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Sample records for irradiation organic nonlinear

  1. NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Антонович БУШУЕВ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear behavior of organizations in development projects is considered. The nonlinear behavior is initiated in the growth of organizations and requires a restructuring of governance in identifying dysfunctions. Such a restructuring is needed in the area of soft components, determining the organizational levels of competence in the management of projects, programs, portfolios and heads of the Project Management Office. An important component of the strategic development of the organization is the proposed concept for formation and management of development programs in the context according to their life cycle. It should take into account the non-linear behavior of the soft components of the system and violation of functional processes of the organization. The specific management syndromes of projects and programs are considered. Such as syndromes time management project linked to the singular points of the project. These syndromes are "shift to the right", "point of no return", "braking at the end of the project" and others.

  2. Irradiation effects on organic insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    The overall objective of this work is to contribute to development of organic insulators having the cryogenic neutron irradiation resistance required for MFE systems utilizing superconducting magnet confinement. The system for producing standard 3.2-mm (0.125-in) diameter rod specimens discussed in previous reports has been further refined to permit the fabrication of both fiber-reinforced and heat-resin specimens from hot-melt resin systems. The method has been successfully used to produce very high quality specimens duplicating the G-11CR system and specimens from a variant of that system eliminating a boron-containing additive. We have also produced specimens from an epoxy system suitable for impregnation or potting operations and from a bismaleimide polyimide system. These materials will be used in the first irradiation program in the National Low Temperature Neutron Irradiation Facility (NLTNIF) reactor at Oak Ridge. We have refined the 4-K torsional shear test method for evaluating radiation degradation of the fiber-matrix interface and have developed a method of quantitatively measuring changes in fracture energy as a function of radiation dose. Cooperative work with laboratories in Japan and England in this area is continuing and plans are being formulated for joint production, irradiation, and testing of specimens

  3. Nonlinear optical studies of organic monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1988-02-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical effects are forbidden in a medium with inversion symmetry, but are necessarily allowed at a surface where the inversion summary is broken. They are often sufficiently strong so that a submonolayer perturbation of the surface can be readily detected. They can therefore be used as effective tools to study monolayers adsorbed at various interfaces. We discuss here a number of recent experiments in which optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) are employed to probe and characterize organic monolayers. 15 refs., 5 figs

  4. Proton irradiation effects on organic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, T.; Sasuga, T.; Kawakami, W.; Hagiwara, M.; Kohno, I.; Kamitsubo, H.

    1987-01-01

    Organic polymer films(100 μm thickness) of polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethyleneterephtalate, and polyethersulfone were irradiated by protons of 8 MeV using a cyclotron, and their radiation effects were investigated by the changes of mechanical properties. In order to irradiate protons uniformly over wide area of polymer films, specimens were scanned during proton irradiation using a special apparatus. The absorbed dose was measured by CTA and RCD film dosimeters, and can be determined that 1 μC/cm 2 of 8 MeV proton fluence is equivalent to 54 kGy. For polyethylene and polypropylene, there was no significant difference between proton and electron irradiation for same doses. However, for polyethersulfone the decay of mechanical property was observed to be less than that of irradiation by electron. (author)

  5. Argon laser irradiation of the otolithic organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, T.; Nomura, Y.; Young, Y.H.; Hara, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-12-01

    An argon laser was used to irradiate the otolithic organs of guinea pigs and cynomolgus monkeys. After stapedectomy, the argon laser (1.5 W x 0.5 sec/shot) irradiated the utricle or saccule without touching the sensory organs. The stapes was replaced over the oval window after irradiation. The animals used for acute observation were killed immediately for morphologic studies; those used for long-term observation were kept alive for 2, 4, or 10 weeks. Acute observation revealed that sensory and supporting cells were elevated from the basement membrane only in the irradiated area. No rupture of the membranous labyrinth was observed. Long-term observation revealed that the otolith of the macula utriculi had disappeared in 2-week specimens. The entire macula utricili had disappeared in 10-week specimens. No morphologic changes were observed in cochlea, semicircular canals, or membranous labyrinth. The saccule showed similar changes.

  6. Control of self-organizing nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Klapp, Sabine; Hövel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The book summarizes the state-of-the-art of research on control of self-organizing nonlinear systems with contributions from leading international experts in the field. The first focus concerns recent methodological developments including control of networks and of noisy and time-delayed systems. As a second focus, the book features emerging concepts of application including control of quantum systems, soft condensed matter, and biological systems. Special topics reflecting the active research in the field are the analysis and control of chimera states in classical networks and in quantum systems, the mathematical treatment of multiscale systems, the control of colloidal and quantum transport, the control of epidemics and of neural network dynamics.

  7. New organic materials for optics: optical storage and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, F.

    1996-01-01

    New organic materials have received considerable attention recently, due to their easy preparation and different variety. The most application fields in optics are optical storage and nonlinear optics. In optical storage the organic dyes have been used for example, in record able and erasable compact disks (CD-R, CD-E) nonlinear optical effects, such as nonlinear optical absorption, second and third order optical absorption, second and third order optical nonlinearities, can be applied for making optical limiters, optical modulators, as well as laser second and third harmonic generations. Due to high value of optical absorption and optical nonlinearity organic materials are always used as thin films in optical integration. In this paper the new experimental results have been presented, and future development has been also discussed. (author)

  8. Self-organization processes and nanocluster formation in crystal lattices by low-energy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshko, I.; Abidzina, V.; Tereshko, A.; Glushchenko, V.; Elkin, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study self-organization processes that cause nanostructural evolution in nonlinear crystal media. The subjects of the investigation were nonlinear homogeneous and heterogeneous atom chains. The method of computer simulation was used to investigate the interaction between low-energy ions and crystal lattices. It was based on the conception of three-dimensional lattice as a nonlinear atom chain system. We showed that that in homogeneous atom chains critical energy needed for self-organization processes development is less than for nonlinear atom chain with already embedded clusters. The possibility of nanostructure formation was studied by a molecular dynamics method of nonlinear oscillations in atomic oscillator systems of crystal lattices after their low-energy ion irradiation. (authors)

  9. Field-enhanced nonlinear optical properties of organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Brewer, Jonathan R.

    2014-01-01

    Second harmonic generation in nonlinearly optically active organic nanofibers, generated via self-assembled surface growth from nonsymmetrically functionalized para-quarterphenylene (CNHP4) molecules, has been investigated. After the growth on mica templates, nanofibers have been transferred onto...

  10. Self-organization in irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, N.N.; Dzhamanbalin, K.K.; Medetov, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: By the present time a great deal of experimental material concerning self-organization in irradiated materials is stored. It means that in different materials (single crystal and amorphous semiconductor, metals, polymers) during one process of irradiation with accelerated particles or energetic quanta the structure previously disordered can be reordered to the previous or different order. These processes are considered separately from the processes of radiation-stimulated ordering when the renewal of the structure occurs as the result of extra irradiation, sometimes accompanied with another influence (heating, lighting, application of mechanical tensions). The processes of reordering are divided into two basic classes: the reconstruction of crystalline structure (1) and the formation of space-ordered system (2). The processes of ordering are considered with the use of synergetic approach and are analyzed conformably to the concrete conditions of new order appearance process realization in order to reveal the self-organization factor's role. The concrete experimental results of investigating of the radiation ordering processes are analyzed for different materials: semiconductor, metals, inorganic dielectrics, polymers. The ordering processes are examined from the point of their possible use in the technology of creating nano-dimensional structures general and quantum-dimensional ones in particular

  11. Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

    1987-12-01

    We are searching for a new second- and third-harmonic generators among the salts of chiral organic acids and bases. We discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, we summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments. 14 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Organic nonlinear crystals and high power frequency conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Davis, L.; Wang, F.; Monaco, S.; Eimerl, D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors are searching for new second and third harmonic generators among the salts of organic acids and bases. They discuss the relevant properties of crystals from this group of compounds, including their nonlinear and phasematching characteristics, linear absorption, damage threshold and crystal growth. In addition, they summarize what is known concerning other nonlinear optical properties of these crystals, such as two-photon absorption, nonlinear refractive index, and stimulated Raman thresholds. A preliminary assessment is made of the potential of these materials for use in future high power, large aperture lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion experiments

  13. Nonlinear bleaching, absorption, and scattering of 532-nm-irradiated plasmonic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, V.; Sworin, M.; Kingsborough, R. P.; Geurtsen, G. P.; Rothschild, M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-pulse irradiation of Au and Ag suspensions of nanospheres and nanodisks with 532-nm 4-ns pulses has identified complex optical nonlinearities while minimizing material damage. For all materials tested, we observe competition between saturable absorption (SA) and reverse SA (RSA), with RSA behavior dominating for intensities above ∼50 MW/cm 2 . Due to reduced laser damage in single-pulse experiments, the observed intrinsic nonlinear absorption coefficients are the highest reported to date for Au nanoparticles. We find size dependence to the nonlinear absorption enhancement for Au nanoparticles, peaking in magnitude for 80-nm nanospheres and falling off at larger sizes. The nonlinear absorption coefficients for Au and Ag spheres are comparable in magnitude. On the other hand, the nonlinear absorption for Ag disks, when corrected for volume fraction, is several times higher. These trends in nonlinear absorption are correlated to local electric field enhancement through quasi-static mean-field theory. Through variable size aperture measurements, we also separate nonlinear scattering from nonlinear absorption. For all materials tested, we find that nonlinear scattering is highly directional and that its magnitude is comparable to that of nonlinear absorption. These results indicate methods to improve the efficacy of plasmonic nanoparticles as optical limiters in pulsed laser systems.

  14. Printed organic smart devices characterized by nonlinear optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pastorelli, Francesco; Accanto, Nicolo; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that nonlinear optical microscopy is a promising technique to characterize organic printed electronics. Using ultrashort laser pulses we stimulate two-photon absorption in a roll coated polymer semiconductor and map the resulting two-photon induced photoluminescence...

  15. Sub-wavelength patterning of organic monolayers via nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Mareike; Hartmann, Nils, E-mail: nils.hartmann@uni-due.de [Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany); CeNIDE-Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); NETZ-NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In recent years, nonlinear processing with continuous-wave lasers has been demonstrated to be a facile means of rapid nanopatterning of organic monolayers down to the sub-100 nm range. In this study, we report on laser patterning of thiol-based organic monolayers with sub-wavelength resolution. Au-coated silicon substrates are functionalized with 1-hexadecanethiol. Irradiation with a focused beam of an Ar{sup +} laser operating at {lambda}=514 nm allows one to locally remove the monolayer. Subsequently, the patterns are transferred into the Au film via selective etching in a ferri-/ferrocyanide solution. Despite a 1/e{sup 2} spot diameter of about 2.8 {mu}m, structures with lateral dimensions down to 250 nm are fabricated. The underlying nonlinear dependence of the patterning process on laser intensity is traced back to the interplay between the laser-induced transient local temperature rise and the thermally activated desorption of the thiol molecules. A simple thermokinetic analysis of the data allows us to determine the effective kinetic parameters. These results complement our previous work on photothermal laser patterning of ultrathin organic coatings, such as silane-based organic monolayers, organo/silicon interfaces and supported membranes. A general introduction to nonlinear laser processing of organic monolayers is presented.

  16. Application of Microwave Irradiation to Rapid Organic Inclusion Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Microwave irradiation has been used in chemical laboratories for moisture analysis and wet asking procedures of biological and geological materials for a number of years [1]. More recently the microwave irradiation also widely used for rapid organic synthesis [2]. However, there have not yet been any reports concerning the ultilisatioin of microwave ovens in the routine organic inclusion complex regularly in chemical research.

  17. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  18. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktaa, J., E-mail: jarir.aktaa@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  19. Non-linear failure analysis of HCPB blanket for DEMO taking into account high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktaa, J.; Kecskés, S.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Fischer, U.; Boccaccini, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First non-linear structural analysis for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Module taking into account high dose irradiation. • Most critical areas were identified and analyzed with regard to the effect of irradiation on predicted damage at these areas. • Despite the extensive computing time 100 cycles were simulated by using the sub-modelling technique investigating damage at most critical area. • The results show a positive effect of irradiation on calculated damage which is mainly attributed to the irradiation induced hardening. - Abstract: For the European helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket of DEMO the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel EUROFER has been selected as structural material. During operation the HCPB blanket will be subjected to complex thermo-mechanical loadings and high irradiation doses. Taking into account the material and structural behaviour under these conditions is a precondition for a reliable blanket design. For considering high dose irradiation in structural analysis of the DEMO blanket, the coupled deformation damage model, extended recently taking into account the influence of high dose irradiation on the material behaviour of EUROFER and implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS, has been used. Non-linear finite element (FE) simulations of the DEMO HCPB blanket have been performed considering the design of the HCPB Test Blanket Module (TBM) as reference and the thermal and mechanical boundary conditions of previous analyses. The irradiation dose rate required at each position in the structure as an additional loading parameter is estimated by extrapolating the results available for the TBM in ITER scaling the value calculated in neutronics and activation analysis for ITER boundary conditions to the DEMO boundary conditions. The results of the FE simulations are evaluated considering damage at most critical highly loaded areas of the structure and discussed with regard to the impact of

  20. Application of microwave irradiation to organic liquid phase reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kun; Liu Hua; Ji Xuelin

    1994-01-01

    Microwave irradiation has been used in organic liquid phase reactions to significantly reduce the reaction time and improve the yield. The proposed mechanism, the development of techniques and reactions, such as Diels-Alder, ene, rearrangement reactions etc., are discussed

  1. Nonlinear ultrafast optical response in organic molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Talat S.; Turkowski, Volodymyr; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2012-02-01

    We analyze possible nonlinear excitonic effects in the organic molecule crystals by using a combined time-dependent DFT and many-body approach. In particular, we analyze possible effects of the time-dependent (retarded)interaction between different types of excitations, Frenkel excitons, charge transfer excitons and excimers, on the electric and the optical response of the system. We pay special attention to the case of constant electric field and ultrafast pulses, including that of four-wave mixing experiments. As a specific application we examine the optical excitations of pentacene nanocrystals and compare the results with available experimental data.[1] Our results demostrate that the nonlinear effects can play an important role in the optical response of these systems. [1] A. Kabakchiev, ``Scanning Tunneling Luminescence of Pentacene Nanocrystals'', PhD Thesis (EPFL, Lausanne, 2010).

  2. Volume dose of organs at risk in the irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Yoshio; Tanaka, Shinichi; Miura, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Absorbed dose of organs at risk in the 50% irradiated volume needs to be carefully monitored because there is high risk of radiation injury. This paper reports on the histogram of threedimensional volume dose of organs at risk, which is obtained by computer calculation of CT scans. In order to obtain this histogram, CT is first performed in the irradiation field. The dose in each pixel is then examined by the computer as to each slice. After the pixels of all slices in the organ at risk of the irradiated field are classified according to the doses, the number of pixels in the same dose class is counted. The result is expressed in a histogram. The histogram can show the differences of influence to organs at risk given by various radiation treatment techniques. Total volume dose of organs at risk after radiotherapy can also be obtained by integration of each dose of different treatment techniques. (author)

  3. Kyropoulos method for growth of nonlinear optical organic crystal ABP (4-aminobenzophenone) from the melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shoukui; Okano, Y.; Tsunekawa, S.; Fukuda, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Kyropoulus method was used to grow nonlinear optical organic crystals ABP (4-aminobenzophenone). The crystals were characterized by nonlinear optical measurements and had a large effect of frequency doubling.

  4. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} CFU/ml and 0 to 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10{sup 2} CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10{sup 7} CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D{sub {sub 1}{sub 0}} values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  5. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D 10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts

  6. Quantitative regularities of development of endogenous infection in irradiated organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the literature and the author's own experimental results are reviewed to show the functional relationships between the radiation dose and the development of endogenous infection in irradiated organisms. A direct linear dependence was found between the dose of radiation and the severity of endogenous infection at doses causing death from the ''bone marrow'' syndrome in acute radiation sickness. In case of death from the ''intestinal'' syndrome, an inverse linear dependence can be observed between the radiation dose and the culture yield of microbes from internal organs. In this case, the pathological effect on the organism is due to bacterial endotoxins formed during the disintegration of microbial cells in the organism. Endogenous infection and endotoxinaemia essentially aggravate the progress of acute radiation disease. The importance of endogenous infection for the death of the organism is minimized in irradiation at doses causing death ''under the ray''. (author)

  7. A novel organic nonlinear optical crystal: Creatininium succinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirumurugan, R.; Anitha, K., E-mail: singlecerystalxrd@gmail.ciom [School of Physics, Madurai Kamraj University, Madurai 625021 (India)

    2015-06-24

    A novel organic material complex of creatininium succinate (CS) has been synthesized and single crystals were grown by the reaction of creatinine and succinic acid from aqueous solution by employing the technique of slow evaporation at room temperature. The structure of the grown crystal has been elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and the structure was refined by least-squares method to R = 0.027 for 1840 reflections. FT-IR spectral investigation has been carried out to identify the various functional groups in the title compound. UV–Vis transmission was carried out which shows the crystal has a good optical transmittance in the visible region with lower cutoff wavelength around 220 nm. Nonlinear optical property of the crystal was confirmed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique.

  8. Morphological changes in organs of sheep perished following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.

    1982-01-01

    Sheep were whole-body gamma irradiated with doses of 6.7 Gy. The main section finding was hemorrhagic diathesis. A detailed description is presented of changes in organs and mucous membranes, of the areas of hemorhages and ecchymoses. (M.D.)

  9. Effects of cryogenic reactor irradiation on organic insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Teruo

    1995-01-01

    Insulators for the superconducting magnets of fusion reactor are classified as electrical and thermal insulators for which tough organic materials will be used. When the magnet is exposed by fast neutrons and gamma-rays from plasma in a fusion reactor, the fusion reactor systems will cause fatal damage by the degradation of insulators. Therefore, it is necessary to select materials resistant irradiation damage for use as insulators. Electrical and mechanical tests were carried out at 4.2 K without warmup after the reactor irradiation at 5 K. The effects of reactor irradiation at the dose of 10 7 Gy on epoxy resins (bisphenol-A), G-10 CR, VL-E 200 and G-11 CR caused large decreases in mechanical strength. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), polyimide and phenol novolac resins, which were used to laminate reinforced plastics with glass-cloth against irradiation, showed good resistance. Effects of cryogenic reactor irradiation on several organic materials and epoxy laminate-reinforced plastics with glass-cloth and Kevlar-cloth were also discussed. (author)

  10. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L -1 and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L -1 . In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L -1 and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L -1 respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  11. Separation of irradiance and reflectance from observed color images by logarithmical nonlinear diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takahiro; Takahashi, Hiromi; Komatsu, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    The Retinex theory was first proposed by Land, and deals with separation of irradiance from reflectance in an observed image. The separation problem is an ill-posed problem. Land and others proposed various Retinex separation algorithms. Recently, Kimmel and others proposed a variational framework that unifies the previous Retinex algorithms such as the Poisson-equation-type Retinex algorithms developed by Horn and others, and presented a Retinex separation algorithm with the time-evolution of a linear diffusion process. However, the Kimmel's separation algorithm cannot achieve physically rational separation, if true irradiance varies among color channels. To cope with this problem, we introduce a nonlinear diffusion process into the time-evolution. Moreover, as to its extension to color images, we present two approaches to treat color channels: the independent approach to treat each color channel separately and the collective approach to treat all color channels collectively. The latter approach outperforms the former. Furthermore, we apply our separation algorithm to a high quality chroma key in which before combining a foreground frame and a background frame into an output image a color of each pixel in the foreground frame are spatially adaptively corrected through transformation of the separated irradiance. Experiments demonstrate superiority of our separation algorithm over the Kimmel's separation algorithm.

  12. Irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of composite organic insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, S.; Kirk, M.A.; Birtcher, R.C.; Hagiwara, M.; Kawanishi, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four kinds of cloth-filled organic composites (filler: glass or carbon fiber; matrix: epoxy or polymide resin) were irradiated with 2-MeV electrons at room temperature, and were examined with regard to the mechanical properties. Following irradiation, the Young's (tensile) modulus of these composites remains practically unchanged even after irradiation up to 15,000 Mrad. The shear modulus and the ultimate strength, on the other hand, begin to decrease after the absorbed dose reaches about 2000 Mrad for the glass/epoxy composite and about 5000 approx. 10,000 Mrad for the other composites. This result is ascribed to the decrease in the capacity of load transfer from the matrix to the fiber due to the radiation-induced debonding at the interface. As to the fracture behavior, the propagation energy increases from the beginning of irradiation. This result is attributed to the radiation-induced decrease in the bonding energy at the interface. The same study was made also for these composites and an alumina fiber-epoxy composite irradiated with fast neutrons at room temperature and 5 0 K. 7 figures, 1 table

  13. Ecotoxicological assays of Diethyltoluamide and Lemongrass Essencial Oil in irradiated and non-irradiated aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimiliani, Giovana T.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Martini, Gisela A.; Rogero, Jose R., E-mail: sorogero@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic invertebrates can be potentially exposed to nonradioactive contaminants in conjunction with ionizing radiation, especially in highly industrialized areas surrounding nuclear facilities, where radionuclides can accidentally be discharged in the aquatic environment containing stable chemicals. The aquatic organisms have continually been exposed to chemical contaminants like personal care products (PCPs) which have been found in various environmental matrices and may cause adverse effects to aquatic life and human health as radioactive products. In this study was used C. silvestrii as bioindicator organism in chronic ecotoxicity assays with lemongrass essencial oil (LEO) and Diethyltoluamide (DEET), both are insect repellent. In addition to exposition of the compounds, the organisms were irradiated with gamma rays from Co-60 source. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of gamma radiation and mosquito repellent products in the reproduction of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii utilizing standardized ecotoxicological tests. The C. silvestrii inhibition concentration (IC25; 7 days) result after DEET exposition was 16.4 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1} and for LEO was 3.1 ± 1.4 mg L{sup -1}. In the irradiated (25 Gy) C. silvestrii exposed to DEET and LEO, the concentration that inhibited reproduction was 16.1 ± 0.9 mg L{sup -1} and 2.4 ± 0.3 mg L{sup -1} respectively. The results showed that the reproduction of irradiated C. silvestrii was not significantly affected when compared with non-irradiated organisms when exposed to DEET or LEO. (author)

  14. Antioxidants and lipoperoxides in the organs of irradiated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.

    1965-01-01

    Antioxidants in organs of normal and irradiated rats were determined by means of the stable free-radical α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl. High doses of ionizing radiation reduced the level of water-soluble antioxidants; the fat-soluble antioxidants were unaffected, and the ability of the proteins...... to react with the stable free radical was unchanged or slightly elevated. It is concluded that the water-soluble non-protein antioxidants act as free radical scavengers in radiation. No great amounts of lipoperoxides were found in the irradiated animals. The basic analogy, but at the same time the great...... dissimilarities, between free radical processes in radiation and in autoxidation is discussed....

  15. Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, Jan

    2006-04-01

    The frontiers and challenges of biodynamics research Jan Walleczek; Part I. Nonlinear Dynamics in Biology and Response to Stimuli: 1. External signals and internal oscillation dynamics - principal aspects and response of stimulated rhythmic processes Friedemann Kaiser; 2. Nonlinear dynamics in biochemical and biophysical systems: from enzyme kinetics to epilepsy Raima Larter, Robert Worth and Brent Speelman; 3. Fractal mechanisms in neural control: human heartbeat and gait dynamics in health and disease Chung-Kang Peng, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff and Ary L. Goldberger; 4. Self-organising dynamics in human coordination and perception Mingzhou Ding, Yanqing Chen, J. A. Scott Kelso and Betty Tuller; 5. Signal processing in biochemical reaction networks Adam P. Arkin; Part II. Nonlinear Sensitivity of Biological Systems to Electromagnetic Stimuli: 6. Electrical signal detection and noise in systems with long-range coherence Paul C. Gailey; 7. Oscillatory signals in migrating neutrophils: effects of time-varying chemical and electrical fields Howard R. Petty; 8. Enzyme kinetics and nonlinear biochemical amplification in response to static and oscillating magnetic fields Jan Walleczek and Clemens F. Eichwald; 9. Magnetic field sensitivity in the hippocampus Stefan Engström, Suzanne Bawin and W. Ross Adey; Part III. Stochastic Noise-Induced Dynamics and Transport in Biological Systems: 10. Stochastic resonance: looking forward Frank Moss; 11. Stochastic resonance and small-amplitude signal transduction in voltage-gated ion channels Sergey M. Bezrukov and Igor Vodyanoy; 12. Ratchets, rectifiers and demons: the constructive role of noise in free energy and signal transduction R. Dean Astumian; 13. Cellular transduction of periodic and stochastic energy signals by electroconformational coupling Tian Y. Tsong; Part IV. Nonlinear Control of Biological and Other Excitable Systems: 14. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems Kenneth Showalter; 15. Electromagnetic fields and biological

  16. Investigation of nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials by the Z-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.

    2012-06-01

    We have studied the nonlinear optical properties of various organic materials (vegetable oil, juice, wine, cognac, Coca-Cola and Fanta drinks, Nescafé coffee, tea, gasoline, clock oil, glycerol, and polyphenyl ether) that are used in everyday life. Their nonlinearities have been studied by the Z-scan method in the near-IR and visible spectral ranges. We have shown that the majority of samples possess a nonlinear absorption; however, some of the studied materials show a strong saturated absorption and nonlinear refraction. Red wine and glycerol proved to be the most interesting materials. For these samples, we have observed a change in the sign of the nonlinear absorption with increasing laser intensity, which was attributed to the competition between two-photon absorption and saturated absorption.

  17. A Review of Irradiation Effects on Organic-Matrix Insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    This review assesses the data base on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation to determine whether organic electric insulation systems can be used in the toroidal field (TF) magnets of next generation fusion devices such as ITER* and TPX*. Owing to the difficulties of testing insulation under fusion reactor conditions, there is a considerable mismatch between the ITER requirements and the data that are currently available. For example, nearly all of the high-dose (5 x 10 7 to 10 8 Gy) data obtained on epoxy and polyimide matrix insulation employed gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, or reactor irradiation with a fast neutron fluence far below 10 23 /m 2 , the fluence expected for the insulation at the TF magnets, as set forth in ITER conceptual design documents. Also, the neutron spectrum did not contain a very high energy (E (ge) 5 MeV) component. Such data underestimate the actual damage that would be obtained with the neutron fluence and spectrum expected at a TF magnet. Experiments on a polyimide (Kapton) indicate that gamma or electron doses or mixed gamma and neutron reactor doses would have to be downgraded by a factor of up to ten to simulate fusion neutron doses. Even when neutrons did constitute a significant portion of the total dose, B-containing E-glass reinforcement was often used; therefore, excess damage from the 10 B + n → 7 Li + α reaction occurred near the glass-epoxy interface. This problem can easily be avoided by substituting B-free glass (R, S, or T types)

  18. Irradiated Benzene Ice Provides Clues to Meteoritic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael Patrick; Gerakines, Perry Alexander; Martin, Mildred G.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Peeters, Zan

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons account for a significant portion of the organic matter in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, as a component of both the low molecular weight, solvent-extractable compounds and the insoluble organic macromolecular material. Previous work has suggested that the aromatic compounds in carbonaceous chondrites may have originated in the radiation-processed icy mantles of interstellar dust grains. Here we report new studies of the organic residue made from benzene irradiated at 19 K by 0.8 MeV protons. Polyphenyls with up to four rings were unambiguously identified in the residue by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry was used to determine molecular composition, and accurate mass measurements suggested the presence of polyphenyls, partially hydrogenated polyphenyls, and other complex aromatic compounds. The profile of low molecular weight compounds in the residue compared well with extracts from the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites. These results are consistent with the possibility that solid phase radiation chemistry of benzene produced some of the complex aromatics found in meteorites.

  19. Dual Mechanism Nonlinear Response of Selected Metal Organic Chromophores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peak, John D

    2007-01-01

    13 The goal for the research described herein is the development of a series of transition metal based metal organic chromophores that display both two-photon and excited state absorption (TPA/ESA) character...

  20. Structural changes of organic solids caused by irradiation: raman study at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hase, Hirotomo; Ishioka, Kunie; Miyatake, Yoko.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we first describe a simple liquid helium cryostat and a device of making and mounting organic solid samples. We then present the Raman spectra for irradiated ethanol crystal that were obtained by using the new cryostat and demonstrate how the Raman method is useful for getting insight into structural changes of organic solids caused by irradiation. (J.P.N.)

  1. New metal-organic nanomaterials synthesized by laser irradiation of organic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    A new type of metal-organic composition consisting of clusters of nanoparticles has been synthesised by laser irradiation of metallocene/benzene solutions. The metallocene molecules in this reaction become the source of the metal. Exposure to high-energy femtosecond laser pulses dehydrogenate benzene molecules and initiate the high-temperature high-pressure conditions that results in the synthesis of new materials. Irradiation experiments have been carried out on ferrocene/benzene and on other solutions. With ferrocene the synthesis of a new compound has been confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction as the peaks detected do not correspond to any known substance in the Crystallography Open Database. Theoretical simulation of the periodic structure of this new carbide predicts that it has hexagonal symmetry and a unit cell with a = 3.2A and c =2.8A. The exact structure is still uncertain but may be determined from scanning tunneling microscope (STM) studies.

  2. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  3. Renormalization group and instantons in stochastic nonlinear dynamics, from self-organized criticality to thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic counterparts of nonlinear dynamics are studied by means of nonperturbative functional methods developed in the framework of quantum field theory (QFT). In particular, we discuss fully developed turbulence, including leading corrections on possible compressibility of fluids, transport through porous media, theory of waterspouts and tsunami waves, stochastic magnetohydrodynamics, turbulent transport in crossed fields, self-organized criticality, and dynamics of accelerated wrinkled flame fronts advancing in a wide canal. This report would be of interest to the broad auditorium of physicists and applied mathematicians, with a background in nonperturbative QFT methods or nonlinear dynamical systems, having an interest in both methodological developments and interdisciplinary applications. (author)

  4. Renormalization group and instantons in stochastic nonlinear dynamics, from self-organized criticality to thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchenkov, D. [Bielefeld Univ., Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC) (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Stochastic counterparts of nonlinear dynamics are studied by means of nonperturbative functional methods developed in the framework of quantum field theory (QFT). In particular, we discuss fully developed turbulence, including leading corrections on possible compressibility of fluids, transport through porous media, theory of waterspouts and tsunami waves, stochastic magnetohydrodynamics, turbulent transport in crossed fields, self-organized criticality, and dynamics of accelerated wrinkled flame fronts advancing in a wide canal. This report would be of interest to the broad auditorium of physicists and applied mathematicians, with a background in nonperturbative QFT methods or nonlinear dynamical systems, having an interest in both methodological developments and interdisciplinary applications. (author)

  5. Structural, Linear, and Nonlinear Optical and Mechanical Properties of New Organic L-Serine Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear optical single crystal of organic amino acid L-Serine (LS was grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility study of the compound was measured and metastable zone width was found. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for the grown crystal. The linear and nonlinear optical properties of the crystal were confirmed by UV-Vis analysis and powder SHG tester. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and functional groups were analyzed. Vickers’ microhardness studies showed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Laser damage threshold value of the crystal was calculated. Photoconductivity studies reveal the conductivity of the crystal.

  6. Types of repair in radiosensitive organs of mice subjected to continuous γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanmin; Hu Fenghua; Gao Yabin

    1990-01-01

    LACA mice were whole-body irradiated with 1 Gy continuous γ-irradiation for 22 hours daily. Animals were divided into groups according to different cumulative doses of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy, and were sacrificed at different intervals after the termination of irradiation when the above doses were reached. Radiosensitive organs were stduied by determination of quantitative indices and microscopic examination of histopathological sections. Three types of repair of radiation damages were found in radiosensitive organs, i.e. (1) full repair during irradiation in small intestines, (2) repair only after cessation of irradiation in hemopoietic and lymphoid tissues, and (3) continuing damage even after cessation of irradiation in testes

  7. Potential sources for nonlinear sorption of organic compounds to soils and natural solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C. T.

    2003-04-01

    The sorption isotherms of ethylene dibromide (EDB), diuron (DUN), and 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) from water to the humic acid and humin fractions of a peat soil have been measured. The data were compared with those of the same solutes on whole peat from which the humic acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions were derived and on which the sorption of solutes exhibited varying extents of nonlinear capacities at low relative concentrations (Ce/Sw). The HA fraction as prepared by a density-fractionated method is relatively pure and presumably free of high-surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) that is considered to be responsible for the observed nonlinear sorption for nonpolar solutes (e.g., EDB) on the peat; conversely, the base-insoluble HM fraction as prepared is presumably enriched with HSACM, as manifested by the greatly higher BET-(N2) surface area than that of the whole peat. The sorption of EDB on HA exhibits no visible nonlinear effect, whereas the sorption on HM shows an enhanced nonlinearity over that on the whole peat. The sorption of polar DUN and DCP on HA and HM display nonlinear effects comparable with those on the whole peat; the effects are much more significant than those with nonpolar EDB. These results conform to the hypothesis that adsorption onto a small amount of strongly adsorbing HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear sorption of nonpolar solutes on soils and that additional specific interactions with the active groups of soil organic matter are responsible for the generally higher nonlinear sorption of the polar solutes.

  8. Effect of irradiation for recovery of organic wastes from potato starch wastewater with chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Takehisa, M.

    1984-01-01

    The irradiation effect on recovery of organic substances from potato starch wastewater with aid of chitosan and disinfection were investigated for recycling the organic wastes into animal feeds. Chitosan was effective as a coagulant for suspended solids in the wastewater and the optimum concentration was 8 to 10 x 10 -3 %. The irradiation promotes the coagulation of the organic wastes. Especially, the coagulation of the proteins with chitosan increased by irradiation since the soluble proteins became insoluble by irradiation. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria in the wastewater and in the coagulum with chitosan were 8.0 x 10 7 and 3.5 x 10 8 counts/ml, respectively, and decreased to 11 and 45 counts/ml by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. (author)

  9. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Yurimoto, H. [Department of Natural History Sciences, Science Faculty, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kimura, Y.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Kouchi, A. [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060–0819 (Japan); Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A., E-mail: laurette@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Division of Earth and Planetary Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-03-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ∼10 K from UV-irradiated H{sub 2}O-CH{sub 3}OH-NH{sub 3} ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤10{sup 4} years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ∼100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  10. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Yurimoto, H.; Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Kimura, Y.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Kouchi, A.; Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A.

    2017-01-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ∼10 K from UV-irradiated H 2 O-CH 3 OH-NH 3 ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤10 4 years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ∼100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  11. Evolution of Morphological and Physical Properties of Laboratory Interstellar Organic Residues with Ultraviolet Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piani, L.; Tachibana, S.; Hama, T.; Tanaka, H.; Endo, Y.; Sugawara, I.; Dessimoulie, L.; Kimura, Y.; Miyake, A.; Matsuno, J.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Fujita, K.; Nakatsubo, S.; Fukushi, H.; Mori, S.; Chigai, T.; Yurimoto, H.; Kouchi, A.

    2017-03-01

    Refractory organic compounds formed in molecular clouds are among the building blocks of the solar system objects and could be the precursors of organic matter found in primitive meteorites and cometary materials. However, little is known about the evolutionary pathways of molecular cloud organics from dense molecular clouds to planetary systems. In this study, we focus on the evolution of the morphological and viscoelastic properties of molecular cloud refractory organic matter. We found that the organic residue, experimentally synthesized at ˜10 K from UV-irradiated H2O-CH3OH-NH3 ice, changed significantly in terms of its nanometer- to micrometer-scale morphology and viscoelastic properties after UV irradiation at room temperature. The dose of this irradiation was equivalent to that experienced after short residence in diffuse clouds (≤104 years) or irradiation in outer protoplanetary disks. The irradiated organic residues became highly porous and more rigid and formed amorphous nanospherules. These nanospherules are morphologically similar to organic nanoglobules observed in the least-altered chondrites, chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles, and cometary samples, suggesting that irradiation of refractory organics could be a possible formation pathway for such nanoglobules. The storage modulus (elasticity) of photo-irradiated organic residues is ˜100 MPa irrespective of vibrational frequency, a value that is lower than the storage moduli of minerals and ice. Dust grains coated with such irradiated organics would therefore stick together efficiently, but growth to larger grains might be suppressed due to an increase in aggregate brittleness caused by the strong connections between grains.

  12. Determination of alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine by capillary gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yingcai; Yuan Bihuai; Xu Peishu; Wang Xiuying

    1986-01-01

    Alcohols, ethers and organic acids in irradiated sweet potato wine have been determined with capillary GC. The results show that the contents of some components have changed after irradiation, but no new species are formed. The G values of the changed components have been calculated

  13. Complex organic molecules in strongly UV-irradiated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Cernicharo, J.; Fuente, A.; Pety, J.; Tercero, B.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the presence of complex organic molecules (COMs) in strongly UV-irradiated interstellar molecular gas. We have carried out a complete millimetre (mm) line survey using the IRAM 30 m telescope towards the edge of the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR), close to the H2 dissociation front, a position irradiated by a very intense far-UV (FUV) radiation field. These observations have been complemented with 8.5'' resolution maps of the H2CO JKa,Kc = 51,5 → 41,4 and C18O J = 3 → 2 emission at 0.9 mm. Despite being a harsh environment, we detect more than 250 lines from COMs and related precursors: H2CO, CH3OH, HCO, H2CCO, CH3CHO, H2CS, HCOOH, CH3CN, CH2NH, HNCO, H213CO, and HC3N (in decreasing order of abundance). For each species, the large number of detected lines allowed us to accurately constrain their rotational temperatures (Trot) and column densities (N). Owing to subthermal excitation and intricate spectroscopy of some COMs (symmetric- and asymmetric-top molecules such as CH3CN and H2CO, respectively), a correct determination of N and Trot requires building rotational population diagrams of their rotational ladders separately. The inferred column densities are in the 1011-1013 cm-2 range. We also provide accurate upper limit abundances for chemically related molecules that might have been expected, but are not conclusively detected at the edge of the PDR (HDCO, CH3O, CH3NC, CH3CCH, CH3OCH3, HCOOCH3, CH3CH2OH, CH3CH2CN, and CH2CHCN). A non-thermodynamic equilibrium excitation analysis for molecules with known collisional rate coefficients suggests that some COMs arise from different PDR layers but we cannot resolve them spatially. In particular, H2CO and CH3CN survive in the extended gas directly exposed to the strong FUV flux (Tk = 150-250 K and Td≳ 60 K), whereas CH3OH only arises from denser and cooler gas clumps in the more shielded PDR interior (Tk = 40-50 K). The non-detection of HDCO towards the PDR edge is consistent with the

  14. Segmentation of deformable organs from medical images using particle swarm optimization and nonlinear shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Ahmed; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2010-03-01

    In many medical applications, the automatic segmentation of deformable organs from medical images is indispensable and its accuracy is of a special interest. However, the automatic segmentation of these organs is a challenging task according to its complex shape. Moreover, the medical images usually have noise, clutter, or occlusion and considering the image information only often leads to meager image segmentation. In this paper, we propose a fully automated technique for the segmentation of deformable organs from medical images. In this technique, the segmentation is performed by fitting a nonlinear shape model with pre-segmented images. The kernel principle component analysis (KPCA) is utilized to capture the complex organs deformation and to construct the nonlinear shape model. The presegmentation is carried out by labeling each pixel according to its high level texture features extracted using the overcomplete wavelet packet decomposition. Furthermore, to guarantee an accurate fitting between the nonlinear model and the pre-segmented images, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is employed to adapt the model parameters for the novel images. In this paper, we demonstrate the competence of proposed technique by implementing it to the liver segmentation from computed tomography (CT) scans of different patients.

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds of ‘Fuji’ apples following electron beam irradiation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Shim, Sung-Lye; Lee, Sun-Im; Kim, Dong-Ho; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2012-01-01

    The volatile organic compounds of non-irradiated and electron-beam irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) at 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy were isolated through simultaneous distillation extractions and analyzed using gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry. A total of 53 volatile organic compounds were characterized in 0 and 1 kGy irradiated samples, whereas two more compounds related to ketone and terpenoid group were identified in 0.5 kGy irradiated samples. The contents of volatile compounds were 24.33, 36.49, and 35.28 mg/kg in 0, 0.5, and 1 kGy irradiated samples, respectively. The major compounds identified were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol in all samples. The relative content of alcohol increased after 30 days of storage in all samples, whereas that of aldehyde decreased. Although the contents of some volatile compounds were changed by electron-beam irradiation, the total yield and major flavor compounds of irradiated ‘Fuji’ apples were similar to, or even greater than, those of the control. Therefore, the application of e-beam irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of ‘Fuji’ apples is an acceptable method as it does not bring about any major quantitative changes of volatile organic compounds. - Highlights: ► We analyzed the volatile organic compounds of electron beam irradiated Fuji apples. ► The major compounds of samples were butanol, hexanal, [E]-2-hexenal, and hexanol. ► The contents of major flavor compounds of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were similar.

  16. Population survey of attitudes and beliefs regarding organic, genetically modified, and irradiated foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwira Baumblatt, Jane A; Carpenter, L Rand; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-03-01

    Sales of organic foods are increasing due to public demand, while genetically modified (GM) and irradiated foods are often viewed with suspicion. The aim of this research was to examine consumer attitudes toward organic, GM and irradiated foods to direct educational efforts regarding their consumption Methods: A telephone survey of 1838 residents in Tennessee, USA was conducted regarding organic, GM, and irradiated foods. Approximately half of respondents (50.4%) purchased organic food during the previous 6 months ('consumers'). The most common beliefs about organic foods by consumers were higher cost (92%), and fewer pesticides (89%). Consumers were more likely than non-consumers to believe organic food tasted better (prevalence ratio 3.6; 95% confidence interval 3.02-4.23). A minority of respondents were familiar with GM foods (33%) and irradiated foods (22%). Organic food consumption is common in Tennessee, but knowledge about GM and irradiated foods is less common. Consumer health education should emphasize the benefits of these food options, and the safety of GM and irradiated foods.

  17. Nonlinear photoresponse of field effect transistors terahertz detectors at high irradiation intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    But, D. B.; Drexler, C.; Ganichev, S. D.; Sakhno, M. V.; Sizov, F. F.; Dyakonova, N.; Drachenko, O.; Gutin, A.; Knap, W.

    2014-01-01

    Terahertz power dependence of the photoresponse of field effect transistors, operating at frequencies from 0.1 to 3 THz for incident radiation power density up to 100 kW/cm 2 was studied for Si metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors and InGaAs high electron mobility transistors. The photoresponse increased linearly with increasing radiation intensity up to the kW/cm 2 range. Nonlinearity followed by saturation of the photoresponse was observed for all investigated field effect transistors for intensities above several kW/cm 2 . The observed photoresponse nonlinearity is explained by nonlinearity and saturation of the transistor channel current. A theoretical model of terahertz field effect transistor photoresponse at high intensity was developed. The model explains quantitative experimental data both in linear and nonlinear regions. Our results show that dynamic range of field effect transistors is very high and can extend over more than six orders of magnitudes of power densities (from ∼0.5 mW/cm 2 to ∼5 kW/cm 2 )

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on some organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.E.; Ismail, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The degradation kinetics due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of two acid dyes, namely Sandolane Milling N-Bl and Telon Fast Red and a basic dye (Sandocryl Blue B-3G) has been investigated. The factors affecting the radiolysis of the dyes such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions were studied. The effect of irradiation dose on various dye concentrations showed the complete destruction of the dyes at a dose of 4 kGy for low dye concentrations (20-50 mg/l), while at higher concentrations (100 mg/l) a dose of 20 kGy did not achieve the same effect. A combined treatment of the dye solutions by gamma irradiation and conventional methods showed that the saturation of these solutions did not enhance the degradation of the dyes. However, the addition of oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite to the dye solutions coupled with γ-irradiation resulted in a remarkable enhancement in the degradation process and complete degradation of these pollutants was achieved using much lower doses of gamma radiation

  19. Neutron and gamma irradiation damage to organic materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Gregory Von, II; Bernstein, Robert

    2012-04-01

    This document discusses open literature reports which investigate the damage effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on polymers and/or epoxies - damage refers to reduced physical chemical, and electrical properties. Based on the literature, correlations are made for an SNL developed epoxy (Epon 828-1031/DDS) with an expected total fast-neutron fluence of {approx}10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a {gamma} dosage of {approx}500 Gy received over {approx}30 years at < 200 C. In short, there are no gamma and neutron irradiation concerns for Epon 828-1031/DDS. To enhance the fidelity of our hypotheses, in regards to radiation damage, we propose future work consisting of simultaneous thermal/irradiation (neutron and gamma) experiments that will help elucidate any damage concerns at these specified environmental conditions.

  20. Nonlinear Transport in Organic Thin Film Transistors with Soluble Small Molecule Semiconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeok; Song, Dong-Seok; Kwon, Jin-Hyuk; Jung, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Do-Kyung; Kim, SeonMin; Kang, In Man; Park, Jonghoo; Tae, Heung-Sik; Battaglini, Nicolas; Lang, Philippe; Horowitz, Gilles; Bae, Jin-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear transport is intensively explained through Poole-Frenkel (PF) transport mechanism in organic thin film transistors with solution-processed small molecules, which is, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene. We outline a detailed electrical study that identifies the source to drain field dependent mobility. Devices with diverse channel lengths enable the extensive exhibition of field dependent mobility due to thermal activation of carriers among traps.

  1. Decay of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper during thermal treatment as detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2004-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy we analysed the thermal decay process of radicals in γ-Irradiated pepper Upon irradiation, the satellite signals were newly induced and appeared at the symmetric positions of the organic free radical, i.e., the g=2.0 signal. Heat treatment decreased the satellite signals exponentially. The ESR signal of the pepper heated for more than 10 min was essentially the same as that before irradiation. To evaluate the radical decay by heat-treatment, we formulated a time-dependent master equation. We could evaluate the time constant of the radical decay based upon the general solution of the equation together with the nonlinear least-squares method

  2. Sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao.

    1989-12-01

    Radiation technology for sprout inhibition and change in organic components of potato by irradiation were investigated. Dose distribution in the package filled with potatoes (depth 45cm, density: 0.56g/cm 3 ) was measured using Fricke dosimeter. When the package was irradiated at dose rate of 5 x 10 5 , 1 x 10 5 and 5 x 10 4 rad/hr, the dose uniformities were calculated as 1.79, 1,45 and 1.35, and the relative throughput capacities were 1.0, 0.26 and 0.14, respectively. After 7 months storage, the sprout of potatoes was not observed at 10 krad irradiation while 57% of potatoes was sprouted at 5 krad. The contents of oxalic and malic acids were slightly increased by irradiation up to 100 krad while that of citric and succinic acids were not changed. The change in contents of these organic acids during storage was almost the same in both unirradiated and irradiated samples. Sucrose content was reached maximum after 8 days in 15 krad irradiated sample while it was increased through 40 days storage in 300 krad irradiated sample. The increase in sucrose contents by irradiation was higher in cortical tissue than in medullary tissue. (author)

  3. Photo-physics of third-order nonlinear optical processes in organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delysse, Stephane

    1997-01-01

    We study some aspects of the nonlinear picosecond photo-physics in organic dyes using Kerr ellipsometry. The aim is to establish link between the photo-physics and nonlinear optics in these compounds. First, we study coherent processes directly linked to the third-order susceptibility. Thus, we measure two-photon absorption spectra of large internal charge transfer dyes. We take into account all coupling between three electronic states which can interfere to explain the particular response of some stilbene dyes. On the second hand, we expose a more photophysical approach to determine the S 1 → S n transition energies and moments using the measurement of excited state absorption cross sections. These results allow the prediction of the susceptibilities relevant to alternative nonlinear optical methods. Nevertheless, the stationary approach hides the complex relaxation processes which can take place in organic dyes. As an illustration, we study the formation and disappearance of a TICT (Twisted intramolecular charge transfer) in a pyrylium salt in solvents of increasing viscosity. (author) [fr

  4. Worldwide status of food irradiation and the role of IAEA and other international organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1988-01-01

    While there has been an increasing interest in introducing irradiation for preservation and decontamination of food by national authorities and food industry, this technology has generated wide public debate in view of its perceived association with nuclear technology. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide objectivity to the application of irradiation for food processing and (2) to project future trends of this technology. Irradiation appears to offer the most viable alternative to the existing technologies in quarantine treatment, hygienic quality of foods, reduction of food losses, and increase in market demand for fresh foods. Current limitations of food irradiation are discussed in terms of technical aspects, infrastructure and economics, consumer concerns, and harmonization of national regulations. Commercial applications have been reported in 19 countries. It is estimated that the total production of irradiated foods world-wide amounted to approximately 500,000 tons per annum. To ensure an effective implementation of the technology on a global basis, FAO and WHO have collaborated closely with the IAEA. An International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation was established under the aegis of FAO, IAEA, and WHO in May 1984. These organizations play an important role in training, technology transfer, developing guidelines on specific applications of food irradiation, international register of food irradiation facilities, acceptance and international trade in irradiated foods, and public information. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Worldwide status of food irradiation and the role of IAEA and other international organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1988-04-01

    While there has been an increasing interest in introducing irradiation for preservation and decontamination of food by national authorities and food industry, this technology has generated wide public debate in view of its perceived association with nuclear technology. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to provide objectivity to the application of irradiation for food processing and (2) to project future trends of this technology. Irradiation appears to offer the most viable alternative to the existing technologies in quarantine treatment, hygienic quality of foods, reduction of food losses, and increase in market demand for fresh foods. Current limitations of food irradiation are discussed in terms of technical aspects, infrastructure and economics, consumer concerns, and harmonization of national regulations. Commercial applications have been reported in 19 countries. It is estimated that the total production of irradiated foods world-wide amounted to approximately 500,000 tons per annum. To ensure an effective implementation of the technology on a global basis, FAO and WHO have collaborated closely with the IAEA. An International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation was established under the aegis of FAO, IAEA, and WHO in May 1984. These organizations play an important role in training, technology transfer, developing guidelines on specific applications of food irradiation, international register of food irradiation facilities, acceptance and international trade in irradiated foods, and public information. (Namekawa, K.).

  6. Cryogenic neutron irradiation effects in organic insulators for superconducting coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.D. Jr.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Samples of three epoxy-based and three polyimide-based materials were irradiated up to 4.1 x 10 21 n/m 2 at 4 K. Electrical properties subsequently measured at 295 and 80 K showed no major changes. Fraction of original strength retained at 75 K for the three materials tested to date were: 33% for G-10 CR, 88% for G-11 CR, and approx. 100% for NP-530. Strengths at 300 K were less affected

  7. Radiation dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, R.W.M.; Rittmann, K.L.; Meinass, H.J.; Rennicke, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to estimate the somatic and genetic risk associated with a non-coplanar linac-based radiation technique of the pituitary gland, systematic secondary-dose measurements in a phantom and sample measurements of the dose near critical organs of patients were performed. For measurements of the dose outside the primary radiation field an acrylic-PVC phantom was used which was irradiated with a single field (4x4 cm 2 ). Eight patients with pituitary tumors were treated isocentrically with a combination of sagittal and transverse rotational arcs. To measure the dose in critical organs, LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in chip form were placed onto 1 eyelid, the skin over the thyroid, and the patient's clothes covering the region of breasts and ovaries of female patients and the testicles of male patients. Measurements were performed for all patients during 1 sagittal irradiation and for the majority of patients during 1 transverse irradiation. The phantom measurements demonstrated that the secondary dose measured on the patients surface can be considered as a good approximation for the dose in adjacent organs. The median dose in critical organs for sagittal irradiation was in the range of 25.8 mGy (eyes) to 1.9 mGy (testicles), and for transverse irradiation in the range of 23.3 mGy (eyes) to 1.3 mGy (testicles). The ratio of median organ doses for sagittal and transverse irradiation was 2.1 for the thyroid gland, 1.1 for the eyes, and 1.5 for the other organs. The dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the pituitary gland is only a small fraction of the dose delivered to the reference point of the planning target volume. The risk of a radiation-induced tumor and a genetic consequence associated with these small doses is generally less than 1% and 0.1%, respectively. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on some organic pollutants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel-Aal, S.

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, a try was made to explain the degradation kinetics due to irradiation of aqueous solutions of some commercial dyes, in the absence of other specific pollutants of the textile and dyeing industry. These dyes are: two acid dyes, namely Nylomine Blue AG (Acid Blue 25) and Erionyl Red 2B (Acid Red 116). A combined treatment of gamma irradiation and conventional methods was applied to some waste solutions in manageable volumes. Factors affecting the radiolysis of the dye such as dye concentration, irradiation dose, dose rate and pH of the solutions were studied. The effect of different additives such as nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite on the degradation process were investigated. The effect of irradiation dose on the different dye solutions at various concentrations, showed that the acid dye (Acid Red 116) was very sensitive to gamma radiation. Using a low dose rate (0.3 Gy/Sec.) resulted in more degradation of the dyes than using higher dose rates (0.61 and 1.22 Gy/Sec.). The effect of the pH of the dye solutions proved to vary according to the type of the dye. Synergistic treatment of the dye solutions by irradiation and conventional methods showed that the saturation of the dye solutions with nitrogen did not enhance the radiation degradation of these dyes. On the contrary, addition of oxygen resulted in a remarkable enhancement of the radiation degradation of the dye solutions. Also, the addition of sodium hypochlorite (5% by weight) and the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide of concentration between 2 mM and 10 mM resulted in more radiation degradation. The radiochemical yield of the degradation process. The effect of the additives on the degradation process was in the following sequence according to more degradation of the dye molecules (NaOCl>H 2 O 2 >O 2 >Air>N 2 ). Adsorption purification of the dyes onto GAC and Strong Cation Exchanger Merck I showed the best adsorption was at pH=3 followed by the neutral medium

  9. Continuous gamma irradiation influence on food intake, body weight, and weight of some rat organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatova, Z [Institute of Neurobiology SAV, Kosice (Czechoslovakia); Sedlakova, A; Ahlers, I; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1977-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and weight of some organs were studied in male Wistar rats within 25 days of continuous gamma irradiation at a dose rate of 15.48 x 10/sup -3/ C/kg (6O R) per day in an experimental gamma field. A decrease in food intake and body weight and a decrease in thymus and spleen weights were found during the first week in irradiated rats. The thymus and spleen involutions did not progress within the second week. From the beginning of the third week till the end of the experiment the irradiated animals increased their weight and the food intake was even higher during the last week of irradiation in comparison with controls. The spleen and thymus involutions stopped but the weight remained at the lower level. The relative weight of the adrenal glands in irradiated animals only increased at the end of the period.

  10. Interfacial degradation of organic composite material by irradiation in reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishijima, Shigehiro; Nishiura, Tetsuya; Okada, Toichi [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1996-04-01

    Glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) with many kinds of matrix resins were made of E glass treated with silane as the reinforced material. Degradation of shearing strength of GFRP irradiated at low temperature was determined. It was clear from the results of comparing the degradation process with the fractured surface that the degradation was very affected by the radiation resistance of the bonded part between resin and coupling agents. It means that we had to be careful in the choice of interfacial treatments and epoxy matrices corresponded to it. (S.Y.)

  11. The taktivine immune correction influence on the immune status of an irradiated organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhetpisbaev, B.A.; Mynzhanov, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The taktivin immune correction action on irradiated organism immune system is studied. There were two series of experiments with 50 animals in each serial. The intacted and irradiated animals served as control ones. Irradiated animals have got the taktivin course 1,5-2,0 μg each 1 kg of mass intraperitoneally, during 3 days. Under tactivin action the immunity's T-sells quality and quantitative ability has been increased, and the lymphoid cells in the bone morrow and thymus have been normalized, and its quantity in spleen and small intestine's lymph nodes have been rise. The activation of energetic exchange within spleen has being carried out

  12. Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Based on a Self-Organizing Recurrent Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hong-Gui; Zhang, Lu; Hou, Ying; Qiao, Jun-Fei

    2016-02-01

    A nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) scheme is developed in this paper based on a self-organizing recurrent radial basis function (SR-RBF) neural network, whose structure and parameters are adjusted concurrently in the training process. The proposed SR-RBF neural network is represented in a general nonlinear form for predicting the future dynamic behaviors of nonlinear systems. To improve the modeling accuracy, a spiking-based growing and pruning algorithm and an adaptive learning algorithm are developed to tune the structure and parameters of the SR-RBF neural network, respectively. Meanwhile, for the control problem, an improved gradient method is utilized for the solution of the optimization problem in NMPC. The stability of the resulting control system is proved based on the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, the proposed SR-RBF neural network-based NMPC (SR-RBF-NMPC) is used to control the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Comparisons with other existing methods demonstrate that the SR-RBF-NMPC can achieve a considerably better model fitting for WWTP and a better control performance for DO concentration.

  13. Effects of gamma-rays irradiation on tracking resistance of organic insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Boxue; Suzuki, Akio; Kobayashi, Shigeo [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the influence of gamma-rays irradiation on tracking failure of organic insulating materials by use of the IEC Publ.112 method. Tracking resistance of organic insulating materials under wet polluted condition has been studied by many investigators with a test method of the IEC Publ.112. The investigations on irradiation effects on tracking resistance should be enhanced due to the increasing usage of organic insulating materials in the radiation environments. The tracking resistance seems to be affected by gamma-irradiation, but the knowledge on the influence of gamma-irradiation is quite a few and systematic studies are needed. In this paper, modified polyphenylene oxide, polybutylene naphthalate, modified polycarbonate and polybutylene terephthalate which were irradiated in air until 1x10{sup 7}R and 1x10{sup 8}R with dose rate of 10{sup 6}R/hr using {sup 60}Co gamma-source have been employed. The total dose effects on the number of drops to tracking failure, contact angle and charges of scintillation have been studied. As the total doses are increased, the number of drops to tracking failure decreases with polybutylene terephthalate. On the other hand, the number of drops to tracking failure increases with polybutylene naphthalate and modified polycarbonate when the total doses are increased. The effects of gamma-rays irradiation on tracking failure are due to radiation-induced degradation or cross-linking of organic insulating materials. When the organic insulating materials are degraded by gamma-irradiation, the tracking resistance decreases, but for cross-linking type materials, the tracking resistance increases. (author)

  14. Repair and regeneration of heavy ion beam locally irradiated embryonic hemopoietic organs of silkworm, Bombyx mori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shiqing; Tu Zhenli

    2003-01-01

    Eggs of silkworm, Bombyx mori were irradiated by 12 C 5+ ions, at the embryonic wings, where the hemopoietic organs attached. Changes in the development of the silkworm larvae and pupae, especially in the repair and regeneration of the hemopoietic organs represented by their morphological and functional characteristics, were observed. The results showed that the silkworm larvae and pupae developed from the irradiated eggs grew with the physiological obstruction due to exsanguinations, such as difficulty in their metamorphosis and their marked lower survival rates. After 100 Gy irradiation, some of the larvae and pupae died during the periods of larval molting stages, pupation stage and eclosion stage. With increased doses, the deficiencies in the silkworm development became more significant. After 200 Gy irradiation, the average hemocyte density for the 5 th larvae decreased markedly, but the hemocyte density for some individuals were comparable to the control, and regenerated hemopoietic organs was found in these larvae. The results suggested that the silkworm larvae might be capable of self-repair and self-regeneration of the hemopoietic organs after the heave ion irradiation

  15. Manifold Learning with Self-Organizing Mapping for Feature Extraction of Nonlinear Faults in Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for extracting the low-dimensional feature automatically with self-organization mapping manifold is proposed for the detection of rotating mechanical nonlinear faults (such as rubbing, pedestal looseness. Under the phase space reconstructed by single vibration signal, the self-organization mapping (SOM with expectation maximization iteration algorithm is used to divide the local neighborhoods adaptively without manual intervention. After that, the local tangent space alignment algorithm is adopted to compress the high-dimensional phase space into low-dimensional feature space. The proposed method takes advantages of the manifold learning in low-dimensional feature extraction and adaptive neighborhood construction of SOM and can extract intrinsic fault features of interest in two dimensional projection space. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, the Lorenz system was simulated and rotation machinery with nonlinear faults was obtained for test purposes. Compared with the holospectrum approaches, the results reveal that the proposed method is superior in identifying faults and effective for rotating machinery condition monitoring.

  16. Quantitative regularities of development of endogenous infection in irradiated organism. (Survey of literature)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V N [Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR)

    1979-01-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the literature and the author's own experimental results are reviewed to show the functional relationships between the radiation dose and the development of endogenous infection in irradiated organisms. A direct linear dependence was found between the dose of radiation and the severity of endogenous infection at doses causing death from the ''bone marrow'' syndrome in acute radiation sickness. In case of death from the ''intestinal'' syndrome, an inverse linear dependence can be observed between the radiation dose and the culture yield of microbes from internal organs. In this case, the pathological effect on the organism is due to bacterial endotoxins formed during the disintegration of microbial cells in the organism. Endogenous infection and endotoxinaemia essentially aggravate the progress of acute radiation disease. The importance of endogenous infection for the death of the organism is minimized in irradiation at doses causing death ''under the ray''.

  17. Bladder cancer in patients after previous irradiation for treatment of tumors of the organs of the lesser pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Strel’tsova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article presents clinical cases of bladder cancer (BC developed after previous irradiation and diagnosed in flat suspicious area by cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT based on analysis of characteristics of scattered light, and with histological material confirmed by nonlinear microscopy.Objective: to present clinical cases and features of BC diagnosis in presence of radiation-induced changes.Materials and methods. Intra-vitam examination of the bladder mucosa was performed using the OKT 1300-U system (Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhniy Novgorod. Areas that appeared malignant per CP-OCT data were biopsied. Apart from traditional examination of histological samples with hematoxylin and eosin staining, tissue samples were analyzed using nonlinear microscopy in the mode of second harmonic generation (collagen state analysis and emission of two-photon fluorescence excitation (elastin state analysis.Results are presented through 2 cases of BC in patients with side effects of radiation therapy of varying severity. CP-OCT allowed in-life differentiation of areas of post-radiation inflammatory changes and malignant tumors developed as a result. Nonlinear microscopy provided information on the state of connective tissue matrix of the bladder in the context of radiation changes and transition to tumor.Conclusion. Radiation changes of the bladder mucosa, especially severe ones, can conceal development of malignant tumors. Use of optical methods helps in differential diagnosis of cancer and post-radiation changes of the bladder. CP-OCT is an optimal noninvasive method of examination of the bladder mucosa during cystoscopy. Demonstration of clinical material is aimed at practicing urologists to increase their vigilance in relation to possible BC in patients who underwent radiation therapy of the organs of the lesser pelvis.

  18. The effects of gamma irradiation on leaching of 137Cs from organic matrix wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Johnson, D.I.; Phillips, D.C.; Brownsword, M.

    1987-09-01

    The effects of γ-irradiation on the leaching behaviour of 137 Cs in organic matrix wasteforms has been studied. The matrix materials used include epoxide, polyester and vinyl ester thermosetting resins and bitumen. Leaching of 137 Cs in such matrices can be described by models, based on diffusion, which take into consideration such factors as non-representative surface layers, finite sample size, and sorption effects. In many cases, the changes observed on irradiation arise from modification of the sorptive capacity of the wasteform for 137 Cs, producing changes in the experimentally observed diffusion coefficients. In samples containing wet wastes, enhanced leaching in the first few days is observed after irradiation. This arises from loss of water from the sample surfaces during irradiation producing an enhanced concentration of the radionuclide in the surface. (author)

  19. Dose Calculation Evolution for Internal Organ Irradiation in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, Reina A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) has established through the years, a discrimination system regarding the security levels on the prescription and administration of doses in radiation treatments (Radiotherapy, Brach therapy, Nuclear Medicine). The first level is concerned with the prescription and posterior assurance of dose administration to a point of interest (POI), commonly located at the geometrical center of the region to be treated. In this, the effects of radiation around that POI, is not a priority. The second level refers to the dose specifications in a particular plane inside the patient, mostly the middle plane of the lesion. The dose is calculated to all the structures in that plane regardless if they are tumor or healthy tissue. In this case, the dose is not represented by a point value, but by level curves called 'isodoses' as in a topographic map, so you can assure the level of doses to this particular plane, but it also leave with no information about how this values go thru adjacent planes. This is why the third level is referred to the volumetrical description of doses so these isodoses construct now a volume (named 'cloud') that give us better assurance about tissue irradiation around the volume of the lesion and its margin (sub clinical spread or microscopic illness). This work shows how this evolution has resulted, not only in healthy tissue protection improvement but in a rise of tumor control, quality of life, better treatment tolerance and minimum permanent secuelae

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on the digestibility of organic matter of poultry excreta (In vitro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The changes in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter by enzyme (in vitro) for two types of the excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that there was significant (0.05) difference in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and the percentage of crude fibre between samples and the control for the types I and II before and after storage. The dry matter digestibility for types I and II increased by 7%, and the organic matter digestibility increased by 17% for type I and by 11% for type II before and after storage. The increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter is attributed to the decrease in crude fibre obtained by irradiation. The storage of excreta after drying has no effects on the rate of increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter due to irradiation in both types (I and II). (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Nonlinearities and transit times in soil organic matter models: new developments in the SoilR package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos; Müller, Markus

    2016-04-01

    SoilR is an R package for implementing diverse models representing soil organic matter dynamics. In previous releases of this package, we presented the implementation of linear first-order models with any number of pools as well as radiocarbon dynamics. We present here new improvements of the package regarding the possibility to implement models with nonlinear interactions among state variables and the possibility to calculate ages and transit times for nonlinear models with time dependencies. We show here examples on how to implement model structures with Michaelis-Menten terms for explicit microbial growth and resource use efficiency, and Langmuir isotherms for representing adsorption of organic matter to mineral surfaces. These nonlinear terms can be implemented for any number of organic matter pools, microbial functional groups, or mineralogy, depending on user's requirements. Through a simple example, we also show how transit times of organic matter in soils are controlled by the time-dependencies of the input terms.

  2. Irradiation of defected SAP clad UO2 fuel in the X-7 organic loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.; Cracknell, A.G.; MacDonald, R.D.

    1961-10-01

    This report describes an experiment designed to test the behaviour under irradiation of a UO 2 fuel specimen clad in a defected SAP sheath and cooled by recirculating organic liquid. The specimen containing the defect was irradiated in the X-7 loop in the NRX reactor from the 25th of November until the 13th of December 1960. Up to the 13th of December the behaviour was analogous to that seen with defected UO 2 specimens clad in zircaloy which were irradiated in water loops. Reactor power transients resulted in peaking of gamma ray activities in the loop, but on steady operation these activities tended to fall to a steady state level, Over this period the pressure drop across the fuel increased by a factor of two, the increases occurring after reactor shut downs and start ups. On 13th December the pressure drop increased rapidly, after a reactor shut down and start up, to over five times its original value and the activities in the loop rose to a high level. The specimen was removed and examination showed that the sheath was very badly split and that the volume between the fuel and the sheath was filled with a hard black organic substance. This report gives full details of the irradiation and of the post -irradiation examination. Correlation of the observed phenomenon is attempted and a preliminary assessment of the problems which would be associated with defect fuel in an organic reactor is given. (author)

  3. The theory of dissipative structures of the kinetic system for defects of nonlinear physical system 'metal+loading+irradiation'. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.A.; Borikov, T.L.; Kryzhanovskaya, T.V.; Chernezhenko, S.A.; Rusov, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic system for defects of physical nonlinear system 'metal + load + irradiation' is specified [1, 2, 3]. Developing the approaches offered in [4], where distinctions of mechanisms of radiating creep and areas of their applicability are formalized (depending on external parameters) for fuel and constructional metals, division of kinetic systems for defects of constructional and fuel metals is carrying out. Thus the accent on the autocatalytic features of kinetic system for defects of reactor fuel metals, resulting from the exoenergic autocatalytic character of nuclear fission reactions being the main point defect source is done. In this part of the article the basic attention is given to the kinetic of sink drains for point defects. For kinetic systems of sinks-sources new approaches for the task of boundary conditions are offered. The possible structure of the computer program modelling kinetic system for defects of nonlinear physical system 'metal + load + irradiation' is considered

  4. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  5. Valency stabilization of Polyvalent Iron Ions in Solution By some Organic additives during Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, M.F.; Abdel Hamid, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Valency stabilization of polyvalent ions in gamma irradiated aqueous solutions is sometimes necessary for the success of some chemical operations. In some previous publications valency stabilization of some polyvalent ions in solution upon gamma irradiation was achieved by using additives capable of interacting with the oxidizing or reducing species formed by water radiolysis in the medium. The results showed that the duration of valency stabilization depends on the concentration of the additives used.In the present work, a series of some organic additives has been used to investigate their capability in inducing valency stabilization of polyvalent iron ions when subjected to extended gamma irradiation periods. The results showed that the efficiency of valency stabilization depends on the amount and chemical structure of the organic additive used

  6. TRL1 gene expression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) floral organs after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenco, V.S.; Barbacar, N.I.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the expression patterns of a novel RAD16-like TRL1 (tomato RAD16-like 1) gene in the floral organs of tomato during anther meiosis and mature flower stages. The data on the induction of the TRL1 expression as a result of γ-irradiation is discussed. (authors)

  7. Homogenous smooth sol gel films doped with organic compounds for nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliu, I.C. [INOE 2000 — National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Ionita, I., E-mail: i_ionita@yahoo.com [UB — University of Bucharest, 405 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Matei, A. [INFLPR — National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania); Elisa, M.; Iordanescu, R.; Feraru, I.; Emandi, A. [INOE 2000 — National Institute for Optoelectronics, 409 Atomistilor Str., Magurele, Bucharest, RO 077125 (Romania)

    2016-02-29

    The demand for protection of various types of optical sensors from laser-beam pulses has resulted in the search for optical limiting devices that have the property of being transparent at low intensity of light (normal light), but no transparent towards high intensity (laser) light. Organic material with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as reverse saturable absorption and two-photon absorption can be used for optical limiting with the advantage of a very fast response and self-activation. A promising approach in the fabrication of thin films by low cost/easy use deposition methods for second-order nonlinear optics is sol–gel technique. The present paper reports on the sol–gel synthesis of some pyrazolone derivative doped SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} smooth and homogenous films (Root mean square roughness (Rq) = 1.1 nm) using as precursors tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The structure of the deposited azo-derivatives doped thin films was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy, while their optical properties of the films by UV–VIS spectroscopy. The nonlinear optical efficiencies due to the interaction of the NLO-active chromophores with the inorganic matrix have a significant influence on the second harmonic generation capabilities that was measured using a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser. The properties of the films were investigated and correlated with the concentration of the organic dopant and the thermal treatment temperature. - Highlights: • We obtained pyrazolone derivative doped SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} smooth and homogenous films. • The pyrazolone derivative presents SHG characteristics by itself. • Thin sol gel films doped with organic compounds with NLO properties. • Temperature of thermal treatment and aging time can improve NLO properties of films. • We found that 150 °C and 28 h aging time give the maximum performance in SHG response.

  8. Field enhanced luminescence of irradiated organics due to electron tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1981-01-01

    Many organic materials, following exposure to high energy radiation at low temperatures, continue to emit light for long periods. One possible mechanism is that electrons trapped near their parent cations can tunnel back over long times depending on trap depth and distance. This luminescence can be greatly enhanced by the post-radiation application of an external electric field. Calculations on the kinetics of recombination by tunnelling for various trap depths and distances are extended to allow for the effect of an electrical field subsequently applied. The quantitative results lead to two methods of assessing trap depth, depending on immediate light enhancement and on its subsequent decay. The effect of field reversal is also explained. (author)

  9. Green's function-stochastic methods framework for probing nonlinear evolution problems: Burger's equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation, and hydrodynamic organization of near-molecular-scale vorticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keanini, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Systematic approach for physically probing nonlinear and random evolution problems. → Evolution of vortex sheets corresponds to evolution of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. → Organization of near-molecular scale vorticity mediated by hydrodynamic modes. → Framework allows calculation of vorticity evolution within random strain fields. - Abstract: A framework which combines Green's function (GF) methods and techniques from the theory of stochastic processes is proposed for tackling nonlinear evolution problems. The framework, established by a series of easy-to-derive equivalences between Green's function and stochastic representative solutions of linear drift-diffusion problems, provides a flexible structure within which nonlinear evolution problems can be analyzed and physically probed. As a preliminary test bed, two canonical, nonlinear evolution problems - Burgers' equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger's equation - are first treated. In the first case, the framework provides a rigorous, probabilistic derivation of the well known Cole-Hopf ansatz. Likewise, in the second, the machinery allows systematic recovery of a known soliton solution. The framework is then applied to a fairly extensive exploration of physical features underlying evolution of randomly stretched and advected Burger's vortex sheets. Here, the governing vorticity equation corresponds to the Fokker-Planck equation of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a correspondence that motivates an investigation of sub-sheet vorticity evolution and organization. Under the assumption that weak hydrodynamic fluctuations organize disordered, near-molecular-scale, sub-sheet vorticity, it is shown that these modes consist of two weakly damped counter-propagating cross-sheet acoustic modes, a diffusive cross-sheet shear mode, and a diffusive cross-sheet entropy mode. Once a consistent picture of in-sheet vorticity evolution is established, a number of analytical results, describing the

  10. Does Prigogine’s Non-linear Thermodynamics Support Popular Philosophical Discussions of Self-Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pechenkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the philosophical talks which became popular in the 1980s and have kept their popularity till now–the philosophical essays about self-organization. The author attempts to find out as to which extent are these essays founded on the scientific theory to which they regularly refer, that is, Ilya Prigogine’s non-linear thermodynamics. The author insists that the equivalent of self-organization in Prigogine’s theoretical physics is the concept of dissipative structure. The concept of selforganization, as it is used in philosophical literature, presupposes a sequence of extrapolations, the first extrapolation being conducted by Prigogine and his coauthors. They became to use the concept of dissipative structure beyond the rigorous theory of this phenomenon. The subsequent step was that the scientific term “dissipative structure” was replaced by the vague concept “self-organization” in many popular and semi-popular books and papers. The author also emphasizes that by placing the concept of self-organization into the framework of philosophical concepts (the picture of the world, the ideals of scientific thought, the contemporary scientific revolution, etc. a philosopher conducts the extrapolation of extrapolation and comes to a kind of what Edmund Husserl called Weltanschauung (‘worldview’ philosophy.

  11. Detection of irradiation history for health foods. Calcium salt of organic acid and its basic ingredient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Yunoki, Shunji; Ohyabu, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbonate and calcium salt of organic acid are well-known food additives used for the improvement of the shelf life and eating quality of health food. Calcium carbonate is a precursor in the synthesis of calcium salts of organic acid. Certain calcium carbonates made of natural limestone mined from very old stratum have silicate minerals exposed to a low level of natural radiation over a long period of time and food additives derived from calcium carbonates contained of such silicate minerals are possible to classify as irradiated foods by PSL and TL analysis in spite of non-irradiation. The study of calcium carbonates and calcium salts of organic acid obtained from different producers were allow to provided appropriate decisions by using the information of both the TL response (Glow1 peak temperature and TL ratio) and PSL ratio. ESR measurements of radicals in such food additives caused by gamma- irradiation were effective tool for correctly determining for irradiation history of those because the measurements were not affected by silicate minerals contained in those. (author)

  12. Polythiophene derivative functionalized with disperse red 1 chromophore: Its third-order nonlinear optical properties through Z-scan technique under continuous and femtosecond irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza-Rubí, R. M. A.; Güizado-Rodríguez, M.; Mayorga-Cruz, D.; Basurto-Pensado, M. A.; Guerrero-Álvarez, J. A.; Ramos-Ortiz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Maldonado, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    A copolymer of 3-hexylthiophene and thiophene functionalized with disperse red 1, poly(3-HT-co-TDR1), was synthesized. Chemical structure, molecular weight distribution, optical and thermal properties of this copolymer were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, GPC and DSC-TGA. An optical nonlinear analysis by Z-scan method was also performed for both continuous wave (CW) and pulsed laser pumping. In the CW regime the nonlinearities were evaluated in solid films, and a negative nonlinear refractive index in the range 2.7-4.1 × 10-4 cm2/W was obtained. These values are notoriously high and allowed to observe self-defocusing effects at very low laser intensities: below 1 mW. Further, nonlinear self-phase modulation patterns, during laser irradiation, were also observed. In the pulsed excitation the nonlinear response was evaluated in solution resulting in large two-photon absorption cross section of 5725 GM for the whole copolymer chain and with a value of 232 GM per repeated monomeric unit.

  13. Self-organization of voids, gas bubbles and dislocation patterns under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the present paper three examples of self-organization in solids under irradiation are considered on the basis of original mechanisms, namely, the ordering of voids in void lattices under high temperature irradiation, the alignment of gas bubbles in bubble lattices under low-temperature gas atom implantation, and the formation of superdislocations (one-dimensional pile-ups of dislocation loops) and other dislocation patterns in the regimes of medium and high temperature irradiation. The ordering of cavities (i.e.voids or gas bubbles) is shown to arise due to a dissipative interaction between cavities induced by the interstitial dislocation loop absorption and punching, respectively, which represent anisotropic mechanisms of atomic transport. The dislocation patterning is shown to be driven by the dependence of dislocation bias for absorption of self-interstitial atoms on the dislocation arrangement. (author). 57 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  14. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  15. Revealing the Effect of Irradiation on Cement Hydrates: Evidence of a Topological Self-Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N M Anoop; Wang, Bu; Sant, Gaurav; Phillips, James C; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2017-09-20

    Despite the crucial role of concrete in the construction of nuclear power plants, the effects of radiation exposure (i.e., in the form of neutrons) on the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H, i.e., the glue of concrete) remain largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we systematically investigate the effects of irradiation on the structure of C-S-H across a range of compositions. Expectedly, although C-S-H is more resistant to irradiation than typical crystalline silicates, such as quartz, we observe that radiation exposure affects C-S-H's structural order, silicate mean chain length, and the amount of molecular water that is present in the atomic network. By topological analysis, we show that these "structural effects" arise from a self-organization of the atomic network of C-S-H upon irradiation. This topological self-organization is driven by the (initial) presence of atomic eigenstress in the C-S-H network and is facilitated by the presence of water in the network. Overall, we show that C-S-H exhibits an optimal resistance to radiation damage when its atomic network is isostatic (at Ca/Si = 1.5). Such an improved understanding of the response of C-S-H to irradiation can pave the way to the design of durable concrete for radiation applications.

  16. Nonlinear and Synchronous Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Streams Across an Agriculture Land Use and Climate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenopoulos, M. A.; Vogt, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is now increasing evidence that non-linearity is a common response in ecological systems to pressures caused by human activities. There is also increasing evidence that exogenous environmental drivers, such as climate, induce spatial and temporal synchrony in a wide range of ecological variables. Using Moran's I and Pearson's correlation, we quantified the synchrony of dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and quality (DOM; e.g., specific UV absorbance, Fluorescence Index, PARAFAC), nutrients, discharge and temperature in 40 streams that span an agriculture gradient (0 to >70% cropland), over 10 years. We then used breakpoint regression, 2D-Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and significant zero crossings (SiZer) analyses to quantify the prevalence of nonlinearity and ecological thresholds (breakpoints) where applicable. There was a high degree of synchrony in DOM quality (r > 0.7) but not DOC (r < 0.4). The degree of synchrony was driven in part by the catchment's land use. With respect to the nonlinear analyses we found non-linearity in ~50% of bivariate datasets analyzed. Non-linearity was also driven in part by the catchment's land use. Breakpoints defined different DOM properties. Nonlinearity and synchronous behaviour in DOM are intimately linked to land use.

  17. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating material using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jaeseung; Kim, Seongeun; Kim, Byounggak; Lee, Jongchan; Park, Jihyun; Lee, Byeongcheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, silver nano materials have gained a lot of attentions in a variety of applications due to the unique biological, optical, and electrical properties. Especially, the antifouling property of these material is considered to be an important character for biomedical field, marine coatings industry, biosensor, and drug delivery. In this study, we design and synthesize the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for preparation of affiliating materials. Silver nano materials having antifouling property with different shapes are prepared by control the electron beam irradiation conditions. Inorganic-organic hybrid polymer was synthesized and characterized. → Morphology and size controlled nano materials are prepared using electron beam irradiation. → Silver nano materials having various shapes can be used for antifouling material

  18. Age-dependent conversion coefficients for organ doses and effective doses for external neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizaki, Chihiro; Endo, Akira; Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2006-06-01

    To utilize dose assessment of the public for external neutron irradiation, conversion coefficients of absorbed doses of organs and effective doses were calculated using the numerical simulation technique for six different ages (adult, 15, 10, 5 and 1 years and newborn), which represent the member of the public. Calculations were performed using six age-specific anthropomorphic phantoms and a Monte Carlo radiation transport code for two irradiation geometries, anterior-posterior and rotational geometries, for 20 incident energies from thermal to 20 MeV. Effective doses defined by the 1990 Recommendation of ICRP were calculated from the absorbed doses in 21 organs. The calculated results were tabulated in the form of absorbed doses and effective doses per unit neutron fluence. The calculated conversion coefficients are used for dose assessment of the public around nuclear facilities and accelerator facilities. (author)

  19. X-ray topographic studies of organic and non-linear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfpenny, P. J.; Sherwood, J. N.; Simpson, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The flexible and non-destructive nature of X-ray topography is ideally suited to the study of large single crystals for both fundamental research and technological applications as well as the optimisation of crystal growth processes. Three examples are discussed, illustrating the application of X-ray topographic methods to non-linear optical (NLO) crystals. Synchrotron radiation section topography has been applied to the examination of large organic crystals. X-ray topography has been used to examine growth defects and the quality of crystals of m-nitroaniline (mNA) grown by the Bridgeman method. These studies allow evaluation of growth parameters together with their influence on defect density and show that in the case of mNA, remarkably low defect densities can be achieved under optimum growth conditions. Double-crystal reflection topography, with synchrotron radiation has been used to image defects intersecting the (011) faces of the inorganic NLO material potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP). X-ray images have been combined with optical microscopy and interferometry to provide valuable information on the crystal growth process

  20. Mechanical properties of organic composite materials irradiated with 2 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, S.; Kirk, M.A.; Birtcher, R.C.; Argonne National Lab., IL; Hagiwara, M.; Kawanishi, S.

    1983-01-01

    Four kinds of cloth-filled organic composites (filter: glass or carbon fiber; matrix; epoxy or polyimide resin) were irradiated with 2 MeV electrons at room temperature, and were examined with regard to the mechanical properties. Following irradiation the Young's (tensile) modulus of these composites remains practically unchanged even after irradiation up to 15.000 Mrad. The shear modulus and the ultimate strength, on the other hand, begin to decrease after the absorbed dose reaches about 2.000 Mrad for the glass/epoxy composite and about 5.000-10.000 Mrad for the other composites. This result is ascribed to the decrease in the capacity of load transfer from the matrix to the fiber due to the radiation damage at the interface, and the dose dependence is interpreted and formulated based on the mechanics of composite materials and the target theory used in radiation biology. As to the fracture behavior, the propagation energy increases from the beginning of irradiation. This result is attributed to the radiation-induced decrease in the bonding energy at the interface. (orig.)

  1. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, François; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Hervé; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-10-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of electron irradiation on the hydrogen isotopic composition of organic precursors containing different functional groups. From an initial terrestrial composition, overall D-enrichments and differential intramolecular fractionations comparable with those measured in the Orgueil meteorite were induced. Therefore, ionizing radiation can quantitatively explain the deuteration of organics in some carbonaceous chondrites. For these meteorites, the precursors of the IOM may have had the same isotopic composition as the main water reservoirs of the inner Solar System.

  2. Effect of γ-ray irradiation on adsorbents used in organic waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, T.J.; Krishma, R.; Pimblott, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive organic liquids (ROLs) are waste that require specific treatment. The Arvia process, developed by Arvia Technology Ltd., combines adsorption of organic material with electrochemical oxidation. This work focuses on the effect of γ-rays on the performance of adsorbents used in the Arvia process. Adsorbents used in this experimental study were provided by Arvia Technology Ltd. Specifically, Nyex 1000, a flake like carbon-based adsorbent, and Nyex 2105, a carbon-based adsorbent with a granular morphology. The γ-ray irradiation experiments were carried out using a Co-60 irradiator. The impact of irradiation on the microstructure, the adsorption capacity and the leaching of the 2 adsorbents were studied. The results show that no significant changes were detected in terms of structure, adsorption capacity and leaching of ions. The results of this paper are promising for the use of Nyex 1000 and Nyex 2105 as adsorbents in electrochemical waste treatment processes which involve high levels of γ-rays. The article is followed by the slides of the presentation

  3. Detection of organic free radicals in irradiated pepper by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2002-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed various free radicals in a Japanese commercially available black pepper before and after γ-irradiation. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine interactions of Mn 2+ ion (7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical. The third one may be originated from Fe 3+ ion of the non-hem Fe in proteins. A pair of signals appeared in the black pepper after γ-irradiation. The progressive saturation behavior reconfirmed the signal identification for the radicals in the black pepper. (author)

  4. Ordering of pentacene in organic thin film transistors induced by irradiation of infrared light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C. H.; Chen, S. W.; Hwang, J.

    2009-01-01

    The device performances of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) were greatly improved by irradiation of infrared light. The field effect mobility and maximum drain current increase from 0.20±0.01 to 0.57±0.02 cm 2 /V s and 1.14x10 -5 to 4.91x10 -5 A, respectively. The (001) peak of the pentacene 'thin film' phase increases in intensity by 4.5 times after infrared irradiation at 50 W for 2 h. Two types of crystal orientations, i.e., 'crystal I' (2θ=5.91 deg.) and 'crystal II' (2θ=5.84 deg.), coexist in the pentacene. The improvement of the characteristics of OTFTs is attributed to crystallization and crystal reorientation induced by infrared light.

  5. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on organic insulating materials for fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, W.

    1985-10-01

    Available low-temperature neutron and gamma irradiation data for organic insulating materials are collected and compared with room temperature data. Only the most promising polymers in terms of mechanical strength for magnet insulation are taken into account. For characterization and comparison of different materials the 75% dose is used, i.e. the dose, where the mechanical strength is reduced by 25%, and 75% is retained. For room temperature special prepared polyimide and epoxy materials reinforced with glass fibre retained 75% of the mechanical strength up to a dose of 7x10 7 Gy. For 5 K irradiation the best epoxy material retained the 75% dose up to 1x10 7 Gy, the best polyimide material up to 1x10 8 Gy. (orig.) [de

  6. Organization of rat neuronal DNA as a function of dose, time after irradiation and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaberaboansari, A.

    1989-01-01

    The organization of DNA and chromatin structure were examined in male Fisher 344 rat cerebellar neurons at various times from < 5 min to 2 years after exposure to ionizing radiation. Immediately after irradiation, the organization of neuronal DNA was altered. First, the DNA superhelical structure was changed due to removal of the topological constraints on the supercoiled DNA loops. Secondly, the accessibility of bulk neuronal DNA to digestion by micrococcal nuclease was increased. This increase in the m. nuclease sensitivity of bulk DNA did not depend on the oxygen concentration during irradiation. Thirdly, the accessibility of the nuclear matrix-associated DNA to digestion by DNase I was decreased. This decrease was most likely caused by masking the DNA with additional nuclear matrix-associated proteins. This increase in protein content was independent of oxygen, but inhibited if irradiations were performed at 4 degree C. The kinetics were consistent with the saturation kinetics observed for DNA repair in cerebellar neurons. Thus, these proteins may be associated with repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. The neuronal DNA/chromatin structure was restored to its unirradiated state by 24 hr after irradiation with biphasic kinetics having half-times similar to those reported for repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. However, the evidence suggested that residual DNA damage occurred in aging rats that had received a relatively high radiation dose at 4 months of age. In those rats, there was: (a) a decrease in the total nuclear protein content with age, (b) an increase in the digestibility of bulk DNA by m. nuclease with age, and (c) a reduction in the amount of nuclear matrix-associated proteins that persisted with age

  7. Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J; Sandford, Scott A

    2012-04-27

    Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments to which they were exposed. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were less than 30 kelvin, experienced ultraviolet irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural by-products of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own.

  8. Organic Synthesis via Irradiation and Warming of Ice Grains in the Solar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Fred J.; Sanford, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments they were exposed to. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were less than 30 K, experienced UV irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural byproducts of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own.

  9. Fuzzy Nonlinear Dynamic Evaporator Model in Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahedul Islam Chowdhury

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic Rankine cycle (ORC-based waste heat recovery (WHR system operating under a supercritical condition has a higher potential of thermal efficiency and work output than a traditional subcritical cycle. However, the operation of supercritical cycles is more challenging due to the high pressure in the system and transient behavior of waste heat sources from industrial and automotive engines that affect the performance of the system and the evaporator, which is the most crucial component of the ORC. To take the transient behavior into account, the dynamic model of the evaporator using renowned finite volume (FV technique is developed in this paper. Although the FV model can capture the transient effects accurately, the model has a limitation for real-time control applications due to its time-intensive computation. To capture the transient effects and reduce the simulation time, a novel fuzzy-based nonlinear dynamic evaporator model is also developed and presented in this paper. The results show that the fuzzy-based model was able to capture the transient effects at a data fitness of over 90%, while it has potential to complete the simulation 700 times faster than the FV model. By integrating with other subcomponent models of the system, such as pump, expander, and condenser, the predicted system output and pressure have a mean average percentage error of 3.11% and 0.001%, respectively. These results suggest that the developed fuzzy-based evaporator and the overall ORC-WHR system can be used for transient simulations and to develop control strategies for real-time applications.

  10. Growth and dielectric, mechanical, thermal and etching studies of an organic nonlinear optical L-arginine trifluoroacetate (LATF) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjunan, S.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Mohan, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2008-01-01

    L-arginine trifluoroacetate, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been synthesized from aqueous solution. Bulk single crystal of dimension 57 mm x 5 mm x 3 mm has been grown by temperature lowering technique. Powder X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the monoclinic structure of the grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Linear optical property of the grown crystal has been studied by UV-vis spectrum. Dielectric response of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal was analysed for different frequencies and temperatures in detail. Microhardness study on the sample reveals that the crystal possesses relatively higher hardness compared to many organic crystals. Thermal analyses confirmed that the L-arginine trifluoroacetate material is thermally stable upto 212 deg. C. The etching studies have been performed to assess the perfection of the L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation test confirms the nonlinear optical properties of the as-grown L-arginine trifluoroacetate crystal

  11. Possible role of organic peroxides in the detection of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Shengchu; Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the level of organic peroxides induced by autooxidation, random sampling of pork has been performed. The organic peroxide content in unirradiated pork has been estimated as (5.4 ± 3.0) x10 -5 mol.kg -1 . The dependence of yield of peroxide in pork, minced meat and braised chicken on absorbed dose has been investigated. For killing trichinae 0.5 ∼ 1 kGy is used, the quantity of peroxide in pork will be 4x10 -4 mol.kg -1 for 1 kGy, which is 3.7 ∼ 7.4 times greater than the background. If 3 kGy is used to eliminate Salmonella, the quantity of peroxides in pork will be 1.3 x10 -3 mol.kg -1 , which approaches 24 times greater than the average value of background. When minced meat was irradiated in the presence of air, a chain reaction took place with G value 30.2. Radiation processing dose of braised chicken for shelf-life extension is ∼ 9kGy, organic peroxide content in braised chicken fat is 32.5 x10 -4 mol.kg -1 , which is about 14.7 times greater than average value (2.2x10 -4 mol.kg -1 ) in unirradiated one. Applying the peroxide method to qualitatively detect irradiated food containing fat is satisfactory, if combined with measuring the ESR signal of irradiated bone which will improve the detection method. (author)

  12. Caspase-3 activation and DNA damage in pig skin organ culture after solar irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqueville, Daniel; Mavon, Alain

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, a convenient and easy-to-handle skin organ culture was developed from domestic pig ears using polycarbonate Transwell culture inserts in 12-well plate. This alternative model was then tested for its suitability in analyzing the short-term effects of a single solar radiation dose (from 55 to 275 kJ.m(-2)). Differentiation of the pig skin was maintained for up to 48 h in culture, and its morphology was similar to that of fresh human skin. Solar irradiation induced a significant release of the cytosolic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase and extracellular signal-related kinase 2 protein in the culture medium 24 h after exposure. These photocytotoxic effects were associated with the formation of sunburn cells, thymine dimers and DNA strand breaks in both the epidermis and dermis. Interestingly, cell death was dose dependent and associated with p53 protein upregulation and strong caspase-3 activation in the basal epidermis. None of these cellular responses was observed in non-irradiated skin. Finally, topical application of a broad-spectrum UVB + A sunfilter formulation afforded efficient photoprotection in irradiated explants. Thus, the ex vivo pig ear skin culture may be a useful tool in the assessment of solar radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and for evaluating the efficacy of sunscreen formulations.

  13. Neutron irradiation effects on the mechanical properties of organic composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egusa, S.; Kirk, M.A.; Birtcher, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron irradiations with low γ-ray flux in the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source were carried out on four kinds of cloth-filled organic composites (filler: E-glass or carbon fiber; matrix: epoxy or polyimide resin) and a unidirectional alumina fiber/epoxy composite. These composites were examined with regard to the mechanical properties at room temperature. Following irradiation at room temperature, the Young's (tensile) modulus of these composites remains practically unchanged up to a total neutron fluence of 5.0x10 18 n/cm 2 (1.4x10 18 n/cm 2 for E>0.1 MeV). The shear modulus and the ultimate strength, on the other hand, decrease significantly at this neutron fluence for the glass/epoxy and glass/polyimide composites, whereas for the other composites both properties do not degrade. This result is most likely ascribed to the radiation damage at fiber/matrix interface due to recoil particles produced by a 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction in the boron-containing E-glass fibers. Only for the E-glass fiber composites, in fact, the fracture propagation energy is appreciably increased by irradiation, while for the other composites the propagation energy is scarcely changed, thus confirming the significant contribution due to the 10 B reaction. As to the 5 K irradiation, degradation of the present composites was not observed up to a total neutron fluence of 1.0x10 18 n/cm 2 (7.0x10 17 n/cm 2 for E>0.1 MeV) when tested at room temperature. (orig.)

  14. Self organization and low frequency Raman scattering in quartz glasses irradiated by fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davranov, O. D.; Subhankulov, I.

    2002-01-01

    In all investigated glasses materials in low frequency region of the IR absorption and Raman scattering spectra intensive and sufficiently broad band with maximum within ∼10-100 cm -1 is observed. The availability of such band is a typical trait of low frequency spectra of amorphous materials and spectroscopic characteristics of this observed low frequency peak in glasses are similar to the spectra of liquids and liquid crystals. In this work the influence of fast neutrons (from 2.5·10 15 to 2.2·10 20 cm -2 ) on location of low frequency peak in quartz glass was investigated with accidental impurities (Ca, Al, Ba, Sb, Pb, Mn, B, Na, Zn), in which summary maintenance of impurities was (10 13 -10 -1 ) mass %). Spectral from of low frequency Raman scattering peak is identical in all glasses independently from their chemical composition. It is discovered that the frequency and amplitude of boson peak increase with increasing of irradiation dose. Maximum of peak is displaced from 54 to 72 cm -1 depending on irradiation dose, but amplitude is increased up to 1.5 times. The increasing of glass density and velocity of acoustic waves propagation are observed. Depending on E-centre ( 28 Si 3+ ) concentration under irradiation dose at first a gradual growth, and then saturation of these centres is observed. The increasing of concentration of centres correlates with the growth of intensity of narrow Raman line 606 cm -1 , connected to oxygen atoms' vibrations on the clusters surface. The irradiation by fast neutron lead to the changing degree of self organization of phase correlation in glasses. It leads to the rising of internal field of phase structure, and consequently, to the changing of wave vector of phase structure, which is displayed in the shift of frequency of boson peak. The changing of self organization degree influences the macroscopic parameters of medium and it is displayed in the changing of glass density and velocity of acoustic waves propagation. The

  15. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Su Nam [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  16. Studies on the Chromatin Isolated from the Organs of Animals Received Whole-body X-ray Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Su Nam

    1967-01-01

    Within experimental chromatin, the total protein: DNA ratio did not vary in the same organs of control and irradiated rats. However, the amount of RNA and total protein associated with the DNA varied considerably among the different types of chromatin. In particular, the content of chromatin was the highest in the irradiated tissue, and the lowest in the chromatin control tissue. RNA and total protein ratio of chromatins from brain, liver, testis and spleen declined with experimental organs. 2) There was the same quantitative relationship between the amount of RNA and the amount histone-protein associated with DNA in each chromatin. 3) RNA:DNA ratio of chromatin showed a 1.5-2 times increase in the irradiated organs except brain. However, RNA:DNA ratio was decreased in chromatin by irradiation. 4) Histone-protein: Residual protein ratio was greatly varied among the organs. However, the effect was not found by irradiation. 5) Priming activity of chromatins showed a higher value in testis and the activity was greater in organs with higher metabolic activity. 6) Inhibition of Actinomycin D observable in chromatin for testis, liver, spleen and brain declined without relationship between irradiated and non-irradiated conditions. Ammonium sulfate in DNA of chromatin from histone showed increased priming activity with dissociation by Electrostatics. It may give different effect of ammonium sulfate on stimulation by property of chromatins. 7) It is suggested that the results support a proposal that the higher sensitivity of radioactive in testis, spleen by irradiated showed a increase and decrease lower-sensitivity of radioactive from brain, liver than did priming activity under the radioactive conditions.

  17. Application of advanced oxidation process by electron beam irradiation in the organic compounds degradation present in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The inefficacy of conventional methods to destroy toxic organic compounds present in industrial effluent has taken the search for new technologies of treatment. he water irradiation is the most efficient process to generate radicals that mineralise these compounds. A study to evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Process by electron beam irradiation to treat industrial effluent with high toxic organic compounds concentration was carried out. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 power. The effluent samples from a big industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's Liquid Effluent Irradiation Pilot Plant and the effluent samples from five steps of a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant from SABESP - ETE Suzano (industrial Receiver Unit, Coarse Bar Screens, Medium Bar Screens, Primary Sedimentation and Final Effluent), were irradiated in a batch system. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol and in the decoloring of dyes present in some samples. To remove 90% of the most organic compounds was necessary a 20 kGy dose for industry's ETE, 20 kGy for IRU, CBS and MBS and 10 kGy to 20 kGy for PS and FE. (author)

  18. Post-irradiation examination of the first SAP clad UO{sub 2} fuel elements irradiated in the X-7 organic loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R. D.; Aspila, K.

    1962-02-15

    Seven fuel elements composing the first in-reactor test at Chalk River of SAP sheathing were irradiated in the X-7 organic loop. Activity, denoting a fuel failure, was detected in the loop coolant immediately after reactor start up; the fuel string was consequently removed from the loop nine hours later. Leak tests disclosed that five of the seven elements were defective. Inspection of the specimens showed essentially no change in element dimensions. Practically no organic fouling film was observed on the surface of the SAP cladding; organic coolant was found inside four of the defective elements. The appearance of the UO{sub 2} fuel was consistent with the irradiation time and the heat ratings achieved during the test. (author)

  19. Enantiomeric separation of complex organic molecules produced from irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Meierhenrich, U. J.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.; Deboffle, D.; Thiemann, W. H.-P.; Bredehöft, J.-H.; Nahon, L.

    Irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs by ultraviolet (UV) light followed by warm up in the laboratory leads to the formation of complex organic molecules, stable at room temperature. Hydrolysis of the room temperature residue releases amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. These amino acids exist in two different forms (L and D), but proteins encountered in living beings consist exclusively of L enantiomers. The origin of this property, called homochirality, is still unknown. Amino acids can be detected and quantified by chemical techniques such as chiral gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of chiral organics are also known to interact selectively with circularly polarized light (CPL), leading to a selective production or destruction of the final compounds. This paper describes how we settled an experiment where amino acids are formed by irradiation of interstellar/circumstellar ice analogs with ultraviolet (UV) CPL, produced by a synchrotron radiation beamline, which allowed us to quantify the effect of such polarized light on the production of amino acids. These results can be compared to the enantiomeric excesses measured in primitive meteorites such as Murchison.

  20. The destructive degradation of some organic textile dye compounds using gamma ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Gawad Emara, A.S.; Abdel-Fattah, A.A.; Ebraheem, S.E.; Ali, Z.I.; Gad, H.

    2001-01-01

    other chemicals used in the textile industry such as H 2 O 2 and NaOCI on the degradation process was investigated. The specific bimolecular rate constants of the reaction of dyes with the hydroxyl radical (OH) were determined by studying the effect of ethanol concentration on G-value using competition kinetics. The effect of pH, NaOCI and H 2 O 2 on the degradation process was studied. In addition to the main objective of the use of gamma rays to achieve the destruction of the dye compounds, the eco-toxicity of the dyes and their irradiation products was assessed using some invertebrate animals (snails) for the three FO, FY and FV dyes. The FV dye and its degradation products were found to be toxic (results of hemocyte count, hemagglutination titter, total protein content and accumulation levels) and should be completely degraded and removed from the wastewater streams using high irradiation doses. Also, and for the purpose of comparison, the sorption of the FV, FY and FO dyes on conventional sorbents such as charcoal was tested, gamma ray irradiation, as compared with conventional sorption techniques, was found to be very rapid and the removal of organic pollutants from wastewaters can be achieved nearly instantaneously. It appears that, for the complete destruction and full removal of organic pollutants from waste effluents, the sequential adsorption using chemical techniques followed by gamma irradiation treatment may prove to be more effective and advantageous. (author)

  1. Highly nonlinear organic crystal OHQ-T for efficient ultra-broadband terahertz wave generation beyond 10 THz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Baek, In Hyung; Lee, Seung-Heon; Kim, Won Tae; Lee, Seung-Jun; Jeong, Young Uk; Kwon, O-Pil; Rotermund, Fabian

    2016-05-16

    We report on efficient generation of ultra-broadband terahertz (THz) waves via optical rectification in a novel nonlinear organic crystal with acentric core structure, i.e. 2-(4-hydroxystyryl)-1-methylquinolinium 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (OHQ-T), which possesses an ideal molecular structure leading to a maximized nonlinear optical response for near-infrared-pumped THz wave generation. By systematic studies on wavelength-dependent phase-matching conditions in OHQ-T crystals of different thicknesses we are able to generate coherent THz waves with a high peak-to-peak electric field amplitude of up to 650 kV/cm and an upper cut-off frequency beyond 10 THz. High optical-to-THz conversion efficiency of 0.31% is achieved by efficient index matching with a selective pumping at 1300 nm.

  2. Quality Control of Gamma Irradiated Dwarf Mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.) Based on Color, Organic Acids, Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-04-08

    This study addresses the effects of gamma irradiation (1, 5 and 8 kGy) on color, organic acids, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of dwarf mallow (Malva neglecta Wallr.). Organic acids were analyzed by ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) coupled to a photodiode array (PDA) detector. Total phenolics and flavonoids were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on the DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation inhibition. Analyses were performed in the non-irradiated and irradiated plant material, as well as in decoctions obtained from the same samples. The total amounts of organic acids and phenolics recorded in decocted extracts were always higher than those found in the plant material or hydromethanolic extracts, respectively. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity and reducing power were also higher in decocted extracts. The assayed irradiation doses affected differently the organic acids profile. The levels of total phenolics and flavonoids were lower in the hydromethanolic extracts prepared from samples irradiated at 1 kGy (dose that induced color changes) and in decocted extracts prepared from those irradiated at 8 kGy. The last samples also showed a lower antioxidant activity. In turn, irradiation at 5 kGy favored the amounts of total phenolics and flavonoids. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the effects of irradiation in indicators of dwarf mallow quality, and highlighted the decoctions for its antioxidant properties.

  3. The influence of vitamin preparations on the activity of some enzymes of protein metabolism in the irradiated organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitskij, I V; Savitskij, V I [Odesskij Meditsinskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of vitamin B/sub 6/; B/sub 6/ and ATP; B/sub 1/, B/sub 6/, FMN, PP, and ATP on the enzymatic activity of GOT, GPT, GDH, and OCT in liver cells of rabbits following whole-body irradiation with 450 R of X-rays were studied. Depending on the subcellular organization of the enzymes, on the time after irradiation and on the preparations administered changes of the enzymatic activity were found.

  4. Optical nonlinearity of organic dyes as studied by Z-scan and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Excited state absorption; Z-scan; nonlinear refractive index; excited .... The σes value can be determined with the help of three and four level .... laser pulse the molecules in the thermal equilibrium position of first excited state (level 2.

  5. Organ and Effective Dose Coefficients for Cranial and Caudal Irradiation Geometries: Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, K. G.; Eckerman, K. F.; Hertel, N. E.; Hiller, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations by ICRP Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors, and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms (ICRP Publication 110). Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for neutron irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to neutrons ranging in energy from 10-9 MeV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6 radiation transport code and the adult reference voxel phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above about 30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater.

  6. Organ and effective dose coefficients for cranial and caudal irradiation geometries: photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veinot, K.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Hertel, N.E.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of new recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in Publication 103, the methodology for determining the protection quantity, effective dose, has been modified. The modifications include changes to the defined organs and tissues, the associated tissue weighting factors, radiation weighting factors and the introduction of reference sex-specific computational phantoms. Computations of equivalent doses in organs and tissues are now performed in both the male and female phantoms and the sex-averaged values used to determine the effective dose. Dose coefficients based on the ICRP 103 recommendations were reported in ICRP Publication 116, the revision of ICRP Publication 74 and ICRU Publication 57. The coefficients were determined for the following irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right and left lateral (RLAT and LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). In this work, the methodology of ICRP Publication 116 was used to compute dose coefficients for photon irradiation of the body with parallel beams directed upward from below the feet (caudal) and directed downward from above the head (cranial). These geometries may be encountered in the workplace from personnel standing on contaminated surfaces or volumes and from overhead sources. Calculations of organ and tissue kerma and absorbed doses for caudal and cranial exposures to photons ranging in energy from 10 keV to 10 GeV have been performed using the MCNP6.1 radiation transport code and the adult reference phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. As with calculations reported in ICRP 116, the effects of charged-particle transport are evident when compared with values obtained by using the kerma approximation. At lower energies the effective dose per particle fluence for cranial and caudal exposures is less than AP orientations while above ∼30 MeV the cranial and caudal values are greater. (authors)

  7. Estimation of biological parameters of marine organisms using linear and nonlinear acoustic scattering model-based inversion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Dezhang; Lawson, Gareth L; Wiebe, Peter H

    2016-05-01

    The linear inversion commonly used in fisheries and zooplankton acoustics assumes a constant inversion kernel and ignores the uncertainties associated with the shape and behavior of the scattering targets, as well as other relevant animal parameters. Here, errors of the linear inversion due to uncertainty associated with the inversion kernel are quantified. A scattering model-based nonlinear inversion method is presented that takes into account the nonlinearity of the inverse problem and is able to estimate simultaneously animal abundance and the parameters associated with the scattering model inherent to the kernel. It uses sophisticated scattering models to estimate first, the abundance, and second, the relevant shape and behavioral parameters of the target organisms. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the abundance, size, and behavior (tilt angle) parameters of marine animals (fish or zooplankton) can be accurately inferred from the inversion by using multi-frequency acoustic data. The influence of the singularity and uncertainty in the inversion kernel on the inversion results can be mitigated by examining the singular values for linear inverse problems and employing a non-linear inversion involving a scattering model-based kernel.

  8. Crystal structure, growth and nonlinear optical studies of isonicotinamide p-nitrophenol: A new organic crystal for optical limiting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, A.; Vidyavathy, B.; Vinitha, G.

    2016-08-01

    Isonicotinamide p-nitrophenol (ICPNP), a new organic material, was synthesized using methanol solvent. Single crystals of ICPNP were grown using a slow evaporation solution growth technique. Crystal structure of ICPNP is elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. It belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. It forms two dimensional networks by O-H…O, N-H…O and C-H…O hydrogen bonds. The molecular structure of ICPNP was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis. The optical transmittance range and the lower cut-off wavelength (421 nm) with the optical band gap (2.90 eV) of the ICPNP crystal were determined by UV-vis-NIR spectral study. Thermal behavior of ICPNP was studied by thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA). The relative dielectric permittivity was calculated for various temperature ranges. Laser damage threshold of ICPNP crystal was found to be 1.9 GW/cm2 using an Nd:YAG laser. A Z-scan technique was employed to measure the nonlinear absorption coefficient, nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear optical susceptibility. Optical limiting behavior of ICPNP was observed at 35 mW input power.

  9. Growth and characterizaion of urea p-nitrophenol crystal: an organic nonlinear optical material for optoelectronic device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, A.; Manikandan, N.; Jauhar, RO. MU.; Murugakoothan, P.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-06-01

    Urea p-nitrophenol, an organic nonlinear optical crystal was synthesized and grown adopting slow evaporation and seed rotation method. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirmed the formation of the desired crystal. High resolution X-ray diffraction study showed the defect nature of the crystal. The presence of functional groups in the material was confirmed by FTIR analysis. UV-Vis-NIR study indicates that the grown crystal has a wider transparency region with the lower cutoff wavelength at 423 nm. The grown crystal is thermally stable up to 120 °C as assessed by TG-DTA analysis. The optical homogeneity of the grown crystal was confirmed by birefringence study. The 1064 nm Nd-YAG laser was used to obtain laser induced surface damage threshold which was found to be 0.38, 0.25 and 0.33 GW/cm2 for (0 1 0), (1 1 - 1) and (0 1 1) planes, respectively. The dielectric study was performed to find the charge distribution inside the crystal. The hardness property of the titular material has been found using Vicker's microhardness study. The optical nonlinearity obtained from third order nonlinear optical measurements carried out using Z-scan technique showed that these samples could be exploited for optical limiting studies.

  10. Response of white mice to inoculation of irradiated organisms of the Toxoplasma strain RH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas Bakal, P.; Veld, N. in't

    1979-01-01

    Chemoterapeutic agents available for use against toxoplasmosis are usually not suitable for prophylatic purposes because of their toxicity. The observed increasing number of activated latent infections with Toxoplasma, especially in immune suppressed patients, requires that safe techniques are available for use during the patients' regression period. Pretreatment of mice with Toxoplasma killed by irradiation appeared to induce resistance to challenge with virulent organisms. Survival times of six months have been observed to date. Increasing effectiveness was seen after more than one administration. Further investigation into the duration of effective resistance is needed; the question of at which intervals subsequent inoculations should be performed in order to acquire a booster effect, if any, has still to be solved before application to man can be recommended. (orig.) [de

  11. Influence of sap's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on energetic and purine exchange of irradiated organism under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisov, T.K.; Agafonova, I.P.; Zhetpisbaev, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of immuno correctors under development of common adaptive syndrome is saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock. Research of influence of saps's mixture of the plantain and the burdock on enzymes activity of energetic and purine exchange under stress was carried out. There were 2 series of experiments with 120 white rats. Results showed that the irradiated animals on the background phyto therapy had high enzymes activity under stress during all of the investigation periods. The preparations from plantain and burdock biomass increase unspecific resistivity of organism and helps of energetic exchange's rise irradiated organs's sells of animals under stress

  12. Nanostructured pyronin Y thin films as a new organic semiconductor: Linear/nonlinear optics, band gap and dielectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahran, H.Y. [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Metallurgical Lab.1, Nanoscience Laboratory for Environmental and Bio-medical Applications (NLEBA), Semiconductor Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, 11757 Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Alamri, F.H. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-05-15

    Pyronin Y dye (PY) is a kind of xanthene derivatives. Thin films of pyronin Y were deposited onto highly cleaned glass substrates using low-cost/spin coating technique. The structure properties of pyronin Y thin films with different thicknesses were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). PY thin films for all the studied thicknesses have an amorphous structure supporting the short range order of the grain size. AFM supports the nanostructure with spherical/clusters morphologies of the investigated thin films. The optical constants of pyronin Y thin films for various thicknesses were studied by using UV–vis–NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The transmittance T(λ), reflectance R(λ) spectral and absorbance (abs(λ)) were obtained for all film thicknesses at room temperature and the normal light incident. These films showed a high transmittance in the wide scale wavelengths. For different thicknesses of the studied thin films, the optical band gaps were determined and their values around 2 eV. Real and imaginary dielectric constants, dissipation factor and the nonlinear optical parameters were calculated in the wavelengths to the range 300–2500 nm. The pyronin Y is a new organic semiconductor with a good optical absorption in UV–vis regions and it is suitable for nonlinear optical applications. - Highlights: • Pyronin Y (PY) nanostructured thin films were deposited by using spin coating technique. • XRD/AFM were used to study the structure of PY films. • The optical band gap was calculated on the basis of Tauc's model. • Linear/nonlinear optical parameters are calculated and interpreted via the applied optical theories. • PY thin films is a new organic semiconductor for its application in optoelectronic devices.

  13. The Self-Organizing Psyche: Nonlinear and Neurobiological Contributions to Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A. H.

    Sigmund Freud attempted to align nineteenth century biology (and the dynamically conservative, continuous, Newtonian mechanics that underlie it) with discontinuous conscious experience. His tactics both set the future course for psychoanalytic development and introduced seemingly intractable complications into its metapsychology. In large part, these arose from what we now recognize were biological errors and dynamical oversimplifications amid his physical assumptions. Their correction, brought about by integrating nonlinear dynamics and neuro-biological research findings with W. Bion's reading of metapsychology, fundamentally supports a psychoanalysis based upon D. W. Winnicott's ideas surrounding play within transitional space.

  14. Low-power laser irradiation improves histomorphometrical parameters and bone matrix organization during tibia wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavello-Freitas, I; Baranauskas, V; Joazeiro, P P; Padovani, C R; Dal Pai-Silva, M; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2003-01-01

    The influence of daily energy doses of 0.03, 0.3 and 0.9 J of He-Ne laser irradiation on the repair of surgically produced tibia damage was investigated in Wistar rats. Laser treatment was initiated 24 h after the trauma and continued daily for 7 or 14 days in two groups of nine rats (n=3 per laser dose and period). Two control groups (n=9 each) with injured tibiae were used. The course of healing was monitored using morphometrical analysis of the trabecular area. The organization of collagen fibers in the bone matrix and the histology of the tissue were evaluated using Picrosirius-polarization method and Masson's trichrome. After 7 days, there was a significant increase in the area of neoformed trabeculae in tibiae irradiated with 0.3 and 0.9 J compared to the controls. At a daily dose of 0.9 J (15 min of irradiation per day) the 7-day group showed a significant increase in trabecular bone growth compared to the 14-day group. However, the laser irradiation at the daily dose of 0.3 J produced no significant decrease in the trabecular area of the 14-day group compared to the 7-day group, but there was significant increase in the trabecular area of the 15-day controls compared to the 8-day controls. Irradiation increased the number of hypertrophic osteoclasts compared to non-irradiated injured tibiae (controls) on days 8 and 15. The Picrosirius-polarization method revealed bands of parallel collagen fibers (parallel-fibered bone) at the repair site of 14-day-irradiated tibiae, regardless of the dose. This organization improved when compared to 7-day-irradiated tibiae and control tibiae. These results show that low-level laser therapy stimulated the growth of the trabecular area and the concomitant invasion of osteoclasts during the first week, and hastened the organization of matrix collagen (parallel alignment of the fibers) in a second phase not seen in control, non-irradiated tibiae at the same period. The active osteoclasts that invaded the regenerating site were

  15. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  16. Linear and nonlinear methods in modeling the aqueous solubility of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Cornel; Gao, Hua; Orrenius, Christian; Stouten, Pieter F W

    2005-01-01

    Solubility data for 930 diverse compounds have been analyzed using linear Partial Least Square (PLS) and nonlinear PLS methods, Continuum Regression (CR), and Neural Networks (NN). 1D and 2D descriptors from MOE package in combination with E-state or ISIS keys have been used. The best model was obtained using linear PLS for a combination between 22 MOE descriptors and 65 ISIS keys. It has a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.935 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.468 log molar solubility (log S(w)). The model validated on a test set of 177 compounds not included in the training set has r2 0.911 and RMSE 0.475 log S(w). The descriptors were ranked according to their importance, and at the top of the list have been found the 22 MOE descriptors. The CR model produced results as good as PLS, and because of the way in which cross-validation has been done it is expected to be a valuable tool in prediction besides PLS model. The statistics obtained using nonlinear methods did not surpass those got with linear ones. The good statistic obtained for linear PLS and CR recommends these models to be used in prediction when it is difficult or impossible to make experimental measurements, for virtual screening, combinatorial library design, and efficient leads optimization.

  17. Comparative study of the generative organs of tomatoes irradiated at various times of the ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulne-Pityinger, O.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of the irradiation of tomato seed and plant on pollen germination and yield formation has been studied. The dose values, the phenological phase of irradiation and, the connection between the probable stimulating dose and yield formation were studied. According to the results the pollen germination ability was slightly increased by treatment with 500-1000 rad, whereas on the influence of 10000 rad it significantly decreased. In the case of plant irradiation, one tenth of the dose used for seed irradiation was applied. The germination percent increased significantly by 100 rad. From the viewpoint of irradiation treatment the three leaf age appeared to be the most advantageous phenological stage. (author)

  18. Toward an organ based dose prescription method for the improved accuracy of murine dose in orthovoltage x-ray irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belley, Matthew D.; Wang, Chu; Nguyen, Giao; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Accurate dosimetry is essential when irradiating mice to ensure that functional and molecular endpoints are well understood for the radiation dose delivered. Conventional methods of prescribing dose in mice involve the use of a single dose rate measurement and assume a uniform average dose throughout all organs of the entire mouse. Here, the authors report the individual average organ dose values for the irradiation of a 12, 23, and 33 g mouse on a 320 kVp x-ray irradiator and calculate the resulting error from using conventional dose prescription methods. Methods: Organ doses were simulated in the Geant4 application for tomographic emission toolkit using the MOBY mouse whole-body phantom. Dosimetry was performed for three beams utilizing filters A (1.65 mm Al), B (2.0 mm Al), and C (0.1 mm Cu + 2.5 mm Al), respectively. In addition, simulated x-ray spectra were validated with physical half-value layer measurements. Results: Average doses in soft-tissue organs were found to vary by as much as 23%–32% depending on the filter. Compared to filters A and B, filter C provided the hardest beam and had the lowest variation in soft-tissue average organ doses across all mouse sizes, with a difference of 23% for the median mouse size of 23 g. Conclusions: This work suggests a new dose prescription method in small animal dosimetry: it presents a departure from the conventional approach of assigninga single dose value for irradiation of mice to a more comprehensive approach of characterizing individual organ doses to minimize the error and uncertainty. In human radiation therapy, clinical treatment planning establishes the target dose as well as the dose distribution, however, this has generally not been done in small animal research. These results suggest that organ dose errors will be minimized by calibrating the dose rates for all filters, and using different dose rates for different organs

  19. Linear and nonlinear relationships between biodegradation potential and molecular descriptors/fragments for organic pollutants and a theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Jia; Qin, Weichao; Zhang, Xujia; Wen, Yang; Su, Limin; Zhao, Yuanhui

    2013-01-01

    Prediction of the biodegradability of organic pollutants is an ecologically desirable and economically feasible tool for estimating the environmental fate of chemicals. In this paper, linear and nonlinear relationships between biological oxygen demand (BOD) and molecular descriptors/fragments have been investigated for 1130 organic chemicals. Significant relationships have been observed between the simple molecular descriptors and %BOD for some homologous compounds, but not for the whole set of compounds. Electronic parameters, such as E HOMO and E LUMO , are the dominant factors affecting the biodegradability for some homologous chemicals. However, other descriptors, such as molecular weight, acid dissociation constant and polarity still have a significant impact on the biodegradation. The best global model for %BOD prediction is that developed from a chain-based fragmentation scheme. At the same time, the theoretical relationship between %BOD and molecular descriptors/fragments has been investigated, based on a first-order kinetic process. The %BOD is nonlinearly, rather than linearly, related to the descriptors. The coefficients of determination can be significantly improved by using nonlinear models for the homologous compounds and the whole data set. After analysing 1130 ready and not ready biodegradable compounds using 23 simple descriptors and various fragmentation schemes, it was revealed that biodegradation could be well predicted from a chain-based fragmentation scheme, a decision tree and a %BOD model. The models were capable of separating NRB and RB with an overall accuracy of 87.2%, 83.0% and 82.5%, respectively. The best classification model developed was a chain-based model but it used 155 fragments. The simplest model was a decision tree which only used 10 structural fragments. The effect of structures on the biodegradation has been analysed and the biodegradation pathway and mechanisms have been discussed based on activating and inactivating

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Coagualtion on the Molegular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Substances in Paper Mill Effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shijun, He; Jianlong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jianxin, Wan; Mengmeng, Sun [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Longfei, Ye [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2012-07-01

    In order to look into the insights of the influence of gamma irradiation and coagulation on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of soluble organic substances in real paper mill effluent, various parameters of wastewater samples before and after treated were investigated, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD{sub 5}), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV{sub 254}) as well. In addition, the effects of irradiation on oxygen uptake and on acute toxicity were also presented. The results showed that irradiation alone cannot promote the biodegradability and oxygen uptake as originally expected. The whole acute toxicity of samples was reduced after gamma irradiation. On the other side, coagulation can not only effectively eliminate the sectors with high molecular weight (MW>3000 Dalton, in short HMW), but also improve the capacity of ionizing irradiation initiated the transformation of medium molecular weight (1000 Dalton

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Coagualtion on the Molegular Weight Distribution of Soluble Organic Substances in Paper Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shijun; Wang Jianlong; Wan Jianxin; Sun Mengmeng; Ye Longfei

    2012-01-01

    In order to look into the insights of the influence of gamma irradiation and coagulation on the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of soluble organic substances in real paper mill effluent, various parameters of wastewater samples before and after treated were investigated, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV 254 ) as well. In addition, the effects of irradiation on oxygen uptake and on acute toxicity were also presented. The results showed that irradiation alone cannot promote the biodegradability and oxygen uptake as originally expected. The whole acute toxicity of samples was reduced after gamma irradiation. On the other side, coagulation can not only effectively eliminate the sectors with high molecular weight (MW>3000 Dalton, in short HMW), but also improve the capacity of ionizing irradiation initiated the transformation of medium molecular weight (1000 Dalton< MW<3000 Dalton, in short MMW) into low molecular weight (MW<1000 Dalton, in short LWM), which is readily degraded by the subsequently activated sludge process. (author)

  2. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. METHODS: To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup" injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V. versus intra-glandular injections, and b comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. RESULTS: BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF. BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. CONCLUSION: BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  3. Paracrine effects of bone marrow soup restore organ function, regeneration, and repair in salivary glands damaged by irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Simon D; Liu, Younan; Xia, Dengsheng; Maria, Ola M; Khalili, Saeed; Wang, Renee Wan-Jou; Quan, Vu-Hung; Hu, Shen; Seuntjens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    There are reports that bone marrow cell (BM) transplants repaired irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and re-established saliva secretion. However, the mechanisms of action behind these reports have not been elucidated. To test if a paracrine mechanism was the main effect behind this reported improvement in salivary organ function, whole BM cells were lysed and its soluble intracellular contents (termed as "BM Soup") injected into mice with irradiation-injured SGs. The hypothesis was that BM Soup would protect salivary cells, increase tissue neovascularization, function, and regeneration. Two minor aims were also tested a) comparing two routes of delivering BM Soup, intravenous (I.V.) versus intra-glandular injections, and b) comparing the age of the BM Soup's donors. The treatment-comparison group consisted of irradiated mice receiving injections of living whole BM cells. Control mice received irradiation and injections of saline or sham-irradiation. All mice were followed for 8 weeks post-irradiation. BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels, protected salivary acinar, ductal, myoepithelial, and progenitor cells, increased cell proliferation and blood vessels, and up-regulated expression of tissue remodeling/repair/regenerative genes (MMP2, CyclinD1, BMP7, EGF, NGF). BM Soup was as an efficient therapeutic agent as injections of live BM cells. Both intra-glandular or I.V. injections of BM Soup, and from both young and older mouse donors were as effective in repairing irradiated SGs. The intra-glandular route reduced injection frequency/dosage by four-fold. BM Soup, which contains only the cell by-products, can be advantageously used to repair irradiation-damaged SGs rather than transplanting whole live BM cells which carry the risk of differentiating into unwanted/tumorigenic cell types in SGs.

  4. Application of the nuclear microprobe to the study of organic and inorganic composition of teeth irradiated by a laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, F.; Engelmann, Ch.; Couble, Ml.; Magloire, H.; Bonnin, P.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe uses both direct observation of nuclear reactions induced by deuterons and X ray emission induced by protons or deuterons. Thanks to these techniques, concentration profiles of the main elements (C, N, P, Ca...) contained in different parts of healthy teeth (enamel, dentine and cementum) are drawn in control zones and laser irradiated zones. The results obtained show that important perturbations appear during the irradiation by the laser beam; we observe successively, depleted zones in carbon and nitrogen which contain calcium and phosphorus and hypomineralized zones which contain organic material. 10 refs [fr

  5. Determination of organic peroxides by liquid chromatography with on-line post-column ultraviolet irradiation and peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Mitsuhiro; Inoue, Keiyu; Thara, Ayuko; Kishikawa, Naoya; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2003-02-14

    A HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide with peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) detection following on-line UV irradiation. Organic peroxides [i.e., benzoyl peroxide (BP), tert.-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP), tert.-butyl perbenzoate (BPB), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP)] were UV irradiated (254 nm, 15 W) to generate hydrogen peroxide, which was determined by PO-CL detection. The conditions for UV irradiation and PO-CL detection were optimized by a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Generation of hydrogen peroxide from peroxides with on-line UV irradiation also was confirmed by the FIA system by incorporating an enzyme column reactor immobilized with catalase. The separation of four organic peroxides and hydrogen peroxide by HPLC was accomplished isocratically on an ODS column within 30 min. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) were 1.1 microM for hydrogen peroxide, 6.8 microM for BP, 31.3 microM for BHP, 7.5 microM for BPB and 1.3 microM for CHP. The proposed method was applied to the determination of BP in wheat flour.

  6. Effect of low temperature reactor irradiation on organic insulators in superconducting magnets, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Teruo; Takamura, Saburo

    1983-01-01

    In order to study effects of irradiation at low temperature on insulating materials of superconducting magnets, flexural and impact tests are carried out at 4.2K without warmup after low temperature irradiation for several fiber reinforced plastics. The used materials are glass fiber reinforced epoxies and polyimide, and carbon fiber reinforced epoxies. After irradiation of 1.1 X 10 9 rad, the reduction in flexural strength of G-10 CR is about 70% and that of G-11 CR about 25%. No change are observed in strength of glass fiber reinforced polyimide by low temperature irradiation. Other kinds of glass fiber reinforced epoxies show a reduction in strength but the flexural strength of carbon fiber reinforced epoxies increases a small by irradiation. Irradiation effect of these materials on impact value is similar to that on flexural strength. (author)

  7. Below a Historic Mercury Mine: Non-linear Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Ichikawa, G.; Ode, P.; Salsbery, D.; Abel, J.

    2001-12-01

    Unlike most heavy metals, mercury is capable of bioaccumulating in aquatic food-chains, primarily because it is methylated by bacteria in sediment to the more toxic methylmercury form. Mercury concentrations in a number of riparian systems in California are highly elevated as a result of historic mining activities. These activities included both the mining of cinnabar in the coastal ranges to recover elemental mercury and the use of elemental mercury in the gold fields of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The most productive mercury mining area was the New Almaden District, now a county park, located in the Guadalupe River drainage of Santa Clara County, where cinnabar was mined and retorted for over 100 years. As a consequence, riparian systems in several subwatersheds of the Guadalupe River drainage are contaminated with total mercury concentrations that exceed state hazardous waste criteria. Mercury concentrations in fish tissue frequently exceed human health guidelines. However, the potential ecological effects of these elevated mercury concentrations have not been thoroughly evaluated. One difficulty is in extrapolating sediment concentrations to fish tissue concentrations without accounting for physical and biological processes that determine bioaccumulation patterns. Many processes, such as methylation and demethylation of mercury by bacteria, assimilation efficiency in invertebrates, and metabolic rates in fish, are nonlinear, a factor that often confounds attempts to evaluate the effects of mercury contamination on aquatic food webs. Sediment, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish tissue samples were collected in 1998 from the Guadalupe River drainage in Santa Clara County at 13 sites upstream and downstream from the historic mining district. Sediment and macroinvertebrate samples were analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury. Fish samples were analyzed for total mercury as whole bodies, composited by species and size. While linear correlations of sediment

  8. Spectroscopic and nonlinear photophysical characterization of organic octupolar-compounds supported by anodic-alumina nanotube-arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Saavedra, O.G.; Ontiveros-Barrera, F.G.; Hennrich, G.; Mata-Zamora, M.E.; Rodriguez-Rosales, A.A.; Banuelos, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Preparation of organic-inorganic nanostructured hybrid materials. → Insertion of octupolar compounds in alumina nanotube arrays. → Linear and nonlinear photophysical characterization of solid-state hybrid structures. → Fabrication of photonic materials. - Abstract: Amorphous anodic alumina membranes (AAM) comprising highly ordered nanometric porous arrays (porous anodic aluminas: PAA) with 1D-nanotube dimensions of ∼75 nm in diameter and 45 microns in depth were successfully prepared and used as nanostructured host networks for different functionalized octupolar chromophores (named here Oct-(n)). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies performed on the developed hybrid systems confirmed a homogeneous insertion of these organic molecules into the PAA nanotube-arrays. Samples with high structural quality were selected for several photophysical characterizations: Comprehensive X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectroscopic characterizations performed according to UV-vis absorption, photoluminescent (PL) and Raman measurements revealed the structural and optical performance of these molecules within the PAA-confinement. Since the implemented optical chromophores were specifically functionalized for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, the obtained Oct-(n)/PAA-based amorphous hybrids were also characterized according to cubic NLO-techniques such as third harmonic generation (THG) and the Z-Scan method. PAA-confined octupolar chromophores have shown interesting linear and NLO optical properties which have not yet been intensively investigated in bulk hybrid systems; hence, the obtained hybrid nanostructures represent a promising field of investigation in the route to functional octupolar-based materials, where different self-assembled molecular structures may be formed, giving rise to enhanced linear and NLO-properties.

  9. Effects of UV irradiation and UV/chlorine co-exposure on natural organic matter in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Zaili; Yang, Xin; Xu, Yiyue; Liang, Yongmei

    2012-01-01

    The effects of co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (with either low- or medium-pressure UV lamps) and free chlorine (chloramine) at practical relevant conditions on changes in natural organic matter (NOM) properties were investigated using four waters. The changes were characterized using the specific disinfection by-product formation potential (SDBPFP), specific total organic halogen formation potential (STOXFP), differential UV absorbance (∆UVA), and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The results for exposure to UV irradiation alone and for samples with no exposure were also obtained. The SDBPFPs in all UV-irradiated NOM waters observed were higher than those of non-irradiated samples. UV irradiation led to increases in STOXFPs as a result of chlorination, but no changes, or only small decreases, from chloramination. UV irradiation alone led to positive ∆UVA spectra of the four NOM waters; co-exposure to UV and chlorine gave larger negative ∆UVA spectra than those obtained by chlorine exposure alone. No obvious changes in SEC results were observed for samples only irradiated with UV light; co-exposure gave no detectable changes in the abundances of small fractions for exposure to chlorine only. Both UV photooxidation and photocatalytic oxidation appear to affect the reactivity of the NOM toward subsequent chlorination, and the magnitude of the changes is generally greater for medium-pressure lamps than for low-pressure lamps. These results suggest that applying UV disinfection technology to a particular source may not always be disinfection by-product-problem-free, and the interactions between UV light, chlorine, and NOM may need to be considered. - Highlights: ► We discussed the effects of co-exposure to UV light and chlorine on properties of natural organic matters in waters. ► UV irradiation led to increases in SDBPFP and STOXFP of NOM waters from chlorination. ► We suggest that applying an UV disinfection technology to a particular

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial and Ascaris ova loads and volatile organic compounds in municipal sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engohang-Ndong, Jean; Uribe, R.M.; Gregory, Roger; Gangoda, Mahinda; Nickelsen, Mike G.; Loar, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plants produce large amounts of biosolids that can be utilized for land applications. However, prior to their use, these biosolids must be treated to eliminate risks of infections and to reduce upsetting odors. In this study, microbiological and chemical analyzes were performed before and after treatment of sewage sludge with 3 MeV of an electron beam accelerator in a pilot processing plant. Thus, we determined that dose 4.5 kGy was required to reduce fecal coliform counts to safe levels for land applications of sludge while, 14.5 kGy was necessary to decrease Ascaris ova counts to safe levels. Furthermore, at low doses, electron beam irradiation showed little effect on the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, while some increase were recorded at high doses. The concentration of dimethyl sulfide was reduced by 50–70% at irradiation doses of 25.7 kGy and 30.7 kGy respectively. By contrast, electron beam irradiation increased dimethyl disulfide concentrations. We also showed that electron beam treatment was less energy-consuming with shorter processing times than conventional techniques used to decontaminate sludge. Hence opening new avenues for large urban agglomerations to save money and time when treating biosolids for land application. - Highlights: • Use of electron beam irradiation for the treatment of municipal sewage sludge. • Irradiation at 4.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of bacterial infection. • Irradiation at 14.5 kGy is required to eliminate risks of helminth infection. • Electron beam technology is not effective for controlling volatile organic compounds. • Electron beam treatment of sludge is less expensive than traditional techniques

  11. Effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Yukiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Mori, Hideki; Sasaki, Shunsaku.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis were examined in both sexes of ACI/N rats. At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1 (25 males, 25 females) and 3 (24 males, 23 females) received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (25 mg/kg body weight), while those in groups 2 (25 males, 26 females) and 4 (25 males, 25 females) were administered the carcinogen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At 10 weeks of age, group 3 and group 4 were X-irradiated at dose of 3 Gy. Group 5 (24 males, 24 females) received X-irradiation alone. Group 6 (21 males, 21 females) served as an untreated control. As a result, neoplasms developed mainly in the digestive tract, kidney, uterus, and hematopoietic organ in groups 1-5. The incidences of adenocarcinoma in small and large intestines of male rats of group 4 (50 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (small intestine: 48%, large intestine: 32%) were significantly higher than those of group 2 (50 mg/kg MNU) (small intestine: 17%, p<0.05; large intestine: 8%, p<0.05), and also the frequency of adenocarcinoma in the large intestine of males of group 3 (25 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (22%) was significantly greater than that of group 1 (25 mg/kg MNU) (0%, p<0.05). These results indicated that X-irradiation enhanced the development of intestinal neoplasms induced by MNU in male ACI/N rats. (author)

  12. Effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Yukiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Mori, Hideki (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sasaki, Shunsaku

    1993-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced multi-organ carcinogenesis were examined in both sexes of ACI/N rats. At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1 (25 males, 25 females) and 3 (24 males, 23 females) received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (25 mg/kg body weight), while those in groups 2 (25 males, 26 females) and 4 (25 males, 25 females) were administered the carcinogen at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. At 10 weeks of age, group 3 and group 4 were X-irradiated at dose of 3 Gy. Group 5 (24 males, 24 females) received X-irradiation alone. Group 6 (21 males, 21 females) served as an untreated control. As a result, neoplasms developed mainly in the digestive tract, kidney, uterus, and hematopoietic organ in groups 1-5. The incidences of adenocarcinoma in small and large intestines of male rats of group 4 (50 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (small intestine: 48%, large intestine: 32%) were significantly higher than those of group 2 (50 mg/kg MNU) (small intestine: 17%, p<0.05; large intestine: 8%, p<0.05), and also the frequency of adenocarcinoma in the large intestine of males of group 3 (25 mg/kg MNU and X-irradiation) (22%) was significantly greater than that of group 1 (25 mg/kg MNU) (0%, p<0.05). These results indicated that X-irradiation enhanced the development of intestinal neoplasms induced by MNU in male ACI/N rats. (author).

  13. Detection of irradiation induced changes on the activity and diversity of soil organisms: the effect of soil type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, N.R.; Beresford, N.A.; Black, H.I.J.; Potter, E.D.; Poskitt, J.M.; Dodd, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    Whilst non-radiological environmental impact assessments consider impacts on ecosystem function by assessing soil health the techniques of doing so have rarely been applied to radiological studies. Our aim in the study described was to measure the effects of irradiation treatments on soil communities from three different soils. Undisturbed soil cores from two temperate woodland sites (deciduous and coniferous) and a grassland site were irradiated to give a range of cumulative doses from 0 160 Gy. All cores were incubated at 15 deg C and three cores from each treatment sampled after <1, 3 and 8 days post irradiation. Soil samples were analysed for the presence and abundance of fauna, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria. The activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities was also assessed in terms of their potential to utilise a range of carbon sources. There was a small impact on Oribatid mites at the highest dose but no significant effect on other soil faunal groups. Although significant changes in the numbers of cultivable fungi or fast growing heterotrophic bacteria were not observed at any of the treatment doses, the numbers of cultivable Pseudomonas spp. declined in all three soil types after irradiation at 80 and 160 Gy. This decline was greatest in the coniferous forest soil. Microbial communities from this soil also showed a dramatic decrease in metabolic activity and in the number of substrates utilised after irradiation at 160 Gy as compared with control non-irradiated samples. Our results show that the affects of gamma irradiation on soil microorganisms are more pronounced in the two organic forest soils as compared to the mineral grassland soil. These differences can be related to two factors; variations in the physico-chemical shielding properties of the soils and differences in the indigenous communities in terms of radioresistant species. (author)

  14. Nonlinear dynamics analysis of a self-organizing recurrent neural network: chaos waning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eser, Jürgen; Zheng, Pengsheng; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Self-organization is thought to play an important role in structuring nervous systems. It frequently arises as a consequence of plasticity mechanisms in neural networks: connectivity determines network dynamics which in turn feed back on network structure through various forms of plasticity. Recently, self-organizing recurrent neural network models (SORNs) have been shown to learn non-trivial structure in their inputs and to reproduce the experimentally observed statistics and fluctuations of synaptic connection strengths in cortex and hippocampus. However, the dynamics in these networks and how they change with network evolution are still poorly understood. Here we investigate the degree of chaos in SORNs by studying how the networks' self-organization changes their response to small perturbations. We study the effect of perturbations to the excitatory-to-excitatory weight matrix on connection strengths and on unit activities. We find that the network dynamics, characterized by an estimate of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, becomes less chaotic during its self-organization, developing into a regime where only few perturbations become amplified. We also find that due to the mixing of discrete and (quasi-)continuous variables in SORNs, small perturbations to the synaptic weights may become amplified only after a substantial delay, a phenomenon we propose to call deferred chaos.

  15. Analysis of electron spin resonance spectra of irradiated gingers: Organic radical components derived from carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectral characterizations of gingers irradiated with electron beam were studied. Complex asymmetrical spectra (near g=2.005) with major spectral components (line width=2.4 mT) and minor signals (at 6 mT apart) were observed in irradiated gingers. The spectral intensity decreased considerably 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of characteristics of free radical components derived from carbohydrates in gingers are in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that shortly after irradiation the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from amylose and cellulose, and the amylose radicals subsequently decreased considerably. At 30 days after irradiation, the major radical components of gingers were composed of radical species derived from cellulose, glucose, fructose or sucrose.

  16. Thermal behavior of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Akane; Abe, Aika; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2003-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed heating effects on irradiated pepper. The representative ESR spectrum of the irradiated pepper is consisted of four components a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value, a singlet at g=4.0 and side peaks near g=2.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn 2+ (hf constant=7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical that is induced by the γ-ray irradiation. The third one may originated from Fe 3+ in the nonhem proteins. The fourth signal was found at the symmetric positions of the organic free radical, i.e., the second signal. Upon heating, the forth signals decreased monotonicaly. The ESR signal of the pepper heated for more than 10 min was essentially the same as that before the irradiation. On the other hand, the second signal increased and then leveled off at a constant value by further heating. This is indicative the occurrence of some biochemical reactions such as Maillard reaction during heating procedures. (author)

  17. Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to the extracted fulvic acid fraction in soil in comparison with other organic matter fractions and to the whole soil sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenxin; Xu, Shanshan; Xing, Baoshan; Pan, Bo; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fractions of soil organic matter in a natural soil were extracted and sorption (or binding) characteristics of phenanthrene on each fraction and to the whole sample were investigated. The organic carbon normalized single point sorption (or binding) coefficient followed lipid > humin (HM) > humic acid (HA) > fulvic acid (FA) > whole soil sample, while the nonlinear exponent exhibited lipid > FA > HA > whole soil sample > HM. FA showed nonlinear binding of phenanthrene as it often does with other fractions. HM and HA contributed the majority of organic carbon in the soil. The calculated sorption coefficients of the whole soil were about two times greater than the measured values at different equilibrium phenanthrene concentrations. As for phenanthrene, the sorption capacity and nonlinearity of the physically mixed HA-HM mixtures were stronger as compared to the chemically reconstituted HA-HM composite. This was attributed to (besides the conditioning effect of the organic solvents) interactions between HA and HM and acid-base additions during fractionation. - Nonlinear binding of phenanthrene to fulvic acid extracted from soil organic matter was found.

  18. Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics The Statistics of Nonlinear Processes in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘self-organized criticality’ (SOC) has been applied to a variety of problems, ranging from population growth and traffic jams to earthquakes, landslides and forest fires. The technique is now being applied to a wide range of phenomena in astrophysics, such as planetary magnetospheres, solar flares, cataclysmic variable stars, accretion disks, black holes and gamma-ray bursts, and also to phenomena in galactic physics and cosmology. Self-organized Criticality in Astrophysics introduces the concept of SOC and shows that, due to its universality and ubiquity, it is a law of nature. The theoretical framework and specific physical models are described, together with a range of applications in various aspects of astrophyics. The mathematical techniques, including the statistics of random processes, time series analysis, time scale and waiting time distributions, are presented and the results are applied to specific observations of astrophysical phenomena.

  19. The application of nonlinear metrics to assess organization differences in short recordings of paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José Joaquín

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in clinical practice. In the first stages of the disease, AF may terminate spontaneously and it is referred to as paroxysmal AF. The arrhythmia is called persistent AF when external intervention is required to its termination. In the present work, a method to non-invasively assess AF organization has been applied to discern between paroxysmal and persistent AF episodes at any time. Previous works have suggested that the probability of AF termination is inversely related to the number of reentries wandering throughout the atrial tissue. Given that it has also been hypothesized that the number of reentries is directly correlated with AF organization, a fast and robust method able to assess organization differences in AF could be of great interest. In fact, the distinction between paroxysmal and persistent episodes in patients without previously known AF history, making use of short ECG recordings, could contribute to taking earlier decisions on AF management in daily clinical practice, without the need to require 24 h or 48 h Holter recordings. The method was based on a nonlinear regularity index, such as sample entropy (SampEn), and evidenced to be a significant discriminator of the AF type. Its diagnostic accuracy of 91.80% was demonstrated to be superior to previously proposed parameters, such as dominant atrial frequency (DAF) and fibrillatory waves amplitude, and to others analyzed for the first time in this context, such as atrial activity mean power, 3 dB bandwidth around the DAF, first harmonic frequency, harmonic exponential decay, etc. Additionally, according to previous invasive works, paroxysmal AF episodes (0.0716 ± 0.0143) presented lower SampEn values and, consequently, more organized activity, than persistent episodes (0.1080 ± 0.0145)

  20. Corrosion prevention of iron with novel organic inhibitor of hydroxamic acid and UV irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Huihua; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Qian, Pu; Xia Zhengbin; Ishikawa, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshishige M.

    2008-01-01

    Corrosion prevention by self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of monomer and polymer inhibitor on iron covered with air-formed oxide films was investigated by cyclic voltammetry in borate buffer solution. Anti-corrosion efficiency of the SAM-coated Fe electrodes depends on UV irradiation duration on Fe electrodes prior to coating and inhibitor concentration to form SAM. The 1-h UV-irradiated Fe electrodes coated with SAM exhibits the most effective corrosion resistance despite the anti-corrosion efficiency of air-formed films on Fe was linearly increased with UV irradiation. The addition of monomer in polymer solution improves the stability and corrosion resistance of SAM

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic ozonation of organics by g-C3N4 under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Gaozu; Zhu, Dongyun; Li, Laisheng; Lan, Bingyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • g-C 3 N 4 is employed as active catalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation system. • The more negative conduction band of g-C 3 N 4 benefits the transfer of electrons. • The synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation is promoted by g-C 3 N 4 . • Enhanced degradation of oxalic acid and biphenol A is achieved via g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 . - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 3 N 4 ) was employed as the active photocatalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation coupling system in the present study. g-C 3 N 4 was prepared by directly heating thiourea in air at 550 °C. XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis was used to characterize the structure and optical property. Oxalic acid and bisphenol A were selected as model substances for photocatalytic ozonation reactions to evaluate the catalytic ability of g-C 3 N 4 (g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 ). The results showed that the degradation ratio of oxalic acid with g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 was 65.2% higher than the sum of ratio when it was individually decomposed by g-C 3 N 4 /Vis and O 3 . The TOC removal of biphenol A with g-C 3 N 4 /Vis/O 3 was 2.17 times as great as the sum of the ratio when using g-C 3 N 4 /Vis and O 3 . This improvement was attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation by g-C 3 N 4 . Under visible light irradiation, the photo-generated electrons produced on g-C 3 N 4 facilitated the electrons transfer owing to the more negative conduction band potential (−1.3 V versus NHE). It meant that the photo-generated electrons could be trapped by ozone and reaction with it more easily. Subsequently, the yield of hydroxyl radicals was improved so as to enhance the organics degradation efficiency. This work indicated that metal-free g-C 3 N 4 could be an excellent catalyst for mineralization of organic compounds in waste control

  2. Peculiarities of the acute lung edema prophylaxis in the irradiated organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurygin, G V; Kopylov, V N [Yaroslavskij Meditsinskij Inst. (USSR)

    1977-09-01

    During experiments with rats it has been established that preparations with a pronounced prophylactic effect on lung edema development in nonirradiated animals in some cases do not effect in such a way (or even aggravate the edema development) the irradiated animals (at 650 R dose). On the contrary ineffective or negatively effecting preparations in nonirradiated animals may exhibit a noticeable prophylactic effect on irradiated animals.

  3. [Doses to organs at risk in conformational radiotherapy and stereotaxic irradiation: The heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendorpe, B; Servagi Vernat, S; Ramiandrisoa, F; Bazire, L; Kirova, Y M

    2017-10-01

    Radiation therapy of breast cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer and others thoracic irradiations induce an ionizing radiation dose to the heart. Irradiation of the heart, associated with patient cardiovascular risk and cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity, increase cardiovascular mortality. The long survival after breast or Hodgkin lymphoma irradiation requires watching carefully late treatment toxicity. The over-risk of cardiac events is related to the dose received by the heart and the irradiated cardiac volume. The limitation of cardiac irradiation should be a priority in the planning of thoracic irradiations. Practices have to be modified, using modern techniques to approach of the primary objective of radiotherapy which is to optimize the dose to the target volume, sparing healthy tissues, in this case the heart. We have reviewed the literature on cardiac toxicity induced by conformational tridimensional radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy or stereotactic body radiation therapy, in order to evaluate the possibilities to limit cardiotoxicity. Finally, we summarise the recommendations on dose constraints to the heart and coronary arteries. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in the digestive organs of the rabbit under the combined influence of vibration, acceleration and irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuy, R. I.

    1975-01-01

    During spaceflight, the organism is subjected to the influence of various extremal factors such as acceleration, vibration, irradiation, etc. The study of the influence of these factors on metabolism, especially carbohydrate and protein metabolism, in young rabbits is of great significance in simulation experiments. Dynamic factors and irradiation, depending on dose and duration, lead to reduced RNA and protein metabolism.

  5. Influence of soil γ-irradiation and spiking on sorption of p,p'-DDE and soil organic matter chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škulcová, Lucia; Scherr, Kerstin E; Chrást, Lukáš; Hofman, Jakub; Bielská, Lucie

    2018-07-15

    The fate of organic chemicals and their metabolites in soils is often investigated in model matrices having undergone various pre-treatment steps that may qualitatively or quantitatively interfere with the results. Presently, effects associated with soil sterilization by γ-irradiation and soil spiking using an organic solvent were studied in one freshly spiked soil (sterilization prior to contamination) and its field-contaminated (sterilization after contamination) counterpart for the model organic compound 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE). Changes in the sorption and potential bioavailability of spiked and native p,p'-DDE were measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), XAD-assisted extraction (XAD), and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and linked to qualitative changes in soil organic matter (SOM) chemistry measured by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Reduced sorption of p,p´-DDE detected with XAD and SPME was associated more clearly with spiking than with sterilization, but SFE showed a negligible impact. Spiking resulted in an increase of the DRIFT-derived hydrophobicity index, but irradiation did not. Spectral peak height ratio descriptors indicated increasing hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity in pristine soil following sterilization, and a greater reduction of hydrophobic over hydrophilic groups as a consequence of spiking. In parallel, reduced sorption of p,p´-DDE upon spiking was observed. Based on the present samples, γ-irradiation appears to alter soil sorptive properties to a lesser extent when compared to common laboratory processes such as spiking with organic solvents. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. One-dimensional nonlinear self-organized structures in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    Dusty plasmas, which are open systems, can form stable one-dimensional self-organized structures. Absorption of plasma by dust particles results in the plasma flux from the plasma regions where the dust is absent. It is found that, in a one-dimensional dust layer, this flux is completely determined by the number of dust particles per unit area of the layer surface. This number determines all of the other parameters of the steady-state dust structure; in particular, it determines the spatial distributions of the dust density, dust charge, electron and ion densities, and ion drift velocity. In these structures, a force and electrostatic balance is established that ensures the necessary conditions for confining the dust and plasma particles in the structure. The equilibrium structures exist only for subthermal ion flow velocities. This criterion determines the maximum possible number of dust particles per unit area in the steady-state structure. The structures have a universal thickness, and the dust density changes sharply at the edge of the structure. The structures with a size either less than or larger than the ion mean free path with respect to ion-neutral collisions, quasi-neutral and charged structures, and soliton- and anti-soliton-like structures are investigated. Laboratory experiments and observations in extraterrestrial plasma formation are discussed in relation to dust structures

  7. Dose to the Developing Dentition During Therapeutic Irradiation: Organ at Risk Determination and Clinical Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Reid F.; Schneider, Ralf A.; Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony J.; Ares, Carmen; Goitein, Gudrun; Hug, Eugen B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Irradiation of pediatric facial structures can cause severe impairment of permanent teeth later in life. We therefore focused on primary and permanent teeth as organs at risk, investigating the ability to identify individual teeth in children and infants and to correlate dose distributions with subsequent dental toxicity. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 14 pediatric patients who received a maximum dose >20 Gy(relative biological effectiveness, RBE) to 1 or more primary or permanent teeth between 2003 and 2009. The patients (aged 1-16 years) received spot-scanning proton therapy with 46 to 66 Gy(RBE) in 23 to 33 daily fractions for a variety of tumors, including rhabdomyosarcoma (n=10), sarcoma (n=2), teratoma (n=1), and carcinoma (n=1). Individual teeth were contoured on axial slices from planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Dose-volume histogram data were retrospectively obtained from total calculated delivered treatments. Dental follow-up information was obtained from external care providers. Results: All primary teeth and permanent incisors, canines, premolars, and first and second molars were identifiable on CT scans in all patients as early as 1 year of age. Dose-volume histogram analysis showed wide dose variability, with a median 37 Gy(RBE) per tooth dose range across all individuals, and a median 50 Gy(RBE) intraindividual dose range across all teeth. Dental follow-up revealed absence of significant toxicity in 7 of 10 patients but severe localized toxicity in teeth receiving >20 Gy(RBE) among 3 patients who were all treated at <4 years of age. Conclusions: CT-based assessment of dose distribution to individual teeth is feasible, although delayed calcification may complicate tooth identification in the youngest patients. Patterns of dental dose exposure vary markedly within and among patients, corresponding to rapid dose falloff with protons. Severe localized dental toxicity was observed in a few patients receiving the

  8. Physiological Studies On Response Of Grape Transplants To Mineral And Irradiated Organic Fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    This work was conducted during two successive seasons throughout 2008, 2009 and 2010 years under green house conditions. Three factorial experiments were included the 1st was dealing with investigating the effect of soil added compost rate (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 %) and gamma irradiated compost dose (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 KGy). Where, two other experiments were devoted for studying the effect of soil applied compost (irradiated or un-irradiated) from one hand and the rate of either N (urea/ ammonium sulphate) or K (K 2 SO 4 ) fertilization rates from the other for 2nd and 3rd experiments, respectively. Obtained results could be summarized as follows: 1- Application of compost, in particular irradiated one at 10.0% was the most promising treatment in the 1st experiment, improved significantly all growth, leaf chlorophyll, stem total carbohydrates and leaf mineral composition especially macro elements (N, P and K). 2- All N or K soil applied reflected positively on the above mentioned measurements of Thompson seedless rooted cuttings with a relative tendency of variance occurred from one N or K treatment to another. 3- It can be concluded that compost application to coarse-textured soil improved it and reflected on plants. Irradiating compost with effective dose (10 KGy) greatly increased compost efficiency which could be reached the double.

  9. Organ dose conversion coefficients based on a voxel mouse model and MCNP code for external photon irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Jing; Yuan, Yong; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan

    2012-01-01

    A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ absorbed dose for external photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV are presented based on a newly developed voxel mouse model, for the purpose of radiation effect evaluation. The voxel mouse model was developed from colour images of successive cryosections of a normal nude male mouse, in which 14 organs or tissues were segmented manually and filled with different colours, while each colour was tagged by a specific ID number for implementation of mouse model in Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP). Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP was carried out to obtain organ dose conversion coefficients for 22 external monoenergetic photon beams between 10 keV and 10 MeV under five different irradiation geometries conditions (left lateral, right lateral, dorsal-ventral, ventral-dorsal, and isotropic). Organ dose conversion coefficients were presented in tables and compared with the published data based on a rat model to investigate the effect of body size and weight on the organ dose. The calculated and comparison results show that the organ dose conversion coefficients varying the photon energy exhibits similar trend for most organs except for the bone and skin, and the organ dose is sensitive to body size and weight at a photon energy approximately <0.1 MeV.

  10. Histopathological changes in the irradiated normal organs of guinea pigs with conventional fractionation and hyperfractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Taisuke; Itoh, Satoshi; Tsuboi, Nobuaki

    1998-01-01

    Guinea pigs were divided into groups according to four irradiation schedules : 2 Gy/3 Gy x 1/day, five fractions/week, total 80 Gy/81 Gy (A/C group) and 1.0 Gy/1.5 Gy x 2/day, ten fractions/week, total 80 Gy/81 Gy (B/D group). The A group and the C group pathologically caused severe damage in the kidney six and three months after irradiation, respectively. In the B group pathological analysis suggested that only slight-to-moderate changes were occurred in the Bowman's capsule. The D group caused slight damage in the kidney six months after irradiation. Hyperfractionation (B/D group) used in this protocol can clearly reduce radiation damage in the kidney of guinea pigs as compared with conventional fractionation (A/C group). (author)

  11. Synthesis, growth and characterization of organic nonlinear optical material: N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivanan, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of the organic nonlinear optical compound N-benzyl-2-methyl-4-nitroaniline (BNA) was carried out in a newer chemical environment using the mixture of benzyl chloride and 2-methl-4-nitroaniline by a preferred laboratory synthesis process. The synthesized BNA compound was separated by column chromatography (CC) with low pressure silica gell using petrollium benzine and purity of the separated resultant product was confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Further, the material was recrystallized atleast four times in methanol and the highly purified BNA was used for the growth of single crystals from solutions with selected solvents by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Single crystals having natural growth morphology were harvested and their different growth faces were identified by optical goniometry. The grown crystals were subjected to different characterization techniques such as powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and UV-vis-Near IR spectroscopy. Further, the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown BNA crystal was studied by Kurtz and Perry powder technique using Nd:YAG laser as fundamental source and found to be twice that of inorganic standard KDP.

  12. Morphological change of self-organized protrusions of fluoropolymer surface by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akane; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) are typical fluoropolymers displaying several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation and high chemical resistance. When their surfaces are irradiated with ion beams, dense micro-protrusions formed after the emergence and spread of micropores across the entire irradiated area, allowing culture cells to spread on the top of the protrusions. In this study, we investigate the morphological changes introduced in the fluoropolymer surfaces by ion beams as the energy of the beams is increased. When an FEP sample was irradiated with a nitrogen ion beam with an energy of less than 350 keV at 1.0 μA/cm 2 , protrusions were formed with a density between 2 × 10 7 /cm 2 and 2 × 10 8 /cm 2 . However, at energies higher than 350 keV, the protrusions became sparse, and the density dropped to 5 × 10 2 /cm 2 . Protrusions appeared sporadically during irradiation at high energies, and the top of the protrusions appeared as spots inside the sample, which were difficult to etch and became elongated as the erosion of the surface progressed. Erosion was caused by sputtering of FEP molecules and evaporation at notably elevated temperatures on the surface. Analysis based on attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the presence of C=C bonds as well as –COOH, –C=O, and –OH bonds on all irradiated samples. Their concentration on the surface densely covered with micro-protrusions was higher than that on the surface with sparse protrusions after irradiation at energies exceeding 350 keV. Thus, we determined a suitable range for the ion energy for creating FEP surfaces densely covered with protrusions

  13. Intratracheal injection of adenovirus containing the human MNSOD transgene protects athymic nude mice from irradiation-induced organizing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, Michael W.; Bray, Jenifer A.; Krager, Stephen; Berry, Luann M.; Gooding, William; Engelhardt, John F.; Zwacka, Ralf; Travis, Elizabeth L.; Greenberger, Joel S.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: A dose and volume limiting factor in radiation treatment of thoracic cancer is the development of fibrosis in normal lung. The goal of the present study was to determine whether expression prior to irradiation of a transgene for human manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) protects against irradiation-induced lung damage in mice. Methods and Materials: Athymic Nude (Nu/J) mice were intratracheally injected with 10 9 plaque-forming units (PFU) of a replication-incompetent mutant adenovirus construct containing the gene for either human MnSOD, human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) or LacZ. Four days later the mice were irradiated to the pulmonary cavity to doses of 850, 900, or 950 cGy. To demonstrate adenoviral infection, nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was carried out with primers specific for either human MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD transgene on freshly explanted lung, trachea, or alveolar type II cells, and immunohistochemistry was used to measure LacZ expression. RNA was extracted on day 0, 1, 4, or 7 after 850 cGy of irradiation from lungs of mice that had previously received adenovirus or had no treatment. Slot blot analysis was performed to quantitate RNA expression for IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TGF-β, MnSOD, or Cu/ZnSOD. Lung tissue was explanted and tested for biochemical activity of MnSOD or Cu/ZnSOD after adenovirus injection. Other mice were sacrificed 132 days after irradiation, lungs excised, frozen in OCT, (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol mixture) sectioned, H and E stained, and evaluated for percent of the lung demonstrating organizing alveolitis. Results: Mice injected intratracheally with adenovirus containing the gene for human MnSOD had significantly reduced chronic lung irradiation damage following 950 cGy, compared to control mice or mice injected with adenovirus containing the gene for human Cu/ZnSOD or LacZ. Immunohistochemistry

  14. Sorption of selected organic compounds from water to a peat soil and its humic-acid and humin fractions: Potential sources of the sorption nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C.T.; Kile, D.E.; Rutherford, D.W.; Sheng, G.; Boyd, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The sorption isotherms of ethylene dibromide (EDB), diuron (DUN), and 3,5-dichlorophenol (DCP) from water on the humic acid and humin fractions of a peat soil and on the humic-acid of a muck soil have been measured. The data were compared with those of the solutes with the whole peat from which the humic-acid (HA) and humin (HM) fractions were derived and on which the sorption of the solutes exhibited varying extents of nonlinear capacities at low relative concentrations (C(e)/S(w)). The HA fraction as prepared by the density-fractionated method is relatively pure and presumably free of high- surface-area carbonaceous material (HSACM) that is considered to be responsible for the observed nonlinear sorption for nonpolar solutes (e.g., EDB) on the peat; conversely, the base-insoluble HM fraction as prepared is presumed to be enriched with HSACM, as manifested by the greatly higher BET- (N2) surface area than that of the whole peat. The sorption of EDB on HA exhibits no visible nonlinear effect, whereas the sorption on HM shows an enhanced nonlinearity over that on the whole peat. The sorption of polar DUN and DCP on HA and HM display nonlinear effects comparable with those on the whole peat; the effects are much more significant than those with nonpolar EDB. These results conform to the hypothesis that adsorption onto a small amount of strongly adsorbing HSACM is largely responsible for the nonlinear sorption of nonpolar solutes on soils and that additional specific interactions with the active groups of soil organic matter are responsible for the generally higher nonlinear sorption of the polar solutes.

  15. ESR study of weakly irradiated organic conductors: TMTSF-DMTCNQ and (TMTSF)2PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forro, L.; Beuneu, F.

    1982-01-01

    ESR experiments are presented on irradiated TMTSF-DMTCNQ and (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . They suggest that a weak disorder extends the metallic phases to low temperatures. Surprisingly, disorder has no effect on the ESR linewidth of (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 between 20 and 30 K, where the d.c. conductivity changes a lot with disorder. (author)

  16. Quantum Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanamura, Eiichi; Yamanaka, Akio

    2007-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook gives an introductory overview of the fundamentals of quantum nonlinear optics. Based on the quantum theory of radiation, Quantum Nonlinear Optics incorporates the exciting developments in novel nonlinear responses of materials (plus laser oscillation and superradiance) developed over the past decade. It deals with the organization of radiation field, interaction between electronic system and radiation field, statistics of light, mutual manipulation of light and matter, laser oscillation, dynamics of light, nonlinear optical response, and nonlinear spectroscopy, as well as ultrashort and ultrastrong laser pulse. Also considered are Q-switching, mode locking and pulse compression. Experimental and theoretical aspects are intertwined throughout.

  17. Comparison of photon organ and effective dose coefficients for PIMAL stylized phantom in bent positions in standard irradiation geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewji, Shaheen; Hiller, Mauritius [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, K.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Computational phantoms with articulated arms and legs have been constructed to enable the estimation of radiation dose in different postures. Through a graphical user interface, the Phantom wIth Moving Arms and Legs (PIMAL) version 4.1.0 software can be employed to articulate the posture of a phantom and generate a corresponding input deck for the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code. In this work, photon fluence-to-dose coefficients were computed using PIMAL to compare organ and effective doses for a stylized phantom in the standard upright position with those for phantoms in realistic work postures. The articulated phantoms represent working positions including fully and half bent torsos with extended arms for both the male and female reference adults. Dose coefficients are compared for both the upright and bent positions across monoenergetic photon energies: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 MeV. Additionally, the organ doses are compared across the International Commission on Radiological Protection's standard external radiation exposure geometries: antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left and right lateral, and isotropic (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, and ISO). For the AP and PA irradiation geometries, differences in organ doses compared to the upright phantom become more profound with increasing bending angles and have doses largely overestimated for all organs except the brain in AP and bladder in PA. In LLAT and RLAT irradiation geometries, energy deposition for organs is more likely to be underestimated compared to the upright phantom, with no overall change despite increased bending angle. The ISO source geometry did not cause a significant difference in absorbed organ dose between the different phantoms, regardless of position. Organ and effective fluence-to-dose coefficients are tabulated. In the AP geometry, the effective dose at the 45 bent position is overestimated compared to the upright phantom below 1 MeV by as much as 27% and 82% in the

  18. Development of a new mouse palate organ culture system and effect of X-irradiation on palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroko; Jikko, Akitoshi; Maeda, Takashi; Furukawa, Souhei

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of an already established suspension system of organ culture for mouse palate explants, we developed a new culture system, which has several advantages over the previous methods. We used a 48-well culture plate in which the explants can be cultured individually, and only 300 μl of medium is needed for each well. In order to optimize the culture results, we systematically studied the influence of main ''culture conditions'' such as tilt degree of the culturing palate, rotation speed, and addition of ascorbic acid to the medium. This system allows culturing of palates from day 13.5 of gestation to day 16.5 under serum-free conditions using a chemically defined medium, which resulted in 78% of the palates growing fused. Utilizing this culture system, the direct effect of X-irradiation on palataogesis was analyzed. A 4 Gy dose of X-irradiation was administrated at the beginning of culture period. The incidence of palatal fusion was not significantly different from that of the non-irradiated group. (author)

  19. Dose evaluation and risk estimation for secondary cancer in contralateral breast and a study of correlation between thorax shape and dose to organs at risk following tangentially breast irradiation during deep inspiration breath-hold and free breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Safora; Vikstroem, Johan; Blihovde Hjelstuen, Mari Helene; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of using breathing adapted radiotherapy on contralateral breast (CB) dose, to relate the thorax shape with the dose to the organs at risk (OARs) and to predict the risk for induced malignancies in CB using linear and non-linear models, following tangential irradiation of breast. Material and methods. Sixteen patients with stage I-II breast cancer treatment planned with tangential fields using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and free breathing (FB) techniques were included in this analysis. The dose results mainly based on DVH analysis were compared. Four parameters were defined to describe thoracic shape. Excess relative risk (ERR) for cancer induction in CB, employing linear and non-linear models was calculated. Results. Average CB volumes exposed to a dose of 1 Gy is 1.3 times higher in DIBH plans than in FB plans. No significant difference in average V3Gy and V5Gy for DIBH and FB plans is observed. The average mean CB dose for DIBH and FB plans is 0.33 and 0.28 Gy, respectively. No correlation between thorax shape parameters and mean OARs dose is observed. The estimated average mean ERR with linear model is lower in FB plans (0.12) than for the DIBH plans (0.14). The estimated ERR with non-linear model is 0.14 for DIBH plans and 0.15 for FB plans. Conclusion. No significant difference in CB dose between DIBH and FB plans is observed. The four thorax shape parameters defined in this study can not be related to the dose at OARs using DIBH and FB radiation techniques. The ERR estimates for secondary CB cancer are nearly the same for FB and DIBH planning when using a linear and non-linear risk prediction models

  20. Isotopic Anomalies in Organic Nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison Nanoglobules and Isotopic Anomalies Induced in Terrestrial Organics by Electron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Gregorio, B.; Stroud, R; Nittler, L; Alexander, C; Kilcoyne, A; Zega, T

    2010-01-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with {sup 15}N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large {sup 15}N anomaly ({delta}{sup 15}N = 1120{per_thousand}). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in {sup 15}N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ({single_bond}C{triple_bond}N) and carboxyl ({single_bond}COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D ({delta}D = 1000{per_thousand}) but has a terrestrial {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by {sup 15}N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large {sup 15}N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in {sup 15}N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K

  1. Isotopic anomalies in organic nanoglobules from Comet 81P/Wild 2: Comparison to Murchison nanoglobules and isotopic anomalies induced in terrestrial organics by electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gregorio, Bradley T.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Nittler, Larry R.; Alexander, Conel M. O.'D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Zega, Thomas J.

    2010-08-01

    Nanoglobules are a form of organic matter found in interplanetary dust particles and primitive meteorites and are commonly associated with 15N and D isotopic anomalies that are suggestive of interstellar processes. We report the discovery of two isotopically-anomalous organic globules from the Stardust collection of particles from Comet 81P/Wild 2 and compare them with nanoglobules from the Murchison CM2 meteorite. One globule from Stardust Cometary Track 80 contains highly aromatic organic matter and a large 15N anomaly (δ 15N = 1120‰). Associated, non-globular, organic matter from this track is less enriched in 15N and contains a mixture of aromatic and oxidized carbon similar to bulk insoluble organic material (IOM) from primitive meteorites. The second globule, from Cometary Track 2, contains non-aromatic organic matter with abundant nitrile ( sbnd C tbnd N) and carboxyl ( sbnd COOH) functional groups. It is significantly enriched in D (δD = 1000‰) but has a terrestrial 15N/ 14N ratio. Experiments indicate that similar D enrichments, unaccompanied by 15N fractionation, can be reproduced in the laboratory by electron irradiation of epoxy or cyanoacrylate. Thus, a terrestrial origin for this globule cannot be ruled out, and, conversely, exposure to high-energy electron irradiation in space may be an important factor in producing D anomalies in organic materials. For comparison, we report two Murchison globules: one with a large 15N enrichment and highly aromatic chemistry analogous to the Track 80 globule and the other only moderately enriched in 15N with IOM-like chemistry. The observation of organic globules in Comet 81P/Wild 2 indicates that comets likely sampled the same reservoirs of organic matter as did the chondrite parent bodies. The observed isotopic anomalies in the globules are most likely preserved signatures of low temperature (<10 K) chemistry in the interstellar medium or perhaps the outer regions of the solar nebula. In other

  2. Histological examination of the effect of differently fractionated irradiations in rat and mouse organs. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, E.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen of rats was irradiated with 50 Gy dose local X-rays in two different fractionation rhythms, i.e. twice a week given high and daily applied lower fractions of radiation. According to the results of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography made after the last irradiation 24 hours later both in the white and the red pulp the labelling index was less on the effect of twice in a week applied high radiation fractions than in case of daily given lower fractions. This indicate in correlation with the results of earlier analogous histological experiments that the damaging effect of rarely given higher fractions of radiation in the spleen is especially obvious. (orig.) [de

  3. Nonequilibrium self-organization in alloys under irradiation leading to the formation of nano composites

    CERN Document Server

    Enrique, R A; Averback, R S; Bellon, P

    2003-01-01

    Alloys under irradiation are continuously driven away from equilibrium: Every time an external particle interacts with the atoms in the solid, a perturbation very localized in space and time is produced. Under this external forcing, phase and microstructural evolution depends ultimately on the dynamical interaction between the external perturbation and the internal recovery kinetics of the alloy. We consider the nonequilibrium steady state of an immiscible binary alloy subject to mixing by heavy-ion irradiation. It has been found that the range of the forced atomic relocations taking place during collision cascades plays an important role on the final microstructure: when this range is large enough, it can lead to the spontaneous formation of compositional patterns at the nanometer scale. These results were rationalized in the framework of a continuum model solved by deriving a nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential. Here we derive the nonequilibrium structure factor by including the role of fluctuations. In ...

  4. Organic Dye Degradation Under Solar Irradiation by Hydrothermally Synthesized ZnS Nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Dhrubajyoti; Chanu, T. Inakhunbi; Basnet, Parita; Chatterjee, Somenath

    2018-02-01

    The green synthesis of ZnS nanospheres using Citrus limetta (sweet lime) juice as a capping agent through a conventional hydrothermal method was studied. The particle size, morphology, chemical composition, band gap, and optical properties of the synthesized ZnS nanospheres were characterized using x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the ZnS nanospheres was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and methyl orange (MO) under solar irradiation. Upon 150 min of solar irradiation, the extent of degradation was 94% and 77% for RhB and MO, respectively.

  5. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  6. The target theory applied to the analysis of irradiation damages in organic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de

    2005-01-01

    The Target Theory was used to explain the radiation damage in samples containing 1% (g//L) of 2,5-diphenyl-oxazolyl (PPO) diluted in toluene and irradiated with 60 Co (1.8 Gy/s). The survival molecules of irradiated PPO obeys the bi-exponential mathematical model [74.3 x exp(-D/104.3) + 25.7 x exp(-D/800,0)]. It indicates that 74.3% of the molecules decay with D37=104.3 kGy and 25.7% decay with D37=800 kGy. From the Target Theory it was inferred the energies involved in the irradiation damages which were 0.239 ± 0.031 eV (G=418.4 ± 54.1. damages/100 eV) and 1.83 ± 0.30 eV (54.5 ± 8.9 damages/100 eV). The diameter of PPO molecule estimated from the Target Theory is in the interval of 45.5 to 64.9 angstrom. (author)

  7. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  8. A non-linear detection of phospho-histone H2AX in EA.hy926 endothelial cells following low-dose X-irradiation is modulated by reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, Martin; Reichert, Sebastian; Hehlgans, Stephanie; Fournier, Claudia; Rödel, Claus; Rödel, Franz

    2014-01-01

    A discontinuous dose response relationship is a major characteristic of the anti-inflammatory effects of low-dose X-irradiation therapy. Although recent data indicate an involvement of a variety of molecular mechanisms in these characteristics, the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production to give rise or contribute to these phenomena in endothelial cells (EC) remains elusive. HUVEC derived immortalized EA.hy926 cells were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, 20 ng/ml) 4 h before irradiation with doses ranging from 0.3 to 1 Gy. To analyse DNA repair capacity, phospho-histone H2AX foci were assayed at 1 h, 4 h and 24 h after irradiation. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were analysed by fluorometric 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein-diacetate (H2DCFDA) and colorimetric assays. A functional impact of ROS on γH2AX production was analysed by treatment with the scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Irrespective of stimulation by TNF-α, EA.hy926 cells revealed a linear dose response characteristic of γH2AX foci detection at 1 h and 4 h after irradiation. By contrast, we observed a discontinuity in residual γH2AX foci detection at 24 h after irradiation with locally elevated values following a 0.5 Gy exposure that was abolished by inhibition of ROS by NAC. Moreover, SOD protein expression was significantly decreased at doses of 0.5 Gy and 0.7 Gy concomitant with a reduced SOD activity. These data implicate a non-linear regulation of ROS production and SOD activity in EA.hy926 EC following irradiation with doses < 1 Gy that may contribute to a discontinuous dose-response relationship of residual γH2AX foci detection

  9. Organic materials irradiated at very low temperature and at different stopping powers: examples of polyethylene and of cyclohexane molecules trapped in matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melot, M.

    2003-10-01

    This thesis concerns the formation mechanisms of defects created in organic materials during irradiation under vacuum, at very low temperature and at different electronic stopping powers. Analysis have been realised by infrared spectroscopy. The first part concerns polyethylene. Irradiating at 8 K allows to dissociate the direct irradiation effects (in cage reactions) and the radical recombination effects. According to the considered chemical groups, the radical mobility leads to very different changes for the formation radiochemical yields. The second part concerns the irradiation of cyclohexane molecules trapped in a solid argon matrix. We evaluate the contribution of intermolecular and intramolecular reactions. The intermolecular reactions have limited consequences when using low ionising radiations but are crucial for heavy ion irradiations. (author)

  10. Effect of histones on hematopoietic stem cells-precursor in normal and irradiated organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semina, O.V.; Semenets, T.N.; Zeppezauer, M.; Cebecauer, L.; Poverenny, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Radiotherapeutic activity of histone fractions H 1 and H 2A /H 2B were studied. It was demonstrated that both fractions are able to reduce the damaging effect of ionizing radiation on spleen colony forming unit (CFU-S) population. Histone preparations stimulated colony-forming activity of bone marrow cells exposed to dose of 0.5-3.0 Gy both in the case of incubation with preparations and intravenous or intraperitoneal administration into recipients of irradiated cells. The effect of histones and accessory thymocytes on CFU-S population is compared

  11. Food irradiation: fiction and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (IGCFI), sponsored by World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), with the intention to provide to governments, especially those of developing countries, scientifically correct information about food irradiation, decided to organize a file and questions of general public interest. The document is composed by descriptive files related with the actual situation and future prospective, technical and scientific terms, food irradiation and the radioactivity, chemical transformations in irradiated food, genetic studies, microbiological safety of irradiated food, irradiation and harmlessness, irradiation and additives, packing, irradiation facilities control, process control, irradiation costs and benefits as well as consumers reaction

  12. Some Aspects of Nonlinearity and Self-Organization In Biosystems on Examples of Localized Excitations in the DNA Molecule and Generalized Fisher–KPP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Shapovalov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with ideas and approaches to nonlinear phenomena, based on different branches of physics and related to biological systems, that focus on how small impacts can significantly change the state of the system at large spatial scales. This problem is very extensive, and it cannot be fully resolved in this paper. Instead, some selected physical effects are briefly reviewed. We consider sine-Gordon solitons and nonlinear Schrodinger solitons in some models of DNA as examples of self-organization at the molecular level, as well as examine features of their formation and dynamics under the influence of external influences. In addition, the formation of patterns in the generalized Fisher–KPP model is viewed as a simple example of self-organization in a system with nonlocal interaction at the cellular level. Symmetries of model equations are employed to analyze the considered nonlinear phenomena. In this context the possible relations between phenomena considered and released activity effect, which is assessed differently in the literature, are discussed.

  13. Morphological evolution and reconstruction of silver nanoparticles in aquatic environments: The roles of natural organic matter and light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: hwzhang@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Research Center for Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • In the dark, AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM. • NOM decelerated the photoreaction of AgNPs but did not stop the photoconversion. • Under extended irradiation, NOM substituted for citrate as a stabilizer. • In different aquatic systems AgNPs would suffer distinct environmental behavior. - Abstract: With the proliferation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), their potential entry into the environment has attracted increasing concern. Although photochemical transformation is an important fate of AgNPs in aquatic environments due to their strong light absorption, little is known about the evolution and transformation mechanisms of AgNPs. This study investigated the morphological evolution and reconstruction of AgNPs during photoconversion in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). In the dark, the AgNPs formed chain-like structures through bridging effects with NOM at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L, and the proportion of Ag{sup +} in solution in the presence of 10 mg/L NOM was reduced by roughly half compared with that in the absence of NOM. Under irradiation, NOM participated in the photoreaction of AgNPs and can decelerate the photoreaction of AgNPs via several mechanisms, including light attenuation, the formation of a NOM coating, and competing with Ag for photons. Additionally, NOM can substitute for citrate as a stabilizing agent to compensate for the loss of AgNP stability due to citrate mineralization under extended irradiation, producing stable triangular nanosilver in aquatic environments. This study sheds light on the behavioral differences of AgNPs in different aquatic systems, which create uncertainties and difficulties in assessing the environmental risks of AgNPs.

  14. The Formation of Organic Compounds of Astrobiological Interest by the Irradiation Processing of Astrophysical Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments in space contain very low temperature mixed molecular ices that are exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of cosmic rays and high-energy photons. While traditional chemistry would not be expected to occur at the temperatures typical of these ices (T compounds. Many of these new products are of direct interest to astrobiology. For example, the irradiation of mixed molecular ices has been shown to produce amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, sugars, heterocyclic compounds, and nucleobases, all molecular building blocks used by terrestrial life. Insofar as the presence of these materials plays a role in the origin of life on planets, this has profound implications for the potential abundance of life in the universe since these experiments simulate universal conditions that are expected to be found wherever new stars and planets form.

  15. Influence of electron beam irradiation in the organic acids profile of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Bento, Albino; Rafalski, Andrzej; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids are primary metabolites that play important roles in plant metabolism and confer distinct flavors in fruits. Their consumption is beneficial for humans, namely against certain illnesses. The food industry uses them as preservatives and flavor enhancers. In fruits conservation and transport, organic acids should be preserved at all costs in order to maintain physical quality and pleasant flavors until they reach the consumer. In 2010, due to European legislation, meth...

  16. The deuterium/hydrogen distribution in chondritic organic matter attests to early ionizing irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Boris; Roskosz, Mathieu; Remusat, Laurent; Robert, Fran?ois; Leroux, Hugues; Vezin, Herv?; Depecker, Christophe; Nuns, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Primitive carbonaceous chondrites contain a large array of organic compounds dominated by insoluble organic matter (IOM). A striking feature of this IOM is the systematic enrichment in deuterium compared with the solar hydrogen reservoir. This enrichment has been taken as a sign of low-temperature ion-molecule or gas-grain reactions. However, the extent to which Solar System processes, especially ionizing radiation, can affect D/H ratios is largely unknown. Here, we report the effects of elec...

  17. The effect of using irradiated sludge as an organic fertilizer on the soil characteristics and productivity of yellow corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Khalifa, K.

    2003-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Deir- El-Hajar research station near Damascus, to study the effect of using irradiated sludge (5 KGy) and unirradiated sludge (0 KGy) as an organic fertilizer on productivity of corn and some soil characteristics. The results showed that increment of grain yield of corn by 20% when applying 1kg/m 2 from unirradiated sludge and 37% when applying irradiated sludge. Also it was found increment in productivity of the other parts of corn (cobs, stems and leaves) compared with control plots. The concentration and accumulation of heavy metals (Zn, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr) in corn were low and less than critical limits for all treatment. The accumulation for these metals in corn plants was not clear at end of the experiment. The highest accumulation for Cu was in grain, Cr and Zn in cobs, and Fe was in stems and leaves. Addition of sludge at different rates had no negative effect on the accumulation of the studied heavy metals in the soil. (author)

  18. Long-term bioavailability of redox nanoparticles effectively reduces organ dysfunctions and death in whole-body irradiated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Chitho P; Tsuboi, Koji; Suzuki, Kenshi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2017-06-01

    Radioprotective agents have been developed to protect patients against the damaging and lethal effects of ionizing radiation. However, in addition to the intrinsic ability to target reactive oxygen species (ROS), the ability to retain a significant level of bioavailability is desirable in radioprotective agents because that would increase and prolong their radioprotective efficacy and improve its safety. Here, we report the development of a novel nanoparticle-based radioprotective agent with improved bioavailability, which suppressed the adverse effects typically associated with low-molecular-weight (LMW) antioxidants. We developed biocompatible and colloidally stable nanoparticles in which nitroxide radicals that were covalently conjugated (redox nanoparticles, RNP N ) effectively scavenged radiation-induced ROS with a characteristically prolonged bioavailability and tissue-residence time compared with that of conventional LMW antioxidants. The confinement of the nitroxide radicals in the RNP N core prevented its rapid metabolism and excretion out of the body. The nano-sized formulation prevented internalization of RNP N in healthy cells, thereby preserving the normal function of the redox reactions in the cell. This improved pharmacological performance dramatically reduced the radiation-induced organ dysfunctions and increased the survival time of the lethally irradiated mice when the nanoparticles were administered 3-24 h before whole-body irradiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  20. The mass effect model of the survival rate's dose effect of organism irradiated with low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Gui Qifu; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The main characteristic of the low energy ions mutation is its mass deposition effect. Basing on the theory of 'double strand breaking' and the 'mass deposition effect', the authors suggests that the mass deposition products can repair or further damage the double strand breaking of DNA. According to this consideration the dose effect model of the survival rate of organism irradiated by low energy of N + ion beam is deduced as: S exp{-p[αφ + βφ 2 -Rφ 2 exp(-kφ)-Lφ 3 exp(-kφ)]}, which can be called 'mass effect model'. In the low energy ion beam mutation, the dose effects of many survival rates that can not be imitated by previous models are successfully imitated by this model. The suitable application fields of the model are also discussed

  1. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meter, J D; Sirota, N S [Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR)

    1976-05-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome.

  2. Some biochemical characteristics of a toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated animals in the course of the intestinal syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, J.D.; Sirota, N.S.

    1976-01-01

    A toxic substance isolated from organs of lethally irradiated (1300 rads) animals in the period when intestinal syndrome has developed is classified according to the parameters under study (namely, the molecular weight, UV-absorption curve, extinction coefficient, specific monosaccharides, the presence and percentage of KDA, etc.) as lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli, the main inhabitant of the gastroenteric tract of mice. That endotoxins (sensitivity to which is increased in this period of radiation sickness) are detected in the blood and organs of lethally irradiated animals, might indicate their participation in the pathogenesis of the intestinal syndrome

  3. Calculation of dose conversion factors for doses in the fingernails to organ doses at external gamma irradiation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khailov, A.M.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Orlenko, S.P.; Flood, A.B.; Williams, B.B.; Swartz, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Absorbed doses to fingernails and organs were calculated for a set of homogenous external gamma-ray irradiation geometries in air. The doses were obtained by stochastic modeling of the ionizing particle transport (Monte Carlo method) for a mathematical human phantom with arms and hands placed loosely along the sides of the body. The resulting dose conversion factors for absorbed doses in fingernails can be used to assess the dose distribution and magnitude in practical dose reconstruction problems. For purposes of estimating dose in a large population exposed to radiation in order to triage people for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the calculated data for a range of energies having a width of from 0.05 to 3.5 MeV were used to convert absorbed doses in fingernails to corresponding doses in organs and the whole body as well as the effective dose. Doses were assessed based on assumed rates of radioactive fallout at different time periods following a nuclear explosion. - Highlights: • Elemental composition and density of nails were determined. • MIRD-type mathematical human phantom with arms and hands was created. • Organ doses and doses to nails were calculated for external photon exposure in air. • Effective dose and nail doses values are close for rotational and soil surface exposures.

  4. Solid organic residues produced by irradiation of hydrocarbon-containing H2O and H2O/NH3 ices - Infrared spectroscopy and astronomical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, B.N.; Thompson, W.R.; Murray, B.G.J.P.T.; Chyba, C.F.; Sagan, C.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma-discharge irradiations were conducted for the methane clathrate expected in outer solar system satellites and cometary nuclei; also irradiated were ices prepared from other combinations of H 2 O with CH 4 , C 2 H 6 , or C 2 H 2 . Upon evaporation of the yellowish-to-tan irradiated ices, it is found that a colored solid film adheres to the walls of the reaction vessel at room temperature. These organic films are found to exhibit IR band identifiable with alkane, aldehide, alcohol, and perhaps alkene, as well as substituted aromatic functional groups. These spectra are compared with previous studies of UV- or photon-irradiated nonclathrated hydrocarbon-containing ices. 73 refs

  5. Failure criteria for low-temperature irradiated organic composite insulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, J.B.; Fabian, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    Composite insulation systems in fusion magnet applications are often subjected to conditions of combined through thickness compression and shear at varying stress ratios. Characterization of insulation system strength under these conditions requires unidirectional shear and compression tests, as well as biaxial shear/compression testing to define the systems failure envelope. An appropriate failure criteria would reduce the number of tests required to define this envelope, and would give designers a better estimate of material strengths at intermediate stress ratios. Biaxial shear/compression testing requires the use of metallic sandwich specimens, which are susceptible to activation during irradiation. A reliable failure criteria which eliminates the need for biaxial characterization would also reduce the difficulty and expense involved in radiation effects characterization while still providing a complete failure envelope. Several generalized failure criteria, taken from classical composites analysis, were reformulated for application in the shear/compression quadrant. The maximum stress and Tsai-Hill criteria were found to be inadequate to represent the biaxial failure envelope. The generalized Tsai-Wu tensor quadratic failure criterion was also examined. Application of this criterion requires through thickness tensile strength data. Through thickness tensile strengths of insulation systems have not been routinely characterized, but limited data are available. Utilizing unidirectional through thickness tension, compression, and interlaminar shear strength data, the Tsai-Wu failure criteria was found to agree well with biaxial shear/compression test data

  6. The removal of chlorinated organic herbicide in water by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilek Solpan; Murat Torun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the radiation-induced degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide in aqueous solution was studied under various conditions as a function of irradiation dose in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide. The obtained data confirmed that largest yield of radiolytic degradation is obtained in oxidation processes/ionizing radiation, where oxidation is carried out with hydroxyl radicals. For complete degradation of 50 ppm 2,4-D, a required dose was lower in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The formed major toxic phenolic intermediates were 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP). The chemical analysis of the 2,4-D and the intermediates resulted from the radiolytic degradation were performed using a gas chromatography associated to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with ion trap detector (ITD) and ion chromatography (IC). The formation of chlorophenols in addition to chloride, formaldehyde and carboxylic acids was studied as a function of absorbed dose. (author)

  7. Organizing the promotion of radiation processing at Multipurpose Irradiation Facility IRASM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponta, C.C.; Moise, I.V.

    1999-01-01

    IRASM will be the first Romanian industrial irradiation facility. International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna supports the project financing the main equipment and a 100 kCi Co-60 demonstration source. The facility will be commissioned in March 2000. Construction and commissioning of this important nuclear objective are difficult tasks. Promotion of radiation processing in Romanian industry is even more difficult. The Project IRASM is a complex contest for IFIN-HH. The management took into consideration all aspects of the project promotion: technical, legal, R and D. The institute identified the need for an appropriate internal structure. For this reason a Radiation Processing Team (GRIT) was nominated and charged to co-ordinate the internal activity and to co-operate with the external partner. Investment Department and Quality Assurance Department strengthened. The operation team was chosen, instructed and engaged in covering the main directions of the management plans: project correlation, construction supervising, commissioning, promotion of the appropriate legal frame, public acceptance and R and D for the association of the industry to the radiation processing technologies. R and D engaged many researchers from different IFIN-HH departments. This paper presents the management of the project and details the steps already undertaken onto each particular direction. (authors)

  8. SMOG CHAMBER STUDIES OF SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS FROM IRRADIATED HYDROCARBONS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the physics and chemistry of aerosols is fundamental to evaluating health risks and developing and evaluating atmospheric models. However, as noted in a recent NRC report only about 10% of the organics in PM2.5 have been identified. A significant portion of the un...

  9. Structure property relationship of a new nonlinear optical organic crystal: 1-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-3-(3-fluorophenylprop-2-en-1-one for optical power limiting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raghavendra

    Full Text Available A new organic potential nonlinear optical (NLO material 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl-3-(3-fluorophenylprop-2-en-1-one (DMP3FP is crystallized in acetone. The single crystal X-ray diffraction data shows that material crystallizes into centro-symmetric orthorhombic space group Pbca with a = 15.6552(6 Å, b = 8.5571(3 Å, c = 20.7697(7 Å. The functional groups in DMP3FP molecule are identified by Fourier Transfer Infrared (FTIR spectra. The thermal stability and melting point are determined using thermo gravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA. Using UV Visible spectral studies direct band gap energy of the crystal is determined to be 3.19 eV. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and optical power limiting of the crystal was studied using Z-scan technique. The crystal exhibits a self-focusing effect at a wavelength of 532 nm showing optical limiting and reverse saturable absorption by having excited state absorption coefficient greater than ground state absorption coefficient. Keywords: Nonlinear, Optical power limiting, Z-scan, Self-focusing

  10. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims; Bio-indicateurs potentiels d'atteinte multi-organe: application au cas des victimes d'irradiation accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-09-15

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  11. Photocatalysis of irradiated semiconductor surfaces: Its application to water splitting and some organic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, T

    1985-05-01

    Hydrogen production from organic compounds and water was investigated using powdered semiconductor photocatalysts. The complete decomposition observed for several organic compounds demonstrated that water is involved in the reactions as an oxidizing agent. Photocatalyses of dyes and semiconductors were found to be applicable to amino acid synthesis. The quantum yields of photocatalytic amino acid synthesis using visible light are about 20%-40% in the absence of a metal catalyst such as platinum. Moreover the reactions are highly selective and depend strongly on the type of semiconductor. This method was applied to the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids using asymmetric catalysts. Rather high optical yields of 50% were achieved for the synthesis of L-phenylalanine.

  12. Afterloading technique for interstitial irradiation of lesions in deep-seated organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, T.; Kakehi, M.; Kunieda, T.; Tsukiyama, I.; Hamada, M.; Inakoshi, H.; Sakudo, M.; Suemasu, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Yoneyama, T.; Iizuka, T.; Nomura, K.; Kawachi, K.

    1982-01-01

    An afterloading procedure using 192 Ir seeds was developed for the control of both localized primary lesions that are difficult to remove and superficial residual lesions that remain after the partial removal of tumors in relatively inaccessible, deep-seated organs. This technique makes possible the delivery of a minimal radiation dose to lesions in deep-seated organs. Fewer complications result, the seeds can be adjusted at appropriate intervals in proportion to the amount of radioactivity desired, and radiation exposure to personnel can be reduced. This paper describes the techniques and apparatus used to place the seeds in the tubing. Primary lesions of the urinary bladder, the prostate gland, and the esophagus, residual lesions in the brain and lung, and metastases in intrapelvic lymph nodes were treated. No technical difficulties or complications were encountered. Radiation exposures to personnel were minimized. The results indicate that the procedure has practical applications

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes using composite nanofibers under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ahmed; Mohamed, Alaa; Aboamera, Nada M.; Osman, T. A.; Khattab, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and indigo carmine (IC) have been studied by composite nanofibers systems containing cellulose acetate (CA), multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) and TiO2 nanoparticles under UV light. The amino factionalized TiO2-NH2 NPs cross-linked to the CA/CNT composite nanofibers works as a semiconductor catalyst. The morphology and crystallinity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It was also seen that many factors affected the photodegradation rate, mainly the pH of the solution and the dye concentration, temperature, etc. The study demonstrated that IC degrades at a higher rate than MB. The maximum photodegradation rate of both organic dyes was achieved at a pH 2. In comparison to other studies, this work achieved high photodegradation rate in lower time and using less power intensity.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and growth of a new inorganic- organic hybrid compound for nonlinear optical applications: Aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, K.; Babu, S. Moorthy; Jagan, R.; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-12-01

    The new inorganic-organic hybrid material aquadiiodo (3-aminopropanoic acid) cadmium (II) [ADI (3-AP) Cd] has been successfully synthesized and good quality crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique. The structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in monoclinic crystal system with centro symmetric space group P21/c and four molecules in the unit cell. The structure of the title compound was further confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the compound. The transmittance and optical parameters of the crystal were studied by UV- Visible-NIR spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the grown crystal was evaluated using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses. Mechanical hardness has been identified by Vickers micro hardness study and work hardening coefficient was calculated. Dielectric measurement was carried out as a function of frequency and results are discussed. The growth mechanism of the crystal was assessed by chemical etching studies. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of [ADI (3-AP) Cd] was derived using the Z-scan technique, and it was 3.24955 × 10-8 esu. The positive nonlinear refractive index 2.48505 × 10-11 m2/W, is an indication of self-defocusing optical nonlinearity of the sample. It is believed that the [ADI (3-AP) Cd] is a promising new candidate for developing efficient nonlinear optical and optical power limiting devices.

  15. Urinary cytology before, during and after irradiation of carcinomas of the female genital organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppe, E.; Schicke, B.; Banaschak, A.

    1988-01-01

    74 cytologic examinations of the urinary sediment were conducted in 57 women with malignant neoplasms of the genital organs in order to evaluate the clinical suspicion of tumor infiltration of the bladder wall. It turned out to be a sensitive indicator of the infiltration of the bladder wall. Earlier radiotherapy however led to changes which could be falsly interpreted as indicators of malignant infiltration. In order to enhance the accuracy of cytologic evaluation of the urinary sediment in this clinical setting it is essential that the cytologist must be informed about radiation therapy performed. (author)

  16. Creatine level and lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs of mice after total body irradiation - a contribution to further development of biologic radiodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breiter, N; Ungemach, F R; Hegner, D; Beck, G; Mayr, A

    1986-02-01

    The authors intended to test the suitability of creatine level and/or certain criteria of lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs for an individual (i.e. considering biologic variations of radiosensitivity), qualitative and quantitative demonstration of an irradiation damage. It was found that creatine determination and several criteria of lipide peroxydation are not suitable for a biologic radiation dosimetry due to the absence of organ dependent, radiation dose dependent, and time dependent changes. The reasons are discussed.

  17. Creatine level and lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs of mice after total body irradiation - a contribution to further development of biologic radiodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiter, N.; Ungemach, F.R.; Hegner, D.; Beck, G.; Mayr, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors intended to test the suitability of creatine level and/or certain criteria of lipide analysis in radiosensitive organs for an individual (i.e. considering biologic variations of radiosensitivity), qualitative and quantitative demonstration of an irradiation damage. It was found that creatine determination and several criteria of lipide peroxydation are not suitable for a biologic radiation dosimetry due to the absence of organ dependent, radiation dose dependent, and time dependent changes. The reasons are discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Laser-induced desorption of organic molecules from front- and back-irradiated metal foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinovev, Alexander V.; Veryovkin, Igor V.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the Single Photon Ionization (SPI) method combined with time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF MS), desorbed flux in LIAD was examined and compared to that from direct laser desorption (LD). Molecules of various organic dyes were used in experiments. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than the direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. The results of our experiments indicate that the LIAD phenomenon cannot be described in terms of a simple mechanical shake-off nor the direct laser desorption. Rather, they suggest that multi-step energy transfer processes are involved. Possible qualitative mechanism of LIAD that are based on formation of non-equilibrium energy states in the adsorbate-substrate system are proposed and discussed.

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  20. Comprehensive method for analyzing the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells under different spectral irradiances considering both photonic and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Kok-Keong; Khlyabich, Petr P.; Hong, Kai-Jeat; Reyes-Martinez, Marcos; Rand, Barry P.; Loo, Yueh-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Method to analyze power-conversion efficiency under various solar irradiance. • Power-conversion efficiency at local irradiance is 5.4% higher than AM1.5G. • Diffuse local irradiance has gain of 23.7–27.9% relative to AM1.5G conditions. • Annual average energy density yield is estimated as 31.89 kW h/m 2 in Malaysia. - Abstract: The solar spectral irradiance varies significantly for different locations and time due to latitude, humidity, cosine effect of incident sunlight, etc. For convenience, the power-conversion efficiency of a solar cell is referenced to the international standard of AM1.5G spectral irradiance, which inevitably leads to varying performance of deployed solar cells under the specific local climate and insolation conditions. To predict the actual performance of solar cells under local climate conditions, we propose a methodology to compute the power-conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells based upon indoor measurement with a solar simulator, the measured local solar spectrum, and making use of both optical and electrical factors. From our study, the annual average energy density yield of poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells under the local spectral irradiance of Malaysia is estimated to be 31.89 kW h/m 2 and the power-conversion efficiency is increased by 5.4% compared to that measured under AM1.5G conditions. In addition, diffuse solar irradiance (cloudy condition) was found to be in favor of P3HT:PCBM solar cells, with gain of 23.7–27.9% relative to AM1.5G conditions.

  1. Assessment of irradiation of children certain organs resulted from X-ray chest examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostenetskij, M.I.; Sukhomlina, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    Specific absorbed doses were studied for cerfain critical organs due to X-ray chest examination of children. Dosimetric investigations were conducted using water-plexiglas phantom, imitating the body of 12 year old child. The error of measurements doesn't exceed +-3%, the low reshold of sensitivity equals 0.005 r/min. RUM-20 apparatus was used as an X-ray source. It was established that specific absorbed doses for lungs, as well as for mammary abd thyroid glands were the maximum ones under direct radiation. Doses for gonads are hundred times less, than those for lungs. It is recommended to shield both gonads and thyroid gland. Data on dose equivalents testify to the fact that to decrease the summary dose equivalent it is necessary to use the minimum radiation fields, decreasing voltage and exposition abd increasing source-surface distance with regard to the maximum information of the film image

  2. SU-E-T-371: Validation of Organ Doses Delivered During Craniospinal Irradiation with Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Andujar, A; Chen, J; Garcia, A; Haas-Kogan, D [University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: New techniques have been developed to deliver more conformal treatments to the craniospinal axis. One concern, however, is the widespread low dose delivered and implications for possible late effects. The purpose of this work is for the first time to validate the organ doses calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS), including out-of-field doses for a pediatric craniospinal treatment (CSI). Methods: A CSI plan prescribed to 23.4 Gy and a posterior fossa boost plan to 30.6 Gy (total dose 54.0 Gy) was developed for a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom representing a 13 yearold- child. For the CSI plan, the planning target volumes (PTV) consisted of the brain and spinal cord with 2 mm and 5 mm expansions, respectively. Organs at risk (OAR) were contoured and included in the plan optimization. The plans were delivered on a helical tomotherapy unit. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to measure the dose at 54 positions within the PTV and OARs. Results: For the CSI treatment, the mean percent difference between TPS dose calculations and measurements was 5% for the PTV and 10% for the OARs. For the boost, the average was 3% for the PTV. The percent difference for the OARs, which lie outside the field and received a small fraction of the prescription dose, varied from 15% to 200%. However in terms of absolute dose, the average difference between measurement and TPS per treatment Gy was 2 cGy/Gy and 3 mGy/Gy for the CSI and boost plans, respectively. Conclusion: There was good agreement between doses calculated by the TPS and measurements for the CSI treatment. Higher percent differences were observed for out-of-field doses in the boost plan, but absolute dose differences were very small compared to the prescription dose. These findings can help in the estimation of late effects after radiotherapy for pediatric patients.

  3. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  4. Excitation processes in organic systems under irradiation with vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Y.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of this work is the fluorescence of organic systems in the excitation range where phenomena of photon multiplication begin. It was hoped to reach the excitation energy above which the distribution of the various phenomena was constant and as a result, a linear function between the variation of the fluorescence intensity with variations of the excitation, would be obtained. The experimental set-up consisted mainly of suitable light sources, monochromators and detectors. The gated measuring system consisted of an oscilloscope, integrator and recorder. The material predominantly used in the experiments was anthracene whose absorption spectrum was investigated and calculated. The absorption spectra of various polycrystalline layers were also calculated. The absorption spectrum of a randomly ordered polycrystalline layer was compared with that of a hexane solution and a good correlation between the two spectra was obtained. For the study of the relationship between the excitation spectrum of anthracene and the order of crystal, the excitation spectrum of single crystals of anthracene was measured from 4 eV to 107 eV. For the excitation region from 10 eV to 23 eV the efficiency of exciting a singlet level by a photoelectron was calculated as a function of the kinetic energy of the photoelectron, assuming the efficiency of the recombination to be constant. The excitation spectra of single crystals of p-terphenyl, pyrene and phenanthrene were also examined. In all four crystals the excitation spectrum rises monotonically with an increase in the energy of the exciting photon. (author)

  5. Patient-specific non-linear finite element modelling for predicting soft organ deformation in real-time: application to non-rigid neuroimage registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Adam; Joldes, Grand; Couton, Mathieu; Warfield, Simon K; Miller, Karol

    2010-12-01

    Long computation times of non-linear (i.e. accounting for geometric and material non-linearity) biomechanical models have been regarded as one of the key factors preventing application of such models in predicting organ deformation for image-guided surgery. This contribution presents real-time patient-specific computation of the deformation field within the brain for six cases of brain shift induced by craniotomy (i.e. surgical opening of the skull) using specialised non-linear finite element procedures implemented on a graphics processing unit (GPU). In contrast to commercial finite element codes that rely on an updated Lagrangian formulation and implicit integration in time domain for steady state solutions, our procedures utilise the total Lagrangian formulation with explicit time stepping and dynamic relaxation. We used patient-specific finite element meshes consisting of hexahedral and non-locking tetrahedral elements, together with realistic material properties for the brain tissue and appropriate contact conditions at the boundaries. The loading was defined by prescribing deformations on the brain surface under the craniotomy. Application of the computed deformation fields to register (i.e. align) the preoperative and intraoperative images indicated that the models very accurately predict the intraoperative deformations within the brain. For each case, computing the brain deformation field took less than 4 s using an NVIDIA Tesla C870 GPU, which is two orders of magnitude reduction in computation time in comparison to our previous study in which the brain deformation was predicted using a commercial finite element solver executed on a personal computer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  7. Effect of nano particle sizes on the third-order optical non-linearities and nanostructure of copolymer P3HT:PCBM thin film for organic photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badran, Hussain Ali; Ajeel, Khalid I.; Lazim, Haidar Gazy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10"−"7 cm"2/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO_2 layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V_o_c, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO_2 sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.

  8. Synthesis and studies on structural, optical and nonlinear optical properties of novel organic inter-molecular compounds: 4-chloro-3-nitroaniline-3-hydroxy benzaldehyde and urea-4-dimethylaminopyridine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Priyanka; Rai, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    Two novel organic inter-molecular compounds (IMCs), (3-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenylimino) methyl) phenol) (CNMP) and urea ̶ 4-dimethylaminopyridine complex (UDMAP), have been synthesized by solid state reaction. These two IMCs were identified by phase diagram study of CNA-HB and U-DMAP systems. The single crystals of newly obtained IMCs were grown by slow solvent evaporation technique at room temperature. Both the IMCs were further studied for their thermal, spectral, single crystal XRD for their atomic packing in molecule, crystallinity, optical and nonlinear optical behaviour. In both the cases, melting point of inter-molecular compounds was found to be higher than that of their parent components, CNMP was found to be thermally stable up to 158 °C while UDMAP was stable up to 144 °C, which indicate their extra stability than their parents. The single crystal XRD studies confirmed that CNMP has crystallized in orthorhombic unit cell with non-centrosymmetric space group P212121 while UDMAP has crystallized in monoclinic unit cell with centrosymmetric space group C2/c. The absorption spectrum of CNMP was found to be in between the absorption of parents, while broadening of peak and red shift was observed in UDMAP as compared to the parents. Second order nonlinear optical property of CNMP and UDMAP was studied using Kurtz Perry powder technique and intense green light emission was observed with CNMP on excitation with 1064 nm of Nd:YAG laser while no emission was observed with UDMAP.

  9. Crystal growth, structural, spectral, thermal, dielectric, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of a new organic acentric material: L-Methionine-Succinic acid (2/1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageshwari, M.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Vinitha, G.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Sudha, S.; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2018-03-01

    L-Methionine-Succinic acid (2/1) (LMSA), 2C5H11NO2S·C4H6O4, a novel nonlinear optical material which belongs to the class of organic category was grown-up for the first time by the technique of slow evaporation. Purity of LMSA was improved using repetitive recrystallization. LMSA was analyzed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction investigation to affirm the crystal structure and crystalline character. The single crystal XRD revealed that LMSA corresponds to the crystal system of triclinic with P1 as space group showing the asymmetric unit consists of a neutral succinic acid molecule and two methionine residues which are crystallographically independent existing in zwitterionic form. The functional groups existing in LMSA was accomplished using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical transparency and the band gap energy were identified utilizing UV-Visible spectrum. The optical constants specifically reflectance and extinction coefficient clearly indicate the elevated transparency of LMSA. The thermal analyses affirmed its thermal stability. The luminescence behavior of LMSA has been analyzed by Photoluminescence (PL) spectral study. The mechanical, laser damage threshold and dielectric investigation of LMSA was done to suggest the material for practical applications. The second and third harmonic generation efficacy was confirmed by means of Kurtz-Perry and Z-scan procedure which attest its potentiality in the domain of nonlinear optics.

  10. Part III: Comparing observed growth of selected test organisms in food irradiation studies with growth predictions calculated by ComBase softwares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.; Meszaros, L.; Beczner, J.; Polyak-Feher, K.; Gaal, O.; Lebovics, V.K.; Lugasi, A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of intensive predictive microbiological modelling activities, several computer programs and softwares became available recently for facilitating microbiological risk assessment. Among these tools, the establishment of the ComBase, an international database and its predictive modelling softwares of the Pathogen Modelling Program (PMP) set up by the USDA Eastern Regional Research Center, Wyndmore, PA, and the Food Micromodel/Growth Predictor by the United Kingdom's Institute of Food Research, Norwich, are most important. The authors have used the PMP 6.1 software version of ComBase as a preliminary trial to compare observed growth of selected test organisms in relation to their food irradiation work during recent years within the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Food Irradiation Research Projects (D6.10.23 and D6.20.07) with the predicted growth on the basis of growth models available in ComBase for the same species as those of the authors' test organisms. The results of challenge tests with Listeria monocytogenes inoculum in untreated or irradiated experimental batches of semi-prepared breaded turkey meat steaks (cordon bleu), sliced tomato, sliced watermelon, sliced cantaloupe and sous vide processed mixed vegetables, as well as Staphylococcus aureus inoculum of a pasta product, tortellini, were compared with their respective growth models under relevant environmental conditions. This comparison showed good fits in the case of non-irradiated and high moisture food samples, but growth of radiation survivors lagged behind the predicted values. (author)

  11. The Contribution of Tissue Level Organization to Genomic Stability Following Low Dose/Low Dose Rate Gamma and Proton Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl G. Burrell, Ph.D.

    2012-05-14

    The formation of functional tissue units is necessary in maintaining homeostasis within living systems, with individual cells contributing to these functional units through their three-dimensional organization with integrin and adhesion proteins to form a complex extra-cellular matrix (ECM). This is of particular importance in those tissues susceptible to radiation-induced tumor formation, such as epithelial glands. The assembly of epithelial cells of the thyroid is critical to their normal receipt of, and response to, incoming signals. Traditional tissue culture and live animals present significant challenges to radiation exposure and continuous sampling, however, the production of bioreactor-engineered tissues aims to bridge this gap by improve capabilities in continuous sampling from the same functional tissue, thereby increasing the ability to extrapolate changes induced by radiation to animals and humans in vivo. Our study proposes that the level of tissue organization will affect the induction and persistence of low dose radiation-induced genomic instability. Rat thyroid cells, grown in vitro as 3D tissue analogs in bioreactors and as 2D flask grown cultures were exposed to acute low dose (1, 5, 10 and 200 cGy) gamma rays. To assess immediate (6 hours) and delayed (up to 30 days) responses post-irradiation, various biological endpoints were studied including cytogenetic analyses, apoptosis analysis and cell viability/cytotoxicity analyses. Data assessing caspase 3/7 activity levels show that, this activity varies with time post radiation and that, overall, 3D cultures display more genomic instability (as shown by the lower levels of apoptosis over time) when compared to the 2D cultures. Variation in cell viability levels were only observed at the intermediate and late time points post radiation. Extensive analysis of chromosomal aberrations will give further insight on the whether the level of tissue organization influences genomic instability patterns after

  12. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes-often drugs or pollutants-that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  13. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marazzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (polypeptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes—often drugs or pollutants—that can (photosensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photosensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  14. Growth, optical, thermal and dielectric studies of an amino acid organic nonlinear optical material: L-Alanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caroline, M. Lydia; Sankar, R.; Indirani, R.M.; Vasudevan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Good transparent bulk single crystals of L-alanine (nonlinear optical material) have been grown successfully by slow cooling technique from aqueous solution at pH value of 2.0. Optically transparent crystals with dimensions 2.4 cm x 1.2 cm x 1.6 cm, were grown by optimizing the growth parameters within a growth period of 2 weeks. The crystallinity of L-alanine crystal was confirmed by the powder X-ray diffraction study and diffraction peaks are indexed. The vibrational structure of the molecule is elucidated from FTIR spectra. The thermal behaviour of the grown crystal was investigated by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) techniques in a nitrogen atmosphere. The result showed that the material starts decomposing at 297 deg. C. Its optical behaviour has been examined by UV-vis spectral analysis, which shows the absence of absorbance between the wavelengths ranging from 200 to 1200 nm. The NLO property was confirmed by the powder technique of Kurtz and Perry. The dielectric behaviour of the sample was also studied for the first time

  15. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-04-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes – often drugs or pollutants – that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/ molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  16. Synthesis of the semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal l-glutamic acid zinc chloride and investigation of its growth and physiochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chennakrishnan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to synthesize and investigate the growth and physiochemical properties of the nonlinear optical semi-organic crystal l-glutamic acid zinc chloride (LGAZC. An optically transparent and defect-free crystal was grown with the slow evaporation solution growth technique under optimized conditions. The induction periods were measured at various supersaturations, and the interfacial energies were evaluated. Single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that the crystal has an orthorhombic structure with space group P212121, and the calculated lattice parameters are a = 5.20 Å, b = 6.99 Å, c = 17.58 Å, α = β = γ = 90° and volume = 623.411 Å3. Spectroscopic properties were investigated by recording the Fourier transform infrared and optical transmission spectra. The thermal decomposition of the grown crystal was investigated by Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TG/DTA. The LGAZC crystal exhibits second harmonic generation (SHG efficiency 1.5 times that of inorganic KDP crystal. The presence of the metal ion (Zn+ in a grown crystal was identified by EDAX spectrum analysis. The photoconductivity study demonstrates that LGAZC crystal has a positive photo conducting nature. The dielectric response of the LGAZC crystal was investigated and reported. Keywords: Semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal, X-ray Diffraction, UV-vis-NIR, Thermal study

  17. Effects of Particulate Organic Matter Complexation and Photo-Irradiation on the Fate and Toxicity of Mercury(II) in Aqueous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.; Carrasquillo, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This project investigates how interactions between mercury (Hg) and particulate organic matter (POM) affect the fate, transport, and toxicity of Hg in the environment. Previous studies have evaluated the coordination of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with Hg, but the coordination of POM with Hg has not been thoroughly addressed. Owing to a high density of reactive functional groups, POM will sorb appreciable quantities of Hg, resulting in a large pool of Hg susceptible to organic matter dependent transformations. Particulate organic carbon is also susceptible photolysis, hence chemical changes induced by irradiation by natural sunlight is also important. Further, photo-reduction of Hg(II) to elemental mercury in the presence of DOM has been observed, yet studies examining this process with Hg(II) complexed to POM are less exhaustive. Here, we illustrate that POM derived from fresh plant detritus is a powerful sorbent of Hg(II), and sorbent properties are altered during POM photolysis. Further, we examine redox transformations of Hg(II), and examine functional groups that contribute to mercury association with POM. Batch sorption isotherms of Hg to dark and irradiated POM from ground Phragmites australis ("common reed") were performed and data was collected using ICP-MS. Coordination of Hg to POM was lower in the irradiated samples, resulting from the decrease in Hg-associated (reduced) sulfur bearing functional groups as measured using X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS). Further analysis of the dark and irradiated POM was performed using FT-IR microscopy and STXM to determine changes in distribution and alteration of functional groups responsible for Hg sorption to POM.

  18. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, M. J.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The major goal of part I of this study was to compare varying doses and dose rates of whole-body gamma-radiation on lymphoid cells and organs. C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy gamma-rays (60Co) at 1 cGy/min (low-dose rate, LDR) and 80 cGy/min (high-dose rate, HDR) and euthanized 4 days later. A significant dose-dependent loss of spleen mass was observed with both LDR and HDR irradiation; for the thymus this was true only with HDR. Decreasing leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers occurred with increasing dose in blood and spleen at both dose rates. The numbers (not percentages) of CD3+ T lymphocytes decreased in the blood in a dose-dependent manner at both HDR and LDR. Splenic T cell counts decreased with dose only in HDR groups; percentages increased with dose at both dose rates. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic cell counts at HDR and LDR. In the blood the percentages of CD4+ cells increased with increasing dose at both dose rates, whereas in the spleen the counts decreased only in the HDR groups. The percentages of the CD8+ population remained stable in both blood and spleen. CD19+ B cell counts and percentages in both compartments declined markedly with increasing HDR and LDR radiation. NK1.1+ natural killer cell numbers and proportions remained relatively stable. Overall, these data indicate that the observed changes were highly dependent on the dose, but not dose rate, and that cells in the spleen are more affected by dose rate than those in blood. The results also suggest that the response of lymphocytes in different body compartments may be variable.

  19. SU-F-J-127: Multi-Institutional Evaluation of Setup, Organ Deformation, Precision Dosimetry in Total Marrow Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuro, D; Hui, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Totals Marrow Irradiation (TMI) is a highly focused radiation delivery to the human skeleton structure therefore requiring a high amount of precision and accuracy for a quality treatment. Not much is known on how the patient position varies across multiple treatment fractions and how that positioning impacts the dose delivery. Currently TMI is studied as an international collaboration with multiple centers around the world; however, many of these centers used different pretreatment techniques. The goal of this work is to measure the accuracy of patient positioning, its impact on dose delivery and compare the impact of each technique for multiple institutions. Methods: Using Tomotherapy pretreatment MVCTs and the planning KVCTs measurements are made of the 3D setup uncertainties of the TMI treatment. Then, using the dose and plan files of the treatment impact of patient position on dose can be measured. Measurement of organ deformation and center of mass change were done using the Velocity AI program from Varian. We are looking at four the boney targets (skull, spine, pelvis, and femur) and three key sensitive tissues (eyes, lungs, kidneys). Results: Position measurements have been made for 3 different institutions using 3 different pre-treatment techniques. Comparing the translation motion we can observe the greatest change in the Y and Z direction of patient set up. For intra-fractional motion the shoulder and clavicle represent the greatest potential for motion and therefore most likely to have a dose change. Conclusion: All centers use different techniques for their treatment and this study shows that these techniques do not produce the same pretreatment results. We hope to expand this study further. Currently we have 3 centers participating in this study with more centers joining every day.

  20. SU-F-J-127: Multi-Institutional Evaluation of Setup, Organ Deformation, Precision Dosimetry in Total Marrow Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuro, D; Hui, S [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, CTMI Global Health Initiative (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Totals Marrow Irradiation (TMI) is a highly focused radiation delivery to the human skeleton structure therefore requiring a high amount of precision and accuracy for a quality treatment. Not much is known on how the patient position varies across multiple treatment fractions and how that positioning impacts the dose delivery. Currently TMI is studied as an international collaboration with multiple centers around the world; however, many of these centers used different pretreatment techniques. The goal of this work is to measure the accuracy of patient positioning, its impact on dose delivery and compare the impact of each technique for multiple institutions. Methods: Using Tomotherapy pretreatment MVCTs and the planning KVCTs measurements are made of the 3D setup uncertainties of the TMI treatment. Then, using the dose and plan files of the treatment impact of patient position on dose can be measured. Measurement of organ deformation and center of mass change were done using the Velocity AI program from Varian. We are looking at four the boney targets (skull, spine, pelvis, and femur) and three key sensitive tissues (eyes, lungs, kidneys). Results: Position measurements have been made for 3 different institutions using 3 different pre-treatment techniques. Comparing the translation motion we can observe the greatest change in the Y and Z direction of patient set up. For intra-fractional motion the shoulder and clavicle represent the greatest potential for motion and therefore most likely to have a dose change. Conclusion: All centers use different techniques for their treatment and this study shows that these techniques do not produce the same pretreatment results. We hope to expand this study further. Currently we have 3 centers participating in this study with more centers joining every day.

  1. Establishment of evaluation system for oxidation/anti-oxidation in living organisms using radiation irradiation and its practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umegaki, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    Basic study on the degree of oxidation damages after X-ray irradiation and changes in the anti-oxidative defense action was made using the rat. In addition, amplification of trace DNA damages by X-ray irradiation was investigated with human lymphocytes. Wistar rats were exposed to X-ray at 3 Gy under no anesthetization and killed after various time after the irradiation. The content of vitamin C, an anti-oxidant vitamin C in the bone marrow was markedly reduced by X-ray irradiation and the content after 24 hours from the irradiation was about 2% of that of the unexposed group. The content of vitamin E in the bone marrow was ca. 43% of that of the unexposed group. However, the contents of these anti-oxidant vitamins gradually recovered from 3-4 days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the content of 4-hydroxynonenal among the aldehydes that were tested as the indicator for oxidation damage of lipid was significantly increased one day after the irradiation and the contents of hexanal and TBARS reached the maximum level 3 days after. However, daily administration of about 100-fold larger amount of vitamin E (α-tocopherol at 460 mg/kg) for 3 days before the irradiation resulted in an increase in its content in the bone marrow, but significant decreases in the vitamin E and C levels in the bone marrow 24 hours after X-ray irradiation and aldehyde contents were increased, suggesting that pre-irradiation administration of vitamin E has no effects on the damages of bone marrow cells. As an indicator of DNA damages, the rate of appearance for lymphocytes having micronuclei was determined. The number of such lymphocytes was not significantly changed by exercise, but the number after irradiation at 1.5 Gy was dose dependently increased. These results suggested that trace DNA oxidation damages produced by severe exercise were markedly amplified by X-ray irradiation in not-trained subjects. (M.N.)

  2. Polarization Nonlinear Optics of Quadratically Nonlinear Azopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konorov, S.O.; Akimov, D.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Petrov, A.N.; Alfimov, M.V.; Yakimanskii, A.V.; Smirnov, N.N.; Ivanova, V.N.; Kudryavtsev, V.V.; Podshivalov, A.A.; Sokolova, I.M.; Zheltikov, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The polarization properties of second harmonic and sum-frequency signals generated by femtosecond laser pulses in films of polymers containing covalent groups of an azobenzothiazole chromophore polarized by an external electric field are investigated. It is shown that the methods of polarization nonlinear optics make it possible to determine the structure of oriented molecular dipoles and reveal important properties of the motion of collectivized πelectrons in organic molecules with strong optical nonlinearities. The polarization measurements show that the tensor of quadratic nonlinear optical susceptibility of chromophore fragments oriented by an external field in macromolecules of the noted azopolymers has a degenerate form. This is indicative of a predominantly one-dimensional character of motion of collectivized π electrons along an extended group of atoms in such molecules

  3. Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy for Craniospinal Irradiation: Organ-at-Risk Exposure and a Low-Gradient Junctioning Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Joshua B.; Grant, Jonathan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Pidikiti, Rajesh; Mahajan, Anita; Grosshans, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare field junction robustness and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) during craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) to conventional passively scattered proton therapy (PSPT). Methods and Materials: Ten patients, 5 adult and 5 pediatric patients, previously treated with PSPT-based CSI were selected for comparison. Anterior oblique cranial fields, using a superior couch rotation, and posterior spinal fields were used for IMPT planning. To facilitate low-gradient field junctioning along the spine, the inverse-planning IMPT technique was divided into 3 stages. Dose indices describing target coverage and normal tissue dose, in silico error modeling, and film dosimetry were used to assess plan quality. Results: Field junction robustness along the spine was improved using the staged IMPT planning technique, reducing the worst case impact of a 4-mm setup error from 25% in PSPT to <5% of prescription dose. This was verified by film dosimetry for clinical delivery. Exclusive of thyroid dose in adult patients, IMPT plans demonstrated sparing of organs at risk as good or better than PSPT. Coverage of the cribriform plate for pediatric (V95% [percentage of volume of the target receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose]; 87 ± 11 vs 92 ± 7) and adult (V95%; 94 ± 7 vs 100 ± 1) patients and the clinical target in pediatric (V95%; 98 ± 2 vs 100 ± 1) and adult (V95%; 100 ± 1 vs 100 ± 1) patients for PSPT and IMPT plans, respectively, were comparable or improved. For adult patients, IMPT target dose inhomogeneity was increased, as determined by heterogeneity index (HI) and inhomogeneity coefficient (IC). IMPT lowered maximum spinal cord dose, improved spinal dose homogeneity, and reduced exposure to other OARs. Conclusions: IMPT has the potential to improve CSI plan quality and the homogeneity of intrafractional dose at match lines. The IMPT approach developed may also simplify treatments and reduce

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic ozonation of organics by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Gaozu, E-mail: liaogaozu@m.scnu.edu.cn; Zhu, Dongyun; Li, Laisheng, E-mail: llsh@scnu.edu.cn; Lan, Bingyan

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is employed as active catalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation system. • The more negative conduction band of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} benefits the transfer of electrons. • The synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation is promoted by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Enhanced degradation of oxalic acid and biphenol A is achieved via g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) was employed as the active photocatalyst in the photocatalytic ozonation coupling system in the present study. g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared by directly heating thiourea in air at 550 °C. XRD, FT-IR, UV–vis was used to characterize the structure and optical property. Oxalic acid and bisphenol A were selected as model substances for photocatalytic ozonation reactions to evaluate the catalytic ability of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3}). The results showed that the degradation ratio of oxalic acid with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3} was 65.2% higher than the sum of ratio when it was individually decomposed by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis and O{sub 3}. The TOC removal of biphenol A with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis/O{sub 3} was 2.17 times as great as the sum of the ratio when using g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Vis and O{sub 3}. This improvement was attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between photocatalysis and ozonation by g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Under visible light irradiation, the photo-generated electrons produced on g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} facilitated the electrons transfer owing to the more negative conduction band potential (−1.3 V versus NHE). It meant that the photo-generated electrons could be trapped by ozone and reaction with it more easily. Subsequently, the yield of hydroxyl radicals was improved so as to enhance the organics degradation efficiency. This work indicated that metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could be an excellent catalyst for mineralization of organic compounds in waste control.

  5. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical and thermal properties of intumescent flame retarded ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bibo; Song Lei; Hong Ningning; Tai Qilong; Lu Hongdian; Hu Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded by a combination of intumescent flame retardants (IFR) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) have been crosslinked by high-energy electron beam irradiation. The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal, mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of the irradiated EVA nanocomposites were investigated. The XRD and TEM results demonstrated that the OMMT was well dispersed in the EVA nanocomposites. The LOI and UL-94 results showed that a synergistic effect on the flame retardancy of EVA nanocomposite existed between the IFR and OMMT. With the addition of 1 wt% OMMT and 24 wt% IFR, the LOI value of EVA/IFR/OMMT nanocomposite increased from 30.5 % to 33.5 %. The mechanical properties of the irradiated EVA nanocomposite were evidently improved at 160 kGy dosage with the increase in the tensile strength to 18.5 MPa. Thermal oxidative degradation of the flame-retardant EVA/IFR/OMMT nanocomposites was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) and real-time Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (RT-FTIR). - Highlights: → The results signify a synergistic effect between OMMT and IFR in the EVA matrix. → The XRD and TEM indicate that the OMMT is well dispersed in the EVA matrix. → The Tg of EVA nanocomposites increase with the increase in the irradiation dose. → The GS peak of EVA composites decrease with the increase in the irradiation dose.

  6. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  7. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  8. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beishon, J.

    1991-01-01

    Food irradiation has been the subject of concern and controversy for many years. The advantages of food irradiation include the reduction or elimination of dangerous bacterial organisms, the control of pests and insects which destroy certain foods, the extension of the shelf-life of many products, for example fruit, and its ability to treat products such as seafood which may be eaten raw. It can also replace existing methods of treatment which are believed to have hazardous side-effects. However, after examining the evidence produced by the proponents of food irradiation, the author questions whether it has any major contribution to make to the problems of foodborne diseases or world food shortages. More acceptable solutions, he suggests, may be found in educating food handlers to ensure that hygienic conditions prevail in the production, storage and serving of food. (author)

  9. Study of abscopal radiation effects on multicellular organisms; Etudes sur les effets a distance dans les organismes multicellulaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Amongst the lesions brought about by total body irradiation, two basically different types can be distinguished: those appearing in the area which has absorbed radiant energy and those emerging in areas remote from the irradiated tissues (abscopal effects). The abscopal effects are produced by toxic tissue breakdown products, which are removed by the bloodstream and interfere with particularly sensitive structures (radiotoxins). The radiotoxins mobilize other biologically active substances, interfering with the same tissues which may display abscopal effects. This is well established for the hormones of the adrenal cortex. Furthermore, important fractions of the radiotoxins are neutralized by the reticuloendothelial system. Temporary blockade of this system enhances the efficiency of radiotoxins and greatly increases mortality of the irradiated animals. One can therefore conclude that the reticuloendothelial system affords a natural defense against an essential reaction of total body irradiation: the effect of the radiotoxins. (author) [French] Les lesions consecutives a une irradiation peuvent etre classees en deux categories: celles qui se produisent au niveau du tissu irradie et celles qui apparaissent en dehors de celui-ci. Ces dernieres - appelees -'effets a distance'- sont dues a l'action de produits d'histolyse apparaissant au niveau du volume tissulaire ayant absorbe l'energie radiante, emportes par le courant sanguin et agissant sur des structures specialement receptives (Radiotoxines). Ces corps provoquait, dans des structures eloignees du siege de l'action locale du rayonnement, la secretion d'autres corps biologiquement actifs, capables d'agir sur les memes tissus pouvant presenter des effets a distance, compliquant ainsi leur mecanisme. Ceci est etabli pour les corticosteroides. De plus, des fractions importantes des radiotoxines sont neutralisees par le systeme reticuloendothelial. Puisque le blocage de ce systeme prolonge non seulement l'action des

  10. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at Halden reactor. Achievement of cooperative researches between JAERI and several organizations in the period from 2000 to 2002 (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with several Japanese organizations utilizing the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor(HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summarizes the objectives, contents and outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 2000 January to 2002 December. During the period, seven cooperative researches had been carried out. Two of them had been completed and other five researches have been continued to the next three-year period. Most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding in order to prepare the higher burnup utilization and introduction of LWR fuel and MOX fuel in LWRs of Japan. As the researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time for preparing test and irradiation, three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, five cooperative researches have been continued to the next three-year period. In this report, the achievements of the researches continued to the next period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author)

  11. Growth, structural, physical and computational perspectives of trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline: a promising organic nonlinear optical material with large laser-induced damage threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumurugan, Ramaiah; Anitha, Kandasamy

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a systematic study of an organic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (THP), C5H9NO3 is reported. An optical quality single crystals of THP have been successfully grown by using slow evaporation solution growth technique (SEST). The single crystal x-ray diffraction (SXRD) analysis reveals that grown crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system with non-centrosymmetric space group (NCS), P212121. Powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis shows relatively a good crystalline nature. The molecular structure of THP was recognized by NMR (1H and 13C) studies and its vibrational modes were confirmed by FTIR and FT-Raman vibrational studies. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum of grown crystal shows high optical transparency in the visible and near-IR region with low near-UV cut-off wavelength at 218 nm. Photoluminescence study confirms ultraviolet wavelength emission of THP crystal. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of grown crystal is 1.6 times greater with respect to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Nonlinear refractive index (n 2) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) were determined using the Z-scan technique. The title compound owns high thermal stability of 294 °C and specific heat capacity (C P) of 1.21 J g-1 K-1 at 300 K and 11.33 J g-1 K-1 at 539 K (melting point). The laser-induced damage threshold (LDT) value of grown crystal was measured as 7.25 GW cm-2. The crystal growth mechanism and defects of grown crystal were studied by chemical etching technique. Mechanical strength was extensively studied by Vickers microhardness test and crystal void percentage analysis. Moreover, density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to probe the Mulliken charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) and first order hyperpolarizability (β) of the optimized molecular structure to get a better insight of the molecular properties. These characterization results endorse that grown THP crystal as a

  12. Effect of nano particle sizes on the third-order optical non-linearities and nanostructure of copolymer P3HT:PCBM thin film for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, Hussain Ali, E-mail: badran_hussein@yahoo.com [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Ajeel, Khalid I. [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Lazim, Haidar Gazy [Misan University, Basic Education College, Science Department, Misan (Iraq)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO{sub 2} layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO{sub 2} sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.

  13. Characterization and enhanced nonlinear optical limiting response in carbon nanodots dispersed in solid-state hybrid organically modified silica gel glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Zheng, Chan; Guo, Qiaohang; Huang, Dongdong; Wu, Xiukai; Chen, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Freely dispersed carbon nanodots (CNDs) were introduced into a 3-glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane modified silicate gel glass (i.e. an organically modified silica or ORMOSIL) by a highly efficient and simple sol-gel process, which could be easily extended to prepare functional molecules/nanoparticles solid state optoelectronic devices. Scanning electron microscope imaging, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, pore structure measurements, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface characteristics, structure, texture, and linear optical properties of the CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses. Images and UV/Vis spectra confirmed the successful dispersion of CNDs in the ORMOSIL gel glass. The surface characteristics and pore structure of the host SiO2 matrix were markedly changed through the introduction of the CNDs. The linear optical properties of the guest CNDs were also affected by the sol-gel procedure. The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of the CNDs were investigated by a nanosecond open-aperture Z-scan technique at 532 nm both in liquid and solid matrices. We found that the NLO response of the CNDs was considerably improved after their incorporation into the ORMOSIL gel glasses. Possible enhancement mechanisms were also explored. The nonlinear extinction coefficient gradually increased while the optical limiting (OL) threshold decreased as the CND doping level was increased. This result suggests that the NLO and OL properties of the composite gel glasses can be optimized by tuning the concentration of CNDs in the gel glass matrix. Our findings show that CND/SiO2 ORMOSIL gel glasses are promising candidates for optical limiters to protect sensitive instruments and human eyes from damage caused by high power lasers.

  14. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  15. The fate of heterologous antigen (131I-HSA) in the organs of chickens exposed to total-body X-irradiation before a secondary antigenic stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohazka, Z.; Hampl, J.; Krejci, J.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made on the effect of ionizing radiation on the rate of elimination of 131 I-labelled human serum albumin from the blood and its organ deposition in chickens exposed to 1200 R (LD 50 ) at various intervals before secondary antigen injection. In unirradiated control chickens, the elimination of antigen after its secondary injection followed the typical three-phase pattern, characterized by an early onset and a rapid progress of the third phase. The elimination curve from irradiated birds paralleled rather closely that from the controls during the first and second phases while the phase of immune elimination was hardly perceptible. No major differences were found between the individual irrradiated groups. The irradiated birds also showed less formation of antibodies and antigen-antibody complexes and a lower antigen content of the organs than the unirradiated controls. From the results it appears that the specific antigen uptake from the blood of chickens during the first and second phases of elimination of a secondary dose of antigen is radioresistant; the temporal relation between X-irradiation and secondary antigen injection does not play a substantial role in impairment of the secondary antibody response to soluble antigens in chickens

  16. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerens, H [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Saint-Lebe, L

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment.

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.; Saint-Lebe, L.

    1979-01-01

    Various aspects of food treatment by cobalt 60 or caesium 137 gamma radiation are reviewed. One of the main applications of irradiation on foodstuffs lies in its ability to kill micro-organisms, lethal doses being all the lower as the organism concerned is more complex. The effect on parasites is also spectacular. Doses of 200 to 300 krad are recommended to destroy all parasites with no survival period and no resistance phenomenon has ever been observed. The action of gamma radiation on macromolecules was also investigated, the bactericide treatment giving rise to side effects by transformation of food components. Three examples were studied: starch, nucleic acids and a whole food, the egg. The organoleptic aspect of irradiation was examined for different treated foods, then the physical transformations of unpasteurized, heat-pasteurized and radio-pasteurized eggs were compared. The report ends with a brief analysis of the toxicity and conditions of application of the treatment [fr

  18. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  19. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in lethally irradiated dogs. II. Distribution and cellularity of the marrow in irradiated and transfused animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Huegl, E.; Bruch, C.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs were given transfusions of cryopreserved autologous mononuclear blood leukocytes after 1200 roentgens (R) (midline dose) whole-body x-irradiation. Bone marrow repopulation was studied by means of histomorphological methods at days 9 and 10 after transfusion of an average of 3 x 10 9 , 7 x 10 9 , 13 x 10 9 , and 31 x 10 9 cells. The return of marrow cellularity to normal values was related to the number of cells transfused. With low cell doses (3 x 10 9 and 7 x 10 9 ), the marrow regeneration at 10 days was focal. There were groups of cells (colonies) showing either erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, or megakaryocytopoiesis in the osteal niches of the trabecular bones. Frequently such niches were seen showing complete cellular recovery next to niches with complete aplasia. With higher cell doses, all niches showed hemopoietic regeneration, and the cellularity approached normal values. No hemopoietic regeneration was observed in those skeletal parts that do not show hemopoiesis, even under normal circumstances

  20. Study of abscopal radiation effects on multicellular organisms; Etudes sur les effets a distance dans les organismes multicellulaires irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Amongst the lesions brought about by total body irradiation, two basically different types can be distinguished: those appearing in the area which has absorbed radiant energy and those emerging in areas remote from the irradiated tissues (abscopal effects). The abscopal effects are produced by toxic tissue breakdown products, which are removed by the bloodstream and interfere with particularly sensitive structures (radiotoxins). The radiotoxins mobilize other biologically active substances, interfering with the same tissues which may display abscopal effects. This is well established for the hormones of the adrenal cortex. Furthermore, important fractions of the radiotoxins are neutralized by the reticuloendothelial system. Temporary blockade of this system enhances the efficiency of radiotoxins and greatly increases mortality of the irradiated animals. One can therefore conclude that the reticuloendothelial system affords a natural defense against an essential reaction of total body irradiation: the effect of the radiotoxins. (author) [French] Les lesions consecutives a une irradiation peuvent etre classees en deux categories: celles qui se produisent au niveau du tissu irradie et celles qui apparaissent en dehors de celui-ci. Ces dernieres - appelees -'effets a distance'- sont dues a l'action de produits d'histolyse apparaissant au niveau du volume tissulaire ayant absorbe l'energie radiante, emportes par le courant sanguin et agissant sur des structures specialement receptives (Radiotoxines). Ces corps provoquait, dans des structures eloignees du siege de l'action locale du rayonnement, la secretion d'autres corps biologiquement actifs, capables d'agir sur les memes tissus pouvant presenter des effets a distance, compliquant ainsi leur mecanisme. Ceci est etabli pour les corticosteroides. De plus, des fractions importantes des radiotoxines sont neutralisees par le systeme reticuloendothelial. Puisque le blocage de ce

  1. Effect of Ge nanocluster assembly self-organization at pulsed irradiation by low-energy ions during heteroepitaxy on Si

    CERN Document Server

    Dvurechenskij, A V; Smagina, Z V

    2001-01-01

    Using the method of scanning microscopy one studied experimentally size distribution of Ge clusters formed in course of experiments of two types at Ge heteroepitaxy on Si(111): regular process of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE); pulse irradiation by approx = 200 eV energy Ge ions. The experiments were conducted at 350 deg C temperature. Pulse irradiation by an ion beam during heteroepitaxy was detected to result in reduction of the average size of Ge clusters, in compacting of their density and in reduction of mean square deviation from the average value in contrast to similar values in experiments devoted to regular MBE

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on seed germination and organization of shoot apex in Solanum melongena and Capsicum annum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, J.D.; Shah, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Seeds of S. melongena and C. annum were irradiated with 10, 20 and 30 kR exposures of gamma rays. All doses bring about morphological and structural changes in the shoot apex. Cytohistological zonation is absent in the shoot apex of treated seeds. Tunica and corpus cells become inactive. The plastochron period between the two successive leaf primordia is shorter in irradiated shoot apices than in unirradiated ones. In Capsicum certain shoot apices showed arrested internodes between the cotyledon and next leaf. (author)

  3. Irradiation of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Foodstuffs are irradiated to make them keep better. The ionizing radiation is not so strong as to cause radioactivity in the foodstuffs. At least so far, irradiation has not gained acceptance among consumers, although it has been shown to be a completely safe method of preservation. Irradiation causes only slight chemical changes in food. What irradiation does, however, is to damage living organisms, such as bacteria, DNA and proteins, thereby making the food keep longer. Irradiation can be detected from the food afterwards; thus it can be controlled effectively. (orig.)

  4. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N 1N4 (Canada)]. E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca; Shahmoradi, Asghar [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate.

  5. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Shahmoradi, Asghar

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate

  6. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  7. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant Sl/Sld spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  8. Regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells in spleen organ cultures from irradiated mice: influence of genotype of cells injected and of the spleen microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Melchner, H.; Lieschke, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration of hemopoietic precursor cells (colony-forming cells, CFC) was monitored in spleen organ cultures from lethally irradiated mice injected with 10(7) normal syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow cells. The important role of the microenvironment in supporting hemopoiesis was confirmed by the failure of mutant S1/S1d spleens to support CFC regeneration in organ cultures. However, the extent and quality of the CFC regeneration was clearly dependent on the genetic properties of the injected cells. Evidence for this was obtained from the regeneration patterns of various CFC types in organ cultured spleens derived from different mouse donor-recipient strain combinations (CBA/CBA, CBA/C57BL, CBA/BALB/c, C57BL/C57BL, C57BL/CBA, C57BL/BALB/c) that maintained the differences in the bone marrow frequency of various CFC types characteristic of the donor strain

  9. Use of the dog spleen for studying effects of irradiation and chemotherapeutic agents, with suggested uses of other organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, L.D.; De Rose, G.; Cooke, D.

    1976-01-01

    The irradiation of the exteriorized spleen of the dog, with the animal lead-shielded, produced constant changes in the white blood cells. The time of recovery from the irradiation effect was determined. The normal canine spleen could handle live pneumococci injected into the splenic artery, as proven by sterile cultures of splenic vein samples. The size of the bolus used was determined by repeated trials and proved to be one billion pneumococci per pound of body weight. The capacity of the irradiated spleen to handle this number of pneumococci was impaired. It was found that whole body irradiation, nitrogen mustard, thio-tepa, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil, vinblastine, and azothioprine all impaired this capacity of the spleen. The dose of the chemotherapeutic agent was the same in milligrams per kilogram as that used in the cancer clinic. A method for determining the recovery time following the use of one or more agents was developed with the repeated use of the spleen model. By extending the methods used with the spleen it was found that similar use could be made, usually without surgery, of the liver, gut, and lungs

  10. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  11. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  12. Synthesis, growth, structural, optical and thermal properties of a new organic nonlinear optical crystal: 2-amino 5-chloropyridinium-L-tartarate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanalina, T.; Rajarajan, G.; Boopathi, K.; Sreevani, K.

    2015-09-01

    A new organic nonlinear optical crystal 2-amino-5-chloropyridinium-L-tartarate [2A5CPLTA] has been synthesized and the crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution technique at room temperature using methanol as solvent. The crystal structure of the title compound has been determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction study and it belongs to the monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. The presence of functional groups was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared analysis. The transmittance and lower cut off of the grown crystal was ascertained by the UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Thermal studies reveled that 2A5CPLTA crystal is thermally stable up to 144 °C. The dielectric measurements of the grown crystal were carried out with different frequencies and temperatures. Vickers micro hardness measurement was carried out to study the mechanical behavior of the grown crystal. The second harmonic generation of the title crystal was confirmed by the Kurtz-Perry powder test employing the Nd: YAG laser as the source.

  13. Development of nonlinear optical materials using inorganic-organic complexes; Hisenkei kogaku zairyo to shite no yuki-muki fukugotai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, N. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Catalysis Research Center

    1994-12-15

    Development was attempted on organic-inorganic complexes as nonlinear optical materials. The objective is to develop elements with SHG activity (generating second harmonics) to change a visible ray into an ultraviolet ray by inserting P-nitroaniline (pNA) into such solid acids having strong static electric field as zeolite, laminar compounds, and heteropolyacid, and utilizing the static electric field and the molecule coordination field of inorganic compounds. Used for the pNA{center_dot}Bronsted acid composite are HBr, HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4. The pNA that has a center of symmetry in the crystalline structure and does not generate the second harmonics shows SHG when it is formed into a composite with HBr. No SHG is recognized in other acid composites. This difference is due to the difference in the crystalline structure. The SHG activity was generated when pNA is loaded onto alumina and silica as solid oxides. When zeolites are used as carriers, no SHG was observed. A composite of pNA{center_dot}AlCl3 has high SHG intensity, which reached a maximum when the pNA/AlCl3 ratio was two. This composite showed four new peaks that belong to the SHG activity phase. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Liang, E-mail: lmao@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Shixiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: {yields} In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. {yields} Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. {yields} We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. {yields} We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack to PABA.

  15. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-01-01

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from ·OH and ·NO 2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: → In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. → Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. → We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. → We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from ·OH and ·NO 2 radicals attack to PABA.

  16. Gamma irradiation, hot water and imazalil treatments on decay organisms and physical quality of stored netted muskmelon fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, G.

    1989-01-01

    Nonchemical treatments of gamma irradiation (2 Kilograys) and hot water (57°C) and the fungicide imazalil (1000 ppm) were compared with and without shrink-film wrap for effects on decay and physical quality of netted muskmelon fruit stored at 4°C for 0 through 60 days. Gamma irradiation was ineffective in controlling decay and surface molds, and injurious to physical quality by decreasing firmness, increasing fresh weight loss, membrane leakage and vein track browning. Hot water treatment coupled with shrink-film wrap was effective in controlling decay activity and maintaining physical quality up to 20 days storage. Imazalil coupled with shrink-film wrap controlled the incidence and severity of decay and maintained fruit firmness, moisture loss, membrane permeability and vein track browning for almost 60 days storage. (author)

  17. Interaction between the surface of the silver nanoparticles prepared by γ-irradiation and organic molecules containing thiol group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.-H.; Lee, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-M.; Lee, K.-P.; Kang, H.-D.

    2003-01-01

    The colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by the γ-irradiation of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) in a mixture solution of water and 2-propanol in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as a colloidal stabilizer. The Ag colloids obtained by γ-irradiation were characterized by use of XRD and TEM. The surface of the Ag colloids were modified by use of mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), (D)-cysteine (Cys), and (L)-Cys, respectively. The MSA and (L)-Cys-capped Ag colloids were aggregated because of hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic acid and amino acid group, respectively. From the analysis by CD spectroscopy, it was shown that chiral-enhanced phenomena were obtained in (L)- and (D)-Cys-capped Ag colloids

  18. Can We Spare the Pancreas and Other Abdominal Organs at Risk? A Comparison of Conformal Radiotherapy, Helical Tomotherapy and Proton Beam Therapy in Pediatric Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglar, Emmanuel; Wagner, Antoine; Delpon, Grégory; Campion, Loïc; Meingan, Philippe; Bernier, Valérie; Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Mahé, Marc-André; Lacornerie, Thomas; Supiot, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Late abdominal irradiation toxicity during childhood included renal damage, hepatic toxicity and secondary diabetes mellitus. We compared the potential of conformal radiotherapy (CRT), helical tomotherapy (HT) and proton beam therapy (PBT) to spare the abdominal organs at risk (pancreas, kidneys and liver- OAR) in children undergoing abdominal irradiation. We selected children with abdominal tumors who received more than 10 Gy to the abdomen. Treatment plans were calculated in order to keep the dose to abdominal OAR as low as possible while maintaining the same planned target volume (PTV) coverage. Dosimetric values were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The dose distribution of 20 clinical cases with a median age of 8 years (range 1-14) were calculated with different doses to the PTV: 5 medulloblastomas (36 Gy), 3 left-sided and 2 right-sided nephroblastomas (14.4 Gy to the tumor + 10.8 Gy boost to para-aortic lymphnodes), 1 left-sided and 4 right-sided or midline neuroblastomas (21 Gy) and 5 Hodgkin lymphomas (19.8 Gy to the para-aortic lymphnodes and spleen). HT significantly reduced the mean dose to the whole pancreas (WP), the pancreatic tail (PT) and to the ipsilateral kidney compared to CRT. PBT reduced the mean dose to the WP and PT compared to both CRT and HT especially in midline and right-sided tumors. PBT decreased the mean dose to the ispilateral kidney but also to the contralateral kidney and the liver compared to CRT. Low dose to normal tissue was similar or increased with HT whereas integral dose and the volume of normal tissue receiving at least 5 and 10 Gy were reduced with PBT compared to CRT and HT. In children undergoing abdominal irradiation therapy, proton beam therapy reduces the dose to abdominal OAR while sparing normal tissue by limiting low dose irradiation.

  19. The behaviour of organic solvents containing C5-BTBP and CyMe4-BTBP at low irradiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retegan, T.; Fermvik, A.; Skarnemark, G.; Foreman, M.R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Low doses of gamma radiation were given to four different solvents containing C5-BTBP and CyMe 4 -BTBP, each molecule dissolved both in cyclohexanone and hexanol. Four corresponding solvents were kept unirradiated and used as references for the extraction experiments. Multiple samples were taken from both the irradiated solutions and the reference solutions at certain time intervals. The samples were used in extraction experiments with the radionuclides 241 Am and 152 Eu. The protection against radiolysis of the extracting molecules by the diluent used for dissolution without adding a scavenger molecule was checked. The interplay between the diluent and the side group of the extracting molecule for protection against radiolysis was also studied by keeping the same type of core molecule for binding to the metal ions and varying the diluent and side group. The results were unexpected. The presence of a cyclic molecule as both a side group or diluent seems to keep the extraction of europium almost unaffected by radiolysis, while americium behaves differently from solvent to solvent. The diluent alone does not protect the extracting molecule. In some of the studied systems there is a distinct change in the extraction behaviour of Am between the irradiated and reference solutions, an effect that is however only present at the beginning of the experimental series. At later times the difference in distribution ratios between the irradiated and reference solution is constant. This phenomenon is found only when the side group and diluent are structurally dissimilar. (orig.)

  20. The effect of cynanchi wilfordii radix ethanol extracts upon irradiated rat's blood and organ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Oh; Choi, Jun Hyeok; Shin, Ji Hye; Min, Byung In [Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Young [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The development of radioprotector is being actively conducted in order to reduce the damage from over radiation exposure at radiation accident or radiation therapy. So this study was confirmed for radiation protective effects using the Cynanchi wilfordii Radix that has been known to be effective for antioxidant activity, anti-cancer, immune enhancing effects. The method of this study was administered orally Cynanchi wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts to Sprague Dawley Rat(SD Rat) for 14 days once a day, while measuring changed blood cell, spleen index, liver and uterus tissue along the change in time of 1, 4, 7 and 21 days after X-ray beam of 7 Gy irradiation. As the result of the experiment, the experimental group's rats which are administered with Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix ethanol extracts showed a rapid recovery in white blood cell count(p < 0.05) and spleen index(p < 0.05). In addition, condensation of nuclei, cytoplasmic swelling, and inflammatory cell infiltration in experimental group's liver cell was decreased more than in irradiation group's component. Further, experimental group's Uterine gland decreased the apoptosis more than irradiation group's components did. It is expected that Cynanchi Wilfordii Radix extracts will be useful as a new radioprotector. With above in mind, this paper may provide appropriate implications with the field of emergency management such as radiation accident.

  1. Industrial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Production lines for rubber gloves would not appear to have much in common with particle physics laboratories, but they both use accelerators. Electron beam irradiation is often used in industry to improve the quality of manufactured goods or to reduce production cost. Products range from computer disks, shrink packaging, tyres, cables, and plastics to hot water pipes. Some products, such as medical goods, cosmetics and certain foodstuffs, are sterilized in this way. In electron beam irradiation, electrons penetrate materials creating showers of low energy electrons. After many collisions these electrons have the correct energy to create chemically active sites. They may either break molecular bonds or activate a site which promotes a new chemical linkage. This industrial irradiation can be exploited in three ways: breaking down a biological molecule usually renders it useless and kills the organism; breaking an organic molecule can change its toxicity or function; and crosslinking a polymer can strengthen it. In addition to traditional gamma irradiation using isotopes, industrial irradiation uses three accelerator configurations, each type defining an energy range, and consequently the electron penetration depth. For energies up to 750 kV, the accelerator consists of a DC potential applied to a simple wire anode and the electrons extracted through a slot in a coaxially mounted cylindrical cathode. In the 1-5 MeV range, the Cockcroft-Walton or Dynamitron( R ) accelerators are normally used. To achieve the high potentials in these DC accelerators, insulating SF6 gas and large dimension vessels separate the anode and cathode; proprietary techniques distinguish the various commercial models available. Above 5 MeV, the size of DC accelerators render them impractical, and more compact radiofrequency-driven linear accelerators are used. Irradiation electron beams are actually 'sprayed' over the product using a magnetic deflection system. Lower energy beams of

  2. Nonlinear optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ruszczynski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Optimization is one of the most important areas of modern applied mathematics, with applications in fields from engineering and economics to finance, statistics, management science, and medicine. While many books have addressed its various aspects, Nonlinear Optimization is the first comprehensive treatment that will allow graduate students and researchers to understand its modern ideas, principles, and methods within a reasonable time, but without sacrificing mathematical precision. Andrzej Ruszczynski, a leading expert in the optimization of nonlinear stochastic systems, integrates the theory and the methods of nonlinear optimization in a unified, clear, and mathematically rigorous fashion, with detailed and easy-to-follow proofs illustrated by numerous examples and figures. The book covers convex analysis, the theory of optimality conditions, duality theory, and numerical methods for solving unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. It addresses not only classical material but also modern top...

  3. Growth, spectral and optical characterization of a novel nonlinear optical organic material: D-Alanine DL-Mandelic acid single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, P.; Mohamed, M. Peer; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An organic nonlinear optical single crystal, D-alanine DL-mandelic acid was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at ambient temperature using solvent of aqueous solution. The unit cell parameters were assessed from single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The presence of diverse functional groups and vibrational modes were identified using Fourier Transform Infra Red and Fourier Transform Raman spectral analyses. The chemical structure of grown crystal has been identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic study. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analysis reveal that the crystal has lower cut-off wavelength down to 259 nm, is a key factor to exhibit second harmonic generation signal. The electronic optical band gap and Urbach energy is calculated as 5.31 eV and 0.2425 eV respectively from the UV absorption profile. The diverse optical properties such as, extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, optical conductivity was calculated using UV-visible data. The relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 0.81 times greater than that of KH2PO4 (KDP). The thermal stability of the grown crystal was studied by thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis techniques. The luminescence spectrum exhibited two peaks (520 nm, 564 nm) due to the donation of protons from carboxylic acid to amino group. The Vickers microhardness test was carried out employing one of the as-grown hard crystal and there by hardness number (Hv), Meyer's index (n), yield strength (σy), elastic stiffness constant (C11) and Knoop hardness number (HK) were assessed. The dielectric behaviour of the as-grown crystal was analyzed for different temperatures (313 K, 333 K, 353 K, and 373 K) at different frequencies.

  4. Organic materials irradiated at very low temperature and at different stopping powers: examples of polyethylene and of cyclohexane molecules trapped in matrix; Materiaux organiques irradies a tres basse temperature et a differents pouvoirs d'arret: cas du polyethylene et des molecules de cyclohexane isolees en matrice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melot, M

    2003-10-15

    This thesis concerns the formation mechanisms of defects created in organic materials during irradiation under vacuum, at very low temperature and at different electronic stopping powers. Analysis have been realised by infrared spectroscopy. The first part concerns polyethylene. Irradiating at 8 K allows to dissociate the direct irradiation effects (in cage reactions) and the radical recombination effects. According to the considered chemical groups, the radical mobility leads to very different changes for the formation radiochemical yields. The second part concerns the irradiation of cyclohexane molecules trapped in a solid argon matrix. We evaluate the contribution of intermolecular and intramolecular reactions. The intermolecular reactions have limited consequences when using low ionising radiations but are crucial for heavy ion irradiations. (author)

  5. Protective Effect of Exogenous Dehydro-epiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) on Liver Cell Organs of Whole Body y-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, K.I.; El-Gawish, M.A.; Abou-Safi, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHES) are adrenal hormones. They are powerful endogenous antioxidants and are important in protecting the cells from damage. The present work aimed to evaluate the exogenous DHEAS as a protector against the whole body exposure to gamma radiation damages on DNA and RNA content of the nuclear fraction, calcium and acid phosphatase in the mitochondria fraction and glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the cytosol fraction in the liver of male rats. Fifty male albino rats weighing 130-150 g were categorized into the following groups: 1-Control untreated. 2-Exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). 3-Received a single oral administration of DHEAS at a dose level of 200 mg/kg b.wt. 4-Administered with DHEAS (200 mg/kg) two h pre-exposure to whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). Three time intervals were determined for tissue sampling: after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation (groups 2 and 4) and post administration of DHEAS (group 3). The results showed that: 1- DHEAS has a radioprotective effect on DNA and RNA content decreases in the liver nuclear fraction. 2- It significantly ameliorated the changes in mitochondria Ca21 content and acid phosphatase activity. 3- It improved both GSH and MDA contents in the cytosolic fraction. It could be concluded that, DHEAS showed an obvious protective role against the hazard of gamma radiation on liver cells. Several mechanisms were discussed about its effects. Therefore, more investigations are needed to understand well the role of DHEAS in protecting the animal tissues against ionizing radiation hazard

  6. Role of Temperature and Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter on Inactivation Kinetics of Rotavirus and Bacteriophage MS2 by Solar Irradiation

    KAUST Repository

    Romero, Ofelia C.

    2011-12-15

    Although the sunlight-mediated inactivation of viruses has been recognized as an important process that controls surface water quality, the mechanisms of virus inactivation by sunlight are not yet clearly understood. We investigated the synergistic role of temperature and Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), an exogenous sensitizer, for sunlight-mediated inactivation of porcine rotavirus and MS2 bacteriophage. Upon irradiation by a full spectrum of simulated sunlight in the absence of SRNOM and in the temperature range of 14-42 °C, high inactivation rate constants, kobs, of MS2 (k obs ≤ 3.8 h-1 or 1-log10 over 0.6 h) and rotavirus (kobs ≤ 11.8 h-1 or ∼1-log10 over 0.2 h) were measured. A weak temperature (14-42 °C) dependence of kobs values was observed for both viruses irradiated by the full sunlight spectrum. Under the same irradiation condition, the presence of SRNOM reduced the inactivation of both viruses due to attenuation of lower wavelengths of the simulated sunlight. For rotavirus and MS2 solutions irradiated by only UVA and visible light in the absence of SRNOM, inactivation kinetics were slow (kobs < 0.3 h-1 or <1-log10 unit reduction over 7 h) and temperature-independent for the range considered. Conversely, under UVA and visible light irradiation and in the presence of SRNOM, temperature-dependent inactivation of MS2 was observed. For rotavirus, the SRNOM-mediated exogenous inactivation was only important at temperatures >33 °C, with low rotavirus kobs values (kobs ≈ 0.2 h-1; 1-log10 unit reduction over 12 h) for the temperature range of 14-33 °C. These kobs values increased to 0.5 h-1 at 43 °C and 1.5 h-1 (1-log10 reduction over 1.6 h) at 50 °C. While SRNOM-mediated exogenous inactivation of MS2 was triggered by singlet oxygen, the presence of hydrogen peroxide was important for rotavirus inactivation in the 40-50 °C range. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Non-linear effects in the radiolysis-optically detected ESR of radical-ion pairs in liquid and glassy solutions. Reactions and motion of organic radicals as studied by ESR and OD ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antzutkin, O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is divided into two sections. The first part covers an introduction to the Optically Detected Electron Spin Resonance (OD ESR) spectroscopy and a short description of the OD ESR spectrometer built in Linkoeping University in 1991. In the second section the following topics are discussed: Non-linear effects in OD ESR spectroscopy and Reactions and motion of organic radicals trapped in freon matrices. (19 refs.)

  8. Focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose irradiation down-regulated organ development-related functions and up-regulated the immune response in mouse pulmonary tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bu-Yeo; Jin, Hee; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kang, Ga-Young; Cho, Jaeho; Lee, Yun-Sil

    2016-01-27

    Despite the emergence of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for treatment of medically inoperable early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer patients, the molecular effects of focal exposure of limited lung volumes to high-dose radiation have not been fully characterized. This study was designed to identify molecular changes induced by focal high-dose irradiation using a mouse model of SBRT. Central areas of the mouse left lung were focally-irradiated (3 mm in diameter) with a single high-dose of radiation (90 Gy). Temporal changes in gene expression in the irradiated and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions were analyzed by microarray. For comparison, the long-term effect (12 months) of 20 Gy radiation on a diffuse region of lung was also measured. The majority of genes were down-regulated in the focally-irradiated lung areas at 2 to 3 weeks after irradiation. This pattern of gene expression was clearly different than gene expression in the diffuse region of lungs exposed to low-dose radiation. Ontological and pathway analyses indicated these down-regulated genes were mainly associated with organ development. Although the number was small, genes that were up-regulated after focal irradiation were associated with immune-related functions. The temporal patterns of gene expression and the associated biological functions were also similar in non-irradiated neighboring lung regions, although statistical significance was greatly reduced when compared with those from focally-irradiated areas of the lung. From network analysis of temporally regulated genes, we identified inter-related modules associated with diverse functions, including organ development and the immune response, in both the focally-irradiated regions and non-irradiated neighboring lung regions. Focal exposure of lung tissue to high-dose radiation induced expression of genes associated with organ development and the immune response. This pattern of gene expression was also observed in non-irradiated

  9. Nonlinear beam expander for ESNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusthoi, D.P.; Blind, B.; Garnett, R.W.; Hanna, D.S.; Jason, A.J.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Neri, F.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design of a beam-redistribution and expansion system for the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT). The system tailors the beam exiting a deuteron accelerator at energies from 20 to 35 MeV for deposition on a lithium neutron-production target. A uniform beam-intensity distribution in a well-defined irradiation area is inquired at the target and is achieved by the use of nonlinear elements. The design of the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) for ESNIT includes a 90 degree achromatic bend, a matching section with an energy-compacting cavity, a nonlinear beam expander, a target imager, a shielding dipole, and an rf-cavity system to add energy spread to the beam before it impinges on the target. The system meets performance requirements at multiple energies and currents, and for different spot sizes on target

  10. Food irradiation and packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, David

    1988-01-01

    This outline review was written for 'Food Manufacture'. It deals with the known effects of irradiation on current packaging materials (glass, cellulosics, organic polymers and metals), and their implications for the effective application of the process. (U.K.)

  11. Hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires as stable photocatalyst for organic dye degradation under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Judong; Chen, Jianjun; Xin, Lipeng; Wang, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance was enhanced by hierarchical nanostructural SiC nanowires due to the increased specific surface areas and efficient incident light scattering. The positive effect of SiO 2 layer growth on the surface of nanowires during the catalytic process on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was attributed to SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies. -- Highlights: • High decolorization rate of methylene blue using hierarchical 3C-SiC nanowires was obtained. • The effect of methylene blue with different concentration to catalytic result was investigated. • The photocatalytic reaction mechanism of degrading methylene blue was explained. • The SiO 2 layer generating on nanowire surface in the catalytic process was analyzed. -- Abstract: 3C-SiC nanowires with hierarchical structure were synthesized by sol–gel carbothermal reduction method. The photocatalytic property of SiC nanowires was investigated. 3C-SiC hierarchical nanowires exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic activity by accelerating the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue solution under visible light irradiation. Methylene blue was degraded efficiently after 5 h irradiation over the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic activity was affected by the initial concentration of the methylene blue solution. Silicon dioxide layer was observed on the surface of nanowires after the catalytic process. The positive effect of SiO 2 surface oxygen vacancies and 3C-SiC hierarchical nanostructures on the high decolorization efficiency of SiC nanowires was discussed. The detailed photocatalytic redox processes were also explained

  12. In situ growth of CdS nanoparticles on UiO-66 metal-organic framework octahedrons for enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jian-Jian; Wang, Rong; Liu, Xin-Ling; Peng, Fu-Min [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy & Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Li, Chuan-Hao, E-mail: chuanhao.li@yale.edu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy & Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven 06511 (United States); Teng, Fei [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy & Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen generation was achieved though constructing the CdS/UiO-66 MOF hybrids. In addition, the resultant hybrids show excellent photostability for hydrogen generation. - Highlights: • CdS nanoparticles were hydrothermally grown on UiO-66 octahedrons. • The resultant CdS/UiO-66 hybrids show enhanced photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation under visible light irradiation. • CdS/UiO-66 hybrids possess excellent photostability for long-term hydrogen generation. - Abstract: CdS nanoparticles acting as photosensitizer was grown in situ upon UiO-66 metal-organic framework octahedrons through a hydrothermal process. The resultant CdS/UiO-66 hybrid photocatalysts show remarkably active hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation as compared to CdS and UiO-66 alone. The optimum hybrid with 16 wt% CdS loading shows a hydrogen production rate of 235 μmol h{sup −1}, corresponding to 1.2% quantum efficiency at 420 nm. The improved photocatalytic hydrogen production over hybrid CdS/UiO-66 is ascribed to the efficient interfacial charge transfer from CdS to UiO-66, which effectively suppresses the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and thereby enhancing the photocatalytic efficiency.

  13. A study on heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of various organic compounds using N-Tio2 under Uv-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, Dhegam; Sailu, Chinta

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the photocatalytic degradation of mixture of four selected organic compounds are Congo Red (CR), Methylene Blue (MB), Diclofenaec (DC), 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) have been subjected to Photo catalytic degradation by Ultraviolet (λ=254nm) radiation in presence of Nitrogen-doped Titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) catalyst. This paper focused on the enhancement of photo catalysis by modification of TiO2 employing non-metal ion (Nitrogen) doping. Experiments are conducted with a mixture of equal proportions of organic compounds (CR, MB, DC, and 4-CP) with combined concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/l in water in a batch reactor in presence of N-TiO2catalyst with UV light (λ=254nm). The rate of degradation of each compound is determined by using spectrophotometer. The kinetics of degradation of the selected organic compounds is followed first order rate.

  14. Photocatalytic degradation of some organic dyes under solar light irradiation using TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Amini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the ZnO and TiO2 were synthesized and the physicochemical properties of the compounds were characterized by IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The XRD patterns of the ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles could be indexed to hexagonal and rutile phase, respectively. Aggregated nanoparticles of ZnO and TiO2 with spherical-like shapes were observed with particle diameter in the range of 80-100 nm. These nanoparticles were used for photocatalytic degradation of various dyes, Rhodamine B (RhB, Methylene blue (MB and Acridine orange (AO under solar light irradiation at room temperature. Effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of photodegradation was investigated. In general, because ZnO is unstable, due to incongruous dissolution to yield Zn(OH2 on the ZnO particle surfaces and thus leading to catalyst inactivation,the catalytic activity of the system for photodegradation of dyes decreased dramatically when TiO2 was replaced by ZnO.

  15. Nonlinear Elliptic Differential Equations with Multivalued Nonlinearities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study nonlinear elliptic boundary value problems with monotone and nonmonotone multivalued nonlinearities. First we consider the case of monotone nonlinearities. In the first result we assume that the multivalued nonlinearity is defined on all R R . Assuming the existence of an upper and of a lower ...

  16. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindqvist, H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is a review of food irradiation and lists plants for food irradiation in the world. Possible applications for irradiation are discussed, and changes induced in food from radiation, nutritional as well as organoleptic, are reviewed. Possible toxicological risks with irradiated food and risks from alternative methods for treatment are also brought up. Ways to analyze weather food has been irradiated or not are presented. 8 refs

  18. Application of the Monte Carlo method to the study of the response of an organic liquid scintillator irradiated by photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupre, Corinne.

    1982-10-01

    The Monte Carlo method was applied to simulate the transport of a photon beam in an organic liquid scintillation detector. The interactions of secondary gamma rays and electrons with the detector and its peripheral materials components such as the pyrex glass container are included. The pulse height spectra and the detectors efficiency are compared with calculated and measured results. Calculations and programmation methods are presented in the same way as results concerning cobalt and cesium sources [fr

  19. Estimation of the dose to the nursing infant due to direct irradiation from activity present in maternal organs and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J. G.; Nosske, D.; Dos Santos, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclides deposited internally in the mother will give rise to a radiation dose in the infant in two ways. The radionuclides may be transferred through milk and give rise to an internal dose in the infant, or the radionuclides may emit photons that are absorbed by the infant, giving rise to an external dose. In this paper, the external dose to the newborn infant caused by direct irradiation was estimated for monoenergetic photons. Voxel models (also called voxel phantoms) of the mother and infant were made in three geometries. These models, consisting of volume elements, or voxels, were designed so that the infant model was placed in the lap, at the breast and on the shoulder of the mother model. The Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code was used to transport the photons through the voxel models. Source regions for the emitted photons, such as the whole body, the thyroid, the lung, the liver and the skeleton, were chosen. For the validation of the calculation procedure, VMC results were favourably compared with the results obtained by using other Monte Carlo programs and also with the previously published results for specific absorbed fractions. This paper provides estimates of the external dose per photon to the infant for photon energies between 0.05 and 2.5 MeV. The external dose per photon estimates were made for the three geometries and for the sources listed above. The results show that, for the geometry of the nursing infant model at the breast, the highest dose to the infant per photon comes from radionuclides deposited in the mother's liver. For the nursing infant model at the shoulder, the highest dose to the infant per photon comes from radionuclides deposited in the mother's thyroid, and for the nursing infant model in the lap, the highest dose to the infant per photon comes from radionuclides deposited uniformly in the whole body. The dose per photon results were then used to estimate the dose an infant might receive over the lactation period (6 months

  20. Deposition of CdS nanoparticles on MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic framework with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Longxing, E-mail: hulxhhhb@shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Deng, Guihua [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Lu, Wencong [College of Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Pang, Siwei; Hu, Xing [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Graphical abstract: The CdS/MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst has been synthesized by a facile two-step solvothermal method and applied for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant RhB under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • A novel CdS/MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a facile two-step solvothermal method. • CdS/MIL-53(Fe) exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic degradation of RhB in water. • The mechanisms for the formation of CdS/MIL-53(Fe) and photocatalytic degradation of RhB were proposed. - Abstract: A novel composite, CdS/MIL-53(Fe), was successfully fabricated via a facile solvothermal method and characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR and UV–vis DRS. The results showed that the fabrication was able to result in a good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles onto MIL-53(Fe). The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized composite were investigated through the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was found that the composite prepared at the mass ratio of CdS to MIL-53(Fe) of 1.5:1 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity. An approximately 92.5% of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was achieved at 0.5 g/L of 1.5-CdS/MIL dosage, 10 mg/L of initial RhB concentration and 23 °C of reaction temperature under visible light irradiation. The RhB photocatalytic degradation followed well the first-order kinetics equation and the increased catalyst dosage and optimal initial RhB concentration were responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation. Quenching tests revealed that the predominant free radicals in the CdS/MIL-(53)-RhB{sub aq}-visible light system was O{sub 2}{sup −}·; nevertheless, h{sup +} and ·OH also contributed to a certain degree. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was ascribed to the formation of heterojunction structure between CdS and MIL-53(Fe) which significantly suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs

  1. Deposition of CdS nanoparticles on MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic framework with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Longxing; Deng, Guihua; Lu, Wencong; Pang, Siwei; Hu, Xing

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The CdS/MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst has been synthesized by a facile two-step solvothermal method and applied for photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant RhB under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • A novel CdS/MIL-53(Fe) photocatalyst was successfully synthesized via a facile two-step solvothermal method. • CdS/MIL-53(Fe) exhibited an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic degradation of RhB in water. • The mechanisms for the formation of CdS/MIL-53(Fe) and photocatalytic degradation of RhB were proposed. - Abstract: A novel composite, CdS/MIL-53(Fe), was successfully fabricated via a facile solvothermal method and characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR and UV–vis DRS. The results showed that the fabrication was able to result in a good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles onto MIL-53(Fe). The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized composite were investigated through the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was found that the composite prepared at the mass ratio of CdS to MIL-53(Fe) of 1.5:1 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity. An approximately 92.5% of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was achieved at 0.5 g/L of 1.5-CdS/MIL dosage, 10 mg/L of initial RhB concentration and 23 °C of reaction temperature under visible light irradiation. The RhB photocatalytic degradation followed well the first-order kinetics equation and the increased catalyst dosage and optimal initial RhB concentration were responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation. Quenching tests revealed that the predominant free radicals in the CdS/MIL-(53)-RhB aq -visible light system was O 2 − ·; nevertheless, h + and ·OH also contributed to a certain degree. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was ascribed to the formation of heterojunction structure between CdS and MIL-53(Fe) which significantly suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the

  2. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenewald, T

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has become a matter of topical interest also in the Federal Republic of Germany following applications for exemptions concerning irradiation tests of spices. After risks to human health by irradiation doses up to a level sufficient for product pasteurization were excluded, irradiation now offers a method suitable primarily for the disinfestation of fruit and decontamination of frozen and dried food. Codex Alimentarius standards which refer also to supervision and dosimetry have been established; they should be adopted as national law. However, in the majority of cases where individual countries including EC member-countries so far permitted food irradiation, these standards were not yet used. Approved irradiation technique for industrial use is available. Several industrial food irradiation plants, partly working also on a contractual basis, are already in operation in various countries. Consumer response still is largely unknown; since irradiated food is labelled, consumption of irradiated food will be decided upon by consumers.

  3. Non-critically phase-matched second harmonic generation and third order nonlinearity in organic crystal glucuronic acid γ-lactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Katturi, Naga Krishnakanth; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-12-01

    The linear, second order, and third order nonlinear optical properties of glucuronic acid γ-lactone single crystals were investigated. The optic axes and principal dielectric axes were identified through optical conoscopy and the principal refractive indices were obtained using the Brewster's angle method. Conic sections were observed which is perceived to be due to spontaneous non-collinear phase matching. The direction of collinear phase matching was determined and the deff evaluated in this direction was 0.71 pm/V. Open and closed aperture Z-scan measurements with femtosecond pulses revealed high third order nonlinearity in the form of self-defocusing, two-photon absorption, as well as saturable absorption.

  4. Systemic response of Korean dark-striped field mice, Apodenmus agrarius coreae after high-dose- rate γ-irradiation: Organ weights, hemato-chemistry, apoptosis of splenocytes and sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Choi, Hoon; Joo, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, KHNP, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Dong Kwon [Nuclear Environment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Since the territory of the radio-contaminated area is in homeogenous in radiation level and spectrum, investigation of the genetical mutation process in the natural animal populations inhabiting the radioontaminated areas will be provide a realistic picture of genetic effects for radiation exposure. However, little is known about the basic data such as systemic responses after ionizing radiation exposures in wild small rodents. Taking into account different radio-sensitivity of dark-striped field mice (A. a. coreae, THOMAS), the objective of the study is focus on investigate the level of systemic responses, included organ weights, hemato-chemistry and apoptosis in splenocytes and sperm of caudal epididymis after high-dose-rate irradiation especially as a potential biological dosimeter in radio-ecology. Figure 1 summarizes the results of the apoptotic events in spleen (data not shown at here) and in sperm of caudal epididymis at 24hrs after a single high-dose-rate γ-irradiation. The results of apoptosis in spleen and sperm caused by exposure to different doses of γ-irradiation are displayed. The data show that the field striped mice after irradiated with more than high dose of 0.5 Gy induces an significantly increased apoptosis. Results also shown that for exposure to 0.5 Gy, the apoptosis of both organs ware decreased compared to those of other γ-irradiated mice.

  5. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  6. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  7. The return of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerton, K.

    1992-01-01

    In discussing the need for food irradiation the author examines the problems that arise in processing foods of different kinds: spices, meat, fruits and vegetables. It is demonstrated that the relatively low dose of radiation required to eliminate the reproductive capacity of the pest can be tolerated by most fruits and vegetables without damage. Moreover the safety of irradiated food is acknowledged by major national and international food organizations and committees. The author agreed that when food irradiation has been approved by a country, consumers should be able to choose between irradiated and non-irradiated food. To enable the choice, clear and unambiguous labelling must be enforced. 13 refs., 1 tab., ills

  8. The effect of ionizing irradiation on motion of cytoplasm in cells of Elodea canadensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tordyiya, N.V.; Grodzyins'kij, D.M.; Danil'chenko, O.O.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of acute irradiation on the velocity of cytoplasm is investigated. It is shown that, for small doses, there is a strong nonlinearity between the velocity of cytoplasm and dose. The nonlinear behavior disappears with increasing a dose

  9. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  11. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  12. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomotaro; Aoki, Shohei

    1976-01-01

    Definition and significance of food irradiation were described. The details of its development and present state were also described. The effect of the irradiation on Irish potatoes, onions, wiener sausages, kamaboko (boiled fish-paste), and mandarin oranges was evaluated; and healthiness of food irradiation was discussed. Studies of the irradiation equipment for Irish potatoes in a large-sized container, and the silo-typed irradiation equipment for rice and wheat were mentioned. Shihoro RI center in Hokkaido which was put to practical use for the irradiation of Irish potatoes was introduced. The state of permission of food irradiation in foreign countries in 1975 was introduced. As a view of the food irradiation in the future, its utilization for the prevention of epidemics due to imported foods was mentioned. (Serizawa, K.)

  13. Gamma irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonet, G.

    1986-09-01

    Fiability of devices set around reactors depends on material resistance under irradiation noticeably joints, insulators, which belongs to composition of technical, safety or physical incasurement devices. The irradiated fuel elements, during their desactivation in a pool, are an interesting gamma irradiation device to simulate damages created in a nuclear environment. The existing facility at Osiris allows to generate an homogeneous rate dose in an important volume. The control of the element distances to irradiation box allows to control this dose rate [fr

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The article explains what radiation does to food to preserve it. Food irradiation is of economic importance to Canada because Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is the leading world supplier of industrial irradiators. Progress is being made towards changing regulations which have restricted the irradiation of food in the United States and Canada. Examples are given of applications in other countries. Opposition to food irradiation by antinuclear groups is addressed

  15. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  16. Numerical absorbed dose distributions inside principal organs of a mathematical anthropomorphic phantom irradiated by monoenergetic photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furstoss, C.; Menard, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Personnel can be exposed to photon or mixed (neutrons and photons) radiations at workplaces for various activities (nuclear fuel cycle, medical sector, research... ). The passive and active personal dosimeters worn on the trunk evaluate the personal dose equivalent Hp(10), defined by ICRP 601 to be an estimator of the effective dose E. However, the angular and energy distributions of the radiations encountered could generate an over or under-estimation of the protection quantity E because of the response of the dosimeters or/and because of the definition of Hp(10) itself. The Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) is evaluating the possibility of the measurement of the effective dose E using an instrumented anthropomorphic phantom at workplaces. Such an instrument would allow the control of the suitability of the radiological protection instrumentation used at workplaces for radiation fields which can appreciably differ from the reference ISO radiation fields used to calibrate dosimeters. The objectives of this study are to determine key positions for the future detectors inside and on the phantom, as well as their needed technical characteristics. The simulations of the organ absorbed dose distributions performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX2 and the MIRD phantom3 model will allow the determination of the detector locations. This paper will present the first numerical results obtained for monoenergetic parallel photon fields. The effective doses E calculated in an energy range from 15 keV to 10 MeV will be presented and compared with the results of M. Zankl et al., published in the GSF report Bericht 8/974. (author)

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, M.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of food irradiation are outlined. The interaction of irradiation with matter is then discussed with special reference to the major constituents of foods. The application of chemical analysis in the evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods is summarized [af

  18. The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of haemopoietic organs and blood of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishurova, E.; Kropachova, K.; Reksa, R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of continuous gamma-irradiation at exponentially decreased dose rates on the nucleic acid content of rat hemopoietic tissues and blood was followed up. We have found that the dynamics of the changes seems to be similar to that observed after acute exposure, and the hemopoiesis recovery starts just at the time of irradiation. In evaluating the damage and recovery extent after accidental irradiation, we consider it expedient to complement the biological dosimetry with the indices studied work including the determination of DNA and RNA concentrations in blood of irradiated human beings

  19. TiO2-PANI/Cork composite: A new floating photocatalyst for the treatment of organic pollutants under sunlight irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sboui, Mouheb; Nsib, Mohamed Faouzi; Rayes, Ali; Swaminathan, Meenakshisundaram; Houas, Ammar

    2017-10-01

    A novel photocatalyst based on TiO 2 -PANI composite supported on small pieces of cork has been reported. It was prepared by simple impregnation method of the polyaniline (PANI)-modified TiO 2 on cork. The TiO 2 -PANI/Cork catalyst shows the unique feature of floating on the water surface. The as-synthesized catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrograph (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. Characterization suggested the formation of anatase highly dispersed on the cork surface. The prepared floating photocatalyst showed high efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange dye and other organic pollutants under solar irradiation and constrained conditions, i.e., no-stirring and no-oxygenation. The TiO 2 -PANI/Cork floating photocatalyst can be reused for at least four consecutive times without significant decrease of the degradation efficiency. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Enhanced Ga2O3-photocatalyzed and photochemical degradation of the Fipronil insecticide by UVC irradiation in mixed aqueous/organic media under an inert atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Hisao; Tsukamoto, Tohru; Mitsutsuka, Yoshihiro; Oyama, Toshiyuki; Serpone, Nick

    2015-05-01

    Agrochemicals such as the insecticide Fipronil that bear fluoro groups are generally fat-soluble and nearly insoluble in water, so that their photodegradation in a heterogeneous aqueous gallium oxide dispersion presents some challenges. This article examined the photodegradation of this insecticide by solubilizing it through the addition of organic solvents (EtOH, MeOH, THF, 1,4-dioxane and ethylene glycol) to an aqueous medium and then subjecting the insecticide to 254 nm UVC radiation under photocatalytically inert (Ga2O3/N2) and air-equilibrated (Ga2O3/O2) conditions, as well as photochemically in the absence of Ga2O3 but also under inert and air-equilibrated conditions. Defluorination, dechlorination, desulfonation and denitridation of Fipronil were examined in mixed aqueous/organic media (10, 25 and 50 vol% in organic solvent). After 3 h of UVC irradiation (50 vol% mixed media) defluorination with Ga2O3/N2 was ∼65% greater than in aqueous media, and ca. 80% greater than the direct photolysis of Fipronil under inert (N2) conditions; under air-equilibrated conditions both Ga2O3-photocatalyzed and photochemical defluorination were significantly lower than in aqueous media. Dechlorination of Fipronil was ∼160% (Ga2O3/N2) and 140% (photochemically, N2) greater than in aqueous media; under air-equilibrated conditions, both photocatalyzed and photochemical formation of Cl(-) ions in mixed media fell rather short relative to aqueous media. The photocatalyzed (Ga2O3/N2) and photochemical (N2) conversion of the sulfur group in Fipronil to SO4(2(-)) ions was ca. 20% and 30% greater, respectively, in mixed media, while under air-equilibrated conditions photocatalyzed desulfonation was nearly twofold less than in the aqueous phase; direct photolysis showed little variations in mixed media. Denitridation of the nitrogens in Fipronil occurred mostly through the formation of ammonia (as NH4(+)) under all conditions with negligible quantities of NO3(-); again mixed media

  1. SU-F-T-418: Evaluation of Organs at Risk (OAR) Sparing in Left Breast Irradiation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, A [Oviedo, FL (United States); Hwang, C [FLHOSP, Altamonte Springs, Florida (United States); Das, I [Indiana University- School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare dose to organs at risk (OAR) for left sided breast radiation therapy with comparable planning target volume (PTV) coverage in three techniques; free breathing in supine position (FB), deep inspirational breath hold in supine (DIBH) and free breathing in prone position (PP). Methods: Ten left sided breast cancer patients suitable for this study underwent a CT scan in three techniques e.g. supine, FB and DIBH and prone position (PP). One radiation oncologist contoured the PTV and OAR (cardiac components) based on RTOG guidelines. Treatment plans were optimized using field-in-field technique with AAA algorithm. Each plan was optimized to provide identical coverage to PTV such that a reasonable comparison in OAR dosimetry can be evaluated. The prescribed dose to PTV were 42.56 Gy; 2.66 Gy in 16 fractions. Results: Average lung dose parameters; Dmean, V10, V20 and V30 were 0.5 Gy, 0.6%, 0.2%, and 0.1% respectively in PP which is significantly lower than FB (5.9 Gy, 14.2%, 10.7 %, and 8.4%) and DIBH (5.8 Gy, 14.3%, 10.2%, 7.8%). Similarly average heart Dmean, V2.5, V5, V10, and V20 were much lower in PP (1.2Gy, 9.1%, 2.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%), and in DIBH (1.2 Gy, 10.6%, 1.7%, 0.5%, and 0.1%) compared to FB (2.6 Gy, 21%, 7.2%, 4.4% and 3.3%) respectively. Similar findings were also noted in the heart component left anterior descending artery (LAD) and Left ventricle (LV) which are correlated to radiation related toxicity. Conclusion: Based on the calculated dose, FB technique provides highest heart and lung dose. Prone has lowest lung dose, and DIBH has lowest LAD dose. It is found that PP is always superior for heart, LV, LAD and lung as compared to FB. This conclusion is in contrast to some published study concluding that prone position has no benefit for heart sparing.

  2. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  3. [Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Resistive MHD equilibrium, even for small resistivity, differs greatly from ideal equilibrium, as do the dynamical consequences of its instabilities. The requirement, imposed by Faraday's law, that time independent magnetic fields imply curl-free electric fields, greatly restricts the electric fields allowed inside a finite-resistivity plasma. If there is no flow and the implications of the Ohm's law are taken into account (and they need not be, for ideal equilibria), the electric field must equal the resistivity times the current density. The vanishing of the divergence of the current density then provides a partial differential equation which, together with boundary conditions, uniquely determines the scalar potential, the electric field, and the current density, for any given resistivity profile. The situation parallels closely that of driven shear flows in hydrodynamics, in that while dissipative steady states are somewhat more complex than ideal ones, there are vastly fewer of them to consider. Seen in this light, the vast majority of ideal MHD equilibria are just irrelevant, incapable of being set up in the first place. The steady state whose stability thresholds and nonlinear behavior needs to be investigated ceases to be an arbitrary ad hoc exercise dependent upon the whim of the investigator, but is determined by boundary conditions and choice of resistivity profile

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Queensland Government has given its support the establishment of a food irradiation plant in Queensland. The decision to press ahead with a food irradiation plant is astonishing given that there are two independent inquiries being carried out into food irradiation - a Parliamentary Committee inquiry and an inquiry by the Australian Consumers Association, both of which have still to table their Reports. It is fair to assume from the Queensland Government's response to date, therefore, that the Government will proceed with its food irradiation proposals regardless of the outcomes of the various federal inquiries. The reasons for the Australian Democrats' opposition to food irradiation which are also those of concerned citizens are outlined

  5. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1989-01-01

    The ranges of doses used for food irradiation and their effect on the processed foods are outlined. The wholesomeness of irradiated foods is discussed. The present food irradiation technology development in the world is described. A review of the irradiated foods permitted for public consumption, the purposes of food irradiaton, the doses used and a review of the commercial-scale food irradiators are tabulated. The history and the present state of food processing in Czechoslovakia are described. (author). 1 fig., 3 tabs., 13 refs

  6. Irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrington, Hugh

    1988-06-01

    This special edition of 'Food Manufacture' presents papers on the following aspects of the use of irradiation in the food industry:- 1) an outline view of current technology and its potential. 2) Safety and wholesomeness of irradiated and non-irradiated foods. 3) A review of the known effects of irradiation on packaging. 4) The problems of regulating the use of irradiation and consumer protection against abuse. 5) The detection problem - current procedures. 6) Description of the Gammaster BV plant in Holland. 7) World outline review. 8) Current and future commercial activities in Europe. (U.K.)

  7. Investigations on synthesis, growth and physicochemical properties of semi-organic NLO crystal bis(thiourea) ammonium nitrate for nonlinear frequency conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, A.; Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Sundar, G. J. Shanmuga; Mosses, M. Allen; Raj, M. Packiya; Prabhakaran, M.; Ravisankar, R.; Gunaseelan, R.

    2017-10-01

    Bis(thiourea) ammonium nitrate (BTAN), a new nonlinear optical crystal was grown successfully by slow evaporation technique using water as solvent at room temperature. The grown crystals were optically good quality with dimensions upto 10 × 6 × 3 mm3. Single crystal X-Ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal lattice is orthorhombic. From Powder X-ray diffraction analysis the diffraction planes have been indexed. The presence of the various functional groups of BTAN was identified through FTIR spectroscopic analysis. UV cut-off wavelength was observed from optical absorbance spectrum and it was found to be 240 nm. Second harmonic efficiency was determined using Kurtz powder method in comparison with KDP to confirm the nonlinearity of the material. Thermal analysis confirmed that grown crystal is thermally stable upto 184 °C. Microhardness studies show that hardness number (Hv) increases with load. Conductivity measurements such as dielectric, ac and photoconductivity were studied. Growth mechanism and surface features of the as grown single crystal was analysed by chemical etching analysis.

  8. The present situation of irradiation services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironiwa, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    The present state of food irradiation in Japan is presented from a point of view of a trustee for irradiation business. Radiation sprout inhibition of potatoes, only approved by Government, and spice treatment, now being applied for, are explained. Existing establishments capable of entrusting irradiation services as business in Japan are outlined including Co-60 gamma ray and X-ray irradiation and electron beam irradiation. Principles of irradiation-induced physical and chemical effects in irradiated materials specifically organic polymers and brief explanation of facilities together with safety devices are also explained. (S. Ohno)

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  10. Food irradiation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henon, Y.M.

    1995-01-01

    Food irradiation already has a long history of hopes and disappointments. Nowhere in the world it plays the role that it should have, including in the much needed prevention of foodborne diseases. Irradiated food sold well wherever consumers were given a chance to buy them. Differences between national regulations do not allow the international trade of irradiated foods. While in many countries food irradiation is still illegal, in most others it is regulated as a food additive and based on the knowledge of the sixties. Until 1980, wholesomeness was the big issue. Then the ''prerequisite'' became detection methods. Large amounts of money have been spent to design and validate tests which, in fact, aim at enforcing unjustified restrictions on the use of the process. In spite of all the difficulties, it is believed that the efforts of various UN organizations and a growing legitimate demand for food safety should in the end lead to recognition and acceptance. (Author)

  11. Nonlinear beam mechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, H.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this Thesis, nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear interactions are studied from a micromechanical point of view. Single and doubly clamped beams are used as model systems where nonlinearity plays an important role. The nonlinearity also gives rise to rich dynamic behavior with phenomena like

  12. Topography evolution of 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam irradiated InP(100) surfaces - formation of self-organized In-rich nano-dots and scaling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulania, Indra; Agarwal, Dinesh C; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Pravin

    2016-07-27

    We report the formation of self-organized nano-dots on the surface of InP(100) upon irradiating it with a 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam. The irradiation was carried out at an angle of 25° with respect to the normal at the surface with 5 different fluences ranging from 1.0 × 10(15) to 1.0 × 10(17) ions per cm(2). The morphology of the ion-irradiated surfaces was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the formation of the nano-dots on the irradiated surfaces was confirmed. The average size of the nano-dots varied from 44 ± 14 nm to 94 ± 26 nm with increasing ion fluence. As a function of the ion fluence, the variation in the average size of the nano-dots has a great correlation with the surface roughness, which changes drastically up to the ion fluence of 1.0 × 10(16) ions per cm(2) and attains almost a saturation level for further irradiation. The roughness and the growth exponent values deduced from the scaling laws suggest that the kinetic sputtering and the large surface diffusion steps of the atoms are the primary reasons for the formation of the self-organized nanodots on the surface. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show that the surface stoichiometry changes with the ion fluence. With irradiation, the surface becomes more indium (In)-rich owing to the preferential sputtering of the phosphorus atoms (P) and the pure metallic In nano-dots evolve at the highest ion fluence. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sample irradiated with the highest fluence showed the absence of the nanostructuring beneath the surface. The surface morphological changes at this medium energy ion irradiation are discussed in correlation with the low and high energy experiments to shed more light on the mechanism of the well separated nano-dot formation.

  13. ASEAN workshop on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This proceedings was organized by the ASEAN Food Handling Bureau in Collaboration with the Thai Atomic Energy Commission for Peace. Experts from ASEAN and overseas were invited to present a series of papers covering the state of the art of irradiation technology and the important issues relating to food irradiation

  14. Foodstuff irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Report written on behalf of the Danish Food Institute summarizes national and international rules and developments within food irradiation technology, chemical changes in irradiated foodstuffs, microbiological and health-related aspects of irradiation and finally technological prospects of this conservation form. Food irradiatin has not been hitherto applied in Denmark. Radiation sources and secondary radiation doses in processed food are characterized. Chemical changes due to irradiation are compared to those due to p.ex. food heating. Toxicological and microbiological tests and their results give no unequivocal answer to the problem whether a foodstuff has been irradiated. The most likely application fields in Denmark are for low radiation dosis inhibition of germination, riping delay and insecticide. Medium dosis (1-10 kGy) can reduce bacteria number while high dosis (10-50 kGy) will enable total elimination of microorganisms and viruses. Food irradiation can be acceptable as technological possibility with reservation, that further studies follow. (EG)

  15. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  16. Nonlinear dynamics in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carballido-Landeira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research results relating to applications of nonlinear dynamics, focusing specifically on four topics of wide interest: heart dynamics, DNA/RNA, cell mobility, and proteins. The book derives from the First BCAM Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics in Biological Systems, held in June 2014 at the Basque Center of Applied Mathematics (BCAM). At this international meeting, researchers from different but complementary backgrounds, including molecular dynamics, physical chemistry, bio-informatics and biophysics, presented their most recent results and discussed the future direction of their studies using theoretical, mathematical modeling and experimental approaches. Such was the level of interest stimulated that the decision was taken to produce this publication, with the organizers of the event acting as editors. All of the contributing authors are researchers working on diverse biological problems that can be approached using nonlinear dynamics. The book will appeal especially to applied math...

  17. Hemibody irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schen, B.C.; Mella, O.; Dahl, O.

    1992-01-01

    In a large number of cancer patients, extensive skeletal metastases or myelomatosis induce vast suffering, such as intolerable pain and local complications of neoplastic bone destruction. Analgetic drugs frequently do not yield sufficient palliation. Irradiation of local fields often has to be repeated, because of tumour growth outside previously irradiated volumes. Wide field irradiation of the lower or upper half of the body causes significant relief of pain in most patients. Adequate pretreatment handling of patients, method of irradiation, and follow-up are of importance to reduce side effects, and are described as they are carried out at the Department of Oncology, Haukeland Hospital, Norway. 16 refs., 2 figs

  18. Finely divided, irradiated tetrafluorethylene polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; Rodway, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    Dry non-sticky fine lubricant powders are made by γ-irradiation of unsintered coagulated dispersion grade tetrafluoroethylene polymers. These powders may also be dispersed in an organic medium for lubricating purposes

  19. Tracer kinetics: Modelling of tracer behaviour in nonlinear and nonsteady state systems exemplified by the evaluation of protein turnover in plant organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, E.

    1991-01-01

    If nonlinear biological processes are investigated by means of tracer experiments they can be modelled with linear kinetic equations (compartment equations) as long as the total system is in a stationary state. But if nonstationary behaviour is included considerations on the kinetics of the individual processes are necessary. Within the range of biological and agricultural investigations especially first order reactions (constant fraction processes), zero order reactions (constant amount process) and saturation reactions (Michaelis-Menten-kinetics) are to be taken into account. A rigorous treatment of data based on system theory can be preceeded by graphic-algebraic procedure which may be more or less uncertain in its results but which can easily be handled. An example is given of methodological considerations concerning the combination of evaluation procedures and the discrimination between different reaction mechanisms. It treats protein turnover in 2 different parts of growing wheat plants investigated by means of an 15 N-tracer experiment. Whereas in a stationary system (upper stalk section) linear tracer equations were sufficient irrespective of the true reaction mechanism, for protein synthesis in the upper leaf as a nonstationary system it was necessary to decide between the hypotheses of a zero order and a first order reaction. In accordance with statements in the literature the unambiguous result was a combination of protein synthesis as a zero order process and of protein degradation as a first order process. (orig.) [de

  20. A clinical study of postoperative changes in immunity of patients with digestive organ cancers and effectiveness of oriental medicine in esophageal cancer preoperative irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Teruji

    1993-01-01

    In esophageal cancer, the operative stress caused by thoracotomy and laparotomy is great and, postoperatively, immunity suppressive conditions are seen. Again, it is a known fact that when irradiation is applied pre- and postoperatively, the immunity aptitude will drop even further. Experimentally, Juzen-taiho-to is an oriental medicine reported as having immunity suppressive preventive effects. Juzen-taiho-to is also reported as effective in decreasing side effects caused by anti-cancer agents. However, detailed reports on administration effects of Juzen-taiho-to against irradiation therapy for esophageal cancer has yet to be seen. This time, studies were made on the administration effects of Juzen-taiho-to in esophageal cancer. The subjects of examination were 21 cases in which preoperative irradiation therapy and curative resection was made. Also, 46 cases of non-irradiation therapy and curative resection were studied. These cases were divided into two groups: the Juzen-taiho-to dosaged group (JT), and the non-dosaged (controlled) group (NJT). The hemoglobin value in the irradiated and non-irradiated group did not display apparent differences in both the JT group and the NJT group. In blood serum albumin value, at one month postoperatively, an improvement trend was seen in the JT group as opposed to the NJT group. (author)

  1. Nonlinearities in Behavioral Macroeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Orlando

    2017-07-01

    This article undertakes a journey across the literature on behavioral macroeconomics, with attention concentrated on the nonlinearities that the behavioral approach typically suggests or implies. The emphasis is placed on thinking the macro economy as a living organism, composed of many interacting parts, each one having a will of its own, which is in sharp contrast with the mechanism of the orthodox view (well represented by the neoclassical or new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium - DSGE - model). The paper advocates that a thorough understanding of individual behavior in collective contexts is the only possible avenue to further explore macroeconomic phenomena and the often observed 'anomalies' that the benchmark DSGE macro framework is unable to explain or justify. After a reflection on the role of behavioral traits as a fundamental component of a new way of thinking the economy, the article proceeds with a debate on some of the most relevant frameworks in the literature that somehow link macro behavior and nonlinearities; covered subjects include macro models with disequilibrium rules, agent-based models that highlight interaction and complexity, evolutionary switching frameworks, and inattention based decision problems. These subjects have, as a fundamental point in common, the use of behavioral elements to transform existing interpretations of the economic reality, making it more evident how irregular fluctuations emerge and unfold on the aggregate.

  2. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercader, J.P.; Emily Leong

    1985-01-01

    The paper discusses the need for effective and efficient technologies in improving the food handling system. It defines the basic premises for the development of food handling. The application of food irradiation technology is briefly discussed. The paper points out key considerations for the adoption of food irradiation technology in the ASEAN region (author)

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Akira

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs

  4. Irradiation proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Akira

    1977-01-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Irradiation proctitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, A [Osaka Kita Tsishin Hospital (Japan)

    1977-06-01

    Literatures on late rectal injuries are discussed, referring to two patients with uterine cervical cancer in whom irradiation proctitis occurred after telecobalt irradiation following uterine extirpation. To one patients, a total of 5000 rads was irradiated, dividing into 250 rads at one time, and after 3 months, irradiation with a total of 2000 rads, dividing into 200 rads at one time, was further given. In another one patient, two parallel opposing portal irradiation with a total of 6000 rads was given. About a year after the irradiation, rectal injuries and cystitis, accompanying with hemorrhage, were found in both of the patients. Rectal amputation and proctotoreusis were performed. Cystitis was treated by cystic irradiation in the urological department. Pathohistological studies of the rectal specimen revealed atrophic mucosa, and dilatation of the blood vessels and edema in the colonic submucosa. Incidence of this disease, term when the disease occurs, irradiation dose, type of the disease, treatment and prevention are described on the basis of the literatures.

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Food irradiation can have a number of beneficial effects, including prevention of sprouting; control of insects, parasites, pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, moulds and yeasts; and sterilization, which enables commodities to be stored for long periods. It is most unlikely that all these potential applications will prove commercially acceptable; the extend to which such acceptance is eventually achieved will be determined by practical and economic considerations. A review of the available scientific literature indicates that food irradiation is a thoroughly tested food technology. Safety studies have so far shown no deleterious effects. Irradiation will help to ensure a safer and more plentiful food supply by extending shelf-life and by inactivating pests and pathogens. As long as requirement for good manufacturing practice are implemented, food irradiation is safe and effective. Possible risks of food irradiation are not basically different from those resulting from misuse of other processing methods, such as canning, freezing and pasteurization. (author)

  7. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  8. Irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, L.M.

    2000-01-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization

  9. Market testing of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Ho Minh

    2001-01-01

    Viet Nam has emerged as one of the three top producers and exporters of rice in the world. Tropical climate and poor infrastructure of preservation and storage lead to huge losses of food grains, onions, dried fish and fishery products. Based on demonstration irradiation facility pilot scale studies and marketing of irradiated rice, onions, mushrooms and litchi were successfully undertaken in Viet Nam during 1992-1998. Irradiation technology is being used commercially in Viet Nam since 1991 for insect control of imported tobacco and mould control of national traditional medicinal herbs by both government and private sectors. About 30 tons of tobacco and 25 tons of herbs are irradiated annually. Hanoi Irradiation Centre has been continuing open house practices for visitors from school, universities and various different organizations and thus contributed in improved public education. Consumers were found to prefer irradiated rice, onions, litchi and mushrooms over those nonirradiated. (author)

  10. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ghazali Hj Abd Rahman.

    1985-01-01

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60 Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  11. Bulk monocrystal growth, optical, dielectric, third order nonlinear, thermal and mechanical studies on HCl added L-alanine: An organic NLO material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkir, Mohd, E-mail: shkirphysics@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Qahtani, A.M.A. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Physics Department, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-01

    In the current work, good quality bulk size (∼32 mm × 23 mm × 10 mm) single crystals of HCl added L-alanine with well-defined morphology are successfully grown using slow evaporation technique. Crystal structure and other structural parameters were evaluated from X-ray diffraction data. Vibrational assessment of the grown crystal was done by FT-Raman analysis. The presence of chlorine and good quality of the grown crystal was confirmed by SEM/EDX analysis. Solid state UV–Vis–NIR diffused reflectance was measured and direct and indirect optical band gap was calculated using Kubelka-Munk relation and found to be 5.64 and 5 eV respectively. Dielectric measurement was carried out in high frequency range. Third order nonlinear optical susceptibility value was found to be enhanced from 1.91 × 10{sup −6} (pure) to 8.6 × 10{sup −6} esu (LAHCl). Good thermal stability of grown crystals was confirmed from DSC analysis. The enhancement in mechanical strength and crystalline perfection was also observed. - Highlights: • Bulk size (32 mm × 23 mm × 10 mm), good crystalline perfection HCl added L-alanine monocrystal is grown. • The shift in X-ray diffraction and vibrational peaks confirms the interaction of HCl. • The high optical transparency and band gap confirms its application in optoelectronic devices. • Third order NLO properties are found to be enhanced in HCl added L-alanine crystals. • The mechanical strength of the grown crystals is found to be enhanced due HCl addition.

  12. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Ganikhodjaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular.

  13. Discontinuity and complexity in nonlinear physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baleanu, Dumitru; Luo, Albert

    2014-01-01

    This unique book explores recent developments in experimental research in this broad field, organized in four distinct sections. Part I introduces the reader to the fractional dynamics and Lie group analysis for nonlinear partial differential equations. Part II covers chaos and complexity in nonlinear Hamiltonian systems, important to understand the resonance interactions in nonlinear dynamical systems, such as Tsunami waves and wildfire propagations; as well as Lev flights in chaotic trajectories, dynamical system synchronization and DNA information complexity analysis. Part III examines chaos and periodic motions in discontinuous dynamical systems, extensively present in a range of systems, including piecewise linear systems, vibro-impact systems and drilling systems in engineering. And in Part IV, engineering and financial nonlinearity are discussed. The mechanism of shock wave with saddle-node bifurcation and rotating disk stability will be presented, and the financial nonlinear models will be discussed....

  14. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, M.

    1989-01-01

    This popular-level article emphasizes that the ultimate health effects of irradiated food products are unknown. They may include vitamin loss, contamination of food by botulism bacteria, mutations in bacteria, increased production of aflatoxins, changes in food, carcinogenesis from unknown causes, presence of miscellaneous harmful chemicals, and the lack of a way of for a consumer to detect irradiated food. It is claimed that the nuclear industry is applying pressure on the Canadian government to relax labeling requirements on packages of irradiated food in order to find a market for its otherwise unnecessary products

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecher, O.

    1979-01-01

    Limitations of existing preserving methods and possibilities of improved food preservation by application of nuclear energy are explained. The latest state-of-the-art in irradiation technology in individual countries is described and corresponding recommendations of FAO, WHO and IAEA specialists are presented. The Sulzer irradiation equipment for potato sprout blocking is described, the same equipment being suitable also for the treatment of onions, garlic, rice, maize and other cereals. Systems with a higher power degree are needed for fodder preserving irradiation. (author)

  16. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  17. Growth, spectral, optical, laser damage threshold and DFT investigations on 2-amino 4-methyl pyridinium 4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB): A potential organic third order nonlinear optical material for optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, M.; Karthick, S.; Thirupugalmani, K.; Babu, B.; Vinitha, G.

    2018-05-01

    In present investigation, single crystals of organic charge transfer complex, 2-amino-4-methyl pyridinium-4-methoxy benzoate (2A4MP4MB) was grown by controlled slow evaporation solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent at room temperature. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed the crystal system and lattice parameters of 2A4MP4MB. The crystalline nature, presence of various vibrational modes and other chemical bonds in the compound have been recognized and confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic techniques respectively. The presence of various proton and carbon positions in title compound was confirmed using 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The wide optical operating window and cut-off wavelength were identified and band gap value of the title compound was calculated using UV-vis-NIR study. The specific heat capacity (cp) values of the title compound, 1.712 J g-1·K-1 at 300 K and 13.6 J g-1 K-1 at 433 K (melting point) were measured using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetric studies (MDSC). From Z-scan study, nonlinear refractive index (n2), nonlinear absorption (β) and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) values were determined. The self-defocusing effect and saturable absorption behavior of the material were utilized to exhibit the optical limiting action at λ = 532 nm by employing the same continuous wave (cw) Nd: YAG laser source. The laser damage threshold (LDT) study of title compound was carried out using Nd: YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The Vickers' micro hardness test was carried out at room temperature and obtained results were investigated using classical Meyer's law. In addition, DFT calculations were carried out for the first time for this compound. These characterization studies performed on the title compound planned to probe the valuable and safe region of optical, thermal and mechanical properties to improve efficacy of 2A4MP4MB single crystals in optoelectronic device

  18. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, M.C.

    1991-06-01

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author) [es

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Food preservation by irradiation is one part of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program that is enjoying renewed interest. Classified as a food additive by the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 instead of a processing technique, irradiation lost public acceptance. Experiments have not been done to prove that there are no health hazards from gamma radiation, but there are new pressures to get Food and Drug Administration approval for testing in order to make commercial use of some radioactive wastes. Irradiation causes chemical reactions and nutritional changes, including the destruction of several vitamins, as well as the production of radiolytic products not normally found in food that could have adverse effects. The author concludes that, lacking epidemiological evidence, willing buyers should be able to purchase irradiated food as long as it is properly labeled

  20. Fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Food spoilage is a common problem when marketing agricultural products. Promising results have already been obtained on a number of food irradiating applications. A process is described in this paper where irradiation of sub-tropical fruits, especially mangoes and papayas, combined with conventional heat treatment results in effective insect and fungal control, delays ripening and greatly improves the quality of fruit at both export and internal markets

  1. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  2. Tissue irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in-vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood-carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170

  3. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Processing of food with low levels of radiation has the potential to contribute to reducing both spoilage of food during storage - a particular problem in developing countries - and the high incidence of food-borne disease currently seen in all countries. Approval has been granted for the treatment of more than 30 products with radiation in over 30 countries but, in general, governments have been slow to authorize the use of this new technique. One reason for this slowness is a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails. This book aims to increase understanding by providing information on the process of food irradiation in simple, non-technical language. It describes the effects that irradiation has on food, and the plant and equipment that are necessary to carry it out safely. The legislation and control mechanisms required to ensure the safety of food irradiation facilities are also discussed. Education is seen as the key to gaining the confidence of the consumers in the safety of irradiated food, and to promoting understanding of the benefits that irradiation can provide. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab [de

  5. Differential post-irradiation caffeine response in normal diploid versus SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: potential role of nuclear organization and protein-composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Parsian, A.J.; Duncan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the enhancement of cell killing by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine (CAF) is mediated by alterations in chromatin structure, several nuclear parameters were examined in both caffeine-responsive and non-responsive cell lines. (author)

  6. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Kaidar-Person, O.; Poortmans, P.; Ozsahin, M.; Valli, M.-C.; Russell, N.; Kunkler, I.; Hermans, J.; Kuten, A.; van Tienhoven, G.; Westenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was to examine

  7. Fuel irradiation research of Japan at OECD Halden Reactor Project. Achievement of joint researches between JAERI and other organizations in the period from 1994 to 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Jinichi; Kinoshita, Motoyasu

    1998-01-01

    JAERI has performed cooperative researches with many Japanese agencies and companies by means of the Halden Boiling Heavy Water Reactor (HBWR) which is located at Halden in Norway. These cooperative researches are carried out based on the contracts of the cooperative researches, which are revised every three years, in accordance with the renewal of the participation of JAERI to the OECD Halden Reactor Project. This report summaries the objectives, contents and the outlines of the achievements of the cooperative researches during the three years from 1994 January to 1996 December. During the period, ten cooperative researches had been carried out, and two of them had finished during the period and other eight researches has been continued to the next three year period. There are many research items, and most of them are irradiation test researches of advanced fuel and cladding concerned with the high burnup utilization of LWR fuel or MOX fuel irradiation researches to prepare for the introduction of Plutonium utilization in LWRs. The researches of fuel irradiation usually take long time because of the characteristics of these kind of research work, and three years are usually not enough to obtain some achievements from the irradiation tests. Therefore, eight tests have been continued after the three year period. In this report, the achievements of the continued researches to the next three year period are not final one but a kind of progress report. (author) kind of progress report. (author)

  8. Differential post-irradiation caffeine response in normal diploid versus SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: potential role of nuclear organization and protein-composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Y.C.; Parsian, A.J.; Duncan, P.G. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine)

    1993-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that the enhancement of cell killing by post-irradiation treatment with caffeine (CAF) is mediated by alterations in chromatin structure, several nuclear parameters were examined in both caffeine-responsive and non-responsive cell lines. (author).

  9. Nonlinear and Complex Dynamics in Real Systems

    OpenAIRE

    William Barnett; Apostolos Serletis; Demitre Serletis

    2005-01-01

    This paper was produced for the El-Naschie Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics in Shanghai in December 2005. In this paper we provide a review of the literature with respect to fluctuations in real systems and chaos. In doing so, we contrast the order and organization hypothesis of real systems with nonlinear chaotic dynamics and discuss some techniques used in distinguishing between stochastic and deterministic behavior. Moreover, we look at the issue of where and when the ideas of chaos could p...

  10. Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-30

    Report: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and...Number: W911NF-16-1-0436 Organization: University of Rochester Title: Bright THz Instrument and Nonlinear THz Science Report Term: 0-Other Email: xi...exploring new cutting-edge research and broader applications, following the significant development of THz science and technology in the late 80’s, is the

  11. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meerwaldt, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  12. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    of bound states of out of phase bright solitons and dark solitons. Also, the newly introduced analogy between the nonlocal cubic nonlinear and the quadratic nonlinear media, presented in paper B and Chapter 3 is discussed. In particular it supplies intuitive physical meaning of the formation of solitons...... in quadratic nonlinear media. In the second part of the report (Chapter 4), the possibility to obtain light with ultrabroad spectrum due to the interplay of many nonlinear effects based on cubic nonlinearity is investigated thoroughly. The contribution of stimulated Raman scattering, a delayed nonlinear...... a modified nonlinear Schroedinger model equation. Chapter 4 and papers D and E are dedicated to this part of the research....

  13. Some nonlinear challenges in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosconi, Francesco; Julou, Thomas; Desprat, Nicolas; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Allemand, Jean-François; Croquette, Vincent; Bensimon, David

    2008-01-01

    Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'. (open problem)

  14. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoes, J M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario. Commercial Products

    1982-04-01

    Irradiation has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of /sup 60/Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient.

  15. Irradiation of spices - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadecka, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food irradiation is a process of exposing food to ionising radiation such as gamma rays emitted from the radioisotopes 60Co and 137Cs, or high energy electrons and X-rays produced by machine sources. The use of ionising radiation to destroy harmful biological organisms in food is considered a safe, well proven process that has found many applications. Depending on the absorbed dose of radiation, various effects can be achieved resulting in reduced storage losses, extended shelf life and/or improved microbiological and parasitological safety of foods. The most common irradiated commercial products are spices and vegetable seasonings. Spice irradiation is increasingly recognised as a method that reduces post-harvest losses, ensures hygienic quality, and facilitates trade with food products. This article reviews recent activities concerning food irradiation, focusing on the irradiation of spices and dried vegetable seasonings from the food safety aspect

  16. Food problems and food irradiation, recent trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Food irradiation is to contribute to the stable security of foodstuffs which is the fundamental condition of human survival by improving the preservation of foodstuffs and food sanitation utilizing the biological effect due to irradiation. The research and development have been carried out internationally since 1950s, but after the safety declaration of irradiated foods in 1980 by the international organ concerned, the permission and practical use for foods in various foreign countries, the technology transfer to developing countries and so on have been advanced. At present, food irradiation is permitted in 38 countries, and the practical irradiation is carried out in 24 countries. In Japan, the irradiation of potatoes to prevent germination was permitted in 1972, and the practical irradiation on potatoes of yearly 15,000 t is carried out. In the near future, irradiated foods will appear in international foodstuff market, and Japan which imports foodstuffs must cope with them. Foodstuffs and the safety, food irradiation, the soundness of irradiated foods, food irradiation in various foreign countries and Japan, the trend of international organs and the criticism of food irradiation are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshimitsu.

    1989-01-01

    In an irradiation device for irradiating radiation rays such as electron beams to pharmaceuticals, etc., since the distribution of scanned electron rays was not monitored, the electron beam intensity could be determined only indirectly and irradiation reliability was not satisfactory. In view of the above, a plurality of monitor wires emitting secondary electrons are disposed in the scanning direction near a beam take-out window of a scanning duct, signals from the monitor wires are inputted into a display device such as a cathode ray tube, as well as signals from the monitor wires at the central portion are inputted into counting rate meters to measure the radiation dose as well. Since secondary electrons are emitted when electron beams pass through the monitor wires and the intensity thereof is in proportion with the intensity of incident electron beams, the distribution of the radiation dose can be monitored by measuring the intensity of the emitted secondary electrons. Further, uneven irradiation, etc. can also be monitored to make the radiation of irradiation rays reliable. (N.H.)

  18. Status of Irradiation technology development in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Y.; Inoue, S.; Izumo, H.; Kitagishi, S.; Tsuchiya, K.; Saito, T.; Ishitsuka, E.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation Engineering Section of the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center was organized to development the new irradiation technology for the application at JMTR re operation. The new irradiation engineering building was remodeled from the old RI development building, and was started to use from the end of September, 2008. Advanced in situ instrumentation technology (high temperature multi paired thermocouple, ceramic sensor, application of optical measurement), 99M o production technology by new Mo solution irradiation method, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector, and so on are planned as the development of new irradiation technologies. The development will be also important for the education and training programs through the development of young generation in not only Japan but also Asian counties. In this report, as the status of the development the new irradiation technology, new irradiation engineering building, high temperature multi paired thermocouple, experiences of optical measurement, recycling technology on used beryllium reflector are introduced

  19. Food Irradiation Newsletter. V. 14, no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This issue reports specific training activities on Food Irradiation Process Control School, both for technical supervisors of irradiation facilities and food control officials/inspectors, and summary reports of Workshops on dosimetry techniques for food irradiation and on techno-economic feasibility of food irradiation for Latin American countries are included. After 12 years of operation, the International Facility for Food Irradiation Technology (IFFIT) will cease to function after 31 December 1990. This issue reports the last inter-regional training course organized by IFFIT, and also features reports on food irradiation in Asia. Active developments in the field in several Asian countries may be found in the reports of the Workshop on the Commercialization of Food Irradiation, Shanghai, and the Research Co-ordination Meeting on the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation (with emphasis on acceptance and process control), Bombay. Status reports of programmes in these countries are also included. Refs and tabs

  20. Probing electron density across Ar{sup +} irradiation-induced self-organized TiO{sub 2−x} nanochannels for memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, A.; Saini, C. P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dhar, S.; Kanjilal, A., E-mail: aloke.kanjilal@snu.edu.in [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, Shiv Nadar University, NH-91, Tehsil Dadri, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh 201314 (India); Sarkar, P. K.; Roy, A. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Silchar, Assam 788010 (India); Satpati, B. [Surface Physics and Material Science Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2016-06-13

    The variation of electron density in TiO{sub 2−x} nanochannels, exhibiting resistive switching phenomenon, produced by Ar{sup +} ion-irradiation at the threshold fluence of 5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} is demonstrated by X-ray reflectivity (XRR). The transmission electron microscopy reveals the formation of nanochannels, while the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirms Ti enrichment near the surface due to ion-irradiation, in consistent with the increase in electron density by XRR measurements. Such a variation in Ti concentration indicates the evolution of oxygen vacancies (OVs) along the TiO{sub 2−x} nanochannels, and thus paves the way to explain the operation and performance of the Pt/TiO{sub 2−x}/Pt-based memory devices via OV migration.

  1. 3H-thymidine labelling of DNA of radiosensitive organs of rats irradiated under alpine conditions and after adaptation to hypoxia in the altitude chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, F.T.; Egorov, I.A.; Gladilin, K.L.; Farber, Yu.V.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary adaptation of rats of high altitude conditions (3200 m) and training in the altitude chamber at the same imitated altitude inhibit 3 H-thymidine labelling of thymus DNA both shortly (26 h) and later (20 and 30 days) after irradiation. Whether the thymidine incorporation is activated or delayed depends on conditions of pretreatment. The data obtained are discussed from the point of view of the raioprotective effect of preadaptation of animals to high-altitude hypoxia

  2. Vinca irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymery, R.

    1976-10-01

    The development programme of the VINCA radiosterilisation centre involves plans for an irradiator capable of working in several ways. Discontinuous operation. The irradiator is loaded for a certain period then runs automatically until the moment of unloading. This method is suitable as long as the treatment capacity is relatively small. Continuous operation with permanent batch loading and unloading carried out either manually or automatically (by means of equipment to be installed later). Otherwise the design of the apparatus is highly conventional. The source is a vertical panel submersible in a pool. The conveyor is of the 'bucket' type, with 4 tiers to each bucket. The batches pass successively through all possible irradiation positions. Transfert into and out of the cell take place through a maze, which also provides access to the cell when the sources are in storage at the bottom of the pool [fr

  3. Effects of chromosomal breaks induced by X-irradiation on the number of mesosomes and the cytoplasmic organization of Streptococcus faecalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, L.C.; Dicker, D.T.; Conger, A.D.; Daneo-Moore, L.; Higgins, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A model which explains mesosome formation via a contraction of the cytoplasm and nucleoid when bacteria are physiologically disturbed was tested by 1) X-irradiation of unfixed cells of Streptococcus faecalis to produce chromosomal breaks and to remove DNA attached to the cell membrane; 2) subsequent determination of the number of irradiated cells in which mesosomes and central density changes could be visualised after fixative was added. The results obtained by exposure of cells to a) doses up to 1100 krads before fixation and b) doses greater than 1100 krads before fixation suggested that mesosomes are formed when localized sites on the cell membrane are pulled from close contact with the cell wall into the cytoplasm by the action of a cross-linking fixative via the aggregation of intracytoplasmic components such as DNA. This model considers the attachment of DNA and/or other cytoplasmic components to the membrane as an intrinsic part of its mechanism. The formation of central and peripheral mesosomes in unirradiated and X-irradiated cells are contrasted. (author)

  4. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  5. Nonlinear graphene plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kelvin J. A.; Tan, Dawn T. H.

    2017-10-01

    The rapid development of graphene has opened up exciting new fields in graphene plasmonics and nonlinear optics. Graphene's unique two-dimensional band structure provides extraordinary linear and nonlinear optical properties, which have led to extreme optical confinement in graphene plasmonics and ultrahigh nonlinear optical coefficients, respectively. The synergy between graphene's linear and nonlinear optical properties gave rise to nonlinear graphene plasmonics, which greatly augments graphene-based nonlinear device performance beyond a billion-fold. This nascent field of research will eventually find far-reaching revolutionary technological applications that require device miniaturization, low power consumption and a broad range of operating wavelengths approaching the far-infrared, such as optical computing, medical instrumentation and security applications.

  6. Irradiance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, G.J.; Heckbert, P.S.; Technische Hogeschool Delft

    1992-04-01

    A new method for improving the accuracy of a diffuse interreflection calculation is introduced in a ray tracing context. The information from a hemispherical sampling of the luminous environment is interpreted in a new way to predict the change in irradiance as a function of position and surface orientation. The additional computation involved is modest and the benefit is substantial. An improved interpolation of irradiance resulting from the gradient calculation produces smoother, more accurate renderings. This result is achieved through better utilization of ray samples rather than additional samples or alternate sampling strategies. Thus, the technique is applicable to a variety of global illumination algorithms that use hemicubes or Monte Carlo sampling techniques

  7. ESR signals of irradiated insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Kameya, Hiromi; Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of irradiated insects using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was reported. The insects were maize weevil, red flour beetle, Indian meal moth and cigarette beetle that are hazardous to crops. The ESR spectra were consisted of a singlet at g=2 and a sextet centered at the similar g-value. The singlet signal is due to an organic free radical. The sextet signal is attributable to the hyperfine interactions from Mn 2+ ions. Upon irradiation, new signals were not detected. The relaxation times, T 1 and T 2 , showed no variations before and after irradiation. (author)

  8. Post irradiation examination technology exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozawa, Shizuo; Ito, Masayasu; Taguchi, Taketoshi; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Lee, Hyung-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Under the KAERI and JAEA agreement, in a part of the program 18 (Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and Evaluation Technique of Irradiated Materials), an eddy current test was proposed as a round robin test, and it has been being progressed in both organizations in order to enhance the post irradiation examination technology. Up to now, several data are obtained by both PIE facilities. In this paper, the round robin test program is shown, and also shown obtained data with discussion from applicability as a nondestructive test in the hot cell. (author)

  9. Nonlinear optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films doped with Bixa Orellana dye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongo, S., E-mail: sidiki@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Kerasidou, A.P. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Sone, B.T.; Diallo, A. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk ridge, POBox 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Mthunzi, P. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Iliopoulos, K. [LUNAM Université, Université d’Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH/ICE-HT), 26504 Patras (Greece); Nkosi, M. [Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 OldFaure road, Somerset West 7129, POBox 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We studied the linear and nonlinear optical properties of hybrid Bixa Orellana dye doped PMMA thin film. • We investigated the linear optical properties by means of UV/Vis, FTIR and Fluorescence. • We used Tauc - Lorentz model to evaluate linear optical parameters (n &k) with relative maximum of 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm for n is observed while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080. • We evaluated nonlinear third order susceptibility which was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. - Abstract: Natural dyes with highly delocalized π-electron systems are considered as promising organic materials for nonlinear optical applications. Among these dyes, Bixa Orellana dye with extended π-electron delocalization is one of the most attractive dyes. Bixa Orellana dye-doped Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin films were prepared through spin coating process for linear and nonlinear optical properties investigation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to evaluate the roughness of the thin films. The optical constants n and k were evaluated by ellipsometric spectroscopy. The refractive index had a maximum of about 1.456 at 508.5, 523.79 and 511.9 nm, while the maximum of k varies from 0.070 to 0.080 with the thickness. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the hybrid Bixa Orellana dye-PMMA polymer were investigated under 30 ps laser irradiation at 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In particular the third-order nonlinear susceptibility has been determined by means of the Maker Fringes technique. The nonlinear third order susceptibility was found to be 1.00 × 10{sup −21} m{sup 2} V{sup −2} or 0.72 × 10{sup −13} esu. Our studies provide concrete evidence that the hybrid-PMMA composites of Bixa dye are prospective candidates for nonlinear material applications.

  10. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  11. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of considering models with persistent memory we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macrovolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth...

  12. Factors determinating the shape of survival curves of Escherichia coli cells irradiated by ionizing radiation with different LET. Peculiarities of genom organization and the shape of survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasavin, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The basic biological mechanisms realized on molecular, cellular and population levels and stipulating the shape of dependence of the cell suriival (S) on the dose (D) are considered. One of possible causes of nonlinear S(D) dependence are the peculiarities of DNA degradation in E. coli cells. The mechanisms of genetic control of different types of degradation are discussed. Some regularities of the genetic recombination and replication of DNA in E. coli are considered. The conclusion is made that one of the basic stipulating for the shoulder on the survival curves in E. coli are the peculiarities of the chromosome replication

  13. Nonlinear evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Uraltseva, N N

    1995-01-01

    This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p

  14. Nonlinear optics at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of surface nonlinear optics are explored in this thesis. The first part is a theoretical and experimental study of nonlinear intraction of surface plasmons and bulk photons at metal-dielectric interfaces. The second part is a demonstration and study of surface enhanced second harmonic generation at rough metal surfaces. A general formulation for nonlinear interaction of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interfaces is presented and applied to both second and third order nonlinear processes. Experimental results for coherent second and third harmonic generation by surface plasmons and surface coherent antiStokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are shown to be in good agreement with the theory

  15. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  16. ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swift heavy ions interact predominantly through inelastic scattering while traversing any polymer medium and produce excited/ionized atoms. Here samples of the polycarbonate Makrofol of approximate thickness 20 m, spin coated on GaAs substrate were irradiated with 50 MeV Li ion (+3 charge state). Build-in ...

  17. Fish irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, J.; Tengumnuay, C.; Juangbhanich, C.

    1970-01-01

    Chub-mackerel was chosen for the study because they are the most common fish in Thailand. Preliminary investigations were conducted to determine the maximum radiation dose of gamma-rays by organoleptic tests. The samples were subjected to radiation at various doses up to 4 Mrad. Many experiments were conducted using other kinds of fish. The results showed that 1 Mrad would be the maximum acceptable dose for fish. Later, the influence of the radiation dose from 0.1-1 Mrad was studied in order to find the optimum acceptable dose for preservation of fish without off-flavour. For this purpose, the Hedonic scale was used. It was found that 0.2 and 0.5 Mrad gave the best result on Chub mackerel. The determinations of optimum dose, organoleptic, microbiological and trimethylamine content changes were done. The results showed that Chub mackerel irradiated at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 Mrad stored at 3 0 C for 71 days were still acceptable, on the contrary the untreated samples were found unacceptable at 14 days. The trimethylamine increment was significantly higher in the untreated samples. At 15 days storage, trimethylamine in the non-irradiated Chub-mackerel was about 10 times higher than the irradiated ones. At 51 and 79 days storage, about 13 times higher in the control samples than the irradiated samples except 0.1 Mrad. Only 2 times higher was found for the 0.1 Mrad. The microbiological results showed that the irradiation above 0.2 Mrad gave favorable extension of shelf-life of fish

  18. Chapter 2: Irradiators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The chapter 2 presents the subjects: 1) gamma irradiators which includes: Category-I gamma irradiators (self-contained); Category-II gamma irradiators (panoramic and dry storage); Category-III gamma irradiators (self-contained in water); Category-IV gamma irradiators (panoramic and wet storage); source rack for Category-IV gamma irradiators; product transport system for Category-IV gamma irradiators; radiation shield for gamma irradiators; 2) accelerators which includes: Category-I Accelerators (shielded irradiator); Category-II Accelerators (irradiator inside a shielded room); Irradiation application examples.

  19. Topological approximation of the nonlinear Anderson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Iomin, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    We study the phenomena of Anderson localization in the presence of nonlinear interaction on a lattice. A class of nonlinear Schrödinger models with arbitrary power nonlinearity is analyzed. We conceive the various regimes of behavior, depending on the topology of resonance overlap in phase space, ranging from a fully developed chaos involving Lévy flights to pseudochaotic dynamics at the onset of delocalization. It is demonstrated that the quadratic nonlinearity plays a dynamically very distinguished role in that it is the only type of power nonlinearity permitting an abrupt localization-delocalization transition with unlimited spreading already at the delocalization border. We describe this localization-delocalization transition as a percolation transition on the infinite Cayley tree (Bethe lattice). It is found in the vicinity of the criticality that the spreading of the wave field is subdiffusive in the limit t →+∞. The second moment of the associated probability distribution grows with time as a power law ∝ tα, with the exponent α =1/3 exactly. Also we find for superquadratic nonlinearity that the analog pseudochaotic regime at the edge of chaos is self-controlling in that it has feedback on the topology of the structure on which the transport processes concentrate. Then the system automatically (without tuning of parameters) develops its percolation point. We classify this type of behavior in terms of self-organized criticality dynamics in Hilbert space. For subquadratic nonlinearities, the behavior is shown to be sensitive to the details of definition of the nonlinear term. A transport model is proposed based on modified nonlinearity, using the idea of "stripes" propagating the wave process to large distances. Theoretical investigations, presented here, are the basis for consistency analysis of the different localization-delocalization patterns in systems with many coupled degrees of freedom in association with the asymptotic properties of the

  20. Nonlinear dynamics in Nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper represents an extensive study of the nonlinear beam dynamics in the Nuclotron. Chromatic effects, including the dependence of the betatron tunes on the amplitude, and chromatic perturbations have been investigated taking into account the measured field imperfections. Beam distortion, smear, dynamic aperture and nonlinear acceptance have been calculated for different particle energies and betatron tunes

  1. Nonlinear Optics and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.

  2. Breathing-synchronized irradiation using stereoscopic kV-imaging to limit influence of interplay between leaf motion and organ motion in 3D-CRT and IMRT: Dosimetric verification and first clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Steene, Jan van de; Linthout, Nadine; Wauters, Tom; Vinh-Hung, Vincent; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of a prototype developed for breathing-synchronized irradiation by phantom measurement and report on the first clinical experience of 3 patients. Methods and Materials: Adaptations to a commercially available image-guidance technique (Novalis Body/ExacTrac4.0; BrainLAB AG, Heimstetten, Germany) were implemented, allowing breathing-synchronized irradiation with the Novalis system. A simple phantom simulating a breathing pattern of 16 cycles per minute and covering a distance of 4 cm was introduced to assess the system's performance to: (1) trigger the linac at the right moment (using a hidden target in the form of a 3-mm metal beads mounted to the phantom); (2) assess the delivered dose in nongated and gated mode (using an ionization chamber mounted to the phantom); (3) evaluate dose blurring and interplay between organ motion and leaf motion when applying dynamic multileaf collimation (DMLC) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques (using radiographic film mounted to the phantom). The effect of motion was evaluated by importing the measured fluence maps generated by the linac into the treatment planning system and recalculating the resulting dose distribution from DMLC IMRT fluence patterns acquired in nongated and gated mode. The synchronized-breathing technique was applied to three clinical cases: one liver metastasis, one lung metastasis, and one primary lung tumor. Results: No measurable delay in the triggering of the linac can be observed based on the hidden target test. The ionization chamber measurements showed that the system is able to improve the dose absorption from 44% (in nongated mode) to 98% (in gated mode) for a small field irradiation (3 x 3 cm 2 ) of a moving target. Importing measured fluence maps generated for a realistic patient treatment and actually delivered by the linac into the treatment planning system yielded highly disturbed dose distributions in nongated delivery, whereas the

  3. Food irradiation: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Rosanna M.

    1984-01-01

    Recent regulatory and commercial activity regarding food irradiation is highlighted. The effects of irradiation, used to kill insects and microorganisms which cause food spoilage, are discussed. Special attention is given to the current regulatory status of food irradiation in the USA; proposed FDA regulation regarding the use of irradiation; pending irradiation legislation in the US Congress; and industrial applications of irradiation

  4. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  5. Food irradiation: advantages and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, N.K.; Vital, H. de C.; Sabaa-Srur, A.U.O.

    2003-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical method of processing food (e.g. freezing, canning). It has been thoroughly researched over the last four decades and is recognized as a safe and wholesome method. It has the potential both of disinfesting dried food to reduce storage losses and disinfesting fruits and vegetables to meet quarantine requirements for export trade. Low doses of irradiation inhibit spoilage losses due to sprouting of root and tuber crops. Food- borne diseases due to contamination by pathogenic microorganisms and parasites of meat, poultry, fish, fishery products and spices are on the increase. Irradiation of these solid foods can decontaminate them of pathogenic organisms and thus provide safe food to the consumer. Irradiation can successfully replace the fumigation treatment of cocoa beans and coffee beans and disinfest dried fish, dates, dried fruits, etc. One of the most important advantages of food irradiation processing is that it is a coldprocess which does not significantly alter physico-chemical characters of the treated product. It can be applied to food after its final packaging. Similar to other physical processes of food processing, (e.g. canning, freezing), irradiation is a capital intensive process. Thus, adequate product volume must be made available in order to maximize the use of the facility and minimize the unit cost of treatment. Lack of harmonization of regulations among the countries which have approved irradiated foods hampers the introduction of this technique for international trade. Action at the international level has to be taken in order to remedy this situation. One of the important limitations of food irradiation processing is its slow acceptance by consumers, due inter alia to a perceived association with radioactivity. The food industry tends to be reluctant to use the technology in view of uncertainties regarding consumer acceptance of treated foods. Several market testing and consumer acceptance studies have been carried

  6. Irradiation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransohoff, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Carriers, after being loaded with product to be irradiated, are transported by an input-output conveyor system into an irradiation chamber where they are received in a horizontal arrangement on racks which may support different sizes and numbers of carriers. The racks are moved by a chamber conveyor system in an endless rectangular path about a radiation source. Packers shift the carriers on the racks to maintain nearest proximity to the radiation source. The carriers are shifted in position on each rack during successive rack cycles to produce even radiation exposure. The carriers may be loaded singly onto successive racks during a first cycle of movement thereof about the source, with loading of additional carriers, and/or unloading of carriers, onto each rack occurring on subsequent rack cycles of movement

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Food can be provided with extra beneficial properties by physical processing. These benefits include a reduced possibility of food poisoning, or an increased life of the food. We are familiar with pasteurisation of milk, drying of vegetables, and canning of fruit. These physical processes work because the food absorbs energy during treatment which brings about the changes needed. The energy absorbed in these examples is heat energy. Food irradiation is a less familiar process. It produces similar benefits to other processes and it can sometimes be applied with additional advantages over conventional processing. For example, because irradiation causes little heating, foods may look and taste more natural. Also, treatment can take place with the food in its final plastic wrappers, reducing the risk of re-contamination. (author). 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Endolymphatic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, M.M.; Ianhez, L.E.; Sabbaga, E.

    1982-01-01

    The authors analysed the clinical evolution and the result of renal transplantation some years after irradiation in 24 patients (group I) who received endolymphatic 131 I as a pre-transplantation immunesuppresive measure. The control group (group II) consisted of 24 non-irradiated patients comparable to group I in age, sex, primary disease, type of donor and immunesuppressive therapy. Significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding such factors a incidence and reversibility of rejection crises in the first 60 post-transplantation days, loss of kidney due to rejection, and dosage of azathioprine. The authors conclude that this method, besides being harmless, has prolonged immunesuppressive action, its administration being advised for receptores of cadaver kidneys, mainly those who show positive cross-match against HLA antigens for painel. (Author) [pt

  9. Food irradiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Trade in food and agricultural products is important to all countries, the economies of many developing countries would be significantly improved if they were able to export more food and agricultural products. Unfortunately, many products can not be traded because they are infested with, or hosts to, harmful pests, contaminated with microorganisms, or spoil quickly. Foods contaminated with microorganisms cause economic losses, widespread illness and death. Several technologies and products have been developed to resolve problems in trading food and to improve food safety, but none can provide all the solutions. Irradiation is an effective technology to resolve technical problems in trade of many food and agricultural products, either as a stand- alone technology or in combination with others. As a disinfestation treatment it allows different levels of quarantine security to be targeted and it is one of few methods to control internal pests. The ability of irradiation virtually to eliminate key pathogenic organisms from meat, poultry, and spices is an important public health advantage. In addition to controlling pests and eliminating harmful bacteria, irradiation also extends the storage life of many foods. In the laboratories of Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, many research projects were completed on the effects of gamma irradiation to the storage life of chicken meat, anchovy, Turkish fermented sausage, dried and fresh fruits and vegetables and also research projects were conducted on the effects of gamma irradiation on microorganisms (Salmonella, Campylo-bacteria, E.coli and S.aureus in white and red meat) and parasites (food-borne, trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodes spp.)

  10. Irradiation of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Although irradiation is being investigated for the last more than 50 years for the application in preservation of food, it has not yet been exploited commercially in some countries like India. No other food processing technique has undergone such close scrutiny. There are many advantages to this process, which few others can claim. The temperature remains ambient during the process and the form of the food does not change resulting in very few changes in the sensory and nutritive quality of the food product. At the same time the microorganisms are effectively destroyed. Most of the spoilage and pathogenic organisms are sensitive to irradiation. Fortunately, most governments are supportive for the process and enacting laws permitting the process for foods

  11. Direct Detection of Complex Organic Products in Ultraviolet (Lyα) and Electron-irradiated Astrophysical and Cometary Ice Analogs Using Two-step Laser Ablation and Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bryana L.; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2015-02-01

    As discovery of complex molecules and ions in our solar system and the interstellar medium has proliferated, several groups have turned to laboratory experiments in an effort to simulate and understand these chemical processes. So far only infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy has been able to directly probe these reactions in ices in their native, low-temperature states. Here we report for the first time results using a complementary technique that harnesses two-step two-color laser ablation and ionization to measure mass spectra of energetically processed astrophysical and cometary ice analogs directly without warming the ices—a method for hands-off in situ ice analysis. Electron bombardment and UV irradiation of H2O, CH3OH, and NH3 ices at 5 K and 70 K led to complex irradiation products, including HCO, CH3CO, formamide, acetamide, methyl formate, and HCN. Many of these species, whose assignment was also strengthened by isotope labeling studies and correlate with IR-based spectroscopic studies of similar irradiated ices, are important ingredients for the building blocks of life. Some of them have been detected previously via astronomical observations in the interstellar medium and in cometary comae. Other species such as CH3CO (acetyl) are yet to be detected in astrophysical ices or interstellar medium. Our studies suggest that electron and UV photon processing of astrophysical ice analogs leads to extensive chemistry even in the coldest reaches of space, and lend support to the theory of comet-impact-induced delivery of complex organics to the inner solar system.

  12. Method of detecting irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumaru, Takaaki; Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1989-01-01

    Spices represented by pepper are generally contaminated by microorganisms, and for using them as foodstuffs, some sterilizing treatment is indispensable. However, heating is not suitable to spices, accordingly ethylene oxide gas sterilization has been inevitably carried out, but its carcinogenic property is a problem. Food irradiation is the technology for killing microorganisms and noxious insects which cause the rotting and spoiling of foods and preventing the germination, which is an energy-conserving method without the fear of residual chemicals, therefore, it is most suitable to the sterilization of spices. In the irradiation of lower than 10 kGy, the toxicity test is not required for any food, and the irradiation of spices is permitted in 20 countries. However, in order to establish the international distribution organization for irradiated foods, the PR to consumers and the development of the means of detecting irradiation are the important subjects. The authors used pepper, and examined whether the hydrogen generated by irradiation remains in seeds and it can be detected or not. The experimental method and the results are reported. From the samples without irradiation, hydrogen was scarcely detected. The quantity of hydrogen generated was proportional to dose. The measuring instrument is only a gas chromatograph. (K.I.)

  13. Phytosanitary irradiation - Development and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Loaharanu, Paisan

    2016-12-01

    Phytosanitary irradiation, the use of ionizing radiation to disinfest traded agricultural commodities of regulated pests, is a growing use of food irradiation that has great continued potential for increase in commercial application. In 2015 approximately 25,000 t of fresh fruits and vegetables were irradiated globally for phytosanitary purposes. Phytosanitary irradiation has resulted in a paradigm shift in phytosanitation in that the final burden of proof of efficacy of the treatment has shifted from no live pests upon inspection at a port of entry (as for all previous phytosanitary treatments) to total dependence on certification that the treatment for target pests is based on adequate science and is commercially conducted and protected from post-treatment infestation. In this regard phytosanitary irradiation is managed more like a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) approach more consistent with food safety than phytosanitation. Thus, phytosanitary irradiation offers a more complete and rigorous methodology for safeguarding than other phytosanitary measures. The role of different organizations in achieving commercial application of phytosanitary irradiation is discussed as well as future issues and applications, including new generic doses.

  14. Analysis of radicals of irradiated garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Kaimori, Yoshihiko; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2010-01-01

    The detection method of gamma ray irradiated garlic using Electron Spin Resonance(ESR)spectroscopy was studied. The ESR spectrum was consisted of one singlet signal at g=2.00. This signal is due to an organic free radical. Upon irradiation, the intensity of the signal was increased. Also two signals due to cellulose radical were detected nearby the singlet. The intensity of the singlet signal was increased as depend on the increase of the irradiation dose level. (author)

  15. Food Irradiation: Microbiological Safety and Disinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Margaret

    2005-09-01

    Irradiation can kill microorganisms, insects and parasites and this is a fundamental reason for applying the technology to improve the safety and quality of many foods and food products. This paper will discuss how various organisms can be affected by irradiation treatment. Factors affecting radiation sensitivity will also be discussed and how the use of irradiation in combination with other treatments can be beneficial in improving quality and safety

  16. Nonlinear photonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Compared with conventional optical elements, 2D photonic metasurfaces, consisting of arrays of antennas with subwavelength thickness (the 'meta-atoms'), enable the manipulation of light-matter interactions on more compact platforms. The use of metasurfaces with spatially varying arrangements of meta-atoms that have subwavelength lateral resolution allows control of the polarization, phase and amplitude of light. Many exotic phenomena have been successfully demonstrated in linear optics; however, to meet the growing demand for the integration of more functionalities into a single optoelectronic circuit, the tailorable nonlinear optical properties of metasurfaces will also need to be exploited. In this Review, we discuss the design of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces — in particular, the criteria for choosing the materials and symmetries of the meta-atoms — for the realization of nonlinear optical chirality, nonlinear geometric Berry phase and nonlinear wavefront engineering. Finally, we survey the application of nonlinear photonic metasurfaces in optical switching and modulation, and we conclude with an outlook on their use for terahertz nonlinear optics and quantum information processing.

  17. Nonlinear crack mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshun, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    The characteristic features of the deformation and failure of actual materials in the vicinity of a crack tip are due to their physical nonlinearity in the stress-concentration zone, which is a result of plasticity, microfailure, or a nonlinear dependence of the interatomic forces on the distance. Therefore, adequate models of the failure mechanics must be nonlinear, in principle, although linear failure mechanics is applicable if the zone of nonlinear deformation is small in comparison with the crack length. Models of crack mechanics are based on analytical solutions of the problem of the stress-strain state in the vicinity of the crack. On account of the complexity of the problem, nonlinear models are bason on approximate schematic solutions. In the Leonov-Panasyuk-Dugdale nonlinear model, one of the best known, the actual two-dimensional plastic zone (the nonlinearity zone) is replaced by a narrow one-dimensional zone, which is then modeled by extending the crack with a specified normal load equal to the yield point. The condition of finite stress is applied here, and hence the length of the plastic zone is determined. As a result of this approximation, the displacement in the plastic zone at the abscissa is nonzero

  18. Factors affecting practical application of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    FAO and IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting on Commercial Use of Food Irradiation in order to discuss problems of the industry's acceptance of food irradiation and their remedies. Senior executives from major food industries, trade and consumer organizations were invited to discuss these problems and to prepare a report which would serve as the basis for future plan of action by sponsoring Organizations in the field of food irradiation. This publication contains the report of the meeting, papers presented by the participants and their recommendations to the sponsoring Organizations. Refs and tabs

  19. Effect of irradiation on vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcast, D.

    1994-01-01

    Food irradiation is a physical process involving treatment of food with ionising radiation. Its main uses are reduction in spoilage and pathogenic organisms, inhibition of ripening and sprouting processes, and insect disinfestation. Chemical changes in the treated foods are small, and expert committees have concluded that they carry no special nutritional problems. Some vitamins are sensitive to irradiative degradation, however, and opponents of the process have claimed that extensive destruction will occur. Irradiation doses will, however, be limited by organoleptic changes, and maximum levels are being introduced into legislation for specific foods. Examination of the published literature shows that vitamins C and B 1 are the most sensitive water-soluble vitamins, and that E and A are the most sensitive fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin losses on irradiation of permitted foods in western countries will not be of nutritional importance. (Author)

  20. Food irradiation receives international acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoes, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Irradition has advantages as a method of preserving food, especially in the Third World. The author tabulates some examples of actual use of food irradiation with dates and tonnages, and tells the story of the gradual acceptance of food irradiation by the World Health Organization, other international bodies, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). At present, the joint IAEA/FAO/WHO standard permits an energy level of up to 5 MeV for gamma rays, well above the 1.3 MeV energy level of 60 Co. The USFDA permits irradiation of any food up to 10 krad, and minor constituents of a diet may be irradiated up to 5 Mrad. The final hurdle to be cleared, that of economic acceptance, depends on convincing the food processing industry that the process is technically and economically efficient

  1. Deposition of CdS nanoparticles on MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic framework with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Deng, Guihua; Lu, Wencong; Pang, Siwei; Hu, Xing

    2017-07-01

    A novel composite, CdS/MIL-53(Fe), was successfully fabricated via a facile solvothermal method and characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR and UV-vis DRS. The results showed that the fabrication was able to result in a good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles onto MIL-53(Fe). The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized composite were investigated through the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was found that the composite prepared at the mass ratio of CdS to MIL-53(Fe) of 1.5:1 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity. An approximately 92.5% of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was achieved at 0.5 g/L of 1.5-CdS/MIL dosage, 10 mg/L of initial RhB concentration and 23 °C of reaction temperature under visible light irradiation. The RhB photocatalytic degradation followed well the first-order kinetics equation and the increased catalyst dosage and optimal initial RhB concentration were responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation. Quenching tests revealed that the predominant free radicals in the CdS/MIL-(53)-RhBaq-visible light system was O2-rad ; nevertheless, h+ and rad OH also contributed to a certain degree. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was ascribed to the formation of heterojunction structure between CdS and MIL-53(Fe) which significantly suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the reusability of 1.5-CdS/MIL composite was also studied.

  2. Nonlinear wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tatsien

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

  3. Photostable nonlinear optical polycarbonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faccini, M.; Balakrishnan, M.; Diemeer, Mart; Torosantucci, Riccardo; Driessen, A.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem

    2008-01-01

    Highly thermal and photostable nonlinear optical polymers were obtained by covalently incorporating the tricyanovinylidenediphenylaminobenzene (TCVDPA) chromophore to a polycarbonate backbone. NLO polycarbonates with different chromophore attachment modes and flexibilities were synthesized. In spite

  4. Nonlinear singular elliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Minh Duc.

    1988-09-01

    We improve the Poincare inequality, the Sobolev imbedding theorem and the Trudinger imbedding theorem and prove a Mountain pass theorem. Applying these results we study a nonlinear singular mixed boundary problem. (author). 22 refs

  5. Nonlinear Optical Terahertz Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We develop a new approach to generation of THz radiation. Our method relies on mixing two optical frequency beams in a nonlinear crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode...

  6. Nonlinear differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Struble, Raimond A

    2017-01-01

    Detailed treatment covers existence and uniqueness of a solution of the initial value problem, properties of solutions, properties of linear systems, stability of nonlinear systems, and two-dimensional systems. 1962 edition.

  7. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  8. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck

    2013-01-01

    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  9. Nonlinear surface Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear surface Alfven waves propagating on an interface between a plasma and a vacuum is discussed, with dispersion provided by the finite-frequency effect, i.e. the finite ratio of the frequency to the ion-cyclotron frequency. A set of simplified nonlinear wave equations is derived using the method of stretched co-ordinates, and another approach uses the generation of a second-harmonic wave and its interaction with the first harmonic to obtain a nonlinear dispersion relation. A nonlinear Schroedinger equation is then derived, and soliton solutions found that propagate as solitary pulses in directions close to parallel and antiparallel to the background magnetic field. (author)

  10. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and Development Board of India ... A great variety of topics was covered, including themes such as nonlinear finite ... or shell structures, and three are on the composite form of construction, ...

  11. A nonlinear oscillatory problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qingqing.

    1991-10-01

    We have studied the nonlinear oscillatory problem of orthotropic cylindrical shell, we have analyzed the character of the oscillatory system. The stable condition of the oscillatory system has been given. (author). 6 refs

  12. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

    CERN Document Server

    Favini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

  13. Introduction to nonlinear science

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolis, G

    1995-01-01

    One of the most unexpected results in science in recent years is that quite ordinary systems obeying simple laws can give rise to complex, nonlinear or chaotic, behavior. In this book, the author presents a unified treatment of the concepts and tools needed to analyze nonlinear phenomena and to outline some representative applications drawn from the physical, engineering, and biological sciences. Some of the interesting topics covered include: dynamical systems with a finite number of degrees of freedom, linear stability analysis of fixed points, nonlinear behavior of fixed points, bifurcation analysis, spatially distributed systems, broken symmetries, pattern formation, and chaotic dynamics. The author makes a special effort to provide a logical connection between ordinary dynamical systems and spatially extended systems, and to balance the emphasis on chaotic behavior and more classical nonlinear behavior. He also develops a statistical approach to complex systems and compares it to traditional deterministi...

  14. Nonlinear Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-07

    associated with the lattice background; the nonlinearity is derived from the inclusion of cubic nonlinearity. Often the background potential is periodic...dispersion branch we can find discrete evolution equations for the envelope associated with the lattice NLS equation (1) by looking for solutions of...spatial operator in the above NLS equation can be elliptic, hyperbolic or parabolic . We remark that further reduction is possible by going into a moving

  15. Nonlinear dynamics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo, J. C.; Sanjuan, M. A. F.

    2000-01-01

    Concepts and techniques from Nonlinear Dynamics, also known as Chaos Theory, have been applied successfully to several astrophysical fields such as orbital motion, time series analysis or galactic dynamics, providing answers to old questions but also opening a few new ones. Some of these topics are described in this review article, showing the basis of Nonlinear Dynamics, and how it is applied in Astrophysics. (Author)

  16. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandino, E.; Garibaldi, L.; Marchesiello, S.

    2011-07-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled "Monitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing", financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  17. Nonlinear Multiantenna Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear detection technique designed for multiple-antenna assisted receivers employed in space-division multiple-access systems is investigated. We derive the optimal solution of the nonlinear spatial-processing assisted receiver for binary phase shift keying signalling, which we refer to as the Bayesian detector. It is shown that this optimal Bayesian receiver significantly outperforms the standard linear beamforming assisted receiver in terms of a reduced bit error rate, at the expense of an increased complexity, while the achievable system capacity is substantially enhanced with the advent of employing nonlinear detection. Specifically, when the spatial separation expressed in terms of the angle of arrival between the desired and interfering signals is below a certain threshold, a linear beamformer would fail to separate them, while a nonlinear detection assisted receiver is still capable of performing adequately. The adaptive implementation of the optimal Bayesian detector can be realized using a radial basis function network. Two techniques are presented for constructing block-data-based adaptive nonlinear multiple-antenna assisted receivers. One of them is based on the relevance vector machine invoked for classification, while the other on the orthogonal forward selection procedure combined with the Fisher ratio class-separability measure. A recursive sample-by-sample adaptation procedure is also proposed for training nonlinear detectors based on an amalgam of enhanced -means clustering techniques and the recursive least squares algorithm.

  18. Pescara benchmarks: nonlinear identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandino, E; Garibaldi, L; Marchesiello, S

    2011-01-01

    Recent nonlinear methods are suitable for identifying large systems with lumped nonlinearities, but in practice most structural nonlinearities are distributed and an ideal nonlinear identification method should cater for them as well. In order to extend the current NSI method to be applied also on realistic large engineering structures, a modal counterpart of the method is proposed in this paper. The modal NSI technique is applied on one of the reinforced concrete beams that have been tested in Pescara, under the project titled M onitoring and diagnostics of railway bridges by means of the analysis of the dynamic response due to train crossing , financed by Italian Ministry of Research. The beam showed a softening nonlinear behaviour, so that the nonlinearity concerning the first mode is characterized and its force contribution is quantified. Moreover, estimates for the modal parameters are obtained and the model is validated by comparing the measured and the reconstructed output. The identified estimates are also used to accurately predict the behaviour of the same beam, when subject to different initial conditions.

  19. Introduction to nonlinear acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnø, Leif

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of the basic principles of fluid mechanics needed for development of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic concepts will be given. The fundamental equations of nonlinear ultrasonics will be derived and their physical properties explained. It will be shown how an originally monochromatic finite-amplitude ultrasonic wave, due to nonlinear effects, will distort during its propagation in time and space to form higher harmonics to its fundamental frequency. The concepts of shock formation will be presented. The material nonlinearity, described by the nonlinearity parameter B/A of the material, and the convective nonlinearity, described by the ultrasonic Mach Number, will be explained. Two procedures for determination of B/A will briefly be described and some B/A-values characterizing biological materials will be presented. Shock formation, described by use of the Goldberg Number,and Ultrasonic Saturation will be discussed.. An introduction to focused ultrasonic fields will be given and it will be shown how the ultrasonic intensity will vary axially and laterally in and near the focal region and how the field parameters of interest to biomedical applications may be described by use of the KZK-Model. Finally, an introduction will be given to the parametric acoustic array formed by mixing and interaction of two monochromatic, finite-amplitude ultrasonic waves in a liquid and the potentials of this mixing process in biomedical ultrasound will briefly be mentioned.

  20. Use of a nanoplanktonic alga as a test organism in marine molysmology. Some responses of Dunaliella Bioculata Butcher 1959 to gamma irradiation and to chromium and cadmium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peneda-Saraiva, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    Some response of a nanoplanktonic alga, Dunaliella bioculata to gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) and to heavy metal contamination, (chromium and cadmium) used either at strong concentrations (stable isotopes) or as tracers ( 51 Cr) and ( 109 Cd) were studied. The average variation of several biological functions under the effect of these agents was followed: mitotic activity, culture development, cell volume, chlorophyll a and protein concentrations per cell per unit volume (μm 3 ), respiratory and photosynthetic activities, ultrastructure or cytological aspect of the algae. Concentration factors were investigated in cases of contamination. The method used include standard digital counting with a Thoma cell or a particle counter coupled to an amplitude analyser, volume estimation using the hematocrit, pigment determination by acetone extraction, protein determination by the Nessler method. The polarographic method of dissolved oxygen measurement was adapted for successive respiration and photosynthesis experiments on the material concerned. Any Cr and Cd incorporated by Dunaliella bioculata were determined after splitting of the cells and separation of the membranes from the cell contents. The quantity of metal present was measured on each fraction by atomic absorption spectrophotometry [fr

  1. Fundamentals of nonlinear optical materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nonlinear optics; nonlinear polarization; optical fiber communication; optical switch- ing. PACS Nos 42.65Tg; ... The importance of nonlinear optics is to understand the nonlinear behavior in the induced polarization and to ..... but much work in material development and characterization remains to be done. 16. Conclusion.

  2. Study of large nonlinear change phase in Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Andrade-Lucio, J. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Vázquez-Guevara, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    High intensities electromagnetic energy interacting with organic media gives rise to nonlinear optical effects. Hibiscus Sabdariffa is a flower whose concentrated solution presents interesting nonlinear optical properties. This organic material shows an important self-phase modulation with changes bigger than 2π. We present a diffraction ring patterns study of the Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution. Numerical results of transmittance, with refraction and simultaneous absorption, are shown.

  3. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  4. Irradiated vaccines against bovine babesiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weilgama, D.J.; Weerasinghe, H.M.C.; Perera, P.S.G.; Perera, J.M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on non-splenectomized Bos taurus calves to determine the immunogenicity of blood vaccines containing either Babesia bigemina or Babesia bovis parasites irradiated in a 60 Co source. Groups of calves between 6 and 10 months of age, found to be free of previous babesial infections by serodiagnosis, were inoculated with B. bigemina ('G' isolate) irradiated at rates ranging from 350 to 500 Gy. These vaccines caused low to moderate reactions on primary inoculation which subsided without treatment. Parasites irradiated at 350 Gy produced a strong immunity against virulent homologous challenge. Vaccinated calves also withstood virulent heterologous B. bigemina ('H' isolate) and B. bovis ('A' isolate) challenges made 85 and 129 days later. It also became evident that the use of babesicides to control reactions should be avoided since early treatment of 'reactor' animals caused breakdown of immunity among vaccinates. B. bovis ('A' isolate) parasites irradiated at dose rates of either 300 Gy or 350 Gy caused mild to moderate reactions in immunized calves, with the reactions in the 300 Gy group being slightly more severe. On challenge with homologous parasites, animals that had previously been inoculated with organisms irradiated at 300 Gy showed better protection than those that had received parasites irradiated at 350 Gy. (author). 28 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  6. 50 years of nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yuanrang

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the birth and early investigations of nonlinear optics, such as second harmonic generation,sum and difference frequency generation, stimulated Raman scattering,and self-action of light etc. Several important research achievements and applications of nonlinear optics are presented as well, including nonlinear optical spectroscopy, phase conjugation and adaptive optics, coherent nonlinear optics, and high-order harmonic generation. In the end, current and future research topics in nonlinear optics are summarized. (authors)

  7. Heterostructured Fe3O4/Bi2O2CO3 photocatalyst: Synthesis, characterization and application in recyclable photodegradation of organic dyes under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Gangqiang; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Cai, Xu; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Okada, Kiyoshi; Liu, Peng; Zhou, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Heterostructured Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 photocatalyst was synthesized by a two-step method. First, Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 10 nm were synthesized by chemical method at room temperature and then heterostructured Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 photocatalyst was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180 °C for 24 h with the addition of 10 wt% Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles into the precursor suspension of Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 . The pH value of synthesis suspension was adjusted to 4 and 6 with the addition of 2 M NaOH aqueous solution. By controlling the pH of synthesis suspension at 4 and 6, sphere- and flower-like Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 photocatalysts were obtained, respectively. Both photocatalysts demonstrate superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra of the photocatalysts confirm that all the heterostructured photocatalysts are responsive to visible light. The photocatalytic activity of the heterostructured photocatalysts was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution over the photocatalysts under visible light irradiation. The heterostructured photocatalysts prepared in this study exhibit highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MB and MO, and they can be easily recovered by applying an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Sphere- and flower-like Fe 3 O 4 /Bi 2 O 2 CO 3 was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with the size of ca. 10 nm were synthesized by chemical method. • Photocatalysts demonstrate superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. • Photocatalysts exhibit highly efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity. • Photocatalysts can be easily recovered by applying an external magnetic field

  8. Stem cell migration after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1979-01-01

    The survival rate of irradiated rodents could be significantly improved by shielding only the small parts of hemopoietic tissues during the course of irradiation. The populations of circulating stem cells in adult organisms are considered to be of some importance for the homeostasis between the many sites of blood cell formation and for the necessary flexibility of hemopoietic response in the face of fluctuating demands. Pluripotent stem cells are migrating through peripheral blood as has been shown for several mammalian species. Under steady state conditions, the exchange of stem cells between the different sites of blood cell formation appears to be restricted. Their presence in blood and the fact that they are in balance with the extravascular stem cell pool may well be of significance for the surveilance of the integrity of local stem cell populations. Any decrease of stem cell population in blood below a critical size results in the rapid immigration of circulating stem cells in order to restore local stem cell pool size. Blood stem cells are involved in the regeneration after whole-body irradiation if the stem cell population in bone marrows is reduced to less than 10% of the normal state. In the animals subjected to partial-body irradiation, the circulating stem cells appear to be the only source for the repopulation of the heavily irradiated, aplastic sites of hemopoietic organs. (Yamashita, S.)

  9. Promotion of food irradiation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Shunichi; Tada, Mikitaro; Furuta, Masakazu; Kume, Tamikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kazuko

    2007-01-01

    Atomic Energy Commission of Japan has organized special symposia inviting citizens and consumers on food irradiation based on the report presented by expert members meeting discussing about food irradiation in various countries as well as in Japan. This document summarizes the lectures and talks presented at the symposia: usefulness of food irradiation, one of the most effective means of sterilization to ensure sanitary supplies and to prevent loss from spoilage, activities of the subcommittee consisting of experts of this field, a report of the open forum with public participants on food irradiation, present status of detection techniques for the irradiated foods, the role of phyto-sanitary measures in plant protection, and how to realize the consumer's free choices for irradiated foods. (S. Ohno)

  10. Recent advances in nonlinear speech processing

    CERN Document Server

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Esposito, Antonietta; Cordasco, Gennaro; Drugman, Thomas; Solé-Casals, Jordi; Morabito, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in nonlinear speech processing beyond nonlinear techniques. It shows that it exploits heuristic and psychological models of human interaction in order to succeed in the implementations of socially believable VUIs and applications for human health and psychological support. The book takes into account the multifunctional role of speech and what is “outside of the box” (see Björn Schuller’s foreword). To this aim, the book is organized in 6 sections, each collecting a small number of short chapters reporting advances “inside” and “outside” themes related to nonlinear speech research. The themes emphasize theoretical and practical issues for modelling socially believable speech interfaces, ranging from efforts to capture the nature of sound changes in linguistic contexts and the timing nature of speech; labors to identify and detect speech features that help in the diagnosis of psychological and neuronal disease, attempts to improve the effectiveness and performa...

  11. Biology of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents his arguments for food scientists and biologists that the hazards of food irradiation outweigh the benefits. The subject is discussed in the following sections: introduction (units, mutagenesis, seed viability), history of food irradiation, effects of irradiation on organoleptic qualities of staple foods, radiolytic products and selective destruction of nutrients, production of microbial toxins in stored irradiated foods and loss of quality in wheat, deleterious consequences of eating irradiated foods, misrepresentation of the facts about food irradiation. (author)

  12. Microwave Irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Way to Eco-friendly, Green Chemistry. Rashmi ... The rapid heating of food in the kitchen using microwave ovens ... analysis; application to waste treatment; polymer technology; ... of microwave heating in organic synthesis since the first contri-.

  13. Effects of aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste part I: Distribution of Sr, Cs, and Tc onto 18 absorbers from an irradiated, organic-containing leachate simulant for Hanford Tank 101-SY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions. In this investigation, we measured the effect of some aqueous-soluble organic compounds on the sorption of strontium, cesium, and technetium onto 18 absorbers that offer high sorption of strontium from organic-free solutions. For our test solution we used a leachate from a simulated slurry for Hanford Tank 101-SY that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and then was gamma-irradiated to 34 Mrads. We measured distribution coefficients (Kds) for each element/absorber combination for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. To facilitate comparisons, we include Kd values for these same element/absorber combinations from three organic-free simulant solutions. The Kd values for strontium sorption from the simulant that contained the degraded organics usually decreased by large factors, whereas the Kd values for cesium and technetium sorption were relatively unaffected

  14. Inorganic elements and organic compounds degradation studies by gamma irradiation in used lubricating oils; Estudos de remocao de elementos inorganicos e degradacao de compostos organicos por radiacao gama em oleos lubrificantes usados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2008-07-01

    The automotive lubricating oils have partial degradation of organic compounds and addition of undesirable inorganic elements, during its use. These substances classify the used lubricating oils as dangerous and highly toxic. According to global consensus, concerning the environmental conservation, the best is to perform a reuse treatment of these lubricating oils. For this purpose, the uses of an alternative and effective technology have been sought. In this work, the efficacy and technical feasibility of the advanced oxidation process (AOP), by gamma radiation, for used automotive lubricating oil treatment has been studied. Different quantities of hydrogen peroxide and water Milli-Q were added to oil samples. They were submitted to the Cobalt-60 irradiator, type Gammacell, with 100, 200 and 500 kGy absorbed doses. The inorganic analysis by X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed inorganic elements removal, mainly to sulphur, calcium, iron and nickel elements at acceptable levels by environmental protection law for oils reusing. The gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis showed that the advanced oxidation process promotes the organic compounds degradation. The main identified compounds were tridecane, 2-methyl-naphthalene, and trietilamina-tetramethyl urea, which have important industrial applications. The multivariate analysis, Cluster Analysis, showed that advanced oxidation process application is a viable and promising treatment for used lubricating oil reusing. (author)

  15. Patterns of practice of regional nodal irradiation in breast cancer: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) NOdal Radiotherapy (NORA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Y; Kaidar-Person, O; Poortmans, P; Ozsahin, M; Valli, M-C; Russell, N; Kunkler, I; Hermans, J; Kuten, A; van Tienhoven, G; Westenberg, H

    2015-03-01

    Predicting outcome of breast cancer (BC) patients based on sentinel lymph node (SLN) status without axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is an area of uncertainty. It influences the decision-making for regional nodal irradiation (RNI). The aim of the NORA (NOdal RAdiotherapy) survey was to examine the patterns of RNI. A web-questionnaire, including several clinical scenarios, was distributed to 88 EORTC-affiliated centers. Responses were received between July 2013 and January 2014. A total of 84 responses were analyzed. While three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy (RT) planning is carried out in 81 (96%) centers, nodal areas are delineated in only 51 (61%) centers. Only 14 (17%) centers routinely link internal mammary chain (IMC) and supraclavicular node (SCN) RT indications. In patients undergoing total mastectomy (TM) with ALND, SCN-RT is recommend by 5 (6%), 53 (63%) and 51 (61%) centers for patients with pN0(i+), pN(mi) and pN1, respectively. Extra-capsular extension (ECE) is the main factor influencing decision-making RNI after breast conserving surgery (BCS) and TM. After primary systemic therapy (PST), 49 (58%) centers take into account nodal fibrotic changes in ypN0 patients for RNI indications. In ypN0 patients with inner/central tumors, 23 (27%) centers indicate SCN-RT and IMC-RT. In ypN1 patients, SCN-RT is delivered by less than half of the centers in patients with ypN(i+) and ypN(mi). Twenty-one (25%) of the centers recommend ALN-RT in patients with ypN(mi) or 1-2N+ after ALND. Seventy-five (90%) centers state that age is not considered a limiting factor for RNI. The NORA survey is unique in evaluating the impact of SLNB/ALND status on adjuvant RNI decision-making and volumes after BCS/TM with or without PST. ALN-RT is often indicated in pN1 patients, particularly in the case of ECE. Besides the ongoing NSABP-B51/RTOG and ALLIANCE trials, NORA could help to design future specific RNI trials in the SLNB era without ALND in patients receiving or not PST.

  16. Self-organizing nanodot structures on InP surfaces evolving under low-energy ion irradiation: analysis of morphology and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radny, Tobias; Gnaser, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Surfaces of InP were bombarded by 1.9 keV Ar(+) ions under normal incidence. The total accumulated ion fluence Φ the samples were exposed to was varied from 1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 3 × 10(18) cm(-2), and ion fluxes f of (0.4 - 2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1) were used. The surface morphology resulting from these ion irradiations was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Generally, nanodot structures are formed on the surface; their dimensions (diameter, height and separation), however, were found to depend critically on the specific bombardment conditions. As a function of ion fluence, the mean radius r, height h, and spacing l of the dots can be fitted by power-law dependences: r ∝ Φ(0.40), h ∝ Φ(0.48), and l ∝ Φ(0.19). In terms of ion flux, there appears to exist a distinct threshold: below f ~ (1.3 ± 0.2) × 10(14) cm(-2) s(-1), no ordering of the dots exists and their size is comparatively small; above that value of f, the height and radius of the dots becomes substantially larger (h ~ 40 nm and r ~ 50 nm). This finding possibly indicates that surface diffusion processes could be important. In order to determine possible local compositional changes in these nanostructures induced by ion impact, selected samples were prepared for atom probe tomography (APT). The results indicate that APT can provide analytical information on the composition of individual InP nanodots. By means of 3D APT data, the surface region of such nanodots evolving under ion bombardment could be examined with atomic spatial resolution. At the InP surface, the values of the In/P concentration ratio are distinctly higher over a distance of approximately 1 nm and amount to 1.3 to 1.7.

  17. Cesium glass irradiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The precipitation process for the decontamination of soluble SRP wastes produces a material whose radioactivity is dominated by 137 Cs. Potentially, this material could be vitrified to produce irradiation sources similar to the Hanford CsCl sources. In this report, process steps necessary for the production of cesium glass irradiation sources (CGS), and the nature of the sources produced, are examined. Three options are considered in detail: direct vitrification of precipitation process waste; direct vitrification of this waste after organic destruction; and vitrification of cesium separated from the precipitation process waste. Direct vitrification is compatible with DWPF equipment, but process rates may be limited by high levels of combustible materials in the off-gas. Organic destruction would allow more rapid processing. In both cases, the source produced has a dose rate of 2 x 10 4 rads/hr at the surface. Cesium separation produces a source with a dose rate of 4 x 10 5 at the surface, which is nearer that of the Hanford sources (2 x 10 6 rads/hr). Additional processing steps would be required, as well as R and D to demonstrate that DWPF equipment is compatible with this intensely radioactive material

  18. Nonlinear dynamic range transformation in visual communication channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, R

    1996-01-01

    The article evaluates nonlinear dynamic range transformation in the context of the end-to-end continuous-input/discrete processing/continuous-display imaging process. Dynamic range transformation is required when we have the following: (i) the wide dynamic range encountered in nature is compressed into the relatively narrow dynamic range of the display, particularly for spatially varying irradiance (e.g., shadow); (ii) coarse quantization is expanded to the wider dynamic range of the display; and (iii) nonlinear tone scale transformation compensates for the correction in the camera amplifier.

  19. Innovative Mechanism of Rural Organization Based on Self-Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing jin; Gao, Bing

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the basic situation for the formation of innovative rural organizations with the form of self-organization; revels the features of self-organization, including the four aspects of openness of rural organization, innovation of rural organization is far away from equilibrium, the non-linear response mechanism of rural organization innovation and the random rise and fall of rural organization innovation. The evolution mechanism of rural organization innovation is reveled accor...

  20. Nonlinear amplitude dynamics in flagellar beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, David; Gadêlha, Hermes; Casademunt, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    The physical basis of flagellar and ciliary beating is a major problem in biology which is still far from completely understood. The fundamental cytoskeleton structure of cilia and flagella is the axoneme, a cylindrical array of microtubule doublets connected by passive cross-linkers and dynein motor proteins. The complex interplay of these elements leads to the generation of self-organized bending waves. Although many mathematical models have been proposed to understand this process, few attempts have been made to assess the role of dyneins on the nonlinear nature of the axoneme. Here, we investigate the nonlinear dynamics of flagella by considering an axonemal sliding control mechanism for dynein activity. This approach unveils the nonlinear selection of the oscillation amplitudes, which are typically either missed or prescribed in mathematical models. The explicit set of nonlinear equations are derived and solved numerically. Our analysis reveals the spatio-temporal dynamics of dynein populations and flagellum shape for different regimes of motor activity, medium viscosity and flagellum elasticity. Unstable modes saturate via the coupling of dynein kinetics and flagellum shape without the need of invoking a nonlinear axonemal response. Hence, our work reveals a novel mechanism for the saturation of unstable modes in axonemal beating.

  1. Significance of irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Eisuke; Mochizuki, Sachio

    1992-01-01

    Many reports of fatal GVHD occurring in non-immunocompromised patients after blood transfusion have been published in Japan. One explantation is that transfused lymphocytes were simulated and attack the recipient organs recognized as HLA incompatible. That is so called 'one-way matching'. To reduce the risk of post-transfusion GVHD, one of the most convenient methods is to irradiate the donated blood at an appropriate dose for inactivation of lymphocytes. Because no one knows about the late effect of irradiated blood, it is necessary to make the prospective safety control. (author)

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  3. Nonlinear Dot Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Nils; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Conventional dot plots use a constant dot size and are typically applied to show the frequency distribution of small data sets. Unfortunately, they are not designed for a high dynamic range of frequencies. We address this problem by introducing nonlinear dot plots. Adopting the idea of nonlinear scaling from logarithmic bar charts, our plots allow for dots of varying size so that columns with a large number of samples are reduced in height. For the construction of these diagrams, we introduce an efficient two-way sweep algorithm that leads to a dense and symmetrical layout. We compensate aliasing artifacts at high dot densities by a specifically designed low-pass filtering method. Examples of nonlinear dot plots are compared to conventional dot plots as well as linear and logarithmic histograms. Finally, we include feedback from an expert review.

  4. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  5. Nonlinear Source Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem

    of a proposed NSE system with high dynamic performance. The goal of the work is to achieve a state-of-the art transient time of 10 µs. In order to produce the arbitrary nonlinear curve, the exponential function of a typical diode is used, but the diode can be replaced by other nonlinear curve reference...... of conductive common-mode current produced by the high rate of change of voltage over time (high dv/dt) at the NSE output. v/xvii The contributions of the thesis are based on the development of both units: the low Cio isolated power supply and the high dynamic performance NSE. Both units are investigated......-of-the-art dynamic performance among devices of the same kind. It also offers a complete solution for simulation of nonlinear source systems of different sizes, both in terrestrial and non-terrestrial applications. Key words: Current transformers, dc-dc power converters, hysteresis, parasitic capacitance, system...

  6. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  7. Nonlinear excitations in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the workshop entitled ''Nonlinear Excitations in Biomolecules'' is to attempt to bridge the gap between the physicists and biologists communities which is mainly due to language and cultural barriers. The progress of nonlinear science in the last few decades which have shown that the combination of nonlinearity, which characterize most biological phenomena, and cooperative effects in a system having a large number of degrees of freedom, can give rise to coherent excitations with remarkable properties. New concepts, such as solitons nd nonlinear energy localisation have become familiar to physicists and applied mathematicians. It is thus tempting to make an analogy between these coherent excitations and the exceptional stability of some biological processes, such as for instance DNA transcription, which require the coordination of many events in the ever changing environment of a cell. Physicists are now invoking nonlinear excitations to describe and explain many bio-molecular processes while biologists often doubt that the seemingly infinite variety of phenomena that they are attempting to classify can be reduced to such simple concepts. A large part of the meeting is devoted to tutorial lectures rather than to latest research results. The book provides a pedagogical introduction to the two topics forming the backbone of the meeting: the theory of nonlinear excitations and solitons, and their application in biology; and the structure and function of biomolecules, as well as energy and charge transport in biophysics. In order to emphasize the link between physics and biology, the volume is not divided along these two topics but according to biological subjects. Each chapter starts with a short introduction attempting to help the reader to find his way among the contributions and point out the connection between them. 23 lectures over the 32 presented have been selected and refers to quantum properties of macro-molecules. (J.S.)

  8. Control of stored-product pests by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahbub Hasan; Khan, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    The present review deals with the effects of irradiation on some aspects of the biology of major stored-product pests, namely mortality, stages of development, reproductive organs and reproductive potential, histology of the gut, factors influencing irradiation and the synergism of irradiation with other control agents. It also reports on the irradiation effects on stored commodities. Further guidelines for future research have been suggested. (author)

  9. Oscillations in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, Jack K

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on ordinary differential equations that contain a small parameter, this concise graduate-level introduction to the theory of nonlinear oscillations provides a unified approach to obtaining periodic solutions to nonautonomous and autonomous differential equations. It also indicates key relationships with other related procedures and probes the consequences of the methods of averaging and integral manifolds.Part I of the text features introductory material, including discussions of matrices, linear systems of differential equations, and stability of solutions of nonlinear systems. Pa

  10. Nonlinearity in nanomechanical cantilevers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva Torrijo, Luis Guillermo; Karabalin, R. B.; Matheny, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used to successfully predict the linear dynamics of micro-and nanocantilever beams. However, its capacity to characterize the nonlinear dynamics of these devices has not yet been rigorously assessed, despite its use in nanoelectromechanical systems developmen....... These findings underscore the delicate balance between inertial and geometric nonlinear effects in the fundamental mode, and strongly motivate further work to develop theories beyond the Euler-Bernoulli approximation. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.024304...

  11. Coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J; Scott, A C

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include transitions in weakly coupled nonlinear oscillators, singularly perturbed delay-differential equations, and chaos in simple laser systems. Papers are presented on truncated Navier-Stokes equations in a two-dimensional torus, on frequency locking in Josephson point contacts, and on soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions. Attention is also given to the nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media, to aspects of interrupted coarse-graining in stimulated excitation, and to a statistical analysis of long-term dynamic irregularity in an exactly soluble quantum mechanical model.

  12. Engineered nonlinear lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Torner, L.

    1999-01-01

    We show that with the quasi-phase-matching technique it is possible to fabricate stripes of nonlinearity that trap and guide light like waveguides. We investigate an array of such stripes and find that when the stripes are sufficiently narrow, the beam dynamics is governed by a quadratic nonlinear...... discrete equation. The proposed structure therefore provides an experimental setting for exploring discrete effects in a controlled manner. In particular, we show propagation of breathers that are eventually trapped by discreteness. When the stripes are wide the beams evolve in a structure we term...

  13. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  14. Mechanism of large optical nonlinearity in gold nanoparticle films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, I; McCloskey, D; Blau, W J; Lunney, J G

    2018-04-01

    The Z-scan technique, using femtosecond (fs) laser pulses at 1480 nm laser pulses, was used to measure the nonlinear optical properties of gold (Au) nanoparticle (NP) films made by both nanosecond (ns) and fs pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in vacuum. At irradiance levels of 1×10 12   Wm -2 , the ns-PLD films displayed induced absorption with β=4×10 -5   mW -1 , and a negative lensing effect with n 2 =-4.7×10 -11   m 2  W -1 with somewhat smaller values for the fs-PLD films. These values of n 2 imply an unphysically large change in the real part of the refractive index, demonstrating the need to take account of nonlinear changes of the Fresnel coefficients and multiple beam interference in Z-scan measurements on nanoscale films. Following this approach, the Z-scan observations were analyzed to determine the effective complex refractive index of the NP film at high irradiance. It appears that at high irradiance the NP film behaves as a metal, while at low irradiance it behaves as a low-loss dielectric. Thus, it is conjectured that, for high irradiance near the waist of the Z-scan laser beam, laser driven electron tunneling between NPs gives rise to metal-like optical behavior.

  15. Results of study of Sr-90 and Cs-137 content in organism and effective doses of internal and external irradiation of Ukrainian population residing in different regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmykov, L.; Gur, E.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied effective doses of internal and external radiation for 1992-1994 in the residents of Chernigov and Kharkov Regions of Ukraine, i.e. those who live in the zone of strict radioecologic control and in relatively ''clean'' zones, respectively. In 95% of the investigated residents of Chernigov Region Cs-137 activity in the organism was lower than 1500 Bq, maximum amount being 11 kBq. Conditioned Cs-137 effective dose of internal radiation did not exceed 250 micro Sv per year, in 96% of the investigated subjects it was less than 30 micro Sv per year. Mean amount of this radionuclide in the organisms of both adults and children aged 3-6 years residing in Kharkov Region was 90 and 6 Bq respectively, dose being 2 and 0.4 micro Sv per year. Sr-90 amount in the bone tissue decreases with the age and for the residents of Chernigov region it was 7-23 Bq/kg of bone, for the adult residents of Kharkov region it was about 3 Bq/kg of bone. Mean effective dose of internal radiation due to Sr-90 incorporation for the residents of both Kharkov and Chernigov Regions was 0.7 and 1.9 micro Sv per year. Effective dose of external radiation for the residents of Kharkov Region has not changed since the Chernobyl accident. Total effective dose of external and internal radiation in various professional groups for the residents of Chernigov region increased by 80 micro Sv per year which makes up 14% of mean population dose in Ukraine. (author). 11 refs, 5 tabs

  16. Optimization of the fractionated irradiation scheme considering physical doses to tumor and organ at risk based on dose–volume histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, Yasutaka [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Mizuta, Masahiro [Laboratory of Advanced Data Science, Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Kita-11, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0811 (Japan); Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki; Sutherland, Kenneth L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy of solid tumors has been performed with various fractionation regimens such as multi- and hypofractionations. However, the ability to optimize the fractionation regimen considering the physical dose distribution remains insufficient. This study aims to optimize the fractionation regimen, in which the authors propose a graphical method for selecting the optimal number of fractions (n) and dose per fraction (d) based on dose–volume histograms for tumor and normal tissues of organs around the tumor. Methods: Modified linear-quadratic models were employed to estimate the radiation effects on the tumor and an organ at risk (OAR), where the repopulation of the tumor cells and the linearity of the dose-response curve in the high dose range of the surviving fraction were considered. The minimization problem for the damage effect on the OAR was solved under the constraint that the radiation effect on the tumor is fixed by a graphical method. Here, the damage effect on the OAR was estimated based on the dose–volume histogram. Results: It was found that the optimization of fractionation scheme incorporating the dose–volume histogram is possible by employing appropriate cell surviving models. The graphical method considering the repopulation of tumor cells and a rectilinear response in the high dose range enables them to derive the optimal number of fractions and dose per fraction. For example, in the treatment of prostate cancer, the optimal fractionation was suggested to lie in the range of 8–32 fractions with a daily dose of 2.2–6.3 Gy. Conclusions: It is possible to optimize the number of fractions and dose per fraction based on the physical dose distribution (i.e., dose–volume histogram) by the graphical method considering the effects on tumor and OARs around the tumor. This method may stipulate a new guideline to optimize the fractionation regimen for physics-guided fractionation.

  17. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  18. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  19. Physics, Nonlinear Time Series Analysis, Data Assimilation and Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves A. R. Osborne Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universit?i Torino,Dipartimento di Fisica Generale,Via Pietro Giuria 1,10125 Torino, Italy, 8. PERFORMING

  20. Study of human mesenchymal stem cells plasticity into radiation injured tissues in a N.O.D./S.C.I.D. mouse model: therapeutic approach of the multiple organ dysfunction; Etude de la capacite plastique des Cellules Souches Mesenchymateuses humaines (CSM) apres irradiation du tissu receveur: approche therapeutique de l'atteinte multiorgane radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, S

    2006-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (h.M.S.C.) has recently been brought into the spotlight of many fields of research. One possible application of the approach is the repair of injured tissues arising from side effects of radiation treatments and accidents. The first challenge in cell therapy is to assess the quality of the cell and the ability to retain their differentiation potential during the expansion process. Efficient delivery to the sites of intended action is also necessary. We addressed both questions using h.M.S.C. cultured and then infused to Non Obese Diabetes/Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (N.O.D./S.C.I.D.) mice submitted to total body irradiation. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation superimposed to total body irradiation (T.B.I.), as a model of accidental irradiation. Our results showed that the h.M.S.C. used for transplant have been expanded without significant loss in their differentiation capacities. After transplantation into adult unconditioned mice, h.M.S.C. not only migrate in bone marrow but also into other tissues. Total body irradiation increased h.M.S.C. implantation in bone marrow and muscle and further led to engraftment in brain, heart, and liver. Local irradiation, in addition to T.B.I., increased both specific homing of injected cells to the injured tissues and to other tissues outside the local irradiation field. M.S.C. may participate to restoration of intestinal homeostasis 3 days post abdominal irradiation. This study suggests that using the potential of h.M.S.C. to home to various organs in response to tissue injuries could be a promising strategy to repair the radiation induced damages. (author)

  1. Study of human mesenchymal stem cells plasticity into radiation injured tissues in a N.O.D./S.C.I.D. mouse model: therapeutic approach of the multiple organ dysfunction; Etude de la capacite plastique des Cellules Souches Mesenchymateuses humaines (CSM) apres irradiation du tissu receveur: approche therapeutique de l'atteinte multiorgane radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, S

    2006-01-15

    The therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (h.M.S.C.) has recently been brought into the spotlight of many fields of research. One possible application of the approach is the repair of injured tissues arising from side effects of radiation treatments and accidents. The first challenge in cell therapy is to assess the quality of the cell and the ability to retain their differentiation potential during the expansion process. Efficient delivery to the sites of intended action is also necessary. We addressed both questions using h.M.S.C. cultured and then infused to Non Obese Diabetes/Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (N.O.D./S.C.I.D.) mice submitted to total body irradiation. Further, we tested the impact of additional local irradiation superimposed to total body irradiation (T.B.I.), as a model of accidental irradiation. Our results showed that the h.M.S.C. used for transplant have been expanded without significant loss in their differentiation capacities. After transplantation into adult unconditioned mice, h.M.S.C. not only migrate in bone marrow but also into other tissues. Total body irradiation increased h.M.S.C. implantation in bone marrow and muscle and further led to engraftment in brain, heart, and liver. Local irradiation, in addition to T.B.I., increased both specific homing of injected cells to the injured tissues and to other tissues outside the local irradiation field. M.S.C. may participate to restoration of intestinal homeostasis 3 days post abdominal irradiation. This study suggests that using the potential of h.M.S.C. to home to various organs in response to tissue injuries could be a promising strategy to repair the radiation induced damages. (author)

  2. BOOK REVIEW: Nonlinear Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafranov, V.

    1998-08-01

    's theory, to satisfy the above mentioned alignment of the vectors j and B. The details of this remarkable process are described. The final chapter is devoted to solar flares, which are as the author says `probably, the most spectacular eruptive events in cosmic plasmas'. This chapter describes in detail the structure of the solar convection zone and the solar atmosphere, considers the formation of the rope-like structure of the magnetic field and the thick flux tubes displayed as sunspots, as well as the buoyancy of the flux tubes and different models of the MHD processes leading to solar flares. In summary, the reviewed book is rich in content, reflecting the important issues of striking phenomena such as solar flares, the, quite dangerous for plasma confinement, major disruptions in tokamaks and the, conversely quite favourable for plasma confinement, non-linear process of L-H transition in tokamaks and continuous turbulent generation and maintenance of stabilizing toroidal magnetic fields in reversed field pinches, as well as other interesting MHD processes. The analysis of these very complicated phenomena is based on non-elementary mathematics. This could make it difficult for non-theoreticians to read some parts of the book. However, as for an explanation of the physics of the phenomena, the author achieves this in a rather simple manner: briefly, and with the minimal number of necessary formulas. This is done strictly without oversimplifications. This makes the book useful to both theoreticians and experimenters who wish to learn about non-linear processes such as disruptions and plasma self-organization.

  3. Nonlinear and quantum optics with liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G

    2014-01-01

    Thermotropic liquid crystals' usual application is display technology. This paper describes experiments on light interaction with pure and doped liquid crystals under for these materials unconventional incident light powers: (1) under high-power laser irradiation, and (2) at the single-photon level. In (1), I will outline several nonlinear optical effects under high-power, nanosecond laser irradiation which should be taken into account in the design of lasers with liquid crystal components and in fabrication of optical power limiters based on liquid crystals: (1.1) athermal helical pitch dilation and unwinding of cholesteric mirrors (both in free space and inside laser resonators); (1.2) some pitfalls in measurements of refractive nonlinearity using z-scan technique under two-photon or linear absorption of liquids; (1.3) the first observation of thermal lens effects in liquid crystals under several-nanosecond, low-pulse-repetition rate (2-10 Hz) laser irradiation in the presence of two-photon absorption; (1.4) feedback-free kaleidoscope of patterns (hexagons, stripes, etc.) in dye-doped liquid crystals. In (2), at the single-photon level, it will be shown that with a proper selection of liquid crystals and a single-emitter dopant spectral range, liquid crystal structures can be used to control emitted single photons (both polarization and count rate). The application of the latter research is absolutely secure quantum communication with polarization coding of information. In particular, in (2.1), definite handedness, circular polarized cholesteric microcavity resonance in quantum dot fluorescence is reported. In (2.2), definite linear polarization of single (antibunched) photons from single-dye-molecules in planar-aligned nematic host is discussed. In (2.3), some results on photon antibunching from NV-color center in nanodiamond in liquid crystal host and circularly polarized fluorescence of definite handedness from nanocrystals doped with trivalent ions of

  4. Irradiated fuel performance evaluation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang Hyun; Bang, J. G.; Kim, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Alpha version performance code for dual-cooled annular fuel under steady state operation, so called 'DUOS', has been developed applying performance models and proposed methodology. Furthermore, nonlinear finite element module which could be integrated into transient/accident fuel performance code was also developed and evaluated using commercial FE code. The first/second irradiation and PIE test of annular pellet for dual-cooled annular fuel in the world have been completed. In-pile irradiation test DB of annular pellet up to burnup of 10,000 MWd/MTU through the 1st test was established and cracking behavior of annular pellet and swelling rate at low temperature were studied. To do irradiation test of dual-cooled annular fuel under PWR's simulating steady-state conditions, irradiation test rig/rod design/manufacture of mock-up/performance test have been completed through international collaboration program with Halden reactor project. The irradiation test of large grain pellets has been continued from 2002 to 2011 and completed successfully. Burnup of 70,000 MWd/MTU which is the highest burnup among irradiation test pellets in domestic was achieved

  5. Antioxidant Approaches to Management of Ionizing Irradiation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Greenberger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing irradiation induces acute and chronic injury to tissues and organs. Applications of antioxidant therapies for the management of ionizing irradiation injury fall into three categories: (1 radiation counter measures against total or partial body irradiation; (2 normal tissue protection against acute organ specific ionizing irradiation injury; and (3 prevention of chronic/late radiation tissue and organ injury. The development of antioxidant therapies to ameliorate ionizing irradiation injury began with initial studies on gene therapy using Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD transgene approaches and evolved into applications of small molecule radiation protectors and mitigators. The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response.

  6. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  7. Nonlinear Regression with R

    CERN Document Server

    Ritz, Christian; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    R is a rapidly evolving lingua franca of graphical display and statistical analysis of experiments from the applied sciences. This book provides a coherent treatment of nonlinear regression with R by means of examples from a diversity of applied sciences such as biology, chemistry, engineering, medicine and toxicology.

  8. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  9. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  10. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  11. Balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present a method of balancing for nonlinear systems which is an extension of balancing for linear systems in the sense that it is based on the input and output energy of a system. It is a local result, but gives 'broader' results than we obtain by just linearizing the system. Furthermore, the

  12. Irradiation Facilities at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Carbonez, Pierre; Danzeca, Salvatore; Fabich, Adrian; Garcia, Alia, Ruben; Glaser, Maurice; Gorine, Georgi; Jaekel, Martin, Richard; Mateu,Suau, Isidre; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Fabio; Ravotti, Federico; Silari, Marco; Tali, Maris

    2017-01-01

    CERN provides unique irradiation facilities for applications in many scientific fields. This paper summarizes the facilities currently operating for proton, gamma, mixed-field and electron irradiations, including their main usage, characteristics and information about their operation. The new CERN irradiation facilities database is also presented. This includes not only CERN facilities but also irradiation facilities available worldwide.

  13. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991.

  14. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  15. Perspective on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief review summarizes current scientific information on the safety and efficacy of irradiation processing of foods. Attention is focused on: specifics of the irradiation process and its effectiveness in food preservation; the historical development of food irradiation technology in the US; the response of the Institute of Food Technologists to proposed FDA guidelines for food irradiation; the potential uses of irradiation in the US food industry; and the findings of the absence of toxins and of unaltered nutrient density (except possibly for fats) in irradiated foods. The misconceptions of consumers concerning perceived hazards associated with food irradiation, as related to consumer acceptance, also are addressed

  16. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  17. Identification of nonlinear anelastic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganescu, G E; Bereteu, L; Ercuta, A

    2008-01-01

    A useful nonlinear identification technique applied to the anelastic and rheologic models is presented in this paper. First introduced by Feldman, the method is based on the Hilbert transform, and is currently used for identification of the nonlinear vibrations

  18. Nonlinear chaos control and synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijberts, H.J.C.; Nijmeijer, H.; Schöll, E.; Schuster, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Nonlinear Geometric Control Some Differential Geometric Concepts Nonlinear Controllability Chaos Control Through Feedback Linearization Chaos Control Through Input-Output Linearization Lyapunov Design Lyapunov Stability and Lyapunov's First Method

  19. Wholesomeness and safety of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation with gamma-rays, X-rays or fast electrons can be used to change foodstuffs in beneficial ways or to destroy harmful organisms. Gamma rays do not induce radioactivity in foods, but X-rays and fast electrons can induce short lived radioactivity if sufficiently energetic. This imposes limitations on the energies which can be used, and a short wait between irradiation and consumption may be advisable. Irradiation produces chemical changes in foodstuffs, and some foods are unsuitable for irradiation. With appropriate foods, trials with animals and human volunteers generally show that the product is safe. Some loss in nutritional quality can take place, which could be significant for some individuals, but are unlikely to be important for those on a balanced diet. Irradiation does not eliminate all risk from microbial contamination. Foods to be irradiated should be good quality, and need to be kept under proper conditions after irradiation. Irradiated foods should be appropriately labelled. Tests for radiation would help to enforce necessary controls. If the process is properly carried out on appropriate foods, and all due precautions are taken, irradiated foods are wholesome and safe. 52 references

  20. Neutron irradiation of seeds 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-10-01

    The irradiation of seeds with the fast neutron of research reactors has been hampered by difficulties in accurately measuring dose and in obtaining repeatable and comparable results. Co-ordinated research under an international program organized by the FAO and IAEA has already resulted in significant improvements in methods of exposing seeds in research reactors and in obtaining accurate dosimetry. This has been accomplished by the development of a standard reactor facility for the neutron irradiation of seeds and standard methods for determining fast-neutron dose and the biological response after irradiation. In this program various divisions of the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division co-operate with a number of research institutes and reactor centres throughout the world. Results of the preliminary experiments were reported in Technical Reports Series No. 76, ''Neutron Irradiation of Seeds''. This volume contains the proceedings of a meeting of co-operators in the FAO/IAEA Neutron Seed Irradiation Program and other active scientists in this field. The meeting was held in Vienna from 11 to 15 December 1967. Refs, figs and tabs.