in recent studies. Deuterium was tested in comparison to the more familiar conservative tracer fluorescein. Varying experimental conditions, e.g. column length (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 m), initial tracer concentration (0.01, 0.02, 0.2 mg) and flow velocity (1.5 to 6.0 m/d) were used to investigate tracer behaviour under saturated water flow conditions. Deuterium was analysed using an H/Device with chrome reduction connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and expressed in relative concentrations [per mill V-SMOW]. Theoretical tracer breakthrough curves were calculated using a one dimensional dispersion model. The results indicate higher mean transport velocities and smaller dispersion for deuterium in all experiments. Due to different molecule properties that also determine the interaction of soil substrate and tracer, deuterium indicates a more conservative transport behaviour. Deuterium is non-toxic, completely soluble, chemically and biologically stable and not subject to light-influenced decay. Furthermore, it shows promise for investigations of water flow in the unsaturated zone, and of interactions of water in soil-plant-atmosphere systems. A further discussion of problems, together with possibilities for applying deuterium as an artificial tracer, will be presented.

  6. Irreducible Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint after Car Crush Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmensoy, Fatih; Erinc, Samet; Ergin, Omer Naci; Ozkan, Korhan; Kemah, Bahattin

    2015-01-01

    Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations are uncommon injuries. Herein, an irreducible dislocation of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint with fractures on the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head was reported. Joint reduction could not be achieved which necessitated open reduction. Six months after surgery the patient was walking and doing his daily activities without any complaints. He had returned to his pretrauma functional level. PMID:25861501

  7. Irreducible descriptive sets of attributes for information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Skowron, Andrzej; Suraj, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    . An irreducible descriptive set for the considered information system S is a minimal (relative to the inclusion) set B of attributes which defines exactly the set Ext(S) by means of true and realizable rules constructed over attributes from the considered set B

  8. Irreducible Fifth Metatarsophalangeal Joint after Car Crush Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Turkmensoy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations are uncommon injuries. Herein, an irreducible dislocation of fifth metatarsophalangeal joint with fractures on the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head was reported. Joint reduction could not be achieved which necessitated open reduction. Six months after surgery the patient was walking and doing his daily activities without any complaints. He had returned to his pretrauma functional level.

  9. General corrosion of Ti in hot water and water saturated bentonite clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, H.; Olefjord, I.

    1984-12-01

    Titanium has been proposed as one of the candidates for canister materials for storing spent nuclear fuel in the Swedish bed-rock. The deposition milieu was simulated on a laboratory scale by embedding titanium in compacted bentonite and the general corrosion rate was investigated. More fundamental studies were also performed where titanium was exposed to water in which special attention was paid to the NaCl content and oxygen content. In reaction cells designed according to high vacuum principles it was possible to reduce the oxygen content to very low values. The exposure time ranged between 1 min. and 6 months. Analysis of the corrosion products was performed mainly with ESCA. In water at 95 degrees C the oxide growth follows a direct logarithmic law: y equals 8.7 + 3.65 ln t. Oxygen and salt do not influence the rate of the oxide growth significantly. The general corrosion rate is approximately the same as the oxide growth rate since the dissolution of Ti into the water-solution is very low. The oxide consists of an outer layer of TiO 2 and a few atomic layers of suboxide close to the oxide/metal interface. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the water-formed oxides indicate that these are amorphous. The oxides formed on Ti exposed in bentonite is 70-100 Aa thick for exposure times ranging between 4 months and 2 years. It is shown, that montmorillonite - the main constituent in bentonite - is absorbed in the TiO 2 formed on these samples. If it is assumed that a logarithmic growth law is valid even for long-term exposure in bentonite, the growth law which will give the highest growth rate is y equals 5.5 ln t. An oxide thickness of 160 Aa is obtained if this law is extrapolated to 100.000 years exposure. (Author)

  10. Dissolution characteristics of mixed UO2 powders in J-13 water under saturated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleckis, E.; Hoh, J.C.

    1991-03-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project/Spent Fuel program at Argonne National Laboratory is designed to determine radionuclide release rates by exposing high-level waste to repository-relevant groundwater. To gain experience for the tests with spent fuel, a scoping experiment was conducted at room temperature to determine the uranium release rate from an unirradiated UO 2 powder mixture (14.3 wt % enrichment in 235 U) to J-13 water under saturated conditions. Another goal set for the experiment was to develop a method for utilizing isotope dilution techniques to determine whether the dissolution rate of UO 2 matrix is in accordance with an existing kinetic model. Results of these analyses revealed unequal uranium dissolution rates from the enriched and depleted portions of the powder mixture because of undisclosed differences between them. Although the presence of this inhomogeneity has precluded the application of the kinetic model, it also provided an opportunity to elaborate on the utilization of isotope dilution data in recognizing and quantifying such conditions. Detailed listings of uranium release and solution chemistry data are presented. Other problems commonly associated with spent fuel, such as the effectiveness of filtering media, the existence of uranium concentration peaks during early stages of the leach tests, the need for concentration corrections due to water replenishments of sample volumes, and experience derived from isotope dilution data are discussed in the context of the present results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Corrosion of low alloy steel containing 0.5% chromium in supercritical CO2-saturated brine and water-saturated supercritical CO2 environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Gao, Kewei; Li, Qian

    2018-05-01

    The corrosion behavior of P110 low-Cr alloy steel in supercritical CO2-saturated brine (aqueous phase) and water-saturated supercritical CO2 (SC CO2 phase) was investigated. The results show that P110 steel primarily suffered general corrosion in the aqueous phase, while severe localized corrosion occurred in the SC CO2 phase. The formation of corrosion product scale on P110 steel in the aqueous phase divided into three stages: formation of the initial corrosion layer containing amorphous Cr(OH)3, FeCO3 and a small amount of Fe3C; transformation of initial corrosion layer to mixed layer, which consisted of FeCO3 and a small amount of Cr(OH)3 and Fe3C; growth and dissolution of the mixed layer. Finally, only a single mixed layer covered on the steel in the aqueous phase. However, the scale formed in SC CO2 phase consisted of two layers: the inner mixed layer and the dense outer FeCO3 crystalline layer.

  12. Using a hybrid model to predict solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff with controlled drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Hu, Bill X; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-01

    The mixing layer theory is not suitable for predicting solute transfer from initially saturated soil to surface runoff water under controlled drainage conditions. By coupling the mixing layer theory model with the numerical model Hydrus-1D, a hybrid solute transfer model has been proposed to predict soil solute transfer from an initially saturated soil into surface water, under controlled drainage water conditions. The model can also consider the increasing ponding water conditions on soil surface before surface runoff. The data of solute concentration in surface runoff and drainage water from a sand experiment is used as the reference experiment. The parameters for the water flow and solute transfer model and mixing layer depth under controlled drainage water condition are identified. Based on these identified parameters, the model is applied to another initially saturated sand experiment with constant and time-increasing mixing layer depth after surface runoff, under the controlled drainage water condition with lower drainage height at the bottom. The simulation results agree well with the observed data. Study results suggest that the hybrid model can accurately simulate the solute transfer from initially saturated soil into surface runoff under controlled drainage water condition. And it has been found that the prediction with increasing mixing layer depth is better than that with the constant one in the experiment with lower drainage condition. Since lower drainage condition and deeper ponded water depth result in later runoff start time, more solute sources in the mixing layer are needed for the surface water, and larger change rate results in the increasing mixing layer depth.

  13. Archaeogeophysical tests in water saturated and under water scenarios at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    The growing interest in underwater archaeology as witnessed by numerous archaeological campaigns carried out in the Mediterranean region in marine and lacustrine environments involves a challenge of great importance for archaeogeophysical discipline. Through a careful use of geophysical techniques it is possible support archaeological research to identify and analyse the undiscovered cultural heritage placed under water located near rivers and sea. Over the past decades, geophysical methods were applied successfully in the field of archaeology: an integrated approach based on the use of electric, electromagnetic and magnetic techniques have showed the ability to individuate and reconstruct the presence of archaeological remains in the subsoil allowing to define their distribution in the space limiting the excavation activities. Moreover the capability of geophysics could be limited cause the low geophysical contrasts occurring between archaeological structures and surrounding environment; in particular problems of resolution, depth of investigation and sensitivity related to each adopted technique can result in a distorted reading of the subsurface behaviour preventing the identification of archaeological remains. This problem is amplified when geophysical approach is applied in very humid environments such as in lacustrine and marine scenarios, or in soils characterized by high clay content that make more difficult the propagation of geophysical signals. In order to improve our geophysical knowledge in lacustrine and coastal scenarios a complex and innovative research project was realized at the CNR laboratory of Hydrogeosite which permitted to perform an archaeogeophysical experiment in controlled conditions. The designed archaeological context was focused on the Roman age and various elements characterized by different shapes and materials were placed at different depths in the sub-soil. The preliminary project activities with some scenarios were presented last

  14. Scaling behavior of microbubbles rising in water-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Ma, Y.; Scheuermann, A.; Bringemeier, D.; Galindo-Torres, S. A.; Saar, M. O.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    Gas transport in the form of discrete microbubbles in saturated porous media is of importance in a number of processes relevant to many geo-environmental and engineering systems such as bubbling of greenhouse gases in river and sea beds, hydrocarbon gas migration in coal cleats and rock fractures, and air sparging for remediation of soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Under the assumption of no or minor volume expansion during gravity-driven migration, the transport of a single microbubble can be well described using various drag force models. However, not enough attention has been paid to the collective behavior of microbubbles during their ascend as a plume through the saturated porous medium, involving dynamic interactions between individual bubbles, bubbles and the ambient fluid, as well as bubbles and the solid matrix. With our quasi-2D, lab-scale microbubble migration experiments, where bubbles are continuously released from a diffuser at the bottom of a porous bed of hydrated gel beads, we establish a scaling relationship between the gas (bubble) release rate and various characteristic parameters of the bubble plume, such as plume tip velocity, plume width, and breakthrough time of the plume front. We find that the characteristic width of the bubble plume varies as a power of both the gas release rate and the bed thickness, with exponents of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. Moreover, the characteristic breakthrough time also scales with both the gas release rate and the bed thickness with power-law exponents of -0.4 and 1.2, respectively. The mean pore-water velocity of the circulating ambient water also follows a power-law relationship with the gas release rate being an exponent of 0.6 of the gas release rate. This can be quantitatively proven using a simplified momentum exchange model together with the above power-law exponents for the bubble plume. These analyses on the experimental results are carried out on the basis of non

  15. Predicting liquid water saturation through differently structured cathode gas diffusion media of a proton exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akhtar, N.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of gas diffusion media with differently structured properties have been examined with emphasis on the liquid water saturation within the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The cathode electrode consists of a gas diffusion layer (GDL), a micro-porous layer and a

  16. A solution thermodynamics definition of the fiber saturation point and the derivation of a wood-water phase (state) diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Donald S. Stone

    2016-01-01

    The fiber saturation point (FSP) is an important concept in wood– moisture relations that differentiates between the states of water in wood and has been discussed in the literature for over 100 years. Despite its importance and extensive study, the exact theoretical definition of the FSP and the operational definition (the correct way to measure the FSP) are still...

  17. Experimental and numerical study on the fracture of rocks during injection of CO2-saturated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Wu, Zhishen; Lei, Xing-Lin; Murakami, Yutaka; Satoh, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted hydrocarbon reserviors or saline aquifers presents the enormous potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. However, it may give rise to a complicated coupling physical and chemical process. One of the processes is the hydro-mechanical impact of CO2 injection. During the injection project, the increase of pore pressures of storing formations can induce the instability, which finally results in a catastrophic failure of disposal sites. This paper focuses mainly on the role of CO2-saturated water in the fracturing behavior of rocks. To investigate how much the dissolved CO2 can influence the pore pressure change of rocks, acoustic emission (AE) experiments were performed on sandstone and granite samples under triaxial conditions. The main innovation of this paper is to propose a time dependent porosity method to simulate the abrupt failure process, which is observed in the laboratory and induced by the pore pressure change due to the volume dilatancy of rocks, using a finite element scheme associated with two-phase characteristics. The results successfully explained the phenomena obtained in the physical experiments.

  18. Localized corrosion of carbon steel in a CO{sub 2}-saturated oilfield formation water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Cheng, Y.F., E-mail: fcheng@ucalgary.c [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    In this work, corrosion and localized corrosion behavior of X65 pipeline steel were studied in a simulated, CO{sub 2}-saturated oilfield formation water by various electrochemical measurement techniques, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curves, galvanic current and localized EIS (LEIS). The morphology and composition of the formed corrosion scale were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. A conceptual model was developed to illustrate the occurrence of localized corrosion of the steel under scale. Both galvanic current and LEIS measurements showed that a galvanic effect existed between the bare steel and the scale-covered region. The scale-covered region served as cathode and the bare steel site as the anode. The big cathode vs. small anode geometry accelerated the local corrosion reaction. At an elevated temperature, a compact, crystalline scale was formed on the steel surface, enhancing the galvanic effect. Moreover, the stability of the scale was increased with time, and localized corrosion of the steel under scale experienced mechanistic changes with time.

  19. Experimental burial inhibits methanogenesis and anaerobic decomposition in water-saturated peats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodau, Christian; Siems, Melanie; Beer, Julia

    2011-12-01

    A mechanistic understanding of carbon (C) sequestration and methane (CH(4)) production is of great interest due to the importance of these processes for the global C budget. Here we demonstrate experimentally, by means of column experiments, that burial of water saturated, anoxic bog peat leads to inactivation of anaerobic respiration and methanogenesis. This effect can be related to the slowness of diffusive transport of solutes and evolving energetic constraints on anaerobic respiration. Burial lowered decomposition constants in homogenized peat sand mixtures from about 10(-5) to 10(-7) yr(-1), which is considerably slower than previously assumed, and methanogenesis slowed down in a similar manner. The latter effect could be related to acetoclastic methanogenesis approaching a minimum energy quantum of -25 kJ mol(-1) (CH(4)). Given the robustness of hydraulic properties that locate the oxic-anoxic boundary near the peatland surface and constrain solute transport deeper into the peat, this effect has likely been critical for building the peatland C store and will continue supporting long-term C sequestration in northern peatlands even under moderately changing climatic conditions.

  20. Migration of Gas in Water Saturated Clays by Coupled Hydraulic-Mechanical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Pazdniakou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the gas migration in highly water saturated sedimentary rock formations is of great importance for safety of radioactive waste repositories which may use these host rocks as barrier. Recent experiments on drainage in argillite samples have demonstrated that they cannot be represented in terms of standard two-phase flow Darcy model. It has been suggested that gas flows along highly localized dilatant pathways. Due to very small pore size and the opacity of the material, it is not possible to observe this two-phase flow directly. In order to better understand the gas transport, a numerical coupled hydraulic-mechanical model at the pore scale is proposed. The model is formulated in terms of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH and is applied to simulate drainage within a sample reconstructed from the Focused Ion Beam (FIB images of Callovo-Oxfordian claystone. A damage model is incorporated to take into account the degradation of elastic solid properties due to local conditions, which may lead to formation of new pathways and thus to modifications of fluid transport. The influence of the damage model as well as the possible importance of rigid inclusions is demonstrated and discussed.

  1. FEMWATER: a finite-element model of water flow through saturated-unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.; Ward, D.S.

    1980-10-01

    Upon examining the Water Movement Through Saturated-Unsaturated Porous Media: A Finite-Element Galerkin Model, it was felt that the model should be modified and expanded. The modification is made in calculating the flow field in a manner consistent with the finite element approach, in evaluating the moisture-content increasing rate within the region of interest, and in numerically computing the nonlinear terms. With these modifications, the flow field is continuous everywhere in the flow regime, including element boundaries and nodal points, and the mass loss through boundaries is much reduced. Expansion is made to include four additional numerical schemes which would be more appropriate for many situations. Also, to save computer storage, all arrays pertaining to the boundary condition information are compressed to smaller dimension, and to ease the treatment of different problems, all arrays are variably dimensioned in all subroutines. This report is intended to document these efforts. In addition, in the derivation of finite-element equations, matrix component representation is used, which is believed more readable than the matrix representation in its entirety. Two identical sample problems are simulated to show the difference between the original and revised models

  2. Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy for conducting gas tracer tests and measuring water saturations in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoojin; Han, Byunghyun; Mostafid, M. Erfan; Chiu, Pei; Yazdani, Ramin; Imhoff, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy tested for measuring tracer gas in landfills. ► Measurement errors for tracer gases were 1–3% in landfill gas. ► Background signals from landfill gas result in elevated limits of detection. ► Technique is much less expensive and easier to use than GC. - Abstract: Gas tracer tests can be used to determine gas flow patterns within landfills, quantify volatile contaminant residence time, and measure water within refuse. While gas chromatography (GC) has been traditionally used to analyze gas tracers in refuse, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) might allow real-time measurements with reduced personnel costs and greater mobility and ease of use. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PAS for conducting gas tracer tests in landfills. Two tracer gases, difluoromethane (DFM) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), were measured with a commercial PAS instrument. Relative measurement errors were invariant with tracer concentration but influenced by background gas: errors were 1–3% in landfill gas but 4–5% in air. Two partitioning gas tracer tests were conducted in an aerobic landfill, and limits of detection (LODs) were 3–4 times larger for DFM with PAS versus GC due to temporal changes in background signals. While higher LODs can be compensated by injecting larger tracer mass, changes in background signals increased the uncertainty in measured water saturations by up to 25% over comparable GC methods. PAS has distinct advantages over GC with respect to personnel costs and ease of use, although for field applications GC analyses of select samples are recommended to quantify instrument interferences.

  3. On the Directly and Subdirectly Irreducible Many-Sorted Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Climent Vidal J.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A theorem of single-sorted universal algebra asserts that every finite algebra can be represented as a product of a finite family of finite directly irreducible algebras. In this article, we show that the many-sorted counterpart of the above theorem is also true, but under the condition of requiring, in the definition of directly reducible many-sorted algebra, that the supports of the factors should be included in the support of the many-sorted algebra. Moreover, we show that the theorem of Birkhoff, according to which every single-sorted algebra is isomorphic to a subdirect product of subdirectly irreducible algebras, is also true in the field of many-sorted algebras.

  4. Irreducible diagrams in Landau-Ginzburg field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witten, Jr, T A [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Psychology

    1981-10-19

    It is shown that the free energy W of a Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson field theory with O(n) symmetry may be written in terms of the generating function V of diagrams irreducible in both propagator and interaction lines. This generalizes and simplifies a recent result of Des Cloizeaux. The functions W and V are related by a type of Legendre transformation on the bare mass variable.

  5. General quantum polynomials: irreducible modules and Morita equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, V A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we continue the investigation of the structure of finitely generated modules over rings of general quantum (Laurent) polynomials. We obtain a description of the lattice of submodules of periodic finitely generated modules and describe the irreducible modules. We investigate the problem of Morita equivalence of rings of general quantum polynomials, consider properties of division rings of fractions, and solve Zariski's problem for quantum polynomials

  6. Irreducible integrable theories form tensor products of conformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.D.; Warner, N.P.

    1991-01-01

    By using Toda field theories we show that there are perturbations of direct products of conformal theories that lead to irreducible integrable field theories. The same affine Toda theory can be truncated to different quantum integrable models for different choices of the charge at infinity and the coupling. The classification of integrable models that can be obtained in this fashion follows the classification of symmetric spaces of type G/H with rank H = rank G. (orig.)

  7. Irreducible mass for the Tomimatsu-Sato space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia; Salmistraro, F; Catenacci, R

    1979-01-01

    A global definition of irreducible mass for the odd delta T-S metrics is investigated. It is found that its expression in terms of the source parameters is the same for all the members of the family and reduces to the formula that holds in the Kerr case (delta = 1). As a consequence, it is shown that processes with msub(ir) = const no longer imply zero variations of the horizon's area for delta > 1.

  8. Changes in the composition and properties of Ashalchinskoye bitumen-saturated sandstones when exposed to water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, E.; Eskin, A.; Kolchugin, A.; Morozov, V.; Khramchenkov, M.; Gabdelvalieva, R.

    2018-05-01

    Ashalchinskoye bitumen deposit is an experimental platform for testing technology of high-viscosity oil extraction from reservoir rocks. Last time for enhanced of oil recovery in reservoir used pressurization a water vapor with a temperature of ∼ 180 ° C (SAGD technology). However, what happens in sandstone reservoir is little known. We did a study of the effects of water vapor on the structural components of bitumen saturated sandstone. In paper were studied the rock samples at base condition and after one week exposure by water vapour. The thermal analysis showed that steaming helps to removes light and middle oil fractions with a boiling point up to 360 ° C from oil saturated sandstones. Content of heavy oil fractions virtually unchanged. Studying the composition of water extractions of samples showed that the process of aquathermolysis of oil is accompanied by a lowering of the pH of the pore solution from 7.4 to 6.5 and rise content in several times of mobile cations Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3 -, SO4 2- anions. Follows from this that the thermal steam effect by bitumen saturated sandstones leads to partial oxidation of hydrocarbons with to form a carbon dioxide. The source of sulfate ions were oxidized pyrite aggregates. Due to the increasing acidity of condensed water, which fills the pore space of samples, pore fluid becomes aggressive to calcite and dolomite cement of bitumen saturated sandstones. As a result of the dissolution of carbonate cement the pore fluid enriched by calcium and magnesium cations. Clearly, that the process is accompanied by reduction of contact strength between fragments of minerals and rocks. Resulting part of compounds is separated from the outer side of samples and falls to bottom of water vapor container. Decreasing the amount of calcite and dolomite anions in samples in a steam-treated influence is confirmed by X-Ray analysis. X-Ray analysis data of study adscititious component of rocks showed that when influenced of water vapor to

  9. Water Saturation Relations and Their Diffusion-Limited Equilibration in Gas Shale: Implications for Gas Flow in Unconventional Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Shen, Weijun; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Cihan, Abdullah; Zhang, Yingqi; Finsterle, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Large volumes of water are used for hydraulic fracturing of low permeability shale reservoirs to stimulate gas production, with most of the water remaining unrecovered and distributed in a poorly understood manner within stimulated regions. Because water partitioning into shale pores controls gas release, we measured the water saturation dependence on relative humidity (rh) and capillary pressure (Pc) for imbibition (adsorption) as well as drainage (desorption) on samples of Woodford Shale. Experiments and modeling of water vapor adsorption into shale laminae at rh = 0.31 demonstrated that long times are needed to characterize equilibrium in larger (5 mm thick) pieces of shales, and yielded effective diffusion coefficients from 9 × 10-9 to 3 × 10-8 m2 s-1, similar in magnitude to the literature values for typical low porosity and low permeability rocks. Most of the experiments, conducted at 50°C on crushed shale grains in order to facilitate rapid equilibration, showed significant saturation hysteresis, and that very large Pc (˜1 MPa) are required to drain the shales. These results quantify the severity of the water blocking problem, and suggest that gas production from unconventional reservoirs is largely associated with stimulated regions that have had little or no exposure to injected water. Gravity drainage of water from fractures residing above horizontal wells reconciles gas production in the presence of largely unrecovered injected water, and is discussed in the broader context of unsaturated flow in fractures.

  10. Numerical simulation of water flow and Nitrate transport through variably saturated porous media in laboratory condition using HYDRUS 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangeer, F.; Gupta, P. K.; Yadav, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the reducing availability of water resources and the growing competition for water between residential, industrial, and agricultural users, increasing irrigation efficiency, by several methods like drip irrigation, is a demanding concern for agricultural experts. The understanding of the water and contaminants flow through the subsurface is needed for the sustainable irrigation water management, pollution assessment, polluted site remediation and groundwater recharge. In this study, the Windows-based computer software package HYDRUS-2D, which numerically simulates water and solute movement in two-dimensional, variably-saturated porous media, was used to evaluate the distribution of water and Nitrate in the sand tank. The laboratory and simulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of drainage, recharge flux, and infiltration on subsurface flow condition and subsequently, on nitrate movement in the subsurface. The water flow in the unsaturated zone model by Richards' equation, which was highly nonlinear and its parameters were largely dependent on the moisture content and pressure head of the partially saturated zone. Following different cases to be considered to evaluate- a) applying drainage and recharge flux to study domains, b) transient infiltration in a vertical soil column and c) subsequently, nitrate transport in 2D sand tank setup. A single porosity model was used for the simulation of water and nitrate flow in the study domain. The results indicate the transient water table position decreases as the time increase significantly by applying drainage flux at the bottom. Similarly, the water table positions in study domains increasing in the domain by applying recharge flux. Likewise, the water flow profile shows the decreasing water table elevation with increasing water content in the vertical domain. Moreover, the nitrate movement was dominated by advective flux and highly affected by the recharge flux in the vertical direction. The

  11. Similarity index between irrigation water and soil saturation extract in the experimental field of Yachay University, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Villacrés, D. V.; Sánchez-Gómez, V. P.; Portilla-Bravo, O. A.; Bolaños-Guerrón, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    Soil monitoring is a job that demands a lot of time and money. therefore, measuring the same parameters in the water becomes simple because it can be done in situ. The objective of this work was to find a similarity index for the validation of mathematical correlation models based on physicochemical parameters to verify if there is a balance between irrigation water and soil saturation extract in the experimental field Yachay that is known as the city of knowledge that is located in Imbabura province, Ecuador, for which, the sampling of water was carried out in two representative periods (dry and rainy). Sampling of 10 soil profiles was also performed, covering the total area; these samples were obtained results of Electrical Conductivity (EC), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS). With correlation models between soils and water, it is possible to predict concentrations of elements in the irrigation water. It was concluded that there is a balance between soil and water, so that the salts present in the soil are highly soluble, in addition, there is a high probability that the elements in the irrigation water are in the soil. In sample water, the same concentrations were found in the soil, at their saturation point, and very close to the field capacity.

  12. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical calculations of the water saturation phase of a KBS-3 deposition hole. Influence of hydraulic rock properties on the water saturation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, J.

    1999-12-01

    The wetting process in deposition holes designed according to the KBS-3-concept has been simulated with finite element calculations of the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the buffer, backfill and surrounding rock. The buffer material has been modelled according to the preliminary material models developed for swelling clay. The properties of the rock have been varied in order to investigate the influence of the rock properties and the hydraulic conditions on the wetting processes. In the modelling of the test holes the permeability of the rock matrix, the water supply from the backfill, the water pressure in the surrounding rock, the permeability of the disturbed zone around the deposition hole, the water retention properties of the rock, and the transmissivity of two fractures intersecting the deposition hole have been varied. The calculations indicate that the wetting takes about 5 years if the water pressure in the rock is high and if the permeability of the rock is so high that the properties of the bentonite determine the wetting rate. However, it may take considerably more than 30 years if the rock is very tight and the water pressure in the rock is low. The calculations also show that the influence of the rock structure is rather large except for the influence of the transmissivity T of the fractures, which turned out to be insignificant for the values used in the calculations

  13. Transport of perfluoroalkyl acids in a water-saturated sediment column investigated under near-natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vierke, Lena; Möller, Axel; Klitzke, Sondra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the transport of C 4–10 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and C 4,6,8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in a water-saturated sediment column representing a riverbank filtration scenario under near-natural conditions. Short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs with up to six C-atoms showed complete tracer-like breakthrough. Longer chain ones were retarded due to sorption to the sediment or due to other processes in the aqueous phase. The study reports the first column derived sediment–water partition coefficients ranging from 0.01 cm 3 g −1 to 0.41 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,6 PFSAs and from 0.0 cm 3 g −1 to 6.5 cm 3 g −1 for C 4,5,6,8,9 PFCAs. The results clearly indicate that short-chain PFCAs and PFSAs may pose a problem if contaminated surface waters are used for drinking water production via riverbank filtration. Highlights: • Transport of per- and polyfluorinated compounds in a riverbank filtration scenario. • Investigations under near-natural conditions with a water-saturated sediment column. • Processes in water and sediment control the transport of analytes. • Short chain PFCAs and PFSAs are not retarded in the water-saturated sediment column. • First column derived sediment–water partition coefficients. -- Quantification of breakthrough of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) under conditions simulating a riverbank filtration scenario

  14. Validation of the TRACR3D code for soil water flow under saturated/unsaturated conditions in three experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.; Travis, B.; DePoorter, G.

    1985-01-01

    Validation of the TRACR3D code in a one-dimensional form was obtained for flow of soil water in three experiments. In the first experiment, a pulse of water entered a crushed-tuff soil and initially moved under conditions of saturated flow, quickly followed by unsaturated flow. In the second experiment, steady-state unsaturated flow took place. In the final experiment, two slugs of water entered crushed tuff under field conditions. In all three experiments, experimentally measured data for volumetric water content agreed, within experimental errors, with the volumetric water content predicted by the code simulations. The experiments and simulations indicated the need for accurate knowledge of boundary and initial conditions, amount and duration of moisture input, and relevant material properties as input into the computer code. During the validation experiments, limitations on monitoring of water movement in waste burial sites were also noted. 5 references, 34 figures, 9 tables

  15. HAM solutions on MHD squeezing axisymmetric flow of water nanofluid through saturated porous medium between two parallel disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Siva Kumar; Rao, K. V. Surya Narayana; Vijaya, R. Bhuvana

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we have considered the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic squeezing axi-symmetric flow of water-nanofluid through saturated porous medium between two parallel disks. The equations for the governing flow are solved by Galerkin optimal Homotopy asymptotic method. The effects of non-dimensional parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration have been discussed with the help of graphs. Also we obtained local Nusselt number and computationally discussed with reference to flow parameters.

  16. Regional Quasi-Three-Dimensional Unsaturated-Saturated Water Flow Model Based on a Vertical-Horizontal Splitting Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high nonlinearity of the three-dimensional (3-D unsaturated-saturated water flow equation, using a fully 3-D numerical model is computationally expensive for large scale applications. A new unsaturated-saturated water flow model is developed in this paper based on the vertical/horizontal splitting (VHS concept to split the 3-D unsaturated-saturated Richards’ equation into a two-dimensional (2-D horizontal equation and a one-dimensional (1-D vertical equation. The horizontal plane of average head gradient in the triangular prism element is derived to split the 3-D equation into the 2-D equation. The lateral flow in the horizontal plane of average head gradient represented by the 2-D equation is then calculated by the water balance method. The 1-D vertical equation is discretized by the finite difference method. The two equations are solved simultaneously by coupling them into a unified nonlinear system with a single matrix. Three synthetic cases are used to evaluate the developed model code by comparing the modeling results with those of Hydrus1D, SWMS2D and FEFLOW. We further apply the model to regional-scale modeling to simulate groundwater table fluctuations for assessing the model applicability in complex conditions. The proposed modeling method is found to be accurate with respect to measurements.

  17. Three remarks on Powers' theorem about irreducible fields fulfilling CAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    First it is shown that within a relativistic Fermi field theory, a bound parallelPsi/sub k/( f,t)parallel 2 already implies canonical anticommutation relations (CAR). Then under Powers' assumptions a linear, first-order differential equation for the fields psi/sub k/(x,t) is derived. This shows that in the set of generalized free fields fulfilling CAR only the free fields are irreducible at time zero. Finally Fermi fields in two space-time dimensions are considered. It is shown that only four-fermion interaction might be compatible with CAR and a bound on the coupling strength is derived

  18. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Dry (∼3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of 60 Co-γ-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O 2 -, N 2 -, or N 2 O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O 2 -saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O 2 -dependent damage. Post-irradiation N 2 O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N 2 -saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N 2 - and N 2 O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author)

  19. On the formation of a moving redox-front by α-radiolysis of compacted water saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Ndalamba, P.

    1988-12-01

    The formation of an expanding volume containing the radiolytically formed oxidants H 2 O 2 and O 2 has been studied in α-irradiated compacted water saturated bentonite (ρ = 2.12 gxcm -3 ). The G-values (0.67±0.05), (0.64±0.07) for H 2 O 2 and O 2 respectively are in fair agreement with the corresponding G-values obtained in experiments with synthetic ground water. From the leaching of γ-irradiated bentonite it is concluded that only a fraction of the Fe 2+ content is easily accessible as scavenger for the radiolytically formed oxidants. (orig.)

  20. Lamb dip CRDS of highly saturated transitions of water near 1.4 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, S.; Stoltmann, T.; Casado, M.; Daëron, M.; Campargue, A.

    2018-02-01

    Doppler-free saturated-absorption Lamb dips were measured at sub-Pa pressures on rovibrational lines of H216O near 7180 cm-1, using optical feedback frequency stabilized cavity ring-down spectroscopy. The saturation of the considered lines is so high that at the early stage of the ring down, the cavity loss rate remains unaffected by the absorption. By referencing the laser source to an optical frequency comb, transition frequencies are determined down to 100 Hz precision and kHz accuracy. The developed setup allows resolving highly K-type blended doublets separated by about 10 MHz (to be compared to a HWHM Doppler width on the order of 300 MHz). A comparison with the most recent spectroscopic databases is discussed. The determined K-type splittings are found to be very well predicted by the most recent variational calculations.

  1. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified.

  2. Water hammer phenomena occurring in nuclear power installations while filling horizontal pipe containing saturated steam with liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanov, Y.F.; Kirillov, P.L.; Yefanov, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The potentiality of the water hammer occurrence in nuclear reactor loop components has been considered under the conditions of filling a steam-containing pipeline leg involving horizontal and vertical sections with liquid subcooled to the saturation temperature. As a result of free discharging from the tank, the liquid enters the horizontal pipeline. When the liquid slug formation in the pipeline is fulfilled. The pressure drop being occurred in steam flowing along the pipelines causes the liquid slug to move to the pipeline inlet. When the liquid slug decelerates, a water hammer occurs. This mechanism of water hammer occurrence is tested by experiments. The regimes of the occurrence of multiple considerable water hammers were identified

  3. Effects of Contrast Agent and Outer Volume Saturation Bands on Water Suppression and Shimming of Hepatic Single-Volume Proton MR Spectroscopy at 3.0T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether administration of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA and whether placement of the outer volume saturation bands significantly affect shimming and water suppression on hepatic MR spectroscopic prescanning. Method. Region of interest (ROI of 2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm was carefully positioned in the region of the middle portion of the right hepatic lobe. 32 patients were examined before and after administration of Gd-DTPA with and without outer-volume saturation bands. Linewidths (Full-Width Half-Maximum (FWHM and water suppression were obtained. A paired t-test for comparison of means was used. Results. (1 The group with the outer volume saturation bands demonstrated slightly better water suppression effect than the group without outer volume saturation bands before administration. (2 The group with the outer volume saturation bands demonstrated better water suppression effect than the group without outer volume saturation bands after administration. (3 Both shimming and water suppression effectswere decreased on enhanced MR spectroscopic prescanning (all P<0.05. Conclusions. Placement of the outer volume saturation bands is helpful to improve water suppression both before and after contrast agent administration. Gd-DTPA exerts a slightly adverse effect (a statistically significant but clinically unimportant on magnetic resonance spectroscopic prescanning at 3T.

  4. Discontinuities in hygroscopic growth below and above water saturation for laboratory surrogates of oligomers in organic atmospheric aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hodas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discontinuities in apparent hygroscopicity below and above water saturation have been observed for organic and mixed organic–inorganic aerosol particles in both laboratory studies and in the ambient atmosphere. However, uncertainty remains regarding the factors that contribute to observations of low hygroscopic growth below water saturation but enhanced cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity for a given aerosol population. Utilizing laboratory surrogates for oligomers in atmospheric aerosols, we explore the extent to which such discontinuities are influenced by organic component molecular mass and viscosity, non-ideal thermodynamic interactions between aerosol components, and the combination of these factors. Measurements of hygroscopic growth under subsaturated conditions and the CCN activity of aerosols comprised of polyethylene glycol (PEG with average molecular masses ranging from 200 to 10 000 g mol−1 and mixtures of PEG with ammonium sulfate (AS were conducted. Experimental results are compared to calculations of hygroscopic growth at thermodynamic equilibrium conducted with the Aerosol Inorganic Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC model, and the potential influence of kinetic limitations on observed water uptake was further explored through estimations of water diffusivity in the PEG oligomers. Particle-phase behavior, including the prevalence of liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS, was also modeled with AIOMFAC. Under subsaturated relative humidity (RH conditions, we observed little variability in hygroscopic growth across PEG systems with different molecular masses; however, an increase in CCN activity with increasing PEG molecular mass was observed. This effect is most pronounced for PEG–AS mixtures, and, in fact, an enhancement in CCN activity was observed for the PEG10000–AS mixture as compared to pure AS, as evidenced by a 15 % reduction in critical activation diameter at a

  5. Surface adsorption behaviour of milk whey protein and pectin mixtures under conditions of air-water interface saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adrián A; Sánchez, Cecilio Carrera; Patino, Juan M Rodríguez; Rubiolo, Amelia C; Santiago, Liliana G

    2011-07-01

    Milk whey proteins (MWP) and pectins (Ps) are biopolymer ingredients commonly used in the manufacture of colloidal food products. Therefore, knowledge of the interfacial characteristics of these biopolymers and their mixtures is very important for the design of food dispersion formulations (foams and/or emulsions). In this paper, we examine the adsorption and surface dilatational behaviour of MWP/Ps systems under conditions in which biopolymers can saturate the air-water interface on their own. Experiments were performed at constant temperature (20 °C), pH 7 and ionic strength 0.05 M. Two MWP samples, β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) and whey protein concentrate (WPC), and two Ps samples, low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) and high-methoxyl pectin (HMP) were evaluated. The contribution of biopolymers (MWP and Ps) to the interfacial properties of mixed systems was evaluated on the basis of their individual surface molecular characteristics. Biopolymer bulk concentration capable of saturating the air-water interface was estimated from surface pressure isotherms. Under conditions of interfacial saturation, dynamic adsorption behaviour (surface pressure and dilatational rheological characteristics) of MWP/Ps systems was discussed from a kinetic point of view, in terms of molecular diffusion, penetration and configurational rearrangement at the air-water interface. The main adsorption mechanism in MWP/LMP mixtures might be the MWP interfacial segregation due to the thermodynamic incompatibility between MWP and LMP (synergistic mechanism); while the interfacial adsorption in MWP/HMP mixtures could be characterized by a competitive mechanism between MWP and HMP at the air-water interface (antagonistic mechanism). The magnitude of these phenomena could be closely related to differences in molecular composition and/or aggregation state of MWP (β-LG and WPC). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity (/phi/) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and /phi/ are known, we define the hysteresis factor λ to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and /phi/ are unknown, λ also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-Del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, M Ignacio

    2014-09-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  8. Pre-Saturation Technique of the Recycled Aggregates: Solution to the Water Absorption Drawback in the Recycled Concrete Manufacture †

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Julia; Rodríguez-Robles, Desirée; Juan-Valdés, Andrés; Morán-del Pozo, Julia Mª; Guerra-Romero, M. Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates in the concrete manufacturing has been spreading worldwide as a recycling method to counteract the large amount of construction and demolition waste. Although legislation in this field is still not well developed, many investigations demonstrate the possibilities of success of this trend given that concrete with satisfactory mechanical and durability properties could be achieved. However, recycled aggregates present a low quality compared to natural aggregates, the water absorption being their main drawback. When used untreated in concrete mix, the recycled aggregate absorb part of the water initially calculated for the cement hydration, which will adversely affect some characteristics of the recycled concrete. This article seeks to demonstrate that the technique of pre-saturation is able to solve the aforementioned problem. In order to do so, the water absorption of the aggregates was tested to determine the necessary period of soaking to bring the recycled aggregates into a state of suitable humidity for their incorporation into the mixture. Moreover, several concrete mixes were made with different replacement percentages of natural aggregate and various periods of pre-saturation. The consistency and compressive strength of the concrete mixes were tested to verify the feasibility of the proposed technique. PMID:28788188

  9. Advantages of paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) complexes having slow to intermediate water exchange properties as responsive MRI agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soesbe, Todd C; Wu, Yunkou; Dean Sherry, A

    2013-07-01

    Paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (PARACEST) complexes are exogenous contrast agents that have great potential to further extend the functional and molecular imaging capabilities of magnetic resonance. As a result of the presence of a central paramagnetic lanthanide ion (Ln(3+) ≠ La(3+) , Gd(3+) , Lu(3+) ) within the chelate, the resonance frequencies of exchangeable protons bound to the PARACEST agent are shifted far away from the bulk water frequency. This large chemical shift, combined with an extreme sensitivity to the chemical exchange rate, make PARACEST agents ideally suited for the reporting of significant biological metrics, such as temperature, pH and the presence of metabolites. In addition, the ability to turn PARACEST agents 'off' and 'on' using a frequency-selective saturation pulse gives them a distinct advantage over Gd(3+) -based contrast agents. A current challenge for PARACEST research is the translation of the promising in vitro results into in vivo systems. This short review article first describes the basic theory behind PARACEST contrast agents, their benefits over other contrast agents and their applications to MRI. It then describes some of the recent PARACEST research results: specifically, pH measurements using water molecule exchange rate modulation, T2 exchange contrast caused by water molecule exchange, the use of ultrashort TEs (TE < 10 µs) to overcome T2 exchange line broadening and the potential application of T2 exchange as a new contrast mechanism for MRI. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description. Appendix I. Engineering drawings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    The engineering plans for a test facility to monitor radionuclide transport in water through partially saturated geological media are included. Drawings for the experimental set-up excavation plan and details, lysimeter, pad, access caisson, and caisson details are presented

  11. Integrated petrophysical and reservoir characterization workflow to enhance permeability and water saturation prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amri, Meshal; Mahmoud, Mohamed; Elkatatny, Salaheldin; Al-Yousef, Hasan; Al-Ghamdi, Tariq

    2017-07-01

    Accurate estimation of permeability is essential in reservoir characterization and in determining fluid flow in porous media which greatly assists optimize the production of a field. Some of the permeability prediction techniques such as Porosity-Permeability transforms and recently artificial intelligence and neural networks are encouraging but still show moderate to good match to core data. This could be due to limitation to homogenous media while the knowledge about geology and heterogeneity is indirectly related or absent. The use of geological information from core description as in Lithofacies which includes digenetic information show a link to permeability when categorized into rock types exposed to similar depositional environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a robust combined workflow integrating geology and petrophysics and wireline logs in an extremely heterogeneous carbonate reservoir to accurately predict permeability. Permeability prediction is carried out using pattern recognition algorithm called multi-resolution graph-based clustering (MRGC). We will bench mark the prediction results with hard data from core and well test analysis. As a result, we showed how much better improvements are achieved in the permeability prediction when geology is integrated within the analysis. Finally, we use the predicted permeability as an input parameter in J-function and correct for uncertainties in saturation calculation produced by wireline logs using the classical Archie equation. Eventually, high level of confidence in hydrocarbon volumes estimation is reached when robust permeability and saturation height functions are estimated in presence of important geological details that are petrophysically meaningful.

  12. Classification of the Group Invariant Solutions for Contaminant Transport in Saturated Soils under Radial Uniform Water Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Potsane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transport of chemicals through soils to the groundwater or precipitation at the soils surfaces leads to degradation of these resources. Serious consequences may be suffered in the long run. In this paper, we consider macroscopic deterministic models describing contaminant transport in saturated soils under uniform radial water flow backgrounds. The arising convection-dispersion equation given in terms of the stream functions is analyzed using classical Lie point symmetries. A number of exotic Lie point symmetries are admitted. Group invariant solutions are classified according to the elements of the one-dimensional optimal systems. We analyzed the group invariant solutions which satisfy the physical boundary conditions.

  13. Quasiaverages, symmetry breaking and irreducible Green functions method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.Kuzemsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and applications of the method of quasiaverages to quantum statistical physics and to quantum solid state theory and, in particular, to quantum theory of magnetism, were considered. It was shown that the role of symmetry (and the breaking of symmetries in combination with the degeneracy of the system was reanalyzed and essentially clarified within the framework of the method of quasiaverages. The problem of finding the ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and superconducting "symmetry broken" solutions of the correlated lattice fermion models was discussed within the irreducible Green functions method. A unified scheme for the construction of generalized mean fields (elastic scattering corrections and self-energy (inelastic scattering in terms of the equations of motion and Dyson equation was generalized in order to include the "source fields". This approach complements previous studies of microscopic theory of antiferromagnetism and clarifies the concepts of Neel sublattices for localized and itinerant antiferromagnetism and "spin-aligning fields" of correlated lattice fermions.

  14. On irreducible representations of the ultrahyperbolic BMS group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Patrick J.; Melas, Evangelos

    2003-01-01

    The ordinary Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic symmetry group of all asymptotically flat Lorentzian space-times. As such, B is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of General Relativity. However, in studying quantum gravity, space-times with signatures other than the usual Lorentzian one, and complex space-times, are frequently considered. Generalisations of B appropriate to these other signatures have been defined earlier. Here, the generalisation B(2,2) appropriate to the ultrahyperbolic signature (+,+,-,-) is described in detail, and the irreducible unitary representations (IRs) of B(2,2) are analysed. It is proved that all induced IRs of B(2,2) arise from IRs of compact 'little groups'. These little groups, which are closed subgroups of K=SO(2)xSO(2), are classified here in detail, with particular attention paid to those of infinite order

  15. Construction of the irreducibles of B(2, 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2006-01-01

    The ordinary Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group B is the common asymptotic symmetry group of all radiating, asymptotically flat, Lorentzian spacetimes. As such, B is the best candidate for the universal symmetry group of general relativity. However, in studying quantum gravity, spacetimes with signatures other than the usual Lorentzian one and complex spacetimes are frequently considered. Generalizations of B appropriate to these other signatures have been defined earlier. In particular, the generalization B(2, 2) appropriate to the ultrahyperbolic signature (+, +, -, -) has been described in detail, and the study of its irreducible unitary representations (IRs) of B(2, 2) has been initiated. The infinite little groups have been given explicitly, but the finite little groups have only been partially described. This study is completed by describing in detail the finite little groups and by giving all the necessary information in order to construct the IRs of B(2, 2) in all cases

  16. A practical criterion of irreducibility of multi-loop Feynman integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikov, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    A practical criterion for the irreducibility (with respect to integration by part identities) of a particular Feynman integral to a given set of integrals is presented. The irreducibility is shown to be related to the existence of stable (with zero gradient) points of a specially constructed polynomial

  17. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid become locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicated that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Sorption-capacity limited retardation of radionuclides transport in water-saturated packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclides breakthrough times as calculated through constant retardation factors obtained in dilute solutions are non-conservative. The constant retardation approach regards the solid as having infinite sorption capacity throughout the solid. However, as the solid becomes locally saturated, such as in the proximity of the waste form-packing materials interface, it will exhibit no retardation properties, and transport will take place as if the radionuclides were locally non-reactive. The magnitude of the effect of finite sorption capacity of the packing materials on radionuclide transport is discussed with reference to high-level waste package performance. An example based on literature sorption data indicates that the breakthrough time may be overpredicted by orders of magnitude using a constant retardation factor as compared to using the entire sorption isotherm to obtain a concentration-dependent retardation factor. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  19. Modeling of water and solute transport under variably saturated conditions: state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lappala, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the equations used in deterministic models of mass and energy transport in variably saturated porous media. Analytic, quasi-analytic, and numerical solution methods to the nonlinear forms of transport equations are discussed with respect to their advantages and limitations. The factors that influence the selection of a modeling method are discussed in this paper; they include the following: (1) the degree of coupling required among the equations describing the transport of liquids, gases, solutes, and energy; (2) the inclusion of an advection term in the equations; (3) the existence of sharp fronts; (4) the degree of nonlinearity and hysteresis in the transport coefficients and boundary conditions; (5) the existence of complex boundaries; and (6) the availability and reliability of data required by the models

  20. Investigation of Wyoming Bentonite Hydration in Dry to Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2: Implications for Caprock Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, J. S.; Chen, J.; Thompson, C.; Schaef, T.; Miller, Q. R.; Martin, P. F.; Ilton, E. S.; Qafoku, O.; Felmy, A. R.; Rosso, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The effectiveness of geologic sequestration as an enterprise for CO2 storage depends partly on the reactivity of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) with caprock minerals. Injection of scCO2 will displace formation water, and the pore space adjacent to overlying caprocks could eventually be dominated by dry to water-saturated scCO2. Caprock formations have high concentrations of clay minerals, including expandable montmorillonites. Water-bearing scCO2 is highly reactive and capable of hydrating or dehydrating clays, possibly leading to porosity and permeability changes that directly impact caprock performance. Dehydration will cause montmorillonite clay minerals in caprocks to contract, thereby decreasing solid volume and possibly increasing caprock permeability and porosity. On the other hand, water intercalation will cause these clays to expand, thereby increasing solid volume and possibly leading to self-sealing of caprock fractures. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Carbon Sequestration Initiative is developing capabilities for studying wet scCO2-mineral reactions in situ. Here, we introduce novel in situ infrared (IR) spectroscopic instrumentation that enables quantitative titrations of reactant minerals with water in scCO2. Results are presented for the infrared spectroscopic titrations of Na-, Ca-, and Mg-saturated Wyoming betonites with water over concentrations ranging from zero to scCO2 saturated. These experiments were carried out at 50°C and 90 bar. Transmission IR spectroscopy was used to measure concentrations of water dissolved in the scCO2 or intercalated into the clays. The titration curves evaluated from the transmission-IR data are compared between the three types of clays to assess the effects of the cation on water partitioning. Single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) IR spectroscopy was used to collect the spectrum of the clays as they hydrate at every total water concentration during the titration. Clay hydration is evidenced by

  1. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Conditions from Oven-Dry to Full Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2011-11-04

    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to the capillary force only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which the water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified measurements. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but underestimate the conductivity. The extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  2. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Full Range of Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2010-09-28

    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to capillary forces only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified with six datasets from the literature. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but under-estimate the conductivity while the extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  3. Investigation of Dynamic Properties of Water-Saturated Sand by the Results of the Inverse Experiment Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragov, A. M.; Balandin, Vl. V.; Kotov, V. L.; Balandin, Vl. Vl.

    2018-04-01

    We present new experimental results on the investigation of the dynamic properties of sand soil on the basis of the inverse experiment technique using a measuring rod with a flat front-end face. A limited applicability has been shown of the method using the procedure for correcting the shape of the deformation pulse due to dispersion during its propagation in the measuring rod. Estimates of the pulse maximum have been obtained and the results of comparison of numerical calculations with experimental data are given. The sufficient accuracy in determining the drag force during the quasi-stationary stage of penetration has been established. The parameters of dynamic compressibility and resistance to shear of water-saturated sand have been determined in the course of the experimental-theoretical analysis of the maximum values of the drag force and its values at the quasi-stationary stage of penetration. It has been shown that with almost complete water saturation of sand its shear properties are reduced but remain significant in the practically important range of penetration rates.

  4. Modelling of the physical behaviour of water saturated clay barriers. Laboratory tests, material models and finite element application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Johannesson, L.E.; Sanden, T.; Hernelind, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report deals with laboratory testing and modelling of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) properties of water saturated bentonite based buffer materials. A number of different laboratory tests have been performed and the results are accounted for. These test results have lead to a tentative material model, consisting of several sub-models, which is described in the report. The tentative model has partly been adapted to the material models available in the finite element code ABAQUS and partly been implemented and incorporated in the code. The model that can be used for ABAQUS calculations agrees with the tentative model with a few exceptions. The model has been used in a number of verification calculations, simulating different laboratory tests, and the results have been compared with actual measurements. These calculations show that the model generally can be used for THM calculations of the behaviour of water saturated buffer materials, but also that there is still a lack of some understanding. It is concluded that the available model is relevant for the required predictions of the THM behaviour but that a further improvement of the model is desirable

  5. Diffusion of helium and estimated diffusion coefficients of hydrogen dissolved in water-saturated, compacted Ca-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashihara, Tomohiro; Sato, Seichi; Ohashi, Hiroshi; Otsuka, Teppei

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen gas dissolved in water-saturated, compacted montmorillonite are required to estimate the performance of bentonite buffer materials for geological disposal of nuclear waste. As part of the effort to determine the diffusion coefficients, the diffusion coefficients of helium in water-saturated, compacted calcium montmorillonite (Ca-montmorillonite) were determined as a function of dry density, 0.78 to 1.37x10 3 kg m -3 , by a transient diffusion method. The diffusion coefficients were from 8.3x10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 0.78x10 3 kgm -3 to 2.8x10 -10 m 2 s -1 at 1.37x10 3 kgm -3 . The data obtained by this diffusion experiment of helium were highly reproducible. The diffusion coefficients of helium in Ca-montmorillonite were somewhat larger than those previously obtained for helium in sodium montmorillonite (Na-montmorillonite). The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen gas in the montmorillonites were roughly estimated using the diffusion coefficients of helium. These estimates were based on assumptions that both helium and hydrogen molecules are non-adsorptive and that the geometric factors in the compacted montmorillonites are approximately the same for diffusion of helium and diffusion of hydrogen. (author)

  6. Review: Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vane, Leland M

    2017-03-08

    When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine concentrate stream is produced. Management of the brine stream can be problematic, particularly in inland regions. An alternative to brine disposal is recovery of water and possibly salts from the concentrate. This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. Due to the high osmotic pressures of the brine concentrates, reverse osmosis, the most common desalination technology, is impractical. Mechanical vapor compression which, like reverse osmosis, utilizes mechanical work to operate, is reported to have the highest thermodynamic efficiency of the desalination technologies for treatment of salt-saturated brines. Thermally-driven processes, such as flash evaporation and distillation, are technically able to process saturated salt solutions, but suffer from low thermodynamic efficiencies. This inefficiency could be offset if an inexpensive source of waste or renewable heat could be used. Overarching issues posed by high salinity solutions include corrosion and the formation of scales/precipitates. These issues limit the materials, conditions, and unit operation designs that can be used.

  7. An Updated Site Scale Saturated Zone Ground Water Transport Model For Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Kelkar; H. Viswanathan; A. Eddebbarrh; M. Ding; P. Reimus; B. Robinson; B. Arnold; A. Meijer

    2006-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site scale saturated zone transport model has been revised to incorporate the updated flow model based on a hydrogeologic framework model using the latest lithology data, increased grid resolution that better resolves the geology within the model domain, updated Kd distributions for radionuclides of interest, and updated retardation factor distributions for colloid filtration. The resulting numerical transport model is used for performance assessment predictions of radionuclide transport and to guide future data collection and modeling activities. The transport model results are validated by comparing the model transport pathways with those derived from geochemical data, and by comparing the transit times from the repository footprint to the compliance boundary at the accessible environment with those derived from 14 C-based age estimates. The transport model includes the processes of advection, dispersion, fracture flow, matrix diffusion, sorption, and colloid-facilitated transport. The transport of sorbing radionuclides in the aqueous phase is modeled as a linear, equilibrium process using the Kd model. The colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides is modeled using two approaches: the colloids with irreversibly embedded radionuclides undergo reversible filtration only, while the migration of radionuclides that reversibly sorb to colloids is modeled with modified values for sorption coefficient and matrix diffusion coefficients. Model breakthrough curves for various radionuclides at the compliance boundary are presented along with their sensitivity to various parameters

  8. MEASUREMENT OF THE VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF WATER-SATURATED CLAY SEDIMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex shear modulus of both kaolin -water and bentonite-water mixtures has been determined in the laboratory. The method involved measuring the...range two to forty-three kHz. Dispersed sediments behaved like Newtonian liquids. Undispersed sediments, however, were viscoelastic in character, and...their shear moduli exhibited no dependence on frequency. For undispersed kaolin mixtures, a typical result is (21.6 + i 1.2) x 1,000 dynes per square

  9. Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (ptillage and compaction, increasing and decreasing the amount of the largest pores in CT and DD, respectively, but resulting in a proportionally larger pore space with relevant pore-sizes for water dynamics and agronomic performance. Significant differences in water retention and equivalent pore-sizes at the dry end of the WRC could be associated with the higher organic matter content found in DD. These results explain the superior performance of DD over CT in satisfying

  10. Effect of percolation rate on water-travel time in deep, partially saturated zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.R.; Gauthier, J.H.; Dudley, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, as a prospective site for a radioactive-waste repository. The Yucca Mountain site is unique among those currently being investigated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in that the prospective repository location is in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. A composite-porosity, continuum model was developed to model flow in a fractured, porous medium. Simulations using data from the Yucca Mountain site and this model in the one-dimensional code TOSPAC indicate that current estimates of the percolation rate result in water movement confined to the matrix and that the water-travel time from the repository to the water table in on the order of hundreds of thousands of years. This result is sensitive to the percolation rate; an increase in percolation rate of a factor of 10 may initiate water movement in the fractures, reducing the travel time significantly

  11. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  12. A Physically Based Analytical Model to Describe Effective Excess Charge for Streaming Potential Generation in Water Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarracino, L.; Jougnot, D.

    2018-01-01

    Among the different contributions generating self-potential, the streaming potential is of particular interest in hydrogeology for its sensitivity to water flow. Estimating water flux in porous media using streaming potential data relies on our capacity to understand, model, and upscale the electrokinetic coupling at the mineral-solution interface. Different approaches have been proposed to predict streaming potential generation in porous media. One of these approaches is the flux averaging which is based on determining the excess charge which is effectively dragged in the medium by water flow. In this study, we develop a physically based analytical model to predict the effective excess charge in saturated porous media using a flux-averaging approach in a bundle of capillary tubes with a fractal pore size distribution. The proposed model allows the determination of the effective excess charge as a function of pore water ionic concentration and hydrogeological parameters like porosity, permeability, and tortuosity. The new model has been successfully tested against different set of experimental data from the literature. One of the main findings of this study is the mechanistic explanation to the empirical dependence between the effective excess charge and the permeability that has been found by several researchers. The proposed model also highlights the link to other lithological properties, and it is able to reproduce the evolution of effective excess charge with electrolyte concentrations.

  13. The analogy between the bubbling of air into water and nucleate boiling at saturation temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, G.B.

    1960-01-01

    This paper presents a case for the separate consideration of the hydrodynamic and thermal aspects of nucleate boiling. It is shown how boiling phenomena may be simulated in detail by the use of porous media to introduce air bubbles into water. Points of similarity and equivalence are described and analysed. (author)

  14. CO2 saturated water as two-phase flow for fouling control in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, J.; de Hart, N.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2017-01-01

    When natural feed waters are used in the operation of a reverse electrodialysis (RED) stack, severe fouling on the ion exchange membranes and spacers occurs. Fouling of the RED stack has a strong influence on the gross power density output; which can decrease up to 50%. Moreover, an increase in the

  15. Mobility and survival of sulphate-reducing bacteria in compacted and fully water saturated bentonite - microstructural aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria will not be able to enter MX-80 buffer clay with the intended bulk density, i.e. 1900-2100 kg/m 3 . Nor will they be able to survive and migrate in such environment. The only circumstances under which sulphate-reducing bacteria can enter, survive and migrate in engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3-type repository are those prevailing in backfills with lower MX-80 contents than about 10 % or in more smectite-rich, poorly compacted backfills saturated with electrolyte-rich pore water with Ca as dominating cation. In the phase of hydration and expansion of canister-embedding buffer, bacteria can enter the initially very soft clay gel at the rock/buffer contact to a depth of about a centimeter

  16. Seasonal variations in the aragonite saturation state in the upper open-ocean waters of the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Geun-Ha; Kim, Dongseon; Lee, Kitack; Feely, Richard A.; Millero, Frank J.

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal variability of the aragonite saturation state (ΩAR) in the upper (50 m and 100 m depths) North Pacific Ocean (NPO) was investigated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The MLR algorithm derived from a high-quality carbon data set accurately predicted the ΩAR of evaluation data sets (three time series stations and P02 section) with acceptable uncertainty (<0.1 ΩAR). The algorithm was combined with seasonal climatology data, and the estimated ΩAR varied in the range of 0.4-0.6 in the midlatitude western NPO, with the largest variation found for the tropical eastern NPO. These marked variations were largely controlled by seasonal changes in vertical mixing and thermocline depth, both of which determine the degree of entrainment of CO2-rich corrosive waters from deeper depths. Our MLR-based subsurface ΩAR climatology is complementary to surface climatology based on pCO2 measurements.

  17. Effect of gravity on colloid transport through water-saturated columns packed with glass beads: modeling and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Syngouna, Vasiliki I

    2014-06-17

    The role of gravitational force on colloid transport in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Transport experiments were performed with colloids (clays: kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorillonite STx-1b). The packed columns were placed in various orientations (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) and a steady flow rate of Q = 1.5 mL/min was applied in both up-flow and down-flow modes. All experiments were conducted under electrostatically unfavorable conditions. The experimental data were fitted with a newly developed, analytical, one-dimensional, colloid transport model. The effect of gravity is incorporated in the mathematical model by combining the interstitial velocity (advection) with the settling velocity (gravity effect). The results revealed that flow direction influences colloid transport in porous media. The rate of particle deposition was shown to be greater for up-flow than for down-flow direction, suggesting that gravity was a significant driving force for colloid deposition.

  18. Mobility and survival of sulphate-reducing bacteria in compacted and fully water saturated bentonite - microstructural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria will not be able to enter MX-80 buffer clay with the intended bulk density, i.e. 1900-2100 kg/m{sup 3}. Nor will they be able to survive and migrate in such environment. The only circumstances under which sulphate-reducing bacteria can enter, survive and migrate in engineered soil barriers in a KBS-3-type repository are those prevailing in backfills with lower MX-80 contents than about 10 % or in more smectite-rich, poorly compacted backfills saturated with electrolyte-rich pore water with Ca as dominating cation. In the phase of hydration and expansion of canister-embedding buffer, bacteria can enter the initially very soft clay gel at the rock/buffer contact to a depth of about a centimeter.

  19. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    . Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC......The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific...... surface area. Detailed measurement of the SWRC is impractical in many cases because of the excessively long equilibration times inherent to most standard methods, especially for fine textured soil. Consequently, it is more efficient to predict the SWRCbased on easy-to-measure basic soil properties...

  20. Quantum channels irreducibly covariant with respect to the finite group generated by the Weyl operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudzińska, Katarzyna; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    In matrix algebras, we introduce a class of linear maps that are irreducibly covariant with respect to the finite group generated by the Weyl operators. In particular, we analyze the irreducibly covariant quantum channels, that is, the completely positive and trace-preserving linear maps. Interestingly, imposing additional symmetries leads to the so-called generalized Pauli channels, which were recently considered in the context of the non-Markovian quantum evolution. Finally, we provide examples of irreducibly covariant positive but not necessarily completely positive maps.

  1. Influence of capillary forces on water injection into hot rock, saturated with superheated vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsypkin, G.G. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, RAS, Vernadskogo Ave. 101, 119420 Moscow (Russian Federation); Calore, C. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse - CNR, Sezione di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    The results of a theoretical study and numerical analysis of the role of capillary pressure of cold water injection into depleted geothermal reservoirs are presented. A simplified 1-D mathematical model is developed, that describes the motion of a sharp vaporization front. Some asymptotic estimates for a wide range of parameters are given and a similarity solution is derived. Analytical results are then compared with those obtained from the numerical reservoir simulator TOUGH2, showing a good agreement between the two. (author)

  2. The Observed Relationship Between Water Vapor and Ozone in the Tropical Tropopause Saturation Layer and the Influence of Meridional Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Olsen, M. A.; Douglass, A. R.

    2011-01-01

    We examine balloonsonde observations of water vapor and ozone from three Ticosonde campaigns over San Jose, Costa Rica [10 N, 84 W] during northern summer and a fourth during northern winter. The data from the summer campaigns show that the uppermost portion of the tropical tropopause layer between 360 and 380 K, which we term the tropopause saturation layer or TSL, is characterized by water vapor mixing ratios from proximately 3 to 15 ppmv and ozone from approximately 50 ppbv to 250 ppbv. In contrast, the atmospheric water vapor tape recorder at 380 K and above displays a more restricted 4-7 ppmv range in water vapor mixing ratio. From this perspective, most of the parcels in the TSL fall into two classes - those that need only additional radiative heating to rise into the tape recorder and those requiring some combination of additional dehydration and mixing with drier air. A substantial fraction of the latter class have ozone mixing ratios greater than 150 ppbv, and with water vapor greater than 7 ppmv this air may well have been transported into the tropics from the middle latitudes in conjunction with high-amplitude equatorial waves. We examine this possibility with both trajectory analysis and transport diagnostics based on HIRDLS ozone data. We apply the same approach to study the winter season. Here a very different regime obtains as the ozone-water vapor scatter diagram of the sonde data shows the stratosphere and troposphere to be clearly demarcated with little evidence of mixing in of middle latitude air parcels.

  3. The influence of water saturation on mechanical properties of ceramic bricks – tests on 19th- century and contemporary bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysek, P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents test results concerning ceramic bricks produced in 1880’s. Bricks were obtained from a building erected as part of Archduke Rudolf barracks in Krakow. The tests helped to specify changes in brick compressive strength and hardness, caused by water saturation in the ceramic material. For comparison purposes, tests were also carried out on contemporary bricks. Tests showed that mechanical properties of the ceramic bricks in the water saturation state were worse than in the dry state. The impact of strong brick moisture on changes of mechanical parameters is essential in terms of safety assessment for brick structures.En el artículo se presentan los resultados del estudio de los ladrillos cerámicos producidos en los años 80 del siglo XIX. Los ladrillos se obtuvieron del edificio que forma parte de un conjunto de cuarteles del archiduque Rudolfo en Cracovia en Polonia. En los estudios se han determinado los cambios de la resistencia a la compresión y la dureza de los ladrillos, por efecto de la saturación de agua del material cerámico. A efectos comparativos, se han realizado también estudios de ladrillos producidos en la actualidad. Se ha comprobado que la saturación de agua de los ladrillos cerámicos lleva consigo una considerable disminución de las propiedades mecánicas. Por lo tanto, el impacto de la alta humedad de los ladrillos sobre el cambio de las propiedades mecánicas constituye un factor significativo en la evaluación de la seguridad en las construcciones de ladrillo.

  4. Linearity and Reversibility of Iodide Adsorption on Sediments from Hanford, Washington Under Water Saturated Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2004-01-01

    A series of adsorption and desorption experiments were completed to determine the linearity of iodide adsorption, as a function of concentration, and its reversibility onto sediment for geochemical conditions germane to the proposed disposal of low-level radioactive waste by the U.S. Department of Energy's Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. Iodine-129 is predicted to be one of the top three long-term risk drivers based on past performance assessment conducted for the eventual disposal of the low-level portion of radioactive wastes currently stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford, because iodide exhibits little adsorption affinity to mineral surfaces resulting in high mobility in the subsurface environment. Adsorption experiments, conducted with Hanford formation sediments and groundwater spiked with dissolved 125I (as an analog tracer for 129I), indicated that iodide adsorption was very low at pH 7.5 and could be represented by a linear isotherm up to a total concentration of 100 mg/L dissolved iodide. The linearity of iodide adsorption up to concentrations of 100 mg/L validates the use of the linear Kd construct in transport models to predict the fate and transport of 129I in subsurface systems at Hanford. The results of desorption experiments indicated that up to 60% of adsorbed iodide was readily desorbed after 14 days by the same groundwater solution. Iodide adsorption was considered to be partially reversible or weakly binding on the sediments. Even though small amount of initial iodide is retarded by adsorption reactions at mineral-water interfaces, the weak adsorption affinity results in release of iodide when iodide free pore waters and ground waters contact the contaminated sediments in the vadose zone and aquifer systems

  5. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-05-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper 300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest ( 0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  6. Three-dimensional geophysical mapping of shallow water saturated altered rocks at Mount Baker, Washington: Implications for slope stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Deszcz-Pan, Maria; Ball, Jessica L.; Bloss, Benjamin J.; Minsley, Burke J.

    2018-01-01

    Water-saturated hydrothermal alteration reduces the strength of volcanic edifices, increasing the potential for catastrophic sector collapses that can lead to far traveled and destructive debris flows. Intense hydrothermal alteration significantly lowers the resistivity and magnetization of volcanic rock and therefore hydrothermally altered rocks can be identified with helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic measurements. Geophysical models constrained by rock properties and geologic mapping show that intensely altered rock is restricted to two small (500 m diameter), >150 m thick regions around Sherman Crater and Dorr Fumarole Field at Mount Baker, Washington. This distribution of alteration contrasts with much thicker and widespread alteration encompassing the summits of Mounts Adams and Rainier prior to the 5600 year old Osceola collapse, which is most likely due to extreme erosion and the limited duration of summit magmatism at Mount Baker. In addition, the models suggest that the upper ~300 m of rock contains water which could help to lubricate potential debris flows. Slope stability modeling incorporating the geophysically modeled distribution of alteration and water indicates that the most likely and largest (~0.1 km3) collapses are from the east side of Sherman Crater. Alteration at Dorr Fumarole Field raises the collapse hazard there, but not significantly because of its lower slope angles. Geochemistry and analogs from other volcanoes suggest a model for the edifice hydrothermal system.

  7. Adsorption of Dissolved Gases (CH4, CO2, H2, Noble Gases) by Water-Saturated Smectite Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Gadikota, G.; Dazas, B.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of dissolved gases by water-saturated clay minerals plays important roles in a range of fields. For example, gas adsorption in on clay minerals may significantly impact the formation of CH4 hydrates in fine-grained sediments, the behavior of CH4 in shale, CO2 leakage across caprocks of geologic CO2 sequestration sites, H2 leakage across engineered clay barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories, and noble gas geochemistry reconstructions of hydrocarbon migration in the subsurface. Despite its importance, the adsorption of gases on clay minerals remains poorly understood. For example, some studies have suggested that clay surfaces promote the formation of CH4 hydrates, whereas others indicate that clay surfaces inhibit the formation of CH4 hydrates. Here, we present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the adsorption of a range of gases (CH4, CO2, H2, noble gases) on clay mineral surfaces. Our results indicate that the affinity of dissolved gases for clay mineral surfaces has a non-monotone dependence on the hydrated radius of the gas molecules. This non-monotone dependence arises from a combination of two effects: the polar nature of certain gas molecules (in particular, CO2) and the templating of interfacial water structure by the clay basal surface, which results in the presence of interfacial water "cages" of optimal size for intermediate-size gas molecules (such as Ne or Ar).

  8. Some consequences of a liquid water saturated regolith in early Martian history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, A. O.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Flooding of low-lying areas of the Martian regolith may have occurred early in the planet's history when a comparatively dense primitive atmosphere existed. If this model is valid, the following are some pedogenic and mineralogical consequences to be expected. Fluctuation of the water table in response to any seasonal or longer term causes would have resulted in precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides with the development of a vesicular duricrust (or hardpan). Disruption of such a crust by scarp undercutting or frost heaving accompanied by wind deflation of fines could account for the boulders visible on Utopia Planitia in the vicinity of the second Viking lander site. Laboratory and field evidence on earth suggests that under weakly oxidizing conditions lepidocrocite (rather than goethite) would have preferentially formed in the Martian regolith from the weathering of ferrous silicates, accompanied by montmorillonite, nontronite, and cronstedtite. Maghemite may have formed as a low-temperature dehydrate of lepidocrocite or directly from ferrous precursors.

  9. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  10. The finite - dimensional star and grade star irreducible representation of SU(n/1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Qi-zhi.

    1981-01-01

    We derive the conditions of star and grade star representations of SU(n/1) and give some examples of them. We also give a brief review of the finite - dimensional irreducible representations of SU(n/1). (author)

  11. Quotients of irreducible N=2 superconformal coset theories by discrete symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailin, D.; Love, A.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of massless states is studied for the irreducible N=2 superconformal coset theories when these theories are quotiented by discrete symmetries, including the effect of embedding the discrete symmetries in the gauge group. (orig.)

  12. Neural Mechanisms of Updating under Reducible and Irreducible Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Hsu, Ming

    2017-07-19

    Adaptive decision making depends on an agent's ability to use environmental signals to reduce uncertainty. However, because of multiple types of uncertainty, agents must take into account not only the extent to which signals violate prior expectations but also whether uncertainty can be reduced in the first place. Here we studied how human brains of both sexes respond to signals under conditions of reducible and irreducible uncertainty. We show behaviorally that subjects' value updating was sensitive to the reducibility of uncertainty, and could be quantitatively characterized by a Bayesian model where agents ignore expectancy violations that do not update beliefs or values. Using fMRI, we found that neural processes underlying belief and value updating were separable from responses to expectancy violation, and that reducibility of uncertainty in value modulated connections from belief-updating regions to value-updating regions. Together, these results provide insights into how agents use knowledge about uncertainty to make better decisions while ignoring mere expectancy violation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To make good decisions, a person must observe the environment carefully, and use these observations to reduce uncertainty about consequences of actions. Importantly, uncertainty should not be reduced purely based on how surprising the observations are, particularly because in some cases uncertainty is not reducible. Here we show that the human brain indeed reduces uncertainty adaptively by taking into account the nature of uncertainty and ignoring mere surprise. Behaviorally, we show that human subjects reduce uncertainty in a quasioptimal Bayesian manner. Using fMRI, we characterize brain regions that may be involved in uncertainty reduction, as well as the network they constitute, and dissociate them from brain regions that respond to mere surprise. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376972-11$15.00/0.

  13. The Effect of Boiling on Seismic Properties of Water-Saturated Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab, Melchior; Quintal, Beatriz; Caspari, Eva; Deuber, Claudia; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    Seismic campaigns for exploring geothermal systems aim at detecting permeable formations in the subsurface and evaluating the energy state of the pore fluids. High-enthalpy geothermal resources are known to contain fluids ranging from liquid water up to liquid-vapor mixtures in regions where boiling occurs and, ultimately, to vapor-dominated fluids, for instance, if hot parts of the reservoir get depressurized during production. In this study, we implement the properties of single- and two-phase fluids into a numerical poroelastic model to compute frequency-dependent seismic velocities and attenuation factors of a fractured rock as a function of fluid state. Fluid properties are computed while considering that thermodynamic interaction between the fluid phases takes place. This leads to frequency-dependent fluid properties and fluid internal attenuation. As shown in a first example, if the fluid contains very small amounts of vapor, fluid internal attenuation is of similar magnitude as attenuation in fractured rock due to other mechanisms. In a second example, seismic properties of a fractured geothermal reservoir with spatially varying fluid properties are calculated. Using the resulting seismic properties as an input model, the seismic response of the reservoir is then computed while the hydrothermal structure is assumed to vary over time. The resulting seismograms demonstrate that anomalies in the seismic response due to fluid state variability are small compared to variations caused by geological background heterogeneity. However, the hydrothermal structure in the reservoir can be delineated from amplitude anomalies when the variations due to geology can be ruled out such as in time-lapse experiments.

  14. Differential equations governing slip-induced pore-pressure fluctuations in a water-saturated granular medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Macroscopic frictional slip in water-saturated granular media occurs commonly during landsliding, surface faulting, and intense bedload transport. A mathematical model of dynamic pore-pressure fluctuations that accompany and influence such sliding is derived here by both inductive and deductive methods. The inductive derivation shows how the governing differential equations represent the physics of the steadily sliding array of cylindrical fiberglass rods investigated experimentally by Iverson and LaHusen (1989). The deductive derivation shows how the same equations result from a novel application of Biot's (1956) dynamic mixture theory to macroscopic deformation. The model consists of two linear differential equations and five initial and boundary conditions that govern solid displacements and pore-water pressures. Solid displacements and water pressures are strongly coupled, in part through a boundary condition that ensures mass conservation during irreversible pore deformation that occurs along the bumpy slip surface. Feedback between this deformation and the pore-pressure field may yield complex system responses. The dual derivations of the model help explicate key assumptions. For example, the model requires that the dimensionless parameter B, defined here through normalization of Biot's equations, is much larger than one. This indicates that solid-fluid coupling forces are dominated by viscous rather than inertial effects. A tabulation of physical and kinematic variables for the rod-array experiments of Iverson and LaHusen and for various geologic phenomena shows that the model assumptions commonly are satisfied. A subsequent paper will describe model tests against experimental data. ?? 1993 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  15. Automated potentiometric titrations in KCl/water-saturated octanol: method for quantifying factors influencing ion-pair partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Robert A; Donovan, Stephen F

    2009-04-01

    The knowledge base of factors influencing ion pair partitioning is very sparse, primarily because of the difficulty in determining accurate log P(I) values of desirable low molecular weight (MW) reference compounds. We have developed a potentiometric titration procedure in KCl/water-saturated octanol that provides a link to log P(I) through the thermodynamic cycle of ionization and partitioning. These titrations have the advantage of being independent of the magnitude of log P, while maintaining a reproducibility of a few hundredths of a log P in the calculated difference between log P neutral and log P ion pair (diff (log P(N - I))). Simple model compounds can be used. The titration procedure is described in detail, along with a program for calculating pK(a)'' values incorporating the ionization of water in octanol. Hydrogen bonding and steric factors have a greater influence on ion pairs than they do on neutral species, yet these factors are missing from current programs used to calculate log P(I) and log D. In contrast to the common assumption that diff (log P(N - I)) is the same for all amines, they can actually vary more than 3 log units, as in our examples. A major factor affecting log P(I) is the ability of water and the counterion to approach the charge center. Bulky substituents near the charge center have a negative influence on log P(I). On the other hand, hydrogen bonding groups near the charge center have the opposite effect by lowering the free energy of the ion pair. The use of this titration method to determine substituent ion pair stabilization values (IPS) should bring about more accurate log D calculations and encourage species-specific QSAR involving log D(N) and log D(I). This work also brings attention to the fascinating world of nature's highly stabilized ion pairs.

  16. Automated Potentiometric Titrations in KCl/Water-Saturated Octanol: Method for Quantifying Factors Influencing Ion-Pair Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge base of factors influencing ion pair partitioning is very sparse, primarily because of the difficulty in determining accurate log PI values of desirable low molecular weight (MW) reference compounds. We have developed a potentiometric titration procedure in KCl/water-saturated octanol that provides a link to log PI through the thermodynamic cycle of ionization and partitioning. These titrations have the advantage of being independent of the magnitude of log P, while maintaining a reproducibility of a few hundredths of a log P in the calculated difference between log P neutral and log P ion pair (diff (log PN − I)). Simple model compounds can be used. The titration procedure is described in detail, along with a program for calculating pKa′′ values incorporating the ionization of water in octanol. Hydrogen bonding and steric factors have a greater influence on ion pairs than they do on neutral species, yet these factors are missing from current programs used to calculate log PI and log D. In contrast to the common assumption that diff (log PN − I) is the same for all amines, they can actually vary more than 3 log units, as in our examples. A major factor affecting log PI is the ability of water and the counterion to approach the charge center. Bulky substituents near the charge center have a negative influence on log PI. On the other hand, hydrogen bonding groups near the charge center have the opposite effect by lowering the free energy of the ion pair. The use of this titration method to determine substituent ion pair stabilization values (IPS) should bring about more accurate log D calculations and encourage species-specific QSAR involving log DN and log DI. This work also brings attention to the fascinating world of nature’s highly stabilized ion pairs. PMID:19265385

  17. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air-water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Federica; Campbell, Richard A.; Rastogi, Kunal; Pfrang, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air-water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA), palmitoleic acid (POA), methyl oleate (MO) and stearic acid (SA) to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR) to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air-water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7) × 10-8, (2.4±0.5) × 10-8and (3.3±0.6) × 10-8 cm2 molecule-1 s-1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5) × 10-3, (1.7±0.3) × 10-3 and (2.1±0.4) × 10-3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1) × 10-12 cm2 molecule-1 s-1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1) × 10-7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air-water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of O3. Furthermore, the relative contributions of NO3 and O3 to the oxidative

  18. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air–water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sebastiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air–water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA, palmitoleic acid (POA, methyl oleate (MO and stearic acid (SA to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air–water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7 × 10−8, (2.4±0.5 × 10−8and (3.3±0.6 × 10−8 cm2 molecule−1 s−1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5 × 10−3, (1.7±0.3 × 10−3 and (2.1±0.4 × 10−3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1 × 10−12 cm2 molecule−1 s−1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1 × 10−7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air–water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher

  19. Thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks from the KTB pilot hole at temperatures of 25 to 300°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribnow, D.; Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.; Keating, R.

    1996-01-01

    The conductivitites of selected gneiss (two) and amphibolite (one) core samples have been measured under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure with a needle-probe. Water-saturated thermal conductivity measurements spanning temperatures from 25 to 300??C and hydrostatic pressures of 0.1 and 34 MPa confirm the general decrease in conductivity with increasing temperature but deviate significantly from results reported from measurements on dry samples over the same temperature range. The thermal conductivity of water-saturated amphibolite decreases with temperature at a rate approximately 40% less than the rate for dry amphibolite, and the conductivity of water-saturated gneiss decreases at a rate approximately 20% less than the rate for dry gneiss. The available evidence points to thermal cracking as the primary cause of the more rapid decrease in dry thermal conductivity with temperature. The effects of thermal cracking were also observed in the water-saturated samples but resulted in a net decrease in room-temperature conductivity of less than 3%. These results highlight the importance of duplicating in-situ conditions when determining thermal conductivity for the deep crust.

  20. Seasonal trends of light-saturated net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of loblolly pine trees grown in contrasting environments of nutrition, water and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Murthy; Stanley J. Zarnoch; P.M. Dougherty

    1997-01-01

    Repeated measures analysis was used to evaluate the effect of long-term CO2 enhancement on seasonal trends of light-saturated rates of net photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance to water vapour (gsat) of 9-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.; trees grown in a 2x2...

  1. Transport and Retention of Carboxymethylcellulose-Modified Carbon Nanotube-Magnetite Nanohybrids in Water-Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Su, C.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon-metal oxide nanohybrids (NHs) are increasingly recognized as the next-generation, promising group of nanomaterials for solving emerging environmental issues and challenges. This research, for the first time, systematically explored the transport and retention of the multifunctional carbon nanotube-magnetite (CNT-Fe3O4) NHs in water-saturated porous media under environmentally relevant physicochemical conditions. An environment-benign macromolecule, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), was employed to stabilize the NHs. Classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory and colloid transport model were used to describe the transport and retention of the NHs. Our results showed that transport of the magnetic CNT-Fe3O4 NHs was lower than that of the parent CNT due to greater aggregation (induced by magnetic attraction) during transport. The DLVO theory well-interpreted the NHs' transport; and secondary minimum played dominant roles in NHs' retention. A novel transport feature, an initial low and following sharp peaks occurred frequently in the NHs' breakthrough curves; and the magnitude and location of both transport peaks varied with different experimental conditions due to the interplay between variability of the fluid viscosity and aggregation-dispersion nature of the NHs. Very promisingly, the estimated maximum transport distance of NHs using the Tufenkji-Elimelech equation ranged between 0.38-46 m, supporting the feasibility of employing the magnetically recyclable CNT-Fe3O4 NHs for in-situ nanoremediation of contaminated soils, sediment aquifers, and groundwater.

  2. Study of sorption and diffusion of 137Cs in compacted bentonite saturated with saline water at 60degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoru; Haginuma, Masashi; Suzuki, Kazunori

    2007-01-01

    The effect of compaction of bentonite on the sorption behavior of 137 Cs was studied for the safety assessment of the high level radioactive waste. The diffusion coefficients (effective D e and apparent D a ) and the distribution coefficient for sorption K d for 137 Cs in compacted and dispersed bentonite saturated with saline water were investigated at 60degC by four different sorption and diffusion experiments: the in-diffusion, through-diffusion, reservoir-depletion and batch sorption experiments. The system of the through-diffusion experiment was carefully designed to maintain the boundary conditions of constant concentration at each end of the specimen. D e and D a were found to be reproducible and showed good consistency among three of the diffusion experiments (through-diffusion, in-diffusion and reservoir depletion). K d of 137 Cs in compacted bentonite determined from the three types of diffusion experiments was in good accordance with that determined by the batch sorption experiment for dispersed bentonite. (author)

  3. 1DFEMWATER: A one-dimensional finite element model of WATER flow through saturated-unsaturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.T.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the development and verification of a one- dimensional finite element model of water flow through saturated- unsaturated media. 1DFEMWATER is very flexible and capable of modeling a wide range of real-world problems. The model is designed to (1) treat heterogeneous media consisting of many geologic formations; (2) consider distributed and point sources/sinks that are spatially and temporally variable; (3) accept prescribed initial conditions or obtain them from steady state simulations; (4) deal with transient heads distributed over the Dirichlet boundary; (5) handle time-dependent fluxes caused by pressure gradient on the Neumann boundary; (6) treat time-dependent total fluxes (i.e., the sum of gravitational fluxes and pressure-gradient fluxes) on the Cauchy boundary; (7) automatically determine variable boundary conditions of evaporation, infiltration, or seepage on the soil-air interface; (8) provide two options for treating the mass matrix (consistent and lumping); (9) provide three alternatives for approximating the time derivative term (Crank-Nicolson central difference, backward difference, and mid-difference); (10) give three options (exact relaxation, underrelaxation, and overrelaxation) for estimating the nonlinear matrix; (11) automatically reset the time step size when boundary conditions or source/sinks change abruptly; and (12) check mass balance over the entire region for every time step. The model is verified with analytical solutions and other numerical models for three examples

  4. Experimental study and modeling of gas diffusion through partially water saturated porous media. Application to Vycor glasses, geo-polymers and CEM V cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work documents the relationship that exists between the transfer properties of a material (pore size distribution, total porosity accessible to water, water saturation degree), and its diffusion coefficient. For this sake, materials having a quasi mono modal porosity are used: Vycor glasses and geo-polymers. We also use materials having a complex porosity: CEM V cement pastes. The use of Vycor glasses and geo-polymers allows quantifying the gas diffusion coefficient through materials having known pores size, as a function of their water saturation degree. The use of cement pastes allows checking if it is possible to decompose the diffusion coefficient of a complex porosity material, in an assembling of diffusion coefficients of quasi mono modal porosity materials. For this sake, the impact of pore network arrangement on the diffusion coefficient is studied in great details. This study is divided into three parts:1)Measurement of the geometric characteristics of materials porous network by means of the mercury intrusion porosimetry, water porosimetry, isotherms of nitrogen sorption / desorption, and water desorption tests. 2) Measurement of the materials diffusion coefficient, as a function of their relative humidity storage, and their water saturation degree. 3) Modeling the diffusion coefficient of the materials, and study the impact of the pore network (tortuosity, pores connection). (author) [fr

  5. Prediction of the critical heat flux for saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A study, on the theoretical method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels, has been conducted. For the assessment of this CHF prediction method, 608 experimental data were selected from the previous researches, in which the heated sections were uniformly heated from both wide surfaces under the high pressure condition over 41 bar. For this purpose, representative previous liquid film dryout (LFD) models for circular channels were reviewed by using 6058 points from the KAIST CHF data bank. This shows that it is reasonable to define the initial condition of quality and entrainment fraction at onset of annular flow (OAF) as the transition to annular flow regime and the equilibrium value, respectively, and the prediction error of the LFD model is dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive equations of droplet deposition and entrainment. In the modified Levy model, the CHF data are predicted with standard deviation (SD) of 14.0% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.1%. Meanwhile, in the present LFD model, which is based on the constitutive equations developed by Okawa et al., the entire data are calculated with SD of 17.1% and RMSE of 17.3%. Because of its qualitative prediction trend and universal calculation convergence, the present model was finally selected as the best LFD model to predict the CHF for narrow rectangular channels. For the assessment of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels, effective 284 data were selected. By using the present LFD model, these data are predicted with RMSE of 22.9% with the dryout criterion of zero-liquid film flow, but RMSE of 18.7% with rivulet formation model. This shows that the prediction error of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels is similar with that for circular channels.

  6. Brackish water for irrigation: IV. effects on yield of maize (zea mays l.) and saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, M.; Anwar-ur-Hassan; Ghafoor, A.

    2003-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of brackish water irrigation on fresh biomass yield of maize variety Agati-72 and saturated hydraulic conductivity (HC) of silty clay loam soil. Total 20 treatment combinations having different EC/sub iw/ (0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 7.35 dS m/sup -1/), SAR/sub iw/ (3.95, 9.65, 18.0, 26.35 and 32.04 (mmol L/sup -1)/sup 1/2/) and RSC (0.65, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 7.35 mmol/sub c/ L/sup -1/) were applied to 30 cm x 68 cm undisturbed and disturbed soil columns. Results indicated that biomass yield of maize decreased with an increase in EC/sub iw/ from 0.65 to 7.35 dS m/sup -1/ at coded 0 levels of SAR/sub iw/ and RSC in undisturbed soil. The maize tolerated EC/sub iw/ up to 2.0 dS m/sup-1/ at coded 0 levels of SAR/sub iw/ and RSC in disturbed soil. The SAR/sub iw/ up to 18.0 did not affect the yield of crop at coded 0 levels of EC/sub iw/ for the undisturbed and disturbed soils, respectively. The increase in HC was 48% in undisturbed and 54% in disturbed soils with EC/sub iw/ 7.35 dS m/sup -1/ over EC/sub iw/ 0.65 dS m/sup -1/ coded 0 levels of EC/sub iw/ and RSC. The HC decreased with SAR/sub iw/ and RSC at coded 0 levels of EC/sub iw/ and RSC; EC/sub iw/ and SAR/sub iw/ in both the soil columns. (author)

  7. The irreducible needs of children for development: a frame of reference to health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De La Ó Ramallo Veríssimo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A comprehensive health care to children implies in caring for their development, by perceiving the needs based on a suitable reference to children’s specificities. This theoretical study aimed to analyze the “irreducible needs of children” frame of reference, based on a child development theory. We performed a comparative analysis between the contents of children’s irreducible needs and the components of the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. An extensive correspondence was verified among the components of the Bioecological Theory and the following essential needs: ongoing nurturing relationships; experiences tailored to individual differences; developmentally appropriate experiences; limit setting, structure and expectations; stable, supportive communities and cultural continuity. The need for physical protection, safety, and regulation is not explicit in the elements of the theory, although it is also verified in their definitions. We concluded that the irreducible needs’ reference can support nurses in health care and in child development promotion.

  8. Numerical simulation of air- and water-flow experiments in a block of variably saturated, fractured tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwicklis, E.M.; Healy, R.W.; Thamir, F.; Hampson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Numerical models of water movement through variably saturated, fractured tuff have undergone little testing against experimental data collected from relatively well-controlled and characterized experiments. This report used the results of a multistage experiment on a block of variably saturated, fractured, welded tuff and associated core samples to investigate if those results could be explained using models and concepts currently used to simulate water movement in variably saturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential location of a high-level nuclear-waste repository. Aspects of the experiment were modeled with varying degrees of success. Imbibition experiments performed on cores of various lengths and diameters were adequately described by models using independently measured permeabilities and moisture-characteristic curves, provided that permeability reductions resulting from the presence of entrapped air were considered. Entrapped gas limited maximum water saturations during imbibition to approximately 0.70 to 0,80 of the fillable porosity values determined by vacuum saturation. A numerical simulator developed for application to fluid flow problems in fracture networks was used to analyze the results of air-injection tests conducted within the tuff block through 1.25-cm-diameter boreholes. These analyses produced estimates of transmissivity for selected fractures within the block. Transmissivities of other fractures were assigned on the basis of visual similarity to one of the tested fractures. The calibrated model explained 53% of the observed pressure variance at the monitoring boreholes (with the results for six outliers omitted) and 97% of the overall pressure variance (including monitoring and injection boreholes) in the subset of air-injection tests examined

  9. Closed-form irreducible differential formulations of the Wilson renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vvedensky, D.D.; Chang, T.S.; Nicoll, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    We present a detailed derivation of the one-particle--irreducible (1PI) differential renormalization-group generators originally developed by Nicoll and Chang and by Chang, Nicoll, and Young. We illustrate the machinery of the irreducible formulation by calculating to order epsilon 2 the characteristic time exponent z for the time-dependent Ginsburg-Landau model in the cases of conserved and nonconserved order parameter. We then calculate both z and eta to order epsilon 2 by applying to the 1PI generator an extension of the operator expansion technique developed by Wegner for the Wilson smooth-cutoff renormalization-group generator

  10. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  11. Reactivity of dolomite in water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide: Significance for carbon capture and storage and for enhanced oil and gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Alvarado, Vladimir; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert; Kaszuba, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dolomite reactivity with wet and dry supercritical CO 2 were evaluated. ► Dolomite does not react with dry CO 2 . ► H 2 O-saturated supercritical CO 2 dissolves dolomite and precipitates carbonate mineral. ► Temperature/reaction time control morphology and extent of carbonate mineralization. ► Reaction with wet CO 2 may impact trapping, caprock integrity, and CCS/EOR injectivity. - Abstract: Carbon dioxide injection in porous reservoirs is the basis for carbon capture and storage, enhanced oil and gas recovery. Injected carbon dioxide is stored at multiple scales in porous media, from the pore-level as a residual phase to large scales as macroscopic accumulations by the injection site, under the caprock and at reservoir internal capillary pressure barriers. These carbon dioxide saturation zones create regions across which the full spectrum of mutual CO 2 –H 2 O solubility may occur. Most studies assume that geochemical reaction is restricted to rocks and carbon dioxide-saturated formation waters, but this paradigm ignores injection of anhydrous carbon dioxide against brine and water-alternating-gas flooding for enhanced oil recovery. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to evaluate the reactivity of the common reservoir mineral dolomite with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions (55 and 110 °C, 25 MPa) and elevated temperature (220 °C, 25 MPa) for approximately 96 and 164 h (4 and 7 days). Dolomite dissolves and new carbonate mineral precipitates by reaction with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Dolomite does not react with anhydrous supercritical carbon dioxide. Temperature and reaction time control the composition, morphology, and extent of formation of new carbonate minerals. Mineral dissolution and re-precipitation due to reaction with water-saturated carbon dioxide may affect the contact line between phases, the carbon dioxide contact angle, and the

  12. Well-logging method using well-logging tools run through a drill stem test string for determining in-situ change in formation water saturation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A logging tool (pulsed neutron or neutron-gamma ray) whose response indicates formation water saturation value, is run through an opening extending through a portion of a drill stem test string. A sample portion of the formation fluid in the zone of interest is removed and another logging run is made. The differences between the plots of the two logging runs indicate the formation potential productivity in the zone of interest

  13. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Pollacco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h, and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs. Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013 developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h. This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen–Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1 the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map and (2 further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal

  14. Saturated hydraulic conductivity model computed from bimodal water retention curves for a range of New Zealand soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollacco, Joseph Alexander Paul; Webb, Trevor; McNeill, Stephen; Hu, Wei; Carrick, Sam; Hewitt, Allan; Lilburne, Linda

    2017-06-01

    Descriptions of soil hydraulic properties, such as the soil moisture retention curve, θ(h), and saturated hydraulic conductivities, Ks, are a prerequisite for hydrological models. Since the measurement of Ks is expensive, it is frequently derived from statistical pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Because it is usually more difficult to describe Ks than θ(h) from pedotransfer functions, Pollacco et al. (2013) developed a physical unimodal model to compute Ks solely from hydraulic parameters derived from the Kosugi θ(h). This unimodal Ks model, which is based on a unimodal Kosugi soil pore-size distribution, was developed by combining the approach of Hagen-Poiseuille with Darcy's law and by introducing three tortuosity parameters. We report here on (1) the suitability of the Pollacco unimodal Ks model to predict Ks for a range of New Zealand soils from the New Zealand soil database (S-map) and (2) further adaptations to this model to adapt it to dual-porosity structured soils by computing the soil water flux through a continuous function of an improved bimodal pore-size distribution. The improved bimodal Ks model was tested with a New Zealand data set derived from historical measurements of Ks and θ(h) for a range of soils derived from sandstone and siltstone. The Ks data were collected using a small core size of 10 cm diameter, causing large uncertainty in replicate measurements. Predictions of Ks were further improved by distinguishing topsoils from subsoil. Nevertheless, as expected, stratifying the data with soil texture only slightly improved the predictions of the physical Ks models because the Ks model is based on pore-size distribution and the calibrated parameters were obtained within the physically feasible range. The improvements made to the unimodal Ks model by using the new bimodal Ks model are modest when compared to the unimodal model, which is explained by the poor accuracy of measured total porosity. Nevertheless, the new bimodal model provides an

  15. Use of experimentally determined Henry's Law and salting-out constants for ethanol in seawater for determination of the saturation state of ethanol in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joan D; Powell, Jacqueline P; Avery, G Brooks; Kieber, Robert J; Mead, Ralph N

    2017-09-01

    The Henry's law constant for ethanol in seawater was experimentally determined to be 221 ± 4 M/atm at 22 °C compared with 247 ± 6 M/atm in pure water. The salting out coefficient for ethanol was 0.13 M -1 . In seawater ln(K H ) = -(12.8 ± 0.7) + (5310 ± 197)/T where K H is in M atm -1 and temperature is in K. This plus the salting out coefficient allow calculation of K H for any estuarine or sea water between 1 and 35 °C. High concentrations of dissolved organic carbon do not affect K H values in fresh or seawater. Nearshore surface waters were usually undersaturated with respect to gas phase ethanol except when air concentrations decreased, whereas surface seawater 40 km from shore was supersaturated. The percent saturation in surface waters is driven primarily by changes in air concentrations because these change quickly (hours) and more extensively than surface water. This study allows calculation of ethanol saturation states from air and surface water concentrations which is a necessary step to define the role of surface oceans in the global biogeochemical cycling of ethanol both now and in the future as use of ethanol biofuel continues to grow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Description of the higher massless irreducible integer spins in the BRST approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.; Tsulaya, M.

    1998-01-01

    The BRST approach is applied to the description of irreducible massless higher spins representations of the Poincare group in arbitrary dimensions. The total system of constraints in such theory includes both the first and the second class constraints. The corresponding nilpotent BRST charge contains terms up to the seventh degree in ghosts

  17. An algorithm to compute the canonical basis of an irreducible Uq(g)-module

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaf, W. A.

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is described to compute the canonical basis of an irreducible module over a quantized enveloping algebra of a finite-dimensional semisimple Lie algebra. The algorithm works for modules that are constructed as a submodule of a tensor product of modules with known canonical bases.

  18. Fourier-Laplace transform of irreducible regular differential systems on the Riemann sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbah, C

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the Fourier-Laplace transform of an irreducible regular differential system on the Riemann sphere underlies a polarizable regular twistor D-module if one considers only the part at finite distance. The associated holomorphic bundle defined away from the origin of the complex plane is therefore equipped with a natural harmonic metric having a tame behaviour near the origin

  19. Experimental characterization of the concrete behaviour under high confinement: influence of the saturation ratio and of the water/cement ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, X.H.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this thesis is to experimentally characterize the influence of the saturation ratio and of the water/cement ratio of concrete on its behaviour under high confinement. This thesis lies within a more general scope of the understanding of concrete behaviour under severe loading situations (near field detonation or ballistic impacts). A near field detonation or an impact on a concrete structure generate very high levels of stress associated with complex loading paths in the concrete material. To validate concrete behaviour models, experimental results are required. The work presented in this thesis concerns tests conducted using a static triaxial press that allows to obtain stress levels of the order of the giga Pascal. The porous character of concrete and the high confinement required on the one hand, a development of a specimen protection device, and on the other hand, a development of an instrumentation with strain gauges, which is unprecedented for such high confinements. Hydrostatic and triaxial tests, conducted on the one hand on model materials and on the other hand on concrete, allowed to validate the developed experimental procedures as well as the technique of strain and stress measurements. The studies concerning the influence of the saturation ratio and of the water/cement ratio of concrete on its behaviour required the formulation of a plain baseline concrete and of two modified concretes with different water/cement ratios. The analysis of triaxial tests performed on the baseline concrete shows that the saturation ratio of concrete has a major influence on its static behaviour under high confinement. This influence is particularly marked for the concrete loading capacity and for the shape of limit state curves for saturation ratios greater than 50%. The concrete loading capacity increases with the confinement pressure for tests on dry concrete whereas beyond a given confinement pressure, it remains limited for wet or saturated concrete

  20. Spin-locking vs. chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of non-equivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolites with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: i) On-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar, and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer. iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate exchange regime, MTRasym becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care. PMID:21500270

  1. Spin-locking versus chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI for investigating chemical exchange process between water and labile metabolite protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Autio, Joonas; Obata, Takayuki; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and spin-locking (SL) experiments were both able to probe the exchange process between protons of nonequivalent chemical environments. To compare the characteristics of the CEST and SL approaches in the study of chemical exchange effects, we performed CEST and SL experiments at varied pH and concentrated metabolite phantoms with exchangeable amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons at 9.4 T. Our results show that: (i) on-resonance SL is most sensitive to chemical exchanges in the intermediate-exchange regime and is able to detect hydroxyl and amine protons on a millimolar concentration scale. Off-resonance SL and CEST approaches are sensitive to slow-exchanging protons when an optimal SL or saturation pulse power matches the exchanging rate, respectively. (ii) Offset frequency-dependent SL and CEST spectra are very similar and can be explained well with an SL model recently developed by Trott and Palmer (J Magn Reson 2002;154:157-160). (iii) The exchange rate and population of metabolite protons can be determined from offset-dependent SL or CEST spectra or from on-resonance SL relaxation dispersion measurements. (iv) The asymmetry of the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) is highly dependent on the choice of saturation pulse power. In the intermediate-exchange regime, MTR(asym) becomes complicated and should be interpreted with care. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A study of radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. Application to a method of radon measurement in water and saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labed, V.

    1991-04-01

    In order to improve the BARASOL R device and to use it in water-saturated soils and in pressure constraint conditions, we have studied radon 222 permeation through plastic membranes. While the permeation process usually takes place between two media being in the same state, most often gaseous, the present study describes the transfer of radon 222 from the water to the air via a membrane. Polypropylene membranes have been tested with an experimental set-up by monitoring the evolution of radon concentrations in water and in air. The permeation coefficient and the activation energy were calculated in various conditions. With a second experimental set-up, we have tested the polyethylene membrane which has been adapted on the BARASOL. In these conditions, we have shown that it is possible to measure radon in water at concentrations around 10 3 Bq.m -3 [fr

  3. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. A new two-stage approach for predicting the soil water characteristic from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup Jensen, Dan; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2015-01-01

    to slow and inaccurate measurements. Hence, models applied to predict the SWC consequently exclude the dry region and are often only applicable for specific soil textural classifications. The present study proposes a new two-step approach to prediction of the continuous SWC from saturation to oven dryness...... using a limited number of measured textural data, organic matter content and dry bulk density. The proposed approach combines dry- and wet-region functions to obtain the entire SWC by means of parameterizing a previously developed continuous equation. The dry region function relates gravimetric soil...

  5. Barley seed radiosensitivity following post-hydration in oxygen-, nitrogen- and nitrous oxide-saturated water, 1; Influence of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.P.; Kesavan, P.C. (Jawaharlal Nehru Univ., New Delhi (India). School of Life Sciences)

    1990-06-01

    Dry ({approx}3.5 and 4.0 per cent moisture content) barley seeds were exposed to 350 Gy of {sup 60}Co-{gamma}-rays in vacuo and post-hydrated at 4degC for 8 h in O{sub 2}-, N{sub 2}-, or N{sub 2}O-saturated water. The effect of caffeine and t-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) dissolved in the post-hydration medium on the magnitude of damage developing under these three different gaseous circumstances was studied. The post-irradiation damage and its modification by caffeine and t-BuOH was assessed in terms of 8-day-old seedling injury, peroxidase activity and total peroxides in the 8-day-old seedlings. Post-irradiation O{sub 2}-saturated hydration caused maximal 8-day-old seedling injury, and increased peroxidase activity with concomitant reduction in total peroxides. Both caffeine and t-BuOH afforded significant radioprotection against post-irradiation O{sub 2}-dependent damage. Post-irradiation N{sub 2}O-saturated hydration was even more significantly radioprotective than the N{sub 2}-saturated post-hydration. Under these circumstances, t-BuOH exerted no effect whatsoever on the N{sub 2}- and N{sub 2}O-mediated post-irradiation damage. Caffeine, on the other hand, significantly potentiated these two components of damage. A brief consideration of the physicochemical events which possibly account for the observed effects is presented. (author).

  6. On the intersection of irreducible components of the space of finite-dimensional Lie algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatsevich, Vladimir V

    2012-01-01

    The irreducible components of the space of n-dimensional Lie algebras are investigated. The properties of Lie algebras belonging to the intersection of all the irreducible components of this kind are studied (these Lie algebras are said to be basic or founding Lie algebras). It is proved that all Lie algebras of this kind are nilpotent and each of these Lie algebras has an Abelian ideal of codimension one. Specific examples of founding Lie algebras of arbitrary dimension are described and, to describe the Lie algebras in general, we state a conjecture. The concept of spectrum of a Lie algebra is considered and some of the most elementary properties of the spectrum are studied. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  7. Irreducible Representations of Oscillatory and Swirling Flows in Active Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

    2014-03-01

    Recent experiments imaging fluid flow around swimming microorganisms have revealed complex time-dependent velocity fields that differ qualitatively from the stresslet flow commonly employed in theoretical descriptions of active matter. Here we obtain the most general flow around a finite sized active particle by expanding the surface stress in irreducible Cartesian tensors. This expansion, whose first term is the stresslet, must include, respectively, third-rank polar and axial tensors to minimally capture crucial features of the active oscillatory flow around translating Chlamydomonas and the active swirling flow around rotating Volvox. The representation provides explicit expressions for the irreducible symmetric, antisymmetric, and isotropic parts of the continuum active stress. Antisymmetric active stresses do not conserve orbital angular momentum and our work thus shows that spin angular momentum is necessary to restore angular momentum conservation in continuum hydrodynamic descriptions of active soft matter.

  8. Towards next-to-leading order transport coefficients from the four-particle irreducible effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, M. E.; Kovalchuk, E.

    2010-01-01

    Transport coefficients can be obtained from two-point correlators using the Kubo formulas. It has been shown that the full leading order result for electrical conductivity and (QCD) shear viscosity is contained in the resummed two-point function that is obtained from the three-loop three-particle irreducible resummed effective action. The theory produces all leading order contributions without the necessity for power counting, and in this sense it provides a natural framework for the calculation. In this article we study the four-loop four-particle irreducible effective action for a scalar theory with cubic and quartic interactions, with a nonvanishing field expectation value. We obtain a set of integral equations that determine the resummed two-point vertex function. A next-to-leading order contribution to the viscosity could be obtained from this set of coupled equations.

  9. Baryonic sources using irreducible representations of the double-covered octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Edwards, R.; Fiebig, R.; Fleming, G.T.; Heller, U.M.; Morningstar, C.; Richards, D.; Sato, I.; Wallace, S.

    2005-01-01

    Irreducible representations (IRs) of the double-covered octahedral group are used to construct lattice source and sink operators for three-quark baryons. The goal is to achieve a good coupling to higher spin states as well as ground states. Complete sets of local and nonlocal straight-link operators are explicitly shown for isospin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The orthogonality relations of the IR operators are confirmed in a quenched lattice simulation

  10. On the mixed symmetry irreducible representations of the Poincare group in the BRST approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdik, C.; Pashnev, A.; Tsulaya, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Lagrangian description of irreducible massless representations of the Poincare group with the corresponding Young tableaux having two rows along with some explicit examples including the notoph and Weyl tensor is given. For this purpose the method of the BRST constructions is used adopted to the systems of the second class constraints by the construction of auxiliary representations of the algebras of constraints in terms of Verma modules

  11. A bound for the Schur index of irreducible representations of finite groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, D D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    We construct an optimal bound for the Schur index of irreducible complex representations of finite groups over the field of rational numbers, when only the prime divisors of the order of the group are known. We study relationships with compatible and universally compatible extensions of number fields. We give a simpler proof of the well-known Berman-Yamada bound for the Schur index over the field Q{sub p}. Bibliography: 7 titles.

  12. Baryonic sources using irreducible representations of the double-covered octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Edwards, R.; Fiebig, R.; Fleming, G. T.; Heller, U. M.; Morningstar, C.; Richards, D.; Sato, I.; Wallace, S.

    2004-01-01

    Irreducible representations (IRs) of the double-covered octahedral group are used to construct lattice source and sink operators for three-quark baryons. The goal is to achieve a good coupling to higher spin states as well as ground states. Complete sets of local and nonlocal straight-link operators are explicitly shown for isospin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The orthogonality relations of the IR operators are confirmed in a quenched lattice simulation

  13. Analytic vectors and irreducible representations of nilpotent Lie groups and algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, D.

    1978-01-01

    Let U be a unitary irreducible locally faithful representation of a nilpotent Lie group G, V the universal enveloping algebra of G, M a simple module on V with kernel ker dU, then there exists an automorphism of V keeping ker dU invariant such that, after transport of structure, M is isomorphic to a submodule of the space of analytic vectors for U. (Auth.)

  14. Irreducibility and co-primeness as an integrability criterion for discrete equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanki, Masataka; Mada, Jun; Mase, Takafumi; Tokihiro, Tetsuji

    2014-01-01

    We study the Laurent property, the irreducibility and co-primeness of discrete integrable and non-integrable equations. First we study a discrete integrable equation related to the Somos-4 sequence, and also a non-integrable equation as a comparison. We prove that the conditions of irreducibility and co-primeness hold only in the integrable case. Next, we generalize our previous results on the singularities of the discrete Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation. In our previous paper (Kanki et al 2014 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 47 065201) we described the singularity confinement test (one of the integrability criteria) using the Laurent property, and the irreducibility, and co-primeness of the terms in the bilinear dKdV equation, in which we only considered simplified boundary conditions. This restriction was needed to obtain simple (monomial) relations between the bilinear form and the nonlinear form of the dKdV equation. In this paper, we prove the co-primeness of the terms in the nonlinear dKdV equation for general initial conditions and boundary conditions, by using the localization of Laurent rings and the interchange of the axes. We assert that co-primeness of the terms can be used as a new integrability criterion, which is a mathematical re-interpretation of the confinement of singularities in the case of discrete equations. (paper)

  15. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M. [and others

    1996-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data.

  16. Status of understanding of the saturated-zone ground-water flow system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as of 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, R.R.; Tucci, P.; Faunt, C.C.; Ervin, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, which is being studied extensively because it is a potential site for a high-level radioactive-waste repository, consists of a thick sequence of volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that are underlain, at least to the southeast, by carbonate rocks of Paleozoic age. Stratigraphic units important to the hydrology of the area include the alluvium, pyroclastic rocks of Miocene age (the Timber Mountain Group; the Paintbrush Group; the Calico Hills Formation; the Crater Flat Group; the Lithic Ridge Tuff; and older tuffs, flows, and lavas beneath the Lithic Ridge Tuff), and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The saturated zone generally occurs in the Calico Hills Formation and stratigraphically lower units. The saturated zone is divided into three aquifers and two confining units. The flow system at Yucca Mountain is part of the Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek subbasin of the Death Valley groundwater basin. Variations in the gradients of the potentiometric surface provided the basis for subdividing the Yucca Mountain area into zones of: (1) large hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change at least 300 meters in a few kilometers; (2) moderate hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change about 45 meters in a few kilometers; and (3) small hydraulic gradient where potentiometric levels change only about 2 meters in several kilometers. Vertical hydraulic gradients were measured in only a few boreholes around Yucca Mountain; most boreholes had little change in potentiometric levels with depth. Limited hydraulic testing of boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area indicated that the range in transmissivity was more than 2 to 3 orders of magnitude in a particular hydrogeologic unit, and that the average values for the individual hydrogeologic units generally differed by about 1 order of magnitude. The upper volcanic aquifer seems to be the most permeable hydrogeologic unit, but this conclusion was based on exceedingly limited data

  17. Uranium migration in a podzol. The role of colloids in the non-saturated zone and the phreatic water: application to the Landes de Gascogne area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancon, P.

    2001-01-01

    The non-saturated zone of a soil represents the interface between the atmosphere and the phreatic water. The confinement efficiency of the non-saturated zone above the phreatic water depends on the fastness of water transfers and on the type of pollutant transport mechanisms. Uranium (VI) can combine with humid acids to form very stable complexes. The aggregates of the absorbing complex are highly sensible to the variations of the ionic force of the environment. This sensitiveness can be at the origin of a strong remobilization of the colloid humic compounds of the soil, and of their migration towards the underground water. In this situation, the uranium complexed by humic compounds can rapidly migrate in the soil. The comparative reactive transport of the total uranium and its isotopes has been studied in a site, the Landes de Gascogne podzol (SW France), where metallic uranium has been sprinkled on the surface of the soil. The field study has been completed with an experimental column transport study using uranium isotopes tracer techniques. The field study shows that most of uranium is trapped in the very first cm of the soil. However, anomalous high uranium concentrations are observed in underground waters, more than 2 km away from the contaminated areas. This demonstrates that a fast and long distance transport process exists for uranium in the unsaturated zone. In the sandy soil of the study area, natural argillo-humic colloids migrate with the velocity of water but can be delayed when the ionic force of the underground waters increases. It is shown that uranium is strongly linked with the thin grain size fraction ( 233 U allows to discriminate between the uranium transported through the sand in a non-reactive way, and the uranium desorbed from the argillo-humic aggregates and the sand grain coatings. A fast reduction of the ionic force of the environment during the tests shows an important remobilization of uranium from the soil. When the complex relations

  18. Stability of the ammonium-p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetrakis (N,N-diethylacetamide) complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makrlik, E.

    2006-01-01

    From extraction experiments and γ-activity measurements, the extraction constant corresponding to the equilibrium NH 4 + (aq)+NaL + (nb) ↔ NH 4 L + (nb)+Na + (aq) taking place in the two-phase water-nitrobenzene system (L = p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetrakis (N,N-diethylacetamide); aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) was evaluated as logK ex (NH 4 + ,NaL + ) = -1.8. Further, the stability constant of the p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene-tetrakis (N,N-diethylacetamide)-ammonium complex in nitrobenzene saturated with water was calculated for a temperature of 25 deg C: logβ nb (NH 4 L + ) = 6.7. (author)

  19. Effect of pore water pressure on P-wave velocity in water-filled sands with partial air saturation; Fukanzen howa jotai no suna shiryo wo denpasuru P ha sokudo ni oyobosu kangeki suiatsu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanema, T [Chishitsu-Keisoku Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    With an objective to elucidate change in velocity of elastic waves in association with water pressure increase in a sand bed below the groundwater level in a shallow portion of the ground, a measurement experiment was carried out on P-wave velocity in sand samples with partial air saturation. The experiment has used fine sand having an equivalent coefficient of 2.40, a soil particle density of 2.68 g/cm {sup 3} or 60%, and a grain size of 0.36 mm. Inside the water-filled sand sample, two accelerometers were embedded 20 cm apart from each other as vibration receivers. An electromagnetic hammer for P-wave was used as the vibration source. In the experiment, measurement was carried out on the P-wave velocity in association with increase in pore water pressure by applying water pressure afresh to the water-filled sample. As a result of the experiment, the following matters were disclosed: the P-wave velocity increases as the pore water pressure was increased, and a phenomenon was recognized that the dominant frequency changes into high frequency; the degree of increase in the P-wave velocity varies depending on initial saturation of the sample; and bubbles in the pore fluid have their volume decreased due to compression resulted from increased pore water pressure and dissolution of air into the pore water. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Irreducible Anterior Shoulder Dislocation Associated With Displaced Fracture of the Greater Tuberosity: An Analysis of Seven Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Nakhaei Amroodi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although anterior shoulder dislocation is the most prevalent type of body dislocation, irreducible anterior shoulder dislocation is seldom reported in the literature, which is usually due to physical obstacles. Objectives: This study presents our findings regarding the causes of irreducibility of anterior shoulder dislocation associated with displaced fracture of the greater tuberosity. Patients and Methods: CT scans, open reduction of the joint, and internal fixation of the tuberosity was performed in seven patients with irreducible anterior shoulder dislocation associated with displaced fracture of the greater tuberosity. Results: As confirmed by intraoperative findings, the CT scans showed the cause of irreducible shoulder dislocation in six cases was the interposition of the long head of biceps (LHB in the anterior of the head that was displaced from the fracture line between the greater and lesser tuberosities. In another case, the greater and lesser tuberosities were attached to each other and were separated from the head. This fractured part was trapped. Conclusions: We suggest that performing CT scans in all cases of anterior shoulder dislocations with displaced fracture of the greater tuberosity can help surgeons to diagnose the accompanying fractures and possible complications, such as irreducibility. If the fracture line passes through the bicipital groove or in the case of a shield fracture, possible irreducibility should be borne in mind.

  1. Water recovery from brines and salt-saturated solutions: operability and thermodynamic efficiency considerations for desalination technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review provides an overview of desalination technologies and discusses the thermodynamic efficiencies and operational issues associated with the various technologies particularly with regard to high salinity streams. When water is recovered from a saline source, a brine conc...

  2. Natural gas adsorption on coal in anhydrous and in water saturated conditions: study of the adsorbed quantities and of the isotopic fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caja, M.

    2000-02-01

    In order to understand the influence of adsorption in the migration of natural gas in sedimentary basins. we have developed an experimental device to measure the quantity of gas adsorbed on organic matter. We quantify the isotopic and chemical fractionation due to adsorption of natural gas on coal at representative gas field conditions (20 - 200 deg C and 1 - 1000 bar). These effects are investigated for gas / solid systems and for gas dissolved in water/water saturated solid systems. The solid sample considered in this work is a natural coal of Carboniferous age, taken from a mine in Lorraine, France. Its maturity corresponds to the end of the diagenesis zone. A first set of high pressure methane adsorption experiments on dry coal are compared with measurements done by another laboratory on the same solid. This allowed us to validate the experimental procedure. This measurements performed in the presence of water have shown that methane adsorption is significant even in presence of water. We have developed a simple adsorption model (Langmuir model in which fugacity is used in stead of partial pressure) in order to represent this phenomena. For a depth profile we compare the part of methane adsorbed on sedimentary rocks organic matter to methane dissolved in pore water. A second set of experiments realised on a multicomponent gas (C1, C2, C3, C4, CO 2 ) shows a preferential adsorption of carbon dioxide, but no significant fractionation on hydrocarbon gases of the mixture has been observed. Adsorption experiments of methane on dry medium and on water saturated medium yield on the same result: adsorption equilibrium do not induce a significant isotopic fractionation between 13 CH 4 and 12 CH 4 . However, we observe a significant fractionation during gas desorption. The interpretation is that we are not at equilibrium and diffusion phenomena is superimposed on adsorption. From this study two important geological consequences can be drawn. First. for rocks containing

  3. On-bead combinatorial synthesis and imaging of chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging agents to identify factors that influence water exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Roberta; Soesbe, Todd C; De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Sherry, A Dean; Udugamasooriya, D Gomika

    2011-08-24

    The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents is highly dependent on the rate of water exchange between the inner sphere of a paramagnetic ion and bulk water. Normally, identifying a paramagnetic complex that has optimal water exchange kinetics is done by synthesizing and testing one compound at a time. We report here a rapid, economical on-bead combinatorial synthesis of a library of imaging agents. Eighty different 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-tetraamide peptoid derivatives were prepared on beads using a variety of charged, uncharged but polar, hydrophobic, and variably sized primary amines. A single chemical exchange saturation transfer image of the on-bead library easily distinguished those compounds having the most favorable water exchange kinetics. This combinatorial approach will allow rapid screening of libraries of imaging agents to identify the chemical characteristics of a ligand that yield the most sensitive imaging agents. This technique could be automated and readily adapted to other types of MRI or magnetic resonance/positron emission tomography agents as well.

  4. Seasonal variation of CaCO3 saturation state in bottom water of a biological hotspot in the Chukchi Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamamoto-Kawai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω was observed in the Chukchi Sea in autumn 2012 and early summer 2013. Ω in bottom water ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 for aragonite and from 0.5 to 3.2 for calcite in 2012. In 2013, Ω in bottom water was 1.1–2.8 for aragonite and 1.7–4.4 for calcite. Aragonite and calcite undersaturation was found in high productivity regions in autumn 2012 but not in early summer 2013. Comparison with other parameters has indicated that biological processes – respiration and photosynthesis – are major factors controlling the regional and temporal variability of Ω. From these ship-based observations, we have obtained empirical equations to reconstruct Ω from temperature, salinity and apparent oxygen utilization. Using 2-year-round mooring data and these equations, we have reconstructed seasonal variation of Ω in bottom water in Hope Valley, a biological hotspot in the southern Chukchi Sea. Estimated Ω was high in spring and early summer, decreased in later summer, and remained relatively low in winter. Calculations indicated a possibility that bottom water could have been undersaturated for aragonite on an intermittent basis even in the pre-industrial period, and that anthropogenic CO2 has extended the period of aragonite undersaturation to more than 2-fold longer by now.

  5. The sensitivity of water chemistry to climate in a forested, nitrogen-saturated catchment recovering from acidification.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef; Kaňa, Jiří; Porcal, Petr; Turek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, April (2016), s. 196-208 ISSN 1470-160X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/12/1218 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nitrogen * sulphur * organic carbon * aluminium * base cations * phosphorus * pH Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2016

  6. Oxygen Saturation Surrounding Deep Water Formation Events in the Labrador Sea From Argo-O2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mitchell K.; Hamme, Roberta C.; Gilbert, Denis; Yashayaev, Igor; Thierry, Virginie

    2018-04-01

    Deep water formation supplies oxygen-rich water to the deep sea, spreading throughout the ocean by means of the global thermohaline circulation. Models suggest that dissolved gases in newly formed deep water do not come to equilibrium with the atmosphere. However, direct measurements during wintertime convection are scarce, and the controls over the extent of these disequilibria are poorly quantified. Here we show that, when convection reached deeper than 800 m, oxygen in the Labrador Sea was consistently undersaturated at -6.1% to -7.6% at the end of convection. Deeper convection resulted in greater undersaturation, while convection ending later in the year resulted in values closer to equilibrium, from which we produce a predictive relationship. We use dissolved oxygen data from six profiling Argo floats in the Labrador Sea between 2003 and 2016, allowing direct observations of wintertime convection. Three of the six optode oxygen sensors displayed substantial average in situ drift of -3.03 μmol O2 kg-1 yr-1 (-0.94% O2 yr-1), which we corrected to stable deepwater oxygen values from repeat ship surveys. Observations of low oxygen intrusions during restratification and a simple mixing calculation demonstrate that lateral processes act to lower the oxygen inventory of the central Labrador Sea. This suggests that the Labrador Sea is a net sink for atmospheric oxygen, but uncertainties in parameterizing gas exchange limit our ability to quantify the net uptake. Our results constrain the oxygen concentration of newly formed Labrador Sea Water and allow more precise estimates of oxygen utilization and nutrient regeneration in this water mass.

  7. Transient heat characteristics of water-saturated porous media with freezing; Toketsu wo tomonau gansui takoshitsu sonai no hiteijo netsu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, A [Akita National College of Technology, Akita (Japan)

    1998-02-25

    Analytical and experimental investigations were performed to examine the transient heat characteristics of water-saturated porous media with freezing. As a physical model, a two-dimensional vertical cavity was considered. One vertical wall was abruptly cooled below the fusion temperature. Other three walls were thermally insulated. Three different sizes of glass, and iron, alumina and copper beads were used as the porous media in this study. The cold energy stored up in the porous media and the average thickness of frozen layer were measured in the experiments. Comparisons of the analytical results with the experimental ones were made, and the effects of Darcy number, Stefan number and modified Prandtl number on the transient heat characteristics were discussed. The dimensionless equations for predicting the averaged frozen layer thickness and the stored cold energy were obtained as a function of various dimensionless parameters. 8 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Hydrogeological studies in the water-saturated and unsaturated zone of the calcareous strata in the Wackersdorf region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The investigation cerves an area of 58.5 km 2 . It is a locally important groundwater reservoir with numerous fountains and waterworks. The investigations were conducted in the unsaturated zone and in the topmost ground-water horizon in the chalky layers. Emphasis is laid on questions of infiltration and groundwater dynamics. The hydrological situation is covered in its entirety, and basic data are collected from field and laboratory tests. (DG) [de

  9. Generation and importance of linked and irreducible moment diagrams in the recursive residue generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schek, I.; Wyatt, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Molecular multiphoton processes are treated in the Recursive Residue Generation Method (A. Nauts and R.E. Wyatt, Phys. Rev. Lett 51, 2238 (1983)) by converting the molecular-field Hamiltonian matrix into tridiagonal form, using the Lanczos equations. In this study, the self-energies (diagonal) and linking (off-diagaonal) terms in the tridiagonal matrix are obtained by comparing linked moment diagrams in both representations. The dynamics of the source state is introduced and computed in terms of the linked and the irreducible moments

  10. r-particle irreducible kernels, asymptotic completeness and analyticity properties of several particle collision amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, J.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the present status of many-particle structure analysis in the general framework of massive quantum field theory. Two main questions are discussed, namely: i) the equivalence between the asymptotic completeness of a field and the r-particle irreducibility of associated Bether-Salpeter type kernels; ii) the derivation of extended analyticity properties of the Green functions and multiparticle collision amplitudes around the corresponding physical regions. Substantial results concerning the 3→3 particle processes are described. An analogous multiparticle version of these results yields a partial understanding of the general case

  11. On the geometry of certain irreducible non-torus plane sextics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyral, Christophe; Oka, Mutsuo

    2009-01-01

    An irreducible non-torus plane sextic with simple singularities is said to be special if its fundamental group factors to a dihedral group. There exist (exactly) ten configurations of simple singularities that are realizable by such curves. Among them, six are realizable by non-special sextics...... as well. We conjecture that for each of these six configurations there always exists a non-special curve whose fundamental group is abelian, and we prove this conjecture for three configurations (another one has already been treated in one of our previous papers). As a corollary, we obtain new explicit...

  12. Equipment for secondary water distribution in heat exchanger, especially saturated steam generator for nuclear power plants and heat plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riman, J; Manek, O; Rybnicek, J

    1979-09-15

    A special structure consisting of a system of channels and a distribution plate with ports in-built above the tube-plate of a vertical-type steam generator prevents secondary water vaporization in the space above the tube-plate and thus also salt and sludge sedimentation which causes increased corrosion of heat transfer tubes. The size of the distribution plate ports is variable in the radial direction. The distribution plate is divided by means of the system of channels into at least two parts. The middle section of each part is of the through-flow type.

  13. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune N.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2 concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than interfaces with the opposite layering.

  14. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, M.A., E-mail: marijn.boone@ugent.be [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Unit Sustainable Materials Management, VITO, Boerentang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Schutter, G. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Department of Structural Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 904, 9052 Ghent (Belgium); Vontobel, P. [Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Van Hoorebeke, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy—UGCT, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Cnudde, V. [Department of Geology and Soil Science—UGCT, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 S8, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic

  15. Hydrogen solubility in pore water of partially saturated argillites: Application to Callovo-Oxfordian clay-rock in the context of a nuclear waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassin, A.; Dymitrowska, M.; Azaroual, M.

    2011-01-01

    In nuclear waste geological disposals, large amounts of hydrogen (H 2 ) are expected to be produced by different (bio-)geochemical processes. Depending on the pressure generated by such a process, H 2 could be produced as a gas phase and displace the neighbouring pore water. As a consequence, a water-unsaturated zone could be created around the waste and possibly affect the physical and physic-chemical properties of the disposal and the excavation disturbed zone around it. The present study is the first part of an ongoing research program aimed at evaluating the possible chemical evolution of the pore water-minerals-gas system in such a context. The goal of this study was to evaluate, in terms of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, the geochemical disturbance of the pore water due to variations in hydrogen pressure, temperature and relative humidity. No heterogeneous reactions involving mineral phases of the clay-rock or reactive surface sites were taken into account in the thermodynamic analysis. In the case sulphate reduction reaction is allowed, geochemical modelling results indicate that the main disturbance is the increase in pH (from around 7 up to more than 10) and an important decrease in the redox potential (Eh) related to hydrogen dissolution. This occurs from relatively low H 2 partial pressures (∼1 bar and above). Then, temperature and relative humidity (expressed in terms of capillary pressure) further displace the thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, namely the pH and the aqueous speciation as well as saturation indices of mineral phases. Finally, the results suggest that the generation of hydrogen, combined with an increase in temperature (between 30 deg. C and 80 deg. C) and a decrease in relative humidity (from 100% to 30%), should increase the chemical reactivity of the pore water-rock-gas system. (authors)

  16. Properties of membranes to permeation to radon 222. New development for the measurement of radon 222 in water and water-saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labed, V.; Robe, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Membranes that exclude water but are permeable to radon can extend the range of environments in which many radon detection systems could operate. We have studied the permeation of 222 Rn through membranes separating air and water phases. The permeation coefficients and the activation energy were calculated for various conditions. Potential applications such as in situ detection of radon in water are discussed

  17. Mechanics of non-saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, O.; Fleureau, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents the different ways to approach the mechanics of non saturated soils, from the physico-chemical aspect to the mechanical aspect, from the experiment to the theoretical modeling, from the laboratory to the workmanship, and from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic one. Content: water and its representation; experimental bases of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; transfer laws in non-saturated environment; energy approach of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; homogenization for the non-saturated soils; plasticity and hysteresis; dams and backfilling; elaborated barriers. (J.S.)

  18. Biodegradation in a Partially Saturated Sand Matrix: Compounding Effects of Water Content, Bacterial Spatial Distribution, and Motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Bazire, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    colonizing these zones or on pollutant mass transfer to neighboring zones containing degraders. In a model system, we quantified the role exerted by water on mineralization rate in the context of a heterogeneously distributed degradation potential. Alginate beads colonized by Pseudomonas putida KT2440 were......Bacterial pesticide degraders are generally heterogeneously distributed in soils, leaving soil volumes devoid of degradation potential. This is expected to have an impact on degradation rates because the degradation of pollutant molecules in such zones will be contingent either on degraders...... inserted at prescribed locations in sand microcosms so that the initial spatial distribution of the mineralization potential was controlled. The mineralization rate was strongly affected by the matric potential (decreasing rate with decreasing matric potential) and by the initial distribution...

  19. Study of the water retention and the consolidation of partially saturated soils in a thermo-hydro-mechanical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salager, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This work is concerned with the study of water retention and consolidation of unsaturated soils in a thermo-hydro-mechanical framework. It is organized into two parts which deal respectively with deformation and temperature effects on hydric behaviour, and suction and temperature effects on mechanical behaviour. In the first part, we point out the relevance of the characteristic surface concept for soils as opposed to the retention curve, which has limited modelling power in the case of deformable media. The characteristic surface concept is experimentally illustrated for the example of a clayey silty sand. Its modelling is based on a large sample of experimental investigations with about 240 measurements of the triplet void ratio, water content, suction. In addition, a thermo-hydric behaviour model is proposed in order to determine the characteristic surface and the retention curve for a given temperature. This model is validated for the case of two materials: a ceramic and a clayey silty sand through direct testing, and for other materials on the basis of an analysis of the literature. Finally, we present an application to the determination of the permeability of unsaturated soils taking into account deformation and temperature. In the second part, temperature and suction effects on the mechanical behaviour are studied through consolidation tests on 'Sion' silt. These tests are performed for different temperatures and suctions. For each test, swelling and compression indexes, as well as the pre-consolidation pressure are measured. The influence of temperature and suction on these essential parameters of mechanical behaviour is determined. Finally, we propose a theoretical model which account for pre-consolidation pressure as a function of temperature and suction. (author)

  20. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  1. Field test facility for monitoring water/radionuclide transport through partially saturated geologic media: design, construction, and preliminary description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Campbell, A.C.; Campbell, M.D.; Gee, G.W.; Hoober, H.H.; Schwarzmiller, K.O.

    1979-11-01

    Shallow land burial has been a common practice for disposing radioactive waste materials since the beginning of plutonium production operations. Accurate monitoring of radionuclide transport and factors causing transport within the burial sites is essential to minimizing risks associated with disposal. However, monitoring has not always been adequate. Consequently, the Department of Energy (DOE) has begun a program aimed at better assuring and evaluating containment of radioactive wastes at shallow land burial sites. This program includes a technological base for monitoring transport. As part of the DOE program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing geohydrologic monitoring systems to evaluate burial sites located in arid regions. For this project, a field test facility was designed and constructed to assess monitoring systems for near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and to provide information for evaluating site containment performance. The facility is an integrated network of monitoring devices and data collection instruments. This facility is used to measure water and radionuclide migration under field conditions typical of arid regions. Monitoring systems were developed to allow for measurement of both mass and energy balance. Work on the facility is ongoing. Continuing work includes emplacement of prototype monitoring instruments, data collection, and data synthesis. At least 2 years of field data are needed to fully evaluate monitoring information

  2. Irreducibility and Computational Equivalence 10 Years After Wolfram's A New Kind of Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that computation is playing an increasingly prominent role in the development of mathematics, as well as in the natural and social sciences. The work of Stephen Wolfram over the last several decades has been a salient part in this phenomenon helping founding the field of Complex Systems, with many of his constructs and ideas incorporated in his book A New Kind of Science (ANKS) becoming part of the scientific discourse and general academic knowledge--from the now established Elementary Cellular Automata to the unconventional concept of mining the Computational Universe, from today's widespread Wolfram's Behavioural Classification to his principles of Irreducibility and Computational Equivalence. This volume, with a Foreword by Gregory Chaitin and an Afterword by Cris Calude, covers these and other topics related to or motivated by Wolfram's seminal ideas, reporting on research undertaken in the decade following the publication of Wolfram's NKS book. Featuring 39 authors, its 23 contributions are o...

  3. Geometric spin frustration for isolated plaquettes of the lattices: An extended irreducible tensor operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Chen Zhida

    2006-01-01

    A new strategy to search for the good quantum numbers for the corner-sharing spin systems, as archetypal plaquettes of the lattices, was suggested for the first time in order to study on geometric spin frustration. The calculations on energy spectra by using the irreducible tensor operator method with the new strategy can be much reduced. As representative examples the energy spectra for the spin pentamer of the tetrahedron with a centered spin site and the spin heptamer of three corner-sharing equilateral-triangle were examined in order to confirm efficiency of the new strategy. Through our code, with automatically searching for the good quantum numbers, the projection operators S iz , S ix and S iy matrices in the ground state space for the spin heptamer were reliably constructed

  4. Irreducible normalizer operators and thresholds for degenerate quantum codes with sublinear distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2015-03-01

    We construct a lower (existence) bound for the threshold of scalable quantum computation which is applicable to all stabilizer codes, including degenerate quantum codes with sublinear distance scaling. The threshold is based on enumerating irreducible operators in the normalizer of the code, i.e., those that cannot be decomposed into a product of two such operators with non-overlapping support. For quantum LDPC codes with logarithmic or power-law distances, we get threshold values which are parametrically better than the existing analytical bound based on percolation. The new bound also gives a finite threshold when applied to other families of degenerate quantum codes, e.g., the concatenated codes. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.

  5. Radial head button holing: a cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won; You, Ja Yeon; Park, Jina [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Kee Jeong [Seoul National University Seoul Metropolitan Government Boramae Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ''Buttonholing'' of the radial head through the anterior joint capsule is a known cause of irreducible anterior radial head dislocation associated with Monteggia injuries in pediatric patients. To the best of our knowledge, no report has described an injury consisting of buttonholing of the radial head through the annular ligament and a simultaneous radial head fracture in an adolescent. In the present case, the radiographic findings were a radial head fracture with anterior dislocation and lack of the anterior fat pad sign. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) clearly demonstrated anterior dislocation of the fractured radial head through the torn annular ligament. The anterior joint capsule and proximal portion of the annular ligament were interposed between the radial head and capitellum, preventing closed reduction of the radial head. Familiarity with this condition and imaging findings will aid clinicians to make a proper diagnosis and fast decision to perform an open reduction. (orig.)

  6. Multipole analysis in the radiation field for linearized f (R ) gravity with irreducible Cartesian tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bofeng; Huang, Chao-Guang

    2018-04-01

    The 1 /r expansion in the distance to the source is applied to the linearized f (R ) gravity, and its multipole expansion in the radiation field with irreducible Cartesian tensors is presented. Then, the energy, momentum, and angular momentum in the gravitational waves are provided for linearized f (R ) gravity. All of these results have two parts, which are associated with the tensor part and the scalar part in the multipole expansion of linearized f (R ) gravity, respectively. The former is the same as that in General Relativity, and the latter, as the correction to the result in General Relativity, is caused by the massive scalar degree of freedom and plays an important role in distinguishing General Relativity and f (R ) gravity.

  7. Experimental test of the irreducible four-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-En; Tang, Wei-Dong; Wu, Dian; Cai, Xin-Dong; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Żukowski, Marek; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-03-01

    The paradox of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) disproves directly the concept of EPR elements of reality, based on the EPR correlations, in an all-versus-nothing way. A three-qubit experimental demonstration of the GHZ paradox was achieved nearly 20 years ago, followed by demonstrations for more qubits. Still, the GHZ contradictions underlying the tests can be reduced to a three-qubit one. We show an irreducible four-qubit GHZ paradox, and report its experimental demonstration. The bound of a three-setting-per-party Bell-GHZ inequality is violated by 7 σ . The fidelity of the GHZ state was around 81 % , and an entanglement witness reveals a violation of the separability threshold by 19 σ .

  8. Development of laboratory experiments serving as a basis for modeling the transport behaviour of arsenate, lead, cadmium and copper in water-saturated columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the study was to work out laboratory experiments which might serve as a link between the bench and the application of CoTAM (Column Transport and Absorption Model) in real practice, thus thanking the development of this computer model which is to permit the simulation of the transport behaviour of heavy metals in porous aquilers. Efforts were made to find a process-oriented concept so as to provide a wide field of application. In developing the model and the laboratory experiments, this meant studying all the processes in groundwater separately as far as possible and avoiding case-specific sum parameters. The work centered on an examination of sorption processes during transport in groundwater, as this combination of processes is always found in natural porous aquifers. In water-saturated-column experiments on combinations of arenaceous quartz, feldspar, montmorillonite, goethite, peat and manganese oxide as the aquifer material, the transport of cadmium, copper, lead and arsenate was simulated on the bench scale. These case examples served to study sorption processes and their diverse kinetics as well as hydrodynamic processes. (orig./BBR) [de

  9. Advantages of chemical exchange-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) over chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) for hydroxyl- and amine-water proton exchange studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2014-11-01

    The chemical exchange (CE) rate of endogenous hydroxyl and amine protons with water is often comparable to the difference in their chemical shifts. These intermediate exchange processes have been imaged by the CE saturation transfer (CEST) approach with low-power and long-duration irradiation. However, the sensitivity is not optimal and, more importantly, the signal is contaminated by slow magnetization transfer processes. Here, the properties of CEST signals are compared with those of a CE-sensitive spin-lock (CESL) technique irradiating at the labile proton frequency. First, using a higher power and shorter irradiation in CE-MRI, we obtain: (i) an increased selectivity to faster CE rates via a higher sensitivity to faster CEs and a lower sensitivity to slower CEs and magnetization transfer processes; and (ii) a decreased in vivo asymmetric magnetization transfer contrast measured at ±15 ppm. The sensitivity gain of CESL over CEST is higher for a higher power and shorter irradiation. Unlike CESL, CEST signals oscillate at a very high power and short irradiation. Second, time-dependent CEST and CESL signals are well modeled by analytical solutions of CE-MRI with an asymmetric population approximation, which can be used for quantitative CE-MRI and validated by simulations of Bloch-McConnell equations and phantom experiments. Finally, the in vivo amine-water proton exchange contrast measured at 2.5 ppm with ω1 = 500 Hz is 18% higher in sensitivity for CESL than CEST at 9.4 T. Overall, CESL provides better exchange rate selectivity and sensitivity than CEST; therefore, CESL is more suitable for CE-MRI of intermediate exchange protons. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Advantages of Chemical Exchange-Sensitive Spin-Lock (CESL) Over Saturation Transfer (CEST) for Hydroxyl- and Amine-Water Proton Exchange Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Kim, Seong-Gi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical exchange (CE) rate of endogenous hydroxyl and amine protons with water is often comparable to the difference in their chemical shifts. These intermediate exchange (IMEX) processes have been imaged by the CE saturation transfer (CEST) approach with low-power and long-duration irradiation. However, its sensitivity is not optimal, and more importantly, the signal is contaminated by slow magnetization transfer processes. Here, the property of CEST signals is compared to a CE-sensitive spin-locking (CESL) technique irradiating at the labile proton frequency. Firstly, using a higher power and shorter irradiation in CE-MRI yields i) increasing selectivity to faster chemical exchange rates by higher sensitivity to faster exchanges and less sensitivity to slower CE and magnetization transfer processes, and ii) decreasing in vivo asymmetric magnetization transfer contrast measured at ±15 ppm. The sensitivity gain of CESL over CEST is higher for a higher-power and shorter irradiation. Unlike CESL, CEST signals oscillate at a very high power and short irradiation. Secondly, time-dependent CEST and CESL signals are well modeled by analytical solutions of CE-MRI with asymmetric population approximation (CEAPA), which can be used for quantitative CE-MRI, and validated by simulations of Bloch-McConnell equations and phantom experiments. Lastly, in vivo amine-water proton exchange contrast measured at 2.5 ppm with ω1 of 500 Hz is 18% higher in sensitivity for CESL than CEST at 9.4 T. Overall, CESL provides better exchange rate selectivity and sensitivity than CEST; therefore, CESL is more suitable for CE-MRI of IMEX protons. PMID:25199631

  11. Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (nTiO2) Transport in Water-Saturated Natural Sediments: Influence of Soil Organic Matter and Fe/Al Oxyhydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Power, L.; Cheng, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transport of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in subsurface environments has important implications to water quality and soil contamination. Although extensive research has been conducted to understand the effects of water chemistry on ENP transport, less attention has been paid to influences from the transport medium/matrix. The objective of this research is to investigate the effects of natural organic matter (NOM) and Fe/Al oxyhydroxides in a natural sediment on ENP transport. A sediment was collected and separated into four portions, one of which was unmodified, and the others treated to remove specific components (organic matter, Fe/Al oxyhydroxides, or both organic matter and Fe/Al oxyhydroxides). Transport of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nTiO2) in columns packed with quartz sand and each of the four types of the sediment under water-saturated conditions was studied. Our results showed that nTiO2 transport was strongly influenced by pH and sediment composition. When influent pH = 5, nTiO2 transport in all the sediments was low, as positively-charged nTiO2 was attracted to negatively charged NOM, quartz, and other minerals. nTiO2 transport was slightly enhanced in columns packed with untreated sediment or Fe/Al oxyhydroxides removed sediment due to dissolved organic matter generated by the partial dissolution of NOM, which adsorbed onto nTiO2 surface and reversed its zeta potential to negative. When influent pH = 9, nTiO2 transport was generally high since negatively-charged nTiO2 was repelled by negatively charged transport medium. However, in columns packed with the organic matter removed sediment or the Fe/Al oxyhydroxides removed sediment, nTiO2 transport was low. This was attributable to pH buffering by the sediment, which decreased pore water pH in the column, resulting in zeta potential change and electrostatic attraction between Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and nTiO2. This research demonstrates that electrostatic forces between nTiO2 and mineral/organic components

  12. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  13. Corrosion of iron and low alloyed steel within a water saturated brick of clay under anaerobic deep geological disposal conditions: An integrated experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.A.; Bataillon, C.; Schlegel, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the corrosion behaviour of iron and low alloyed steels under simulated geological disposal conditions, related to long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in the site of Bure (Meuse-Haute Marne, Champagne, France). The dedicated experiment was a fully integrated set-up: three different bars of material (iron, steel or nickel) have been introduced inside a solid block of clay, which has been saturated with synthetic Bure water and maintained at 90 deg. C during 8 months. Two types of clay have been tested: first, a compacted MX80 (Wyoming, USA) and second, argilite directly taken from the Bure site (Callovo-Oxfordian). In situ electrochemistry has been performed: impedance spectra, chronopotentiometry... The samples have been analysed using a combination of techniques, such as SEM, XRD, EDS, μXAS, μRaman, gravimetry after desquamation. In both cases, the steel or the iron seemed to passivate in contact with the clay. Post-processing of the EIS determined the corrosion rates and the changes in the kinetics have been noticed. The post mortem analysis of the corrosion products showed in both cases the presence of an internal layer made of magnetite (Raman, EDX). The external layer was made of partially Ca-substituted siderite (Fe 1-x Ca x CO 3 ), which could play an extra role in the passivation. Moreover, the samples embedded in the Bure argilite presented an intermediate unique layer containing Fe, O, Na and Si. This study suggests the corrosion products started to react with the silica issued from the dissolution of the Bure clay minerals, resulting in clay minerals neo-formation and in corrosion kinetic changes

  14. (p,V{sub m},T,x) measurements for aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solutions[Density; Concentration; Electrolyte solutions; Equation of state; Lithium nitrate; Saturated density; Saturated pressure; Temperature; Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulagatov, I.M. E-mail: ilmutdin@boulder.nist.govmangur@datacom.ru; Azizov, N.D. E-mail: Nazim_Azizov@yahoo.com

    2004-01-01

    (p,V{sub m},T,x) properties of four aqueous LiNO{sub 3} solutions (0.181, 0.526, 0.963, and 1.728) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} H{sub 2}O were measured in the liquid phase with a constant-volume piezometer immersed in a precision liquid thermostat. Measurements were made for 10 isotherms between (298 and 573) K. The range of pressure was from (2 to 40) MPa. The total uncertainty of density, pressure, temperature, and concentration measurements were estimated to be less than 0.06 %, 0.05 %, 10 mK, and 0.014 %, respectively. The values of saturated density were determined by extrapolating experimental (p,{rho}) data to the vapor-pressure at fixed temperature and composition using an interpolating equation. A polynomial type of equation of state for specific volume was obtained as a function of temperature, pressure, and composition by a least-squares method from the experimental data. The average absolute deviation (AAD) between measured and calculated values from this polynomial equation for density was 0.02 %. Measured values of solution density were compared with values calculated from Pitzer's ion-interaction equation. The agreement is within (0.2 to 0.4) % depending of concentration range.

  15. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  16. Water saturation phase of the buffer and backfill in the KBS-3V concept. Special emphasis given to the influence of the backfill on the wetting of the buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Faelth, Billy [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Hernelind, Jan [5T Engineering AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    The wetting and rate of saturation of the buffer and backfill materials in a KBS- V repository from the rock fractures and the rock matrix have been investigated by a large number of different finite element models and calculations. For most models the FE-code ABAQUS has been used but for investigation of the influence of trapped air in the backfill FE-code Code Bright was used. Both codes include completely coupled THM models, which have been used, but for some calculations it has been sufficient to limit the models to only use the hydraulic or thermohydraulic parts of the models. The following analyses have been made: 1. The influence of the backfill properties and wetting conditions on the water saturation phase of the buffer has been investigated with the old FEM-model used in earlier wetting calculations for SR-97. The old calculations have been updated regarding the influence of the backfill. The model is 2-dimensional with axial symmetry around the axis of the deposition hole. These calculations show that there is strong influence of wetting from the backfill if the rock is rather dry (K{sub rock} = 10{sup -13} m/s), while the influence is low if the rock is rather wet (K{sub rock} = 10{sup -12} m/s). At K{sub rock} = 10{sup -13} m/s the time to saturation decreases with a factor 2 in the absence of fractures and with a factor 1.5 with two fractures intersecting the hole when water is supplied from the backfill (30/70) compared to when no water is available. A completely dry rock yields very long time to saturation and of course decisive influence of the water supply from the backfill. If water is freely available at a water pressure of 5 MPa in the backfill it takes 250-500 years to reach full saturation of the buffer. If the water available in the backfill is limited to the initial amount (completely dry rock also around the tunnel and thus no addition of water from the rock in the tunnel) it will take several thousands years to reach some kind of

  17. Water saturation phase of the buffer and backfill in the KBS-3V concept. Special emphasis given to the influence of the backfill on the wetting of the buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Faelth, Billy; Hernelind, Jan

    2006-08-01

    The wetting and rate of saturation of the buffer and backfill materials in a KBS- V repository from the rock fractures and the rock matrix have been investigated by a large number of different finite element models and calculations. For most models the FE-code ABAQUS has been used but for investigation of the influence of trapped air in the backfill FE-code Code Bright was used. Both codes include completely coupled THM models, which have been used, but for some calculations it has been sufficient to limit the models to only use the hydraulic or thermohydraulic parts of the models. The following analyses have been made: 1. The influence of the backfill properties and wetting conditions on the water saturation phase of the buffer has been investigated with the old FEM-model used in earlier wetting calculations for SR-97. The old calculations have been updated regarding the influence of the backfill. The model is 2-dimensional with axial symmetry around the axis of the deposition hole. These calculations show that there is strong influence of wetting from the backfill if the rock is rather dry (K rock = 10 -13 m/s), while the influence is low if the rock is rather wet (K rock = 10 -12 m/s). At K rock = 10 -13 m/s the time to saturation decreases with a factor 2 in the absence of fractures and with a factor 1.5 with two fractures intersecting the hole when water is supplied from the backfill (30/70) compared to when no water is available. A completely dry rock yields very long time to saturation and of course decisive influence of the water supply from the backfill. If water is freely available at a water pressure of 5 MPa in the backfill it takes 250-500 years to reach full saturation of the buffer. If the water available in the backfill is limited to the initial amount (completely dry rock also around the tunnel and thus no addition of water from the rock in the tunnel) it will take several thousands years to reach some kind of equilibrium with a degree of

  18. Vaginal prolapse with urinary bladder incarceration and consecutive irreducible rectal prolapse in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Ciprian-Andrei; Peștean, Cosmin Petru; Bel, Lucia Victoria; Taulescu, Marian; Cătoi, Cornel; Bogdan, Sidonia; Milgram, Joshua; Schwarz, Guenter; Oana, Liviu Ioan

    2016-09-22

    True vaginal prolapse is a rare condition in dogs and it is occasionally observed in animals with constipation, dystocia, or forced separation during breeding. If a true prolapse occurs, the bladder, the uterine body and/or distal part of the colon, may be present in the prolapse. A 2-year-old intact non pregnant Central Asian Shepherd dog in moderate condition, was presented for a true vaginal and rectal prolapse. The prolapses were confirmed by physical examination and ultrasonography. Herniation of the urinary bladder was identified within the vaginal prolapse. The necrotic vaginal wall was resected, the urinary bladder was reduced surgically and fixed to the right abdominal wall to prevent recurrence. Rectal resection and anastomosis was necessary to correct the rectal prolapse. Recurrence of the prolapses was not observed and the dog recovered completely after the surgical treatment. In our opinion, extreme tenesmus arising from constipation may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse with bladder incarceration and secondarily to rectal prolapse. In the young female dog, true vaginal prolapse with secondary involvement of the urinary bladder and irreducible rectal prolapse is an exceptionally rare condition.

  19. Two-particle irreducible effective actions versus resummation: Analytic properties and self-consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Approximations based on two-particle irreducible (2PI effective actions (also known as Φ-derivable, Cornwall–Jackiw–Tomboulis or Luttinger–Ward functionals depending on context have been widely used in condensed matter and non-equilibrium quantum/statistical field theory because this formalism gives a robust, self-consistent, non-perturbative and systematically improvable approach which avoids problems with secular time evolution. The strengths of 2PI approximations are often described in terms of a selective resummation of Feynman diagrams to infinite order. However, the Feynman diagram series is asymptotic and summation is at best a dangerous procedure. Here we show that, at least in the context of a toy model where exact results are available, the true strength of 2PI approximations derives from their self-consistency rather than any resummation. This self-consistency allows truncated 2PI approximations to capture the branch points of physical amplitudes where adjustments of coupling constants can trigger an instability of the vacuum. This, in effect, turns Dyson's argument for the failure of perturbation theory on its head. As a result we find that 2PI approximations perform better than Padé approximation and are competitive with Borel–Padé resummation. Finally, we introduce a hybrid 2PI–Padé method.

  20. Irreducible Greens' Functions method in the theory of highly correlated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzemsky, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The self-consistent theory of the correlation effects in Highly Correlated Systems (HCS) is presented. The novel Irreducible Green's Function (IGF) method is discussed in detail for the Hubbard model and random Hubbard model. The interpolation solution for the quasiparticle spectrum, which is valid for both the atomic and band limit is obtained. The (IGF) method permits to calculate the quasiparticle spectra of many-particle systems with the complicated spectra and strong interaction in a very natural and compact way. The essence of the method deeply related to the notion of the Generalized Mean Fields (GMF), which determine the elastic scattering corrections. The inelastic scattering corrections leads to the damping of the quasiparticles and are the main topic of the present consideration. The calculation of the damping has been done in a self-consistent way for both limits. For the random Hubbard model the weak coupling case has been considered and the self-energy operator has been calculated using the combination of the IGF method and Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). The other applications of the method to the s-f model, Anderson model, Heisenberg antiferromagnet, electron-phonon interaction models and quasiparticle tunneling are discussed briefly. (author). 79 refs

  1. Undecidability and Irreducibility Conditions for Open-Ended Evolution and Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orozco, Santiago; Hernández-Quiroz, Francisco; Zenil, Hector

    2018-01-01

    Is undecidability a requirement for open-ended evolution (OEE)? Using methods derived from algorithmic complexity theory, we propose robust computational definitions of open-ended evolution and the adaptability of computable dynamical systems. Within this framework, we show that decidability imposes absolute limits on the stable growth of complexity in computable dynamical systems. Conversely, systems that exhibit (strong) open-ended evolution must be undecidable, establishing undecidability as a requirement for such systems. Complexity is assessed in terms of three measures: sophistication, coarse sophistication, and busy beaver logical depth. These three complexity measures assign low complexity values to random (incompressible) objects. As time grows, the stated complexity measures allow for the existence of complex states during the evolution of a computable dynamical system. We show, however, that finding these states involves undecidable computations. We conjecture that for similar complexity measures that assign low complexity values, decidability imposes comparable limits on the stable growth of complexity, and that such behavior is necessary for nontrivial evolutionary systems. We show that the undecidability of adapted states imposes novel and unpredictable behavior on the individuals or populations being modeled. Such behavior is irreducible. Finally, we offer an example of a system, first proposed by Chaitin, that exhibits strong OEE.

  2. Irreducible kernels and nonperturbative expansions in a theory with pure m -> m interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent results on the structure of the S matrix at the m-particle threshold (m>=2) in a simplified m->m scattering theory with no subchannel interaction are extended to the Green function F on the basis of off-shell unitarity, through an adequate mathematical extension of some results of Fredholm theory: local two-sheeted or infinite-sheeted structure of F around s=(mμ) 2 depending on the parity of (m-1) (ν-1) (where μ>0 is the mass and ν is the dimension of space-time), off-shell definition of the irreducible kernel U [which is the analogue of the K matrix in the two different parity cases (m-1)(ν-1) odd or even] and related local expansion of F, for (m-1)(ν-1) even, in powers of sigmasup(β)lnsigma(sigma=(mμ) 2 -s). It is shown that each term in this expansion is the dominant contribution to a Feynman-type integral in which each vertex is a kernel U. The links between kernel U and Bethe-Salpeter type kernels G of the theory are exhibited in both parity cases, as also the links between the above expansion of F and local expansions, in the Bethe-Salpeter type framework, of Fsub(lambda) in terms of Feynman-type integrals in which each vertex is a kernel G and which include both dominant and subdominant contributions. (orig.)

  3. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.

  4. Notes on HP1 a software package for simulating variably-saturated water flow, heat transport, solute transport, and biogeochemistry in porous media. HP1 Version 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.

    2010-01-15

    HP1 is a comprehensive modeling tool in terms of processes and reactions for simulating reactive transport and biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated porous media. HP1 results from coupling the water and solute transport model HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2009a) and PHREEQC-2 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). This note provides an overview of how to set up and execute a HP1 project using version 2.2.002 of HP1 and version 4.13 of the graphical user interface (GUI) of HYDRUS-1D. A large part of this note are step-by-step instructions for selected examples involving mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, surface complexation and kinetic degradation networks. The implementation of variably-saturated flow conditions, changing boundary conditions, a layered soil profile or immobile water is also illustrated.

  5. Notes on HP1 a software package for simulating variably-saturated water flow, heat transport, solute transport, and biogeochemistry in porous media. HP1 Version 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.

    2010-01-01

    HP1 is a comprehensive modeling tool in terms of processes and reactions for simulating reactive transport and biogeochemical processes in variably-saturated porous media. HP1 results from coupling the water and solute transport model HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2009a) and PHREEQC-2 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 1999). This note provides an overview of how to set up and execute a HP1 project using version 2.2.002 of HP1 and version 4.13 of the graphical user interface (GUI) of HYDRUS-1D. A large part of this note are step-by-step instructions for selected examples involving mineral dissolution and precipitation, cation exchange, surface complexation and kinetic degradation networks. The implementation of variably-saturated flow conditions, changing boundary conditions, a layered soil profile or immobile water is also illustrated.

  6. A generalized Wigner function on the space of irreducible representations of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and its transformation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2009-01-01

    A natural extension of the Wigner function to the space of irreducible unitary representations of the Weyl-Heisenberg group is discussed. The action of the automorphisms group of the Weyl-Heisenberg group onto Wigner functions and their generalizations and onto symplectic tomograms is elucidated. Some examples of physical systems are considered to illustrate some aspects of the characterization of the Wigner functions as solutions of differential equations

  7. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  8. Irreducible Brillouin conditions and contracted Schroedinger equations for n-electron systems. IV. Perturbative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzelnigg, Werner; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2004-01-01

    The k-particle irreducible Brillouin conditions IBC k and the k-particle irreducible contracted Schroedinger equations ICSE k for a closed-shell state are analyzed in terms of a Moeller-Plesset-type perturbation expansion. The zeroth order is Hartree-Fock. From the IBC 2 (1) , i.e., from the two-particle IBC to first order in the perturbation parameter μ, one gets the leading correction λ 2 (1) to the two-particle cumulant λ 2 correctly. However, in order to construct the second-order energy E 2 , one also needs the second-order diagonal correction γ D (2) to the one-particle density matrix γ. This can be obtained: (i) from the idempotency of the n-particle density matrix, i.e., essentially from the requirement of n-representability; (ii) from the ICSE 1 (2) ; or (iii) by means of perturbation theory via a unitary transformation in Fock space. Method (ii) is very unsatisfactory, because one must first solve the ICSE 3 (2) to get λ 3 (2) , which is needed in the ICSE 2 (2) to get λ 2 (2) , which, in turn, is needed in the ICSE 1 (2) to get γ (2) . Generally the (k+1)-particle approximation is needed to obtain E k correctly. One gains something, if one replaces the standard hierarchy, in which one solves the ICSE k , ignoring λ k+1 and λ k+2 , by a renormalized hierarchy, in which only λ k+2 is ignored, and λ k+1 is expressed in terms of the λ p of lower particle rank via the partial trace relation for λ k+2 . Then the k-particle approximation is needed to obtain E k correctly. This is still poorer than coupled-cluster theory, where the k-particle approximation yields E k+1 . We also study the possibility to use some simple necessary n-representability conditions, based on the non-negativity of γ (2) and two related matrices, in order to get estimates for γ D (2) in terms of λ 2 (1) . In general these estimates are rather weak, but they can become close to the best possible bounds in special situations characterized by a very sparse structure of λ 2

  9. UN PROGRAMA PARA CALCULAR LAS REPRESENTACIONES IRREDUCIBLES DE SN, EN LA FORMA SEMINORMAL DE YOUNG 1 MATEMÁTICA COMPUTACIONAL COMO APOYO A LA DOCENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Duque S.J.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Las matrices de las representaciones irreducibles de un grupo G se usan para el cómputo de la Transformada Generalizada de Fourier de una función definida en G. Existen muchas otras aplicaciones para las representaciones irreducibles de un grupo. Nosotros elaborarnos un software que calcula las matrices de las representacionesirreducibles del grupo simétrico en la forma serninormal de Young. Este programa corre en el Sistema Algebraico Computacional CoCoA.

  10. Determination of water-lock critical value of low-permeability sandstones based on digital core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research and development of water lock inhibiting measures is very crucial in verifying the link mechanism between the internal factors of water lock and its extent of damage. Based on conventional water-lock physics experiments, however, only the consequence of macro water lock damage can be investigated, while the microscopic mechanism cannot be studied. In this paper, 3D digital cores of low-permeability sandstones were prepared by means of high-resolution micro-CT scan, and their equivalent pore network model was built as well. Virtual “imbibition” experiments controlled by capillary force were carried out by using pore-scale flow simulation. Then the link mechanism between the microscopic internal factors (e.g. wettability, water saturation and pore–throat structure parameters and the water-lock damage degree was discussed. It is shown that the damage degree of water lock reduces gradually as the wettability transits from water wet to gas wet. Therefore, the water lock damage can be reduced effectively and gas-well productivity can be improved so long as the capillary environment is changed from strong water wettability to weak gas wettability. The more different the initial water saturation is from the irreducible water saturation, the more serious the water lock damage is. The damage degree of water lock is in a negative correlation with the coordinate number, but a positive correlation with the pore–throat ratio. Based on the existing research results, water lock tends to form in the formations composed of medium-sized throats. It is concluded that there is a critical throat radius, at which the water lock is the most serious.

  11. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  12. Gluon Saturation and EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichtermann, Ernst

    2016-12-15

    The fundamental structure of nucleons and nuclear matter is described by the properties and dynamics of quarks and gluons in quantum chromodynamics. Electron-nucleon collisions are a powerful method to study this structure. As one increases the energy of the collisions, the interaction process probes regions of progressively higher gluon density. This density must eventually saturate. An high-energy polarized Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) has been proposed to observe and study the saturated gluon density regime. Selected measurements will be discussed, following a brief introduction.

  13. Quantum trigonometric Calogero-Sutherland model, irreducible characters and Clebsch-Gordan series for the exceptional algebra E7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Nunez, J.; Garcia Fuertes, W.; Perelomov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    We reexpress the quantum Calogero-Sutherland model for the Lie algebra E 7 and the particular value of the coupling constant κ=1 by using the fundamental irreducible characters of the algebra as dynamical variables. For that, we need to develop a systematic procedure to obtain all the Clebsch-Gordan series required to perform the change of variables. We describe how the resulting quantum Hamiltonian operator can be used to compute more characters and Clebsch-Gordan series for this exceptional algebra

  14. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish; Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L; Cha, Min

    2016-01-01

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble

  15. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. A protective layer formation in saturated solution of sulfohydric acid in water at pH = 4.43. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Burkart, A.L.; Garavaglia, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    As complement to the experiences on carbon steel passivation for its use in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water production plants, the results herein obtained are given, processing the material with a saturated solution at 2.3 MPa of full pressure and 125 temperature degree of H 2 S in NaOH 5 x 10 -3 M, which, at an equilibrium point, the pH is 4.43. The characteristics, the composition and adherence to the layer formed and the corrosion velocity data are analyzed. (Author) [es

  16. Simulation of the saturation process of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Clouard, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the saturation of the barrier and the plug of a storage cell by the surrounding host rock. Generally speaking, the unsaturated barrier and plug start saturating immediately in the vicinity of the quasi-saturated host rock. Then the saturation front propagates towards the canisters and the symmetry axis. Apart from the part in contact with the plug, the barrier is saturated at about 30 years. The part of the barrier near the plug is saturated around 80 years. If the top of the plug is saturated very soon, the part in the corner near the gallery and the symmetry axis is not completely saturated after 100 years. In the site, we observe a small desaturation during the first month, at the limit with the plug and the barrier, and especially in the corner limited by both FoCa clay pieces. This transient phenomenon may be assigned to the time difference between the immediate suction of water by the unsaturated materials and the delayed water flows coming from the saturated host rock to compensate the water suction. The purpose of this computation was at once to estimate the time necessary for the saturation of the clay layers surrounding the radwaste canisters and to evaluate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the storage cell during the saturation process. Therefore a mechanical simulation was performed using the present hydraulic results to initiate the mechanical computation. (authors)

  17. Simultaneous analysis of rotational and vibrational-rotational spectra of DF and HF to obtain irreducible molecular constants for HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiai, Koui; Uehara, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Available rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral lines of DF and HF are analyzed simultaneously using a non-Born-Oppenheimer effective Hamiltonian. Research highlights: → Simultaneous analysis of DF and HF spectral data. → Application of a non-Born-Oppenheimer effective Hamiltonian. → Twenty irreducible molecular constants for HF have been determined. - Abstract: Analytic expressions of corrections for the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to Dunham's Y ij with optimal parameters, i.e., determinable clusters of expansion coefficients, are applied to a data analysis of the rotational and vibrational-rotational transitions of HF reported in the literature. All the available spectral lines of the two isotopologues, DF and HF, are simultaneously fitted to a single set of molecular parameters of HF within experimental errors. Fitting of a data set of 595 spectral transitions for DF and HF has generated only 20 minimal independent parameter values, i.e., 'irreducible' molecular constants of HF, that are sufficient to precisely generate 82 Y ij coefficients and 144 band constants in total: 41 Y ij and 72 band constants each for DF and HF.

  18. Two-phase flows during draining of liquefied gases initially undersaturated. Validation by water and CFC11; Ecoulements diphasiques lors de la vidange de gaz liquifies initialement sous satures. Validation par l`eau et le CFC11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, L.

    1996-12-11

    In petroleum industry, the safety studies require to estimate the two-phase flow during accidental draining of pressurized liquefied gas storages. Meanwhile the mass flow strongly depends of initial conditions. Then it is primordial to be able to reckon it in the case where it is the highest, that is to say when the fluid is initially undersaturated. An experimental installation has been carried out. The used fluids are water and CFC11. The experimental measures show that the thermodynamic conditions at the inlet of the pipe (P at +/- 15 mbar and T at +/- 0.15 degrees Celsius) are well controlled. The measured mass flows are compared to different models. The frictions in the monophase domain have been taken into account. It has been shown that the extensive H.E.M. model perfectly estimates the mass flow (as well as for water than for CFC11) for large deviations to saturation. In order to correctly predict the domain of weak variation to saturation, D.E.M. (out of equilibrium) models or H.R.M. (homogeneous model of relaxation) models have to be used. (O.M.) 50 refs.

  19. Modeling Water Saturation Points in Natural Gas Streams Containing CO2 and H2S-Comparisons with Different Equations of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos, Leticia C.; Abunahman, Samir S.; Tavares, Frederico W.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Pre-Salt layer in Brazilian waters, production of high gas-oil ratio (GOR) has increased considerably. This gas has a high content of water, CO2, and sometimes H2S. A study in different conditions was conducted using several equations of state (EoS) such as Peng...

  20. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration in water-saturated planar fracture: study of performance of bentonite in the far-field region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M., E-mail: csilveira@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The analysis of radionuclide migration in fractured porous media is an important part of the safety assessment of a deep geologic disposal for high level radioactive wastes. In this work, numerical solution for simple geometry was developed to study radionuclide migration, including decay chain from a hypothetical repository, whereas the initial region of fracture is filled with bentonite which expanded from EBS (Engineered Barrier System). The following cases were considered: convective transport with constant velocity along the fracture, longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in the fracture along the fracture axis, molecular diffusion from fracture into rock matrix, sorption within rock matrix, sorption onto the surface of the fracture, radioactive decay, decay chain, and diffusion in bentonite extrusion region. For conservative analysis, the porous matrix adjacent to the fracture was subdivided into two different subdomains, each with different set of parameters and considering that the radionuclides were available for migration in the solubility limit, at fracture inlet, from the initial time. The partial differential equations that govern the physical system were discretized by finite differences, by using the Implicit Euler Method with forward scheme in the convective term. In this study, numerical simulation was performed for 100, 1000 and 10000 years, with and without bentonite extrusion, in order to compare the migration retardation obtained by bentonite located at the beginning of the fracture in saturated environment. The numerical simulation results showed the importance of extruded area in the far field region of the fractured host rock. (author)

  1. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration in water-saturated planar fracture: study of performance of bentonite in the far-field region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Claudia S. da; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of radionuclide migration in fractured porous media is an important part of the safety assessment of a deep geologic disposal for high level radioactive wastes. In this work, numerical solution for simple geometry was developed to study radionuclide migration, including decay chain from a hypothetical repository, whereas the initial region of fracture is filled with bentonite which expanded from EBS (Engineered Barrier System). The following cases were considered: convective transport with constant velocity along the fracture, longitudinal hydrodynamic dispersion in the fracture along the fracture axis, molecular diffusion from fracture into rock matrix, sorption within rock matrix, sorption onto the surface of the fracture, radioactive decay, decay chain, and diffusion in bentonite extrusion region. For conservative analysis, the porous matrix adjacent to the fracture was subdivided into two different subdomains, each with different set of parameters and considering that the radionuclides were available for migration in the solubility limit, at fracture inlet, from the initial time. The partial differential equations that govern the physical system were discretized by finite differences, by using the Implicit Euler Method with forward scheme in the convective term. In this study, numerical simulation was performed for 100, 1000 and 10000 years, with and without bentonite extrusion, in order to compare the migration retardation obtained by bentonite located at the beginning of the fracture in saturated environment. The numerical simulation results showed the importance of extruded area in the far field region of the fractured host rock. (author)

  2. The combined effects of acidification and hypoxia on pH and aragonite saturation in the coastal waters of the California current ecosystem and the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Richard A.; Okazaki, Remy R.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Bednaršek, Nina; Alin, Simone R.; Byrne, Robert H.; Fassbender, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic carbon chemistry data from the surface and subsurface waters of the West Coast of North America have been compared with similar data from the northern Gulf of Mexico to demonstrate how future changes in CO2 emissions will affect chemical changes in coastal waters affected by respiration-induced hypoxia ([O2] ≤ 60 μmol kg-1). In surface waters, the percentage change in the carbon parameters due to increasing CO2 emissions are very similar for both regions even though the absolute decrease in aragonite saturation is much higher in the warmer waters of the Gulf of Mexico. However, in subsurface waters the changes are enhanced due to differences in the initial oxygen concentration and the changes in the buffer capacity (i.e., increasing Revelle Factor) with increasing respiration from the oxidation of organic matter, with the largest impacts on pH and CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) occurring in the colder West Coast waters. As anthropogenic CO2 concentrations begin to build up in subsurface waters, increased atmospheric CO2 will expose organisms to hypercapnic conditions (pCO2 >1000 μatm) within subsurface depths. Since the maintenance of the extracellular pH appears as the first line of defense against external stresses, many biological response studies have been focused on pCO2-induced hypercapnia. The extent of subsurface exposure will occur sooner and be more widespread in colder waters due to their capacity to hold more dissolved oxygen and the accompanying weaker acid-base buffer capacity. Under present conditions, organisms in the West Coast are exposed to hypercapnic conditions when oxygen concentrations are near 100 μmol kg-1 but will experience hypercapnia at oxygen concentrations of 260 μmol kg-1 by year 2100 under the highest elevated-CO2 conditions. Hypercapnia does not occur at present in the Gulf of Mexico but will occur at oxygen concentrations of 170 μmol kg-1 by the end of the century under similar conditions. The aragonite saturation

  3. Saturation of bentonite dependent upon temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmannova, Lucie; Vasicek, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The fundamental idea behind the long-term safe operation of a deep repository is the use of the Multi-barrier system principle. Barriers may well differ according to the type of host rock in which the repository is located. It is assumed that the buffer in the granitic host rock environment will consist of swelling clays which boast the ideal properties for such a function i.e. low permeability, high swelling pressure, self-healing ability etc. all of which are affected primarily by mineralogy and dry density. Water content plays a crucial role in the activation of swelling pressure as well as, subsequently, in the potential self healing of the various contact areas of the numerous buffer components made from bentonite. In the case of a deep repository, a change in water content is not only connected with the possible intake of water from the host rock, but also with its redistribution owing to changes in temperature after the insertion of the heat source (disposal waste package containing spent fuel) into the repository 'nest'. The principal reason for the experimental testing of this high dry density material is the uncertainty with regard to its saturation ability (final water content or the degree of saturation) at higher temperatures. The results of the Mock-Up-CZ experiment showed that when the barrier is constantly supplied with a saturation medium over a long time period the water content in the barrier as well as the degree of saturation settle independently of temperature. The Mock-Up-CZ experiment was performed at temperatures of 30 deg. - 90 deg. C in the barrier; therefore it was decided to experimentally verify this behaviour by means of targeted laboratory tests. A temperature of 110 deg. C was added to the set of experimental temperatures resulting in samples being tested at 25 deg. C, 95 deg. C and 110 deg. C. The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of pore water volume to pore

  4. Quantum physics the bottom-up approach : from the simple two-level system to irreducible representations

    CERN Document Server

    Dubbers, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This concise tutorial provides the bachelor student and the practitioner with a short text on quantum physics that allows them to understand a wealth of quantum phenomena based on a compact, well readable, yet still concise and accurate description of nonrelativistic quantum theory. This “quadrature of the circle” is achieved by concentrating first on the simplest quantum system that still displays all basic features of quantum theory, namely, a system with only two quantized energy levels. For most readers it is very helpful to understand such simple systems before slowly proceeding to more demanding topics like particle entanglement, quantum chaos, or the use of irreducible tensors. This tutorial does not intend to replace the standard textbooks on quantum mechanics, but will help the average student to understand them, often for the first time.

  5. Two-dimensional finite element solution for the simultaneous transport of water and solutes through a nonhomogeneous aquifer under transient saturated unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of ground water transport through an aquifer is presented. The solute of interest is a metal tracer or radioactive material which may undergo decay through a sorbing unconfined aquifer. The subject is developed under the following headings: flow equation, solute equation, boundary conditions, finite element formulation, element formulation, solution scheme (flow equation, solute equation), results and discussions, water movement in a ditch drained aquifer under transient state, water and solute movement in a homogeneous and unsaturated soil, transport of 226 Ra in nonhomogeneous aquifer, tailings pond lined, and tailings pond unlined. It is concluded that this mathematical model may have a wide variety of applications. The uranium milling industry may find it useful to evaluate the hydrogeological suitability of their disposal sites. It may prove suited for the design of clay disposal ponds destined to hold hazardous liquids. It may also provide a means of estimating the long-term impact of radionuclides or other pollutants on the quality of ground water. 31 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  6. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  7. Experimental Study on Hydrate Induction Time of Gas-Saturated Water-in-Oil Emulsion using a High-Pressure Flow Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X.F.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate is one of the critical precipitates which have to be controlled for subsea flow assurance. The induction time of hydrate is therefore a significant parameter. However, there have been few studies on the induction time of the natural gas hydrate formation in a flow loop system. Consequently, a series of experiments were firstly performed, including water, natural gas and Diesel oil, on the hydrate induction time under various conditions such as the supercooling and supersaturation degree, water cut, anti-agglomerant dosage, etc. The experiments were conducted in a high-pressure hydrate flow loop newly constructed in the China University of Petroleum (Beijing, and dedicated to flow assurance studies. Then, based on previous research, this study puts forward a method for induction time, which is characterized by clear definition, convenient measurement and good generality. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of the experimental parameters and analyzed the experimental phenomena for the hydrate induction time in a flowing system.

  8. Kinetics and dynamics of nanosecond streamer discharge in atmospheric-pressure gas bubble suspended in distilled water under saturated vapor pressure conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2016-09-08

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamer discharges generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under atmospheric pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the discharge kinetics. We find that the dynamic characteristics of the streamer discharge are different at low and high positive trigger voltages with the axial streamer evolution dominant for low voltages and a surface hugging mode favored for high voltages. We also find a substantial difference in initiation, transition and evolution stages of discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with the volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel much more uniform for negative trigger voltages on account of the presence of multiple streamers. We observe that the presence of water vapor does not affect the breakdown voltage even for oversaturated conditions but significantly influences the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer as well as the flux of the dominant species on the bubble surface. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  9. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  10. A Graphical-User Interface for the U. S. Geological Survey's SUTRA Code using Argus ONE (for simulation of variable-density saturated-unsaturated ground-water flow with solute or energy transport)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Boldt, David; Shapiro, Allen M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a Graphical-User Interface (GUI) for SUTRA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) model for saturated-unsaturated variable-fluid-density ground-water flow with solute or energy transport,which combines a USGS-developed code that interfaces SUTRA with Argus ONE, a commercial software product developed by Argus Interware. This product, known as Argus Open Numerical Environments (Argus ONETM), is a programmable system with geographic-information-system-like (GIS-like) functionality that includes automated gridding and meshing capabilities for linking geospatial information with finite-difference and finite-element numerical model discretizations. The GUI for SUTRA is based on a public-domain Plug-In Extension (PIE) to Argus ONE that automates the use of ArgusONE to: automatically create the appropriate geospatial information coverages (information layers) for SUTRA, provide menus and dialogs for inputting geospatial information and simulation control parameters for SUTRA, and allow visualization of SUTRA simulation results. Following simulation control data and geospatial data input bythe user through the GUI, ArgusONE creates text files in a format required for normal input to SUTRA,and SUTRA can be executed within the Argus ONE environment. Then, hydraulic head, pressure, solute concentration, temperature, saturation and velocity results from the SUTRA simulation may be visualized. Although the GUI for SUTRA discussed in this report provides all of the graphical pre- and post-processor functions required for running SUTRA, it is also possible for advanced users to apply programmable features within Argus ONE to modify the GUI to meet the unique demands of particular ground-water modeling projects.

  11. Quantitative 1D saturation profiles on chalk by NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dan; Topp, Simon; Stensgaard, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative one-dimensional saturation profiles showing the distribution of water and oil in chalk core samples are calculated from NMR measurements utilizing a 1D CSI spectroscopy pulse sequence. Saturation profiles may be acquired under conditions of fluid flow through the sample. Results reveal...

  12. Reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation prevented by pathological position of the transverse ligament in fixed, irreducible os odontoideum: operative illustrations and radiographic correlates in 41 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Policeni, Bruno A; Menezes, Arnold H

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Os odontoideum (OO) is a craniovertebral junction (CVJ) abnormality in which an ossicle (small bone) is cranial to a hypoplastic dens by a variable gap. This abnormality can result in instability, which may be reducible or irreducible. What leads to irreducibility in OO is unclear. Therefore, the authors sought to better understand the causes of irreducibility in OO. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted, which identified more than 200 patients who had undergone surgical treatment for OO between 1978 and 2015 at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. Only the 41 patients who had irreducible OO were included in this study. All inpatient and outpatient records were retrospectively reviewed, and patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical treatment, and operative findings were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS The cohort of 41 patients who were found to have irreducible OO included both children and adults. A majority of patients were adults (61% were 18 years or older). Clinical presentation included neck pain and headache in the majority of patients (93%). Weakness, sensory disturbances, and myelopathy were invariably present in all 41 patients (100%). Down syndrome was much more common in the pediatric cohort than in the adult cohort; of the 16 pediatric patients, 6 had Down syndrome (38%), and none of the adults did. Of the 16 pediatric patients, 5 had segmentation failure (31%) in the subaxial spine, and none of the adults did. A form of atlantoaxial dislocation was seen in all cases. On CT imaging, atlantoaxial facets were dislocated in all 41 cases but did not have osseous changes that would have prevented reduction. On MRI, the transverse ligament was identified anterior and inferior to the ossicle and superior to the hypoplastic odontoid process in all cases in which these studies were available (i.e., post-MRI era; 36 of 36 cases). The ligament was hypointense on T2-weighted images but also had an

  13. Water-saturated systems of the largest gas and gas-condensate deposits of the USSR. Vodonapornye sistemy krupneishikh gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdenii sssr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortsenshtein, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of water-pressure systems in a number of the largest gas and gas-condensate fields of the Soviet Union, whose industrial reserves exceed 500 billion cubic meters. These include fields located in the concluding stage of development with sharply reduced recovery (Shebelinsk), fields that have just begun to operate and are characterized by increasing production (Vuktyl, Medved, Orenburg, Shatlyk, Urengoisk), and fields that are not yet developed (Yamburg and Zapolyar). Problems in the theory and practice of studying water-pressure systems of the largest gas and gas-condensate fields are analyzed primarily in connection with conditions required for their rational development which would provide for a maximum extraction of hydrocarbons from the interior. Importance is also given to the hydrogeological aspects of the formation of large hydrocarbon deposits and their distribution in the earth's crust. The most reliable factual materials on hydrogeology are utilized. The book is designed for personnel in the gas and oil industries, hydrogeologists, and scientists interested in problems of the formation, survey, and development of the largest hydrocarbon deposits. 92 references, 65 figures, 71 tables.

  14. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  15. Experimental study and mechanical modelling of the effects of water-driving in an oil saturated chalk. Application to the petroleum industry; Etude experimentale et modelisation mecanique des effets du balayage a l'eau dans une craie saturee d'huile. Application a l'industrie petroliere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, C.

    2001-01-01

    The production of hydrocarbons may sometimes lead to compaction of the oil-reservoir layers with substantial collapse of the soil surface; this mechanism is usually mentioned as Subsidence. Classical remedy to this problem is to sustain the fluid pressure with the help of water injection. However, in presence of high porosity chalk (porosity > 30%), this technique does not give effective results: the subsidence rate at North Sea reservoirs (Ekofisk field), after injection, has remained unchanged. Some justify the subsistence in the chalk as caused by phenomena of dissolution of the carbonates; others think it is connected to the destruction of capillary menisci. In this research, we follow this second approach. This study is finalized to a better understanding of the compaction mechanisms in pure carbonates when water is injected. This is done by proposing -in micro-scale first and in macro-scale after- a physical model that agrees with empirical observations. In order to meet this target, IFP skills and experience in physical and chemical measurements (taken before, after and during mechanical tests) have proficiently joined ENPC laboratory (CERMMO) knowledge of micro and macro modelling. The soft rock studied is a Paris basin's white chalk (Craie de Guerville). Its physical and chemical characterisation (i.e.: silica content, porosity, permeability) is very similar to North Sea chalk, but Guerville chalk has never been in contact with oil and generally it crops out of the ground surface. Strength parameters of this rock have been first determined by standard triaxial tests. Three different saturation configurations have been examined: dry, fully oil-saturated and fully water-saturated. As literature clearly state, dry chalk is stronger than oil saturated chalk and the first two are largely stronger than water saturated chalk. Therefore uniaxial strain water injection tests have been performed on oil saturated samples. Results, coupled with previous physical

  16. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured

  17. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  18. A Partially Saturated Constitutive Theory for Compacted Fills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berney, Ernest

    2004-01-01

    ... variables present within the soil. From a thermodynamic viewpoint, a partially saturated soil can be best described by the free energy associated with each component of the soil and water mixture...

  19. X-ray scattering of calcite thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition: Studies in air and in calcite saturated water solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hudak, Michael R.; Lerner, Allan [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grubbs, Robert K. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Wang, Shanmin [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhang, Zhan; Karapetrova, Evguenia [Advance Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hickmott, Donald [Earth and Environmental Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Majewski, Jaroslaw, E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    Carbonates are one of the most abundant groups of minerals in earth systems and are important in many geological settings and industrial processes. Calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) thin films produced by atomic layer deposition offer a method to evaluate the surficial properties of carbonates as well as interactions at the carbonate–fluid interface. Using synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and X-ray diffraction, these films are observed to be porous, polycrystalline, and have crystallites oriented with the major (104) calcite cleavage plane parallel to the surface of the z-cut single crystal quartz substrate. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer, present between quartz and the calcite film, does not affect the as-deposited film, but does influence how the films reorganize in contact with fluid. Without a buffer layer, calcite reorients its crystallites to have populations of (006) and (030) parallel to the substrate, while those with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} buffer layer become more amorphous. Amorphous films may represent an analog to amorphous calcium carbonate and provide insights into that material's thermophysical behavior. Due to a higher percentage of pore spaces available for fluid infiltration, films deposited at higher temperature make the calcite thin films more susceptible to amorphization. These films are chemically similar, but structurally dissimilar to bulk natural calcite. Nevertheless, they can be a complementary system to traditional single crystal X-ray surface scattering studies on carbonates, particularly for important but less common minerals, to evaluate mineral–fluid interfacial interactions. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) used to produce calcite films. • Calcite film orientation and crystallinity depend on ALD parameters. • ALD calcite films can be both crystalline and amorphous. • Interaction of water with films can re-orient or amorphize the films. • ALD calcite films may be useful to study carbonate–fluid interfacial

  20. X-ray scattering of calcite thin films deposited by atomic layer deposition: Studies in air and in calcite saturated water solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Hudak, Michael R.; Lerner, Allan; Grubbs, Robert K.; Wang, Shanmin; Zhang, Zhan; Karapetrova, Evguenia; Hickmott, Donald; Majewski, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Carbonates are one of the most abundant groups of minerals in earth systems and are important in many geological settings and industrial processes. Calcite (CaCO 3 ) thin films produced by atomic layer deposition offer a method to evaluate the surficial properties of carbonates as well as interactions at the carbonate–fluid interface. Using synchrotron X-ray reflectivity and X-ray diffraction, these films are observed to be porous, polycrystalline, and have crystallites oriented with the major (104) calcite cleavage plane parallel to the surface of the z-cut single crystal quartz substrate. An Al 2 O 3 buffer layer, present between quartz and the calcite film, does not affect the as-deposited film, but does influence how the films reorganize in contact with fluid. Without a buffer layer, calcite reorients its crystallites to have populations of (006) and (030) parallel to the substrate, while those with an Al 2 O 3 buffer layer become more amorphous. Amorphous films may represent an analog to amorphous calcium carbonate and provide insights into that material's thermophysical behavior. Due to a higher percentage of pore spaces available for fluid infiltration, films deposited at higher temperature make the calcite thin films more susceptible to amorphization. These films are chemically similar, but structurally dissimilar to bulk natural calcite. Nevertheless, they can be a complementary system to traditional single crystal X-ray surface scattering studies on carbonates, particularly for important but less common minerals, to evaluate mineral–fluid interfacial interactions. - Highlights: • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) used to produce calcite films. • Calcite film orientation and crystallinity depend on ALD parameters. • ALD calcite films can be both crystalline and amorphous. • Interaction of water with films can re-orient or amorphize the films. • ALD calcite films may be useful to study carbonate–fluid interfacial interactions

  1. Effect of emplaced nZVI mass and groundwater velocity on PCE dechlorination and hydrogen evolution in water-saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Leitch, Megan; Naknakorn, Bhanuphong; Tilton, Robert D.; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Reactivity of nZVI increased linearly with nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but was non-linear below 10 g/L. • nZVI reactivity with PCE is more sensitive to solution redox potential than solution pH. • Mass transfer limits the reactivity of emplaced nZVI under typical groundwater flow velocity. • Lowering pH increases H_2 evolution from nZVI more than reactivity with PCE. • Design of nZVI remediation strategies should consider mass loading and flow velocity on performance and lifetime. - Abstract: The effect of nZVI mass loading and groundwater velocity on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination rate and the hydrogen evolution rate for poly(maleic acid-co-olefin) (MW = 12 K) coated nZVI was examined. In batch reactors, the PCE reaction rate constant (3.7 × 10"−"4 L hr"−"1 m"−"2) and hydrogen evolution rate constant (1.4 nanomol L hr"−"1 m"−"2) were independent of nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but the PCE dechlorination rate decreased and the hydrogen evolution rate increased for nZVI concentration below 10 g/L. The nonlinearity between nZVI mass loading and PCE dechlorination and H_2 evolution was explained by differences in pH and E_h at each nZVI mass loading; PCE reactivity increased when solution E_h decreased, and the H_2 evolution rate increased with decreasing pH. Thus, nZVI mass loading of <5 g/L yields lower reactivity with PCE and lower efficiency of Fe° utilization than for higher nZVI mass loading. The PCE dechlorination rate increased with increasing pore-water velocity, suggesting that mass transfer limits the reaction at low porewater velocity. Overall, this work suggests that design of nZVI-based reactive barriers for groundwater treatment should consider the non-linear effects of both mass loading and flow velocity on performance and expected reactive lifetime.

  2. Effect of emplaced nZVI mass and groundwater velocity on PCE dechlorination and hydrogen evolution in water-saturated sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Jin [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Chemical Research Division, Environmental Health Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon 404-708 (Korea, Republic of); Leitch, Megan [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Naknakorn, Bhanuphong [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Tilton, Robert D. [Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@cmu.edu [Civil & Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States); Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Reactivity of nZVI increased linearly with nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but was non-linear below 10 g/L. • nZVI reactivity with PCE is more sensitive to solution redox potential than solution pH. • Mass transfer limits the reactivity of emplaced nZVI under typical groundwater flow velocity. • Lowering pH increases H{sub 2} evolution from nZVI more than reactivity with PCE. • Design of nZVI remediation strategies should consider mass loading and flow velocity on performance and lifetime. - Abstract: The effect of nZVI mass loading and groundwater velocity on the tetrachloroethylene (PCE) dechlorination rate and the hydrogen evolution rate for poly(maleic acid-co-olefin) (MW = 12 K) coated nZVI was examined. In batch reactors, the PCE reaction rate constant (3.7 × 10{sup −4} L hr{sup −1} m{sup −2}) and hydrogen evolution rate constant (1.4 nanomol L hr{sup −1} m{sup −2}) were independent of nZVI concentration above 10 g/L, but the PCE dechlorination rate decreased and the hydrogen evolution rate increased for nZVI concentration below 10 g/L. The nonlinearity between nZVI mass loading and PCE dechlorination and H{sub 2} evolution was explained by differences in pH and E{sub h} at each nZVI mass loading; PCE reactivity increased when solution E{sub h} decreased, and the H{sub 2} evolution rate increased with decreasing pH. Thus, nZVI mass loading of <5 g/L yields lower reactivity with PCE and lower efficiency of Fe° utilization than for higher nZVI mass loading. The PCE dechlorination rate increased with increasing pore-water velocity, suggesting that mass transfer limits the reaction at low porewater velocity. Overall, this work suggests that design of nZVI-based reactive barriers for groundwater treatment should consider the non-linear effects of both mass loading and flow velocity on performance and expected reactive lifetime.

  3. Understanding the roles of ligand promoted dissolution, water column saturation and hydrological properties on intense basalt weathering using reactive transport and watershed-scale hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Fodich, A.; Walter, M. T.; Derry, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The interaction of rocks with rainwater generates physical and chemical changes, which ultimately culminates in soil development. The addition of catalyzers such as plants, atmospheric gases and hydrological properties will result in more intense and/or faster weathering transformations. The intensity of weathering across the Island of Hawaii is strongly correlated with exposure age and time-integrated precipitation. Intense weathering has resulted from interaction between a thermodynamically unstable lithology, high water/rock ratios, atmospheric gases (O2, CO2) and biota as an organic acid and CO2 producer. To further investigate the role of different weathering agents we have developed 1-D reactive transport models (RTM) to understand mineralogical and fluid chemistry changes in the initially basaltic porous media. The initial meso-scale heterogeneity of porosity makes it difficult for RTMs to capture changes in runoff/groundwater partitioning. Therefore, hydraulic properties (hydraulic conductivity and aquifer depth) are modeled as a watershed parameter appropriate for this system where sub-surface hydraulic data is scarce(1). Initial results agree with field data in a broad sense: different rainfall regimes and timescales show depletion of mobile cations, increasingly low pH, congruent dissolution of olivine and pyroxene, incongruent dissolution of plagioclase and basaltic glass, precipitation of non-crystalline allophane and ferrihydrite, and porosity changes due to dissolution and precipitation of minerals; ultimately Al and Fe are also exported from the system. RTM is used to examine the roles of unsaturation in the soil profile, ligand promoted dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing phases, and Fe-oxide precipitation at the outcrop scale. Also, we aim to test the use of recession flow analysis to model watershed-scale hydrological properties to extrapolate changes in the runoff/groundwater partitioning. The coupling between weathering processes and hydrologic

  4. Saturation and linear transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutak, K.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  5. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  6. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  8. Experimental and numerical study on thermal conductivity of partially saturated unconsolidated sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngmin; Keehm, Youngseuk; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Shin, Sang Ho

    2016-04-01

    A class of problems in heat flow applications requires an understanding of how water saturation affects thermal conductivity in the shallow subsurface. We conducted a series of experiments using a sand box to evaluate thermal conductivity (TC) of partially saturated unconsolidated sands under varying water saturation (Sw). We first saturated sands fully with water and varied water saturation by drainage through the bottom of the sand box. Five water-content sensors were integrated vertically into the sand box to monitor water saturation changes and a needle probe was embedded to measure thermal conductivity of partially saturated sands. The experimental result showed that thermal conductivity decreases from 2.5 W/mK for fully saturated sands to 0.7 W/mK when water saturation is 5%. We found that the decreasing trend is quite non-linear: highly sensitive at very high and low water saturations. However, the boundary effects on the top and the bottom of the sand box seemed to be responsible for this high nonlinearity. We also found that the determination of water saturation is quite important: the saturation by averaging values from all five sensors and that from the sensor at the center position, showed quite different trends in the TC-Sw domain. In parallel, we conducted a pore-scale numerical modeling, which consists of the steady-state two-phase Lattice-Boltzmann simulator and FEM thermal conduction simulator on digital pore geometry of sand aggregation. The simulation results showed a monotonous decreasing trend, and are reasonably well matched with experimental data when using average water saturations. We concluded that thermal conductivity would decrease smoothly as water saturation decreases if we can exclude boundary effects. However, in dynamic conditions, i.e. imbibition or drainage, the thermal conductivity might show hysteresis, which can be investigated with pore-scale numerical modeling with unsteady-state two-phase flow simulators in our future work.

  9. Quantum physics. The bottom-up approach. From the simple two-level system to irreducible representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbers, Dirk; Stoeckmann, Hans-Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Helps in a compact form to reach good understanding of quantum physics. Shows important analogies between problems across different disciplines. Concise and accurate, written in a readable and lively style. Concentrates on the simplest quantum system which still displays the basic features of quantum theory. Chapters end with a general outlook on multi-level systems. Results are applied to a multitude of topics in modern science, from particle physics and quantum optics to time standards and magnetic resonance imaging. This concise tutorial provides the bachelor student and the practitioner with a short text on quantum physics that allows them to understand a wealth of quantum phenomena based on a compact, well readable, yet still concise and accurate description of nonrelativistic quantum theory. This ''quadrature of the circle'' is achieved by concentrating first on the simplest quantum system that still displays all basic features of quantum theory, namely, a system with only two quantized energy levels. For most readers it is very helpful to understand such simple systems before slowly proceeding to more demanding topics like particle entanglement, quantum chaos, or the use of irreducible tensors. This tutorial does not intend to replace the standard textbooks on quantum mechanics, but will help the average student to understand them, often for the first time.

  10. Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P

    1984-02-01

    Virus movement in soil during saturated and unsaturated flow was compared by adding poliovirus to sewage water and applying the water at different rates to a 250-cm-long soil column equipped with ceramic samplers at different depths. Movement of viruses during unsaturated flow of sewage through soil columns was much less than during saturated flow. Viruses did not move below the 40-cm level when sewage water was applied at less than the maximum infiltration rate; virus penetration in columns flooded with sewage was at least 160 cm. Therefore, virus movement in soils irrigated with sewage should be less than in flooded groundwater recharge basins or in saturated soil columns. Management of land treatment systems to provide unsaturated flow through the soil should minimize the depth of virus penetration. Differences in virus movement during saturated and unsaturated flow must be considered in the development of any model used to simulate virus movement in soils.

  11. Gypsum-saturated water to reclaim alluvial saline sodic and sodic soils Água saturada com gesso na recuperação de solos aluviais salino-sódicos e sódicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karien Rodrigues da Silveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate management of soil and irrigation water contribute to soil degradation, particularly in the alluvial areas of Northeast Brazil, where salinity and sodicity are already common features. This study evaluates the effects of the addition of gypsum in the irrigation water on physical and chemical properties of soils with different levels of salinity and sodicity. Samples were collected at the Custódia irrigation area of Brazil, predominantly covered by alluvial soils. Leaching tests using simulated irrigation water classified as C3S1, and gypsum-saturated irrigation water were carried out in soil columns of 20 and 50 cm depth. Soil leaching with gypsum saturated water (T2 resulted in an increase in the amounts of exchangeable calcium and potassium, and in a decrease of soil pH, in relation to the original soil (T0, with significant statistical differences to the treatment using only water (T1. There was a reduction in the electrical conductivity, exchangeable sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage in both treatments (T1 and T2, with treatment T2 being more effective in the leaching of soil sodium. No changes of electrical conductivity, calcium and pH in depth were observed, but the 20 - 50 cm layer presented higher amounts of magnesium, sodium and exchangeable sodium percentage. Gypsum saturated water improved the hydraulic conductivity in both layers. The use of gypsum in the irrigation water improved soil physical and chemical properties and should be considered as an alternative in the process of reclamation of saline-sodic and sodic soils in Northeast Brazil.O manejo inadequado do solo e da água de irrigação contribui para a degradação dos solos, particularmente nas áreas aluviais do Nordeste do Brasil, onde a salinidade e a sodicidade são características comumente observadas. Avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição do gesso na água de irrigação, sobre as propriedades físicas e químicas de solos com diferentes níveis de

  12. Irreducible coupling between physical and biological phenomena: overview of on-line and off-line physical measurements during high cell density cultures of yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Kraiem, Hazar; Manon, Yannick; Anne-Archard, Dominique; Fillaudeau, Luc

    2012-01-01

    During cell cultures in bioreactor, micro-organism physiology closely interacts with physico-chemical parameters (gas and feed flow rates, mixing, temperature, pH, pressure). The specificity of microbial bioreactions in relation with irreducible couplings between heat and mass transfers and fluid mechanics, led into complex (three phases medium) and dynamic (auto-biocatalytic reaction) systems. Our scientific approach aims to investigate, understand and control dynamic interactions between ph...

  13. Effective stress principle for partially saturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Wilson, R.K.; Nunziato, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    In support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project, we have undertaken a fundamental study of water migration in partially saturated media. One aspect of that study, on which we report here, has been to use the continuum theory of mixtures to extend the classical notion of effective stress to partially saturated media. Our analysis recovers previously proposed phenomenological representations for the effective stress in terms of the capillary pressure. The theory is illustrated by specializing to the case of linear poroelasticity, for which we calculate the deformation due to the fluid pressure in a static capillary fringe. We then examine the transient consolidation associated with liquid flow induced by an applied surface load. Settlement accompanies this flow as the liquid is redistributed by a nonlinear diffusion process. For material properties characteristic of tuff from the Nevada Test Site, these effects are found to be vanishingly small. 14 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  14. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Elastic Wave Velocity of Chalk Saturated with Brines Containing Divalent Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Alam, Mohammad Monzurul; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    divided into groups of three and each group was saturated either with deionized water, calcite equilibrated water, or sodium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride solutions of the same ionic strength. Saturation with solutions that contain divalent ions caused major shifts in the distribution...... of the relaxation time. Core samples saturated with calcium chloride solution relaxed slower and those saturated with magnesium chloride solution relaxed faster than the rest of the samples. Along with the changes in relaxation the samples experienced smaller velocities of elastic waves when saturated with MgCl2...

  16. Chemical Equilibrium and Mineral Saturation in Waters from Oil Wells of the Activo Luna Field, Tabasco, Mexico; Equilibrio quimico y grado de saturacion de minerales en aguas de pozos petroleros de Activo Luna, Tabasco, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan R, Rosa Maria; Arellano G, Victor M.; Portugal M, Enrique; Torres R, Vicente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico); Torres Alvarado, Ignacio [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Ascencio C, Fernando; Martinez A; Ana E [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2001-09-01

    Chemical equilibrium of formation waters from seven oil wells of the Activo Luna field (Tabasco, Mexico) was modelled. Saturation indices of characteristic hydrothermal minerals were calculated at ambient and reservoir conditions in order to predict scaling potential of deep and surface installations. The salinity of waters was found to be in the range from 43,000 (well Escuintle 2) to 250,000 (well Lune 3B) mg/kg as total dissolved solids. The water samples were classified as sodium-chioride type. Ionic strength for the solutions was found to be between 0.75 and 6.5. Activity coefficients were estimated by virial (Pitzer equations) methods using the GEOCHEMIST WORKENCH (GWB) software. Minerals such as anhydrite, halite, alunite, fluorite and barite were found to be supersaturated at reservoir conditions. A solid scale sample obtained from well Luna-3B was analysed. Analysis indicate the presence of calcite, anhydrite, fluorite and sphalerite which suggest the occurrence of temperatures of at least 180 Celcius degrees with acidic conditions and high chemical corrosion potential. [Spanish] Se modelo el equilibrio quimico de aguas de formacion producidas por siete pozos petroleros pertenecientes al Activo Luna, en el estado de Tabasco, Mexico, se calcularon los indices de saturacion de minerales caracteristicos tanto en las condiciones ambiente como en las de yacimiento, con el proposito de apoyar el control de incrustaciones en las instalaciones superficiales y profundas. La salinidad de las salmueras se encontro en el rango de 43,000 (pozos Escuintle 2) a 250,000 (pozos Luna 3B) mg/kg de solidos disueltos totales y las muestras se clasificaron como del tipo clorurado-sodico. La fuerza ionica de las soluciones varia entre 0.75 y 6.5 molar, por lo que los coeficientes de actividad de la modelacion de equilibrio quimico se estimaron por metodos viriales empleando las ecuaciones de Pitzer mediante el programa GEOCHEMIST WORKBENCH (GWB). Minerales como anhidrita, halita

  17. Irreducible Vagueness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that Blur Building, Diller & Scofidio's architectural project for the Swiss Expo 2002, demonstrated performatively and interactively how contemporary worldmaking involves cultural and technological invention and construction both, implying our cultural co-evolution with ubiqui......This article argues that Blur Building, Diller & Scofidio's architectural project for the Swiss Expo 2002, demonstrated performatively and interactively how contemporary worldmaking involves cultural and technological invention and construction both, implying our cultural co......-evolution with ubiquitous computing and media such that "worlding" must today be approached and approximated as a question of realities that mix virtuality and actuality. This article not only touches upon the actual inventions produced in this project--with its atmospheric architecture of tensegrity structures, its vast...

  18. On the propagation of a coupled saturation and pressure front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D. W.

    2010-12-01

    Using an asymptotic technique, valid for a medium with smoothly varying heterogeneity, I derive an expression for the velocity of a propagating, coupled saturation and pressure front. Due to the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the velocity of the propagating front depends upon the magnitude of the saturation and pressure changes across the front in addition to the properties of the medium. Thus, the expression must be evaluated in conjunction with numerical reservoir simulation. The propagation of the two-phase front is governed by the background saturation distribution, the saturation-dependent component of the fluid mobility, the porosity, the permeability, the capillary pressure function, the medium compressibility, and the ratio of the slopes of the relative permeability curves. Numerical simulation of water injection into a porous layer saturated with a nonaqueous phase liquid indicates that two modes of propagation are important. The fastest mode of propagation is a pressure-dominated disturbance that travels through the saturated layer. This is followed, much later, by a coupled mode with a large saturation change. These two modes are also observed in a simulation using a heterogeneous porous layer. A comparison between the propagation times estimated from the results of the numerical simulation and predictions from the asymptotic expression indicates overall agreement.

  19. Numerical Study of Frequency-dependent Seismoelectric Coupling in Partially-saturated Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuraev Ulugbek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismoelectric phenomenon associated with propagation of seismic waves in fluid-saturated porous media has been studied for many decades. The method has a great potential to monitor subsurface fluid saturation changes associated with production of hydrocarbons. Frequency of the seismic source has a significant impact on measurement of the seismoelectric effects. In this paper, the effects of seismic wave frequency and water saturation on the seismoelectric response of a partially-saturated porous media is studied numerically. The conversion of seismic wave to electromagnetic wave was modelled by extending the theoretically developed seismoelectric coupling coefficient equation. We assumed constant values of pore radius and zeta-potential of 80 micrometers and 48 microvolts, respectively. Our calculations of the coupling coefficient were conducted at various water saturation values in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 150 kHz. The results show that the seismoelectric coupling is frequency-dependent and decreases exponentially when frequency increases. Similar trend is seen when water saturation is varied at different frequencies. However, when water saturation is less than about 0.6, the effect of frequency is significant. On the other hand, when the water saturation is greater than 0.6, the coupling coefficient shows monotonous trend when water saturation is increased at constant frequency.

  20. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  1. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe_3O_4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  2. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, A. [Departamento de Física, UFSM, Santa Maria, 97105-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Mikhov, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Geshev, J., E-mail: julian@if.ufrgs.br [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  3. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences....... Optimising a matching factor (k0) improved the fit considerably whereas optimising the l-parameter in the vGM model improved the fit only slightly. The vGM was improved with an empirical scaling function to account for the rapid increase in conductivity near saturation. Using the improved models...

  4. Facilitated transport of copper with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in saturated sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated packed column experiments were conducted to investigate the facilitated transport of Cu with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAP) at different pore water velocities (0.22-2.2 cm min–1), solution pH (6.2-9.0), and fraction of Fe oxide coating on grain surfaces (', 0-0.36). The facilitated tr...

  5. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  6. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec......This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture...... in connection with faulty systems including input saturation gives an additional YJBK transfer function related to the input saturation. In the fault free case, this additional YJBK transfer function can be applied directly for optimizing the feedback loop around the input saturation. In the faulty case......, the design problem is a mixed design problem involved both parametric faults and input saturation....

  7. Relative Humidity in the Tropopause Saturation Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Pfister, L.; Thornberry, T. D.; Bui, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical tropopause separates two very different atmospheric regimes: the stable lower stratosphere where the air is both extremely dry and nearly always so, and a transition layer in the uppermost tropical troposphere, where humidity on average increases rapidly downward but can undergo substantial temporal fluctuations. The processes that control the humidity in this layer below the tropopause include convective detrainment (which can result in either a net hydration or dehydration), slow ascent, wave motions and advection. Together these determine the humidity of the air that eventually passes through the tropopause and into the stratosphere, and we refer to this layer as the tropopause saturation layer or TSL. We know from in situ water vapor observations such as Ticosonde's 12-year balloonsonde record at Costa Rica that layers of supersaturation are frequently observed in the TSL. While their frequency is greatest during the local rainy season from June through October, supersaturation is also observed in the boreal winter dry season when deep convection is well south of Costa Rica. In other words, local convection is not a necessary condition for the presence of supersaturation. Furthermore, there are indications from airborne measurements during the recent POSIDON campaign at Guam that if anything deep convection tends to `reset' the TSL locally to a state of just-saturation. Conversely, it may be that layers of supersaturation are the result of slow ascent. To explore these ideas we take Ticosonde water vapor observations from the TSL, stratify them on the basis of relative humidity and report on the differences in the the history of upstream convective influence between supersaturated parcels and those that are not.

  8. Receptor saturation in roentgen films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, K G; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Roentgen-film recording of small object details of low attenuation differences (e.g. pulmonary vessels) is regularly seen to be impaired when the film is exposed to yield high values of optical density (D). This high-density failure is due to receptor saturation, which implies that at high exposure values most silver halide grains of the film are made developable, leaving few grains available to receive additional informative photons. The receptor saturation is analysed by means of a mathematical model of a non-screen film yielding Dsub(max) = 2.0. Optimum recording, defined by maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the image, is found at D approximately 0.64, corresponding to, on an average, 1.6 photons absorbed per grain. On the other hand, maximum contrast occurs at D approximately 1.4, where, on the average, 3.6 photons are absorbed per grain. The detective quantum efficiency of the film, i.e. the fraction of the photons actually contributing to the information content of the image, drops from 41 per cent at maximum signal-to-noise ratio to a mere 10 per cent at maximum contrast.

  9. PRO-QUEST: a rapid assessment method based on progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times in CEST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Eleni; Tachrount, Mohamed; Zaiss, Moritz; Shmueli, Karin; Golay, Xavier

    2018-03-05

    To develop a new MRI technique to rapidly measure exchange rates in CEST MRI. A novel pulse sequence for measuring chemical exchange rates through a progressive saturation recovery process, called PRO-QUEST (progressive saturation for quantifying exchange rates using saturation times), has been developed. Using this method, the water magnetization is sampled under non-steady-state conditions, and off-resonance saturation is interleaved with the acquisition of images obtained through a Look-Locker type of acquisition. A complete theoretical framework has been set up, and simple equations to obtain the exchange rates have been derived. A reduction of scan time from 58 to 16 minutes has been obtained using PRO-QUEST versus the standard QUEST. Maps of both T 1 of water and B 1 can simply be obtained by repetition of the sequence without off-resonance saturation pulses. Simulations and calculated exchange rates from experimental data using amino acids such as glutamate, glutamine, taurine, and alanine were compared and found to be in good agreement. The PRO-QUEST sequence was also applied on healthy and infarcted rats after 24 hours, and revealed that imaging specificity to ischemic acidification during stroke was substantially increased relative to standard amide proton transfer-weighted imaging. Because of the reduced scan time and insensitivity to nonchemical exchange factors such as direct water saturation, PRO-QUEST can serve as an excellent alternative for researchers and clinicians interested to map pH changes in vivo. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Classical local U(1 gauge invariance in Weyl 2-spinor lenguage and charge quantization from irreducible representations of the gauge group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago

    Full Text Available A new classical 2-spinor approach to U(1 gauge theory is presented in which the usual four-potential vector field is replaced by a symmetric second rank spinor. Following a lagrangian formulation, it is shown that the four-rank spinor representing the Maxwell field tensor has a U(1 local gauge invariance in terms of the electric and magnetic field strengths. When applied to the magnetic field of a monopole, this formulation, via the irreducible representation condition for the gauge group, leads to a quantization condition differing by a factor 2 of the one predicted by Dirac without relying on any kind of singular vector potentials. Finally, the U(1 invariant spinor equations, are applied to electron magnetic resonance which has many applications in the study of materials. Keywords: Weyl 2-spinor lenguage, Dirac equation, Gauge theories, Charge quantization

  11. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  12. A new through-tubing oil-saturation measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscoe, B.A.; Adolph, R.A.; Bontemy, Y.; Cheeseborough, J.C. III; Hall, J.S.; McKeon, D.C.; Pittman, D.; Seeman, B.; Thomas, S.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on carbon-oxygen logging which is used primarily to estimate oil saturation in cased-hole conditions when the formation water is fresh or unknown. The drawbacks of current techniques are: slow logging speed, large tool diameter, and excessive sensitivity to borehole fluid composition. A new, slim, neutron-induced gamma ray spectroscopy logging system has been developed to overcome some of these limitations. The new logging service is called the Reservoir Saturation (RST) Tool. Initial field tests are being carried out in the Middle East. The RST tool uses multiple detectors to separate the signal contributions from the borehole and the formation. Therefore, even when the borehole fluid composition is unknown, oil saturation can be determined in addition to the borehole oil fraction. This presents the possibility of logging flowing wells, which ensures that reinvasion and crossflow will not affect the results, and eliminates the costs of well preparation

  13. Saturation in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Zaider, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of dual radiation action (TDRA) was developed with the aim of applying microdosimetry to radiobiology. It therefore can deal only with the first phases in a long chain of events that results in patent effects. It is, however, clear that the initial spatial and temporal pattern of energy deposition has a profound influence on the ultimate outcome. As often happens, the early formulation of the theory contained a number of simplifying assumptions. Although most of these were explicitly stated when the first version of the TDRA was published experimental data obtained when the limitations are important were cited as contrary evidence causing considerable confusion. A more advanced version eliminated some of the restrictions but there remain others, one of which relates to certain aspects of saturation which are addressed here

  14. Dobowe wahania deficytu wodnego i ich zależność od czynników klimatycznych [Diurnal changes of water saturation deficit in leaves and their dependence on the climatic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily changes in water suction deficit (WSD in different species of Nicotiana, Digitalis, Calendula, Beta and Brassica were studied. Significant water deficit in the middle of the day was demonstrated for all plants studied.

  15. States characterized by the irreducible single row representations of the U(3) is contained in SO(3) and U(4) is contained in Dsup(3/2)[SO(3)] chains of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    A new method is applied in order to obtain the irreducible single row representations of the groups under study. For the case U(3) contained in SO(3) also an explicit realization is constructed. The method has the advantage of being simpler than the previously used ones. (author)

  16. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, E.M.; Fenton, M.; Meredith, M.P.; Clargo, N.M.; Ossebaar, S.; Ducklow, H.W.; Venables, H.J.; De Baar, H.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Ω) for two biologically-important calcium

  17. Evaluation of the Seismic Characterision of Select Engineered Nanoparticles in Saturated Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory testing apparatus was developed for the study of seismic body wave propagation through nanoparticles dispersed in pore fluid that is essentially saturating glass beads. First, the responses of water-saturated glass bead specimens were studied to establish baseline si...

  18. Impact of sample saturation on the detected porosity of hardened concrete using low temperature calorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The present work studied the impact of sample saturation on the analysis of pore volume and pore size distribution by low temperature (micro-)calorimetry. The theoretical background was examined, which emphasizes that the freezing/melting temperature of water/ice confined in non-fully saturated p...

  19. Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Fenton, Mairi; Meredith, Michael P.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Venables, Hugh J.; de Baar, Henricus

    The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Omega) for two biologically-important

  20. Exact expression for the effective acoustics of patchy-saturated rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, B.; Smeulders, D.M.J.; Harris, J.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic effects of a partially gas-saturated subsurface have been known for many years. For example, patches of nonuniform saturation occur at the gas-oil and gas-water contacts in hydrocarbon reservoirs. Open-pore boundary conditions are applied to the quasi-static Biot equations of poroelasticity

  1. Effect of soil saturation on denitrification in a grassland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Cardenas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is of major importance as a greenhouse gas and precursor of ozone (O3 destruction in the stratosphere mostly produced in soils. The soil-emitted N2O is generally predominantly derived from denitrification and, to a smaller extent, nitrification, both processes controlled by environmental factors and their interactions, and are influenced by agricultural management. Soil water content expressed as water-filled pore space (WFPS is a major controlling factor of emissions and its interaction with compaction, has not been studied at the micropore scale. A laboratory incubation was carried out at different saturation levels for a grassland soil and emissions of N2O and N2 were measured as well as the isotopocules of N2O. We found that flux variability was larger in the less saturated soils probably due to nutrient distribution heterogeneity created from soil cracks and consequently nutrient hot spots. The results agreed with denitrification as the main source of fluxes at the highest saturations, but nitrification could have occurred at the lower saturation, even though moisture was still high (71 % WFSP. The isotopocules data indicated isotopic similarities in the wettest treatments vs. the two drier ones. The results agreed with previous findings where it is clear there are two N pools with different dynamics: added N producing intense denitrification vs. soil N resulting in less isotopic fractionation.

  2. Simulation of consolidation in partially saturated soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    1982-03-01

    Partially saturated soil materials undergo consolidation, heave, collapse and failure due to changes in pore fluid pressure. The precise nature of the mechanics of such deformations is only poorly understood at present. Experimental evidence has shown that the volume change behavior of unsaturated soils cannot be adequately explained through changes in effective stress, even when a saturation dependent parameter is incorporated into the definition of effective stress. Two independent stress-state variables, involving combinations of total stress, pore air pressure and pore water pressure, are required to characterize volume changes and saturation changes in the partially saturated state. In general, two coupled conservation equations, one for the water-phase and the other for the air-phase need to be solved in order to predict the deformation behavior of unsaturated soils. If directional displacements and changes in the stress-field are required, then the conservation equations are to be integrated with an additional set of multi-dimensional force balance equations. For lack of a sufficient understanding of elastic constants such as Poisson's Ratio and Lame's constants as applied to unsaturated soils, little has been achieved so far in integrating the conservation equations and the force balance equations. For the long-term modeling of consolidation with respect to uranium mill tailings, it may be acceptable and economical to solve a single conservation equation for water, assuming that the air-phase is continuous and is at atmospheric pressure everywhere in the soil. The greatest challenge to modeling consolidation in the unsaturated zone at the presnt time is to develop enough experimental data defining the variation of void ratio and saturation with reference to the two chosen stress-state variables

  3. Patterning via optical saturable transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Precious

    For the past 40 years, optical lithography has been the patterning workhorse for the semiconductor industry. However, as integrated circuits have become more and more complex, and as device geometries shrink, more innovative methods are required to meet these needs. In the far-field, the smallest feature that can be generated with light is limited to approximately half the wavelength. This, so called far-field diffraction limit or the Abbe limit (after Prof. Ernst Abbe who first recognized this), effectively prevents the use of long-wavelength photons >300nm from patterning nanostructures barrier is developed and experimentally verified. This approach, which I refer to as Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions (POST) has the potential for massive parallelism, enabling the creation of nanostructures and devices at a speed far surpassing what is currently possible with conventional optical lithographic techniques. The fundamental understanding of this technique goes beyond optical lithography in the semiconductor industry and is applicable to any area that requires the rapid patterning of large-area two or three-dimensional complex geometries. At a basic level, this research intertwines the fields of electrochemistry, material science, electrical engineering, optics, physics, and mechanical engineering with the goal of developing a novel super-resolution lithographic technique.

  4. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  5. Δ isobars and nuclear saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, A.; Hagen, G.; Morris, T. D.; Papenbrock, T.; Schwartz, P. D.

    2018-02-01

    We construct a nuclear interaction in chiral effective field theory with explicit inclusion of the Δ -isobar Δ (1232 ) degree of freedom at all orders up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use pion-nucleon (π N ) low-energy constants (LECs) from a Roy-Steiner analysis of π N scattering data, optimize the LECs in the contact potentials up to NNLO to reproduce low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts, and constrain the three-nucleon interaction at NNLO to reproduce the binding energy and point-proton radius of 4He. For heavier nuclei we use the coupled-cluster method to compute binding energies, radii, and neutron skins. We find that radii and binding energies are much improved for interactions with explicit inclusion of Δ (1232 ) , while Δ -less interactions produce nuclei that are not bound with respect to breakup into α particles. The saturation of nuclear matter is significantly improved, and its symmetry energy is consistent with empirical estimates.

  6. Gas hydrate saturation from acoustic impedance and resistivity logs in the shenhu area, south china sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, S.; Lee, M.; Guo, Y.; Yang, S.; Liang, J.

    2011-01-01

    During the China's first gas hydrate drilling expedition -1 (GMGS-1), gas hydrate was discovered in layers ranging from 10 to 25 m above the base of gas hydrate stability zone in the Shenhu area, South China Sea. Water chemistry, electrical resistivity logs, and acoustic impedance were used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the chloride concentrations range from 0 to 43% of the pore space. The higher gas hydrate saturations were present in the depth from 152 to 177 m at site SH7 and from 190 to 225 m at site SH2, respectively. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity using Archie equation have similar trends to those from chloride concentrations. To examine the variability of gas hydrate saturations away from the wells, acoustic impedances calculated from the 3 D seismic data using constrained sparse inversion method were used. Well logs acquired at site SH7 were incorporated into the inversion by establishing a relation between the water-filled porosity, calculated using gas hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, and the acoustic impedance, calculated from density and velocity logs. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from acoustic impedance of seismic data are ???10-23% of the pore space and are comparable to those estimated from the well logs. The uncertainties in estimated gas hydrate saturations from seismic acoustic impedances were mainly from uncertainties associated with inverted acoustic impedance, the empirical relation between the water-filled porosities and acoustic impedances, and assumed background resistivity. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Elastoplastic model for unsaturated, quasi-saturated and fully saturated fine soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ba Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In unsaturated soils, the gaseous phase is commonly assumed to be continuous. This assumption is no more valid at high saturation ratio. In that case, air bubbles and pockets can be trapped in the porous network by the liquid phase and the gas phase becomes discontinuous. This trapped air reduces the apparent compressibility of the pore fluid and affect the mechanical behavior of the soil. Although it is trapped in the pores, its dissolution can take place. Dissolved air can migrate through the pore space, either by following the flow of the fluid or by diffusion. In this context, this paper present a hydro mechanical model that separately considers the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of each fluid species (eg liquid water, dissolved air, gaseous air and the solid matrix. This new model was implemented in a C++ code. Some numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the ability of this model to reproduce a continuous transition of unsaturated to saturated states.

  8. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  9. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-01-01

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel

  10. Thermohydraulic design of saturated temperature capsule for IASCC irradiation test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Yoshinori; Itabashi, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2002-10-01

    An advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is being developed in JAERI, to perform irradiation tests for irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) research concerned with aging of LWR. This device enables the irradiation tests under the water chemistry condition and the temperature, which simulate the conditions for BWR core internals. The advanced water chemistry controlled irradiation research device is composed of saturated temperature capsule inserted into the JMTR core and the water chemistry control unit installed in the reactor building. Regarding the saturated temperature capsule, the Thermohydraulic design of capsule structure was done, aimed at controlling the specimen's temperature, feeding water velocity on specimen's surface to the environment of BWR nearer. As the result of adopting the new capsule structure based on the design study, it was found out that feeding water velocity at the surface of specimen's is increased to about 10 times as much as before, and nuclear heat generated in the capsule components can be removed safely even in the abnormal event such as the case of loss of feeding water. (author)

  11. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-08-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

  12. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriëtte; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michaël A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective observational controlled study. Setting: Nonacademic university-affiliated

  13. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  14. Determination of saturation functions and wettability for chalk based on measured fluid saturations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.; Bech, N.; Moeller Nielsen, C.

    1998-08-01

    The end effect of displacement experiments on low permeable porous media is used for determination of relative permeability functions and capillary pressure functions. Saturation functions for a drainage process are determined from a primary drainage experiment. A reversal of the flooding direction creates an intrinsic imbibition process in the sample, which enables determination if imbibition saturation functions. The saturation functions are determined by a parameter estimation technique. Scanning effects are modelled by the method of Killough. Saturation profiles are determined by NMR. (au)

  15. Empirical algorithms to predict aragonite saturation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Daniela; Dowd, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Novel sensor packages deployed on autonomous platforms (Profiling Floats, Gliders, Moorings, SeaCycler) and biogeochemical models have a potential to increase the coverage of a key water chemistry variable, aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) in time and space, in particular in the under sampled regions of global ocean. However, these do not provide the set of inorganic carbon measurements commonly used to derive ΩAr. There is therefore a need to develop regional predictive models to determine ΩAr from measurements of commonly observed or/and non carbonate oceanic variables. Here, we investigate predictive skill of several commonly observed oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate) in determining ΩAr using climatology and shipboard data. This will allow us to assess potential for autonomous sensors and biogeochemical models to monitor ΩAr regionally and globally. We apply the regression models to several time series data sets and discuss regional differences and their implications for global estimates of ΩAr.

  16. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  17. Low‐Power and Low‐Hardware Bit‐Parallel Polynomial Basis Systolic Multiplier over GF(2m for Irreducible Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ellison Mathe

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiplication in finite fields is used in many applications, especially in cryptography. It is a basic and the most computationally intensive operation from among all such operations. Several systolic multipliers are proposed in the literature that offer low hardware complexity or high speed. In this paper, a bit‐parallel polynomial basis systolic multiplier for generic irreducible polynomials is proposed based on a modified interleaved multiplication method. The hardware complexity and delay of the proposed multiplier are estimated, and a comparison with the corresponding multipliers available in the literature is presented. Of the corresponding multipliers, the proposed multiplier achieves a reduction in the hardware complexity of up to 20% when compared to the best multiplier for m = 163. The synthesis results of application‐specific integrated circuit and field‐programmable gate array implementations of the proposed multiplier are also presented. From the synthesis results, it is inferred that the proposed multiplier achieves low power consumption and low area complexitywhen compared to the best of the corresponding multipliers.

  18. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco J Collado

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An essential element in thermal-hydraulics is the accurate prediction of the vapor void fraction, or fraction of the flow cross-sectional area occupied by steam. Recently, the author has suggested to calculate void fraction working exclusively with thermodynamic properties. It is well known that the usual 'flow' quality, merely a mass flow rate ratio, is not at all a thermodynamic property because its expression in function of thermodynamic properties includes the slip ratio, which is a parameter of the process not a function of state. By the other hand, in the classic and well known expression of the void fraction - in function of the true mass fraction of vapor (also called 'static' quality), and the vapor and liquid densities - does not appear the slip ratio. Of course, this would suggest a direct procedure for calculating the void fraction, provided we had an accurate value of the true mass fraction of vapor, clearly from the heat balance. However the classic heat balance is usually stated in function of the 'flow' quality, what sounds really contradictory because this parameter, as we have noted above, is not at all a thermodynamic property. Then we should check against real data the actual relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the applied heat. For saturated flow boiling just from the inlet of the heated tube, and not having into account the kinetic and potential terms, the uniform applied heat per unit mass of inlet water and per unit length (in short, specific linear heat) should be closely related to a (constant) slope of the mixture enthalpy. In this work, we have checked the relation between the specific linear heat and the thermodynamic enthalpy of the liquid-vapor mixture using the actual mass fraction. This true mass fraction is calculated using the accurate measurements of the outlet void fraction taken during the Cambridge project by Knights and Thom in the sixties for vertical and horizontal

  19. Partially to fully saturated flow through smooth, clean, open fractures: qualitative experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R.; Brouwers, Luke B.; Dippenaar, Matthys A.

    2018-05-01

    Fractures are both rough and irregular but can be expressed by a simple model concept of two smooth parallel plates and the associated cubic law governing discharge through saturated fractures. However, in natural conditions and in the intermediate vadose zone, these assumptions are likely violated. This paper presents a qualitative experimental study investigating the cubic law under variable saturation in initially dry free-draining discrete fractures. The study comprised flow visualisation experiments conducted on transparent replicas of smooth parallel plates with inlet conditions of constant pressure and differing flow rates over both vertical and horizontal inclination. Flow conditions were altered to investigate the influence of intermittent and continuous influx scenarios. Findings from this research proved, for instance, that saturated laminar flow is not likely achieved, especially in nonhorizontal fractures. In vertical fractures, preferential flow occupies the minority of cross-sectional area despite the water supply. Movement of water through the fractured vadose zone therefore becomes a matter of the continuity principle, whereby water should theoretically be transported downward at significantly higher flow rates given the very low degree of water saturation. Current techniques that aim to quantify discrete fracture flow, notably at partial saturation, are questionable. Inspired by the results of this study, it is therefore hypothetically improbable to achieve saturation in vertical fractures under free-draining wetting conditions. It does become possible under extremely excessive water inflows or when not free-draining; however, the converse is not true, as a wet vertical fracture can be drained.

  20. Partially to fully saturated flow through smooth, clean, open fractures: qualitative experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R.; Brouwers, Luke B.; Dippenaar, Matthys A.

    2017-11-01

    Fractures are both rough and irregular but can be expressed by a simple model concept of two smooth parallel plates and the associated cubic law governing discharge through saturated fractures. However, in natural conditions and in the intermediate vadose zone, these assumptions are likely violated. This paper presents a qualitative experimental study investigating the cubic law under variable saturation in initially dry free-draining discrete fractures. The study comprised flow visualisation experiments conducted on transparent replicas of smooth parallel plates with inlet conditions of constant pressure and differing flow rates over both vertical and horizontal inclination. Flow conditions were altered to investigate the influence of intermittent and continuous influx scenarios. Findings from this research proved, for instance, that saturated laminar flow is not likely achieved, especially in nonhorizontal fractures. In vertical fractures, preferential flow occupies the minority of cross-sectional area despite the water supply. Movement of water through the fractured vadose zone therefore becomes a matter of the continuity principle, whereby water should theoretically be transported downward at significantly higher flow rates given the very low degree of water saturation. Current techniques that aim to quantify discrete fracture flow, notably at partial saturation, are questionable. Inspired by the results of this study, it is therefore hypothetically improbable to achieve saturation in vertical fractures under free-draining wetting conditions. It does become possible under extremely excessive water inflows or when not free-draining; however, the converse is not true, as a wet vertical fracture can be drained.

  1. Assessing species saturation: conceptual and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Karger, Dirk N; Kessler, Michael

    2018-05-07

    Is there a maximum number of species that can coexist? Intuitively, we assume an upper limit to the number of species in a given assemblage, or that a lineage can produce, but defining and testing this limit has proven problematic. Herein, we first outline seven general challenges of studies on species saturation, most of which are independent of the actual method used to assess saturation. Among these are the challenge of defining saturation conceptually and operationally, the importance of setting an appropriate referential system, and the need to discriminate among patterns, processes and mechanisms. Second, we list and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used to study species saturation. These approaches vary in time and spatial scales, and in the variables and assumptions needed to assess saturation. We argue that assessing species saturation is possible, but that many studies conducted to date have conceptual and methodological flaws that prevent us from currently attaining a good idea of the occurrence of species saturation. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  3. Thermal characteristic test for saturated temperature type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Motoji; Someya, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Ohuchi, Mitsuo; Harayama, Yasuo

    1989-08-01

    The Japan Material Testing Reactor Project is developing a new type capsule so-called 'Saturated Temperature Capsule', as a part of irradiation technique improvement program. This type capsule, in which the water is supplied and boiled, bases on the conception of keeping the coolant at the saturated temperature and facilitating the temperature setting of specimens heated by gamma-ray in reactor. However, out-pile test was planned, because there were few usable data for design and operation of the capsule into which the coolant was injected. A out-pile apparatus, simulated the capsule with electric heaters, was fabricated and experiments were carried out, to obtain data concerning design and operation for the capsule into which the water was injected. As a structure of simulated capsule, a type of downward coolant supply was adopted. The downward coolant tube type injectes the water in the bottom of capsule by tube through the upper flange. Major objects of experiences were to grasp thermal features under operation and to provide performances of capsule control equipment. Experimental results proved that the temperature of water within the capsule was easily varied by controlling supply water flow rate, and that the control equipment was operated stably and safety. (author)

  4. Saturation and forward jets at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, C.; Peschanski, R.; Royon, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse forward-jet production at HERA in the framework of the Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff saturation models. We obtain a good description of the forward-jet cross-sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in the two-hard-scale region (k T∼ Q >> Λ QCD ) with two different parametrizations with either significant or weak saturation effects. The weak saturation parametrization gives a scale compatible with the one found for the proton structure function F2. We argue that Mueller-Navelet jets at the Tevatron and the LHC could help distinguishing between both options

  5. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, J.F.; Urban, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated. 2 figs

  6. Uranium migration in a podzol. The role of colloids in the non-saturated zone and the phreatic water: application to the Landes de Gascogne area; Migration de l'uranium dans un podzol. Le role des colloides dans la zone non saturee et la nappe: application aux Landes de Gascogne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P

    2001-01-01

    The non-saturated zone of a soil represents the interface between the atmosphere and the phreatic water. The confinement efficiency of the non-saturated zone above the phreatic water depends on the fastness of water transfers and on the type of pollutant transport mechanisms. Uranium (VI) can combine with humid acids to form very stable complexes. The aggregates of the absorbing complex are highly sensible to the variations of the ionic force of the environment. This sensitiveness can be at the origin of a strong remobilization of the colloid humic compounds of the soil, and of their migration towards the underground water. In this situation, the uranium complexed by humic compounds can rapidly migrate in the soil. The comparative reactive transport of the total uranium and its isotopes has been studied in a site, the Landes de Gascogne podzol (SW France), where metallic uranium has been sprinkled on the surface of the soil. The field study has been completed with an experimental column transport study using uranium isotopes tracer techniques. The field study shows that most of uranium is trapped in the very first cm of the soil. However, anomalous high uranium concentrations are observed in underground waters, more than 2 km away from the contaminated areas. This demonstrates that a fast and long distance transport process exists for uranium in the unsaturated zone. In the sandy soil of the study area, natural argillo-humic colloids migrate with the velocity of water but can be delayed when the ionic force of the underground waters increases. It is shown that uranium is strongly linked with the thin grain size fraction (< 8 {mu}m) of the sand, and more particularly with the argillo-humic composite colloids. In the stable geochemical conditions of the experimental columns, more than 70% of uranium is trapped in the first 2 cm of the sand, even after the circulation of 100 volumes of water inside the column. This shows the strong trapping capacity of the Landes sand

  7. Uranium migration in a podzol. The role of colloids in the non-saturated zone and the phreatic water: application to the Landes de Gascogne area; Migration de l'uranium dans un podzol. Le role des colloides dans la zone non saturee et la nappe: application aux Landes de Gascogne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P

    2001-01-01

    The non-saturated zone of a soil represents the interface between the atmosphere and the phreatic water. The confinement efficiency of the non-saturated zone above the phreatic water depends on the fastness of water transfers and on the type of pollutant transport mechanisms. Uranium (VI) can combine with humid acids to form very stable complexes. The aggregates of the absorbing complex are highly sensible to the variations of the ionic force of the environment. This sensitiveness can be at the origin of a strong remobilization of the colloid humic compounds of the soil, and of their migration towards the underground water. In this situation, the uranium complexed by humic compounds can rapidly migrate in the soil. The comparative reactive transport of the total uranium and its isotopes has been studied in a site, the Landes de Gascogne podzol (SW France), where metallic uranium has been sprinkled on the surface of the soil. The field study has been completed with an experimental column transport study using uranium isotopes tracer techniques. The field study shows that most of uranium is trapped in the very first cm of the soil. However, anomalous high uranium concentrations are observed in underground waters, more than 2 km away from the contaminated areas. This demonstrates that a fast and long distance transport process exists for uranium in the unsaturated zone. In the sandy soil of the study area, natural argillo-humic colloids migrate with the velocity of water but can be delayed when the ionic force of the underground waters increases. It is shown that uranium is strongly linked with the thin grain size fraction (< 8 {mu}m) of the sand, and more particularly with the argillo-humic composite colloids. In the stable geochemical conditions of the experimental columns, more than 70% of uranium is trapped in the first 2 cm of the sand, even after the circulation of 100 volumes of water inside the column. This shows the strong trapping capacity of the Landes sand

  8. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimension transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 refs., 8 figs

  9. Thermodynamically coupled mass transport processes in a saturated clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnahan, C.L.

    1984-11-01

    Gradients of temperature, pressure, and fluid composition in saturated clays give rise to coupled transport processes (thermal and chemical osmosis, thermal diffusion, ultrafiltration) in addition to the direct processes (advection and diffusion). One-dimensional transport of water and a solute in a saturated clay subjected to mild gradients of temperature and pressure was simulated numerically. When full coupling was accounted for, volume flux (specific discharge) was controlled by thermal osmosis and chemical osmosis. The two coupled fluxes were oppositely directed, producing a point of stagnation within the clay column. Solute flows were dominated by diffusion, chemical osmosis, and thermal osmosis. Chemical osmosis produced a significant flux of solute directed against the gradient of solute concentration; this effect reduced solute concentrations relative to the case without coupling. Predictions of mass transport in clays at nuclear waste repositories could be significantly in error if coupled transport processes are not accounted for. 14 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  10. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  11. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  12. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  13. CT-scan-monitored electrical-resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on x-ray computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples which revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the lengths of the samples. The electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent used in electric-log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone: a stationary front formed in one sample at 1-psi oil/brine capillary pressure, a moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressure ≤4 psi in samples tested in fresh mixed-wettability and cleaned water-wet states, and the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated in the samples

  14. CT-scan-monitored electrical resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Coles, M.E.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray CT scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the length of the sample. In this paper the electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent, which is used in electric log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone. A stationary front formed in one sample at 1 psi oil/brine capillary pressure. A moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressures of 4 psi or less in both samples tested, in both a fresh mixed-wettability state and in a cleaned water-wet state. In these samples, the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated

  15. Shearing of saturated clays in rock joints at high confining pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.; Mao, N.

    1979-01-01

    Saturated clays are sheared between rock joints at various pore water pressures and at confining pressures up to 3 kb (300 Mpa). Sliding on these joints is stable. For a given clay, the shear stress required to initiate sliding increases linearly with the effective normal stress across the sliding surface, with a slope of 0.08 +- 0.01 for joints filled with saturated montmorillonite, 0.12 +- 0.01 with saturated chlorite, 0.15 +- 0.01 with saturated kaolinite, and 0.22 +- 0.02 with saturated silty illite. Thus at high confining pressures the shear stress required to initiate sliding on joints filled with saturated clays are very much smaller than that required to initiate sliding on clean rock joints or on joints filled with dry gouge materials. In the crust, saturation of gouge materials along active faults would greatly lower the frictional resistance to faulting and would stabilize fault movement. Different fault behaviors such as stable creep along some faults and intermittent but sudden slip along others may reflect in part different degrees of saturation of fault zones at depth

  16. Higher-order Zeeman and spin terms in the electron paramagnetic resonance spin Hamiltonian; their description in irreducible form using Cartesian, tesseral spherical tensor and Stevens' operator expressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGavin, Dennis G; Tennant, W Craighead

    2009-01-01

    In setting up a spin Hamiltonian (SH) to study high-spin Zeeman and high-spin nuclear and/or electronic interactions in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments, it is argued that a maximally reduced SH (MRSH) framed in tesseral combinations of spherical tensor operators is necessary. Then, the SH contains only those terms that are necessary and sufficient to describe the particular spin system. The paper proceeds then to obtain interrelationships between the parameters of the MRSH and those of alternative SHs expressed in Cartesian tensor and Stevens operator-equivalent forms. The examples taken, initially, are those of Cartesian and Stevens' expressions for high-spin Zeeman terms of dimension BS 3 and BS 5 . Starting from the well-known decomposition of the general Cartesian tensor of second rank to three irreducible tensors of ranks 0, 1 and 2, the decomposition of Cartesian tensors of ranks 4 and 6 are treated similarly. Next, following a generalization of the tesseral spherical tensor equations, the interrelationships amongst the parameters of the three kinds of expressions, as derived from equivalent SHs, are determined and detailed tables, including all redundancy equations, set out. In each of these cases the lowest symmetry, 1-bar Laue class, is assumed and then examples of relationships for specific higher symmetries derived therefrom. The validity of a spin Hamiltonian containing mixtures of terms from the three expressions is considered in some detail for several specific symmetries, including again the lowest symmetry. Finally, we address the application of some of the relationships derived here to seldom-observed low-symmetry effects in EPR spectra, when high-spin electronic and nuclear interactions are present.

  17. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  18. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REIMUS, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  19. Characterization of thermal, hydraulic, and gas diffusion properties in variably saturated sand grades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Smits, Kathleen; Ramirez, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    porous media transport properties, key transport parameters such as thermal conductivity and gas diffusivity are particularly important to describe temperature-induced heat transport and diffusion-controlled gas transport processes, respectively. Despite many experimental and numerical studies focusing...... transport models (thermal conductivity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and gas diffusivity). An existing thermal conductivity model was improved to describe the distinct three-region behavior in observed thermal conductivity–water saturation relations. Applying widely used parametric models for saturated......Detailed characterization of partially saturated porous media is important for understanding and predicting vadose zone transport processes. While basic properties (e.g., particle- and pore-size distributions and soil-water retention) are, in general, essential prerequisites for characterizing most...

  20. Saturated and unsaturated stability analysis of slope subjected to rainfall infiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Gofar Nurly; Rahardjo Harianto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of saturated and unsaturated stability analysis of typical residual slopes subjected to rainfall infiltration corresponds to 50 years rainfall return period. The slope angles considered were 45° and 70°. The saturated stability analyses were carried out for original and critical ground water level commonly considered by practicing engineer. The analyses were conducted using limit equilibrium method. Unsaturated stability analyses used combination of coupled stress–...

  1. Saturated hydraulic conductivity in relation to physical properties of soils in the Nsukka Plains, SE Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1994-05-01

    The objective of the study is to develop and validate statistical models for estimating the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils with high water intake rates from more easily-determined properties and to test the hypothesis that it is equal to Philip transmissivity term and the steady infiltration rate. The results of the study show that the dominant physical property influencing saturated hydraulic conductivity of the investigated soils is the macroporosity. 37 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Impact of Reservoir Fluid Saturation on Seismic Parameters: Endrod Gas Field, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Abdel Moktader A.; El Sayed, Nahla A.

    2017-12-01

    Outlining the reservoir fluid types and saturation is the main object of the present research work. 37 core samples were collected from three different gas bearing zones in the Endrod gas field in Hungary. These samples are belonging to the Miocene and the Upper - Lower Pliocene. These samples were prepared and laboratory measurements were conducted. Compression and shear wave velocity were measured using the Sonic Viewer-170-OYO. The sonic velocities were measured at the frequencies of 63 and 33 kHz for compressional and shear wave respectively. All samples were subjected to complete petrophysical investigations. Sonic velocities and mechanical parameters such as young’s modulus, rigidity, and bulk modulus were measured when samples were saturated by 100%-75%-0% brine water. Several plots have been performed to show the relationship between seismic parameters and saturation percentages. Robust relationships were obtained, showing the impact of fluid saturation on seismic parameters. Seismic velocity, Poisson’s ratio, bulk modulus and rigidity prove to be applicable during hydrocarbon exploration or production stages. Relationships among the measured seismic parameters in gas/water fully and partially saturated samples are useful to outline the fluid type and saturation percentage especially in gas/water transitional zones.

  3. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  4. Investigation of Primary Dew-Point Saturator Efficiency in Two Different Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvizdic, D.; Heinonen, M.; Sestan, D.

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation process of the performance of the low-range saturator (LRS), when exposed to two different thermal environments. The examined saturator was designed, built, and tested at MIKES (Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland), and then transported to the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM) in Croatia, where it was implemented in a new dew-point calibration system. The saturator works on a single-pressure-single-pass generation principle in the dew/frost-point temperature range between and . The purpose of the various tests performed at MIKES was to examine the efficiency and non-ideality of the saturator. As a test bath facility in Croatia differs from the one used in Finland, the same tests were repeated at LPM, and the effects of different thermal conditions on saturator performance were examined. Thermometers, pressure gauges, an air preparation system, and water for filling the saturator at LPM were also different than those used at MIKES. Results obtained by both laboratories indicate that the efficiency of the examined saturator was not affected either by the thermal conditions under which it was tested or by equipment used for the tests. Both laboratories concluded that LRS is efficient enough for a primary realization of the dew/frost-point temperature scale in the range from to , with flow rates between and . It is also shown that a considerable difference of the pre-saturator efficiency, indicated by two laboratories, did not have influence to the overall performance of the saturator. The results of the research are presented in graphical and tabular forms. This paper also gives a brief description of the design and operation principle of the investigated low-range saturator.

  5. Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

    2000-01-11

    High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

  6. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsi...

  7. Studies of non-isothermal flow in saturated and partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.; Maki, K.S.; Glass, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Physical and numerical experiments have been performed to investigate the behavior of nonisothermal flow in two-dimensional saturated and partially saturated porous media. The physical experiments were performed to identify non-isothermal flow fields and temperature distributions in fully saturated, half-saturated, and residually saturated two-dimensional porous media with bottom heating and top cooling. Two counter-rotating liquid-phase convective cells were observed to develop in the saturated regions of all three cases. Gas-phase convection was also evidenced in the unsaturated regions of the partially saturated experiments. TOUGH2 numerical simulations of the saturated case were found to be strongly dependent on the assumed boundary conditions of the physical system. Models including heat losses through the boundaries of the test cell produced temperature and flow fields that were in better agreement with the observed temperature and flow fields than models that assumed insulated boundary conditions. A sensitivity analysis also showed that a reduction of the bulk permeability of the porous media in the numerical simulations depressed the effects of convection, flattening the temperature profiles across the test cell

  8. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated

  9. Saturated poroelastic actuators generated by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    the coupling of internal fluid pressure and elastic shear stresses a slab of the optimized porous material deflects/deforms when a pressure is imposed and an actuator is created. Several phenomenologically based constraints are imposed in order to get a stable force transmitting actuator.......In this paper the fluid-structure interaction problem of a saturated porous media is considered. The pressure coupling properties of porous saturated materials change with the microstructure and this is utilized in the design of an actuator using a topology optimized porous material. By maximizing...

  10. On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...

  11. Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the nonlinear saturation of the 2 dimensional Rayleigh Taylor instability is re-examined to put various earlier results in a proper perspective. The existence of a variety of final states can be attributed to the differences in the choice of boundary conditions and initial conditions in earlier numerical modeling studies. Our own numerical simulations indicate that the RT instability saturates by the self consistent generation of shear flow even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. Such final states can be achieved for suitable values of the Prandtl number. (author)

  12. Saturable absorption in detonation nanodiamond dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Viatcheslav; Mikheev, Gennady; Mogileva, Tatyana; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We report on a saturable absorption in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with femtosecond laser pulse excitation at a wavelength of 795 nm. The open aperture Z-scan experiments reveal that in a wide range of nanodiamond particle sizes and concentrations, a light-induced increase of transmittance occurs. The transmittance increase originates from the saturation of light absorption and is associated with a light absorption at 1.5 eV by graphite and dimer chains (Pandey dimer chains). The obtained key nonlinear parameters of nanodiamond dispersions are compared with those of graphene and carbon nanotubes, which are widely used for the mode-locking.

  13. Experimental study on distributed optical fiber-based approach monitoring saturation line in levee engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Kang, Yeyuan; Wen, Zhiping

    2018-02-01

    Seepage is one of key factors which affect the levee engineering safety. The seepage danger without timely detection and rapid response may likely lead to severe accidents such as seepage failure, slope instability, and even levee break. More than 90 percent of levee break events are caused by the seepage. It is very important for seepage behavior identification to determine accurately saturation line in levee engineering. Furthermore, the location of saturation line has a major impact on slope stability in levee engineering. Considering the structure characteristics and service condition of levee engineering, the distributed optical fiber sensing technology is introduced to implement the real-time observation of saturation line in levee engineering. The distributed optical fiber temperature sensor system (DTS)-based monitoring principle of saturation line in levee engineering is investigated. An experimental platform, which consists of DTS, heating system, water-supply system, auxiliary analysis system and levee model, is designed and constructed. The monitoring experiment of saturation line in levee model is implemented on this platform. According to the experimental results, the numerical relationship between moisture content and thermal conductivity in porous medium is identified. A line heat source-based distributed optical fiber method obtaining the thermal conductivity in porous medium is developed. A DTS-based approach is proposed to monitor the saturation line in levee engineering. The embedment pattern of optical fiber for monitoring saturation line is presented.

  14. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  15. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are ... predicted infinite speed for propagation of ther- mal signals. Lord and ..... saturated reservoir rock (North-sea Sandstone) is chosen for the numerical model ...

  17. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  18. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  19. Two-beam interaction in saturable media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Schmidt, Michel R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a saturable nonlinearity is investigated It is shown by means of a variational method and by direct numerical calculations that two well-separated solitons can orbit around each other, if their initial velocity...

  20. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  1. Multiscale optimization of saturated poroelastic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    A multiscale method for optimizing the material micro structure in a macroscopically heterogeneous saturated poroelastic media with respect to macro properties is presented. The method is based on topology optimization using the homogenization technique, here applied to the optimization of a bi...

  2. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but which can actually be used for processes, which pro- duce interesting ... ing the synthesis of saturated polyester (from GPET waste). This has been done for the .... The solid product obtained from the glycolysis of PET was bis(hydroxy ethyl ...

  3. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  4. Compression characteristics and permeability of saturated Gaomiaozi ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenjing; Sun De'an; Fang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The compression characteristics and permeability of compacted Gaomiaozi Ca-bentonite saturated by the water uptake tests are studied by conducting a series of one-dimension compression tests. The permeability coefficient can be calculated by the Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory after the consolidation coefficient is obtained by the square root of time method. It is found that the compression curves of compacted specimens saturated by the water uptake tests tend to be consistent in the relatively high stress range. The compression indexes show a linear decrease with increasing dry density and the swelling index is a constant. The permeability coefficient decreases with increasing compression stress, and they show the linear relationship in double logarithmic coordinates. Meanwhile, the permeability coefficient shows a linear decrease with decreasing void ratio, which has no relationship with initial states, stress states and stress paths. The permeability coefficient k of GMZ Ca-bentonite at dry density Pd of 1.75 g/cm 3 can be calculated as 2.0 × 10 -11 cm/s by the linear relationship between Pd and log k. It is closed to the permeability coefficient of GMZ Ca-bentonite with the same dry density published in literature, which testifies that the method calculating the permeability coefficient is feasible from the consolidation coefficient obtained by the consolidation test. (authors)

  5. Water calorimetry: The heat defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, N.V.; Ross, C.K.

    1997-01-01

    Domen developed a sealed water calorimeter at NIST to measure absorbed dose to water from ionizing radiation. This calorimeter exhibited anomalous behavior using water saturated with gas mixtures of H 2 O 2 . Using computer simulations of the radiolysis of water, the authors show that the observed behavior can be explained if, in the gas mixtures, the amount-of-substance of H 2 and of O 2 differed significantly from 50%. The authors also report the results of simulations for other dilute aqueous solutions that are used for water calorimetry--pure water, air-saturated water, and H 2 -saturated water. The production of H 2 O 2 was measured for these aqueous solutions and compared to simulations. The results indicate that water saturated with a gas mixture containing an amount-of-substance of H 2 of 50% and of O 2 of 50% is suitable for water calorimetry if the water is stirred and is in contact with a gas space of similar volume. H 2 -saturated water does not require a gas space but O 2 contamination must be guarded against. The lack of a scavenger for OH radicals in pure water means that, depending on the water purity, some pure water might require a large priming dose to remove reactive impurities. The experimental and theoretical problems associated with air-saturated water and O 2 -saturated water in water calorimeters are discussed

  6. Thermo-hydric characterization of partially saturated porous media; Caracterisation thermo-hydrique de milieux poreux partiellement satures d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Salager; Frederic Jamin; Moulay Said El Youssoufi; Christian Saix [Laboratoire de Mecanique et Genie Civil, Universite Montpellier II, cc 048, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France)

    2005-07-01

    We present a contribution to the thermo-hydric characterization of partially saturated porous media by water, through the characteristic curve. This curve defines the relation between suction and degree of saturation. Using this curve for a given temperature, a model is used to predict it for other temperatures. An experimental device called pressure cell was made in a thermo-regulated environment. The model was validated by several tests on a ceramic and silty clayey sand, at 20 and 60 C. The results obtained lead to a characteristic surface which can be considered as a generalization of the classical characteristic curve. (authors)

  7. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Umari, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  8. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  9. Bentonite erosion by dilute waters in initially saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, Markus; Seppaelae, Anniina; Laurila, Teemu; Koskinen, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One scenario of interest for the long-term safety assessment of a spent nuclear fuel repository involves the loss of bentonite buffer material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface (SKB 2011, Posiva 2012a). The scenario is based on the stable colloids at low ionic strength: - the cohesive forces of bentonite decrease in low-salinity conditions, and colloids start to dominate and are able to leave the gel-like bentonite on the groundwater bentonite boundary; - after colloid formation, groundwater may carry away the only just released clay colloids; - low-salinity events are most probable during post-glacial conditions, when also pressure gradients are high, causing elevated flow velocity, which may enhance colloidal transport. Therefore, it is very important from the point of view of repository safety assessment to be able to estimate how much bentonite may be lost during a post-glacial event, when the groundwater salinity and velocity, as well as the duration of the event are fixed. It is possible that more than one event will hit the same canister and buffer, and that several canisters and buffers may be jeopardized. The results in the issue so far may be divided into modelling attempts and experimental work. The modelling has been based on two main guidelines: external (Birgersson et al., 2009) and internal friction models (Neretnieks et al., 2009). However, these models have not been validated for erosion, probably due to lack of suitable laboratory data. The latter approach is more ambitious due to lack of fitting parameters, though the internal friction model itself may be varied. The internal friction model has proven to be time-consuming to solve numerically. This work indicates that experiments carried out by Schatz et al. (2012) differ significantly from the predictions obtained from Neretnieks' model. We present our numerical modelling results based on a set of simplifications of the original model (Olin, 2012). All the model versions created so far are shown in Figure 1. In addition, there are some suggestions given to the model of Neretnieks. The numerical modelling is performed by COMSOL Multiphysics version 4.2a. The original equations in Neretnieks et al. (2009) model include several nested function calls, whereas in this work it was chosen to apply numerical functions in COMSOL Multiphysics instead of implementing the functions directly. In this approach, the values of functions are given over a mesh and COMSOL interpolates and extrapolates the function values needed (BESW D implementation). All the functions were tested in Matlab and Maple before implementing them into COMSOL. In addition, we fitted the original highly nonlinear diffusivity of smectite to a relatively simple analytical function (BESW-S). Typical results from the model calculations are shown in Figure 2. Our main observation is that in the model calculations there is not so much bentonite upstream migration, while in downstream a clear wake has formed. This is in clear contrast to the almost circular montmorillonite extrusion in the experiment. (authors)

  10. Pressure and fluid saturation prediction in a multicomponent reservoir, using combined seismic and electromagnetic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gritto, Roland; Washbourne, John; Daley, Tom

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for combining seismic and electromagnetic measurements to predict changes in water saturation, pressure, and CO 2 gas/oil ratio in a reservoir undergoing CO 2 flood. Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic data sets taken before and during CO 2 flooding of an oil reservoir are inverted to produce crosswell images of the change in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and electrical conductivity during a CO 2 injection pilot study. A rock properties model is developed using measured log porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, temperature, bulk density, sonic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The parameters of the rock properties model are found by an L1-norm simplex minimization of predicted and observed differences in compressional velocity and density. A separate minimization, using Archie's law, provides parameters for modeling the relations between water saturation, porosity, and the electrical conductivity. The rock-properties model is used to generate relationships between changes in geophysical parameters and changes in reservoir parameters. Electrical conductivity changes are directly mapped to changes in water saturation; estimated changes in water saturation are used along with the observed changes in shear wave velocity to predict changes in reservoir pressure. The estimation of the spatial extent and amount of CO 2 relies on first removing the effects of the water saturation and pressure changes from the observed compressional velocity changes, producing a residual compressional velocity change. This velocity change is then interpreted in terms of increases in the CO 2 /oil ratio. Resulting images of the CO 2 /oil ratio show CO 2 -rich zones that are well correlated to the location of injection perforations, with the size of these zones also correlating to the amount of injected CO 2 . The images produced by this process are better correlated to the location and amount of injected CO 2 than are any of the individual

  11. Space Charge Saturated Sheath Regime and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is predicted to lead to space charge saturated wall sheaths resulting in enhanced power losses in the thruster channel. Analysis of experimentally obtained electron-wall collision frequency suggests that the electron temperature saturation, which occurs at high discharge voltages, appears to be caused by a decrease of the Joule heating rather than by the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission

  12. Comparison of pulseoximetry oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen saturation in open heart intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mahoori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulseoximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, currently used to guide therapeutic interventions. Few studies have evaluated the accuracy of SPO2 (puls-eoximetry oxygen saturation in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare pulseoximetry with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 during clinical routine in such patients, and to examine the effect of mild acidosis on this relationship.Methods: In an observational prospective study 80 patients were evaluated in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. SPO2 was recorded and compared with SaO2 obtained by blood gas analysis. One or serial arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs were performed via a radial artery line while a reliable pulseoximeter signal was present. One hundred thirty seven samples were collected and for each blood gas analyses, SaO2 and SPO2 we recorded.Results: O2 saturation as a marker of peripheral perfusion was measured by Pulseoxim-etry (SPO2. The mean difference between arterial oxygen saturation and pulseoximetry oxygen saturation was 0.12%±1.6%. A total of 137 paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.754; P<0.0001 between changes in SPO2 and those in SaO2 in samples with normal hemoglobin. Also in forty seven samples with mild acidosis, paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.799; P<0.0001 and the mean difference between SaO2 and SPO2 was 0.05%±1.5%.Conclusion: Data showed that in patients with stable hemodynamic and good signal quality, changes in pulseoximetry oxygen saturation reliably predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Mild acidosis doesn’t alter the relation between SPO2 and SaO2 to any clinically important extent. In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with stable hemodynamic.

  13. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  14. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks with divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent theory of saturated tearing modes capable of predicting multiple magnetic island widths in tokamaks with no assumptions on the cross-sectional shape, aspect ratio, or plasma pressure. We are in the process of implementing this algorithm in the form of a computer code. We propose: (1) to complete, refine, document and publish this computer code; (2) to carry out a survey in which we vary the current profile, aspect ratio, cross-sectional shape, and pressure profile in order to determine their effect on saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths; and (3) to determine the effect of some externally applied magnetic perturbation harmonics on these magnetic island widths. Particular attention will be paid to the coupling between different helical harmonics, the effect of multiple magnetic islands on the profiles of temperature, pressure and current, and the potential of magnetic island overlap leading to a disruptive instability

  15. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  16. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat...

  17. Stabilization of Neutral Systems with Saturating Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. El Haoussi

    2012-01-01

    to determine stabilizing state-feedback controllers with large domain of attraction, expressed as linear matrix inequalities, readily implementable using available numerical tools and with tuning parameters that make possible to select the most adequate solution. These conditions are derived by using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional on the vertices of the polytopic description of the actuator saturations. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Gluon saturation beyond (naive) leading logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2014-12-15

    An improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov equation is presented, with a consistent treatment of kinematics. That improvement allows to resum the most severe of the large higher order corrections which plague the conventional versions of high-energy evolution equations, with approximate kinematics. This result represents a further step towards having high-energy QCD scattering processes under control beyond strict Leading Logarithmic accuracy and with gluon saturation effects.

  19. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  20. THE SATURATION OF SASI BY PARASITIC INSTABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome; Sato, Jun'ichi; Foglizzo, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The standing accretion shock instability (SASI) is commonly believed to be responsible for large amplitude dipolar oscillations of the stalled shock during core collapse, potentially leading to an asymmetric supernovae explosion. The degree of asymmetry depends on the amplitude of SASI, but the nonlinear saturation mechanism has never been elucidated. We investigate the role of parasitic instabilities as a possible cause of nonlinear SASI saturation. As the shock oscillations create both vorticity and entropy gradients, we show that both Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor types of instabilities are able to grow on a SASI mode if its amplitude is large enough. We obtain simple estimates of their growth rates, taking into account the effects of advection and entropy stratification. In the context of the advective-acoustic cycle, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate how the acoustic feedback can be decreased if a parasitic instability distorts the advected structure. The amplitude of the shock deformation is estimated analytically in this scenario. When applied to the set up of Fernandez and Thompson, this saturation mechanism is able to explain the dramatic decrease of the SASI power when both the nuclear dissociation energy and the cooling rate are varied. Our results open new perspectives for anticipating the effect, on the SASI amplitude, of the physical ingredients involved in the modeling of the collapsing star.

  1. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  2. Saturation and nucleation in hot nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deangelis, A.R.

    1990-07-01

    We investigate nuclear fragmentation in a supersaturated system using classical nucleation theory. This allows us to go outside the normally applied constraint of chemical equilibrium. The system is governed by a virial equation of state, which we use to find an expression for the density as a function of pressure and temperature. The evolution of the system is discussed in terms of the phase diagram. Corrections are included to account for the droplet surface and all charges contained in the system. Using this model we investigate and discuss the effects of temperature and saturation, and compare the results to those of other models of fragmentation. We also discuss the limiting temperatures of the system for the cases with and without chemical equilibrium. We find that large nuclei will be formed in saturated systems, even above the limiting temperature as previously defined. We also find that saturation and temperature dominate surface and Coulomb effects. The effects are quite large, thus even a qualitative inspection of the yields may give an indication of the conditions during fragmentation

  3. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-01-01

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  4. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Korin, Eli

    2007-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems

  5. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride, cadmium bromide, cadmium iodide, cadmium nitrate, and cadmium sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-07-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of cadmium salts (chloride, bromide, iodide, nitrate, and sulphate) were determined over the temperature range 280 K to 322 K and compared with the literature data. The vapour pressures determined were used to obtain the water activities, osmotic coefficients and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in the (cadmium salt + water) systems.

  6. Map showing thickness of saturated Quaternary deposits, Sugar House quadrangle, Salt Lake County, Utah, February 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, R.W.

    1973-01-01

    Saturated Quaternary deposits in the Sugar Horse quadrangle supply significant quantities of water to wells from which water is withdrawn for domestic, municipal, industrial, and irrigation uses. The deposits consist of clay, silt, sand, and gravel; individual beds range from a few inches to several tens of feet thick. The principal aquifer, which is almost completely within the Quaternary deposits, supplied about 4 percent, or 9,000 acre-feet, of the municipal and industrial water used annually in Salt Lake County during 1964-68.As a general rule, more water is stored and more water will be yielded to a well where aquifers are thicker. This map can be used as a general guide to those areas where greatest amounts of water are stored in the aquifer, and where yields to wells may be greater. Local variations in the ability of saturated deposits to transmit water can alter the general relationship between aquifer thickness and yield of wells.The thickness of saturated Quaternary deposits within the area of the Sugar Horse quadrangle ranges from zero to about 650 feet, as shown on the map. The thickest section of these deposits is near the southwestern corner of the quadrangle, and the thinnest section is along the mountain front adjacent to the approximate eastern limit of saturated Quaternary deposits.The thickness of saturated Quaternary deposits shown on this map is based on drillers’ logs for 55 deep wells (which show the thickness of the Quaternary deposits) and on water-level measurements made in February 1972 in wells in unconfined shallow aquifers.Reports in the following list of selected references contain other information about the saturated Quaternary deposits in this and adjacent parts of Jordan Valley, Utah. The basic-data reports and releases contain well logs, water-level measurements, and other types of basic ground-water data. The interpretive repots contain discussions of the occurrence of ground water, tests to determine hydraulic properties of

  7. Phytosterol-based edible oleogels: A novel way of replacing saturated fat in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, A; Dalkas, G; Clegg, P S; Euston, S R

    2018-06-01

    This article presents a summary of recent results relating to phytosterol oleogels. Oleogels represent a novel way of replacing saturated fat in food, whilst phytosterols have been shown to actively lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- cholesterol levels. There are a number of technical challenges to exploiting phytosterol oleogels, including a high sensitivity to water. To facilitate their incorporation into food, the fundamental physiochemical processes which mediate the formation of these gels and two different approaches to produce phytosterol oleogels that are stable in the presence of water were explored as part of the recent Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC)-Diet and Health Research Industry Club (DRINC)-funded Edible Oleogels for Reduction of Saturated Fat project. This report summarises the findings, which will support the development of healthier food products that are lower in saturated fat and acceptable to consumers.

  8. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    Liquefaction is loss of shear strength in fully saturated loose sands caused by build-up of excess pore water pressure, during moderate to large earthquakes, leading to catastrophic failures of structures. Currently used liquefaction mitigation measures are often costly and cannot be applied at sites with existing structures. An innovative, practical, and cost effective liquefaction mitigation technique titled "Induced Partial Saturation" (IPS) was developed by researchers at Northeastern University. The IPS technique is based on injection of sodium percarbonate solution into fully saturated liquefaction susceptible sand. Sodium percarbonate dissolves in water and breaks down into sodium and carbonate ions and hydrogen peroxide which generates oxygen gas bubbles. Oxygen gas bubbles become trapped in sand pores and therefore decrease the degree of saturation of the sand, increase the compressibility of the soil, thus reduce its potential for liquefaction. The implementation of IPS required the development and validation of a monitoring and evaluation technique that would help ensure that the sands are indeed partially saturated. This dissertation focuses on this aspect of the IPS research. The monitoring system developed was based on using electric conductivity fundamentals and probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, calculate degree of saturation of sand, and determine the final zone of partial saturation created by IPS. To understand the fundamentals of electric conductivity, laboratory bench-top tests were conducted using electric conductivity probes and small specimens of Ottawa sand. Bench-top tests were used to study rate of generation of gas bubbles due to reaction of sodium percarbonate solution in sand, and to confirm a theory based on which degree of saturation were calculated. In addition to bench-top tests, electric conductivity probes were used in a relatively large sand specimen prepared in a specially manufactured glass tank. IPS was

  9. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  10. Sulfur concentration at sulfide saturation (SCSS) in magmatic silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Samaha, Naji-Tom; Baker, Don R.

    2007-04-01

    The sulfur concentration in silicate melts at sulfide saturation (SCSS) was experimentally investigated in a temperature range from 1150 to 1450 °C and a pressure range from 500 MPa to 1 GPa in a piston-cylinder apparatus. The investigated melt compositions varied from rhyolitic to basaltic and water concentrations varied from 0 to ˜9 wt%. All experiments were saturated with FeS melt or pyrrhotite crystals. Temperature was confirmed to have a positive effect on the SCSS. Experimental oxygen fugacities were either near the carbon-carbon monoxide buffer or one log unit above the nickel-nickel oxide buffer, and found to positively affect the SCSS. Combining our results with data from the literature we constructed a model to predict the SCSS in melts ranging in composition from komatiitic to rhyolitic, with water concentrations from 0 to 9 wt%, at pressures from 1 bar to 9 GPa and oxygen fugacities between ˜2 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer to ˜2 log units above it. The coefficients were obtained by multiple linear regression of experimental data and the best model found for the prediction of the SCSS is: ln(Sinppm)=11.35251-{4454.6}/{T}-0.03190{P}/{T}+0.71006ln(MFM)-1.98063[(MFM)(XO)]+0.21867ln(XO)+0.36192lnX where P is in bar, T is in K, MFM is a compositional parameter describing the melt based upon cation mole fractions: MFM={Na+K+2(Ca+Mg+Fe)}/{Si×(Al+Fe)}, XO is the mole fraction of water in the melt, and X is the mole fraction of FeO in the melt. This model was independently tested against experiments performed on anhydrous and hydrous melts in the temperature range from 800 to 1800 °C and 1-9 GPa. The model typically predicts the measured values of the natural log of the SCSS (in ppm) for komatiitic to rhyolitic (˜42 to ˜74 wt% SiO 2) melts to within 5% relative, but is less accurate for high-silica (>76 wt% SiO 2) rhyolites, especially those with molar ratios of iron to sulfur below 2. We demonstrate how this model can be used with

  11. FLASH: A finite element computer code for variably saturated flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Magnuson, S.O.

    1992-05-01

    A numerical model was developed for use in performance assessment studies at the INEL. The numerical model, referred to as the FLASH computer code, is designed to simulate two-dimensional fluid flow in fractured-porous media. The code is specifically designed to model variably saturated flow in an arid site vadose zone and saturated flow in an unconfined aquifer. In addition, the code also has the capability to simulate heat conduction in the vadose zone. This report presents the following: description of the conceptual frame-work and mathematical theory; derivations of the finite element techniques and algorithms; computational examples that illustrate the capability of the code; and input instructions for the general use of the code. The FLASH computer code is aimed at providing environmental scientists at the INEL with a predictive tool for the subsurface water pathway. This numerical model is expected to be widely used in performance assessments for: (1) the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study process and (2) compliance studies required by the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A

  12. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  13. Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Ye, G.

    2018-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study the influence of moisture condition, including moisture content and its distribution, on the chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar. The mortar samples with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, cured for 1

  14. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions to the Stochastic Porous Media Equations of Saturated Flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotir, Ioana

    2010-01-01

    This paper proves the existence and uniqueness of nonnegative solutions for the stochastic porous media equations with multiplicative noise, infinite jump and discontinuous diffusivity function relevant in description of saturation processes in underground water infiltration in a bounded domain of R 3 .

  15. A simplified transfer function for estimating saturated hydraulic conductivity of porous drainage filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canga, Eriona; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of porous filters used in water treatment technologies is important for optimizing the retention of nutrients and pollutants. This parameter determines the hydraulic capacity, which together with the Chemical properties of the filter media...

  16. SATCAP-B: a program for thermal-hydraulic design of 'Saturated Temperature Capsule'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Niimi, Motoji

    1989-11-01

    As an advanced irradiation technique, the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) project is developing a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' which water is injected in and boiled. When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature. This type capsule is based on the conception of keeping the coolant to the saturated temperature and using the temperature control. In designing the capsule in which the inner coolant is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. Then, a program (named SATCAP) was compiled to graps the thermal performance within the capsule. On the other hand, a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' was made and irradiated in the JMTR core. It was indicated from supplied water temperatures recorded by thermo-couples attached in the capsule that heat transfer coefficients prefered models due to natural convection to models incorporated in the initial version of the program. Then, the program was revised by adding mainly heat transfer model based on natural convection. The present report describes the calculation procedure and guides of input and output for the revised program (SATCAP version-B). (author)

  17. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification

  18. Soil Systems for Upscaling Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity (Ksat) for Hydrological Modeling in the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful hydrological model predictions depend on appropriate framing of scale and the spatial-temporal accuracy of input parameters describing soil hydraulic properties. Saturated soil hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is one of the most important properties influencing water movement through soil un...

  19. Sticky traps saturate with navel orangeworm in a non-linear fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to evaluate saturation thresholds as well as differences among wing-trap types, we used unmated female navel orangeworm (NOW) as sex pheromone baits in wing-traps that varied by color and glue/trapping surface. These results were compared to male capture in red delta and simple water cup tr...

  20. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H A; Amy, Gary L.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2011-01-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen

  1. Automated agitation management accounting for saturation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, A D; Chase, J G; Shaw, G M; Lee, D

    2004-01-01

    Agitation-sedation cycling in critically ill is damaging to patient health and increases length of and cost. A physiologically representative model of the agitation-sedation system is used as a platform to evaluate feedback controllers offering improved agitation management. A heavy-derivative controller with upper and infusion rate bounds maintains minimum plasma concentrations through a low constant infusion, and minimizes outbursts of agitation through strong, timely boluses. controller provides improved agitation management using from 37 critically ill patients, given the saturation of effect at high concentration. Approval was obtained the Canterbury Ethics Board for this research.

  2. Modelling contaminant transport in saturated aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, V.; Nayak, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    With the increase in population and industrialization the problem of pollution of groundwater has become critical. The present study deals with modelling of pollutant transport through saturated aquifers. Using this model it is possible to predict the concentration distribution, spatial as well as temporal, in the aquifer. The paper also deals with one of the methods of controlling the pollutant movement, namely by pumping wells. A simulation model is developed to determine the number, location and rate of pumping of a number of wells near the source of pollution so that the concentration is within acceptable limits at the point of interest. (Author) (18 refs., 14 figs., tab.)

  3. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9......,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS...

  4. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2015-01-01

    arguments and themes involved in the debates surrounding the introduction and the repeal. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An analysis of parliamentary debates, expert reports and media coverage; key informant interviews; and a review of studies about the effects of the tax on consumer behaviour. RESULTS: A tax......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present...... indicates that the tax was effective in changing consumer behaviour....

  5. Rectifier transformer saturation on commutation failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, E.; Bronner, G.

    1989-01-01

    The rectifier transformer's service differs from the power transformer's service because of the rectifier load. Under certain fault conditions, such as a commutation failure, d.c. magnetization may be introduced into the rectifier transformer cores, resulting in possible saturation of the magnetic circuit, thus in degradation of the performance of the transformer. It is the purpose of this paper to present an approach for evaluating the electromagnetic transient process under such a fault condition. The studies were made on the operating 1000MVA converter system at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

  6. Transport properties and pore-network structure in variably-saturated Sphagnum peat soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Dissanayaka, Shiromi Himalika; Kawamoto, K.

    2016-01-01

    Gas and water transport in peat soil are of increasing interest because of their potentially large environmental and climatic effects under different types of land use. In this research, the water retention curve (WRC), gas diffusion coefficient (Dg) and air and water permeabilities (ka and kw......) of layers in peat soil from two profiles were measured under different moisture conditions. A two-region Archie's Law (2RAL)-type model was applied successfully to the four properties; the reference point was taken at -9.8kPa of soil-water matric potential where volume shrinkage typically started to occur....... For WRC in the very decomposed peat soil, the 2RAL saturation exponents (n) obtained for both the wetter (nw) and drier regions (nd) were smaller than those for the less decomposed peat. For Dg, the saturation exponent in the wetter region was larger than that in the drier one for all layers, which...

  7. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan

    alcohols. These polyols are common in the water soluble fraction of atmospheric aerosols. In our experimental system sub-micron particles are generated by nebulization from aqueous solution, and a mono disperse fraction of the aerosol is selected using a differential mobility analyzer. The particles......The atmospheric partitioning between gas and condensed phase of organic molecules is poorly understood, and discrepancies exist between predicted and observed concentrations of secondary organic aerosols. A key problem is the lack of information about thermodynamic properties of semi- and low...... volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar...

  8. Stability of infinite slopes under transient partially saturated seepage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; ŞEner-Kaya, BaşAk; Lu, Ning; Baum, Rex L.

    2012-05-01

    Prediction of the location and timing of rainfall-induced shallow landslides is desired by organizations responsible for hazard management and warnings. However, hydrologic and mechanical processes in the vadose zone complicate such predictions. Infiltrating rainfall must typically pass through an unsaturated layer before reaching the irregular and usually discontinuous shallow water table. This process is dynamic and a function of precipitation intensity and duration, the initial moisture conditions and hydrologic properties of the hillside materials, and the geometry, stratigraphy, and vegetation of the hillslope. As a result, pore water pressures, volumetric water content, effective stress, and thus the propensity for landsliding vary over seasonal and shorter time scales. We apply a general framework for assessing the stability of infinite slopes under transient variably saturated conditions. The framework includes profiles of pressure head and volumetric water content combined with a general effective stress for slope stability analysis. The general effective stress, or suction stress, provides a means for rigorous quantification of stress changes due to rainfall and infiltration and thus the analysis of slope stability over the range of volumetric water contents and pressure heads relevant to shallow landslide initiation. We present results using an analytical solution for transient infiltration for a range of soil texture and hydrological properties typical of landslide-prone hillslopes and show the effect of these properties on the timing and depth of slope failure. We follow by analyzing field-monitoring data acquired prior to shallow landslide failure of a hillside near Seattle, Washington, and show that the timing of the slide was predictable using measured pressure head and volumetric water content and show how the approach can be used in a forward manner using a numerical model for transient infiltration.

  9. Experimental and numerical approaches of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a quasi-saturated compacted clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhong-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research is funded by the French National Project « TerreDurable », which is dedicated to the study of soils in quasi-saturated conditions (close to saturation for the analysis of stability and settlement of earth structures such as embankment, dams. A global presentation of the drying-wetting test shows the volume change, air entry and soil-water characteristics of the soil at slurry and oven-dried conditions. Unsaturated undrained triaxial test was carried out in order to investigate the variation of pore-water pressure from quasi-saturated domain to saturation. The experimental results of the triaxial test are then modeled using a two-dimensional explicit finite difference program (Flac 2D. A constitutive law developed in the TerreDurable project allows better understanding the behaviour of quasi-saturated soils using the water retention curve of quasi-saturated domain proposed by Boutonnier (2007, 2010. A simple effective stress model is used (Cam Clay by taking into account both the suction and the compressibility of equivalent fluid (water + air. The results from numerical calculation and experimental measurements are compared.

  10. Calibration of the Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the flow calibration analysis work is to provide Performance Assessment (PA) with the calibrated site-scale saturated zone (SZ) flow model that will be used to make radionuclide transport calculations. As such, it is one of the most important models developed in the Yucca Mountain project. This model will be a culmination of much of our knowledge of the SZ flow system. The objective of this study is to provide a defensible site-scale SZ flow and transport model that can be used for assessing total system performance. A defensible model would include geologic and hydrologic data that are used to form the hydrogeologic framework model; also, it would include hydrochemical information to infer transport pathways, in-situ permeability measurements, and water level and head measurements. In addition, the model should include information on major model sensitivities. Especially important are those that affect calibration, the direction of transport pathways, and travel times. Finally, if warranted, alternative calibrations representing different conceptual models should be included. To obtain a defensible model, all available data should be used (or at least considered) to obtain a calibrated model. The site-scale SZ model was calibrated using measured and model-generated water levels and hydraulic head data, specific discharge calculations, and flux comparisons along several of the boundaries. Model validity was established by comparing model-generated permeabilities with the permeability data from field and laboratory tests; by comparing fluid pathlines obtained from the SZ flow model with those inferred from hydrochemical data; and by comparing the upward gradient generated with the model with that observed in the field. This analysis is governed by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) Development Plan ''Calibration of the Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  11. A demonstration experiment for studying the properties of saturated vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, Igor V.; Lebedeva, Olga V.; Polushkina, Svetlana V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes an important demonstration experiment that can be used at secondary schools in physics. The described experiment helps students learn the main concepts of the topic ‘saturated vapor’, namely, evaporation, condensation, dynamic equilibrium, saturation vapor, partial pressure, and the dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature.

  12. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  13. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by

  14. Particle Correlations in Saturated QCD Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Baier, R; Nardi, M; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Baier, Rudolf; Kovner, Alex; Nardi, Marzia; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-01-01

    We study quantitatively angular correlations in the two-particle spectrum produced by an energetic probe scattering off a dense hadronic target with sizeable saturation momentum. To this end, two parton inclusive cross sections for arbitrary projectiles with small color charge density are derived in the eikonal formalism. Our results are the following: For large momenta of the observed particles, the perturbative limit with characteristic back-to-back correlation is recovered. As the trigger momenta get closer to the saturation scale Q_s, the angular distribution broadens. When the momenta are significantly smaller than Q_s, the azimuthal distribution is broad but still peaked back-to-back. However, in a narrow momentum range (0.5 - 1.5) Q_s, we observe that the azimuthal correlation splits into a double peak with maxima displaced away from 180 degree. We argue that it is the soft multiple scattering physics that is responsible for the appearance of this shift in the angle of maximal correlation. We also poin...

  15. Simulation of saturated tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh N.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-linear model, which includes the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, is developed for saturated tearing modes in order to compute magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary aspect ratio and cross-sectional shape. The model is tested in a simple stand-alone code and is implemented in the BALDUR [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1982)] predictive modeling code. It is found that the widths of tearing mode islands increase with decreasing aspect ratio and with increasing elongation. Also, the island widths increase when the gradient of the current density increases at the edge of the islands and when the current density inside the islands is suppressed, such as the suppression caused by the near absence of the bootstrap current within the islands. In simulations of tokamak discharges, it is found that tearing mode island widths oscillate in time in response to periodic sawtooth crashes. The local enhancements in the transport produced by magnetic islands have a noticeable effect on global plasma confinement in simulations of low aspect ratio, high beta tokamaks, where saturated tearing mode islands can occur with widths that are greater than 15% of the plasma minor radius

  16. Thermal effects on tearing mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of geometry on tearing modes, saturated states of tearing modes, and the thermal effect on tearing modes are presented. The configuration of current and magnetic fields are quite different in slabs and in Tokamaks. However, for any magnetic island regardless of geometry and heating conditions, at island saturation the product of resistivity and current is the same at magnetic O and X lines. The temperature perturbation effect on the nonlinear development of tearing modes is investigated. Thermal conduction along the field lines is much faster than that in the perpendicular direction, and thus the temperature profile follows the island structure. Utilizing Spitzer's conductivity relation, the temperature perturbation is modelled as helical components of resistivity. For a usual tearing mode unstable Tokamak, where shear is positive, the islands continue to grow to a larger size when the islands are cooled. When they are heated, the island sizes are reduced. The temperature perturbation can induce islands even for equilibria stable with respect to tearing modes. Again, the islands appear when cooling takes place. The equilibria with the cooled islands show enhanced field line stochasticity, thus enhanced heat transport. Therefore, thermal instability can be directly related to pressure disruptions. (author)

  17. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  18. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 x 10 -22 m 2 to 9.7 x 10 -17 m 2 . Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members

  19. Gas diffusion-derived tortuosity governs saturated hydraulic conductivity in sandy soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masis Melendez, Federico; Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2014-01-01

    Accurate prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) is essential for the development of better distributed hydrological models and area-differentiated risk assessment of chemical leaching. The saturated hydraulic conductivity is often estimated from basic soil properties such as particle......, potential relationships between Ksat and Dp/Do were investigated. A total of 84 undisturbed soil cores were extracted from the topsoil of a field site, and Dp/Do and Ksat were measured in the laboratory. Water-induced and solids-induced tortuosity factors were obtained by applying a two-parameter Dp...

  20. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. KELLER

    2004-01-01

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  1. Energy dependent saturable and reverse saturable absorption in cube-like polyaniline/polymethyl methacrylate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.

  2. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  3. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  4. Climatological distribution of aragonite saturation state in the global oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li-Qing; Feely, Richard A.; Carter, Brendan R.; Greeley, Dana J.; Gledhill, Dwight K.; Arzayus, Krisa M.

    2015-10-01

    Aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) in surface and subsurface waters of the global oceans was calculated from up-to-date (through the year of 2012) ocean station dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data. Surface Ωarag in the open ocean was always supersaturated (Ω > 1), ranging between 1.1 and 4.2. It was above 2.0 (2.0-4.2) between 40°N and 40°S but decreased toward higher latitude to below 1.5 in polar areas. The influences of water temperature on the TA/DIC ratio, combined with the temperature effects on inorganic carbon equilibrium and apparent solubility product (K'sp), explain the latitudinal differences in surface Ωarag. Vertically, Ωarag was highest in the surface mixed layer. Higher hydrostatic pressure, lower water temperature, and more CO2 buildup from biological activity in the absence of air-sea gas exchange helped maintain lower Ωarag in the deep ocean. Below the thermocline, aerobic decomposition of organic matter along the pathway of global thermohaline circulation played an important role in controlling Ωarag distributions. Seasonally, surface Ωarag above 30° latitudes was about 0.06 to 0.55 higher during warmer months than during colder months in the open-ocean waters of both hemispheres. Decadal changes of Ωarag in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans showed that Ωarag in waters shallower than 100 m depth decreased by 0.10 ± 0.09 (-0.40 ± 0.37% yr-1) on average from the decade spanning 1989-1998 to the decade spanning 1998-2010.

  5. Observation of a new surface mode on a fluid-saturated permeable solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    Almost ten years ago, S. Feng and D. L. Johnson predicted the presence of a new surface mode on a fluid/fluid-saturated porous solid interface with closed surface pores [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 906 (1983)]. We found that, due to surface tension, practically closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at an interface between a nonwetting fluid (e.g., air) and a porous solid saturated with a wetting fluid (e.g., water or alcohol). Surface wave velocity and attenuation measurements were made on alcohol-saturated porous sintered glass at 100 kHz. The experimental results show clear evidence of the new ''slow'' surface mode predicted by Feng and Johnson

  6. SURGTANK, Steam Pressure, Saturation Temperature or Reactor Surge Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.; Gupta, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: SURGTANK generates the steam pressure, saturation temperature, and ambient temperature history for a nuclear reactor steam surge tank (pressurizer) in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium subjected to a liquid insurge described by a specified time history of liquid levels. It is capable also of providing the pressure and saturation temperature history, starting from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, for the same tank subjected to an out-surge described by a time history of liquid levels. Both operations are available for light- or heavy- water nuclear reactor systems. The tank is assumed to have perfect thermal insulation on its outer wall surfaces. 2 - Method of solution: Surge tank geometry and initial liquid level and saturation pressure are provided as input for the out-surge problem, along with the prescribed time-sequence level history. SURGTANK assumes a reduced pressure for the end of the first change in liquid level and determines the associated change of entropy for the closed system. The assumed pressure is adjusted and the associated change in entropy recalculated until a pressure is attained for which no change occurs. This pressure is recorded and used as the beginning pressure for the next level increment. The system is then re-defined to exclude the small amount of liquid which has left the tank, and a solution for the pressure at the end of the second level increment is obtained. The procedure is terminated when the pressure at the end of the final increment has been determined. Surge tank geometry, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and density of tank walls, initial liquid level, and saturation pressure are provided as input for the insurge problem, along with the prescribed time-sequence level history. SURGTANK assumes a slightly in- creased pressure for the end of the first level, the inner tank sur- face is assumed to follow saturation temperature, linearly with time, throughout the interval, and

  7. Saturation of DNA repair in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, F E; Setlow, R B

    1979-01-01

    Excision repair seems to reach a plateau in normal human cells at a 254 nm dose near 20 J/m/sup 2/. We measured excision repair in normal human fibroblasts up to 80 J/m/sup 2/. The four techniques used (unscheduled DNA synthesis, photolysis of BrdUrd incorporated during repair, loss of sites sensitive to a UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, and loss of pyrimidine dimers from DNA) showed little difference between the two doses. Moreover, the loss of endonuclease sites in 24h following two 20 J/m/sup 2/ doses separated by 24h was similar to the loss observed following one dose. Hence, we concluded that the observed plateau in excision repair is real and does not represent some inhibitory process at high doses but a true saturation of one of the rate limiting steps in repair.

  8. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on saturated...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...... with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  9. Direct laboratory observation of fluid distribution and its influence on acoustic properties of patchy saturated rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, M.; Clennell, B.; Pervukhina, M.; Shulakova, V.; Mueller, T.; Gurevich, B.

    2009-04-01

    Porous rocks in hydrocarbon reservoirs are often saturated with a mixture of two or more fluids. Interpretation of exploration seismograms requires understanding of the relationship between distribution of the fluids patches and acoustic properties of rocks. The sizes of patches as well as their distribution affect significantly the seismic response. If the size of the fluid patch is smaller than the diffusion wavelength then pressure equilibration is achieved and the bulk modulus of the rock saturated with a mixture is defined by the Gassmann equations (Gassmann, 1951) with the saturation-weighted average of the fluid bulk modulus given by Wood's law (Wood, 1955, Mavko et al., 1998). If the fluid patch size is much larger than the diffusion wavelength then there is no pressure communication between different patches. In this case, fluid-flow effects can be neglected and the overall rock may be considered equivalent to an elastic composite material consisting of homogeneous parts whose properties are given by Gassmann theory with Hill's equation for the bulk modulus (Hill, 1963, Mavko et al., 1998). At intermediate values of fluid saturation the velocity-saturation relationship is significantly affected by the fluid patch distribution. In order to get an improved understanding of factors influencing the patch distribution and the resulting seismic wave response we performed simultaneous measurements of P-wave velocities and rock sample CT imaging. The CT imaging allows us to map the fluid distribution inside rock sample during saturation (water imbibition). We compare the experimental results with theoretical predictions. In this paper we will present results of simultaneous measurements of longitudinal wave velocities and imaging mapping of fluid distribution inside rock sample during sample saturation. We will report results of two kinds of experiments: "dynamic" and "quasi static" saturation. In both experiments Casino Cores Otway Basin sandstone, Australia core

  10. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-05-01

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  11. Influence of saturation degree and role of suction in unsaturated soils behaviour: application to liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernay Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the pore fluid compressibility on liquefaction has been studied by various authors. But few papers have been published about the role of suction in cyclic behavior of unsaturated soils. Most of these works use Skempton coefficient B as a reference in terms of saturation degree to analyze their results. The use of B in experimental conditions is convenient, but is not accurate when studying liquefaction behavior, since effects of suction are neglected. In this paper, the influence of saturation degree on mechanical behavior of a soil under dynamic loads is studied. Cyclic undrained triaxial tests were performed on sand samples, under various levels of saturation. Soil-water characteristic curve was used, in order to study influence of suction. The first results confirm that when the degree of saturation decreases, the resistance increases. Initial positive suction tends to stiffen the soil. It also appears that the presence of air delays the occurrence of liquefaction, but doesn’t prevent it. Indeed, liquefaction is observed, whether the soil is saturated or not.

  12. VS2DRTI: Simulating Heat and Reactive Solute Transport in Variably Saturated Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W; Haile, Sosina S; Parkhurst, David L; Charlton, Scott R

    2018-01-29

    Variably saturated groundwater flow, heat transport, and solute transport are important processes in environmental phenomena, such as the natural evolution of water chemistry of aquifers and streams, the storage of radioactive waste in a geologic repository, the contamination of water resources from acid-rock drainage, and the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. Up to now, our ability to simulate these processes simultaneously with fully coupled reactive transport models has been limited to complex and often difficult-to-use models. To address the need for a simple and easy-to-use model, the VS2DRTI software package has been developed for simulating water flow, heat transport, and reactive solute transport through variably saturated porous media. The underlying numerical model, VS2DRT, was created by coupling the flow and transport capabilities of the VS2DT and VS2DH models with the equilibrium and kinetic reaction capabilities of PhreeqcRM. Flow capabilities include two-dimensional, constant-density, variably saturated flow; transport capabilities include both heat and multicomponent solute transport; and the reaction capabilities are a complete implementation of geochemical reactions of PHREEQC. The graphical user interface includes a preprocessor for building simulations and a postprocessor for visual display of simulation results. To demonstrate the simulation of multiple processes, the model is applied to a hypothetical example of injection of heated waste water to an aquifer with temperature-dependent cation exchange. VS2DRTI is freely available public domain software. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  13. Operating results of 220 MW SKODA saturated steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the steam turbines produced by the SKODA Works, the 220 MW steam turbine for saturated admission steam of a speed of 3000 r.p.m. is described; it is used in nuclear power plants with 400 MW PWR type reactors. 16 units of 8 turbines each have been in operation in the Jaslovske Bohunice and Dukovany power plants with the total period of operation of all machines exceeding 750,000 hours. The 220 MW steam turbine consists of a two-flow high-pressure section and of two identical two-flow low-pressure sections. The pressure of saturated steam at the inlet of the high-pressure section is 4.32 MPa (the corresponding temperature of the saturation limit being 255 degC) and during the expansion in the high-pressure section it drops to 0.6 MPa; steam moisture reaches 12%. In a separator and two-stage reheater using blend steam, the steam is freed of the moisture and is reheated to a temperature of 217 degC. Some operational problems are discussed, as are the loss of the material of the stator parts of the high-pressure section due to corrosion-erosion wear and corrosion-erosion wear of the guide wheels of the high-pressure section, and measures are presented carried out for the reduction of the corrosion-erosion effects of wet steam. One of the serious problems were the fatigue fractures of the blades of the 4th high-pressure stage, which appeared after 20 000 to 24 000 hours of operation in the dented tee-root. The guide wheels of the 4th stage were substituted by new guide wheels with uniform pitch of the channels and with increased number of guide blades. Also discussed are the dynamic behavior of the low-pressure section of the bridge structure, the operating reliability and the heat off-take for water heating of long-distance heating systems. (Z.S.) 9 figs

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. Electrical conductivity modeling in fractal non-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W.; Cai, J.; Hu, X.; Han, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The variety of electrical conductivity in non-saturated conditions is important to study electric conduction in natural sedimentary rocks. The electrical conductivity in completely saturated porous media is a porosity-function representing the complex connected behavior of single conducting phases (pore fluid). For partially saturated conditions, the electrical conductivity becomes even more complicated since the connectedness of pore. Archie's second law is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity and -saturation model that has been used to predict the formation factor of non-saturated porous rock. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m and the saturation exponent n, remains questionable. On basis of our previous work, we combine the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model to build an electrical conductivity model in non-saturated porous media. Our theoretical porosity- and saturation-dependent models contain endmember properties, such as fluid electrical conductivities, pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension (representing the complex degree of electrical flowing path). We find the presented model with non-saturation-dependent electrical conductivity datasets indicate excellent match between theory and experiments. This means the value of pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension change from medium to medium and depends not only on geometrical properties of pore structure but also characteristics of electrical current flowing in the non-saturated porous media.

  16. Correcting saturation of detectors for particle/droplet imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalt, Peter A M

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based diagnostic methods are being applied to more and more flows of theoretical and practical interest and are revealing interesting new flow features. Imaging particles or droplets in nephelometry and laser sheet dropsizing methods requires a trade-off of maximized signal-to-noise ratio without over-saturating the detector. Droplet and particle imaging results in lognormal distribution of pixel intensities. It is possible to fit a derived lognormal distribution to the histogram of measured pixel intensities. If pixel intensities are clipped at a saturated value, it is possible to estimate a presumed probability density function (pdf) shape without the effects of saturation from the lognormal fit to the unsaturated histogram. Information about presumed shapes of the pixel intensity pdf is used to generate corrections that can be applied to data to account for saturation. The effects of even slight saturation are shown to be a significant source of error on the derived average. The influence of saturation on the derived root mean square (rms) is even more pronounced. It is found that errors on the determined average exceed 5% when the number of saturated samples exceeds 3% of the total. Errors on the rms are 20% for a similar saturation level. This study also attempts to delineate limits, within which the detector saturation can be accurately corrected. It is demonstrated that a simple method for reshaping the clipped part of the pixel intensity histogram makes accurate corrections to account for saturated pixels. These outcomes can be used to correct a saturated signal, quantify the effect of saturation on a derived average and offer a method to correct the derived average in the case of slight to moderate saturation of pixels

  17. User manual of the multicompenent variably - saturated flow and transport model HP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Simunek, J.

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a new comprehensive simulation tool HP1 (HYDRUS1D-PHREEQC) that was obtained by coupling the HYDRUS-1D one-dimensional variably-saturated water flow and solute transport model with the PHREEQC geochemical code. The HP1 code incorporates modules simulating (1) transient water flow in variably-saturated media, (2) transport of multiple components, and (3) mixed equilibrium/kinetic geochemical reactions. The program numerically solves the Richards equation for variably-saturated water flow and advection-dispersion type equations for heat and solute transport. The flow equation incorporates a sink term to account for water uptake by plant roots. The heat transport equation considers transport due to conduction and convection with flowing water. The solute transport equations consider advective-dispersive transport in the liquid phase. The program can simulate a broad range of low-temperature biogeochemical reactions in water, soil and ground water systems including interactions with minerals, gases, exchangers, and sorption surfaces, based on thermodynamic equilibrium, kinetics, or mixed equilibrium-kinetic reactions. The program may be used to analyze water and solute movement in unsaturated, partially saturated, or fully saturated porous media. The flow region may be composed of nonuniform soils or sediments. Flow and transport can occur in the vertical, horizontal, or a generally inclined direction. The water flow part of the model can deal with prescribed head and flux boundaries, boundaries controlled by atmospheric conditions, as well as free drainage boundary conditions. The governing flow and transport equations were solved numerically using Galerkin-type linear finite element schemes. To test the accuracy of the coupling procedures implemented in HP1, simulation results were compared with (i) HYDRUS-1D for transport problems of multiple components subject to sequential first-order decay, (ii) PHREEQC for steady-state flow conditions, and

  18. Analysis of an SEIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Incidence and Saturated Treatment Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and saturated treatment function are explored in this paper. The basic reproduction number that determines disease extinction and disease survival is given. The existing threshold conditions of all kinds of the equilibrium points are obtained. Sufficient conditions are established for the existence of backward bifurcation. The local asymptotical stability of equilibrium is verified by analyzing the eigenvalues and using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. We also discuss the global asymptotical stability of the endemic equilibrium by autonomous convergence theorem. The study indicates that we should improve the efficiency and enlarge the capacity of the treatment to control the spread of disease. Numerical simulations are presented to support and complement the theoretical findings.

  19. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  20. Method of coupling 1-D unsaturated flow with 3-D saturated flow on large scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A coupled unsaturated-saturated water flow numerical model was developed. The water flow in the unsaturated zone is considered the one-dimensional vertical flow, which changes in the horizontal direction according to the groundwater table and the atmospheric boundary conditions. The groundwater flow is treated as the three-dimensional water flow. The recharge flux to groundwater from soil water is considered the bottom flux for the numerical simulation in the unsaturated zone, and the upper flux for the groundwater simulation. It connects and unites the two separated water flow systems. The soil water equation is solved based on the assumed groundwater table and the subsequent predicted recharge flux. Then, the groundwater equation is solved with the predicted recharge flux as the upper boundary condition. Iteration continues until the discrepancy between the assumed and calculated groundwater nodal heads have a certain accuracy. Illustrative examples with different water flow scenarios regarding the Dirichlet boundary condition, the Neumann boundary condition, the atmospheric boundary condition, and the source or sink term were calculated by the coupled model. The results are compared with those of other models, including Hydrus-1D, SWMS-2D, and FEFLOW, which demonstrate that the coupled model is effective and accurate and can significantly reduce the computational time for the large number of nodes in saturated-unsaturated water flow simulation.