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Sample records for irradiated hepatoma cells

  1. Stimulation of Hepatoma Cell Invasiveness and Metastatic Potential by Proteins Secreted From Irradiated Nonparenchymal Cells

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    Zhou Leyuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Zhiming [Department of Medical Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Gao Yabo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wang Lingyan [Experimental Research Center, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Zeng Zhaochong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether factors secreted by irradiated liver nonparenchymal cells (NPCs) may influence invasiveness and/or metastatic potential of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and to elucidate a possible mechanism for such effect. Methods and Materials: Primary rat NPCs were cultured and divided into irradiated (10-Gy X-ray) and nonirradiated groups. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, conditioned medium from irradiated (SR) or nonirradiated (SnonR) cultures were collected and added to sublethally irradiated cultures of the hepatoma McA-RH7777 cell line. Then, hepatoma cells were continuously passaged for eight generations (RH10Gy-SR and RH10Gy-SnonR). The invasiveness and metastatic potential of McA-RH7777, RH10Gy-SnonR, and RH10Gy-SR cells were evaluated using an in vitro gelatinous protein (Matrigel) invasion and an in vivo metastasis assay. In addition, SR and SnonR were tested using rat cytokine antibody arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In vitro gelatinous protein invasion assay indicated that the numbers of invading cells was significantly higher in RH10Gy-SR (40 {+-} 4.74) than in RH10Gy-SnonR (30.6 {+-} 3.85) cells, and lowest in McA-RH7777 (11.4 {+-} 3.56) cells. The same pattern was observed in vivo in a lung metastasis assay, as evaluated by number of metastatic lung nodules seen with RH10Gy-SR (28.83 {+-} 5.38), RH10Gy-SnonR (22.17 {+-} 4.26), and McA-RH7777 (8.3 {+-} 3.8) cells. Rat cytokine antibody arrays and ELISA demonstrated that metastasis-promoting cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} and interleukin-6), circulating growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor), and metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were upregulated in SR compared with SnonR. Conclusions: Radiation can increase invasiveness and metastatic potential of sublethally irradiated hepatoma cells, and soluble mediators released from irradiated NPCs promote this potential. Increased secretion of

  2. Observation of DNA damage of human hepatoma cells irradiated by heavy ions using comet assay

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    Li-Mei Qiu; Wen-Jian Li; Xin-Yue Pang; Qing-Xiang Gao; Yan Feng; Li-Bin Zhou; Gao-Hua Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Now many countries have developed cancer therapy with heavy ions, especially in GSI (Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt, Germany),remarkable results have obtained, but due to the complexity of particle track structure, the basic theory still needs further researching. In this paper, the genotoxic effects of heavy ions irradiation on SMMC-7721 cells were measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). The information about the DNA damage made by other radiations such as X-ray, γ-ray, UV and fast neutron irradiation is very plentiful, while little work have been done on the heavy ions so far. Hereby we tried to detect the reaction of liver cancer cells to heavy ion using comet assay, meanwhile to establish a database for clinic therapy of cancer with the heavy ions.METHODS: The human hepatoma cells were chosen as the test cell line irradiated by 80Mev/u 20Ne10+ on HIRFL (China), the radiation-doses were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 Gy,and then comet assay was used immediately to detect the DNA damages, 100-150 cells per dose-sample (30-50 cells were randomly observed at constant depth of the gel). The tail length and the quantity of the cells with the tail were put down. EXCEL was used for statistical analysis.RESULTS: We obtained clear images by comet assay and found that SMMC-7721 cells were all damaged apparently from the dose 0.5Gy to 8Gy (t-test: P<0.001, vs control).The tail length and tail moment increased as the doses increased, and the number of cells with tails increased with increasing doses. When doses were higher than 2Gy, nearly 100 % cells were damaged. Furthermore, both tail length and tail moment, showed linear equation.CONCLUSION: From the clear comet assay images, our experiment proves comet assay can be used to measure DNA damages by heavy ions. Meanwhile DNA damages have a positive correlation with the dose changes of heavy ions and SMMC-7721 cells have a great radiosensitivity to 20Ne10+.Different reactions

  3. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

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    Wu, Qingfeng; Li, Qiang; Jin, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinguo; Dai, Zhongying

    2011-01-01

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/μm carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  4. Bystander effect in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused by medium transfers at different times after high-LET carbon ion irradiation

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    Wu Qingfeng [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Qiang, E-mail: liqiang@impcas.ac.c [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jin Xiaodong; Liu Xinguo [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dai Zhongying [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Although radiation-induced bystander effects have been well documented in a variety of biological systems, whether irradiated cells have the ability to generate bystander signaling persistently is still unclear and the clinical relevance of bystander effects in radiotherapy remains to be elucidated. This study examines tumor cellular bystander response to autologous medium from cell culture irradiated with high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at a therapeutically relevant dose in terms of clonogenic cell survival. In vitro experiments were performed using human hepatoma HepG2 cell line exposed to 100 keV/{mu}m carbon ions at a dose of 2 Gy. Two different periods (2 and 12 h) after irradiation, irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and replenished fresh medium were harvested and then transferred to unirradiated bystander cells. Cellular bystander responses were measured with the different medium transfer protocols. Significant higher survival fractions of unirradiated cells receiving the media from the irradiated cultures at the different times post-irradiation than those of the control were observed. Even replenishing fresh medium for unirradiated cells which had been exposed to the ICCM for 12 h could not prevent the bystander cells from the increased survival fraction. These results suggest that the irradiated cells could release unidentified signal factor(s), which induced the increase in survival fraction for the unirradiated bystander cells, into the media sustainedly and the carbon ions triggered a cascade of signaling events in the irradiated cells rather than secreting the soluble signal factor(s) just at a short period after irradiation. Based on the observations in this study, the importance of bystander effect in clinical radiotherapy was discussed and incorporating the bystander effect into the current radiobiological models, which are applicable to heavy ion radiotherapy, is needed urgently.

  5. Comparative Study of Light Scattering from Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaogang; Wang, Rongrong; Guo, Yongcai; Gao, Chao; Guo, Xiaoen

    2012-11-01

    Primary liver cancer is one of the highest mortality malignant tumors in the world. China is a high occurrence area of primary liver cancer. Diagnosis of liver cancer, especially early diagnosis, is essential for improving patients' survival. Light scattering and measuring method is an emerging technology developed in recent decades, which has attracted a large number of biomedical researchers due to its advantages, such as fast, simple, high accuracy, good repeatability, and non-destructive. The hypothesis of this project is that there may be some different light scattering information between hepatoma cells and hepatocyte. Combined with the advantages of the dynamic light scattering method and the biological cytology, an experimental scheme to measure the light scattering information of cells was formulated. Hepatoma cells and hepatic cells were irradiated by a semiconductor laser (532 nm). And the Brookhaven BI-200SM wide-angle light scattering device and temperature control apparatus were adopted. The light scattering information of hepatoma cells and hepatic cells in vitro within the 15°C to 30°C temperature range was processed by a BI-9000AT digital autocorrelator. The following points were found: (a) the scattering intensities of human hepatic cells and hepatoma cells are nearly not affected by the temperature factor, and the former is always greater than the latter and (b) the relaxation time of hepatoma cells is longer than that of hepatic cells, and both the relaxation time are shortened with increasing temperature from 15°C to 25°C. It can be concluded that hepatoma cells could absorb more incident light than hepatic cells. The reason may be that there exists more protein and nucleic acid in cancerous cells than normal cells. Furthermore, based on the length relaxation time, a conclusion can be inferred that the Brownian movement of cancer cells is greater.

  6. The synergistic radiosensitizing effect of tirapazamine-conjugated gold nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation

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    Liu X

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Xi Liu,1–4 Yan Liu,1–4 Pengcheng Zhang,1–4 Xiaodong Jin,1–3 Xiaogang Zheng,1–4 Fei Ye,1–4 Weiqiang Chen,1–3 Qiang Li1–3 1Institute of Modern Physics, 2Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Radiation Biology and Medicine, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Key Laboratory of Basic Research on Heavy Ion Radiation Application in Medicine, Gansu Province, Lanzhou, 4School of Life Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Reductive drug-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have been proposed to enhance the damage of X-rays to cells through improving hydroxyl radical production by secondary electrons. In this work, polyethylene glycol-capped AuNPs were conjugated with tirapazamine (TPZ moiety, and then thioctyl TPZ (TPZs-modified AuNPs (TPZs-AuNPs were synthesized. The TPZs-AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, dynamic light scattering, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to have a size of 16.6±2.1 nm in diameter and a TPZs/AuNPs ratio of ~700:1. In contrast with PEGylated AuNPs, the as-synthesized TPZs-AuNPs exhibited 20% increment in hydroxyl radical production in water at 2.0 Gy, and 19% increase in sensitizer enhancement ratio at 10% survival fraction for human hepatoma HepG2 cells under X-ray irradiation. The production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells exposed to X-rays in vitro demonstrated a synergistic radiosensitizing effect of AuNPs and TPZ moiety. Thus, the reductive drug-conjugated TPZs-AuNPs as a kind of AuNP radiosensitizer with low gold loading provide a new strategy for enhancing the efficacy of radiation therapy. Keywords: AuNPs, radiation enhancement, synergistic effect, human hepatoma cells, hydroxyl radical production

  7. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. IV. Lack of adrenergic activation of phosphorylase in rat ascites hepatoma cells.

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    Miyamoto, K; Yanaoka, T; Sanae, F; Wakusawa, S; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase a activity in 7 rat ascites hepatoma cell lines treated with adrenergic agents, phenylephrine, epinephrine and isoproterenol, was investigated as compared with that in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Basal phosphorylase activities in hepatoma cells except AH7974 cells were lower than that in hepatocytes. Phosphorylase in hepatoma cells was not activated by any of the agents, while the enzyme activity in hepatocytes was clearly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylase in hepatocytes was sensitive to glucagon, but it was found to be insensitive to glucagon in all hepatoma cells. The present results suggest that rat ascites hepatoma cells may escape the glycogenolytic regulation by catecholamines and glucagon.

  8. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. VI. Characteristics of adrenoceptors and adenylate cyclase response in rat ascites hepatoma cells and human hepatoma cells.

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    Sanae, F; Kohei, K; Nomura, M; Miyamoto, K

    1992-06-01

    Alpha 1, alpha 2- and beta-Adrenoceptor densities and catecholamine responsiveness in established hepatoma cells, rat ascites hepatoma AH13, AH66, AH66F, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells and human hepatocellular carcinoma HLF and HepG2 cells, were compared with those in normal rat hepatocytes and Chang liver cells. Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]prazosin bindings were not detected in all hepatoma cell lines. Alpha 2-Adrenoceptor densities measured by [3H]clonidine bindings were also barely detected in hepatoma cell lines except for AH130 cells and HepG2 cells. Regarding beta-adrenoceptor, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974 cells had much more [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding sites than normal rat hepatocytes, although we could not detect the binding in HepG2 cells. Adenylate cyclase of normal rat hepatocyte and Chang liver cells were stimulated by beta 2-adrenergic agonist salbutamol, while the cyclase in hepatoma cells had no beta 2-adrenergic response but a beta 1-type response. These findings indicate that the characteristics of adrenergic response in hepatoma cell lines is very different from that in normal hepatocytes, suggesting a participation in the hepatocarcinogenesis and/or the autonomous proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  9. PROTEN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ASCITES HEPATOMA CELLS

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    M.Saadat

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases regulate tyrosine phosphorylation of target proteins involved in several aspects of cellular functions. Enzyme activities of the PTPases in cytosolic and particulate fractions of rat ascites hepatoma cell lines were determined and compared with those of normal rat liver. Our present data revealed that although there was no neoplatic-specific alteration of the PTPase activity in examined hepatomas, the activity in particulate fractions of island type of hepatomas was remarkably decreased compared with either rat liver or free type hepatomas.

  10. RBE of Cells Irradiated by Carbon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The cells were mouse melanoma B16,human cervical squamous carcinoma HeLa,Chinese hamster pulmonary V79,and human hepatoma SMMC-7721.For~(12)C ion experiment,the cells of 1.55×10~5/ml were seeded in 35mm diameter petri dish and allowed to grow one day befbre irradiation.When immediately irradiated,the medium

  11. Cytotoxinic Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Human Hepatoma Cell Lines

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    CAO Xian-ying; QI Zhi-tao; DAI Hong-lian; YAN Yu-hua; LI Shi-pu

    2003-01-01

    Stable and single-dispersed HAP nanoparticles were synthesized with chemical method assisted by ultrasonic treatment.HAP nanoparticles were surveyed by AFM and Zataplus.The effect on the Bel-7402 human hepatoma cell lines treated with HAP nanoparticles was investigated by the MTT methods and observation of morphology,and the mechanism was studied in changes of cell cycle and ultrastructure.The result shows that inhibition of HAP nanoparticles on the Bel-7402 human hepatoma cell lines is obviously in vitro.HAP nanoparticles the entered cancer cytoplasm,and cell proliferation is stopped at G1 phase of cell cycle,thus,cancer cells die directly.

  12. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

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    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J. [Medical Univ. of Charleston South Carolina, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  13. Effects of the Interaction between Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles and Hepatoma Cells

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    YIN Meizhen; XU Weiguo; CUI Bingcun; DAI Honglian; HAN Yingchao; YIN Yixia; LI Shipu

    2014-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the anticancer effects of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro, the effects of the interaction of HAP nanoparticles with hepatoma cells were explored. HAP nanoparticles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation and characterized by laser particle analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HAP nanoparticles were observed to be uniformly distributed, with rod-like shapes and diameters in the range of 42.1-87.1 nm. Overnight attached, suspended, and proliferating Bel-7402 cells were incubated with HAP nanoparticles. Inverted microscopy observation revealed that HAP nanoparticles with a cell membrane showed good adsorption. TEM demonstrated that HAP nanoparticles were present on the surface of cells, continuously taken up by cells through endocytosis, and transported in vesicles close to the nucleus. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the concentrations of intracellular Ca2+labeled with Fluo-3 calcium fluorescent probe were significantly enhanced. In addition, inverted microscopy observation revealed that suspended cells treated with HAP nanoparticles did not adhere to the culture bottle, resulting in cell death. After the overnight attached cells were treated with HAP nanoparticles for 96 h with increasing doses of HAP nanoparticles, inverted microscopy observation revealed that cell proliferation was slowed and cell-cell adhesion was weakened. Feulgen staining and image analysis indicated that the nuclear DNA content of the cells was markedly reduced, and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR) staining and image analysis indicated that the number of AgNORs was significantly decreased. Therefore, hepatoma cells brought about the adsorption, uptake, transport and degradation of HAP nanoparticles. In addition, HAP nanoparticles affected hepatoma cells with regard to cell-cell adhesion, cell and extracellular matrix adhesion, and DNA and protein synthesis;thus inhibiting cell proliferation. This

  14. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Absorbed by Hepatoma Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng; YAN Yuhua; WANG Youfa; CAO Xianying; LI Shipu

    2005-01-01

    It is reported that nanoparticles can be applied as carriers and anti-cancer medicines. But the interaction of nanoparticles and cells is unclear. The purpose of this study was to discuss whether inorganic crystal nanoparticles can get through cells with intact crystal. BEL7402 hepatoma cells and titanium dioxide ( TiO2 )nanoparticles were selected and incubated together in vitro. All specimens were prepared and observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). TiO2 nanoparticles were found not in the nuclear area but in the cytoplasma. TiO2 nanoparticles maintained the plate-like shape during absorbing. The result shows that hepatoma cells can endocytose the intact TiO2 crystal nanoparticles. It implies that novel nano-effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of inorganic crystal nanoparticles.

  15. Downregulation of tumorogenicity and changes in the actin cytoskeleton of murine hepatoma after irradiation with polychromatic visible and IR light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Nickolay A; Samoilova, Kira A; Abrahamse, Heidi; Filatova, Natalia A

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the function and structural consequences of direct exposure of murine hepatoma MH-22a cells to polychromatic polarized light, to determine potential risk of malignancy following irradiation. Visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) light have been actively used for prevention and treatment of complications developed after conventional tumor therapy. However, the safety associated with this irradiation has not been determined. Polychromatic light (480-3400 and 385-750 nm), were used at different doses (4.8-38.4 J/cm(2)) to determine the viability, proliferation, and actin cytoskeleton in vitro by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Tumorogenic properties of cells were studied in vivo after transplantation in C3HA mice. Polychromatic light of a wide range of doses did not change the viability and proliferation of cells. After transplantation of cells irradiated with VIS-IR light (4.8 and 9.6 J/cm(2)) and VIS light (38.4 J/cm(2)) the tumor volume was lower in the treated group than in the control group in vivo. Transplantability of the irradiated cells also decreased, whereas survival of tumor-bearing mice increased. Three cell populations with different cytoskeleton structure were identified. After irradiation, the reorganized part of the actin cytoskeleton changed its localization to the submembranous area. A decrease of tumorigenicity in cells irradiated with polychromatic light used in non-damaging doses correlated with an increase in the number of cells with reorganized actin in the submembranous area. The results of the present study argue in favor of the oncological safety of polychromatic VIS-IR light (480-3400 nm).

  16. INHIBITORY EFFECT OF CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ON HUMAN HEPATOMA CELLS IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Likun; Xin, Yi; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Ershao; Li, Weiling

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide, the degradation products of chitin, was reported to have a wide range of physiological functions and biological activities. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of Chitosan oligosaccharide on human hepatoma cells. MTT assay was applied to detect cell viability of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. Flow cytometric analysis was used to investigate the apoptosis of the human hepatoma cells treated with Chitosan oligosaccharide. We employed western blot to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the apoptosis. Our data indicated that chitosan oligosaccharide dose-dependently inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and induced apoptosis. On the molecular level, chitosan oligosaccharide decreased Bcl-2 and increased Caspase-3 expression which may be related to the apoptosis of hepatoma cells. Our results provide an experimental basis for the clinical development of Chitosan oligosaccharide as a novel anti-hepatoma drug.

  17. The inhibitory effect of transthyretin gene on growth of human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUCHAOTING; JINYAO; 等

    1994-01-01

    Transthyretin(TTR) gene was highly expressed in normal liver and it has been found to be deleted in part of DNA samples from human hepatic cancer.Its mRNA expression was suppressed in most hepatoma samples.In order to study the biological effect of TTR gene on the growth of hepatoma cells,a recombinant vector containing TTR cDNA was constructed by pCMV,then it was transfected into hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 and Q3.It has been demonstrated that the inhibition of growth rate of TTR cDNA transfected hepatoma cells was about 50% in strength compared with that of the control.This inhibition was further enhanced when the transfected hepatoma cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid.Hepatoma cells of cell lines PLC/PRF/5,SMMC-7721 and Q3 as well as hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 transfected with pCMV or pCMV-TTR were analyzed for TTR expression by Northern hybridization.The low level of TTR expression was found in both hepatoma cell lines and in SMMC-7721 cells transfected with pCMV alone.However,a remarkable TTR mRNA expression was observed in hepatoma SMMV-7721 cells transfected with pCMV-TTR.It seems possible that TTR gene might be a candidate of cancer suppressor gene for human hepatic cancer.

  18. Case of radiation gastroduodenitis caused by /sup 60/Co-irradiation therapy for hepatoma

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    Nishikawa, H.; Hayashi, N.; Morise, K.; Tunekawa, J.; Kaneshiro, K. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-02-01

    A 56-year-old man with hepatoma, who had been treated with total 3,960 rad of /sup 60/Co-irradiation 2 months previously, was readmitted to the hospital because of fever and anemia. Following admission, he passed tarry stools every day. Barium meal examination revealed esophageal varices and erosive gastritis of the antrum. At endoscopy, many hemorrhagic erosions were found in the gastric antrum and the first part of duodenum, which were located in the irradiation area. Since repeated blood transfusion failed to improve anemia, a complete fasting with intravenous hyperalimentation and antacid therapy were started. Two months later, feeding was started and thereafter continued without any appreciable GI bleeding or worsening of anemia. Endoscopic examination at this time revealed only a few erosions scattered over the edematous antral mucosa as well as the proximal duodenum. IVH, antacids and abstinence from food seem to be an effective measure in the treatment of radiation injury of the gut.

  19. Role of ROS-mediated autophagy in radiation-induced bystander effect of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jianghong; Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Ye, Shuang; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in cellular response to ionizing radiation, but it is unclear whether autophagy can modulate radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE). Here, we investigated the relationship between bystander damage and autophagy in human hepatoma cells of HepG2. HepG2 cells were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from 3 Gy γ-rays irradiated hepatoma HepG2 cells for 4, 12, or 24 h, followed by the measurement of micronuclei (MN), intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and protein expressions of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 in the bystander HepG2 cells. In some experiments, the bystander HepG2 cells were respectively transfected with LC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA), Beclin-1 siRNA or treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Additional MN and mitochondrial dysfunction coupled with ROS were induced in the bystander cells. The expressions of protein markers of autophagy, LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin-1, increased in the bystander cells. The inductions of bystander MN and overexpressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly diminished by DMSO. However, when the bystander cells were transfected with LC3 siRNA or Beclin-1 siRNA, the yield of bystander MN was significantly enhanced. The elevated ROS have bi-functions in balancing the bystander effects. One is to cause MN and the other is to induce protective autophagy.

  20. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. II. Comparison of beta-adrenergic responsiveness of rat ascites hepatoma cells with cultured normal rat liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Takemoto, N; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1985-05-01

    The pharmacological properties of beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells were compared with those in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. Adenylate cyclases in the homogenates of cultured normal rat liver cells and rat ascites hepatoma cells, AH44, AH66, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974, were all activated by isoproterenol or NaF to different degrees. The enzyme in rat liver cells was activated by several beta 2-agonists but those in all hepatoma cells hardly responded. Furthermore, salbutamol, a beta 2-partial agonist, antagonized the cyclase activation by isoproterenol in AH130 cells. The Kact value of isoproterenol for the activation of adenylate cyclase in AH130 cells was smaller than that in rat liver cells. A comparison of the Ki values of beta-antagonists for the inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclase activity shows that while the Ki values of propranolol and butoxamine in AH130 cells were similar to those in rat liver cells, a significant difference was observed in the values for beta 1-selective antagonists between AH130 cells and rat liver cells. The Ki values of metoprolol and atenolol for AH130 cells were 137- and 90-fold lower, respectively, than for normal rat liver cells. From these findings, it is strongly suggested that beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells including AH130 cells have similar properties to the mammalian beta 1-receptor.

  1. Repair and degradation systems in irradiated animal cells

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    Ivannik, B.P.; Proskuryakov, S.Ya.; Ryabchenko, N.I. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Obninsk. Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Meditsinskoj Radiologii)

    It was shown that primary radiosensitivity of DNA depends on the rate of DNA repair. In Zajdela hepatoma cells, cycloheximide administered immediately or 2 h before irradiation of animals does not influence DNA repair. Cycloheximide administered 4 h before irradiation of rats with a dose of 30 Gy arrests DNA repair in thymocytes and Zajdela hepatoma cells. At the same time, in cells of rat lymph nodes and spleen, under similar conditions, cycloheximide does not influence DNA repair and inhibits the secondary DNA degradation.

  2. Melatonin and Doxorubicin synergistically induce cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether Melatonin has synergistic effects with Doxorubicin in the growth-inhibition and apoptosis-induction of human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402.METHODS:The synergism of Melatonin and Doxorubicin inhibited the cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402.Cell viability was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Cell apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL method and flow cytometry.Apoptosis-r...

  3. Regulated expression of erythropoietin by two human hepatoma cell lines

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    Goldberg, M.A.; Glass, G.A.; Cunningham, J.M.; Bunn, H.F.

    1987-11-01

    The development of a cell culture system that produces erythropoietin (Epo) in a regulated manner has been the focus of much effort. The authors have screened multiple renal and hepatic cell lines for either constitutive or regulated expression of Epo. Only the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, made significant amounts of Epo as measured both by radioimmunoassay and in vitro bioassay (as much as 330 milliunits per 10/sup 6/ cells in 24 hr). The constitutive production of Epo increased dramatically as a function of cell density in both cell lines. At cell densities < 3.3 x 10/sup 5/ cells per cm/sup 2/, there was little constitutive release of Epo in the medium. With Hep3B cells grown at low cell densities, a mean 18-fold increase in Epo expression was seen in response to hypoxia and a 6-fold increase was observed in response to incubation in medium containing 50 ..mu..M cobalt(II) chloride. At similar low cell densities, Epo production in HepG2 cells could be enhanced an average of about 3-fold by stimulation with either hypoxia or cobalt(II) chloride. Upon such stimulation, both cell lines demonstrated markedly elevated levels of Epo mRNA. Hence, both Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines provide an excellent in vitro system in which to study the physiological regulation of Epo expression.

  4. [Effect of Conditioned Medium from Endothelial Cells on Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype of Hepatoma Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chuan; Yang, Xianjiong; Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Song, Guanbin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the influences of conditioned medium from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on cancer stem cell phenotype of human hepatoma cells. HUVEC and human hepatoma cells (MHCC97H) were cultured, respectively, and then the MHCC97H cells were co-cultured with conditioned medium from HUVEC (EC-CM) with Transwell system. Anti-cancer drug sensitivity, colony-formation, migration/invasion ability, expression of cancer stem cell marker and sphere formation were performed to determine the cancer stem cell phenotype in MHCC97H cells. We found that MHCC97H cells co-cultured with EC-CM exhibited significantly higher colony-formation ability and lower sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs 5-FU and Cis. Transwell assay showed that treatment with EC-CM obviously increased migration and invasion of MHCC97H cells. Moreover, increased sphere forming capability and expression of CD133 in MHCC97H cells were observed after co-cultured with EC-CM. These results suggested that EC-CM could promote cancer stem cell phenotype of hepatoma cells.

  5. TREATMENT OF RAT HEPATOMA BY LOCALLY INJECTION OF MURINE IL-12 RETROVIRUS PACKAGING CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of the murine IL-12 (mIL-12) retrovirus packaging cell line on hepatoma injected locally. Methods: The retrovirus vector encoding mIL-12 gene was constructed and transfected into packaging cell line PA317. The cells were then used to treat the rats with experimental orthotopic hepatoma at different time. The therapeutic effects, immune functions of the hosts, pathological and toxicological responses were documented. Results: the results showed that the mIL-12 retrovirus packaging cell line could significantly inhibit the growth of the hepatoma cells injected locally to the hepatoma. The early treatment made the rats survive long, while the medium or late stage treatment could prolong the life time of the rats compared with the bland control group or bland vector control group, though the rats did not survive. The number of NK cells and T cells increased significantly in the treatment group. The effects of the early treatment were superior to those of the medium and late stage treatment. Moreover, the transfection of IL-12 gene locally in the hepatoma tissue could make the hepatoma disappear from other liver lobe. This phenomenon demonstrated that IL-12 could activate the immune cells of the host to kill the untransfected tumor cells. This is very important for IL-12 to be used in gene therapy clinically. Meanwhile, the hepatoma would not recur in the rats that had survived more than 2 months from the early treatment after being re-challenged with tumor cells. Conclusion: the results showed that IL-12 gene injected locally in the hepatoma tissue could enhance the anti-tumor immunity of the host.

  6. Aflatoxin B1 up-regulates insulin receptor substrate 2 and stimulates hepatoma cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Ma

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a potent carcinogen that can induce hepatocellular carcinoma. AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide, one of AFB1 metabolites, acts as a mutagen to react with DNA and induce gene mutations, including the tumor suppressor p53. In addition, AFB1 reportedly stimulates IGF receptor activation. Aberrant activation of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling is tightly associated with various types of human tumors. In the current study, we investigated the effects of AFB1 on key elements in IGF-IR signaling pathway, and the effects of AFB1 on hepatoma cell migration. The results demonstrated that AFB1 induced IGF-IR, Akt, and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721, and an immortalized human liver cell line Chang liver. AFB1 also down-regulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS 1 but paradoxically up-regulated IRS2 through preventing proteasomal degradation. Treatment of hepatoma cells and Chang liver cells with IGF-IR inhibitor abrogated AFB1-induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, IRS2 knockdown suppressed AFB1-induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, AFB1 stimulated hepatoma cell migration. IGF-IR inhibitor or IRS2 knockdown suppressed AFB1-induced hepatoma cell migration. These data demonstrate that AFB1 stimulates hepatoma cell migration through IGF-IR/IRS2 axis.

  7. Andrographolide inhibits hepatoma cells growth and affects the expression of cell cycle related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kai-Kai; Liu, Tian-Yu; Xu, Chong; Ji, Li-Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2009-09-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate the toxic effects of andrographolide (Andro) on hepatoma cells and elucidate its preliminary mechanisms. After cells were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-50 micromol x L(-1)) for 24 h, cell viability was evaluated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Furthermore, after hepatoma cells (Hep3B and HepG2) were treated with different concentrations of Andro (0-30 micromol x L(-1)) for 14 d, the number of colony formation was accounted under microscope. Cell cycle related proteins such as Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin B and Cyclin D1 were detected with Western blotting assay and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide staining. MTT results showed that Andro induced growth inhibition of hepatoma cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no significant effects on human normal liver L-02 cells. Andro dramatically decreased the colony formation of hepatoma cells in the concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, Andro induced a decrease of Hep3B cells at the G0-G1 phase and a concomitant accumulation of cells at G2-M phase. At the molecular level, Western blotting results showed that Andro decreased the expression of Cdc-2, phosphorylated-Cdc-2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin B proteins in a time-dependent manner, which are all cell cycle related proteins. Taken together, the results demonstrated that Andro specifically inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and cellular cell cycle related proteins were possibly involved in this process.

  8. Alpha particle-induced bystander effect is mediated by ROS via a p53-dependent SCO2 pathway in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jitao; He, Mingyuan; Shen, Bo; Yuan, Dexiao; Shao, Chunlin

    2013-12-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has important implications for the efficiency of radiotherapy but the underlying role of cellular metabolism is widely unknown. The roles of synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2), a key effector for respiratory chain, and related signaling factors in α-particle-induced bystander damage were currently investigated in a liver cell co-culture system. Human hepatoma cells of HepG2 with wild-type p53 (wtp53) and Hep3B (p53 null) were irradiated with 0.4 Gy of α-particles and co-cultured with non-irradiated normal liver cells HL-7702 for 6 h, then the incidence of micronucleus (MN) in the bystander HL-7702 cells was analyzed. The expressions of total P53, phospho-P53 (p-P53), SCO2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the irradiated hepatoma cells were detected. In some experiments, the hepatoma cells were respectively treated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) before irradiation. Bystander damage in HL-7702 cells was induced by α-irradiated HepG2 cells but not by α-irradiated Hep3B cells, and this bystander effect was diminished when the irradiated HepG2 cells were pretreated with p53 siRNA, SCO2 siRNA, or DMSO. Meanwhile, the expressions of p-P53 protein and SCO2 mRNA, the activity of SCO2 protein, and intracellular ROS were all increased in the irradiated HepG2 cells but not Hep3B cells and these expressions were eliminated by p53 siRNA treatment. Moreover, the radiation-enhanced expressions of SCO2 and ROS were inhibited by SCO2 siRNA. α-particle-induced bystander effect was regulated by p53 and its downstream SCO2 in the irradiated hepatoma cells, and ROS generation could be an early event for triggering this bystander response.

  9. Establishment of a human hepatoma multidrug resistant cell line in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To establish a multidrug-resistant hepatoma cell line(SK-Hep-1),and to investigate its biological characteristics.METHODS:A highly invasive SK-Hep-1 cell line of human hepatocellular carcinoma,also known as malignant hepatoma was incubated with a high concentration of cisplatin(CDDP) to establish a CDDP-resistant cell subline(SK-Hep-1/CDDP).The 50% inhibitory dose(IC50) values and the resistance indexes [(IC50 SK-Hep-1/CDDP)/(IC50 SK-Hep-1)] for other chemotherapeutic agents and the growth curve of cell...

  10. Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ning Wang; Xuanbin Wang; Hor-Yue Tan; Sha Li; Chi Man Tsang; Sai-Wah Tsao; Yibin Feng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degrada...

  11. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44. Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs.

  12. 超声辐照载羟基喜树碱微泡对肝癌SMMC-7721 细胞凋亡及相关蛋白表达的影响%Effects of ultrasound irradiating hydroxycamptothecin-loaded microbubbles on apoptosis and expression of related protein in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱婷; 孙彤; 王志刚; 李攀; 严思静

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ultrasound irradiating hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT)-loaded microbubbles on apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells, and to clarify its probable mechanism. Methods The SMMC-7721 cells were randomly divided into six groups as follows: control group, blank liposome microbubbles plus ultrasound, HCPT-loaded microbubbles, HCPT, HCPT plus ultrasound,and HCPT-loaded microbubbles plus ultrasound. Apoptosis was ascertained by Annexin V-Fire/ PI and TUNEL methods. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was detected by immunocytochemistry staining technique. Results In the group of HCPT-loaded microbubbles plus ultrasound,the apoptosis rate at early term was found to reach (12.18 ± 1.38)% by Annexin V-Fitc/PI assay, brown-colored positive apoptotic cells were observed and the apoptosis rate at advanced term was found to reach (34.25 ± 1.83)% with TUNEL method. The expression of Bcl-2 was found to decrease,the expression of Bax increase,and the ratio of Bcl-2/bax significantly decrease by immunocytochemistry staining technique in the same group. Differences with other groups were significant. Conclusions The method of ultrasound irradiating HCPT-loaded microbubbles can notability induce human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells apoptosis. The decrease in the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax might be responsible for cells apoptosis.%目的 研究超声辐照载羟基喜树碱微泡对肝癌SMMC-7721细胞凋亡的影响,并探讨其诱导细胞凋亡的分子机制.方法 SMMC-7721细胞随机分为6组,即对照组、空白脂质微泡+超声组、载羟基喜树碱微泡组、羟基喜树碱组、羟基喜树碱+超声组及载羟基喜树碱微泡+超声组.采用Annexin V-FITC/PI双染法和TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡状况;免疫细胞化学法检测Bel-2、Bax蛋白表达.结果 载羟基喜树碱微泡+超声组用Annexin V-FITC/PI检测细胞早期凋亡率为(12.18±1.38)%;TUNEL法显示染成棕黄色的凋亡细胞,细胞中晚期凋亡率为(34

  13. Effects of Uptake of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles into Hepatoma Cells on Cell Adhesion and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nano-HAPs were prepared by homogeneous precipitation, and size distribution and morphology of these nanoparticles were determined by laser particle analysis and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Nano-HAPs were uniformly distributed, with rod-like shapes sizes ranging from 44.6 to 86.8 nm. Attached overnight, suspended, and proliferating Bel-7402 cells were repeatedly incubated with nano-HAPs. Inverted microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy were used to observe the cell adhesion and growth, the culture medium containing nano-HAPs, the cell ultrastructure, and intracellular Ca2+ labeled with a fluo-3 calcium fluorescent probe. The results showed that nano-HAPs inhibited proliferation of Bel-7402 cells and, caused an obvious increase in the concentration of intracellular Ca2+, along with significant changes in the cell ultrastructure. Moreover, nano-HAPs led suspended cells and proliferating cells after trypsinized that did not attach to the bottom of the culture bottle died. Nano-HAPs continuously entered these cells. Attached, suspended, and proliferating cells endocytosed nano-HAPs, and nanoparticle-filled vesicles were in the cytoplasm. Therefore, hepatoma cellular uptake of nano-HAPs through endocytosis was very active and occurred continuously. Nano-HAPs affected proliferation and adhesion of hepatoma cells probably because uptake of nano-HAPs blocked integrin-mediated cell adhesion, which may have potential significance in inhibiting metastatic cancer cells to their target organ.

  14. A Long Noncoding RNA Perturbs the Circadian Rhythm of Hepatoma Cells to Facilitate Hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clock circadian regulator (CLOCK/brain and muscle arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1 complex governs the regulation of circadian rhythm through triggering periodic alterations of gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian clock disruption in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC remains unclear. Here, we report that a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA, highly upregulated in liver cancer (HULC, contributes to the perturbations in circadian rhythm of hepatoma cells. Our observations showed that HULC was able to heighten the expression levels of CLOCK and its downstream circadian oscillators, such as period circadian clock 1 and cryptochrome circadian clock 1, in hepatoma cells. Strikingly, HULC altered the expression pattern and prolonged the periodic expression of CLOCK in hepatoma cells. Mechanistically, the complementary base pairing between HULC and the 5' untranslated region of CLOCK mRNA underlay the HULC-modulated expression of CLOCK, and the mutants in the complementary region failed to achieve the event. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validated that the levels of CLOCK were elevated in HCC tissues, and the expression levels of HULC were positively associated with those of CLOCK in clinical HCC samples. In functional experiments, our data exhibited that CLOCK was implicated in the HULC-accelerated proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our data show that an lncRNA, HULC, is responsible for the perturbations in circadian rhythm through upregulating circadian oscillator CLOCK in hepatoma cells, resulting in the promotion of hepatocarcinogenesis. Thus, our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which lncRNA accelerates hepatocarcinogenesis through disturbing circadian rhythm of HCC.

  15. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis.

  16. Studies on the Identification of Constituents in Ethanol Extract of Radix Glycyrrhizae and Their Anti-Primary Hepatoma Cell Susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the chemical constituents of Radix Glycyrrhizae and to apply the resulting natural products in the study of drug susceptibility of hepatoma cells so as to provide a scientific basis for quality standards and clinical application of medicinal Radix Glycyrrhizae. Chromatographic materials were used for isolation and purification; structural identification was performed based on physicochemical properties and spectral data. MTT colorimetry was used to detect the proliferation inhibition rate against primary hepatoma cells by natural products, and flow cytometry was used to detect the changes in cell cycle progression. Five compounds were isolated and identified, namely, liquiritigenin (1, liquiritin (2, isoliquiritigenin (3, betulinic acid (4, and oleanolic acid (5. In the study, 5-FU (5-fluorouracil is used as a positive control to the hepatoma cells. Primary hepatoma cells were highly susceptible to 5-FU and liquiritigenin, both of which markedly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells; flow cytometry results showed an increase in G0/G1 phase cells, a decrease in S phase cells, and a relative increase in G2/M phase cells. Primary hepatoma cells are highly susceptible to liquiritigenin, a natural product; the testing of tumor cell susceptibility is of important significance to the improvement of therapeutic effect of cancer.

  17. Effect of Lidamycin on Telomerase Activity in Human Hepatoma BEL-7402 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUI-JUAN GAO; YUE-XIN LIANG; DIAN-DONG LI; HONG-YIN ZHANG; YONG-SU ZHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of lidamycin(LDM)on telomerase activity in human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells under the condition of LDM inducing mitotic cell death and senescence.Methods Chromatin condensation was detected by co-staining with Hoechst 33342 and PI.Cell multinucleation was observed by Giemsa staining and genomic DNA was separated by agarose gel electrophoresis.Fluorescent intensity of Rho123 Was determined for mitochondrial membrane potential.MTT assay and SA-β-gal staining were employed to analyze the senescence-like phenotype.The expression of proteins was analyzed by Western blot.Telomerase activity was assayed by telomerase PCR-ELISA.Results Mitotic cell death occurred in LDM-treated cells characterized by unique and atypical chromatin condensation,multinucleation and increased mitochondrial membrane potential.However,no apoptotic bodies or DNA ladders were found.In addition,apoptosis-related proteins remained nearly unaltered.Senescence-like phenotype was identified by increased and elongated size of cells,growth retardation,enhanced SA-β-gal activity and the changes of senescence-related protein expression.Telomerase activity markedly decreased (P<0.01)in LDM-treated hepatoma BEL-7402 cells. Conelusion Mitotic cell death and senescence could be triggered simultaneously or sequentially after exposure of hepatoma BEL-7402 cells to LDM.The decrease in telomerase activity may play a key role in the defective mitosis and aging morphology.Further investigation of detailed mechanism is needed.

  18. KAI1/CD82 suppresses hepatocyte growth factor-induced migration of hepatoma cells via upregulation of Sprouty2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU ZhenBin; WANG Hua; ZHANG Jing; LI QingFang; WANG LiSheng; GUO XiaoZhong

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a study concerning the suppressive mechanism of KAI1/CD82 on hepatoma cell metas-tasis. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induces the migration of hepatoma cells through activation of cellular sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1). Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of KAI1 (Ad-KAI1) down-regulates the SphK1 expression and suppresses the HGF-induced migration of SMMC-7721 human hepatocellcular carcinoma cells. Overexpression of KAI1/CD82 significantly elevates Sprouty2 at the protein level. Ablation of Sprouty2 with RNA interference can block the KAI1/CD82-induced suppres-sion of hepatoma cell migration and downregulation of SphK1 expression. It is demonstrated that KAI1/CD82 suppresses HGF-induced migration of hepatoma cells via upregulation of Sprouty2.

  19. KAI1/CD82 suppresses hepatocyte growth factorinduced migration of hepatoma cells via upregulation of Sprouty2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a study concerning the suppressive mechanism of KAI1/CD82 on hepatoma cell metastasis.Hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)induces the migration of hepatoma cells through activation of cellular sphingosine kinase 1(SphK1).Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of KAI1(Ad-KAI1)downregulates the SphK1 expression and suppresses the HGF-induced migration of SMMC-7721 human hepatocellcular carcinoma cells.Overexpression of KAI1/CD82 significantly elevates Sprouty2 at the protein level.Ablation of Sprouty2 with RNA interference can block the KAI1/CD82-induced suppression of hepatoma cell migration and downregulation of SphK1 expression.It is demonstrated that KAI1/CD82 suppresses HGF-induced migration of hepatoma cells via upregulation of Sprouty2.

  20. Detection of PIVKA II produced by human hepatoma cells in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, H; Ono, M; Sekiya, C; Ohta, H; Ohhira, M; Ohhira, M; Yoshida, Y; Ikeda, N; Namiki, M

    1991-03-01

    A novel experimental nude mouse model, which is useful for investigation of the mechanisms of PIVKA II synthesis, was established by inoculation with PIVKA II-producing human hepatoma cells (huH-1). We have found markedly elevated levels of PIVKA II in the plasma of nude mice transplanted with huH-1 cells and increased PIVKA II content in huH-1 tumor tissues. Whereas we have not found detectable level of PIVKA II neither in the plasma nor in tumor tissues of nude mice transplanted different human hepatoma cells (HLF) which is not producing PIVKA II. Histology of the tumor tissues produced by huH-1 cells revealed a thick trabecular pattern with blood spaces.

  1. Heavy Ion Beams Induce Survivin Expression in Human Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells More Effectively than X-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li GONG; Xiaodong JIN; Qiang LI; Jiangtao LIU; Lizhe AN

    2007-01-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion radiation is more effective in inducing biological damage than low-LET X-rays or γ-rays. Heavy ion beam provides good dose localization (Bragg peak) in critical cancer tissue and gives higher relative biological effectiveness in cell killing across the dose peak, so high-LET heavy ion beam is superior to low-LET radiation in cancer treatment. Survivin, as a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, might help cancerous cells to overcome the G2/M apoptotic checkpoint and favor the aberrant progression of transformed cells through mitosis. Survivin expression in the human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell line after exposure to low-LET X-ray and high-LET carbon ion irradiation was investigated in this study. Compared with X-ray irradiation, the carbon ion beam clearly caused G2/M arrest and promoted the expression of the survivin gene in a dose-dependent manner. Clonogenic survival assay showed that SMMC-7721 cells were more radiosensitive to the high-LET carbon ions than to the X-rays, and the radiosensitivity was promoted after treatment with specific survivin short interfering RNA. Differential survivin expression at both transcriptional and translational levels was found for SMMC-7721 cells following low- and high-LET irradiation. The overexpression of survivin in SMMC-7721 cells is probably an important reason why the cancerous cells have radioresistance to strong stimulus such as dense ionizing high-LET radiation. However, the direct killing effect on cancerous cells by high-LET radiation might be more significant than the apoptosis inhibition through the overexpression of survivin following heavy ion irradiation.

  2. High Permissivity of Human HepG2 Hepatoma Cells for Influenza Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-01-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represe...

  3. Degradation of transplanted rat liver mitochondrial-outer-membrane proteins in hepatoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, S.M.; Mayer, R J

    1983-01-01

    Reductively [3H]methylated 3H mitochondrial-outer-membrane vesicles from rat liver and vesicles where monoamine oxidase has been derivatized irreversibly by [3H]-pargyline have been deliberately miscompartmentalized by heterologous transplantation into hepatoma (HTC) cells by poly(ethylene glycol)-mediated vesicle-cell fusion. Fluorescein-conjugated mitochondrial-outer-membrane vesicles have also been used to show that transplanted material is patched, capped and internalized. Reductively met...

  4. Merocyanine 540 and Photofrin II as photosensitizers for in vitro killing of duck hepatitis B virus and human hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Shien, Yong-Shau; Kao, Ming-Chien

    1994-03-01

    The feasibility of using merocyanine 540 (MC 540) and Photofrin II (PII) as effective photodynamic therapeutic (PDT) agents for killing hepatoma cells and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) in vitro was investigated. Cultured duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV and hepatoma cells, Hep 3B and HCC 36, were used as models. MC 540 and PII effectively inhibits the DHBV growth by 90 - 99% in a dose- and light-dependent manner. Photodynamic killing of MC 540 in the two hepatoma cell lines results in 94 - 99% growth inhibition. However, both photosensitizers exhibit dark cytotoxicity (37 - 56%). The present results suggest that MC 540 and PII could be promising and effective photodynamic agents for killing HBV and hepatoma cells.

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 is a target of microRNA-16 in human hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Agra Andrieu

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression has been detected in human hepatoma cell lines and in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; however, the contribution of COX-2 to the development of HCC remains controversial. COX-2 expression is higher in the non-tumoral tissue and inversely correlates with the differentiation grade of the tumor. COX-2 expression depends on the interplay between different cellular pathways involving both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. The aim of this work was to assess whether COX-2 could be regulated by microRNAs in human hepatoma cell lines and in human HCC specimens since these molecules contribute to the regulation of genes implicated in cell growth and differentiation. Our results show that miR-16 silences COX-2 expression in hepatoma cells by two mechanisms: a by binding directly to the microRNA response element (MRE in the COX-2 3'-UTR promoting translational suppression of COX-2 mRNA; b by decreasing the levels of the RNA-binding protein Human Antigen R (HuR. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-16 inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell apoptosis and suppresses the ability of hepatoma cells to develop tumors in nude mice, partially through targeting COX-2. Moreover a reduced miR-16 expression tends to correlate to high levels of COX-2 protein in liver from patients affected by HCC. Our data show an important role for miR-16 as a post-transcriptional regulator of COX-2 in HCC and suggest the potential therapeutic application of miR-16 in those HCC with a high COX-2 expression.

  6. The combinational effect of vincristine and berberine on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wei, Dandan; Han, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Chengzhong; Zhang, Jie; Mo, Chunfen; Yang, Ming; Li, Junhong; Wang, Zhe; Zhou, Qin; Xiao, Hengyi

    2014-04-01

    The use of vincristine, a known antitumor agent, in hepatoma therapy is limited particularly because of its toxic effect. Meanwhile, berberine has drawn increasing attention to its antineoplastic effect in recent years. In view of the advantages of combinational drug treatment reported in anti-cancer chemotherapy, we evaluated the effects of co-treatment of vincristine and berberine on hepatic carcinoma cell lines in this study. We find that combinational usage of these two drugs can significantly induce cell growth inhibition and apoptosis even under a concentration of vincristine barely showing cytotoxicity in the same cells when used alone. The underlying mechanism about this combinational effect was addressed in this study by monitoring the signals related to mitochondrial function, apoptotic pathway and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Our results suggest a new value of berberine as a potential adjuvant agent in cancer chemotherapy and provide a hopeful approach for developing hepatoma therapy by utilizing the combinational effect of vincristine and berberine.

  7. Interferon alpha regulates MAPK and STAT1 pathways in human hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Hao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signaling events triggered by interferon (IFN account for the molecular mechanisms of antiviral effect. JAK-STAT pathway plays a critical role in IFN signaling, and other pathways are also implicated in IFN-mediated antiviral effect. Changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and STAT1 pathways were evaluated in human hepatoma cells Huh7 and HepG2 upon IFN alpha treatment. Results Phosphorylation of ERK was significantly and specifically up-regulated, whereas enhanced phosphorylation of upstream kinase MEK was unobservable upon IFN alpha treatment. A mild increase in p38 MAPK, SAPK/JNK and downstream target ATF-2 phosphorylation was detectable after exposure to IFN alpha, indicating differential up-regulation of the MAPK signaling cascades. Moreover, STAT1 phosphorylation was strongly enhanced by IFN alpha. Conclusion IFN alpha up-regulates MAPK and STAT1 pathways in human hepatoma cells, and may provide useful information for understanding the IFN signaling.

  8. Intracellular glutathione regulates Andrographolide-induced cytotoxicity on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Liu, Jun; Chen, Ying; Liu, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengtao

    2009-01-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional herbal plant Andrographis paniculata, was reported to induce apoptosis in hepatoma Hep3B cells in our previous study (Ji LL, Liu TY, Liu J, Chen Y, Wang ZT. Andrographolide inhibits human hepatoma-derived Hep3B cells growth through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Planta Med 2007; 73: 1397-1401). The present investigation was carried out to observe whether cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) plays important roles in ANDRO-induced apoptosis. ANDRO initially increased intracellular GSH levels which then decreased later, while inhibition of cellular GSH synthesis by L-Buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in Hep3B cells. On the other hand, the thiol antioxidant dithiothreitol (DTT) rescued ANDRO-depleted cellular GSH, and abrogated ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Furthermore, BSO pretreatment augmented ANDRO-decreased expression of antioxidant protein thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), while DTT reversed this decrease. Further results showed that ANDRO increased the activity of the GSH-related antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, this study demonstrates that the intracellular redox system plays important roles in regulating the cytotoxicity of ANDRO on hepatoma Hep3B cells.

  9. Comparison of the effect of interferon on two human hepatoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.; Schoub, B.D.; Lyons, S.F.; Chiu, M.N. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Virology)

    1985-06-01

    Two human hepatoma cell lines, the PLC/PRF/5 and the Mahlavu cells, which differ in their production of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), responded differently to interferon (IFN). After IFN treatment both cell lines were able to inhibit Sindbis virus replication. Oligo A synthetase (E enzyme) could be activated in the PLC/PRF/5 cells although they were not sensitive to exogenous 2 - 5 oligoadenylic acid (2 - 5 A). In contrast, the Mahlavu cells were sensitive to exogenous 2 - 5 A, but unable to activate the E enzyme. Both cell lines were unable to stimulate phosphorylation of the exogenous initiator factor eIF-2.

  10. Time-course regulation of quercetin on cell survival/proliferation pathways in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Angeles Martín, María; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2008-04-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. This study was aimed at investigating the time-course regulation effect of quercetin on survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Quercetin induced a significant time-dependent inactivation of the major survival signaling proteins, i. e., phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha), in concert with a time-dependent activation of key death-related signals: c-jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and PKC-delta. These data suggest that quercetin exerts a tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways that requires the integration of different signals and persists over time, being the balance of these regulatory signals what determines the fate of HepG2 cells.

  11. Disulfiram deregulates HIF-α subunits and blunts tumor adaptation to hypoxia in hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-joon; Kim, Min-sung; Cho, Kumsun; Yun, Jang-hyuk; Choi, Yong-joon; Cho, Chung-hyun

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Disulfiram is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor that was used to treat alcoholism and showed anticancer activity, but its anticancer mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of disulfiram on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-driven tumor adaptation to hypoxia in vitro. Methods: Hep3B, Huh7 and HepG2 hepatoma cells were incubated under normoxic (20% O2) or hypoxic (1% O2) conditions for 16 h. The expression and activity of HIF-1α and HIF-2α proteins were evaluated using immunoblotting and luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze HIF-mediated gene expression. Endothelial tubule formation assay was used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect. Results: Hypoxia caused marked expression of HIF-1α and HIF-1α in the 3 hepatoma cell lines, dramatically increased HIF activity and induced the expression of HIF downstream genes (EPO, CA9, VEGF-A and PDK1) in Hep3B cells. HIF-2α expression was positively correlated with the induction of hypoxic genes (CA9, VEGF-A and PDK1). Moreover, hypoxia markedly increased VEGF production and angiogenic potential of Hep3B cells. Disulfiram (0.3 to 2 μmol/L) inhibited hypoxia-induced gene expression and HIF activity in a dose-dependent manner. Disulfiram more effectively suppressed the viability of Hep3B cells under hypoxia, but it did not affect the cell cycle. Overexpression of HIF-2α in Hep3B cells reversed the inhibitory effects of disulfiram on hypoxia-induced gene expression and cell survival under hypoxia. Conclusion: Disulfiram deregulates the HIF-mediated hypoxic signaling pathway in hepatoma cells, which may contribute to its anticancer effect. Thus, disulfiram could be used to treat solid tumors that grow in a HIF-dependent manner. PMID:23852087

  12. Antitumor effect of matrine in human hepatoma G2 cells by inducing apoptosis and autophagy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect of matrine in human hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells and its molecular mechanism involved in antineoplastic activities. METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect viability of HepG2 cells. The effect of matrine on cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Annexin-V-FITC/PI double staining assay was used to detect cellular apoptosis. Cellular morphological changes were observed under an inverted phase contrast microscope. ...

  13. Synergistic effect of combining paeonol and cisplatin on apoptotic induction of human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-ping XU; Guo-ping SUN; Yu-xian SHEN; Wan-ten PENG; Hua WANG; Wei WE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether paeonol (Pae) has synergistic effects with cisplatin (CDDP) on the growth-inhibition and apoptosis-induction of human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721.Methods: The cytotoxic effect of drugs was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. The coefficient of drug interaction was used to analyze the nature of drug interactions. Morphological changes were observed by acridine orange fluo-rescence staining. Cell cycle and the apoptosis rate were detected by flow cytometry. Bcl-2 and Bax expression were assayed by immunohistochemical staining.Results: Pae or CDDP had antiproliferative effect on the 2 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, with different sensitivities to drugs. More interestingly, a synergistic inhibitory effect on the viability of the 2 cell lines was observed after treatment with a combination of Pae (15.63, 31.25, and 62.5 mg/L) with various concentrations of CDDP. Further study showed typical mor-phological changes of apoptosis if the cells were exposed to the two agents for 24 h. The apoptotic rate of the cells with combination treatment was signifi-candy higher than that of cells treated with Pae or CDDP alone. The expression of Bcl-2 decreased and that of Bax increased in the treated groups, especially in the combination group, with the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax decreasing correspondingly.Additionally, a combination of Pae with CDDP resulted in a stronger S phase arrest, compared with Pae or CDDP alone.Conclusion: Pae, in combination with CDDP, had a significantly synergistic growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-in-ducing effect on the 2 human hepatoma cell lines, which may be useful in hepatoma treatment.

  14. Hepatitis B virus X protein promotes hepatoma cell proliferation via upregulation of MEKK2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-yao KONG; Jun-ping ZHANG; Shuai ZHANG; Chang-liang SHAN; Li-hong YE; Xiao-dong ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying the increase of hepatoma cell proliferation by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx).Methods:HepG2,H7402 and HepG2.2.15 cells,which constitutively replicated hepatitis B virus were used.The effects of HBx on hepatoma cell proliferation were examined using 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assay and MTT assay.The expression level of MEKK2 was measured using RT-PCR,Western blot and luciferase reporter gene assay.The activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) was detected using luciferase reporter gene assay.The phosphorylation levels of JNK and c-Jun were measured using Western blot.The expression levels of HBx and MEKK2 in 11 clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues were measured using real time PCR and Western blot.In addition,the expression of MEKK2 in 95 clinical HCC tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry.Results:HBx significantly enhanced HepG2-X cell proliferation.In HepG2-X,H7402-X and HepG2.2.15 cells,the expression level of MEKK2 was remarkably increased.In HepG2.2.15 cells,HBx was found to activate JNK and AP-1,which were the downstream effectors of MEKK2 in HepG2-X and HepG2.2.15 cells.In 11 clinical HCC tissues,both HBx and MEKK2 expression levels were remarkably increased,as compared to those in the corresponding peritumor tissues.In 95 clinical HCC tissues,the rate of detection of MEKK2 was 85.3%.Conclusion:HBx promotes hepatoma cell proliferation via upregulating MEKK2,which may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. Magnetic targeting of iron-oxide-labeled fluorescent hepatoma cells to the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, Alain [Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Paris (France); Imagerie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine Paris XII, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil cedex (France); Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence [Universite Paris Diderot, Batiment Condorcet, Laboratoire Matiere et Systemes Complexes, CNRS-UMR 7057, Paris Cedex (France); Bruneval, Patrick [Anatomopathologie, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Cunin, Patrick [Unite de Recherche Clinique, Faculte de Medecine Paris XII, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil cedex (France); Autret, Gwennhael; Clement, Olivier [Universite Rene Descartes, Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Paris (France); Rahmouni, Alain [Imagerie Medicale, Faculte de Medecine Paris XII, CHU Henri Mondor, Creteil cedex (France)

    2009-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an external magnet field can induce preferential trafficking of magnetically labeled Huh7 hepatoma cells to the liver following liver cell transplantation. Huh7 hepatoma cells were labeled with anionic magnetic nanoparticles (AMNP) and tagged with a fluorescent membrane marker (PKH67). Iron-uptake was measured by magnetophoresis. Twenty C57Bl6 mice received an intrasplenic injection of 2 x 10{sup 6} labeled cells. An external magnet (0.29 T; 25 T/m) was placed over the liver of 13 randomly selected animals (magnet group), while the remaining 7 animals served as controls. MRI (1.5 T) and confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) were performed 10 days post-transplantation. The presence and location of labeled cells within the livers were compared in the magnet group and controls, and confronted with histological analysis representing the standard of reference. Mean iron content per cell was 6 pg. Based on histology, labeled cells were more frequently present within recipient livers in the magnet group (p < 0.01) where their distribution was preferentially peri-vascular (p<0.05). MRI and CFM gave similar results for the overall detection of transplanted cells (kappa=0.828) and for the identification of peri-vascular cells (kappa=0.78). Application of an external magnet can modify the trafficking of transplanted cells, especially by promoting the formation of perivascular aggregates. (orig.)

  16. Drug Transporter Expression and Activity in Human Hepatoma HuH-7 Cells

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    Elodie Jouan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatoma cells may represent a valuable alternative to the use of human hepatocytes for studying hepatic drug transporters, which is now a regulatory issue during drug development. In the present work, we have characterized hepatic drug transporter expression, activity and regulation in human hepatoma HuH-7 cells, in order to determine the potential relevance of these cells for drug transport assays. HuH-7 cells displayed notable multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP activity, presumed to reflect expression of various hepatic MRPs, including MRP2. By contrast, they failed to display functional activities of the uptake transporters sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1, and of the canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Concomitantly, mRNA expressions of various sinusoidal and canalicular hepatic drug transporters were not detected (NTCP, OATP1B1, organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, OCT1 and bile salt export pump or were found to be lower (OATP1B3, OATP2B1, multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1, BCRP and MRP3 in hepatoma HuH-7 cells than those found in human hepatocytes, whereas other transporters such as OAT7, MRP4 and MRP5 were up-regulated. HuH-7 cells additionally exhibited farnesoid X receptor (FXR- and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-related up-regulation of some transporters. Such data indicate that HuH-7 cells, although expressing rather poorly some main hepatic drug transporters, may be useful for investigating interactions of drugs with MRPs, notably MRP2, and for studying FXR- or Nrf2-mediated gene regulation.

  17. Human serum activates CIDEB-mediated lipid droplet enlargement in hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singaravelu, Ragunath [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Lyn, Rodney K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Srinivasan, Prashanth [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Delcorde, Julie [Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Steenbergen, Rineke H.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta (Canada); Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Katz Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2 (Canada); Pezacki, John P., E-mail: John.Pezacki@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Human serum induced differentiation of hepatoma cells increases cellular lipid droplet (LD) size. •The observed increase in LD size correlates with increased PGC-1α and CIDEB expression. •Induction of CIDEB expression correlates with rescue of VLDL secretion and loss of ADRP. •siRNA knockdown of CIDEB impairs the human serum mediated increase in LD size. •This system represents a cost-efficient model to study CIDEB’s role in lipid biology. -- Abstract: Human hepatocytes constitutively express the lipid droplet (LD) associated protein cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B (CIDEB). CIDEB mediates LD fusion, as well as very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) maturation. However, there are limited cell culture models readily available to study CIDEB’s role in these biological processes, as hepatoma cell lines express negligible levels of CIDEB. Recent work has highlighted the ability of human serum to differentiate hepatoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that culturing Huh7.5 cells in media supplemented with human serum activates CIDEB expression. This activation occurs through the induced expression of PGC-1α, a positive transcriptional regulator of CIDEB. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy revealed a correlation between CIDEB levels and LD size in human serum treated Huh7.5 cells. Human serum treatment also resulted in a rapid decrease in the levels of adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Furthermore, individual overexpression of CIDEB was sufficient to down-regulate ADRP protein levels. siRNA knockdown of CIDEB revealed that the human serum mediated increase in LD size was CIDEB-dependent. Overall, our work highlights CIDEB’s role in LD fusion, and presents a new model system to study the PGC-1α/CIDEB pathway’s role in LD dynamics and the VLDL pathway.

  18. Hepatitis C virus infection of human hepatoma cell line 7721 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Fei Hao; Feng Min; Qiao-Yu Ma; Guo-Dong Liu

    2001-01-01

    AIM To establish a cell culture system with long-term replication of hepatitis C virus in vitro.``METHODS Human hepatoma cell line 7721 was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubating with a serum from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Cells and supernatant were harvested at various phases during the culturing periods The presence of HCV RNA, the expression of HCV antigens in cells and/or supernatant were examined by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry respectively.``RESULTS The intracellular HCV RNA was first detected on d 2 after infection and then could be intermittently detected in both cells and supernatant over a period of at least three months. The expression of HCV NS3, CP10antigens could be observed in cells. The fresh cells could be infected by supematant from cultured infected cells and the transmission of viral genome from HCV-infected 7721 cells to PBMCs was also observed.``CONCLUSION The hepatoma line 7721 is not only susceptible to HCV but also supports its long-term replication in vitro.``

  19. Hepatoma SK Hep-1 cells exhibit characteristics of oncogenic mesenchymal stem cells with highly metastatic capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Ryeol Eun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SK Hep-1 cells (SK cells derived from a patient with liver adenocarcinoma have been considered a human hepatoma cell line with mesenchymal origin characteristics, however, SK cells do not express liver genes and exhibit liver function, thus, we hypothesized whether mesenchymal cells might contribute to human liver primary cancers. Here, we characterized SK cells and its tumourigenicity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that classical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers were presented on SK cells, but endothelial marker CD31, hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 were negative. SK cells are capable of differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts as adipose-derived MSC (Ad-MSC and bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC do. Importantly, a single SK cell exhibited a substantial tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity in immunodefficient mice. Metastasis not only occurred in circulating organs such as lung, liver, and kidneys, but also in muscle, outer abdomen, and skin. SK cells presented greater in vitro invasive capacity than those of Ad-MSC and BM-MSC. The xenograft cells from subcutaneous and metastatic tumors exhibited a similar tumourigenicity and metastatic capacity, and showed the same relatively homogenous population with MSC characteristics when compared to parental SK cells. SK cells could unlimitedly expand in vitro without losing MSC characteristics, its tumuorigenicity and metastatic capacity, indicating that SK cells are oncogenic MSC with enhanced self-renewal capacity. We believe that this is the first report that human MSC appear to be transformed into cancer stem cells (CSC, and that their derivatives also function as CSCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that SK cells represent a transformation mechanism of normal MSC into an enhanced self-renewal CSC with metastasis capacity, SK cells and their xenografts represent a same relative homogeneity of CSC with substantial metastatic capacity. Thus, it represents a

  20. High permissivity of human HepG2 hepatoma cells for influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Caramella, Anne; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2004-12-01

    Human HepG2 hepatoma cells are highly permissive for influenza virus type A and type B, even without the addition of trypsin, and they exhibit a marked cytopathic effect. This property greatly facilitates the primary isolation of influenza viruses. Virus replication was significantly reduced by the plasmin(ogen)-specific inhibitor tranexamic acid, and this suggests a potential role played by the plasminogen/tissue plasminogen activator complex at the surface of HepG2 cells. This might represent a new approach for study of the interrelations of this complex with influenza viruses.

  1. Reversing multidrug resistance by RNA interference through the suppression of MDR1 gene in human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Chen; Qi wang; Jian Guan; Zhi-Yong Huang; Wan-Guang Zhang; Bi-Xiang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To reverse the multidrug resistance (MDR) by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated MDR1 suppression in hepatoma cells.METHODS: For reversing MDR by RNAi technology, two different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were designed and constructed into pGenSil-1 plasmid, respectively. They were then transfected into a highly adriamycin-resistant HepG2 hepatoma cell line (HepG2/ADM). The RNAi effect on MDR was evaluated by real-time PCR, cell cytotoxicity assay and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) efflux assy.RESULTS: The stably-transfected clones showed various degrees of reversal of MDR phenotype. Surprisingly, the MDR phenotype was completely reversed in two transfected clones.CONCLUSION: MDR can be reversed by the shRNAmediated MDRI suppression in HepG2/ADM cells, which provides a valuable clue to make multidrug-resistant hepatoma cells sensitive to anti-cancer drugs.

  2. Blocking autophagic flux enhances matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Gao, Chun; Yao, Shukun; Xie, Bushan

    2013-11-25

    Autophagy, a self-defense mechanism, has been found to be associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our study was designed to investigate the role and related mechanisms of autophagy in matrine-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Bel7402. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis (Annexin V-FITC/PI double-staining assay), the activity and activating cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9. MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to assess the effect of matrine on growth and proliferation of HCC cells. Autophagic flux in HCC cells was analyzed using the expression of LC3BI/II and p62/SQSTM1, GFP-LC3 transfection, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, regarding to the associated mechanisms, the effects of matrine on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and beclin-1 were studied. Our results showed that: (1) both autophagy and apoptosis could be induced by treatment with matrine; (2) using the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine and beclin-1 small-interfering RNA, cell apoptosis induced by matrine could be enhanced in a caspase-dependent manner; and (3) autophagy was induced via inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and up-regulation of beclin-1. In conclusion, inhibition of autophagy could enhance matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

  3. Blocking Autophagic Flux Enhances Matrine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy, a self-defense mechanism, has been found to be associated with drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Our study was designed to investigate the role and related mechanisms of autophagy in matrine-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells of HepG2 and Bel7402. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis (Annexin V–FITC/PI double-staining assay, the activity and activating cleavages of caspase-3, -8, and -9. MTT assay and colony forming assay were used to assess the effect of matrine on growth and proliferation of HCC cells. Autophagic flux in HCC cells was analyzed using the expression of LC3BI/II and p62/SQSTM1, GFP-LC3 transfection, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, regarding to the associated mechanisms, the effects of matrine on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway and beclin-1 were studied. Our results showed that: (1 both autophagy and apoptosis could be induced by treatment with matrine; (2 using the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine and beclin-1 small-interfering RNA, cell apoptosis induced by matrine could be enhanced in a caspase-dependent manner; and (3 autophagy was induced via inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and up-regulation of beclin-1. In conclusion, inhibition of autophagy could enhance matrine-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells.

  4. Effects of hepatitis B virus on p53 expression in hepatoma cell line SMMU-7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hui Qu; Ming-Hua Zhu; Jing Lin; Can-Rong Ni; Fang-Mei Li; Zhi Zhu; Guan-Zhen Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the contribution of HBV in the development of hepatocarcinoma by examining the effects of HBV on p53 function in SMMU-7721 cell line.METHODS: Plasmid pCvlVp53 was transfected or cotransfected with pCMVHBVa (wild-type HBV) or PCMVHBVb (mutation type HBV) into the hepatoma cell line SMMU-7721 by lipofectamine. Apoptosis cells were labeled with annexin V-FITC and confirmed by flow cytometry. Reporter plasmid PG13-CAT or p21-1uc was cotransfected, respectively, into each group to determine the transactivation activity of p53 and its effect on p21 promoter. Western blot was performed to observe p53 expression in hepatoma cell line of each group.RESULTS: The group transfected with pCMVp53 alone exhibited higher luciferase activity and higher apoptosis rate, otherwise, the p53 expression and reporter activity of PG13-CAT or P21-luc as well as cell apoptosis rate were obviously higher in the group cotransfected of pCMVp53with pCMVHBVa, but not in the other cotransfected group.CONCLUSION: Transient transfection of HBV into the SMMU-7721 cell line can enhance p53 expression and its effects on development of hepatocarcinoma.

  5. Melatonin, a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor, induces human hepatoma cell apoptosis through COX-2 downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Li-Jia; Yu, Han-Qing; Fan, Lu-Lu; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jia-Tao; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Cong-Jun; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hua; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    AIM To clarify the mechanisms involved in the critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress initiating unfolded protein response pathway modified by melatonin. METHODS Hepatoma cells, HepG2, were cultured in vitro. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure HepG2 cell apoptosis. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine the protein and messenger RNA levels of ER stress and apoptosis related genes’ expression, respectively. Tissue microarray construction from patients was verified by immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS In the present study, we first identified that melatonin selectively blocked activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6) and then inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, leading to enhanced liver cancer cell apoptosis under ER stress condition. Dramatically increased CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein level, suppressed COX-2 and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio by melatonin or ATF-6 siRNA contributed the enhanced HepG2 cell apoptosis under tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer) stimulation. In clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the close relationship between ATF-6 and COX-2 was further confirmed. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that melatonin as a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor can sensitize human hepatoma cells to ER stress inducing apoptosis. PMID:28246472

  6. Melatonin, a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor, induces human hepatoma cell apoptosis through COX-2 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Li-Jia; Yu, Han-Qing; Fan, Lu-Lu; Li, Xiao-Qiu; Wang, Fang; Liu, Jia-Tao; Zhong, Fei; Zhang, Cong-Jun; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hua; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2017-02-14

    To clarify the mechanisms involved in the critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress initiating unfolded protein response pathway modified by melatonin. Hepatoma cells, HepG2, were cultured in vitro. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were used to measure HepG2 cell apoptosis. Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods were used to determine the protein and messenger RNA levels of ER stress and apoptosis related genes' expression, respectively. Tissue microarray construction from patients was verified by immunohistochemical analysis. In the present study, we first identified that melatonin selectively blocked activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6) and then inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, leading to enhanced liver cancer cell apoptosis under ER stress condition. Dramatically increased CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein level, suppressed COX-2 and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio by melatonin or ATF-6 siRNA contributed the enhanced HepG2 cell apoptosis under tunicamycin (an ER stress inducer) stimulation. In clinical hepatocellular carcinoma patients, the close relationship between ATF-6 and COX-2 was further confirmed. These findings indicate that melatonin as a novel selective ATF-6 inhibitor can sensitize human hepatoma cells to ER stress inducing apoptosis.

  7. THE STUDY OF ELEMENE OF INDUCTION APOPTOSIS ON ASCITES HEPATOMA CELL LINE Hca-F25/CL-16A3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo Yunfei; Zhang Yaozheng; Zhang Hong

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of inducing apoptosis of Elemene on ascites hepatoma cell line HcaF25/cL-16A3. By using immunhistochemistry and DNA electrophoresis, the mechanism of Elemene antitumor was studied. Results: The results showed that the Elemene can inhibit expression of bcl-2 in ascites hepatoma cell line Hca-F25/CL-16A3, and the Eiemene also can make DNA fragmentation in this cell line in vitro and in vivo.Conclusion: The data suggest that Elemene can inhibit the growth of tumor by inducing apoptosis.

  8. [Effects of niflumic acid on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Tao, Ling; Cao, Yun-Xin; Dong, Ling; Hu, Yu-Zhen; Yang, An-Gang; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2003-04-25

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of niflumic acid (NFA), a chloride channel blocker, on the proliferation of human hepatoma cell line (HHCC). Cell proliferation was analyzed by cell count and MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was carried out by flow cytometry. [Ca(2+)](i) was determined by laser scanning confocal system. It was found that NFA decreased significantly the cell number and the MTT optical density (OD) of HHCC cells, and that the OD value was reversed after washout of NFA. Compared with control, NFA blocked cell cycle progression in G(1) phase. Extracellular application of NFA (100 micromol/L) induced a rapid decrease in [Ca(2+)](i). These findings demonstrate that blockage of chloride channels by NFA induces growth arrest of HHCC in G(1) phase, which may be due to the inhibition of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling pathways.

  9. In Vitro and in Vivo Study of the Antitumor Effects of a THANK Modified Hepatoma Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUDong; SHENFeng; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective THANK, known as a member of TNF superfamily,is a petent costimulator of both B and T lymphocytes and can promote a strong immune response.To investigate its role in liver immunotherapy,the anti-tumor effects of the THAND-transduced hepatoma cell line SMMU-7721 in vitro and in vivo studied. Methods THANK full-elngth cDNA was transfected into SMMU-7721 cell line .The transfectant with stable expression of THAND was obtained by clone selection and THANK's effects on hepatoma cells were analyzed,further the tumorigenicity of THANK -transduced 7721 cells was examined in nude mice.Results THANK's expression in 7721 cells inhibited the growth of hepatoma cells and induced a strong CTL response in vitro.The cell cycle analysis showed that THANK transfected 7721 cells were arrested in the S phase.The expression of THANK in SMMU-7721 cell line not only inhibited the tumorigenicity of 7721 cells,but also induced a systemic immune response against re-chalenge of parental 7721 tumors. Conclusion THANK transduction in SMMU-7721 cells can induce an effective immune response in nude mice and may be useful for the immunotherapy of hepatomas.

  10. Telomerase inhibition and telomere loss in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells treated with doxorubicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Gang Zhang; Li-Xia Guo; Xing-Wang Wang; Hong Xie

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of doxorubicin on telomeraseactivity and telomere length in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Telomerase activity was assayed with a non-radioisotopic quantitative telomerase repeat amplificationprotocal-based method. The effect of doxorubicin (DOX) onthe growth of BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells wasdetermined by microculture tetrazolium assay. Meantelomere length (terminal restriction fragment) was detectedby Southern blot method. The expression of telomerasesubunits genes was investigated by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosisand cell cycle distribution were evaluated by flow cytometry.RESULTS: Telomerase activity was inhibited in a dose andtime-dependent manner in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cellstreated with DOX for 24, 48 or 72 h in concentrations from0.156 to 2.5 μM which was crrelated with the inhibition ofcell growth. No changes were found in the mRNA expressionof three telomerase subunits (hTERT, hTR and TP1) afterdrug exposure for 72 h with indicated concentrations. Thecells treated with DOX showed shortened mean telomerelength and accumulated at the G2/M phase. However, therewas almost no effects on cell apoptosis by DOX.CONCLUSION: The telomerase inhibition and the telomereshortening by DOX may contribute to its efficiency in thetreatment in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Berberine Suppresses Cyclin D1 Expression through Proteasomal Degradation in Human Hepatoma Cells

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    Ning Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore the underlying mechanism on berberine-induced Cyclin D1 degradation in human hepatic carcinoma. We observed that berberine could suppress both in vitro and in vivo expression of Cyclin D1 in hepatoma cells. Berberine exhibits dose- and time-dependent inhibition on Cyclin D1 expression in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Berberine increases the phosphorylation of Cyclin D1 at Thr286 site and potentiates Cyclin D1 nuclear export to cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. In addition, berberine recruits the Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex-β-Transducin Repeat Containing Protein (SCFβ-TrCP complex to facilitate Cyclin D1 ubiquitin-proteasome dependent proteolysis. Knockdown of β-TrCP blocks Cyclin D1 turnover induced by berberine; blocking the protein degradation induced by berberine in HepG2 cells increases tumor cell resistance to berberine. Our results shed light on berberine′s potential as an anti-tumor agent for clinical cancer therapy.

  12. Synergistic effect of cell differential agent-Ⅱ and arsenic trioxide on induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wei Liu; Yi Tang; Yan Shen; Xue-Yun Zhong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To illustrate the possible role of cell differential agent-Ⅱ (CDA-Ⅱ) in the apoptosis of hepatoma cells induced byarsenic trioxide (As2O3).METHODS: Hepatoma cell lines BEL-7402 and HepG2 weretreated with As2O3 together with CDA-Ⅱ. Cell survivingfraction was determined by MTT assay; morphologicalchanges were observed by immunofluorescence staining ofHoechst 33 258; and cell cycle and the apoptosis index weredetermined by flow cytometry (FCM).RESULTS: Cytotoxity of CDA-Ⅱ was low. Nevertheless, CDA-Ⅱ could strongly potentiate arsenic trioxide-inducedapoptosis. At 1.0 g/L CDA-Ⅱ, IC50 of As2O3 in hepatoma celllines was reduced from 5.0 μmol/L to 1.0 μmol/L (P<0.01).The potentiation of apoptosis was dependent on the dosageof CDA-Ⅱ. FCM indicated that in hepatoma, cell growth wasinhibited by CDA-Ⅱ at lower concentrations (<2.0 g/L)primarily by arresting at S and G2 phase, and at higherconcentrations (>2.0 g/L) apoptotic cell and cell cyclearresting at G1 phaseincreased proportionally. Thecombination of two drugs led to much higher apoptotic rates,as compared with the either drug used alone.CONCLUSION: CDA-Ⅱ can strongly potentiate As2O3-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells, and two drugs canproduce a significant synergic effect.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF SESQUITERPENE Γ-LACTONE AHILLIN IN HEPATOMA TISSUE CULTURE (HTC CELLS

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    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation of hypolipidemic effect of sesquiterpene γ-lactone ahillin in hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells.Material and methods. In this study we’ve evaluated the effect of γ-lactone sesquiterpene aсhillin and gemfibrozil (comparator drug on the lipid content in the hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cell which were incubated with a fat emulsion lipofundin by fluorescent method with vital dye Nile Redand staining the cells with the dye Oil Red O. The cell viability was investigated using the MTT-test and staining with Trypan blue.Results. Cultivation cells HTC with aсhillin and gemfibrozilat concentrations ranging from 0.5 to1.5 mM and from0.25 mM to0.5 mM, respectively, resulted in dose-dependent decrease of the fluorescence’s intensity Nile Red. It reflects a decrease in lipid content in the cells. At these concentrations the drugs didn’t have cytotoxic effect and the cell viability didn’t change compared to the control culture.An experimental hyperlipidemia in the hepatoma culture cells was induced by adding to the incubation medium a fat emulsion lipofundin at a final concentration 0.05%. The intensity of fluorescence Nile Red in the cells was increased 4 fold (p < 0.05. This result suggests the significant accumulation of lipids in the cell’s cytosol and confirmed by microscopy after staining neutral lipids with the dye Oil Red O. Under these conditions aсhillin and gemfibrozil reduced lipid content in cells and hadthe effect at concentrations of0.5 mM and0.25 mM respectively.Conclusion. In the lipofundin-mediated model of hyperlipidemia the sesquiterpene lactone aсhillin prevents the lipid accumulation in cells. It confirms by decrease of fluorescence Nile Red and reduction lipid drops which were stained with Oil Red O in cytosol. To establish the molecular targets of aсhillin’saction on lipid metabolism in cell culture HTC we need to investigate a gene expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism.

  14. TGF-β1/SMAD SIGNALING PATHWAY MEDIATES p53-DEPENDENT APOPTOSIS IN HEPATOMA CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine whether transforming growth factor betal ( TGF-β1 )/Smad signaling pathway mediates p53-dependent apoptosis in hepatoma cell lines. Methods Three human hepatic carcinoma cell lines, HepG2, Huh-7, and Hep3B, were used in this study. TGF-β31-induced apoptosis in hepatic carcinoma cell lines was analyzed using TUNEL assay. For identifying the mechanism of apoptosis induced by TGF-β1, cell lines were transfected with a TGF-β1-inducible luciferase reportor plasmid containing Smad4 binding elements. After transfection, cells were treated with TGF-β1, then assayed for luciferase activity. Results The apoptosis rate of HepG2 cell lines (48.51% ± 8.21% ) was significantly higher than control (12. 72% ±2. 18%, P <0. 05 ). But TGF-β1 was not able to induce apoptosis of Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines. The relative luciferase activity of TGF-β1-treated HepG2 cell lines (4. 38) was significantly higher than control (1.00, P <0. 05). But the relative luciferase activity of TGF-β1-treated Huh-7 and Hep3B cell lines less increased compared with control. Conclusions HepG2 cells seem to be highly susceptible to TGF-β1-induced apoptosis compared with Hep3B and Huh-7 cell lines. Smad4 is a central mediator of TGF-β1 signaling transdution pathway. TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway might mediate p53-dependent apoptosis in hepatoma cell lines.

  15. Multiple hormonal control of enzyme synthesis in liver and hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenney, F.T.; Lee, K.L.; Pomato, N.; Nickol, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Synthesis of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase is accelerated in vivo by either of the pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon as well as by glucocorticoids, and glucagon acts via the intracellular mediator, cyclic AMP. The mechanisms responsive to these hormones have also been retained in cultured hepatoma cells: in H-35 cells the responses appear to be essentially identical to those in liver, especially in that each inducer can act independently of the others. In this paper we describe recent analyses of the cellular mechanisms involved in this multiple hormonal control of synthesis of a single enzyme. These experiments have been done with rat liver in vivo, owing to a need for larger quantities of cellular components that can readily be obtained from cultured cells. As some of these results appear to be at variance in important respects with those of earlier analyses carried out in H-35 cells, we briefly review these earlier experiments as well.

  16. Effects of cisplatin on telomerase activity and telomere length in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase activity was inhibited in a dose and time-dependent manner with the treatment of cisplatin for 24, 48, or 72 h in a concentration ranged from 0.8 to 50 μM in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells. There were no changes in expression pattern of three telomerase subunits, its catalytic reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT), its RNA component (hTR) or the associated protein subunit (TP1), after cisplatin treated for 72 h with indicated concentrations. Mean telomere lengths were decreased by the cisplatin treatment. Cell growth inhibition and cell cycle accumulation in G2/M phase were found to be correlated with telomerase inhibition in the present study, but percentages of cell apoptosis did not change markedly during the process.

  17. Long Noncoding RNA MEG3 Interacts with p53 Protein and Regulates Partial p53 Target Genes in Hepatoma Cells.

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    Juanjuan Zhu

    Full Text Available Maternally Expressed Gene 3 (MEG3 encodes a lncRNA which is suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. Previous studies suggested that MEG3 functioned through activation of p53, however, the functional properties of MEG3 remain obscure and their relevance to human diseases is under continuous investigation. Here, we try to illuminate the relationship of MEG3 and p53, and the consequence in hepatoma cells. We find that transfection of expression construct of MEG3 enhances stability and transcriptional activity of p53. Deletion analysis of MEG3 confirms that full length and intact structure of MEG3 are critical for it to activate p53-mediated transactivation. Interestingly, our results demonstrate for the first time that MEG3 can interact with p53 DNA binding domain and various p53 target genes are deregulated after overexpression of MEG3 in hepatoma cells. Furthermore, results of qRT-PCR have shown that MEG3 RNA is lost or reduced in the majority of HCC samples compared with adjacent non-tumorous samples. Ectopic expression of MEG3 in hepatoma cells significantly inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that MEG3 functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells through interacting with p53 protein to activate p53-mediated transcriptional activity and influence the expression of partial p53 target genes.

  18. The citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin suppresses hepatic glucose production from Fao hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purushotham, Aparna; Tian, Min; Belury, Martha A

    2009-02-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is the major source of fasting hyperglycemia. Here, we investigated the role of the citrus fruit flavonoid naringenin, in the attenuation of hepatic glucose production from hepatoma (Fao) cells. We show that naringenin, but not its glucoside naringin, suppresses hepatic glucose production. Furthermore, unlike insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production, incubation of hepatocytes with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor Ly294002 had no effect on the ability of naringenin to suppress hepatic glucose production. Further, naringenin did not increase phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 or, Thr308, indicating this down-stream target of PI3-kinase is also not a player in naringenin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose production. Importantly, like the dimethylbiguanide, metformin, naringenin significantly decreased cellular ATP levels without increasing cell cytotoxicity. Together, these results suggest that the aglycone, naringenin, has a role in the attenuation of hyperglycemia and may exert this effect in a manner similar to the drug, metformin.

  19. Apoptosis of hepatoma cells SMMC-7721 induced by Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Chen; Gui-Wen Yang; Li-Guo An

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the apoptosis of hepatoma cells SMMC-7721induced by polysaccharide isolated from Ginkgo biloba seed.METHODS: Ginkgo biloba seed polysaccharide (GBSP) wasisolated by ethanol fractionation of Ginkgo biloba seed andpurified by Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The purity ofGBSP was verified by reaction with iodine-potassium iodideand ninhydrin and confirmed by UV spectrophotometer,cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and Sepharose4B gel filtration chromatography. The Scanning ElectronMicroscope (SEM) and Flow Cytometrv (FCM) were used toexamine the SMMC-7721 cells with and without GBSPtreatment at 500 mg/ml for 36 h.RESULTS: GBSP product obtained was of high purity withthe average molecular weight of 1.86 × 105. Quantitativeanalysis of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro with FCM showed thatthe percentages of G2-M cells without and with GBSPtreatment were 17.01±1.28 % and 11.77±1.50% (P<0.05),the debds ratio of the cells were 0.46±0.12 % and 0.06±0 .06 %(P<0.01), and the apoptosis ratio of cells was 3.84±0 .55 %and 9.13±1.48 %(P<0.01) respectively. Following GBSPtreatment, microvilli of SMMC-7721 cells appeared thinnerand the number of spherical cells increased markedly. Mostsignificantly, the apoptosis bodies were formed on andaround the spherical cells treated with GBSP.CONCLUSION: GBSP could potentially induce the apoptosisof SMMC-7721 cells.

  20. Impact of graphene oxide on viability of Chinese hamster ovary and mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuskaite, Danute; Grinceviciute, Nora; Snitka, Valentinas

    2015-08-01

    The evaluation of the cyto- and bio-compatibility is a critical step in the development of graphene oxide (GO) as a new promising material for in vivo biomedical applications. In this study, we report the impact of GO, with and without the addition of bovine serum albumin, on healthy (Chinese hamster ovary) and a cancer (mouse hepatoma MH-22A) cells viability and the estimation of the intracellular distribution of GO inside the cells in vitro. The viability tests were performed using a colony formation assay. The intracellular distribution of GO was estimated using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. The viability of both cell lines decreased with increasing concentration of graphene oxide (12.5-50.0 μg/ml): in the case of Chinese hamster ovary cells viability decreased from 44% to 11%, in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells--from 22% to 3%. These cell lines significantly differed in their response to GO and GO-BSA formulations. The results of viability tests correlate with results of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy and imaging findings. The GO influence on cell morphology changes, cell structure, cells colony growth dynamics and GO accumulation inside the cells was higher in the case of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells.

  1. Chemopreventive action of Lygodium flexuosum extract in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, P J; Asha, V V

    2009-03-18

    Lygodium flexuosum (Lygodiaceae), a medicinal fern used in Indian traditional medicine against liver disorders. The rationale of the study was to examine whether the n-hexane extract from plant Lygodium flexuosum affects apoptosis on human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 and Hep 3B cells. Chemopreventive activity of the Lygodium flexuosum extract was determined by MTT assay, annexin-V FITC binding to phosphatidyl serine and cleavage of PARP. Subdiploid condition of cells treated with Lygodium flexuosum was analyzed by flow cytometry. Further, used transiently transfected NF-kappaB reporter in PLC/PRF/5 cells to evaluate the inhibitive effect of Lygodium flexuosum extract. Lygodium flexuosum extract inhibited the cell viability and induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells in a concentration dependent manner as evidenced by apoptotic changes such as flipping of phosphatidyl serine, cleavage of PARP. Cell cycle analysis showed the subG1 apoptotic population in cells treated with higher concentrations of the extract. When activated with exogenous TNF-alpha in transfected hepatoma cells it was observed that NF-kappaB dependent gene expression was inhibited by treatment with Lygodium flexuosum extract in PLC/PRF/5 cells dose-dependently. This investigation suggests that the Lygodium flexuosum extract has antiproliferative and apoptotic activity in both cancer cells and has inhibitive role in TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB activation in PLC/PRF/5 cells confirms the potential of the extract as a chemopreventive agent.

  2. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

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    Karolina Ewa Zakrzewska

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests.

  3. The effect of arsenic trioxide on human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402 culturedin vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Lin Yang; Hong Yu Xu; Yuan Yuan Gao; Qiao Li Wu; Guang Qiang Gao

    2000-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of a wide range of concentration of arsenic trioxide on human hepatoma cell lineBEL-7402 and its mechanism.METHODS The BEL-7402 cells were treated with arsenic trioxide (a final concentration of 0.5, 1 and2 μmol/L, respectively) in various durations or for 4 successive days. The cell growth and proliferation wereobserved by cell counting and cell-growth curve. Morphologic changes were studied under electronmicroscopy. Flow cytometry was used to assay cell-DNA distribution and the protein expression of Bcl-2 andBax was detected by immunocytochemical method.RESULTS The cell growth was significantly inhibited by the different concentrations of arsenic trioxide asrevealed by cell counting and cell-growth curve. Arsenic trioxide treatment at 0.5, 1 and 2 μmol/L, resultedin a sub-G1 cell peak. The decreased G0/G1 phase cell and the increased percentage of S phase cell were observed by flow cytometer, suggesting that the inhibiting effect of arsernic trioxide on BEL-7402 cell lay inG0/G1 phase cell. Apoptotis-related morphology, such as intact cell membrane, nucleic condensation,apoptotic body formation, can be seen under the electron microscopy. High protein expression level of Bcl-2and Bax was detected in 1 and 2 μmol/L arsenic trioxide-treated cells, but that of Bax was more significant.Arsenic trioxide treatment at 0.5 μmol/L resulted in higher expression level of Bcl-2 and lower expressionlevel of Bax compared with control (P1<0.01, P2<0.01).CONCLUSION Arsenic trioxide not only inhibited the proliferation but also induced apoptosis of humanhepatoma cell line BEL-7402. The induced-apoptosis effect of 1 and 2 μmol/L arsenic trioxide was relative tothe expression level of Bcl-2 and Bax.

  4. Pokemon Silencing Leads to Bim-Mediated Anoikis of Human Hepatoma Cell QGY7703

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    Kun Liu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pokemon is an important proto-oncogene that plays a critical role in cellular oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. Anoikis, which is regulated by Bim-mediated apoptosis, is critical to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of Pokemon in anoikis, and our results show that Pokemon renders liver cells resistant to anoikis via suppression of Bim transcription. We knocked-down Pokemon in human hepatoma cells QGY7703 with small interfering RNAs (siRNA. Knockdown of Pokemon alone did not significantly affect the growth and survival of QGY7703 cells but notably enhanced their sensitivity to apoptotic stress due to the presence of chemical agents or cell detachment, thereby inducing anoikis, as evidenced by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, ectopic expression of Pokemon in HL7702 cells led to resistance to anoikis. Dual-luciferase reporter and ChIP assays illustrated that Pokemon suppressed Bim transcription via direct binding to its promoter. Our results suggest that Pokemon prevents anoikis through the suppression of Bim expression, which facilitates tumor cell invasion and metastasis. This Pokemon-Bim pathway may be an effective target for therapeutic intervention for cancer.

  5. Hepatitis B virus X protein modulates the apoptosis of hepatoma cell line induced by TRAIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Xiaohong; SUN Wensheng; GAO Lifen; MA Chunhong; HAN Lihui; CHEN Youhai

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to observe the effects of HBx on the apoptosis of hepatoma cells induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and to study preliminary molecular mechanisms for its effects. In order to set up a model in vitro, BEL7402-HBx cell line, stably expressing HBx mRNA, was established by stable transfection of pcDNA-HBx, which contains HBx gene, into hepatoma cell line BEL7402. Control cell line BEL7402-cDNA3, stably transfected with pcDNA3, was set up simultaneously as a control. Trypan blue exclusion test,caspase 3 activity detection and TUNEL assay were performed to detect the apoptosis of BEL7402, BEL7402-cDNA3, BEL7402-HBx induced by TRAIL. The expression of TRAIL receptors in three groups was analyzed by Flow cytometry. In addition, phosphorothioated antisense oligonucleotide against the translation initial region of HBx gene (PS-asODNs/HBx) was used to block the expression of HBx in HepG2.2.15 cells and to further confirm the effects of HBx on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Trypan blue exclusion test indicated that TRAIL had a dose-dependent cytotoxicity on BEL7402, BEL7402-cDNA3 and BEL7402-HBx cells. Under treatment of the same concentration of TRAIL, BEL7402-HBx had a higher apoptosis rate and a higher level of Caspase 3 activation than BEL7402 and BEL7402-cDNA3. TUENL assay showed that the apoptosis rate of BEL7402-HBx induced by 10 μg/L TRAIL was 41.4%±7.2%, significantly higher than that of BEL7402 and BEL7402-cDNA3 cells. Blockade of HBx expression in Hep G2.2.15 cells partly inhibited the apoptosis induced by TRAIL. The introduction or blockade of HBx did not change the expression pattern of TRAIL receptors. The present study firstly confirms the effects of HBx on TRAIL- induced apoptosis from two different points and it is not related with the expression level of TRAIL receptors. This would be useful to further clarify the roles of imbalanced apoptosis in pathogenesis of Hepatitis B and related hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and induction of hepatoma cell apoptosis by ASGPR-directed delivery of shRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingwei; Huang, Chunmei; Yao, Xinxin; Shi, Chuan; Sun, Lifang; Yuan, Lu; Lei, Ping; Zhu, Huifen; Liu, Hongbo; Wu, Xiongwen; Ning, Qin; Zhou, Chun; Shen, Guanxin

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide liver disease and nearly 25% of chronic HBV infections terminate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Currently, there is no effective therapy to inhibit HBV replication and to eliminate hepatoma cells, making it highly desired to develop novel therapies for these two stages of the HBV-caused detrimental disease. Recently, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has emerged as a potential therapy for virus-infected disease and cancer. Here, we have generated a shRNA, pGenesil-siHBV4, which effectively inhibits HBV replication in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15. The inhibitory effects of pGenesil-siHBV4 are manifested by the decrease of both the HBV mRNA level and the protein levels of the secreted HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg), and by the reduction of secreted HBV DNA. Using mouse hydrodynamic tail vein injection, we demonstrate that pGenesil-siHBV4 is effective in inhibiting HBV replication in vivo. Because survivin plays a key role in cancer cell escape from apoptosis, we further generated pGenesil-siSurvivin, a survivin-silencing shRNA, and showed its effect of triggering apoptosis of HBV-containing hepatoma cells. To develop targeted shRNA therapy, we have identified that as a specific binder of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), jetPEI-Hepatocyte delivers pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin specifically to hepatocytes, not other types of cells. Finally, co-transfection of pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin exerts synergistic effects in inducing hepatoma cell apoptosis, a novel approach to eliminate hepatoma by downregulating survivin via multiple mechanisms. The application of these novel shRNAs with the jetPEI-Hepatocyte targeting strategy demonstrates the proof-of-principle for a promising approach to inhibit HBV replication and eliminate hepatoma cells with high specificity.

  7. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and induction of hepatoma cell apoptosis by ASGPR-directed delivery of shRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Ma

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a worldwide liver disease and nearly 25% of chronic HBV infections terminate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Currently, there is no effective therapy to inhibit HBV replication and to eliminate hepatoma cells, making it highly desired to develop novel therapies for these two stages of the HBV-caused detrimental disease. Recently, short hairpin RNA (shRNA has emerged as a potential therapy for virus-infected disease and cancer. Here, we have generated a shRNA, pGenesil-siHBV4, which effectively inhibits HBV replication in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15. The inhibitory effects of pGenesil-siHBV4 are manifested by the decrease of both the HBV mRNA level and the protein levels of the secreted HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and HBV e antigen (HBeAg, and by the reduction of secreted HBV DNA. Using mouse hydrodynamic tail vein injection, we demonstrate that pGenesil-siHBV4 is effective in inhibiting HBV replication in vivo. Because survivin plays a key role in cancer cell escape from apoptosis, we further generated pGenesil-siSurvivin, a survivin-silencing shRNA, and showed its effect of triggering apoptosis of HBV-containing hepatoma cells. To develop targeted shRNA therapy, we have identified that as a specific binder of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR, jetPEI-Hepatocyte delivers pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin specifically to hepatocytes, not other types of cells. Finally, co-transfection of pGenesil-siHBV4 and pGenesil-siSurvivin exerts synergistic effects in inducing hepatoma cell apoptosis, a novel approach to eliminate hepatoma by downregulating survivin via multiple mechanisms. The application of these novel shRNAs with the jetPEI-Hepatocyte targeting strategy demonstrates the proof-of-principle for a promising approach to inhibit HBV replication and eliminate hepatoma cells with high specificity.

  8. MicroRNA-520b inhibits growth of hepatoma cells by targeting MEKK2 and cyclin D1.

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    Weiying Zhang

    Full Text Available Growing evidence indicates that the deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs contributes to the tumorigenesis. We previously revealed that microRNA-520b (miR-520b was involved in the complement attack and migration of breast cancer cells. In this report, we show that miR-520b is an important miRNA in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Our data showed that the expression levels of miR-520b were significantly reduced in clinical HCC tissues and hepatoma cell lines. We observed that the introduction of miR-520b dramatically suppressed the growth of hepatoma cells by colony formation assays, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU incorporation assays and 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-520b was able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Further studies revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 (MEKK2 and cyclin D1 were two of direct target genes of miR-520b. Silencing of MEKK2 or cyclin D1 was able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo, which is consistent with the effect of miR-520b overexpression on the growth of hepatoma cells. In addition, miR-520b significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK, a downstream effector of MEKK2 or retinoblastoma (p-Rb, a downstream effector of cyclin D1. In conclusion, miR-520b is able to inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells by targeting MEKK2 or cyclin D1 in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide new insights into the role of miR-520b in the development of HCC, and implicate the potential application of miR-520b in cancer therapy.

  9. Using a non-radioisotopic, quantitative TRAP-based me thod detecting telomerase activities in human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-radioisotopic, quantitative TRAP-based telom erase activity assay was established mainly by using SYBR Green-I staining instead of radioisotope. Comparing with conventional radioisotope based method, it was better in reproducibility and accuracy. Using this method, we found telomerase activities were absent in normal human liver cells, while detected in all of four human hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7404, SMMC-7721, QGY-7903 and HCCM) without significant differences.

  10. Biological effects of extract from newborn porcine liver on hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, and hepatoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Porcine liver extract has been shown to be effective in the clinical treatment of severe hepatitis. The aim of the present study was to study its antifibrotic as well as immune regulatory effect in vitro. Methods: Hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), hepatoma cell line (HepG2) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) were studied with respect to proliferation, extracellular matrix production and apoptotic activities by proliferation assay, radioimmunoassay, gene transfection, reporter gene analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: A strong stimulatory proliferation effect was observed in hepatocytes, and an inhibitory effect was found in HSCs. Hyaluronic acid (HA) production and reporter gene activities driven by various α1(Ⅰ) procollagen gene promoters in HSC-T6 were significantly decreased after treatment with the extract. Fluo-Anexin V binding apoptotic HepG2 cells were more prominent in the presence of 60 μg/ml extract. More CD4+/CD69+ positive T lymphocytes existed in the presence of the extract. Conclusion: Porcine liver extract is effective for antifibrogenesis via hepatocyte regeneration, HSC and hepatoma cell inhibition in vitro. The elevation of active T lymphocytes is helpful for immune surveillance. Fine mapping of the extract is necessary in order to get definite molecules which are essential in all described functions.

  11. Forskolin inhibits the Gs-stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH66F cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Hasegawa, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T

    1989-09-01

    Forskolin increased intracellular cyclic AMP and augmented cyclic AMP formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in normal rat hepatocytes and ascites hepatoma AH66 cells. However, in AH66F cells which were derived from the AH66 cell line, the diterpene only slightly increased the cyclic AMP level, and dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation caused by PGE1. Forskolin dose-dependently activated adenylate cyclase in these membranes, and the magnitude of activation by forskolin was largest in the following order: hepatocytes, AH66 cells, and AH66F cells. This difference may be based on the number of forskolin-binding sites. The binding affinity of forskolin for each cell membrane was similar. The number and affinity of forskolin-binding sites in these cells were not influenced by 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]. In hepatocytes and AH66 cells, forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators such as PGE1, GTP, Gpp(NH)p, F-, and Mn2+ synergistically increased the enzyme activity. In AH66F cells, the forskolin-stimulated activity was hardly influenced by the GTP analog, and forskolin diminished the activities induced by the GTP analog in a manner similar to that of diterpene alone. Forskolin (10 microM) also significantly inhibited the activities induced by PGE1, GTP, and F-. The effect of forskolin with Mn2+ was additive in AH66F cells. The data suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding protein and the catalytic unit in the membrane of normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but it interferes with the coupling in AH66F cells.

  12. Suppression of tumorigenesis by human mesenchymal stem cells in a hepatoma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Qiao; Zhili Xu; Tiejun Zhao; Zhigang Zhao; Mingxia Shi; Robert C Zhao; Lihong Ye; Xiaodong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can home to tumor sites and inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that link hMSCs to the targeted inhibition of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of hMSCs on two human hepatoma cell lines (H7402 and HepG2) using an animal transplantation model, a co-culture system and conditioned media from hMSCs. Animal transplantation studies showed that the latent time for tumor formation was prolonged and that the tumor size was smaller when SCID mice were injected with H7402 cells and an equal number of Z3 hMSCs. When co-cultured with Z3 cells, H7402 cell proliferation decreased, apoptosis increased, and the expression of Bcl-2, c-Myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and survivin was downregulated. After treatment with conditioned media derived from Z3 hMSC cultures, H4702 cells showed decreased colony-forming ability and decreased proliferation. 1m-munoblot analysis showed that β-catenin, Bcl-2, c-Myc, PCNA and survivin expression was downregulated in H7402 and HepG2 cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that hMSCs inhibit the malignant phenotypes of the H7402 and HepG2 human liver cancer cell lines, which include proliferation, colony-forming ability and oncogene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, our studies provide evidence that the Wnt signaling pathway may have a role in hMSC-mediated targeting and tumor cell inhibition.

  13. Critical roles of cellular glutathione homeostasis and jnk activation in andrographolide-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lili; Shen, Kaikai; Jiang, Ping; Morahan, Grant; Wang, Zhengtao

    2011-08-01

    Andrographolide (ANDRO), isolated from the traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is reported to have the potential therapeutic effects for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our previous reports. Here, we investigated the mechanism of ANDRO-mediated apoptotic cell death, focusing on the involvement of cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) homeostasis and c-Jun NH(2) -Terminal kinase (JNK). Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of cellular GSH biosynthesis, significantly augmented ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity in hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. BSO depleted cellular GSH, and augmented ANDRO-induced apoptosis, inhibition of colony formation and JNK activation in Hep3B cells. All these effects could be reversed by GSH monoethyl ester (GSH.EE), whose deacetylation replenishes cellular GSH. BSO also augmented ANDRO-induced activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-4 (MKK4) and c-Jun, which are all up-stream or down-stream signals of JNK. Further results showed that JNK inhibitor SP600125 and 420116 both reversed ANDRO-induced cytotoxicity, and SP600125 also decreased ANDRO-increased intracellular GSH and GCL activity. Finally, we showed that in nude mice bearing xenografted Hep3B tumors, BSO improved the inhibition of tumor growth by ANDRO. Taken together, our results suggest that there is a crosstalk between JNK activation and cellular GSH homeostasis, and ANDRO targets this to induce cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells.

  14. Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria and on the viability of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplova, V V; Kudin, A P; Evtodienko YuV

    1998-01-01

    Effects of cumene hydroperoxide on the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ efflux from mitochondria isolated from rat liver and Zaidelja hepatoma were compared. Cumene hydroperoxide at micromolar concentrations (0.3-10 microM) prevented the closing of the permeability transition pore in the inner mitochondrial membrane and, therefore, potentiated the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ efflux. This response was 10-100 times greater in hepatoma mitochondria than in rat liver mitochondria. Micromolar concentrations of cumene hydroperoxide induced the death of the hepatoma cells in vitro.

  15. [Hepatoma 27 cells and the epithelium of the large intestine in rats contain the identical set of prekeratin proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troianovskiĭ, S M; Krutovskikh, V A; Bannikov, G A

    1984-08-01

    It has been shown by means of the immunoblot technique in combination with monoclonal antibodies and peptide mapping that hepatocytes, hepatoma 27 cells, and rat colon enterocytes exhibit a common prekeratin protein with a molecular weight of 49 kD (PK49). This protein and vimentin, a protein contained by intermediate filaments of mesenchymal cells, share at least one antigenic determinant. The generally accepted procedure for prekeratin purification leads to a more or less pronounced degradation of PK49. The degree of degradation is dependent on the type of the tissue extracted. High heterogenicity of prekeratin polypeptides described elsewhere might be due partly to such a degradation process. In addition to PK49, hepatoma 27 cells, absorbing, goblet and proliferating cells of the colon demonstrated three more prekeratin proteins: two major (PK55 and PK40) and one minor (PK53). Monoclonal antibodies not reacting with PK49 do not recognize PK55, PK53 and PK40. PK55, PK49 and PK40 of hepatoma 27 are identical to the appropriate proteins of the colonic epithelium as judged by peptide mapping. Thus, the cells of the hepatocyte origin are able to synthesize the same prekeratins as the colonic epithelium.

  16. miR-150-5p inhibits hepatoma cell migration and invasion by targeting MMP14.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite progress in diagnostics and treatment of HCC, its prognosis remains poor because the molecular mechanisms underlying hepatocarcinogenesis are not well understood. In the study, we focused on identifying the role of miRNAs in HCC progression. miRNA microarray was used to analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs, and the results were validated by qPCR. We found that the miR-150-5p expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues compared with pair non-tumor tissues. miR-150-5p expression is also decreased in metastatic cancer tissues compared with pair primary tissues, indicating that miR-150-5p may be involved in HCC metastasis. Functionally, miR-150-5p inhibition significantly promotes hepatoma cell migration and invasion, whereas miR-150-5p overexpression suppresses cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. The matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14 is identified as a new target gene of miR-150-5p. miR-150-5p markedly inhibits MMP14 expression in hepatoma cells, and miR-150-5p expression is negative correlation with MMP14 expression in vivo. More important, re-expression of MMP14 in hepatoma cells partially reverses the effect of miR-150-5p in inhibiting cell invasion.

  17. Additive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and isoorientin on apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Yutang; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Liu, Xuebo

    2014-03-03

    Metal nanomaterial could effectively decrease tumour resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this paper, we have explored the synergistic effect and mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) and isoorientin (ISO) on cytotoxicity in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ZnO Nps could exert dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, and the combining treatment resulted in a greater cytotoxicity than single treatment. ZnO Nps could synergistically potentiate ISO to induce apoptosis through resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, and enhancing the phosphorylation of JNK and P38. Additionally, ZnO Nps were uptaked by cells through endocytic pathway and it enhanced the cellular uptake of ISO, while no significant injury was found in normal liver cells after the combined treatment. These results suggest that the combination of metal nanoparticle with anti-cancer drugs may provide a promising alternative for novel cancer treatments.

  18. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by quercetin in human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhikui; Cheng; Ge; Sun; Wei; Guo; Yayun; Huang; Weihua; Sun; Fei; Zhao; Kanghong; Hu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is one of the most serious and prevalent viral diseases in the world. Although several anti-HBV drugs have been used clinically, their side and adverse effects limit treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is necessary to identify novel potential anti-HBV agents. The flavonol quercetin has shown activity against some retroviruses, but its effect on HBV remains unclear. In the present study, quercetin was incubated with Hep G2.2.15 cells, as well as Hu H-7 cells transfected with an HBV plasmid. Quercetin was shown to significantly reduce Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBs Ag) and Hepatitis B e antigen(HBe Ag), secretion and HBV genomic DNA levels in both cell lines. In addition, co-incubation with lamivudine(3TC), entecavir(ETV), or adefovir(Ade) further enhanced the quercetin-induced inhibition of HBV replication. This inhibition was partially associated with decreased heat shock proteins and HBV transcription levels. The results indicate that quercetin inhibited HBV antigen secretion and genome replication in human hepatoma cell lines, which suggests that quercetin may be a potentially effective anti-HBV agent.

  19. Effect of isoorientin on intracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms in hepatoma and liver cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Jing; Wu, Wanqiang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-07-01

    Isoorientin (ISO) is considered one of the most important flavonoid-like compounds responsible for health benefits, including the prevention of liver damage as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-nociceptive activities. Our previous study showed that ISO inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells through increasing intracellular ROS levels. Interestingly, ISO protects rat liver cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation stress by decreasing intracellular ROS levels. Why are there different effects of ISO on ROS in different physiological and pathophysiological circumstances? The present study investigated the effect of ISO on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and phase II detoxifying enzyme activities in human hepatoblastoma cancer cells (HepG2), buffalo rat liver cells (BRL-3A) and human liver cancer cells (HL-7702). The results showed that intracellular ROS levels and the protein expression of the respiratory chain complexes was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the HepG2 cells than in the BRL-3A and HL-7702 cells. Additionally, ISO notably (p<0.01) increased ROS levels in the HepG2 cells, while no significance was found in the BRL-3A and HL-7702 cells. Furthermore, in the HepG2 cells, the protein expression of the respiratory chain complexes and the phase II detoxifying enzyme activities and GSH content were decreased by ISO (p<0.01), while ISO, in a certain range, enhanced the expression of the protein complexes and the phase II detoxifying enzyme activities and GSH content in BRL-3A and HL-7702 cells. All of these results demonstrated, for the first time, that ISO possesses a notable hepatoprotective effect, which might be mediated through the respiratory chain complexes and phase II detoxifying enzyme activities.

  20. Octreotide induces caspase activation and apoptosis inhuman hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikos J Tsagarakis; Ioannis Drygiannakis; Antonis G Batistakis; George Kolios; Elias A Kouroumalis

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of octreotide on cellular proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.METHODS: We studied cellular proliferation, apoptosis and the possible internal caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway involved, after treatment of HepG2 carcinomacells with octreotide in comparison with the apoptosis caused by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Activities of caspase-3, caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-2 were studied, while apoptosis was investigated through detection of DNA fragmentation and through identification of apoptotic cells with the annexin-V/propidium iodide flow cytometric method.RESULTS: After an initial increase in HepG2 cellular proliferation, a significant inhibition was observed with 10-8 mol/L octreotide, while TNF-α dose-dependentlydecreased proliferation. Early and late apoptosis was significantly increased with both substances. Octreotide significantly increased caspase-3, caspase-8 andcaspase-2 activity. TNF-α significantly increased only caspase-2. Cellular proliferation was decreased after treatment with octreotide or TNF-α alone but, in contrast to TNF-α, octreotide decreased proliferation onlyat concentrations of 10-8 mol/L, while lower concentrations increased proliferation.CONCLUSION: Our findings are suggestive of caspasemediated signaling pathways of octreotide antitumor activity in HepG2 cells, and indicate that measurementsof serum octreotide levels may be important, at least in clinical trials, to verify optimal therapeutic drug concentrations.

  1. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y C; Lin, C L; Chen, B H

    2010-12-15

    A preparative column chromatographic method was developed to isolate flavonoids and saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a Chinese Medicinal herb, and evaluate their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell Hep3B, with the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3) being used for comparison. Initially the powdered G. pentaphyllum was extracted with ethanol, followed by eluting flavonoids and saponins with ethanol-water (30:70, v/v) and 100% ethanol, respectively, in an open-column containing 5 g of Cosmosil 75C(18)-OPN, and then subjected to HPLC-MS analysis. The flavonoid fraction was mainly composed of quercetin- and kaempferol-glycosides, while in saponin fraction, both ginsenoside Rb(3) and ginsenoside Rd dominated. Both fractions were more effective against Hep3B cells than the standards rutin and ginsenoside Rb(3), with the cell cycle being arrested at G0/G1 phase for all the treatments. Additionally, the inhibition effect followed a dose-dependent increase for all the sample treatments. The result of this study may be used as a basis for possible phytopreparations in the future with G. pentaphyllum as raw material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of beta-elemene on beta-tubulin of human hepatoma hepg2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuqiu Mao; Liying Ban; Jielin Zhang; Li Hou; Xiaonan Cui

    2014-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of beta-elemene injection on the growth and beta-tubulin of human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Methods:cellproliferation was assessed by MTT assay. cellcycle distribution was detected by flow cytometry (FCM). The mRNA expression of beta-tubulin was measured by RT-PCR. West-ern blot analysis was used to determine protein expression of beta-tubulin and the polymerization of beta-tubulin. Results:Beta-elemene injection inhibited HepG2 cells proliferation in a dose-and time-dependent manner;FCM analysis indicated beta-elemene injection induced cellcycle arrested at S phase. RT-PCR and western-blot analysis showed that beta-elemene injection down-regulated beta-tubulin expression at both mRNA and protein levels, presenting a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, beta-elemene injection reduced the polymerization of microtubules in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion:Beta-elemene injection can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, the mechanism might be partly related to the down-regulation of beta-tubulin and inhibition of microtubular polymerization.

  3. Reconstitution of bile acid transport in the rat hepatoma McArdle RH-7777 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchia, E C; Shapiro, R J; Agellon, L B

    1996-07-01

    The liver recovers bile acids from the portal circulation primarily via an active process that is dependent on sodium ions. Hepatocytes lose the ability to transport bile acids in culture, and, in liver-derived permanent cell lines, this ability is severely reduced or absent. To study the importance of bile acids in regulating liver-specific functions (e.g., cellular bile acid and cholesterol metabolism), we have re-established active bile acid transport in cultured cells. The complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the rat sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) was placed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter and transfected into the rat hepatoma cell line, McArdle RH-7777. Transfected cells were screened for the ability to take up [3H]-taurocholate. Clones that displayed the ability to take up taurocholate were expanded (designated McNtcp) and further characterized. The apparent Michaelis constant (Km) for taurocholate uptake was similar among the different clones. The observed maximum velocity (Vmax), however, differed and was positively correlated with the abundance of recombinant ntcp messenger RNA (mRNA). The highest level of taurocholate uptake activity observed in McNtcp cells was comparable with that of freshly isolated hepatocytes. Efflux of accumulated taurocholate from McNtcp cells proceeded in a manner similar to primary hepatocytes, indicating that McArdle RH-7777 cells have retained the ability to secrete bile acids. Moreover, taurocholate uptake in McNtcp cells was inhibited by other bile acid species. Based on the observed kinetic parameters, the reconstituted McArdle RH-7777 cells mimic the ability of primary hepatocytes to transport bile acids.

  4. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of forskolin on adenylate cyclase in rat normal hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R; Matsunaga, T; Takagi, K; Satake, T; Hasegawa, T

    1989-02-01

    Forskolin synergistically potentiated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate formation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in rat normal hepatocytes freshly prepared by collagenase digestion and rat ascites hepatoma AH66 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation by PGE1 in AH66F cells. Forskolin activated adenylate cyclase in a dose-dependent manner in homogenates of all cell lines. In normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, simultaneous addition of forskolin and other adenylate cyclase activators [isoproterenol (IPN), PGE1, guanosine 5'-triphosphate sodium salt (GTP), 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate sodium salt (Gpp (NH)p), NaF, cholera toxin, islet activating protein and MnCl2] gave greater than additive responses. On the other hand, in AH66F cells, the effect of forskolin on adenylate cyclase was hardly influenced by GTP, but forskolin diminished the activities induced by high concentrations of GTP to that by the diterpene alone. Forskolin also significantly inhibited the PGE1-stimulated and the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-stimulated activities. Because AH66F cells were insensitive to IPN, the combination with forskolin and IPN gave similar activity to that obtained with the diterpene alone. The effect of forskolin on the activation by manganese ion was neither synergistic nor inhibitory but was additive in AH66F cells. These results suggest that forskolin promotes the interaction between the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein and the catalytic unit in normal hepatocytes and AH66 cells, but in AH66F cells forskolin interferes with the coupling of the two components of adenylate cyclase.

  5. Retroendocytosis of high density lipoproteins by the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambouris, A.M.; Roach, P.D.; Calvert, G.D.; Nestel, P.J. (CSIRO, Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

    1990-07-01

    When human HepG2 hepatoma cells were pulsed with 125I-labeled high density lipoproteins (HDL) and chased in fresh medium, up to 65% of the radioactivity released was precipitable with trichloroacetic acid. Cell-internalized 125I-HDL contributed to the release of acid-precipitable material; when cells were treated with trypsin before the chase to remove 125I-HDL bound to the outer cell membrane, 50% of the released material was still acid-precipitable. Characterization of the radioactive material resecreted by trypsinized cells revealed the presence of particles that were similar in size and density to mature HDL and contained intact apolipoproteins (apo) A-I and A-II. The release of internalized label occurred at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Monensin, which inhibits endosomal recycling of receptors, decreased the binding of 125I-HDL to cells by 75%, inhibited the release of internalized radioactivity as acid-precipitable material by 80%, and increased the release of acid-soluble material by 90%. In contrast, the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine increased the association of 125I-HDL to cells by 25%, inhibited the release of precipitable material by 10%, and inhibited the release of acid-soluble radioactivity by 80%. Pre-incubation with cholesterol caused a 50% increase in the specific binding, internalization, and resecretion of HDL label. Cholesterol affected the release of acid-precipitable label much more (+90%) than that of acid-soluble material (+20%). Taken together, these findings suggest that HepG2 cells can bind, internalize, and resecrete HDL by a retroendocytotic process. Furthermore, the results with cholesterol and monensin indicate that a regulated, recycling, receptor-like molecule is involved in the binding and intracellular routing of HDL.

  6. Reduction of tumorigenicity of SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells by vascular endothelial growth factor antisense gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Cheng Tang; Yu Li; Guan Xiang Qian

    2001-01-01

    AIM To test the hypothesis to block VEGFexpression of SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells mayinhibit tumor growth using the rat hepatomamodel.METHODS Amplifiy the 200 VEGF cDNAfragment and insert it into human U6 genecassette in the reverse orientation transcribingsmall antisense RNA which could specificallyinteract with VEGF165, and VEGF121 mRNA.Construct the retroviral vector containing thisantisense VEGF U6 cassette and package thereplication-deficient recombinant retrovirus.SMMC-7721 cells were transduced with thesevirus and positive clones were selected withG418. PCR and Southern blot analysis wereperformed to determine if U6 cassette integratedinto the genomic DNA of positive clone.Transfected tumor cells were evaluated for RNAexpression by ribonuclease protection assays.The VEGF protein in the supernatant of parentaltumor cells and genetically modified tumor cellswas determined with ELISA. In vitro and in vivogrowth properties of antisense VEGF cell clonein nude mice were analyzed.RESULTS Restriction enzyme digestion andPCR sequencing verified that the antisense VEGFRNA retroviral vector was successfullyconstructed. After G418 selection, resistantSMMC-7721 cell clone was picked up. PCR andSouthern blot analysis suggested that U6cassette was integrated into the cell genomicDNA. Stable SMMC-7721 cell clone transducedwith U6 antisense RNA cassette could express200bp small antisense VEGF RNA and secretereduced levels of VEGF in culture condition.Production of VEGF by antisense transgeneexpressing cells was 65 ± 10 ng / L per 106 cells,420 ± 45 ng/L per 106 cells in sense group and 485± 30 ng/L per 106 cells in the negative control group, (P<0.05). The antisense-VEGF cell clone appeared phenotypically indistinguishable from SMMC-7721 cells and SMMC-7721 cells transfected sense VEGF. The growth rate of the antisense-VEGF cell clone was the same as the control cells. When S. C. was implanted into nude mice, growth of antisense-VEGF cell lines was greatly inhibited

  7. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmush, Gabriel; Santos, Lucas; Yarmush, Joshua; Koundinyan, Srivathsan; Saleem, Mubasher; Nativ, Nir I; Schloss, Rene S; Yarmush, Martin L; Maguire, Timothy J; Berthiaume, Francois

    2016-01-04

    Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  8. Metabolic Flux Distribution during Defatting of Steatotic Human Hepatoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yarmush

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods that rapidly decrease fat in steatotic hepatocytes may be helpful to recover severely fatty livers for transplantation. Defatting kinetics are highly dependent upon the extracellular medium composition; however, the pathways involved are poorly understood. Steatosis was induced in human hepatoma cells (HepG2 by exposure to high levels of free fatty acids, followed by defatting using plain medium containing no fatty acids, or medium supplemented with a cocktail of defatting agents previously described before. We measured the levels of 28 extracellular metabolites and intracellular triglyceride, and fed the data into a steady-state mass balance model to estimate strictly intracellular fluxes. We found that during defatting, triglyceride content decreased, while beta-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the urea cycle increased. These fluxes were augmented by defatting agents, and even more so by hyperoxic conditions. In all defatting conditions, the rate of extracellular glucose uptake/release was very small compared to the internal supply from glycogenolysis, and glycolysis remained highly active. Thus, in steatotic HepG2 cells, glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation may co-exist. Together, these pathways generate reducing equivalents that are supplied to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

  9. [In vitro targeting effect of lactoferrin modified PEGylated liposomes for hepatoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min-yan; Zou, Qi; Wu, Chuan-bin; Xu, Yue-hong

    2015-10-01

    A lactoferrin-containing PEGylated liposome system (Lf-PLS) was developed and tested in vitro as a hepatoma-targeting drug delivery system. PEGylated liposomes (PLS) were successfully prepared using the thin film hydration method with peglipid post insertion. Lf was covalently conjugated onto the carboxyl terminal of DSPE-PEG2000-COOH on liposomes. Coumarin-6 was used to trace Lf-PLS with fluorescence. The cellular uptake of this system was carried out in asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) positive HepG2 cells via confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The Lf-PLS liposome was observed as spherical or oval vesicles with the particle size around 130 nm, zeta potential about -30 mV and encapsulation efficiency more than 80%. The confocal microscopy images and flow cytometry data demonstrated that Lf-PLS resulted in significantly higher cell association by ASGPR positive HepG2 cells compared to PLS. The association between Lf-PLS and cells were dependent on the concentration, time and temperature, which was inhibited by pre-incubation with excessive free Lf. The results suggest that Lf-PLS has a good targeting effect on HepG2 cells in vitro. The targeting mechanism may be related to the specific binding of Lf and ASGPR on HepG2 cells, which guides Lf-PLS to the cell surface to induce an active endocytosis process. All these results demonstrated that Lf-PLS might be a potential drug delivery system in targeting hepatocellular carcinoma, which deserves more research on its targeting ability, antitumor efficiency, and metabolism in vivo for treatment of hepatomacellular carcinoma.

  10. Thyroid hormone receptor inhibits hepatoma cell migration through transcriptional activation of Dickkopf 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Hsiang-Cheng; Liao, Chen-Hsin [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Ya-Hui [Medical Research Central, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Sheng-Ming; Tsai, Chung-Ying; Liao, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chung, I-Hsiao; Wu, Tzu-I [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Wei-Jan [First Cardiovascular Division, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Kwang-Huei, E-mail: khlin@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •T{sub 3} affects DKK4 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2-TR cells. •Regulation of DKK4 by T{sub 3} is at transcriptional level. •DKK4 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cell metastasis. -- Abstract: Triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) is a potent form of thyroid hormone mediates several physiological processes including cellular growth, development, and differentiation via binding to the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor (TR). Recent studies have demonstrated critical roles of T{sub 3}/TR in tumor progression. Moreover, long-term hypothyroidism appears to be associated with the incidence of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), independent of other major HCC risk factors. Dickkopf (DKK) 4, a secreted protein that antagonizes the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, is induced by T{sub 3} at both mRNA and protein levels in HCC cell lines. However, the mechanism underlying T{sub 3}-mediated regulation of DKK4 remains unknown. In the present study, the 5′ promoter region of DKK4 was serially deleted, and the reporter assay performed to localize the T{sub 3} response element (TRE). Consequently, we identified an atypical direct repeat TRE between nucleotides −1645 and −1629 conferring T{sub 3} responsiveness to the DKK4 gene. This region was further validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Stable DKK4 overexpression in SK-Hep-1 cells suppressed cell invasion and metastatic potential, both in vivo andin vitro, via reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression. Our findings collectively suggest that DKK4 upregulated by T{sub 3}/TR antagonizes the Wnt signal pathway to suppress tumor cell progression, thus providing new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying thyroid hormone activity in HCC.

  11. Selenium regulation of glutathione peroxidase in human hepatoma cell line Hep3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R D; Baker, S S; LaRosa, K; Whitney, C; Newburger, P E

    1993-07-01

    Glutathione peroxidase is an important enzyme in cellular antioxidant defense systems, detoxifying peroxides and hydroperoxides. As a component of the glutathione cycle, it protects the liver from reactive oxygen metabolites. Selenocysteine is present at the catalytic site of glutathione peroxidase, and selenium availability regulates glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity. Hep3B cells, a well-differentiated human hepatoma-derived cell line, exhibited time-dependent decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity (nmol NADPH oxidized/min/mg protein, mean +/- SE) when incubated in selenium-free medium for 10 days (Day 0, 21.8 +/- 7.3; Day 2, 10.9 +/- 1.2; Day 4, 7.9 +/- 0.8; Day 6, 4.0 +/- 0.7; Day 8, 4.5 +/- 0.6; Day 10, 1.6 +/- 0.4). With the reintroduction of selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity returned. A second human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, demonstrated a similar pattern when depleted of and then repleted with selenium. To assess protein synthesis, glutathione peroxidase activity was measured in deficient and replete Hep3B cells incubated with and without selenium and with and without cycloheximide. Deficient cells (mean +/- SE) (4.9 +/- 0.2) showed an increase in glutathione peroxidase activity after 24 h in selenium-containing medium (11.6 +/- 0.2), but not when cycloheximide was included in the medium (6.9 +/- 0.5) or when cycloheximide and no selenium was included (5.3 +/- 0.8). Replete Hep3B cells (40.1 +/- 1.1) demonstrated decreased glutathione peroxidase after 24 h in medium without selenium (34.0 +/- 1.4), medium with both cycloheximide and selenium (34.0 +/- 2.6), and medium without selenium and containing cycloheximide (37.6 +/- 1.3). These data suggest that protein synthesis is needed for selenium repletion to exert control on glutathione peroxidase activity. Using a cDNA for human glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), selenium-deficient and replete Hep3B cell RNA was analyzed by Northern blot. mRNA for GPx was quantified by densitometry. The steady

  12. A possible receptor for β2 glycoprotein Ⅰ on the membrane of hepatoma cell line smmc7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高普均; 朴云峰; 王小丛; 曲立科; 时阳; 杨翰仪

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To study the interaction of beta-2-glycoprotein Ⅰ (β2GP Ⅰ) with the membrane of hepatocytes and determine whether β2GP Ⅰ participates in HBV infection.Methods Ligand blotting, fluorescence microscopy, and fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis were used to detect the specific interaction of β2GP Ⅰ with the hepatoma cell line smmc7721, the gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901, and the lymphoma cell line HL-60.Results A specific 40 kDa β2GP Ⅰ band was observed by ligand blotting in the case of smmc7721 cells. No such band was observed in SGC7901 or HL-60 cells. Fluorescence microscopy also revealed specific binding of FITC-β2GP Ⅰ to smmc7721 cells, but neither to SGC7901 nor HL-60 cells. FACS analysis demonstrated that the binding rate of FITC-β2GP Ⅰ to smmc7721 cells was significantly higher than these in SGC7901 and HL-60 cells (P<0.01). The binding rate to smmc7721 cells did not increase with increasing amounts of FITC-β2GP Ⅰ.Conclusions There is a specific β2GP Ⅰ-binding protein on the membrane of hepatoma cells in cell line smmc7721 which as the β2GP Ⅰ receptor may participate in HBV infection of hepatocytes.

  13. Adhesion of different cell cycle human hepatoma cells to endothelial cells and roles of integrin β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan-Bin Song; Jian Qin; Qing Luo; Xiao-Dong Shen; Run-Bin Yan; Shao-Xi Cai

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the adhesive mechanical properties of different cell cycle human hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721)to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV-304),expression of adhesive molecule integrinβ1 in SMMC-7721cells and its contribution to this adhesive course.METHODS: Adhesive force of SMMC-7721 cells to endothelialcells was measured using micropipette aspiration technique.Synchronous G1 and S phase SMMC-7721 cells wereachieved by thymine-2-deoxyriboside and colchicinessequential blockage method and double thymine-2-deoxyriboside blockage method, respectively. Synchronousrates of SMMC-7721 cells and expression of integrinβ1 inSMMC-7721 cells were detected by flow cytometer.RESULTS: The percentage of cell cycle phases of generalSMMC-7721 cells was 11.01% in G2/M phases, 53.51% inG0/G1 phase, and 35.48% in S phase. The synchronous ratesof G1 and S phase SMMC-7721 cells amounted to 74.09%and 98.29%, respectively. The adhesive force of SMMC-7721cells to endothelial cells changed with the variations ofadhesive time and presented behavior characteristics ofadhesion and de-adhesion. S phase SMMC-7721 cells had higheradhesive forces than G1 phase cells [(307.65±92.10)× 10-10Nvs (195.42±60.72)×10-10N, P<0.01]. The expressivefluorescent intensity of integrinβ1 in G1 phase SMMC-7721cells was depressed more significantly than the values ofS phase and general SMMC-7721cells. The contribution ofadhesive integrinβ1 was about 53% in this adhesive course.CONCLUSION: SMMC-7721 cells can be synchronizedpreferably in G1 and S phases with thymine-2-deoxyribosideand colchicines. The adhesive molecule integrinβ1 expressesa high level in SMMC-7721 cells and shows differences invarious cell cycles, suggesting integrin β1 plays an importantrole in adhesion to endothelial cells. The change of adhesiveforces in different cell cycle SMMC-7721 cells indicatesthat S phase cells play predominant roles possibly whilethey interact with endothelial cells.

  14. CD147 stimulates hepatoma cells escaping from immune surveillance of T cells by interaction with Cyclophilin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi-Xin; Wang, Shu-Jing; Fan, Jian-Hui; Sun, Shi-Jie; Li, Xia; Padhiar, Arshad Ahmed; Zhang, Jia-Ning

    2016-05-01

    T cells play an important role in tumor immune surveillance. CD147 is a member of immunoglobulin superfamily present on the surface of many tumor cells and mediates malignant cell behaviors. Cyclophilin A (CypA) is an intracellular protein promoting inflammation when released from cells. CypA is a natural ligand for CD147. In this study, CD147 specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) were transfected into murine hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells to assess the effects of CD147 on hepatoma cells escaping from immune surveillance of T cells. We found extracellular CypA stimulated cell proliferation through CD147 by activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Downregulation of CD147 expression on Hepa1-6 cells significantly suppressed tumor progression in vivo, and decreased cell viability when co-cultured with T cells in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of CD147 on Hepa1-6 cells resulted in significantly increased T cells chemotaxis induced by CypA both in vivo and in vitro. These findings provide novel mechanisms how tumor cells escaping from immune surveillance of T cells. We provide a potential therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting CD147 or CD147-CypA interactions.

  15. Thyromimetic actions of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in steatotic FaO rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasselli, E; Cortese, K; Fabbri, R; Smerilli, A; Vergani, L; Voci, A; Gallo, G; Canesi, L

    2014-10-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (2,2-bis(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl propane-TBBPA) is the most produced brominated flame retardant, detected in the environment and in biological samples. TBBPA shares structural similarities with thyroid hormones (THs), and it has been shown to interfere with different aspects of TH physiology, this raising concern on its possible effects as an endocrine disruptor in humans and wildlife. THs play a major role in lipid metabolism, with the liver representing one of their main target tissues. At the cellular level, THs act through interactions with TH receptors (TRs), as well as through TR-independent mechanisms. Rat hepatoma FaO cells (a liver cell line defective for functional TRs) overloaded with lipids have been utilized as a model to investigate the anti-steatotic effects of THs in the hepatocyte. In this work, the possible effects of TBBPA in steatotic FaO cells were investigated. Exposure to TBBPA for 24 h reduced triglyceride (TAG) content and the size of lipid droplets (LDs); similar effects were obtained with equimolar doses (10(-6) M) of T3 (3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine). TBBPA and T3 showed common effects on transcription of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. In particular, TBBPA mainly up-regulated mRNA levels for LD-associated oxidative tissue-enriched PAT protein (OXPAT), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoform β/δ, and the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). The results demonstrate that TBBPA can decrease lipid accumulation in steatotic cells through stimulation of oxidative pathways. These data identify novel thyromimetic actions of TBBPA at the cellular level.

  16. Autophagy inhibition contributes to the synergistic interaction between EGCG and doxorubicin to kill the hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate(EGCG, the highest catechins from green tea, has promisingly been found to sensitize the efficacy of several chemotherapy agents like doxorubicin (DOX in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC treatment. However, the detailed mechanisms by which EGCG augments the chemotherapeutic efficacy remain unclear. Herein, this study was designed to determine the synergistic impacts of EGCG and DOX on hepatoma cells and particularly to reveal whether the autophagic flux is involved in this combination strategy for the HCC. Electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy confirmed that DOX significantly increased autophagic vesicles in hepatoma Hep3B cells. Western blot and trypan blue assay showed that the increasing autophagy flux by DOX impaired about 45% of DOX-induced cell death in these cells. Conversely, both qRT-PCR and western blotting showed that EGCG played dose-dependently inhibitory role in autophagy signaling, and that markedly promoted cellular growth inhibition. Amazingly, the combined treatment caused a synergistic effect with 40 to 60% increment on cell death and about 45% augmentation on apoptosis versus monotherapy pattern. The DOX-induced autophagy was abolished by this combination therapy. Rapamycin, an autophagic agonist, substantially impaired the anticancer effect of either DOX or combination with EGCG treatment. On the other hand, using small interference RNA targeting chloroquine autophagy-related gene Atg5 and beclin1 to inhibit autophagy signal, hepatoma cell death was dramatically enhanced. Furthermore, in the established subcutaneous Hep3B cells xenograft tumor model, about 25% reduction in tumor growth as well as 50% increment of apoptotic cells were found in combination therapy compared with DOX alone. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that the suppressed tendency of autophagic hallmark microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3 expressions was consistent with thus combined

  17. Antisense oligonucleotide targeting at the initiator of hTERT arrests growth of hepatoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Xia; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Cao, Ying-Lin; Ma, Chun-Hong; Han, Li-Hui; Zhang, Li-Ning; Wang, Zhen-Guang; Zhu, Fa-Liang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effect of antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide (asON) complementary to the initiator of human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) on the growth of hepatoma cells. METHODS: The as-hTERT was synthesized by using a DNA synthesizer. HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with as-hTERT at the concentration of 10 μmol/L. After 72 h, these cells were obtained for detecting growth inhibition, telomerase activity using the methods of MTT, TRAP-PCR-ELISA, respectively. BALB/c(nu/nu) mice were injected HepG2.2.15 cells and a human-nude mice model was obtained. There were three groups for anti-tumor activity study. Once tumors were established, these animals in the first group were administered as-hTERT and saline. Apoptosis of tumor cells was detected by FCM. In the 2nd group, the animals were injected HepG2.2.15 cells together with as-hTERT. In the third group, the animals were given as-hTERT 24 hours postinjection of HepG2.2.15 cells. The anti-HBV effects were assayed with ELISA in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Growth inhibition was observed in cells treated with as-hTERT in vitro. A significant different in the value of A570 - A630 was found between cells treated with as-hTERT and control (P < 0.01) by MTT method. The telomerase activity of tumor cells treated with as-hTERT was reduced, the value of A450 nm was 0.42 compared to control (1.49) with TRAP-PCR-ELISA. The peak of apoptosis in tumor cells given as-hTERT was 21.12%, but not seen in saline-treated control. A prolonged period of carcinogenesis was observed in the second and third group animals. There was inhibitory effect on the expression of HBsAg and HBeAg in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSION: As-hTERT has an anti-tumor activity, which may be useful for gene therapy of tumors. PMID:14760759

  18. Influence of Toxoplasma gondii on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis of hepatoma carcinoma H7402 cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wang; Ming Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the influence of tachyzoite of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) RH strain on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatoma carcinoma (HCC) H7402 cell. Methods: The HCC H7402 cell in logarithmic phase and tachyzoite of T. gondii RH strain in different concentrations (1×107/mL, 2×107/mL, 4×107/mL, 8×107/mL and 16×107/mL) were co-cultured. CCK-8 was utilized to determine the inhibition rate of T. gondii tachyzoite on H7402 cell growth. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change of cell cycle. RT-PCR method was used to detect the expression of cyclinB1 and cdc2--two genes related to cell cycle. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Caspase-3 and Bcl-2. Results: The tachyzoite of T. gondii RH strain can inhibit the proliferation of HCC H7402 cells. The inhibition rate of tumor cell growth increased with the increase of concentration of T. gondii tachyzoite. With the increase of concentration of T. gondii tachyzoite, the proportion of G0/G1 phase of H7402 cell increased, the proportion of S phase decreased, and PI value decreased accordingly. The expression of cyclinB1 and cdc2 genes decreased with the increase of the concentration of T. gondii tachyzoite. With the increase of the concentration of tachyzoite of T. gondii RH strain, the expression quantity of Caspase-3 in H7402 cell increased, but the expression quantity of Bcl-2 protein decreased. Conclusions: T. gondii can inhibit the in vitro proliferation of HCC H7402 cell, and induce its apoptosis. This effect shows a trend of concentration-dependent increase. Moreover, it is related to the down-regulation of cyclinB1 and cdc2 (cell cycle-related genes), the increase of apoptosis-related protein Caspase-3, and the decrease of Bcl-2 expression.

  19. Cell death pathways in directly irradiated cells and cells exposed to medium from irradiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella, Kishore Kumar; Garcia, Amaya; McClean, Brendan; Byrne, Hugh J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare levels of apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death and senescence after treatment with both direct radiation and irradiated cell conditioned medium. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cell line) were irradiated (0.005, 0.05 and 0.5 Gy) using a cobalt 60 teletherapy unit. For bystander experiments, the medium was harvested from donor HaCaT cells 1 hour after irradiation and transferred to recipient HaCaT cells. Clonogenic assay, apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic cell death, senescence and cell cycle analysis were measured in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells A reduction in cell survival was observed for both directly irradiated cells and irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM)-treated cells. Early apoptosis and necrosis was observed predominantly after direct irradiation. An increase in the number of cells in G2/M phase was observed at 6 and 12 h which led to mitotic cell death after 72 h following direct irradiation and ICCM treatment. No senescence was observed in the HaCaT cell line following either direct irradiation or treatment with ICCM. This study has shown that directly irradiated cells undergo apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic cell death whereas ICCM-treated cells predominantly undergo mitotic cell death.

  20. GEP100/Arf6 is required for epidermal growth factor-induced ERK/Rac1 signaling and cell migration in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

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    ZhenZhen Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling is implicated in the invasion and metastasis of hepatoma cells. However, the signaling pathways for EGF-induced motility of hepatoma cells remain undefined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that EGF dose-dependently stimulated the migration of human hepatoma cells HepG2, with the maximal effect at 10 ng/mL. Additionally, EGF increased Arf6 activity, and ectopic expression of Arf6 T27N, a dominant negative Arf6 mutant, largely abolish EGF-induced cell migration. Blocking GEP100 with GEP100 siRNA or GEP100-△PH, a pleckstrin homology (PH domain deletion mutant of GEP100, blocked EGF-induced Arf6 activity and cell migration. EGF also increased ERK and Rac1 activity. Ectopic expression GEP100 siRNA, GEP100-△PH, or Arf6-T27N suppressed EGF-induced ERK and Rac1 activity. Furthermore, blocking ERK signaling with its inhibitor U0126 remarkably inhibited both EGF-induced Rac1 activation as well as cell migration, and ectopic expression of inactive mutant form of Rac1 (Rac1-T17N also largely abolished EGF-induced cell migration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, this study highlights the function of the PH domain of GEP100 and its regulated Arf6/ERK/Rac1 signaling cascade in EGF-induced hepatoma cell migration. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapy based on inhibition of hepatoma metastasis.

  1. Autophagy of metallothioneins prevents TNF-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullio, Chiara; Brunk, Ulf T; Urani, Chiara; Melchioretto, Pasquale; Bonelli, Gabriella; Baccino, Francesco M; Autelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) induced by oxidative stress has recently emerged as a prominent mechanism behind TNF cytotoxicity. This pathway relies on diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into lysosomes containing redox-active iron, accumulated by breakdown of iron-containing proteins and subcellular organelles. Upon oxidative lysosomal damage, LMP allows relocation to the cytoplasm of low mass iron and acidic hydrolases that contribute to DNA and mitochondrial damage, resulting in death by apoptosis or necrosis. Here we investigate the role of lysosomes and free iron in death of HTC cells, a rat hepatoma line, exposed to TNF following metallothionein (MT) upregulation. Iron-binding MT does not normally occur in HTC cells in significant amounts. Intracellular iron chelation attenuates TNF and cycloheximide (CHX)-induced LMP and cell death, demonstrating the critical role of this transition metal in mediating cytokine lethality. MT upregulation, combined with starvation-activated MT autophagy almost completely suppresses TNF and CHX toxicity, while impairment of both autophagy and MT upregulation by silencing of Atg7, and Mt1a and/or Mt2a, respectively, abrogates protection. Interestingly, MT upregulation by itself has little effect, while stimulated autophagy alone depresses cytokine toxicity to some degree. These results provide evidence that intralysosomal iron-catalyzed redox reactions play a key role in TNF and CHX-induced LMP and toxicity. The finding that chelation of intralysosomal iron achieved by autophagic delivery of MT, and to some degree probably of other iron-binding proteins as well, into the lysosomal compartment is highly protective provides a putative mechanism to explain autophagy-related suppression of death by TNF and CHX.

  2. Involvement of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 in paeoniflorin-induced human hepatoma cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanshan; Sun, Wuyi; Wei, Wei; Wang, Di; Jin, Juan; Wu, Jingjing; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Huaxun; Wang, Qingtong

    2013-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to play an important role in tumor development and progression. PGE2 mediates its biological activity by binding any one of four prostanoid receptors (EP1 through EP4). The present study was designed to determine the role of the EP2 receptor during the proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and the effect of paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside. The proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium after exposure to the selective EP2 receptor agonists butaprost and paeoniflorin. Apoptosis of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells was also quantified by flow cytometry with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax were quantified by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of the EP2 receptor and cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase)-3 was determined by western blotting. Butaprost significantly increased proliferation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells stimulated by butaprost at multiple time points (24, 48, and 72 h). Paeoniflorin induced apoptosis in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, which was quantified by annexin-V and propidium iodide staining. Our results indicate that the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 was significantly increased, whereas that of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells after stimulation by butaprost. Paeoniflorin significantly decreased the expression of the EP2 receptor and Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 activation in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells on addition of butaprost. Our results show that the PGE2 receptor subtype EP2 may play a vital role in the survival of both HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells. Paeoniflorin, which may be a promising agent in the treatment of liver cancer, induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by downregulating

  3. Synergistic effect of intervention of glypican-3 gene transcription combined with antitumor drugs in inhibiting hepatoma cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the inhibitory effect of intervention of glypican-3 (GPC3 gene transcription combined with antitumor drugs on hepatoma cell proliferation. MethodsFour types of GPC3-shRNA plasmids were established and transfected into HepG2 hepatoma cells. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of GPC3 to analyze its association with hepatoma cell proliferation and apoptosis. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between any two groups, and a one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups. ResultsAmong these four plasmids, shRNA1 had a transfection efficiency of >85% in the transfection of HepG2 cells and a silence efficiency of 89.3% at the mRNA level, and the protein expression of GPC3 was significantly inhibited(P<0.01). At 72 hours, the GPC3-shRNA1 co-intervention group had an HepG2 cell inhibition rate of 71.1%, significantly different from that in the negative group (t=18.092, P<0.001, an inhibition rate of migration of 89.1%, significantly lower than that in the negative group (t=8.326, P<0.001, and inhibition rates of HepG2 cell movement and invasion of 53.6% and 60.1%, which were significantly different from those in the negative group (t=52.400 and 48.245, both P<0.001. The GPC3-shRNA1 co-intervention group had a β-catenin mRNA inhibition rate of 46.9% and a Gli1 mRNA upregulation rate of 7.4%, significantly different from those in the negative group (t=30.108 and -3.551, P<0.001 and P=0.009. At 24 hours, 10 μmol/L sorafenib combined with shRNA1 had an inhibition rate of tumor cells of 52.6% and 100 μmol/L sorafenib combined with shRNA1 had an inhibition rate of tumor cells of 79.5%, which were significantly different from that in the control group (t=23.314 and 50.352, both P<0.001. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of sorafenib, rapamycin, and erlotinib for HepG2 were 4.67±1

  4. Genetic analysis of a transcriptional activation pathway by using hepatoma cell variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, G A; Fournier, R E

    1994-01-01

    A hierarchy of liver-enriched transcription factors plays an important role in activating expression of many hepatic genes. In particular, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4) is a major activator of the gene encoding HNF-1, and HNF-1 itself activates expression of more than 20 liver genes. To dissect this activation pathway genetically, we prepared somatic cell variants that were deficient in expression of the liver-specific alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) gene, which requires both HNF-1 and HNF-4 for high-level gene activity. This was accomplished in two steps. First, hepatoma transfectants that stably expressed two selectable markers under alpha 1AT promoter control were prepared; second, variant sublines that could no longer express either transgene were isolated by direct selection. In this report, we demonstrate that the variants contain defects in the HNF-4/HNF-1 activation pathway. These defects functioned in trans, as expression of many liver genes was affected, but the variant phenotypes were recessive to wild type in somatic cell hybrids. Three different variant classes could be discriminated by their phenotypic responses to ectopic expression of either HNF-4 or HNF-1. Two variant clones appeared specifically deficient in HNF-4 expression, as transfection with an HNF-4 expression cassette fully restored their hepatic phenotypes. Another line activated HNF-1 in response to forced HNF-4 expression, but activation of downstream genes failed to occur. One clone was unresponsive to either HNF-1 or HNF-4. Using the variants, we demonstrate further that the chromosomal genes encoding alpha 1AT, aldolase B, and alpha-fibrinogen display strict requirements for HNF-1 activation in vivo, while other liver genes were unaffected by the presence or absence of HNF-1 or HNF-4. We also provide evidence for the existence of an autoregulatory loop in which HNF-1 regulates its own expression through activation of HNF-4. Images PMID:7935424

  5. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

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    Weerapreeyakul Natthida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2, and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P = 0.000. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7 ± 12.3 μg/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79 ± 7.62 μg/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro.

  6. Identification of two-dimensional electrophoresis-separated proteins in human hepatoma cell by electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    As one of the most important analytical methods in proteome research, mass spectrometry was utilized to identify proteins separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in the human hepatoma cell line BEL-7404. The protein spots were excised from the gel, followed by in-gel digestion, and the peptide mappings were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ion trap mass spectrometer. Nine proteins were identified via database searching, according to the molecular weights and amino acid sequences of peptides, among which two proteins have not been identified in the other liver-cell database. The sequence coverage was 21%-72%. Furthermore, the relationship between the expressed proteins and the liver carcinoma was discussed.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by Scorpio water extract in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-Beom Kwon; Eun-Kyung Kim; Jung-Gook Lim; Eun-Sil Jeong; Byung-Cheul Shin; Young-Se Jeon; Kang-San Kim; Eun-A Seo; Do-Gon Ryu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-mutagenic and anti-cancer activities of Scorpio water extract (SWE).METHODS: Human hepatoma HepG2 cells were incubated with various concentrations of SWE. After 24-h incubation,cytotoxicity and apoptosis evaluations were determined by MTT and DNA fragmentation assay, respectively. After treatment with SWE, mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP) was determined by measuring the retention of the dye 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine (DiOC6(3)) and the protein expression including cytochrome C and poly-(ADPribose) polymerase (PARP)were measured by Western blotting. Caspase-3 and -9 enzyme activities were measured using specific fluorescence dyes such as Ac-DEVD-AFC and Ac-LEHD-AFC.RESULTS: We found that treatment with SWE induced apoptosis as confirmed by discontinuous DNA fragmentation in cultured human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our investigation also showed that SWE-induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells were associated with intracellular events including disruption of MMP, increased translocation of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol, activation of caspase-3,and PARP. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO(Ac-DEVD-CHO), a caspase-3 specific inhibitor, or cydosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of MMP disruption, completely abolished SWE-induced DNA fragmentation.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that SWE possibly causes mitochondrial damage, leading to cytochrome C release into cytosol and activation of caspases resulting in PARP cleavage and execution of apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. These results further suggest that Scorpio may be a valuable agent of therapeutic intervention of human hepatomas.

  8. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Lang; Chien, Rong-Nan; Lin, Shi-Ming; Ke, Po-Yuan; Lin, Chen-Chun; Yeh, Chau-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2). Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  9. An occult hepatitis B-derived hepatoma cell line carrying persistent nuclear viral DNA and permissive for exogenous hepatitis B virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lang Lin

    Full Text Available Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is defined as persistence of HBV DNA in liver tissues, with or without detectability of HBV DNA in the serum, in individuals with negative serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg. Despite accumulating evidence suggesting its important clinical roles, the molecular and virological basis of occult hepatitis B remains unclear. In an attempt to establish new hepatoma cell lines, we achieved a new cell line derived from a hepatoma patient with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV and occult HBV infection. Characterization of this cell line revealed previously unrecognized properties. Two novel human hepatoma cell lines were established. Hep-Y1 was derived from a male hepatoma patient negative for HCV and HBV infection. Hep-Y2 was derived from a female hepatoma patient suffering from chronic HCV and occult HBV infection. Morphological, cytogenetic and functional studies were performed. Permissiveness to HBV infection was assessed. Both cell lines showed typical hepatocyte-like morphology under phase-contrast and electron microscopy and expressed alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, and aldolase B. Cytogenetic analysis revealed extensive chromosomal anomalies. An extrachromosomal form of HBV DNA persisted in the nuclear fraction of Hep-Y2 cells, while no HBsAg was detected in the medium. After treated with 2% dimethyl sulfoxide, both cell lines were permissive for exogenous HBV infection with transient elevation of the replication intermediates in the cytosol with detectable viral antigens by immunoflurescence analysis. In conclusions, we established two new hepatoma cell lines including one from occult HBV infection (Hep-Y2. Both cell lines were permissive for HBV infection. Additionally, Hep-Y2 cells carried persistent extrachromosomal HBV DNA in the nuclei. This cell line could serve as a useful tool to establish the molecular and virological basis of occult HBV infection.

  10. Effects of Pinus massoniana bark extract on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Yu Cui; Heng Xie; Kang-Biao Qi; Yan-Ming He; Jin-Fa Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Pinus massoniana bark extract (PMBE) on cell proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and to elucidate its molecular mechanism.METHODS: BEL-7402 cells were incubated with various concentrations (20-200 μg/mL) of PMBE for different periods of time. After 48 h, cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was evaluated by morphological observation, agarose gel electrophoresis,and flow cytometry analysis. Possible molecular mechanisms were primarily explored through immunohistochemical staining.RESULTS: PMBE (20-200 μg/mL) significantly suppressed BEL-7402 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After treatment of BEL-7402 cells with 160 μg/mL PMBE for 24, 48, or 72 h, a typical apoptotic "DNA ladder"was observed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Nuclear condensation and boundary aggregation or split, apoptotic bodies were seen by fluorescence and electron microscopy.Sub-G1 curves were displayed by flow cytometry analysis.PMBE decreased the expression levels of Bcl-2 protein in a time-dependent manner after treatment of cells with 160 μg/mL PMBE.CONCLUSION: PMBE suppresses proliferation of BEL-7402 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induces cell apoptosis by possibly downregulating the expression of the bcl-2 gene.

  11. Downregulation of miR-210 expression inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and enhances radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells in vitro

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    Yang, Wei, E-mail: detachedy@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Sun, Ting [Brain and Nerve Research Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping; Liu, Fenju [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Tian, Ye [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhu, Wei [Department of Radiobiology, School of Radiological Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2012-05-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and an important contributor to tumor radioresistance. miR-210 is the most consistently and robustly induced microRNA under hypoxia in different types of tumor cells and normal cells. In the present study, to explore the feasibility of miR-210 as an effective therapeutic target, lentiviral-mediated anti-sense miR-210 gene transfer technique was employed to downregulate miR-210 expression in hypoxic human hepatoma SMMC-7721, HepG2 and HuH7 cells, and phenotypic changes of which were analyzed. Hypoxia led to an increased hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and miR-210 expression and cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase in all cell lines. miR-210 downregulation significantly suppressed cell viability, induced cell arrest in the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase, increased apoptotic rate and enhanced radiosensitivity in hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Moreover, apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3 (AIFM3) was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. AIFM3 downregulation by siRNA attenuated radiation induced apoptosis in miR-210 downregulated hypoxic human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-210 might be a potential therapeutic target and specific inhibition of miR-210 expression in combination with radiotherapy might be expected to exert strong anti-tumor effect on hypoxic human hepatoma cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 downregulation radiosensitized hypoxic hepatoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIFM3 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-210. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-210 might be a therapeutic target to hypoxic hepatoma.

  12. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

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    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  13. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

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    Liu YK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Kuo Liu,1 Kuan-Hsing Chen,2 Yann-Lii Leu,3,4 Tzong-Der Way,5 Ling-Wei Wang,6,7 Yu-Jen Chen,8,9,* Yu-Ming Liu6–8,* 1Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; 2Kidney Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, School of Medicine, 3Graduate Institute of Natural Products, College of Medicine, 4Chinese Herbal Medicine Research Team, Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 6Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 7National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 8School of Medicine, Institute of Traditional Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae, a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed

  14. Permissivity of primary human hepatocytes and different hepatoma cell lines to cell culture adapted hepatitis C virus.

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    Francois Helle

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in Hepatitis C virus (HCV culture since the JFH1 strain cloning. However, developing efficient and physiologically relevant culture systems for all viral genotypes remains an important goal. In this work, we aimed at producing a high titer JFH1 derived virus to test different hepatic cells' permissivity. To this end, we performed successive infections and obtained a JFH1 derived virus reaching high titers. Six potential adaptive mutations were identified (I599V in E2, R1373Q and M1611T in NS3, S2364P and C2441S in NS5A and R2523K in NS5B and the effect of these mutations on HCV replication and infectious particle production was investigated. This cell culture adapted virus enabled us to efficiently infect primary human hepatocytes, as demonstrated using the RFP-NLS-IPS reporter protein and intracellular HCV RNA quantification. However, the induction of a strong type III interferon response in these cells was responsible for HCV inhibition. The disruption of this innate immune response led to a strong infection enhancement and permitted the detection of viral protein expression by western blotting as well as progeny virus production. This cell culture adapted virus also enabled us to easily compare the permissivity of seven hepatoma cell lines. In particular, we demonstrated that HuH-7, HepG2-CD81, PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells were permissive to HCV entry, replication and secretion even if the efficiency was very low in PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells. In contrast, we did not observe any infection of SNU-182, SNU-398 and SNU-449 hepatoma cells. Using iodixanol density gradients, we also demonstrated that the density profiles of HCV particles produced by PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells were different from that of HuH-7 and HepG2-CD81 derived virions. These results will help the development of a physiologically relevant culture system for HCV patient isolates.

  15. Anticancer effect of the extracts from Polyalthia evecta against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasipawan Machana; Natthida Weerapreeyakul; Sahapat Barusrux

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticancer activity of Polyalthia evecta (P. evecta) (Pierre) Finet& Gagnep against human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Methods: The anticancer activity was based on (a) the cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells (HepG2) assessed using a neutral red assay and (b) apoptosis induction determined by evaluation of nuclei morphological changes after DAPI staining. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was assessed by HPLC analysis. Results: The 50% ethanol-water crude leaf extract of P. evecta (EW-L) showed greater potential anticancer activity with high cytotoxicity [IC50 = (62.8 ± 7.3)μg/mL] and higher selectivity in HepG2 cells than normal Vero cells [selective index (SI) = 7.9]. The SI of EW-L was higher than the positive control, melphalan (SI = 1.6) and the apoptotic cells (46.4 ± 2.6) % induced by EW-L was higher than the melphalan (41.6 ± 2.1)% (P<0.05). The HPLC chromatogram of the EW-L revealed the presence of various kinds of polyphenolics and flavonoids in it. Conclusions:P. evecta is a potential plant with anticancer activity. The isolation of pure compounds and determination of the bioactivity of individual compounds will be further performed.

  16. A human hepatoma cell line FLC4 cultured on the radial flow bioreactor as a model for human hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYW; BabuE

    2002-01-01

    Hepatocytes play central roles in the metabolism and excretion of drugs and xenobiovics.For this purpose,hepatocytes were endowed with high levels of enzyme activity for the phase I and phase Ⅱ metabolism as well as high levels of transmembrane transport activity which enables the entrance and the exit of drugs and xenobiotics and their metabolites through the plasma membrane of the hepatocytes.They include the transporters in the canalicular and sinusoidal membrane.Although a lot of cell lines were established from hepatoma cells or normal hepatocytes,none of them are fully satisfactory in the expression of the enzymes and transportens.We have established and characterized a hepatoma cell line designated FLC4 and found that this cell line exhibits properties quite similar to those of the normal hepatocytes in the light of enzymes and transporters for drug metabolism and transkport when they are cultured on the radial flow bioreactors.Using FLC4 cells cultured on the radial flow bioreactors,we are developing in vitro systems to evaluate the interaction of drugs with liver transporters and drug-drug interaction through the hepa tocyte transporters.

  17. Carvacrol and rosemary oil at higher concentrations induce apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melušová, Martina; Jantová, Soňa; Horváthová, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Natural essential oils are volatile herbal complex compounds which manifest cytotoxic effects on living cells depending on their type and concentration but usually they are not genotoxic. Our previous studies showed that carvacrol (CA) and rosemary essential oil (RO) induced growth inhibition of both human cell lines HepG2 and BHNF-1, with hepatoma HepG2 cells being more sensitive to either compound tested. Cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO induced the formation of DNA strand breaks. Further ex vivo studies showed that extracts prepared from hepatocytes of CA- and RO-supplemented rats did not increase incision repair activity compared to extracts from liver cells of control animals. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of cytotoxic concentrations of CA and RO on the cell cycle and the ability of both natural volatiles to induce DNA fragmentation and apoptotic death of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. These effects were measured after 24 h incubation of HepG2 cells with CA and RO using three independent methods - flow cytometry, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (electrophoresis) and micronucleus assay. Evaluation of morphological changes and formation of micronuclei in HepG2 cells showed no increase in the number of micronuclei in cells treated by CA and RO compared to control cells. On the other hand, CA and RO induced morphological changes typical for apoptosis in concentration-dependent manner. The presence of necrosis was negligible. Both natural compounds caused shrinking of cytoplasmic membrane and formation of apoptotic bodies. In addition, the highest concentrations of CA and RO induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (formation of DNA ladder) in HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis revealed the accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by a reduction in the number of cells in the S phase after 24 h exposure to the substances tested. The cell division was thus slowed down or stopped and this process resulted in cell

  18. Expression of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and effect of L-4-oxalysine on the expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AIM To investigate alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA expression in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and the effect of L-4-oxalysine (OXL) on the expression.METHODS BEl-7404 human hepatoma cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 media. Human AFP cDNA probe was labelled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP by the random primer labelling method. The expression of AFP mRNA in Bel-7404 cells was determined by an in situ hybridization technique with digoxigenin-labelled human AFP cDNA probe. The positive intensities of AFP mRNA in cells were analyzed by microspectrophotometer and expressed as absorbance at 470nm. For the experiment with OXL, cells were incubated with various concentrations of the agent for 72h.RESULTS Essentially all the hepatoma cells contained AFP mRNA in the cytoplasm, although in various amounts. The specificity of the hybridization reaction was confirmed by control experiments in which the use of RNase-treated BEL-7404 cells, non-AFP-producing cells (HL-60 human leukemia cells) or a nonspecific cDNA probe resulted in negative hybridization. When the cells were treated with OXL (25, 50mg/L), the content of AFP mRNA in the cytoplasm was decreased with the inhibition percentages of 34.3% and 70.1%, respectively (P<0.05).CONCLUSION AFP mRNA was expressed in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and OXL suppressed AFP mRNA expression in the cells.

  19. High-density lipoprotein as a potential carrier for delivery of a lipophilic antitumoral drug into hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Lou; Xue-Ling Liao; Man-Ping Wu; Pei-Fang Cheng; Chun-Yan Yin; Zheng Fei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possibility of recombinant highdensity lipoprotein (rHDL) being a carrier for delivering antitumoral drug to hepatoma cells.METHODS: Recombinant complex of HDL and aclacinomycin(rHDL-ACM) was prepared by cosonication of apoproteins from HDL (Apo HDL) and ACM as well as phosphatidylcholine.Characteristics of the rHDL-ACM were elucidated by electrophoretic mobility, including the size of particles,morphology and entrapment efficiency. Binding activity of rHDL-ACM to human hepatoma cells was determined by competition assay in the presence of excess native HDL. The cytotoxicity of rHDL-ACM was assessed by MTT method.RESULTS: The density range of rHDL-ACM was 1.063-1.210g/mL, and the same as that of native HDL. The purity of all rHDL-ACM preparations was more than 92%.Encapsulated efficiencies of rHDL-ACM were more than90%. rHDL-ACM particles were typical sphere model of lipoproteins and heterogeneous in particle size. The average diameter was 31.26±5.62 nm by measure of 110rHDL-ACM particles in the range of diameter of lipoproteins.rHDL-ACM could bind on SMMC-7721 cells, and such binding could be competed against in the presence of excess native HDL. rHDL-ACM had same binding capacity as native HDL. The cellular uptake of rHDL-ACM by SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells was significantly higher than that of free ACM at the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL(P<0.01). Cytotoxicity of rHDL-ACM to SMMC-7721 cells was significantly higher than that of free ACM at concentration range of less than 5 μg/mL (P<0.01) and IC50 of rHDL-ACM was lower than IC50 of free ACM(1.68 nmol/L vs3 nmol/L). Compared to L02 hepatocytes,a normal liver cell line, the cellular uptake of rHDL-ACM by SMMC-7721 cells was significantly higher (P<0.01) and in a dose-dependent manner at the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL. Cytotoxicity of the rHDL-ACM to SMMC-7721 cells was significantly higher than that to L02 cells at concentration range of 1-7.5 μg/mL (P<0.01). IC50 for

  20. Characteristics and application of established luciferase hepatoma cell line that responds to dioxin-like chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Ren Zhang; Hong Yan; Shun-Qing Xu; Xi Sun; Yong-Jun Xu; Xiao-Kun Cai; Zhi-Wei Liu; Xiang-Lin Tan; Yi-Kai Zhou; Jun-Yue Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To establish a luciferase reporter cell line that responds dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs) and on this basis to evaluate its characteristics and application in the determination of DLCs.METHODS: A recombinant luciferase reporter plasmid was constructed by inserting dioxin-responsive element (DREs)and MMTV promoter segments into the pGL3-promoter plasmid immediately upstream of the luciferase gene, which was structurally demonstrated by fragment mapping analysis in gel electrophoresis and transfected into the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, both transiently and stably, to identify the inducible expression of luciferase by 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The time course,responsive period, sensitivity, structure-inducibility and doseeffect relationships of inducible luciferase expression to DLCs was dynamically observed in HepG2 cells stably transfected by the recombinant vector (HepG2-Luc) and compared with that assayed by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) in non-transfected HepG2 cells (HepG2-wt).RESULTS: The inducible luciferase expression of HepG2-Luc cells wa s noted in a time-, dose-, and AhR-dependent manner, which peaked at 4 h and then decreased to a stable level at 14 h after TCDD treatment. The responsiveness of HepG2-Luc cells to TCDD induction was decreased with culture time and became undetectable at 10th month of HepG2-Luc cell formation. The fact that luciferase activity induced by 3, 3', 4, 4′-PCB in HepG2-Luc cells was much less than that induced by TCDD suggests a structureinducibility relationship existing among DLCs. Within the concentrations from 3.5× 10-12 to 5× 10-9 mol/L, significant correlations between TCDD doses and EROD activities were observed in both HepG2-luc and HepG2-wt cells. The correlation between TCDD doses from 1.1×10-13 to 1×10-8 mol/L and luciferase activities was also found to be significant in HepG2-luc cells (r=0.997, P<0.001), but not in their HepG2-wt counterparts. For the comparison of the

  1. Antiproliferative and Anti-Invasive Effect of Piceatannol, a Polyphenol Present in Grapes and Wine, against Hepatoma AH109A Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Piceatannol is a stilbenoid, a metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine. Piceatannol and sera from rats orally given piceatannol were found to dose-dependently suppress both the proliferation and invasion of AH109A hepatoma cells in culture. Its antiproliferative effect was based on cell cycle arrest at lower concentration (25~50 μM and on apoptosis induction at higher concentration (100 μM. Piceatannol suppressed reactive oxygen species-potentiated invasive capacity by scavenging the intracellular reactive oxygen species. These results suggest that piceatannol, unlike resveratrol, has a potential to suppress the hepatoma proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. They also suggest that the antioxidative property of piceatannol, like resveratrol, may be involved in its anti-invasive action. Subsequently, piceatannol was found to suppress the growth of solid tumor and metastasis in hepatoma-bearing rats. Thus, piceatannol may be a useful anticancer natural product.

  2. Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chin-Mu; Hsu, Yu-An; Tsai, Yuhsin; Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-02-19

    Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

  3. Irradiated fibroblasts promote epithelial–mesenchymal transition and HDGF expression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ci-Hang; Wang, Xin-Tong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Ma, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Genaral Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750000 (China); Wang, Na-Na; Nesa, Effat un; Wang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Cong; Jia, Yi-Bin; Wang, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Tian, Hui [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Cheng, Yu-Feng, E-mail: qlcyf1965@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2015-03-06

    Recent evidence suggested that nonirradiated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promoted aggressive phenotypes of cancer cells through epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is a radiosensitive gene of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to investigate the effect of irradiated fibroblasts on EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. Our study demonstrated that coculture with nonirradiated fibroblasts significantly increased the invasive ability of ESCC cells and the increased invasiveness was further accelerated when they were cocultured with irradiated fibroblasts. Scattering of ESCC cells was also accelerated by the supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts. Exposure of ESCC cells to supernatant from irradiated fibroblasts resulted in decreased E-cadherin, increased vimentin in vitro and β-catenin was demonstrated to localize to the nucleus in tumor cells with irradiated fibroblasts in vivo models. The expression of HDGF and β-catenin were increased in both fibroblasts and ESCC cells of irradiated group in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, the tumor cells adjoining the stromal fibroblasts displayed strong nuclear HDGF immunoreactivity, which suggested the occurrence of a paracrine effect of fibroblasts on HDGF expression. These data suggested that irradiated fibroblasts promoted invasion, growth, EMT and HDGF expression of ESCC. - Highlights: • Irradiated CAFs accelerated invasiveness and scattering of ESCC cell lines. • Irradiated CAFs promoted EMT of ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts induced nuclear β-catenin relocalization in ESCC cells. • Irradiated fibroblasts increased HDGF expression in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Hepatitis B virus X protein mutant HBxΔ127 promotes proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fabao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); You, Xiaona [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chi, Xiumei [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang, Tao [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ye, Lihong [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Niu, Junqi, E-mail: junqiniu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hepatology, The First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Relative to wild type HBx, HBX mutant HBxΔ127 strongly enhances cell proliferation. • Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 remarkably up-regulates miR-215 in hepatoma cells. • HBxΔ127-elevated miR-215 promotes cell proliferation via targeting PTPRT mRNA. - Abstract: The mutant of virus is a frequent event. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a vital role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Therefore, the identification of potent mutant of HBx in hepatocarcinogenesis is significant. Previously, we identified a natural mutant of the HBx gene (termed HBxΔ127). Relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhanced cell proliferation and migration in HCC. In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism of HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells. Our data showed that both wild type HBx and HBxΔ127 could increase the expression of miR-215 in hepatoma HepG2 and H7402 cells. However, HBxΔ127 was able to significantly increase miR-215 expression relative to wild type HBx in the cells. We identified that protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T (PTPRT) was one of the target genes of miR-215 through targeting 3′UTR of PTPRT mRNA. In function, miR-215 was able to promote the proliferation of hepatoma cells. Meanwhile anti-miR-215 could partially abolish the enhancement of cell proliferation mediated by HBxΔ127 in vitro. Knockdown of PTPRT by siRNA could distinctly suppress the decrease of cell proliferation mediated by anti-miR-215 in HepG2-XΔ127/H7402-XΔ127 cells. Moreover, we found that anti-miR-215 remarkably inhibited the tumor growth of hepatoma cells in nude mice. Collectively, relative to wild type HBx, HBxΔ127 strongly enhances proliferation of hepatoma cells through up-regulating miR-215 targeting PTPRT. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of HBx mutant HBxΔ127 in promotion of proliferation of hepatoma cells.

  5. Role of reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation in 3-bromopyruvate induced cell death in hepatoma cells : ROS-mediated cell death by 3-BrPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Su; Ahn, Keun Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Hye Mi; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Jae Myun; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Jeon Han

    2008-12-01

    Hexokinase type II (HK II) is the key enzyme for maintaining increased glycolysis in cancer cells where it is overexpressed. 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), an inhibitor of HK II, induces cell death in cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of 3-BrPA-induced cell death, we used the hepatoma cell lines SNU449 (low expression of HKII) and Hep3B (high expression of HKII). 3-BrPA induced ATP depletion-dependent necrosis and apoptosis in both cell lines. 3-BrPA increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to mitochondrial dysregulation. NAC (N-acetyl-L: -cysteine), an antioxidant, blocked 3-BrPA-induced ROS production, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death. 3-BrPA-mediated oxidative stress not only activated poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) but also translocated AIF from the mitochondria to the nucleus. Taken together, 3-BrPA induced ATP depletion-dependent necrosis and apoptosis and mitochondrial dysregulation due to ROS production are involved in 3-BrPA-induced cell death in hepatoma cells.

  6. Chronic ecotoxic effects to Pseudomonas putida and Vibrio fischeri, and cytostatic and genotoxic effects to the hepatoma cell line (HepG2) of ofloxacin photo(cata)lytically treated solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M.I. [University of Cyprus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Street, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nireas International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus (Cyprus); Garcia-Käufer, M. [University Medical Centre Freiburg, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 115 B, Breisacher Straße, 79106 Freiburg (Germany); Hapeshi, E. [University of Cyprus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Street, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nireas International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus (Cyprus); Menz, J. [Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany); Kostarelos, K.; Fatta-Kassinos, D. [University of Cyprus, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Street, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Nireas International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus (Cyprus); Kümmerer, K., E-mail: Klaus.Kuemmerer@uni.leuphana.de [Institute of Sustainable and Environmental Chemistry, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Scharnhorststraße 1/C13, 21335 Lüneburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Ofloxacin (OFL), a broad-spectrum and widespread-used photolabile fluoroquinolone, is frequently found in treated wastewaters, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems leading to increasing concern during the past decades regarding its effects to the environment and human health. The elimination of OFL and other xenobiotics by the application of advanced oxidation processes using photolytic (PL) and photocatalytic (PC) treatments seems promising. However, an integrated assessment scheme is needed, in which, not only the removal of the parent compound, but also the effects of the photo-transformation products (PTPs) are investigated. For this purpose, in the present study, a chronic ecotoxic assessment using representative bacteria of marine and terrestrial ecosystems and a cytostatic and genotoxic evaluation using hepatoma cell line were performed. PL and PC treatments of OFL were applied using UV radiation. The photo-transformation of OFL during the treatments was monitored by DOC measurements and UPLC–MS/MS analysis. The chronic ecotoxicity of OFL and treated samples was evaluated using Pseudomonas putida and Vibrio fischeri; whereas the cytostasis and genotoxicity were estimated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). The main results suggest that photo-transformation of OFL took place during these treatments since the concentration of OFL decreased when the irradiation time increased, as quantified by UPLC–MS/MS analysis, and this was not coupled with an analogous DOC removal. Furthermore, nine compounds were identified as probable PTPs formed through piperazinyl dealkylation and decarboxylation. The ecotoxicity of treated solutions to the bacteria studied decreased while the cytostasis to the hepatoma cell line remained at low levels during both treatments. However, the genotoxicity to the hepatoma cell line demonstrated a different pattern in which treated samples induced a greater number of MNi for the 4–16 min of irradiation (p < 0.05) during

  7. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, Jianguo, E-mail: jwu@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, and Chinese-French Liver Disease Research Institute at Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  8. Prolonged perturbation of the oscillations of hepatoma Fao cell proliferation by a single small dose of methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerroui, S; Deschatrette, J; Wolfrom, C

    2005-06-01

    The proliferation rate of various cell types in vitro, including hepatoma Fao cells, displays aperiodic oscillations. The frequency of these oscillations is about one every 3-5 weeks, and there are variations in cell functions and polarity. Topological analysis has showed that these oscillations in growth rate are determined, and presumably chaotic. One characteristic of complex chaotic systems is that their dynamics can be persistently modified by a small external perturbation. We show that treatment with a single small dose of the anticancer drug methotrexate causes long-term stable alteration of the oscillatory dynamics of Fao cell proliferation. The oscillations of growth rate are shifted, and their mean level decreased according to a fractal pattern.

  9. A comparison of adrenergic receptors of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells with those of normal rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1988-04-01

    The pharmacological specificity of adrenergic receptors in the plasma membrane of rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells was compared with that in normal rat hepatocytes. The number of [125I]iodocyanopindolol-binding sites was much greater in AH130 cells than in the hepatocytes. We characterized the alpha-adrenergic receptor subtypes using the alpha 1-selective ligand [3H]prazosin and the alpha 2-selective ligand [3H]clonidine. AH130 cells had fewer prazosin-binding sites than the hepatocytes and about 8 times as many clonidine-binding sites of high affinity. The results showed that the adrenergic receptors in AH130 cells have pharmacological properties that are very different from those of the receptors in normal rat hepatocytes.

  10. Effect of IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 blockade of Notch signaling pathway on the invasive capability of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Ch; Zhang, Y X; Liu, Y; Wang, Q Sh

    2016-07-14

    We investigated the effect of the IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 in the blockade of the Notch signaling pathway on the invasive capability of hepatoma cells. We examined the effects of IL-17 antibody or IL-35 treatment alone or in combination on cell invasion and migration capabilities with Transwell chambers. The mRNA levels of Hes1, Hes5, and Hey1 were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of N1ICD, Snail, and E-cadherin protein expressions were measured with western blot. The expression of Hes1, Hes5, Hey1 and N1ICD were all very high in hepatoma cell lines, and were positively correlated with the invasive migration capabilities of the cells. The combination of IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab with IL-35 could effectively inhibit the Notch signaling pathway, as well as the invasive migration of the cells. Snail and E-cadherin are involved in the migration of hepatoma cells, and it has been established that Snail can regulate the expression of E-cadherin. IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 can increase E-cadherin and decrease Snail expression, which are positively correlated with cell invasive migration capabilities. Overall, treatment with both IL-17 antibody and IL-35 is more effective than each treatment alone. Notch signaling is activated in hepatoma cell lines and increases with the enhancement of cell invasive migration capabilities. IL-17 monoclonal antibody Secukinumab combined with IL-35 can block the Notch signaling pathway, simultaneously reducing the invasive migration capability of hepatoma cells.

  11. Down-modulation of heat shock protein 70 and up-modulation of Caspase-3 during schisandrin B-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Feng Wu; Ming-Fu Cao; Yan-Ping Gao; Fei Chen; Tao Wang; Edward P. Zumbika; Kai-Xian Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of schisandrin B (Sch B) on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and regulation of Hsp70 and Caspases-3, 7, 9 expression by Sch B.METHODS: Human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 was cultured and treated with Sch B at various concentrations.Growth suppression was detected with MTT colorimetric assay. Cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA ladder detection and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of Hsp70,Caspases-3, 7, 9 were analyzed by Western blot analysis.RESULTS: Sch B inhibited the growth of hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a 50% decrease in cell number (LC50) value of 23.50 mg/L. Treatment with Sch B resulted in degradation of chromosomal DNA into small internucleosomal fragments, evidenced by the formation of a 180-200 bp DNA ladder on agarose gels.FCM analysis showed the peak areas of subdiploid at the increased concentration of Sch B. The results of Western bolt analysis showed that Hsp70 was down-regulated and Caspase-3 was up-regulated, while the activity of Caspases-7,-9 had no significant change.CONCLUSION: Sch B is able to inhibit the proliferation of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells and induce apoptosis,which goes through Caspase-3-dependent and Caspase-9-independent pathway accompanied with the down-regulation of Hsp70 protein expression at an early event.

  12. Targeted delivery of macromolecular drugs: asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expression by selected hepatoma cell lines used in antiviral drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Huang, Guifang; Diakur, James; Wiebe, Leonard I

    2008-10-01

    The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), an endocytotic cell surface receptor expressed by hepatocytes, is triggered by triantennary binding to galactose residues of macromolecules such as asialoorosomucoid (ASOR). The capacity of this receptor to import large molecules across the cellular plasma membrane makes it an enticing target for receptor-mediated drug delivery to hepatocytes and hepatoma cells via ASGPR-mediated endocytosis. This study describes the preparation and characterization of (125)I-ASOR, and its utility in the assessment of ASGPR expression by HepG2, HepAD38 and Huh5-2 human hepatoma cell lines. ASOR was prepared from human orosomucoid, using acid hydrolysis to remove sialic acid residues, then radioiodinated using iodogen. (125)I-ASOR was purified by gel column chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The ASOR yield by acid hydrolysis was 75%, with approximately 87 % of the sialic acid residues removed. Electrophoresis and gel chromatography demonstrated substantial differences in (125)I-ASOR quality depending on the method of radioiodination. ASGPR densities per cell were estimated at 76,000 (HepG2), 17,000 (HepAD38) and 3,000 (Huh-5-2). (125)I-ASOR binding to ASGPR on HepG2 cells was confirmed through galactose- and EDTA- challenge studies. It is concluded that (125)I-ASOR is a facilely-prepared, stable assay reagent for ASGPR expression if appropriately prepared, and that HepG2 cells, but not HepAD38 or Huh-5-2 cells, are suitable for studies exploiting the endocytotic ASGPR.

  13. Cucurbitacin E inhibits the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo through induction of G2/M phase arrest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-chun; MA En-long; DENG Yi-hui; JING Yong-kui

    2008-01-01

    Objective Cucurbitacins are the highly oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes, which are predominantly found in the Cucurbitaceae family but are also present in several other families of the plant kingdom. A number of compounds of this group have been investigated for their cytotoxie, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular and anti-diabetic activities. In China, the cucurbitacin preparation, which contains mostly cucurbitacin B and cucurbitacin E, has been clinically used for the treatment of the primary liver carcinoma. It has been previously reported that eueurbitacin E could produce cytotoxicity against a variety of cancer cells, and various mechanisms were implicated in its cytotoxic effect. The present study is to investigate the effect of cucurbitacin E on hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo and to study their potential mechanisms of action. Methods The MTT assay was used to assess the viability of human HepG2 and BEL7402 hepatoma cells in vitro after treatment with different concentrations of cucurbitacin E. The cell cycle distribution was determined by flowcytometrie analysis after propidium iodide (PI) staining. The cell cycle-related proteins were detected using western blotting analysis. Implanted mouse hepatoma H22 model was built to evaluate the growth inhibitory effect of cucurbitacin E in vivo in mice. Results Our studies found that cucurbitacin E (10-300 nM) produced anti-proliferative effect on human HepG2 and BEL7402 hepatoma cells in vitro without cytotoxicity. According to floweytometric analysis, cucurbitacin E arrested the cell cycle at G2/M phase in both HepG2 and BEL7402 hepatoma cells after 24 h treatment. Cucurbitacin E induced the decrease in the level of CDK1 protein and the increase in the level of p21 protein, but had no effect on the levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1 and Cdc25C protein. In in vivo anti-tumor experiment, eucurbitacin E had significant inhibitory effects on the growth of mouse H22 hepatoma cells. Conclusions

  14. Quercetin modulates NF-kappa B and AP-1/JNK pathways to induce cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been shown to possess anticarcinogenic properties, but the precise molecular mechanisms of action are not thoroughly elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of quercetin (50 microM) on two main transcription factors (NF-kappa B and AP-1) related to survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) over time. Quercetin induced a significant time-dependent inactivation of the NF-kappa B pathway consistent with a downregulation of the NF-kappa B binding activity (from 15 min onward). These features were in concert with a time-dependent activation (starting at 15 min and maintained up to 18 h) of the AP-1/JNK pathway, which played an important role in the control of the cell death induced by the flavonoid and contributed to the regulation of survival/proliferation (AKT, ERK) and death (caspase-3, p38, unbalance of Bcl-2 proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins) signals. These data suggest that NF-kappa B and AP-1 play a main role in the tight regulation of survival/proliferation pathways exerted by quercetin and that the sustained JNK/AP-1 activation and inhibition of NF-kappa B provoked by the flavonoid induced HepG2 death.

  15. Kinetic imaging of NPC1L1 and sterol trafficking between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes in hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig Petersen, Nicole; Færgeman, Nils J; Yu, Liqing;

    2008-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) is a recently identified protein that mediates intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulates biliary cholesterol excretion. The itineraries and kinetics of NPC1L1 trafficking remain uncertain. In this study, we have visualized movement of NPC1L1-enhanced green...... fluorescent protein (NPC1L1-EGFP) and cholesterol analogues in hepatoma cells. At steady state about 42% of NPC1L1 resided in the transferrin (Tf) positive, sterol enriched endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), while time-lapse microscopy demonstrated NPC1L1 traffic between plasma membrane and ERC...... exclusively in the canalicular membrane, where the protein is highly mobile. Our study demonstrates dynamic trafficking of NPC1L1 between cell surface and intracellular compartments and suggests that this transport is involved in NPC1L1 mediated cellular sterol uptake....

  16. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide exerts proliferation/anti-apoptosis/angiogenesis/migration effects via amplifying the activation of NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yulan; Pan, Wanying; Hu, Fen; Wu, Hongfu; Feng, Jianqiang; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jingfu

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) takes part in a diverse range of intracellular pathways and hss physical and pathological properties in vitro and in vivo. However, the effects of H2S on cancer are controversial and remain unclear. The present study investigates the effects of H2S on liver cancer progression via activating NF-κB pathway in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells. PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells were pretreated with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h. The expression levels of CSE, CBS, phosphosphorylate (p)-NF-κB p65, caspase-3, COX-2, p-IκB and MMP-2 were measured by western blot assay. Cell viability was detected by cell counter kit 8 (CCK-8). Apoptotic cells were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining assay. The production level of H2S in cell culture medium was measured by using the sulfur-sensitive electrode method. The production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that the production of H2S was dramatically increased in the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, compared with human LO2 hepatocyte cells group, along with the overexpression levels of CSE and CBS. Treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS (a donor of H2S) for 24 h markedly increased the expression levels of CSE, CBS, p-IκB and NF-κB activation, leading to COX-2 and MMP-2 overexpression, and decreased caspase-3 production, as well as increased cell viability and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Otherwise, the production level of H2S and VEGF were also significantly increased. Furthermore, co-treatment of PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells with 500 µmol/l NaHS and 200 µmol/l PDTC for 24 h significantly overturned these indexes. The findings of the present study provide evidence that the NF-κB is involved in the NaHS-induced cell proliferation, anti-apoptisis, angiogenesis, and migration in PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells, and that the PDTC against the NaHS-induced effects were by inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

  17. Enhanced migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase overexpressing hepatoma cells is attributed to gelatinases:Relevance to intracellular signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elke Roeb; Anja-Katrin Bosserhoff; Sabine Hamacher; Bettina Jansen; Judith Dahmen; Sandra Wagner; Siegfried Matern

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of gelatinases (especially MMP-9)on migration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) overexpressing hepatoma cells.METHODS: Wild type HepG2 cells, cells stably transfected with TIMP-1 and TIMP-1 antagonist (MMP-9-H401A, a catalytically inactive matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which still binds and neutralizes TIMP-1) were incubated in Boyden chambers either with or without Galardin (a synthetic inhibitor of MMP-1, -2, -3, -8, -9) or a specific inhibitor of gelatinases.RESULTS: Compared to wild type HepG2 cells, the cells overexpressing TIMP-1 showed 115% migration (P<0.05)and the cells overexpressing MMP-9-H401A showed 62% migration (P<0.01). Galardin reduced cell migration dose dependently in all cases. The gelatinase inhibitor reduced migration in TIMP-1 overexpressing cells predominantly.Furthermore, we examined intracellular signal transduction pathways of TIMP-1-dependent HepG2 cells. TIMP-1deactivates cell signaling pathways of MMP-2 and MMP-9involving p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway suppresses gelatinase expression either in the presence or absence of TIMP-1.CONCLUSION: Overexpressing functional TIMP-1-enhanced migration of HepG2-TIMP-1 cells depends on enhanced MMP-activity, especially MMP-9.

  18. Effect of P15INK4b/MTS2 on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells SMMC-7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The full length cDNA coding for P15 INK4b, which is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, was cloned to plasmid PXJ41-neo (Eco RⅠ/XhoⅠ site) and the new constructed plasmid pXJp15 was obtained. pXJp15 was transferred into the human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells by lipofectine reagent. After G418 selection, a series of cell lines stably expressing high levels of P15 (named SHT) and the clone containing vector PXJ41-neo only (named SVXJ) were obtained by Northern and Western analysis. The results showed that the proliferation of SHT cells is inhibited compared with that of SVXJ cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that overexpressing of P15 inhibited the growth of SHT cells by decreasing progrssion of cells from G1 to S and G2 to M phases. The levels of c-Myc and c-Fos were obviously decreased in SHT cells compared with control cells by Western blotting. The decreased expression of oncogene may be one of the molecular mechanisms of the effect of P15 on the proliferation of in SHT cells.

  19. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fat-Moon Suk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor-(ATF- 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002 is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α, phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK, and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug.

  20. Size-mediated cytotoxicity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, pure and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; Ramasamy, S., E-mail: sinna_ramasamy@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University (India); Avadhani, G. S. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Palanikumar, L.; Kumar, J. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University (India)

    2012-03-15

    Nanoparticles are highly used in biological applications including nanomedicine. In this present study, the interaction of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) with hydroxyapatite (HAp), zinc-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were investigated. Hydroxyapatite, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet precipitation method. They were subjected to isochronal annealing at different temperatures. Particle morphology and size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were co-cultured with HepG2 cells. MTT assay was employed to evaluate the proliferation of tumor cells. The DNA damaging effect of HAp, Zn-doped HAp, and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were evaluated using DNA fragmentation studies. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, the anti-tumor activity strongly depend on the size of nanoparticles in HCC cells. Cell cycle arrest analysis for HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles revealed the influence of HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The results imply that the novel nano nature effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of nanoparticles.

  1. Enhancement of carboplatin- and quercetin-induced cell death by roscovitine is Akt dependent and p53 independent in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aanchal; Bhat, Manoj Kumar

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy worldwide and has an annual occurrence of one million new cases. Novel therapeutic strategies of increased efficacy in the treatment of HCC-bearing patients would certainly be helpful. Hence, the authors explored the effect of combination treatment of roscovitine with chemotherapeutic drugs or quercetin (Qctn) in hepatoma cells, HepG2 and Hep3B. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, cell growth assay, and nuclear morphological changes by DAPI staining. The altered expression of signaling proteins and apoptotic molecules was established by Western blotting. Roscovitine pretreatment considerably enhanced the drugs and Qctn-induced cell death in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. The exploratory studies revealed that augmented cell killing in HepG2 and Hep3B was mediated via Akt pathway and was independent of p53. pAkt was found to be significantly downregulated in combination treatment of roscovitine with carboplatin or Qctn. Corresponding to reduced expression of pAkt, the downstream molecules Bcl-2 and proactive forms of caspase 9 and caspase 3 were also downregulated indicating apoptosis. The present study reports for the first time, in hepatoma cells, the potentiation of carboplatin- and Qctn-induced cell death by the cell cycle inhibitor roscovitine. Roscovitine can thus be considered as a potential therapeutic target in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs or Qctn for treatment of HCC.

  2. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway contributes to the proliferation of hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Yan; Ye, Shuang; Yuan, Dexiao; Zhang, Jianghong; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway strongly stimulates cellular apoptosis. • Inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway suppresses cell growth by blocking EGFR pathway. • H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway is critical for maintaining the proliferation of hepatoma cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S)/cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) pathway has been demonstrated to play vital roles in physiology and pathophysiology. However, its role in tumor cell proliferation remains largely unclear. Here we found that CSE over-expressed in hepatoma HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Inhibition of endogenous H{sub 2}S/CSE pathway drastically decreased the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells, and it also enhanced ROS production and mitochondrial disruption, pronounced DNA damage and increased apoptosis. Moreover, this increase of apoptosis was associated with the activation of p53 and p21 accompanied by a decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and up-regulation of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 activity. In addition, the negative regulation of cell proliferation by inhibition of H{sub 2}S/CSE system correlated with the blockage of cell mitogenic and survival signal transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) via down-regulating the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. These results demonstrate that H{sub 2}S/CSE and its downstream pathway contribute to the proliferation of hepatoma cells, and inhibition of this pathway strongly suppress the excessive growth of hepatoma cells by stimulating mitochondrial apoptosis and suppressing cell growth signal transduction.

  3. The promoting molecular mechanism of alpha-fetoprotein on the growth of human hepatoma Bel7402 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Sen Li; Ping-Feng Li; Shi-Peng He; Guo-Guang Du; Gang Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The goal of this study was to characterize the AlPreceptor, its possible signal transduction pathway and itsproliferative functions in human hepatoma cell line Bel 7402.METHODS: Cell proliferation enhanced by AFlP was detectedby MTT assay, 3H-thymidine incorporation and S-stsgepercentage of cell cycle analysis. With radioactive labeled 125 I-AFP for receptor binding assay; cAMP acctmuation, ProteinKinase A activity were detected by radioactive immunosorbentassay and the change of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+ ], )was monitored by scanning fluorescence intensity under TCS-NT confocal microscope. The expression of oncxgenes N- ras,p53, and p21ras in the cultured cells in vitro were detected byNorthem blotting and Western blotting respectively.RESULTS: It was demonstrated that AFP enhanced theproliferation of human hepatoma Bel 7402 cell in a dosedependlent fashion asshown in MTT assay, 3H-thymidineincorporation and S-phase percentage up to 2-fold. Twosubtypes of AFP receptors were identified in the cells withKds of 1.3 x 10-9 mol. L-1 and 9.9 x 10-8 mol. L-1 respectively.Pretreatnent of cells with AFP resulted-in a significantincrease (625 %) in cAMP accumulation. The activity ofprotein kinase A activity were increased up to 37.5, 122.6,73.7 and 61.2 % at treatment time point 2, 6, 12 and 24hours. The level of intracellular calcium were elevated afterthe treatment of alpha-fetoprotsin and achieved to 204 % at 4min. The results also showed that AFP (20 mg. L-1 ) couldupregulate the expression of N-ras oncogenes and p53 andp21ras in Bel 7402 cells. In the later case, the alteration ware 81.1%(12 h) and 97.3 %(12 h) respectively compared with control.CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that AFP is apotential growth factor to promote the proliferation of humanhepatoma Bel 7402 cells. Its growth-regulatory effects aremediated by its specific plasma membrane receptorscoupled with its transmembrane signaling transductionthrough the pathway of cAMP-PKA and

  4. Screening and identification of a novel target specific for hepatoma cell line HepG2 from the FliTrx bacterial peptide library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhan Li; Ping Lei; Bing Yu; Sha Wu; Jilin Peng; Xiaoping Zhao; Huffen Zhu; Michael Kirschfink; Guanxin Shen

    2008-01-01

    To explore new targets for hepatoma research, we used a surface display library to screen novel tumor cell-specific peptides. The bacterial FliTrx system was screened with living normal liver cell line L02 and hepatoma cell line HepG2 successively to search for hepatoma-specific peptides. Three clones (Hep1, Hep2, and Hep3) were identified to be specific to HepG2 compared with L02 and other cancer cell lines.Three-dimensional structural prediction proved that peptides inserted into the active site of Escherichia coli thioredoxin (TrxA) formed certain loop structures protruding out of the surface. Western blot analysis showed that FliC/TrxA-pepfide fusion proteins could be directly used to detect HepG2 cells.Three different FliC/TrxA-peptide fusion proteins targeted the same molecule, at approximately 140 kDa, on HepG2 cells.This work presented for the first time the application of the FliTrx library in screening living cells. Three peptides were obtained that could be potential candidates for targeted liver cancer therapy.

  5. Selenium methylselenocysteine protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuello, Susana; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Martín, M Angeles; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Selenium methylselenocysteine (Se-MeSeCys) is a common selenocompound in the diet with a tested chemopreventive effect. This study investigated the potential protective effect of Se-MeSeCys against a chemical oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Speciation of selenium derivatives by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry depicts Se-MeSeCys as the only selenocompound in the cell culture. Cell viability (lactate dehydrogenase) and markers of oxidative status--concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR)--were evaluated. Pretreatment of cells with Se-MeSeCys for 20 h completely prevented the enhanced cell damage, MDA concentration and GR and GPx activity and the decreased GSH induced by t-BOOH but did not prevent increased ROS generation. The results show that treatment of HepG2 cells with concentrations of Se-MeSeCys in the nanomolar to micromolar range confers a significant protection against an oxidative insult.

  6. Nano-cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide induces apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the apoptotic effect of photoexcited titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in the presence of visible light on human hepatoma cell line (Bel 7402) and to study the underlying mechanism.METHODS: Cerium-element-doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by impregnation method.Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator with 50 mL/L CO2 at 37℃. A 15 W fluorescent lamp with continuous wavelength light was used as light source in the photocatalytic test. Fluorescence morphology and agarose gel eletrophoresis pattern were performed to analyze apoptotic cells.RESULTS: The Ce (Ⅳ)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles displayed their superiority, The adsorption edge shifted to the 400-450 nm region. With visible light illuminated for 10 min, 10 μg/cm3 Ce (Ⅳ)-doped TiO2 induced micronuclei and significant apoptosis in 4 and 24 h,respectively. Hochest 33258 staining of the fixed cells revealed typical apoptotic structures (apoptotic bodies),agarose gel electrophoresis showed typical DNA ladder pattern in treated cells but not in untreated ones.CONCLUSION: Ce (Ⅳ) doped TiO2 nanoparticles can induce apoptosis of Bel 7402 human hepatoma cells in the presence of visible light.

  7. Orphan receptor TR3 enhances p53 transactivation and represses DNA double-strand break repair in hepatoma cells under ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bi-xing; Chen, Hang-zi; Du, Xiao-dan; Luo, Jie; He, Jian-ping; Wang, Rong-hao; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Rong; Hou, Ru-rong; Hong, Ming; Wu, Qiao

    2011-08-01

    In response to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), cells elicit an evolutionarily conserved checkpoint response that induces cell cycle arrest and either DNA repair or apoptosis, thereby maintaining genomic stability. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a central enzyme involved in DSB repair for mammalian cells that comprises a DNA-PK catalytic subunit and the Ku protein, which act as regulatory elements. DNA-PK also functions as a signaling molecule to selectively regulate p53-dependent apoptosis in response to IR. Herein, we demonstrate that the orphan nuclear receptor TR3 suppresses DSB repair by blocking Ku80 DNA-end binding activity and promoting DNA-PK-induced p53 activity in hepatoma cells. We find that TR3 interacts with Ku80 and inhibits its binding to DNA ends, which then suppresses DSB repair. Furthermore, TR3 is a phosphorylation substrate for DNA-PK and interacts with DNA-PK catalytic subunit in a Ku80-independent manner. Phosphorylated TR3, in turn, enhances DNA-PK-induced phosphorylation and p53 transcription activity, thereby enhancing IR-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells. Together, our findings reveal novel functions for TR3, not only in DSB repair regulation but also in IR-induced hepatoma cell apoptosis, and they suggest that TR3 is a potential target for cancer radiotherapy.

  8. Human hepatoma cell lines on gas foaming templated alginate scaffolds for in vitro drug-drug interaction and metabolism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampella, A; Rizzitelli, G; Donati, F; Mazzarino, M; de la Torre, X; Botrè, F; Giardi, M F; Dentini, M; Barbetta, A; Massimi, M

    2015-12-25

    Liver in vitro systems that allow reliable prediction of major human in vivo metabolic pathways have a significant impact in drug screening and drug metabolism research. In the present study, a novel porous scaffold composed of alginate was prepared by employing a gas-in-liquid foaming approach. Galactose residues were introduced on scaffold surfaces to promote cell adhesion and to enhance liver specific functions of the entrapped HepG2/C3A cells. Hepatoma cells in the gal-alginate scaffold showed higher levels of liver specific products (albumin and urea) and were more responsive to specific inducers (e.g. dexamethasone) and inhibitors (e.g. ketoconazole) of the CYP3A4 system than in conventional monolayer culture. HepG2/C3A cells were also more efficient in terms of rapid elimination of testosterone, used as a model substance, at rates comparable to those of in vivo excretion. In addition, an improvement in metabolism of testosterone, in terms of phase II metabolite formation, was also observed when the more differentiated HepaRG cells were used. Together the data suggest that hepatocyte/gas templated alginate-systems provide an innovative high throughput platform for in vitro drug metabolism and drug-drug interaction studies, with broad fields of application, and might provide a valid tool for minimizing animal use in preclinical testing of human relevance.

  9. Matrine-induced autophagy regulated by p53 through AMP-activated protein kinase in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan-Bu; He, Xing-Xing; Yao, Shu-Kun

    2015-08-01

    Matrine, one of the main extract components of Sophora flavescens, has been shown to exhibit inhibitory effects on some tumors through autophagy. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of matrine remains unclear. The cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and SMMC‑7721 were treated with matrine. Signal transduction and gene expression profile were determined. Matrine stimulated autophagy in SMMC‑7721 cells in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner, but in an mTOR-independent manner in HepG2 cells. Next, in HepG2 cells, autophagy induced by matrine was regulated by p53 inactivation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling transduction, then AMPK suppression switched autophagy to apoptosis. Furthermore, the interferon (IFN)-inducible genes, including interferon α-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) and interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), which are downstream effector of p53, might be modulated by matrine-induced autophagy. In addition, we found that the p53 protein isoforms, p53β, p53γ, ∆133p53, and ∆133p53γ, due to alternative splicing of intron 9, might be regulated by the p53-mediated autophagy. These results show that matrine induces autophagy in human hepatoma cells through a novel mechanism, which is p53/AMPK signaling pathway involvement in matrine-promoted autophagy.

  10. Decorin protects human hepatoma HepG2 cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation via modulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wenbo; Li, Shubo; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    This study is to investigate the effects of decorin (DCN) on human hepatoma HepG2 cells under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) condition. HepG2 cells were cultured under OGD condition. CCK-8 assay was used to assess the cell survival, and flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis. Protein expression levels were detected with Western blot analysis. Transfection was performed with liposome, and cells were screened with G418. The cell survival rates were significantly decreased in the OGD groups. When treated with autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, the survival rates were further declined in these cells. Moreover, flow cytometry indicated that apoptosis occurred in the HepG2 cells under OGD condition, and the apoptosis rates were significantly increased by the 3-MA treatment. Western blot analysis showed that, the expression levels of DCN were significantly elevated in OGD-preconditioned HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, the expression level of Beclin1 and the LC3BI/LC3BII ratio were significantly increased, while the expression level of P62 was significantly decreased, in HepG2 cells under OGD condition. Over-expression of DCN significantly increased the expression level of Beclin1 and the LC3BI/LC3BII ratio, while no significant changes were observed in the P62 expression level, in HepG2 cells. Under the OGD condition, the apoptosis rate was also significantly decreased in DCN-transfected HepG2 cells. DCN protects HepG2 cells against OGD-induced injury, via regulating autophagy. These results might contribute to a better understanding of the roles of DCN and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and the potential treatment for the disease.

  11. The interaction of HAb18G/CD147 with integrin α6β1 and its implications for the invasion potential of human hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Juan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HAb18G/CD147 plays pivotal roles in invasion by hepatoma cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that overexpression of HAb18G/CD147 promotes invasion by interacting with integrin α3β1. However, it has never been investigated whether α3β1 is solely responsible for this process or if other integrin family members also interact with HAb18G/CD147 in human hepatoma cells. Methods Human SMMC-7721 and FHCC98 cells were cultured and transfected with siRNA fragments against HAb18G/CD147. The expression levels of HAb18G/CD147 and integrin α6β1 were determined by immunofluorescent double-staining and confocal imaging analysis. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses were performed to examine the native conformations of HAb18G/CD147 and integrin α6β1. Invasion potential was evaluated with an invasion assay and gelatin zymography. Results We found that integrin α6β1 co-localizes and interacts with HAb18G/CD147 in human hepatoma cells. The enhancing effects of HAb18G/CD147 on invasion capacity and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs were partially blocked by integrin α6β1 antibodies (P 2+ mobilization, significantly reduced cell invasion potential and secretion of MMPs in human hepatoma cells (P Conclusion These results suggest that α6β1 interacts with HAb18G/CD147 to mediate tumor invasion and metastatic processes through the PI3K pathway.

  12. Bioactive chemical constituents of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes extract inhibit the growth of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Lateef, Ezzat; Mahmoud, Faten; Hammam, Olfat; El-Ahwany, Eman; El-Wakil, Eman; Kandil, Sherihan; Abu Taleb, Hoda; El-Sayed, Mortada; Hassenein, Hanaa

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to identify the chemical constituents of the methanolic extract of Curcuma longa L. rhizomes and their inhibitory effect on a hepatoma cell line. The methanolic extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis to identify the volatile constituents and the other part of the same extract was subjected to liquid column chromatographic separation to isolate curcumin. The inhibition of cell growth in the hepatoma cell line and the cytopathological changes were studied. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of fifty compounds in the methanolic extract of C. longa. The major compounds were ar-turmerone (20.50 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.20 %) and curcumenol (5.11 %). Curcumin was identified using IR, 1H and 13C NMR. The inhibition of cell growth by curcumin (IC50 = 41.69 ± 2.87 μg mL-1) was much more effective than that of methanolic extract (IC50 = 196.12 ± 5.25 μg mL-1). Degenerative and apoptotic changes were more evident in curcumin- treated hepatoma cells than in those treated with the methanol extract. Antitumor potential of the methanolic extract may be attributed to the presence of sesquiterpenes and phenolic constituents including curcumin (0.051 %, 511.39 μg g-1 dried methanol extract) in C. longa rhizomes.

  13. Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Wei; Xiaojun, Xu; Ximing, Pu; Zhenqing, Hou; Qiqing, Zhang

    2011-07-01

    The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

  14. Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Chian; Wu, Wen-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2010-12-01

    A preparative column chromatographic method for isolation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, a traditional Chinese herb, was developed to evaluate their antiproliferative effects on the hepatoma cell Hep3B. An open column containing 70 g of magnesium oxide-diatomaceous earth (1:2.5, wt/wt) was used to elute carotenoid with 2% ethanol in ethyl acetate and chlorophyll with 50% ethanol in acetone. After high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the carotenoid fraction was composed of all-trans- and cis-isomers of lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene as well as epoxy-containing carotenoids, while the chlorophyll fraction consisted of chlorophylls a and b and their derivatives. Both carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions as well as lutein and chlorophyll a standards at 50-100 μg/mL were effective against Hep3B cells with a dose-dependent response with the following order: carotenoid fraction > chlorophyll fraction > lutein > chlorophyll a. For all treatments, the cell cycle was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase, with Hep3B cells undergoing necrosis or apoptosis.

  15. Human papillomavirus type 18 E6 and E7 genes integrate into human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianzhong; Su, Zhongjing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Shuyan; Zhu, Ningxia; Wen, Lifeng; Yuan, Yan; Lv, Leili; Chen, Xiancai; Huang, Jianmin; Chen, Haibin

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses have been linked causally to some human cancers such as cervical carcinoma, but there is very little research addressing the effect of HPV infection on human liver cells. We chose the human hepatoma derived cell line Hep G2 to investigate whether HPV gene integration took place in liver cells as well. We applied PCR to detect the possible integration of HPV genes in Hep G2 cells. We also investigated the expression of the integrated E6 and E7 genes by using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Then, we silenced E6 and E7 expression and checked the cell proliferation and apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. Furthermore, we analyzed the potential genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory pathways. Finally, we used in situ hybridization to detect HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. Hep G2 cell line contains integrated HPV 18 DNA, leading to the expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenic proteins. Knockdown of the E7 and E6 genes expression reduced cell proliferation, caused the cell cycle arrest at the S phase, and increased apoptosis. The human cell cycle and apoptosis real-time PCR arrays analysis demonstrated E6 and E7-mediated regulation of some genes such as Cyclin H, UBA1, E2F4, p53, p107, FASLG, NOL3 and CASP14. HPV16/18 was found in only 9% (9/100) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Our investigations showed that HPV 18 E6 and E7 genes can be integrated into the Hep G2, and we observed a low prevalence of HPV 16/18 in hepatocellular carcinoma samples. However, the precise risk of HPV as causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma needs further study.

  16. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of the proteomes expressed in the human hepatoma cell line BEL-7404 and normal liver cell line L-02

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Proteome analysis technology has been used extensively in conducting discovery research of biology and has become one of the most essential technologies in functional genomics. The proteomes of the human hepatoma cell line BEL-7404 and the normal human liver cell line L-02 have been separated by high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) with immobilized pH gradient isoelectric focusing (IPG-IEF) in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second dimension (IPG-DALT). The resulting images have been analyzed using 2-D analysis software. Quantitative analysis reveals that 7 protein spots are detected only in hepatoma BEL-7404 cells, 14 only in L-02 cells, and 78 protein spots show significant fluctuation in quantity in both cell lines (P<0.01).These protein spots have been displayed on a proteome differential expression map. Analysis for the reproducibility of 2-DE indicates that the positional variability in the IEF dimension is 0.73 mm, while the variability in the SDS-PAGE dimension is 0.44 mm, and the quantitative variability is 17.6%-19.2%. These results suggest that the reproducibility of 2-DE has been suitable for the study of differential expression of proteomes. Proteome differential expression maps can be useful tools for disease diagnosis, drug-target validation analysis and biological process elucidation.

  17. Propagation of Hepatitis B Virus in a Rat Hepatoma Cell Line Stably Transfected with Human Annexin-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Jazayeri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV displays a distinct hepatotropism and a narrow host range in vivo. However, very little is known about the interaction of HBV with its host cells, mainly because of difficulties in the development of suitable tissue culture system. We present here confirmatory evidence of a putative role of annexin-V in HBV infection. Methods: HBV from both human sera and from culture supernatants from HepG2 2.15 cells were used to infect FTO9.1 cells (a rat hepatoma cell line transfected with a construct containing human annexin-V. Cells and culture supernatants were assayed at various times post-infection by immunofluorescent microscopy (HBcAg staining in nucleus, and by HBV cccDNA-specific PCR. Supernatants from these initially infected cells were then used to infect fresh FTO9.1 cells with a similar outcome to primary infection. Results: Core and surface gene PCRs were positive on days 2, 5 and following transfer experiments. cccDNA-specific PCR confirmed internalisation of the virus into the nucleus. HBcAg fluorescence showed nuclear staining on days 2, 5 and following transfer experiments. Addition of recombinant annexin-V and DMSO to the cell culture medium resulted in a greater efficiency of infection. Later washes were negative for HBV-DNA, ruling out contamination of the cells by external HBV particles. Conclusions: This cell line does appear to be useful in the study of the early stages of HBV infection, but requires further evaluation.

  18. Adjuvant PIKA protects hepatoma cells from dengue virus infection by promoting a TBK-1-dependent innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wu, Siyu; Li, Lietao; Liang, Zhaoduan; Li, Yuye; Feng, Lianqiang; Huang, Xi

    2013-04-01

    Our study presents a first investigation of the effect of the adjuvant PIKA on dengue virus (DENV) replication. PIKA pretreatment decreased the levels of DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) mRNA, protein and viral particles in the hepatoma cell line HepG2. Treatment with PIKA simultaneously with DENV2 infection, but not after infection, resulted in a protective effect. Significant induction of type I and type III interferons (IFNs), as well as interferon-stimulated genes was detected in PIKA-pretreated cells. Neutralization of IFN-β partially restored the replication levels of DENV2 in PIKA-pretreated cells, suggesting that IFN-β is one of the mediators involved in the antiviral action of PIKA. Additionally, blockade of TBK-1 signaling largely restored the IFN induction and viral suppression effects mediated by PIKA, further illustrating that PIKA plays its anti-DENV role by promoting innate immunity. These findings suggest that PIKA is an attractive agent to be used in the prevention of DENV diseases.

  19. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced oxidative stress, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie; Benedict, Sheela

    2011-10-01

    It is widely accepted that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, reduce the risk of cancer. The anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of NSAIDs are associated with the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and cyclooxygenase-2 activity. Several other mechanisms which contribute to the anti-cancer effect of these drugs in different cancer models both in vivo and in vitro are also presumed to be involved. The precise molecular mechanism, however, is still not clear. We investigated, therefore, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) on multiple cellular and functional targets, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, using human hepatoma HepG2 cancer cells in culture. Our results demonstrate that ASA induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. ASA increased the production of reactive oxygen species, reduced the cellular glutathione (GSH) pool and inhibited the activities of the mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) and the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, aconitase. Apoptosis was triggered by alteration in mitochondrial permeability transition, inhibition of ATP synthesis, decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, release of cytochrome c and activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 and the DNA repairing enzyme, poly (-ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These findings strongly suggest that ASA-induced toxicity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells is mediated by increased metabolic and oxidative stress, accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which result in apoptosis.

  20. The dietary flavonoid kaempferol effectively inhibits HIF-1 activity and hepatoma cancer cell viability under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylonis, Ilias; Lakka, Achillia; Tsakalof, Andreas [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece); Simos, George, E-mail: simos@med.uth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Thessaly, BIOPOLIS, 41110 Larissa (Greece); Institute of Biomedical Research and Technology (BIOMED), 51 Papanastasiou str., 41222 Larissa (Greece)

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Kaempferol inhibits HIF-1 activity in hepatocarcinoma cells; {yields} Kaempferol causes cytoplasmic mislocalization of HIF-1{alpha} by impairing the MAPK pathway. {yields} Viability of hepatocarcinoma cells under hypoxia is reduced by kaempferol. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by high mortality rates and resistance to conventional treatment. HCC tumors usually develop local hypoxia, which stimulates proliferation of cancer cells and renders them resilient to chemotherapy. Adaptation of tumor cells to the hypoxic conditions depends on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Over-expression of its regulated HIF-1{alpha} subunit, an important target of anti-cancer therapy, is observed in many cancers including HCC and is associated with severity of tumor growth and poor patient prognosis. In this report we investigate the effect of the dietary flavonoid kaempferol on activity, expression levels and localization of HIF-1{alpha} as well as viability of human hepatoma (Huh7) cancer cells. Treatment of Huh7 cells with kaempferol under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen) effectively inhibited HIF-1 activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC{sub 50} = 5.16 {mu}M). The mechanism of this inhibition did not involve suppression of HIF-1{alpha} protein levels but rather its mislocalization into the cytoplasm due to inactivation of p44/42 MAPK by kaempferol (IC{sub 50} = 4.75 {mu}M). Exposure of Huh7 cells to 10 {mu}{Mu} kaempferol caused significant reduction of their viability, which was remarkably more evident under hypoxic conditions. In conclusion, kaempferol, a non-toxic natural food component, inhibits both MAPK and HIF-1 activity at physiologically relevant concentrations (5-10 {mu}M) and suppresses hepatocarcinoma cell survival more efficiently under hypoxia. It has, therefore, potential as a therapeutic or chemopreventive anti-HCC agent.

  1. Killing of p53-deficient hepatoma cells by parvovirus H-1 and chemotherapeutics requires promyelocytic leukemia protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maike Sieben; Markus Moehler; Kerstin Herzer; Maja Zeidler; Vera Heinrichs; Barbara Leuchs; Martin Schuler; Jan J Cornelis; Peter R Galle; Jean Rommelaere

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the synergistic targeting and killing of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells lacking p53 by the oncolytic autonomous parvovirus (PV) H-1 and chemotherapeutic agents and its dependence on functional promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML).METHODS: The role of p53 and PML in regulating cytotoxicity and gene transfer mediated by wild-type (wt)PV H-1 were explored in two pairs of isogenic human hepatoma cell lines with different p53 status.Furthermore,H-1 PV infection was combined with cytostatic drug treatment.RESULTS: While the HCC cells with different p53 status studied were all susceptible to H-1 PV-induced apoptosis,the cytotoxicity of H-1 PV was more pronounced in p53-negative than in p53-positive cells.Apoptosis rates in p53-negative cell lines treated by genotoxic drugs were further enhanced by a treatment with H-1 PV.In flow cytometric analyses,H-1 PV infection resulted in a reduction of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential.In addition,H-1 PV cells showed a significant increase in PML expression.Knocking down PML expression resulted in a striking reduction of the level of H-1 PV infected tumor cell death.CONCLUSION: H-1 PV is a suitable agent to circumvent the resistance of p53-negative HCC cells to genotoxic agents,and it enhances the apoptotic process which is dependent on functional PML.Thus,H-1 PV and its oncolytic vector derivatives may be considered as therapeutic options for HCC,particularly for p53-negative tumors.

  2. Sphingolipid transport to the apical plasma membrane domain in human hepatoma cells is controlled by PKC and PKA activity : A correlation with cell polarity in HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, MMP; Hoekstra, D

    1997-01-01

    The regulation of sphingolipid transport to the bile canalicular apical membrane in the well differentiated HepG2 hepatoma cells was studied. By employing fluorescent lipid analogs, trafficking in a transcytosis-dependent pathway and a transcytosis-independent ('direct') route between the trans-Golg

  3. Insulin and phorbol myristic acetate induce ornithine decarboxylase in Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S A; Esau, B; Koontz, J W

    1988-11-01

    Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells respond to insulin or to tumor promoting phorbol esters with an increase in ornithine decarboxylase enzyme activity. This occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner with both types of agonist. We report here that the increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity with optimal concentrations of both agonists is additive. Furthermore, the initial increase is dependent on continued RNA and protein synthesis. We also find that both of these agonists cause an increase in mRNA coding for ornithine decarboxylase in a time- and dose-dependent manner which suggests that the increase in enzyme activity can be accounted for by the increase in transcript levels. The difference in the time course of induction by the agonists, the additivity of induction by the two agonists, the differential sensitivity of induction to cycloheximide and RNA synthesis inhibitors, and the observation that phorbol myristic acetate causes a further increase in ornithine decarboxylase activity and transcript levels in cells already maximally induced by insulin suggest that these two agonists act through separate mechanisms.

  4. Composition of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and their apoptosis-inducing effect on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP is a natural functional component that has a variety of biological activities. The molecular structures and apoptosis-inducing activities on human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells of two LBP fractions, LBP-d and LBP-e, were investigated. Results: The results showed that LBP-d and LBP-e both consist of protein, uronic acid, and neutral sugars in different proportions. The structure of LBP was characterized by gas chromatography, periodate oxidation, and Smith degradation. LBP-d was composed of eight kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose, and glucose, while LBP-e was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, galactose, and glucose. LBP-d and LBP-e blocked SMMC-7721 cells at the G0/G1 and S phases with an inhibition ratio of 26.70 and 45.13%, respectively, and enhanced the concentration of Ca2 + in the cytoplasm of SMMC-7721. Conclusion: The contents of protein, uronic acid, and galactose in LBP-e were much higher than those in LBP-d, which might responsible for their different bioactivities. The results showed that LBP can be provided as a potential chemotherapeutic agent drug to treat cancer.

  5. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hyung-Min; Park, Kun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo salt is a traditional Korean baked solar salt processed by packing the solar salt in bamboo joint cases and heating it several times to high temperatures. The antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells were investigated and compared to those of other salt samples. Although solar salt and purified salt exhibited comutagenicity with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, bamboo salt was associated with a lower degree of comutagenicity or antimutagenic activity. Bamboo salt baked nine times (9×) showed a greater increase in antimutagenic activity than salts baked once (1×) or three times (3×). At a concentration of 1%, the growth rate of HepG2 cells treated with 9× bamboo salt determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MIT) assay was reduced by 65%; this rate of inhibition was higher than that achieved with 1× baked bamboo salt (40%). Purified and solar salts had relatively lower inhibitory effects on growth rate (25% and 29%, respectively). Compared to the other salt samples, 9× bamboo salt significantly (pbamboo salts, especially 9× bamboo salt, also significantly (p<0.05) downregulated the expression of inflammation-related NF-κB, iNOS, and COX-2, and upregulated the gene expression of IκB-α compared to the other salt sample.

  6. Inhibition of Insulin Degradation by Hepatoma Cells after Microinjection of Monoclonal Antibodies to a Specific Cytosolic Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shii, Kozui; Roth, Richard A.

    1986-06-01

    Four monoclonal antibodies were identified by their ability to bind to 125I-labeled insulin covalently linked to a cytosolic insulin-degrading enzyme from human erythrocytes. All four antibodies were also found to remove more than 90% of the insulin-degrading activity from erythrocyte extracts. These antibodies were shown to be directed to different sites on the enzyme by mapping studies and by their various properties. Two antibodies recognized the insulin-degrading enzyme from rat liver; one inhibited the erythrocyte enzyme directly; and two recognized the enzyme after gel electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose filters. By this latter procedure and immunoprecipitation from metabolically labeled cells, the enzyme from a variety of tissues was shown to be composed of a single polypeptide chain of apparent Mr 110,000. Finally, these monoclonal antibodies were microinjected into the cytoplasm of a human hepatoma cell line to assess the contribution of this enzyme to insulin degradation in the intact cell. In five separate experiments, preloading of cells with these monoclonal antibodies resulted in an inhibition of insulin degradation of 18-54% (average 39%) and increased the amount of 125I-labeled insulin associated with the cells. In contrast, microinjection of control antibody or an extraneous monoclonal antibody had no effect on insulin degradation or on the amount of insulin associated with the cells. Moreover, the monoclonal antibodies to the insulin-degrading enzyme caused no significant inhibition of degradation of another molecule, low density lipoprotein. Thus, these results support a role for this enzyme in insulin degradation in the intact cell.

  7. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion.

  8. Streptozotocin-Induced Cytotoxicity, Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptozotocin (STZ is an antibiotic often used in the treatment of different types of cancers. It is also highly cytotoxic to the pancreatic beta-cells and therefore is commonly used to induce experimental type 1 diabetes in rodents. Resistance towards STZ-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells has also been reported. Our previous studies have reported organ-specific toxicity and metabolic alterations in STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ induces oxidative stress and metabolic complications. The precise molecular mechanism of STZ-induced toxicity in different tissues and carcinomas is, however, unclear. We have, therefore, investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of STZ in HepG2 hepatoma cells in culture. Cells were treated with different doses of STZ for various time intervals and the cytotoxicity was studied by observing the alterations in oxidative stress, mitochondrial redox and metabolic functions. STZ induced ROS and RNS formation and oxidative stress as measured by an increase in the lipid peroxidation as well as alterations in the GSH-dependent antioxidant metabolism. The mitochondria appear to be a highly sensitive target for STZ toxicity. The mitochondrial membrane potential and enzyme activities were altered in STZ treated cells resulting in the inhibition of ATP synthesis. ROS-sensitive mitochondrial aconitase activity was markedly inhibited suggesting increased oxidative stress in STZ-induced mitochondrial toxicity. These results suggest that STZ-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells is mediated, at least in part, by the increase in ROS/RNS production, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Our study may be significant for better understanding the mechanisms of STZ action in chemotherapy and drug induced toxicity.

  9. Hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein over-expressed by baculovirus in hepatoma cells, efficiently encapsidates and transmits the viral RNA to naïve cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Suzanne U

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recombinant baculovirus(vBacORF2 that expressed the full-length ORF2 capsid protein of a genotype 1 strain of hepatitis E virus(HEV was constructed. Transduction of S10-3 human hepatoma cells with this baculovirus led to large amounts of ORF2 protein production in ~50% of the cells as determined by immune fluorescence microscopy. The majority of the ORF2 protein detected by Western blot was 72 kDa, the size expected for the full-length protein. To determine if the exogenously-supplied ORF2 protein could transencapsidate viral genomes, S10-3 cell cultures that had been transfected the previous day with an HEV replicon of genotype 1 that contained the gene for green fluorescent protein(GFP, in place of that for ORF2 protein, were transduced with the vBacORF2 virus. Cell lysates were prepared 5 days later and tested for the ability to deliver the GFP gene to HepG2/C3A cells, another human hepatoma cell line. FACS analysis indicated that lysates from cell cultures receiving only the GFP replicon were incapable of introducing the replicon into the HepG2/C3A cells whereas ~2% of the HepG2/C3A cells that received lysate from cultures that had received both the replicon and the baculovirus produced GFP. Therefore, the baculovirus-expressed ORF2 protein was able to trans-encapsidate the viral replicon and form a particle that could infect naïve HepG2/C3A cells. This ex vivo RNA packaging system should be useful for studying many aspects of HEV molecular biology.

  10. Phase Ⅲ Clinical Trials of the Cell Differentiation Agent-2 (CDA-2): Therapeutic Efficacy on Breast Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Primary Hepatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengyi Feng; Mingzhong Li; Yunzhong Zhu; Meizhen Zhou; Jun Ren; Yetao Gao; Jingpo Zhao; Rongsheng Zheng; Wenhua Zhao; Zhiqiang Meng; Fang Li; Qing Li; Qizhong Zhang; Dongli Zhao; Liyan Xu; Yongqiang Zhang; Yanjun Zhang; Zhenjiu Wang; Shuanqi Liu; Ming C. Liau; Changquan Ling; Yang Zhang; Fengzhan Qin; Huaqing Wang; Wenxia Huang; Shunchang Jiao; Qiang Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to explore the effect of CDA-2, a selective inhibitor of abnormal methylation enzymes in cancer cells, on the therapeutic efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy.METHODS Advanced cancer patients, all of whom had previously undergone chemotherapy, were randomly divided into 2 groups, one receiving chemotherapy only as the control group, and the other receiving CDA-2 in addition to chemotherapy as the combination group. The therapeutic efficacies and the toxic manifestations of the 2 groups were compared based on the WHO criteria.RESULTS Of 454 cancer patients enrolled in phase Ⅲ clinical trials of CDA-2, 80, 188, and 186 were breast cancer,NSCLC, and primary hepatoma patients, respectively.Among them 378 patients completed treatments according to the protocols. The results showed that the overall effective rate of the combination group was 2.6 fold that of the control group, 4.8 fold in the case of breast cancer, 2.3 fold in the case of primary hepatoma, and 2.2 fold in the case of NSCLC. Surprisingly, the combination therapy appeared to work better for stage Ⅳ than stage Ⅲ patients. CDA-2 did not contribute additional toxicity. On the contrary, it reduced toxic manifestations of chemotherapy, particularly regarding white blood cells, nausea and vomiting.CONCLUSION Modulation of abnormal methylation enzymes by CDA-2 is definitely helpful to supplement chemotherapy. It significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy and reduced the toxic manifestation of cytotoxic chemotherapy on breast cancer and NSCLC.

  11. Effect of methoxychlor on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chi-Ting; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Tseng, Hui-Wen; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chang, Hong-Tai; Chang, Po-Min; Chen, I-Li; Hung, Ming-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Jen; Tsai, Peng-Chih; Liang, Wei-Zhe; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Ho, Chin-Man; Lin, Jia-Rong; Shieh, Pochuen; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2015-02-28

    Methoxychlor, an organochlorine pesticide, is thought to be an endocrine disrupter that affects Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in different cell models. This study explored the action of methoxychlor on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) and apoptosis in HA59T human hepatoma cells. Fura-2, a Ca²⁺-sensitive fluorescent dye, was applied to measure [Ca²⁺]i. Methoxychlor at concentrations of 0.1-1 μM caused a [Ca²⁺]i rise in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of external Ca²⁺ abolished methoxychlor's effect. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ influx was confirmed by Mn²⁺-induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence. Methoxychlor-induced Ca²⁺ entry was inhibited by nifedipine, econazole, SK&F96365, and protein kinase C modulators. Methoxychlor killed cells at concentrations of 10-130 μM in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chelation of cytosolic Ca²⁺ with 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid/AM (BAPTA/AM) did not prevent methoxychlor's cytotoxicity. Methoxychlor (10 and 50 μM) induced apoptosis concentration-dependently as determined by using Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Together, in HA59T cells, methoxychlor induced a [Ca²⁺]i rise by inducing Ca²⁺ entry via protein kinase C-sensitive Ca²⁺-permeable channels, without causing Ca²⁺ release from stores. Methoxychlor also induced apoptosis that was independent of [Ca²⁺]i rises.

  12. Exploring the potential interference of estuarine sediment contaminants with the DNA repair capacity of human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Miguel Ferreira; Louro, Henriqueta; Costa, Pedro M; Caeiro, Sandra; Silva, Maria João

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries may be reservoirs of a wide variety of pollutants, including mutagenic and carcinogenic substances that may impact on the ecosystem and human health. A previous study showed that exposure of human hepatoma (HepG2) cells to extracts from sediment samples collected in two areas (urban/industrial and riverine/agricultural) of an impacted estuary (Sado, Portugal), produced differential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Those effects were found to be consistent with levels and nature of sediment contamination. The present study aimed at evaluating whether the mixtures of contaminants contained in those extracts were able to modulate DNA repair capacity of HepG2 cells. The residual level of DNA damage was measured by the comet assay in cells exposed for 24 or 48 h to different extracts, after a short preexposure to a challenging concentration range of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), as a model alkylating agent. The results suggested that the mixture of contaminants present in the tested samples, besides a potential direct effect on the DNA molecule, may also interfere with DNA repair mechanisms in HepG2 cells, thus impairing their ability to deal with genotoxic stress and, possibly, facilitating accumulation of mutations. Humans are environmentally/occupationally exposed to mixtures rather than to single chemicals. Thus, the observation that estuarine contaminants induce direct and indirect DNA strand breakage in human cells, the latter through the impairment of DNA repair, raises additional concerns regarding potential hazards from exposure and the need to further explore these endpoints in the context of environmental risk assessment.

  13. Transfection of p27 kip1 enhances radiosensitivity induced by 60Coγ-irradiation in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Xiang Guan; Long-Bang Chen; Gui-Xia Ding; Wei De; Ai-Hua Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the cell cycle alterations of human hepatoma cell line HepG2 in vitro after 60Co γ-irradiation and further to examine the mechanisms underlying the enhancement of radiosensitivity to γ-irradiation in HepG2 transiently transfected with wild type p27kip1.METHODS: The proliferation of HepG2 cells was evaluated with MTT assay, and the cell cycle profile and apoptosis were assessed by cell morphology, DNA fragmentation analysis and flow cytometry. HepG2 cells were transfected with p27kip1 wild type by using Lipofectamine (LF2000), and the expression and subcellular localization of p27kip1 in HepG2were detected by immunocytochemistry.RESULTS: 60Co γ-irradiation inhibited the growth of HepG2cells in a dose-dependent manner. Apoptosis of HepG2 cells was induced 48 h after γ ray exposure. Furthermore research was carried out to induce exogenous expression of p27kip1in HepG2. The expression of p27kip1 induced G0/G1 phase arrest in HepG2 cells. The overexpression of p27kip1 enhanced 60Co γ-irradiation-induced radiosensitivity in HepG2 cells.CONCLUSION: Overexpression of p27kip1 is a rational approach to improve conventional radiotherapy outcomes, which may be a possible strategy for human hepatoma therapy.

  14. P120ctn overexpression enhances β-catenin-E-cadherin binding and down regulates expression of survivin and cyclin D1 in BEL-7404 hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Zan Nong; Li-Li Pan; Wei-Sheng He; Xi-Liang Zha; Hai-Hong Ye; Hua-Yi Huang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To understand the role of P120ctn in E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and signaling as well as in hepatoma cell biological function.METHODS: We stably overexpressed p120ctn isoform 3A in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and studied the effect of p120ctn on β-catenin and E-cadherin binding as well as p120ctn and β-catenin subcellular localization using immunoprecipitation, Western blotting and confocalmicroscopy. We also investigated the inhibitory effect of p120ctn transfection on the expression of apoptotic protein survivin survivin and cell cycle regulator cyclin D1in the cells.RERULTS: Western blotting indicated that p120ctn expression increased after cells were transfected with p120ctn isoform 3A. The protein was located mainly at membrane under immunofluorescent microscope.β-catenin nuclear expression was reduced after overexpression of p120ctn isoform 3A. The p120ctn-E-cadherin binding increased after transfection of p120ctn isoform 3A. Furthermore, overexpression of p120ctn down regulated the expression of apoptotic protein survivin and cell cycle regulator cyclin D1. These effects led to reduction of cell proliferation.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that p120ctn plays an important role in regulating the formation of E-cadherin and -catenin complex, cell apoptosis, cell cycle and cancer cell biological function.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, Takeshi; Nishiyama, Takafumi; Yamada, Rie; Nagatani, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Hiroshi [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugiyama, Asami

    1997-12-31

    We report two cases with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) in situ caused by irradiation to hand eczemas, resistant to any topical therapies. Both of our cases clinically show palmer sclerosis and flexor restriction of the fingers, compatible to chronic radiation dermatitis. Although SCC arising in chronic radiation dermatitis is usually developed ten to twenty years after irradiation, in our cases SCC were found more than forty years after irradiation. (author)

  16. Fuzheng Qingjie Granules Inhibit Growth of Hepatoma Cells via Inducing Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis and Enhancing Immune Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuzheng; Cao, Zhiyun; Zhang, Youquan; Li, Jinnong; Wang, Suqing; Du, Jian; Liao, Lianming

    2017-09-01

    Fuzheng Qingjie (FZQJ) granules, a compound Chinese medicine, have been used as an adjuvant therapy for alimentary tract cancers. However, the underlying anticancer mechanisms are still not well understood. In the present study, HepG2 cells were treated with FZQJ-containing serum. Cell proliferation was evaluated using MTT assay. Apoptosis was analyzed using a flow cytometer. Cell ultrastructure was observed under a transmission electron microscope. The mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ) was examined with JC-1 dye. In H22 tumor-bearing mice, CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD3(+) T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood were evaluated cytometrically. Interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were measured using radioimmunoassay.The mRNA levels of Bax and Bcl-2 were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome C, caspase 3 and 9, PARP, and CD69 were examined by Western blotting. The apoptotic cells in tissues were observed using TUNEL method. Alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CRE) were detected by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The results showed that FZQJ-containing serum remarkably inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners, induced HepG2 cell apoptosis and caused a decrease of Δψ. Analysis of tumor tissue showed that FZQJ-induced apoptosis was accompanied by downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase 3 and 9, and cleavage of PARP. In addition, FZQJ increased the percentages of CD4(+) T and NK cells, the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells as well as the levels of serum TNF-α. FZQJ also increased CD69 expression in tumor tissue. No hepatorenal toxicity was observed in H22 tumor-bearing mice. These results indicated that FZQJ could inhibit the growth of hepatoma cells via regulating immune function and inducing

  17. Effects of JS-K, a novel anti-cancer nitric oxide prodrug, on gene expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ray; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Huan; Liu, Zhengyun; Liu, Jie; Saavedra, Joseph E

    2017-04-01

    JS-K is a novel anticancer nitric oxide (NO) prodrug effective against a variety of cancer cells, including the inhibition of AM-1 hepatoma cell growth in rats. To further evaluate anticancer effects of JS-K, human hepatoma Hep3B cells were treated with JS-K and the compound control JS-43-126 at various concentrations (0-100μM) for 24h, and cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay. The compound control JS-43-126 was not cytotoxic to Hep3B cells at concentrations up to 100μM, while the LC50 for JS-K was about 10μM. To examine the molecular mechanisms of antitumor effects of JS-K, Hep3B cells were treated with 1-10μM of JS-K for 24h, and then subjected to gene expression analysis via real time RT-PCR and protein immunostain via confocal images. JS-K is a GST-α targeting NO prodrug, and decreased immunostaining for GST-α was associated with JS-K treatment. JS-K activated apoptosis pathways in Hep3B cells, including induction of caspase-3, caspase-9, Bax, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and immunostaining for caspase-3 was intensified. The expressions of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were increased by JS-K at both transcript and protein levels. JS-K treatment also increased the expression of differentiation-related genes CD14 and CD11b, and depressed the expression of c-myc in Hep3B cells. Thus, multiple molecular events appear to be associated with anticancer effects of JS-K in human hepatoma Hep3B cells, including activation of genes related to apoptosis and induction of genes involved in antiangiogenesis and tumor cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and 3T3 L1 adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanxin; Watford, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    The cell-specific regulation of glutamine synthetase expression was studied in three cell lines. In C2C12 myotubes, glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase protein and mRNA. Culture in the absence of glutamine also resulted in very high glutamine synthetase protein abundance but mRNA levels were unchanged. Glucocorticoids also increased the abundance of glutamine synthetase mRNA in Hep G2 hepatoma cells but this was not reflected in changes in protein abundance. C...

  19. Inhibitory effect of parvovirus H—1 on the formation of colonies of human hepatoma cell line in vitro and its tumors in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANSHANGJUN; CHENGWUMA; 等

    1994-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of parvovirus H-1 on the colonyforming ability.in vitro of QGY-7703,a cultured human hepatoma cell line,and on the formation and growth of its tumors in nude mice was studied.With higher multiplicity of infection(MOI) of H-1 given,survival of the QGY-7703 cells was found to be decreased.H-1 DNA amplification level at 30h postinfection(p.i.) was detected to be 7.4 times higher than that at 2h by dispersed cells assay,while the cells were delayed to enter into S phase.Plaques were formed in the indicator cells(new-born human kidney cell line,NBK) by progeny H-1 virus particles released from the infected QGY-7703 cells by infectious cell center assay.The formation of tumors in nude mice by QGY-7703 cells which were injected s c at 2h postinfection was observed to by prevented in 2 proups with given MOI 25 and 50.The tumor growth of MOI 10 group occurred at a lower exponential rate than that of control,after a 20d latent period.It was evident that parvovirus H-1 exhibited a direct inhibitory effect on the formation and growth of human hepatoma cells in vivo as well as in vitro.

  20. Activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma reduces triacylglycerol synthesis in rat hepatoma cells by reduction of nuclear SREBP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Spielmann, Julia; Hilgenfeld, Christian; Hirche, Frank; Stangl, Gabriele I; Eder, Klaus

    2009-03-01

    Fibrates and thiazolidinediones, agonists of PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively, reduce triglyceride concentrations in rat liver and plasma. Fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in mammals is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. Recently, it was shown that insulin-induced gene (Insig)-1, the key regulator of SREBP activity, is up-regulated by both activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma. In order to elucidate whether inhibition of SREBP-1 activation may contribute to the triacylglycerol lowering effect of PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists, we incubated rat hepatoma Fao cells with WY 14,643 and troglitazone, strong and selective agonists of PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. Activation of both, PPARalpha and PPARgamma led to increased concentrations of Insig-1 and Insig-2a, with the most prominent effect on Insig-2a after troglitazone incubation. As a result, the amount of nuclear SREBP-1 was reduced in Fao cells by both WY 14,643 and troglitazone treatment. The reduction of nuclear SREBP-1 was associated with decreased mRNA concentrations of its target genes fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, implicated in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis. This was finally reflected in reduced rates of newly synthesized triacylglycerols from de novo-derived fatty acids and decreased intracellular and secreted triacylglycerol concentrations in Fao cells treated with WY 14,643 and troglitazone, respectively. Thus, these data suggest that the triacylglycerol reducing effect of fibrates and thiazolidinediones is partially caused by inhibition of SREBP-1 activation via up-regulation of Insig.

  1. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis eliminates the adaptive response of ascitic hepatoma 22 cells to nedaplatin that targets thioredoxin reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yijun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Lu, Hongjuan [Productivity Center of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dongxu; Li, Shengrong; Sun, Kang; Wan, Xiaochun [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China); Taylor, Ethan Will [Department of Nanoscience, Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402 (United States); Zhang, Jinsong, E-mail: zjs@ahau.edu.cn [School of Tea and Food Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, Anhui (China)

    2012-12-15

    Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a target for cancer therapy and the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin involves TrxR inhibition. We hypothesize that the anticancer drug nedaplatin (NDP), an analogue of cisplatin and a second-generation platinum complex, also targets TrxR. Furthermore, we investigate whether the therapeutic efficacy of NDP can be enhanced by simultaneous modulation of 1) TrxR, via NDP, and 2) glutathione (GSH), via the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mice bearing ascitic hepatoma 22 (H22) cells were treated with NDP alone or NDP plus BSO. TrxR activity of H22 cells was inhibited by NDP in a dose-dependent manner. A high correlation between the inhibition of TrxR activity at 6 h and the inhibition of ascitic fluid volume at 72 h was established (r = 0.978, p < 0.01). As an adaptive response, the viable ascitic cancer cells after NDP treatment displayed an enlarged cell phenotype, assembled with several-fold more antioxidant enzymes and GSH-predominant non-protein free thiols. This adaptive response was largely eliminated when BSO was co-administered with NDP, leading to the decimation of the H22 cell population without enhancing renal toxicity, since at this dose, NDP did not inhibit renal TrxR activity. In conclusion, the pharmacological effect of NDP involves TrxR inhibition, and the adaptive response of NDP-treated ascitic H22 cells can be efficiently counteracted by BSO. Simultaneous modulation of TrxR and GSH on ascitic H22 cells using NDP plus BSO greatly enhances therapeutic efficacy as compared with the single modulation of TrxR using NDP alone. -- Highlights: ► Nedaplatin at a pharmacological dose inhibits TrxR in cancer cells but not in kidney. ► The nedaplatin-treated cancer cells exhibit adaptive response. ► Buthionine sulfoximine inhibits glutathione in both cancer cells and kidney. ► Buthionine sulfoximine counteracts the adaptive response to the nedaplatin treatment. ► Buthionine sulfoximine does not

  2. The Effect of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Receptor on the Phenotype of the Hepa 1c1c7 Murine Hepatoma Cells in the Absence of Dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR mediates biological responses to certain exogenous ligands, such as the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, and has also been demonstrated to modulate the cell cycle and differentiated state of several cell lines independently of exogenous ligands. In this study, we used DNA micorarray analysis to elucidate the profile of genes responsive to the expression of unliganded AhR by re-introducing AhR into an AhR-deficient mouse derivative (c19 of the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1c1c7. 22 gene products were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated two-fold or more in c19 cells infected with a retroviral vector expressing mouse AhR. Surprisingly, expression of genes involved in cell proliferation or differentiation were not affected by introduction of AhR. AhR also did not restore expression of the albumin gene in c19 cells. Introduction of AhR into c12, a similar AhRdefective mouse hepatoma cell line, also did not restore albumin expression, and furthermore, did not lead to changes in cellular morphology or cell cycle parameters. These observations fail to support the notion that unliganded AhR regulates proliferation and differentiation of liver-derived cells.

  3. In vitro uptakes of radiolabeled IVDU and IVFRU in herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) gene transduced morris hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, Tae Hyun; Ahn, Soon Hyuk; Woo, Kwang Sun; Jeong, Wee Sup; Kwon, Hee Chung; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Awh, Ok Doo [College of Health Sciences, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene(HSV1-tk) is an attractive candidate as a reporter gene in noninvasive reporter gene monitoring system. The HSV1-tk gene was chosen as a reporter gene, because it has been extensively studied, and there are appropriate reporter probes, substrates of HSV1-tk gene product, to apply for HSV1-tk gene imaging. We used radiolabeled 5-iodovinyl-2'-deoxyuridine (IVDU) and 5-lodovinyl-2'-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (IVFRU) as reporter probes for HSV1-tk gene monitoring system. We prepared HSV1-tk gene transduced Morris hepatoma cell line using retroviral vector, MOLTEN containing HSV1-tk gene. And we confirmed the HSV1-tk gene expression by Northern blotting and Western blotting. We compared in vitro uptakes of radioiodinated IVDU and IVFRU to monitor HSV1-tk gene expression in Morris hepatoma cell line (MCA) and HSV1-tk gene tranduced MCA (MAC-tk) cells until 480 minutes. We also performed correlation analysis between percentage of HSV1-tk gene tranduced MCA cell % (MCA-tk%) and uptakes of radiolabeled IVDU or IVFRU. MCA-tk cell expressed HSV1-tk mRNA and HSV1-TK protein. Two compounds showed minimal uptake in MCA, but increased uptake was observed in MCA-tk. IVDU showed 4-fold higher accumulation than IVFRU at 480 min in MCA-tk (p<0.01). Both IVDU and IVFRU uptake were linearly correlated (R{sup 2}>0.96) with increasing MCA-tk%. The rediolabeld IVDU and IVFRU showed higher specific accumulation in retrovirally HSV1-tk gene transfected Morris hepatoma cell line. Both IVDU and IVFRU could be used as good substrates for evaluation of HSV1-tk gene expression.

  4. CLONING AND DETERMINING OF BAC GENE AND Bcl-2 AND CDK4 EXPRESSION ON ASCITES HEPATOMA CELL LINE Hca-F25/25CL-16A3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Yun-fei; ZHANG Yao-zheng; ZHANG Hong; REN Zhuang-yi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of cancer, the DNA for BAC was cloned from an ascites hepatoma cell line Hca-F25/CL-16A3 using PCR. Methods: The nucleotide sequences were determined using ABI PRISMTM 377 DNA sequencer. The expression of bcl-2 and CDK4gene were determined using immunohistochemistry.Results: The sequences of BAC segment on HcaF25/CL-16A3 have nearly identical sequences with human BAC. The bcl-2 and CDK4 are highly expression on this cell line. Conclusion: The highly expression of bcl-2 and CDK4 may the one of mechanisms for tumor growth.

  5. Differential expression of five protein kinase C isoenzymes in FAO and HepG2 hepatoma cell lines compared with normal rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, L; Croquet, F; Gil, S; Davy, J; Féger, J; Bréhier, A

    1995-12-14

    We analyzed the expression of five protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in cytosolic and membrane fractions from normal rat hepatocytes compared with those of two tumorigenic cell lines FAO and HepG2. Western blots with PKC-specific isoenzymes polyclonal antibodies provide evidences for the presence of the five isoforms alpha, beta II, delta, epsilon and zeta in normal rat hepatocytes. In hepatoma cells, we show differences in the level of expression, the molecular sizes and the responses to Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).

  6. Evaluation of radiosensitivity of human tumor cells after irradiation of γ-rays based on G2-chromosome aberrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine initial G2-chromosome aberrations and to validate whether the G2-chromosome aberrations can predict the cellular clonogenic survival in human tumor cell lines. Cell lines of human ovary carcinoma cells (HO8910) and human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were irradiated with a range of doses and assessed both for initial G2-chromosome aberrations and for cell survival after γ-irradiation. The initial G2-chromosome aberrations were measured by counting the number of G2-chromatid breaks after irradiation, detected by the premature chromosome condensation technique, and the G2-assay method. Cell survival was documented by a colony formation assay. A linear-quadratic survival curve was observed in both cell lines. The dose-response results show that the numbers of G2-chromatid breaks increase with the increase in dose in the two cell lines. At higher doses (higher than 4 Gy) of irradiation, the number of G2-chromatid breaks for the G2-assay method cannot be determined because too few cells reach mitosis, and hence their detection is difficult. A good correlation is found between the clonogenic survival and the radiation-induced initial G2-chromatid breaks per cell (r=0.9616). The present results suggest that the premature chromosome condensation technique may be useful for determining chromatid breaks in G2 cells, and the number of initial G2-chromatid breaks holds promise for predicting the radiosensitivity of tumor cells.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the apolipoprotein F (ApoF) gene by ETS and C/EBPα in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xue-Bin; Huang, Ling; Zhang, Shao-Hong; Wang, De-Ping; Wu, Yun-Li; Chen, Wan-Nan; Xu, Shang-Hua; Lin, Xu

    2015-05-01

    Apolipoprotein F (ApoF) inhibits cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity and plays an important role in lipid metabolism. In the present study, the full-length human ApoF promoter was cloned, and the molecular mechanism of the regulation of ApoF was investigated. The ApoF promoter displayed higher activities in hepatoma cell lines, and the -198 nt to +79 nt promoter region contained the maximum promoter activity. In the promoter region of -198 nt to -2 nt there were four putative binding sites for transcription factors ETS-1/ETS-2 (named EBS-1 to EBS-4) and one for C/EBP. Mutation of EBS-2, EBS4 and the C/EBP binding site abolished the promoter activity, and ETS-1/ETS-2 and C/EBPα could interact with corresponding binding sites. In addition, overexpression of ETS-1/2 or C/EBPα enhanced, while dominant-negative mutants of ETS-1/2 and knockdown of C/EBPα decreased, ApoF promoter activities. ETS-1 and C/EBPα associated physically, and acted synergistically to activate ApoF transcription. These results demonstrated combined activation of the ApoF promoter by liver-enriched and ubiquitous transcription factors. Direct interactions between C/EBPα and ETS-1 were important for high liver-specific expression of ApoF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. mRNA levels of related Abcb genes change opposite to each other upon histone deacetylase inhibition in drug-resistant rat hepatoma cells.

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    Adám Sike

    Full Text Available The multidrug-resistant phenotype of tumor cells is acquired via an increased capability of drug efflux by ABC transporters and causes serious problems in cancer treatment. With the aim to uncover whether changes induced by epigenetic mechanisms in the expression level of drug transporter genes correlates with changes in the drug resistance phenotypes of resistant cells, we studied the expression of drug transporters in rat hepatoma cell lines. We found that of the three major rat ABC transporter genes Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcc1 the activity of only Abcb1b increased significantly in colchicine-selected, drug-resistant cells. Increased transporter expression in drug-resistant cells results primarily from transcriptional activation. A change in histone modification at the regulatory regions of the chromosomally adjacent Abcb1a and Abcb1b genes differentially affects the levels of corresponding mRNAs. Transcriptional up- and down-regulation accompany an increase in acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 at the promoter regions of Abcb1b and Abcb1a, respectively. Drug efflux activity, however, does not follow tightly the transcriptional activity of drug transporter genes in hepatoma cells. Our results point out the need for careful analysis of cause-and-effect relationships between changes in histone modification, drug transporter expression and drug resistance phenotypes.

  9. mRNA levels of related Abcb genes change opposite to each other upon histone deacetylase inhibition in drug-resistant rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sike, Adám; Nagy, Enikő; Vedelek, Balázs; Pusztai, Dávid; Szerémy, Péter; Venetianer, Anikó; Boros, Imre M

    2014-01-01

    The multidrug-resistant phenotype of tumor cells is acquired via an increased capability of drug efflux by ABC transporters and causes serious problems in cancer treatment. With the aim to uncover whether changes induced by epigenetic mechanisms in the expression level of drug transporter genes correlates with changes in the drug resistance phenotypes of resistant cells, we studied the expression of drug transporters in rat hepatoma cell lines. We found that of the three major rat ABC transporter genes Abcb1a, Abcb1b and Abcc1 the activity of only Abcb1b increased significantly in colchicine-selected, drug-resistant cells. Increased transporter expression in drug-resistant cells results primarily from transcriptional activation. A change in histone modification at the regulatory regions of the chromosomally adjacent Abcb1a and Abcb1b genes differentially affects the levels of corresponding mRNAs. Transcriptional up- and down-regulation accompany an increase in acetylation levels of histone H3 lysine 9 at the promoter regions of Abcb1b and Abcb1a, respectively. Drug efflux activity, however, does not follow tightly the transcriptional activity of drug transporter genes in hepatoma cells. Our results point out the need for careful analysis of cause-and-effect relationships between changes in histone modification, drug transporter expression and drug resistance phenotypes.

  10. Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and 3T3 L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanxin; Watford, Malcolm

    2007-04-01

    The cell-specific regulation of glutamine synthetase expression was studied in three cell lines. In C2C12 myotubes, glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase protein and mRNA. Culture in the absence of glutamine also resulted in very high glutamine synthetase protein abundance but mRNA levels were unchanged. Glucocorticoids also increased the abundance of glutamine synthetase mRNA in Hep G2 hepatoma cells but this was not reflected in changes in protein abundance. Culture of Hep G2 cells without glutamine resulted in very high levels of protein, again with no change in mRNA abundance. Insulin was without effect in both C2C12 and Hep G2 cells. In 3T3 L1 adipocytes glucocorticoids increased the abundance of both glutamine synthetase mRNA and protein, insulin added alone had no effect but in the presence of glucocorticoids resulted in lower mRNA levels than seen with glucocorticoids alone, although protein levels remained high under such conditions. In contrast to the other cell lines glutamine synthetase protein levels were relatively unchanged by culture in the absence of glutamine. The results support the hypothesis that in myocytes, and hepatomas, but not in adipocytes, glutamine acts to moderate glutamine synthetase induction by glucocorticoids.

  11. WWOX induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben-Shun Hu; Jing-Wang Tan; Guo-Hua Zhu; Dan-Feng Wang; Xian Zhou; Zhi-Qiang Sun

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of the WWOX gene on the human hepatic carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721.METHODS:Full-length WWOX cDNA was amplified from normal human liver tissues.Full-length cDNA was subcloned into pEGFP-N1,a eukaryotic expression vector.After introduction of the WWOX gene into cancer cells using liposomes,the WWOX protein level in the cells was detected through Western blotting.Cell growth rates were assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and colony formation assays.Cell cycle progression and cell apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry.The phosphorylated protein kinase B (AKT)and activated fragments of caspase-9 and caspase-3 were examined by Western blotting analysis.RESULTS:WWOX significantly inhibited cell proliferation,as evaluated by the MTT and colony formation assays.Cells transfected with WWOX showed significantly higher apoptosis ratios when compared with cells transfected with a mock plasmid,and overexpression of WWOX delayed cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase,as measured by flow cytometry.An increase in apoptosis was also indicated by a remarkable activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 and a dephosphorylation of AKT (Thr308 and Ser473) measured with Western blotting analysis.CONCLUSION:Overexpression of WWOX induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of the human hepatic carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721.

  12. Construction and packaging of pseudotype retrovirus containing human N—ras cDNA antisense sequence and its biological effects on human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIALIBIN; WANGXIANG; 等

    1990-01-01

    N-ras is one of the transforming genes in human hepatic cancer cells.It has been found that N-ras was overexpressed at the mRNA and protein level in hepatoma cells.In order to explore the biological roles of N-ras in human hepatic carcinogenesis and the potential application in control of cancer cell growth,a preudotype retrovirus containing antisense sequence of human N-ras was constructed and packaged.A recombinant retrovirus vector containing antisense or sense sequences of N-ras cDNA was constructed by pZIP-NeoSV(X)1.The pseudotype virus was packaged ang rescued by transfection and infection in PA317 and ψ 2 helper cells.It has been demonstrated that the pseudotype retrovirus containing antisense N-ras sequence did inhibit the growth of human PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells accompanied with inhibition of p21 expression,while the retrovirus containing sense sequence had none.The pseudotype virus had no effect on human diploid fibroblasts.

  13. Inlfuence of DNA methyltransferase 3b on FHIT expression and DNA methylation of the FHIT promoter region in hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Xiang Wang; Yong-Gan Zhang; Long-Shuan Zhao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alterations in DNA methylation occur during the pathogenesis of human tumors. In this study, we investigated the inlfuence of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) on fragile histidine trial (FHIT) expression and on DNA methylation of the FHIT promoter region in the hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721. METHODS: DNMT3b siRNA was used to down-regulate DNMT3b expression. DNMT3b and FHIT proteins were determined by Western blotting. Methylation-speciifc PCR was used to analyze the methylation status of the FHIT gene. RESULTS: After DNMT3b siRNA transfection, the expression of DNMT3b was inhibited in SMMC-7721 cells, and the expression of FHIT was signiifcantly higher than that in the control group. There was no signiifcant difference in methylation status between the DNMT3b siRNA transfected cells and control cells. CONCLUSION: DNMT3b may play an important role in regulation of FHIT expression in hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells, but not through methylation of the FHIT promoter.

  14. CdTe quantum dots with daunorubicin induce apoptosis of multidrug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells: in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cadmium telluride quantum dots (Cdte QDs have received significant attention in biomedical research because of their potential in disease diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, we have investigated the interaction mechanism and synergistic effect of 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped Cdte QDs with the anti-cancer drug daunorubicin (DNR on the induction of apoptosis using drug-resistant human hepatoma HepG2/ADM cells. Electrochemical assay revealed that Cdte QDs readily facilitated the uptake of the DNR into HepG2/ADM cells. Apoptotic staining, DNA fragmentation, and flow cytometry analysis further demonstrated that compared with Cdte QDs or DNR treatment alone, the apoptosis rate increased after the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR in HepG2/ADM cells. We observed that Cdte QDs treatment could reduce the effect of P-glycoprotein while the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR can clearly activate apoptosis-related caspases protein expression in HepG2/ADM cells. Moreover, our in vivo study indicated that the treatment of Cdte QDs together with DNR effectively inhibited the human hepatoma HepG2/ADM nude mice tumor growth. The increased cell apoptosis rate was closely correlated with the enhanced inhibition of tumor growth in the studied animals. Thus, Cdte QDs combined with DNR may serve as a possible alternative for targeted therapeutic approaches for some cancer treatments.

  15. Induction of cell cycle arrest via the p21, p27–cyclin E,A/Cdk2 pathway in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells by clioquinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhiwei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clioquinol has been shown to have anticancer activity in several carcinoma cells. In this study, we preliminarily examined the effect of clioquinol in human SMMC-7721 hepatoma and QSG-7701 normal hepatic cells. Our results indicated that clioquinol did not significantly affect survival of QSG-7701 cells, whereas it reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in SMMC-7721 cells. Clioquinol did not trigger autophagy and apoptosis, while it induced cell cycle arrest in the S-phase in SMMC- 7721 cells. Additionally, down-regulation of cyclin D1, A2, E1, Cdk2 and up-regulation of p21, p27 were detected after the treatment with clioquinol. The results demonstrated for the first time that clioquinol suppressed cell cycle progression in the S-phase in SMMC-7721 cells via the p21, p27-cyclin E,A/Cdk2 pathway. This suggests that clioquinol may have a therapeutic potential as an anticancer drug for certain malignances.

  16. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins protect human hepatoma cells during acute desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shumin; Chakraborty, Nilay; Borcar, Apurva; Menze, Michael A; Toner, Mehmet; Hand, Steven C

    2012-12-18

    Expression of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins is highly correlated with desiccation tolerance in anhydrobiotic animals, selected land plants, and bacteria. Genes encoding two LEA proteins, one localized to the cytoplasm/nucleus (AfrLEA2) and one targeted to mitochondria (AfrLEA3m), were stably transfected into human HepG2 cells. A trehalose transporter was used for intracellular loading of this disaccharide. Cells were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to low water content (spin-drying technique. Immediately on rehydration, control cells without LEA proteins or trehalose exhibited 0% membrane integrity, compared with 98% in cells loaded with trehalose and expressing AfrLEA2 or AfrLEA3m; surprisingly, AfrLEA3m without trehalose conferred 94% protection. Cell proliferation across 7 d showed an 18-fold increase for cells dried with AfrLEA3m and trehalose, compared with 27-fold for nondried controls. LEA proteins dramatically enhance desiccation tolerance in mammalian cells and offer the opportunity for engineering biostability in the dried state.

  17. Arecoline inhibits the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activation in human hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eddy Essen [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Miao Zhifeng [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Lee, W.-J. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]|[Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chao, H.-R. [Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung Univ. of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Li, Lih-Ann [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y.-F. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Ko, Y.-C. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)]|[Dept. of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Tsai, F.-Y. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Yeh, S.C. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China); Tsou, T.-C. [Lab. of Molecular Toxicology, Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: tctsou@nhri.org.tw

    2007-07-19

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in a human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. We treated Huh-7 cells with 10 nM TCDD in the presence of different concentrations of arecoline (50-300 {mu}M). Our results indicated that arecoline attenuated the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activation with an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibited the TCDD-induced activations of CYP1A1 and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA expression in a similar pattern. Our results revealed that arecoline inhibited AhR mRNA expression with no direct effect on CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Therefore, in our present study, the observed inhibitory effect of arecoline on CYP1A1 activation was not due to the up-regulation of AhRR or direct inhibitory effect on CYP1A1. Taken together, here we have demonstrated that arecoline attenuates the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation mainly via down-regulation of AhR expression in human hepatoma cells, suggesting the possible involvement of arecoline in the AhR-mediated metabolism of environmental toxicants in liver.

  18. Arecoline inhibits the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 activation in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eddy Essen; Miao, Zhi-Feng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Li, Lih-Ann; Wang, Ya-Fen; Ko, Ying-Chin; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2007-07-19

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in a human hepatoma cell line Huh-7. We treated Huh-7 cells with 10nM TCDD in the presence of different concentrations of arecoline (50-300 microM). Our results indicated that arecoline attenuated the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activation with an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. By using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that arecoline inhibited the TCDD-induced activations of CYP1A1 and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA expression in a similar pattern. Our results revealed that arecoline inhibited AhR mRNA expression with no direct effect on CYP1A1 enzyme activity. Therefore, in our present study, the observed inhibitory effect of arecoline on CYP1A1 activation was not due to the up-regulation of AhRR or direct inhibitory effect on CYP1A1. Taken together, here we have demonstrated that arecoline attenuates the TCDD-induced CYP1A1 activation mainly via down-regulation of AhR expression in human hepatoma cells, suggesting the possible involvement of arecoline in the AhR-mediated metabolism of environmental toxicants in liver.

  19. Protein transfection study using multicellular tumor spheroids of human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Kato

    Full Text Available Several protein transfection reagents are commercially available and are powerful tools for elucidating function of a protein in a cell. Here we described protein transfection studies of the commercially available reagents, Pro-DeliverIN, Xfect, and TuboFect, using Huh-7 multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS as a three-dimensional in vitro tumor model. A cellular uptake study using specific endocytosis inhibitors revealed that each reagent was internalized into Huh-7 MCTS by different mechanisms, which were the same as monolayer cultured Huh-7 cells. A certain amount of Pro-DeliverIN and Xfect was uptaken by Huh-7 cells through caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which may lead to transcytosis through the surface-first layered cells of MCTS. The results presented here will help in the choice and use of protein transfection reagents for evaluating anti-tumor therapeutic proteins against MCTS models.

  20. Association of topoisomerase II with the hepatoma cell nuclear matrix: the role of intermolecular disulfide bond formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, S H; Shaper, J H

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies have resulted in conflicting data regarding the recovery of the nuclear enzymes topoisomerase (topo) II and topo I in the nuclear matrix fraction. In the present study we have assessed the effect of systematically altering a single extraction procedure on the distribution of these enzymes during the subfractionation of nuclei from HTC hepatoma tissue culture cells. When nuclear monolayers (prepared by treating attached cells in situ with the neutral detergent Nonidet-P40 at 4 degrees C) were isolated in the presence of the irreversible sulfhydryl blocking reagent iodoacetamide, subsequent treatment with DNase I and RNase A followed by 1.6 M NaCl resulted in structures which were extensively depleted of intranuclear components as assessed by phase contrast microscopy and conventional transmission electron microscopy. These structures contained 12 +/- 4% of the total protein present in the original nuclear monolayers. The lamins and polypeptides with molecular weights comparable to those of actin and vimentin were the predominant polypeptides present on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. Western blotting revealed that less than 5% of the total nuclear topo II molecules were present in these structures. In contrast, when the sulfhydryl cross-linking reagent sodium tetrathionate (NaTT) was substituted for iodoacetamide, the same extraction procedure yielded structures containing components of the nucleolus and an extensive intranuclear network. These structures contained a wide variety of nonlamin, nonhistone nuclear polypeptides including 23 +/- 4% of the total nuclear topo II. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis performed under nonreducing conditions revealed that topo II in these nuclear matrices was present as part of a large disulfide cross-linked complex. Treatment of these structures with reducing agents in 1.6 M NaCl released the topo II. In contrast, topo I did not form disulfide cross-linked oligomers and was not detectable in any of these nuclease

  1. Essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin induces apoptosis in human hepatoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of the essential oil of Curcuma wenyujin (CWO) on growth inhibition and on the induction of apoptosis in human HepG2 cancer cells. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of drugs on HepG2 cells was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2- yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MT) assay. DNA fragmentation was visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cell cycle and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (△ψm) were determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Cytochrome C immunostaining was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity was assayed by the cleavage of Ac-DEVD-R110. Cleaved PARP and active caspase-3 protein levels were measured by FCM using BDTMCBA Human Apoptosis Kit. RESULTS: Treatment with CWO inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 of CWO was approximately 70 μg/mL. CWO was found to inhibit the growth of HepG2 cells by inducing a cell cycle arrest at S/G2. DNA fragmentation was evidently observed at 70 μg/mL after 72 h of treatment. During the process, cytosolic HepG2 cytochrome C staining showed a markedly stronger green fluorescence than in control cells in a dose-dependent fashion, and CWO also caused mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization. Furthermore, the results clearly demonstrated that both, activity of caspase-3 enzyme and protein levels of cleaved PARP, significantly increased in a dose- dependent manner after treatment with CWO. CONCLUSION: CWO exhibits an antiproliferative effect in HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis. This growth inhibition is associated with cell cycle arrest, cytochrome C translocation, caspase 3 activation, Poly- ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This process involves a mitochondria-caspase dependent apoptosis pathway. As apoptosis is an important anti-cancer therapeutic target, these results suggest a potential of CWO as a chemotherapeutic agent.

  2. Characterization of increased drug metabolism activity in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-treated Huh7 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Sainz, B; Corcoran, P; Uprichard, S; Jeong, H

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Huh7 cells' baseline capacity to metabolize drugs and to investigate whether the drug metabolism was enhanced upon treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of major Phase I and Phase II enzymes were determined by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes were examined using probe drugs by analysing relevant metabolite production rates. The expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes in control Huh7 cells were generally very low, but DMSO treatment dramatically increased the mRNA levels of most drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as other liver-specific proteins. Importantly, functionality assays confirmed concomitant increases in drug-metabolizing enzyme activity. Additionally, treatment of the Huh7 cells with 3-methylcholanthrene induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 expression. The results indicate that DMSO treatment of Huh7 cells profoundly enhances their differentiation state, thus improving the usefulness of this common cell line as an in vitro hepatocyte model.

  3. Potentiation of resveratrol-induced apoptosis by matrine in human hepatoma HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xiuyuan; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Xinxin; Zhang, Xumeng; He, Qiyang

    2014-12-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, has received considerable attention due to its potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic properties. In the present study, we first evaluated the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Resveratrol inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, upregulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and induction of p53 expression. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that resveratrol arrested cell cycle progression in the G1 and S phase. We further focused on the combination of matrine, a natural component extracted from the traditional Chinese medical herb Sophora flavescens Ait., as a mechanism to potentiate the growth-inhibitory effect of resveratrol on HepG2 cells. Both MTT and colony formation assay results indicated that the combined treatment of resveratrol and matrine exhibited a synergistic antiproliferative effect. In addition, resveratrol-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced by matrine, which could be attributed to activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9, downregulation of survivin, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm). Our findings suggest that the combination treatment of resveratrol and matrine is a promising novel anticancer strategy for liver cancer; it also provides new insights into the mechanisms of combined therapy.

  4. Enhancement of migration and invasion of hepatoma cells via a Rho GTPase signaling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Sheng Wang; Ke-Feng Dou; Kai-Zong Li; Zhen-Shun Song

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Intrahepatic extension is the main cause of liver failure and death in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The small GTPase Rho and one of its effector molecules ROCK regulate cytoskeleton and actomyosin contractility, and play a crucial role in cell adhesion and motility. We investigated the role of small GTPase Rho in biological behaviors of hepatocellular carcinoma to demonstrate the importance of Rho in cancer invasion and metastasis.METHODS: Using Western blotting, we quantitated Rho protein expression in SMMC-7721 cells induced by Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Furthermore, we examined the role of Rho signaling in regulating the motile and invasiveproperties of tumor cells.RESULTS: Rho protein expression was stimulated by LPA.Using the Rhotekin binding assay to assess Rho activation,we observed that the level of GTP-bound Rho was elevated transiently after the addition of LPA, and Y-27632 decreased the level of active Rho. LPA enhanced the motility of tumor cells and facilitated their invasion. Rho played an essential role in the migratory process, as evidenced by the inhibition of migration and motility of cancer cells by a specific inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632.CONCLUSION: The finding that invasiveness of hepatocellular carcinoma is facilitated by the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway is likely to be relevant to tumor progression and Y-27632 may be a new potential effective agent for the prevention of intrahepatic extension of human liver cancer.

  5. Polarization Restricts Hepatitis C Virus Entry into HepG2 Hepatoma Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mee, Christopher J.; Harris, Helen J.; Farquhar, Michelle J.; Wilson, Garrick; Reynolds, Gary; Davis, Christopher; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.; Balfe, Peter; McKeating, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular

  6. Inhibition of Citrinin-Induced Apoptotic Biochemical Signaling in Human Hepatoma G2 Cells by Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chi Chen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin citrinin (CTN, a natural contaminant in foodstuffs and animal feeds, exerts cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on various mammalian cells. CTN causes cell injury, including apoptosis, but its precise regulatory mechanisms of action are currently unclear. Resveratrol, a member of the phytoalexin family found in grapes and other dietary plants, possesses antioxidant and anti-tumor properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of resveratrol on apoptotic biochemical events in Hep G2 cells induced by CTN. Resveratrol inhibited CTN-induced ROS generation, activation of JNK, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, as well as activation of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PAK2. Moreover, resveratrol and the ROS scavengers, NAC and α-tocopherol, abolished CTN-stimulated intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis. Active JNK was required for CTN-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptotic biochemical changes, including loss of MMP, and activation of caspases and PAK2. Activation of PAK2 was essential for apoptosis triggered by CTN. These results collectively demonstrate that CTN stimulates ROS generation and JNK activation for mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling in Hep G2 cells, and these apoptotic biochemical events are blocked by pretreatment with resveratrol, which exerts antioxidant effects.

  7. Determining oxidative and non-oxidative genotoxic effects driven by estuarine sediment contaminants on a human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M; Costa, P M; Louro, H; Costa, M H; Lavinha, J; Caeiro, S; Silva, M J

    2014-04-15

    Estuarine sediments may be reservoirs of hydrophilic and hydrophobic pollutants, many of which are acknowledged genotoxicants, pro-mutagens and even potential carcinogens for humans. Still, studies aiming at narrowing the gap between ecological and human health risk of sediment-bound contaminant mixtures are scarce. Taking an impacted estuary as a case study (the Sado, SW Portugal), HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells were exposed in vitro for 48 h to extracts of sediments collected from two areas (urban/industrial and Triverine/agricultural), both contaminated by distinct mixtures of organic and inorganic toxicants, among which are found priority mutagens such as benzo[a]pyrene. Comparatively to a control test, extracts of sediments from both impacted areas produced deleterious effects in a dose-response manner. However, sediment extracts from the industrial area caused lower replication index plus higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity (concerning total DNA strand breakage and clastogenesis), with emphasis on micronucleus induction. On the other hand, extracts from the rural area induced the highest oxidative damage to DNA, as revealed by the FPG (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) enzyme in the Comet assay. Although the estuary, on its whole, has been classified as moderately contaminated, the results suggest that the sediments from the industrial area are significantly genotoxic and, furthermore, elicit permanent chromosome damage, thus potentially being more mutagenic than those from the rural area. The results are consistent with contamination by pro-mutagens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), potentiated by metals. The sediments from the agriculture-influenced area likely owe their genotoxic effects to metals and other toxicants, probably pesticides and fertilizers, and able to induce reactive oxygen species without the formation of DNA strand breakage. The findings suggest that the mixtures of contaminants present in the assayed sediments are genotoxic

  8. Glucocorticoid-mediated potentiation of cytochrome P4501A induction in a fish hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celander, M.; Hahn, M.E.; Stegeman, J.J. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) is widely used as a biomarker of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAH). Increasingly, potency of CYP1A inducers in fish is being determined in cells in culture including the Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (PLHC-1). The authors used this cell line to investigate the effects of various glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists on that response. CYP1A in PLHC-1 cultures was highly responsive to treatment with PAH- or PHAH-type inducers including B-naphthoflavone (BNF), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD was found to be three orders of magnitude more potent than BNF or TCB as an inducer of the CYP1A activity ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD). The apparent efficacy for the induction by BNF was 50% and by TCB 10% of that obtained with TCDD. Induction of CYP1A was potentiated when these aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists were co-administered with GR agonists, such as dexamethasone D(EX), cortisol or prednisone. The magnitude of the potentiation of CYP1A induction varied with the different GR- and AHR agonists tested, but also with doses of AHR agonists and duration of exposure. Thus, highest degree of potentiation of CYP1A (up to 20-fold) in PLHC-1 cell cultures was obtained with a submaximal dose of TCDD in combination with DEX. Furthermore, the authors observed a delay in obtaining a maximal degree of potentiation. Thus, a peak potentiation of CYP1A induction was observed after 48 h in cultures treated with 1 {micro}M BNF + 10 {micro}M DEX.

  9. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Stanley K.L. [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Neo, Soek-Ying, E-mail: neo_soek_ying@sics.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Yap, Yann-Wan [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L. [Genome Institute of Singapore A-STAR (Singapore); Liau, Kui-Hin [Department of General Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital (Singapore); Ren, Ee-Chee, E-mail: ren_ee_chee@immunol.a-star.edu.sg [Singapore Immunology Network A-STAR (Singapore); Department of Microbiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2009-09-18

    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  10. Mitochondrial aquaporin-8 knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization and loss of viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchissio, Maria Julia; Francés, Daniel Eleazar Antonio; Carnovale, Cristina Ester; Marinelli, Raúl Alberto, E-mail: rmarinel@unr.edu.ar

    2012-10-15

    Human aquaporin-8 (AQP8) channels facilitate the diffusional transport of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} across membranes. Since AQP8 is expressed in hepatic inner mitochondrial membranes, we studied whether mitochondrial AQP8 (mtAQP8) knockdown in human hepatoma HepG2 cells impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, which may lead to organelle dysfunction and cell death. We confirmed AQP8 expression in HepG2 inner mitochondrial membranes and found that 72 h after cell transfection with siRNAs targeting two different regions of the human AQP8 molecule, mtAQP8 protein specifically decreased by around 60% (p < 0.05). Studies in isolated mtAQP8-knockdown mitochondria showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release, assessed by Amplex Red, was reduced by about 45% (p < 0.05), an effect not observed in digitonin-permeabilized mitochondria. mtAQP8-knockdown cells showed an increase in mitochondrial ROS, assessed by dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (+ 120%, p < 0.05) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (− 80%, p < 0.05), assessed by tetramethylrhodamine-coupled quantitative fluorescence microscopy. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTempol prevented ROS accumulation and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker, also abolished the mtAQP8 knockdown-induced mitochondrial depolarization. Besides, the loss of viability in mtAQP8 knockdown cells verified by MTT assay, LDH leakage, and trypan blue exclusion test could be prevented by cyclosporin A. Our data on human hepatoma HepG2 cells suggest that mtAQP8 facilitates mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and that its defective expression causes ROS-induced mitochondrial depolarization via the mitochondrial permeability transition mechanism, and cell death. -- Highlights: ► Aquaporin-8 is expressed in mitochondria of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. ► Aquaporin-8 knockdown impairs mitochondrial H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and increases ROS. ► Aquaporin

  11. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuexia; Liu, Dejun; Cai, Chenlei; Chen, Xiaojing; Zhou, Yan; Wu, Liangliang; Sun, Yongwei; Dai, Huili; Kong, Xianming; Liu, Peifeng

    2016-01-01

    The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mechanisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm). Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application.

  12. Activated AMPK inhibits PPAR-{alpha} and PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozio, Margaret S; Lu, Changyue; Zeng, Yan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) are critical regulators of short-term and long-term fatty acid oxidation, respectively. We examined whether the activities of these molecules were coordinately regulated. H4IIEC3 cells were transfected with PPAR-α and PPAR-γ expression plasmids and a peroxisome-proliferator-response element (PPRE) luciferase reporter plasmid. The cells were treated with PPAR agonists (WY-14,643 and rosiglitazone), AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) and metformin, and the AMPK inhibitor compound C. Both AICAR and metformin decreased basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity; compound C increased agonist-stimulated reporter activity and partially reversed the effect of the AMPK activators. Similar effects on PPAR-γ were seen, with both AICAR and metformin inhibiting PPRE reporter activity. Compound C increased basal PPAR-γ activity and rosiglitazone-stimulated activity. In contrast, retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α), another nuclear receptor that dimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR), was largely unaffected by the AMPK activators. Compound C modestly increased AM580 (an RAR agonist)-stimulated activity. The AMPK activators did not affect PPAR-α binding to DNA, and there was no consistent correlation between effects of the AMPK activators and inhibitor on PPAR and the nuclear localization of AMPK-α subunits. Expression of either a constitutively active or dominant negative AMPK-α inhibited basal and WY-14,643-stimulated PPAR-α activity and basal and rosiglitazone-stimulated PPAR-γ activity. We concluded that the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin inhibited transcriptional activities of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ, whereas inhibition of AMPK with compound C activated both PPARs. The effects of AMPK do not appear to be mediated through effects on RXR or on PPAR/RXR binding to DNA. These effects are independent of kinase activity and instead appear to

  13. The manganese superoxide dismutase Ala16Val dimorphism modulates iron accumulation in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Pierre; Charnaux, Nathalie; Friand, Véronique; Prost-Squarcioni, Catherine; Ziol, Marianne; Lièvre, Nicole; Trinchet, Jean-Claude; Beaugrand, Michel; Gattegno, Liliane; Pessayre, Dominique; Sutton, Angela

    2008-11-01

    The Ala/16Val dimorphism incorporates alanine (Ala) or valine (Val) in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), modifying MnSOD mitochondrial import and activity. In alcoholic cirrhotic patients, the Ala-MnSOD allele is associated with hepatic iron accumulation and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The Ala-MnSOD variant could modulate the expression of proteins involved in iron storage (cytosolic ferritin), uptake (transferrin receptors, TfR-1 and-2), extrusion (hepcidin), and intracellular distribution (frataxin) to trigger hepatic iron accumulation. We therefore assessed the Ala/Val-MnSOD genotype and the hepatic iron score in 162 alcoholic cirrhotic patients. In our cohort, this hepatic iron score increased with the number of Ala-MnSOD alleles. We also transfected Huh7 cells with Ala-MnSOD-or Val-MnSOD-encoding plasmids and assessed cellular iron, MnSOD activity, and diverse mRNAs and proteins. In Huh7 cells, MnSOD activity was higher after Ala-MnSOD transfection than after Val-MnSOD transfection. Additionally, iron supplementation decreased transfected MnSOD proteins and activities. Ala-MnSOD transfection increased the mRNAs and proteins of ferritin, hepcidin, and TfR2, decreased the expression of frataxin, and caused cellular iron accumulation. In contrast, Val-MnSOD transfection had limited effects. In conclusion, the Ala-MnSOD variant favors hepatic iron accumulation by modulating the expression of proteins involved in iron homeostasis.

  14. Involvement of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in S-phase cell-cycle arrest induced by Furazolidone in human hepatoma G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Tang, Shusheng; Jin, Xi; Zhang, Chaoming; Zhao, Wenxia; Xiao, Xilong

    2013-12-01

    Given the previously described essential role for the p38 mitogen-activation protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in human hepatoma G2 cells (HepG2), we undertook the present study to investigate the role of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in cell-cycle arrest induced by Furazolidone (FZD). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of FZD on HepG2 cells by activating and inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. The cell cycle and proliferation of HepG2 cells treated with FZD were detected by flow cytometry and MTT assay in the presence or absence of p38 MAPK inhibitors (SB203580), respectively. Cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Our data showed that p38 MAPK became phosphorylated after stimulation with FZD. Activation of p38 MAPK could arise S-phase cell-cycle arrest and suppress cell proliferation. Simultaneously, inhibition of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway significantly prevented S-phase cell-cycle arrest, increased the percentage of cell viability and decreased the expression of cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6. These results demonstrated that FZD arose S-phase cell-cycle arrest via activating the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. Cyclin D1, cyclin D3 and CDK6 are target genes functioning at the downstream of p38 MAPK in HepG2 cells induced by FZD.

  15. Pokemon基因在肝癌细胞中的表达及意义%Pokemon Gene Expression in Hepatoma Cells and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵心恺; 宁巧明; 孙晓宁; 田德安

    2012-01-01

    Objective To research pokemon expression in hepatoma cells and apoptosis of liver cancer cells through down-regulation of Pokemon Gene. Methods Pokemon expression was detected by western blot assay in hepatoma cellular lines HepG2, SMMC7721 and human embryonic stem cells LO2 cell lines. Pokemon gene silencing was induced by siRNA inhibition and then apoptosis of hepatoma cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Pokemon expressions in HepG2 and SMMC7721 were significantly higher than those in human fetal liver cells LO2. siRNA inhibition of the expression of Pokemon triggered apoptosis of the liver cancer cells. Conclusion Proto-oncogene Pokemon expression in liver cancer cells was significantly increased, and played an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma development.%目的 探讨Pokemon在肝癌细胞中的表达及意义,进一步阐明肝细胞癌发生发展过程中的分子机制.方法 选择肝癌细胞HepG2、SMMC7721和人胚胎肝细胞LO2细胞株,应用Western blot法检测Pokemon在不同细胞中的表达;应用基因沉默方法抑制Pokemon在肝癌细胞中的表达,应用流式细胞仪观察肝癌细胞的凋亡情况.结果 Pokemon在肝癌细胞HepG2、SMMC7721中的表达明显高于人胚胎肝细胞LO2;siRNA抑制Pokemon的表达后,肝癌细胞凋亡明显增加.结论 原癌基因Pokemon在肝癌细胞中表达明显增高,Pokemon可能在肝癌的发生、发展过程中起重要作用.

  16. HCV Core Protein Uses Multiple Mechanisms to Induce Oxidative Stress in Human Hepatoma Huh7 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander V.; Smirnova, Olga A.; Petrushanko, Irina Y.; Ivanova, Olga N.; Karpenko, Inna L.; Alekseeva, Ekaterina; Sominskaya, Irina; Makarov, Alexander A.; Bartosch, Birke; Kochetkov, Sergey N.; Isaguliants, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is accompanied by the induction of oxidative stress, mediated by several virus proteins, the most prominent being the nucleocapsid protein (HCV core). Here, using the truncated forms of HCV core, we have delineated several mechanisms by which it induces the oxidative stress. The N-terminal 36 amino acids of HCV core induced TGFβ1-dependent expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases 1 and 4, both of which independently contributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The same fragment also induced the expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2, which, however, made no input into ROS production. Amino acids 37–191 of HCV core up-regulated the transcription of a ROS generating enzyme cytochrome P450 2E1. Furthermore, the same fragment induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1α. The latter triggered efflux of Ca2+ from ER to mitochondria via mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter, leading to generation of superoxide anions, and possibly also H2O2. Suppression of any of these pathways in cells expressing the full-length core protein led to a partial inhibition of ROS production. Thus, HCV core causes oxidative stress via several independent pathways, each mediated by a distinct region of the protein. PMID:26035647

  17. Effects of fucoidan on proliferation, AMP-activated protein kinase, and downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-associated molecules in poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-05-01

    Survival rates are low in patients with poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, has anticancer activity; however, the effects of fucoidan on poorly differentiated HCC remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoidan on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a proliferation regulator, and its downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-related molecules in a poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cell line. HLF cells were treated with fucoidan (10, 50, or 100 µg/ml; n=4) or phosphate buffered saline (control; n=4) for 96 h. Proliferation was evaluated by counting cells every 24 h. AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP-citrate lyase, p53, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, and CDK6 expression and/or phosphorylation were examined by immunoblotting 24 h after treatment with 100 µg/ml fucoidan. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter 48 h after treatment. Treatment with 50 or 100 µg/ml fucoidan significantly and dose- and time-dependently suppressed HLF cell proliferation (PFucoidan induced AMPK phosphorylation on Ser172 24 h after treatment. Although no differences were seen in expression and phosphorylation levels of TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, ATP-citrate lyase, and p53 between the control and fucoidan-treated HLF cells, fucoidan induced ACC phosphorylation on Ser79. Moreover, fucoidan decreased cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression 24 h after treatment. Furthermore, HLF cells were arrested in the G1/S phase 48 h after fucoidan treatment. We demonstrated that fucoidan suppressed HLF cell proliferation with AMPK phosphorylation. We showed that fucoidan phosphorylated ACC and downregulated cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression. Our findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits proliferation through AMPK-associated suppression of fatty acid synthesis and G1/S transition in HLF cells.

  18. The effects of urotensin II on migration and invasion are mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Ying; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Feng, Ping; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive neuropeptide involved in migration and invasion in various cell types. However, the effects of UII on human hepatoma cells still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of UII on migration and invasion in human hepatoma cells. Migration was measured by wound healing assays and a Transwell(®) methodology, and invasion was analyzed using Matrigel(®) invasion chambers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, and flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were evaluated by western blotting. Cell proliferation and actin polymerization were examined using cell proliferation reagent WST-1 and F-actin immunohistochemistry staining. Exposure to UII promoted migration and invasion in hepatoma cells compared with that in cells without UII. UII also increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression in a time-independent manner. Furthermore, UII markedly enhanced ROS generation and NADPH oxidase subunit expression, and consequently facilitated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The UT antagonist urantide or the antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin decreased UII-induced ROS production. JNK phosphorylation, migration, invasion, and MMP9/2 expression were also reversed by pretreatment with apocynin. Urantide and JNK inhibitor SP600125 abrogated migration, invasion, or MMP9/2 expression in response to UII. UII induced actin polymerization and fascin protein expression, and could be reversed by apocynin and SP600125. Exogenous UII induced migration and invasion in hepatoma cells that mainly involved NADPH oxidase-derived ROS through JNK activation. UT played an additional role in regulating hepatoma cells migration and invasion. Thus, our data suggested an important effect of UII in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gypenosides Induce Apoptosis by Ca2+ Overload Mediated by Endoplasmic-Reticulum and Store-Operated Ca2+ Channels in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Da-Peng; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Xin-Li; Zhao, Dan; Qiu, Feng-Qi; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Gypenosides (Gyps) are triterpenoid saponins contained in an extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and reported to induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cells through Ca2+-implicated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways. The mechanism underlying the Gyp-increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) is unclear. Here, we examined Gyp-induced necrosis and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Gyp-induced apoptotic cell death was accompanied by a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i level. Gyp-increased [Ca2+]i level was partly inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ by Ca2+ chelator EGTA, store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOC) inhibitor 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), and ER Ca2+-release-antagonist 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid 8-(diethylamino) octyl ester (TMB-8). The strongest inhibitory effect was observed with TMB-8. EGTA, 2-APB, and TMB-8 also protected against Gyp-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The combination of 2-APB and TMB-8 almost completely abolished the Gyp-induced Ca2+ response and apoptosis. In contrast, the sarco/endoplasmic-reticulum-Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) inhibitor thapsigargin slightly elevated Gyp-induced [Ca2+]i increase and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Exposure to 300 μg/mL Gyp for 24 hours upregulated protein levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor and SOC and downregulated that of SERCA for at least 72 hours. Thus, Gyp-induced increase in [Ca2+]i level and consequent apoptosis in HepG2 cells may be mainly due to enhanced Ca2+ release from ER stores and increased store-operated Ca2+ entry. PMID:25310348

  20. Differential action of 13-HPODE on PPARalpha downstream genes in rat Fao and human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Bettina; Eder, Klaus

    2006-06-01

    In rats, oxidized fats activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), leading to reduced triglyceride concentrations in liver, plasma and very low density lipoproteins. Oxidation products of linoleic acid constitute an important portion of oxidized dietary fats. This study was conducted to check whether the primary lipid peroxidation product of linoleic acid, 13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), might be involved in the PPARalpha-activating effect of oxidized fats. Therefore, we examined the effect of 13-HPODE on the expression of PPARalpha target genes in the rat Fao and the human HepG2 hepatoma cell lines. In Fao cells, 13-HPODE increased the mRNA concentration of the PPARalpha target genes acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), cytochrome P450 4A1 and carnitine-palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Furthermore, the concentration of cellular and secreted triglycerides was reduced in Fao cells treated with 13-HPODE. Because PPARalpha mRNA was not influenced, we conclude that these effects are due to an activation of PPARalpha by 13-HPODE. In contrast, HepG2 cells seemed to be resistant to PPARalpha activation by 13-HPODE because no remarkable induction of the PPARalpha target genes ACO, CPT1A, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and delta9-desaturase was observed. Consequently, cellular and secreted triglyceride levels were not changed after incubation of HepG2 cells with 13-HPODE. In conclusion, this study shows that 13-HPODE activates PPARalpha in rat Fao but not in human HepG2 hepatoma cells.

  1. Hepatitis B virus X protein upregulates Lin28A/Lin28B through Sp-1/c-Myc to enhance the proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X; Liu, F; Zhang, T; Lv, N; Liu, Q; Shan, C; Du, Y; Kong, G; Wang, T; Ye, L; Zhang, X

    2014-01-23

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we were interested in knowing whether the oncogene Lin28A and its homolog Lin28B are involved in the hepatocarcinogenesis mediated by HBx. We showed that the expression levels of Lin28A and Lin28B were increased in clinical HCC tissues, HepG2.2.15 cell line and liver tissues of p21-HBx transgenic mice. Interestingly, the expression levels of HBx were positively associated with those of Lin28A/Lin28B in clinical HCC tissues. Moreover, the overexpression of HBx resulted in the upregulation of Lin28A/Lin28B in hepatoma HepG2/H7402 cell lines by transient transfection, suggesting that HBx was able to upregulate Lin28A and Lin28B. Then, we examined the mechanism by which HBx upregulated Lin28A and Lin28B. We identified that the promoter region of Lin28A regulated by HBx was located at nt -235/-66 that contained Sp-1 binding element. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that HBx was able to interact with Sp-1 in HepG2-X cells. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated that HBx could bind to the promoter of Lin28A, which failed to work when Sp-1 was silenced. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) further identified that HBx was able to interact with Sp-1 element in Lin28A promoter via transcription factor Sp-1. In addition, we found that c-Myc was involved in the activation of Lin28B mediated by HBx. In function, Lin28A/Lin28B played important roles in HBx-enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, HBx activates Lin28A/Lin28B through Sp-1/c-Myc in hepatoma cells. Lin28A/Lin28B serves as key driver genes in HBx-induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Basil extract inhibits the sulfotransferase mediated formation of DNA adducts of the procarcinogen 1'-hydroxyestragole by rat and human liver S9 homogenates and in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Punt, A.; Delatour, T.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of a basil extract on the sulfation and concomitant DNA adduct formation of the proximate carcinogen 1¿-hydroxyestragole were studied using rat and human liver S9 homogenates and the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Basil was chosen since it contains the procarcinogen estragole that can b

  3. Stochastic biophysical modeling of irradiated cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fornalski, Krzysztof Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a computational stochastic model of virtual cells irradiation, based on Quasi-Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and using biophysical input. The model is based on a stochastic tree of probabilities for each cell of the entire colony. Biophysics of the cells is described by probabilities and probability distributions provided as the input. The adaptation of nucleation and catastrophe theories, well known in physics, yields sigmoidal relationships for carcinogenic risk as a function of the irradiation. Adaptive response and bystander effect, incorporated into the model, improves its application. The results show that behavior of virtual cells can be successfully modeled, e.g. cancer transformation, creation of mutations, radioadaptation or radiotherapy. The used methodology makes the model universal and practical for simulations of general processes. Potential biophysical curves and relationships are also widely discussed in the paper. However, the presented theoretical model does not describe ...

  4. Temporal and Tight Hepatitis C Virus Gene Activation in Cultured Human Hepatoma Cells Mediated by a Cell-Permeable Cre Recombinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong XIAO; Kang XU; Ying YUE; Zhong-Min GUO; Bing HUANG; Xin-Yan DENG; Huan TANG; Xi-Gu CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Conditional gene expression has greatly facilitated the examination of the functions of particular gene products. Using the Cre/lox P switching expression system, we plan to develop efficient conditional transgene activation of hepatitis C virus core protein (HCV-C) cDNA (nucleotide 342-914) in the transgenic mice to overcome "immune tolerance" formed during the embryonic period and "immune escape" against hepatitis virus antigen in our project. To use this system in vivo, the dormant transgenic construct, i.e.,pApoE-SCS-EGFP-HCV-C, was generated using techniques of standard molecular biology. The liverspecific human apoE promoter was here used to target expression of genes of interest (EGFP and HCV-C) to murine liver. Prior to generating the transgenic mice, the availability of Cre/lox P system and construct functionality were successfully verified by a cell-free recombination system and via checking the expression of EGFP and HCV-C in the human hepatoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. These results suggest that the Cre/lox P system could tightly control expression of EGFP and HCV-C in vitro, which laid a solid foundation to conditionally activate expression of target gene(s) in transgenic mice by Cre-mediated site-specific recombination.

  5. Size-dependent cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced by biphasic regulation of oxidative stress in different human hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Y

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuexia Xie,1,2,* Dejun Liu,3,* Chenlei Cai,1,* Xiaojing Chen,1 Yan Zhou,1 Liangliang Wu,1 Yongwei Sun,3 Huili Dai,1,2 Xianming Kong,1,2 Peifeng Liu1,2 1Central Laboratory, 2State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, 3Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs has made great progress in the diagnosis of disease and in the drug delivery system for cancer therapy, but the relative mecha­nisms of potential toxicity induced by Fe3O4 have not kept pace with its development in the application, which has hampered its further clinical application. In this article, we used two kinds of human hepatoma cell lines, SK-Hep-1 and Hep3B, to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the involved mechanisms of small Fe3O4 NPs with different diameters (6 nm, 9 nm, and 14 nm. Results showed that the size of NPs effectively influences the cytotoxicity of hepatoma cells: 6 nm Fe3O4 NPs exhibited negligible cytotoxicity and 9 nm Fe3O4 NPs affected cytotoxicity via cellular mitochondrial dysfunction and by inducing necrosis mediated through the mitochondria-dependent intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. Meanwhile, 14 nm Fe3O4 NPs induced cytotoxicity by impairing the integrity of plasma membrane and promoting massive lactate dehydrogenase leakage. These results explain the detailed mechanism of different diameters of small Fe3O4 NPs-induced cytotoxicity. We anticipate that this study will provide different insights into the cytotoxicity mechanism of Fe3O4 NPs, so as to make them safer to use in clinical application. Keywords: hepatoma cells, nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, mechanism, oxidative stress

  6. Dioxin-like activity of brominated dioxins as individual compounds or mixtures in in vitro reporter gene assays with rat and mouse hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, G; Nakamura, M; Michinaka, C; Tue, N M; Handa, H; Takigami, H

    2017-10-01

    In vitro reporter gene assays detecting dioxin-like compounds have been developed and validated since the middle 1990's, and applied to the determination of dioxin-like activities in various samples for their risk management. Data on characterizing the potency of individual brominated dioxins and their activity in mixture with chlorinated dioxins are still limited on the cell-based assay. This study characterized the dioxin-like activities of the 32 brominated dioxins, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs), coplanar polybrominated biphenyls, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDFs), as a sole component or in a mixture by DR-CALUX (dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression) using the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line and XDS-CALUX (xenobiotic detection systems-chemically activated luciferase expression) assays using the mouse hepatoma H1L6.1 cell line. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD-relative potencies (REPs) of most of the brominated dioxins were within a factor of 10 of the WHO toxicity equivalency factor (WHO-TEF) for the chlorinated analogues. The REPs of a few PXDFs were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding WHO-TEFs, indicating their toxicological importance. Results with reconstituted mixtures suggest that the activity of brominated and chlorinated dioxins in both CALUX assays was dose-additive. Thus, obtained results indicated the applicability of the CALUX assays as screening tools of brominated dioxins together with their chlorinated analogues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Type I Interferon Supports Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes and during Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Malte; Waibler, Zoe; Pleli, Thomas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of high-output nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in inflammation biology and host defense. Herein, we set out to characterize the role of type I interferon (IFN) as potential regulator of hepatic iNOS in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, we identified in murine Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells a potent synergism between pro-inflammatory interleukin-β/tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoregulatory IFNβ as detected by analysis of iNOS expression and nitrite release. Upregulation of iNOS by IFNβ coincided with enhanced binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 to a regulatory region at the murine iNOS promoter known to support target gene expression in response to this signaling pathway. Synergistic iNOS induction under the influence of IFNβ was confirmed in alternate murine Hepa56.1D hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes. To assess iNOS regulation by type I IFN in vivo, murine acetaminophen (APAP)-induced sterile liver inflammation was investigated. In this model of acute liver injury, excessive necroinflammation drives iNOS expression in diverse liver cell types, among others hepatocytes. Herein, we demonstrate impaired iNOS expression in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice which associated with diminished APAP-induced liver damage. Data presented indicate a vital role of type I IFN within the inflamed liver for fine-tuning pathological processes such as overt iNOS expression.

  8. Type I Interferon Supports Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Murine Hepatoma Cells and Hepatocytes and during Experimental Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Malte; Waibler, Zoe; Pleli, Thomas; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Cytokine regulation of high-output nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is critically involved in inflammation biology and host defense. Herein, we set out to characterize the role of type I interferon (IFN) as potential regulator of hepatic iNOS in vitro and in vivo. In this regard, we identified in murine Hepa1-6 hepatoma cells a potent synergism between pro-inflammatory interleukin-β/tumor necrosis factor-α and immunoregulatory IFNβ as detected by analysis of iNOS expression and nitrite release. Upregulation of iNOS by IFNβ coincided with enhanced binding of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 to a regulatory region at the murine iNOS promoter known to support target gene expression in response to this signaling pathway. Synergistic iNOS induction under the influence of IFNβ was confirmed in alternate murine Hepa56.1D hepatoma cells and primary hepatocytes. To assess iNOS regulation by type I IFN in vivo, murine acetaminophen (APAP)-induced sterile liver inflammation was investigated. In this model of acute liver injury, excessive necroinflammation drives iNOS expression in diverse liver cell types, among others hepatocytes. Herein, we demonstrate impaired iNOS expression in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice which associated with diminished APAP-induced liver damage. Data presented indicate a vital role of type I IFN within the inflamed liver for fine-tuning pathological processes such as overt iNOS expression. PMID:28824623

  9. Insulin attenuates TNFα-induced hemopexin mRNA: An anti-inflammatory action of insulin in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lee Franklin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-6, can contribute to insulin resistance. Conversely, insulin has some actions that can be considered anti-inflammatory. Hemopexin is a Class 2 acute phase reactant and control of its transcription is predominantly regulated by IL-6, with TNF-α and IL-1β also inducing hemopexin gene expression. Thus, we asked whether insulin could inhibit the ability of TNF-α to stimulate hemopexin mRNA expression. In cultured rat hepatoma (H4IIE cells, TNF-α significantly increased hemopexin mRNA accumulation. The TNF-α-induced increase of hemopexin mRNA was dramatically attenuated by insulin, even though TNF-α reduced peak insulin activation of ERK. Thus, even though TNF-α can contribute to insulin resistance, the residual insulin response was still able to counteract TNF-α actions.

  10. Effects of PARP-1 inhibitors AG-014699 and AZD2281 on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DU Senrong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo observe the inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of two poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1 inhibitors, AG-014699 and AZD2281, on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and preliminarily explore the mechanism by which AG-014699 induces HepG2 cell apoptosis, and to provide a new therapeutic target for hepatoma. MethodsThe effects of different concentrations of AG-014699 and AZD2281 on HepG2 cell proliferation were determined by MTT assay. The cell apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured by Western Blot. Inter-group comparison was made by t test. ResultsBoth AG-014699 and AZD2281 suppressed HepG2 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, the sensitivity of HepG2 cells to the two PARP-1 inhibitors was different. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of AG-014699 and AZD2281 at 48 h determined by MTT assay were about 20 μmol/L and 400 μmol/L, respectively. Flow cytometry and Western blot were not used to evaluate the apoptosis of HepG2 cells exposed to AZD2281 to which these cells were not sensitive. HepG2 cell apoptosis could be induced by 10, 30, and 50 μmol/L AG-014699, and the highest apoptosis rate at 48 h was significantly higher than that of the control group (3100%±2.13% vs 09%±0013%, P<0.01. Compared with those in the control group, the protein levels of caspase-3 and caspase-8 in HepG2 cells after 48-h exposure to 30, and 50 μmol/L AG-014699 increased. ConclusionThe two PARP-1 inhibitors AG-014699 and AZD2281 can inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, which showed different sensitivities to the two inhibitors. AG-014699 can induce HepG2 cell apoptosis by up-regulating the protein expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8.

  11. Effect of antisense oligonucleotide targeting bFGF on apoptosis of hepatoma cells%多层螺旋CT同层动态扫描结合MPR技术诊断肝外胆管癌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielin Qi; Ning Wu; Li Li; Bing Bu; Dengfeng Zhou; Xiqin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the cell cycle changes of hepatoma cells and the rote of antisense oligonucleotide targeting bFGF.Methods:Inhibition of bFGF protein expression was investigated by conical microscopy analysis and Western blot in the best condition of transfecting antisense oligonucleotide targeting bFGF.Cell cycle and apoptosis were detected with flow cytometry analysis.Results:Treatmenl with antisense oligonucleotide of bFGF not only reduced the expression of bFGF by conical microscopy and Western blot analysises,but also increased the apoptosis of HepG2 cells(P<0.01).Conclusion:bFGF may take part in apoptosis regulation of hepatoma cells and be used as a target of hepatocel-lular carcinoma therapy.

  12. Effects of laminin and collagen type I on the morphology and secretion of proteins in human hepatoblastoma and hepatoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiwa,Takayoshi

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of laminin (LAM and collagen type I (C-I on human hepatoblastoma (HuH-6 and hepatoma (HuH-7 cell lines were investigated. C-I was superior to LAM in supporting the attachment of the cells, especially of HuH-6, to plastic surfaces. No effect of LAM and C-I on cellular morphology was recognizable by phase contrast microscopy. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM, much more microvilli were found on the cell surface of HuH-6 on LAM substrate than on C-I substrate. In HuH-7 cells, however, these microvilli were rarely found on either LAM substrate or C-I substrate. The gel profile of the proteins secreted by HuH-6 and HuH-7 cells was not affected by the culture substrate except for the major band, though the amount of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP secreted was larger when the cells were cultured on LAM substrate than on C-I substrate. These results indicate that the ability of LAM or C-I to enhance attachment is different from that to enhance AFP production or microvilli expression in HuH-6 cells and probably in HuH-7 cells.

  13. Comparative effects of food-derived polyphenols on the viability and apoptosis of a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Sonia; Alía, Mario; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2005-02-23

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in polyphenols, has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer. Dietary polyphenols have antioxidant and antiproliferative properties that might explain their beneficial effect on cancer prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different pure polyphenols [quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and (-)-epicatechin] and natural fruit extracts (strawberry and plum) on viability or apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin and fruit extracts reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner; however, chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin had no prominent effects on the cell death rate. Similarly, quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts, rather than chlorogenic acid and (-)-epicatechin, induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Moreover, quercetin and fruit extracts arrested the G1 phase in the cell cycle progression prior to apoptosis. Quercetin and strawberry and plum extracts may induce apoptosis and contribute to a reduced cell viability in HepG2 cells.

  14. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human HepG2, Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cell lines and mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib-induced cell growth inhibition and apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-Bo Liu; Tao Peng; Chao Pan; Yu-Yu Yao; Bo Shen; Jing Leng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)expression level in human HepG2, Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721hepatoma cell lines and the molecular mechanism of COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib-induced cell growth inhibition and cell apoptosis.METHODS: Hepatoma cells were cultured and treated with celecoxib. Cell in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunocytochemistry were used to detect COX-2 mRNA and protein expression. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated Akt were also detected by immunocytochemistry assay. Cell growth rates were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) bromide colorimetric assay. Celecoxibinduced cell apoptosis was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry (FCM). The phosphorylated Akt and activated fragments of caspase-9, caspase-3 were examined by Western blotting analysis.RESULTS: Increased COX-2 mRNA and protein expression were detected in all three hepatoma cell lines. Celecoxib could significantly inhibit cell growth and the inhibitory effect was in a dose- and time-dependent manner evidenced by MTr assays and morphological changes.The apoptotic index measured by TUNEL increased correspondingly with the increased concentration of celecoxib and the reaction time. With 50 μmol/L celecoxib treatment for 24 h, the apoptotic index of HepG2, BEL-7402and SMMC-7721 cells was 25.01±3.08%, 26.40±3.05%,and 30.60±2.89%, respectively. Western blotting analysis showed remarkable activation of caspase-9, caspase-3and dephosphorylation of Akt (Thr308). Immunocytochemistry also showed the reduction of PCNA expression and phosphorylation Akt (Thr308) after treatment with celecoxib.CONCLUSION: COX-2 mRNA and protein overexpression in HepG2, Bel-7402 and SMMC-7721 cell lines correlate with the increased cell growth rate. Celecoxib can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of hepatoma cell strains in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

  15. Single-cell Raman spectroscopy of irradiated tumour cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Quinn

    This work describes the development and application of a novel combination of single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS), automated data processing, and principal component analysis (PCA) for investigating radiation induced biochemical responses in human tumour cells. The developed techniques are first validated for the analysis of large data sets (˜200 spectra) obtained from single cells. The effectiveness and robustness of the automated data processing methods is demonstrated, and potential pitfalls that may arise during the implementation of such methods are identified. The techniques are first applied to investigate the inherent sources of spectral variability between single cells of a human prostate tumour cell line (DU145) cultured in vitro. PCA is used to identify spectral differences that correlate with cell cycle progression and the changing confluency of a cell culture during the first 3-4 days after sub-culturing. Spectral variability arising from cell cycle progression is (i) expressed as varying intensities of protein and nucleic acid features relative to lipid features, (ii) well correlated with known biochemical changes in cells as they progress through the cell cycle, and (iii) shown to be the most significant source of inherent spectral variability between cells. This characterization provides a foundation for interpreting spectral variability in subsequent studies. The techniques are then applied to study the effects of ionizing radiation on human tumour cells. DU145 cells are cultured in vitro and irradiated to doses between 15 and 50 Gy with single fractions of 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator. Raman spectra are acquired from irradiated and unirradiated cells, up to 5 days post-irradiation. PCA is used to distinguish radiation induced spectral changes from inherent sources of spectral variability, such as those arising from cell cycle. Radiation induced spectral changes are found to correlate with both the irradiated dose and the

  16. MiR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells via targeting prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Guoxing [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Shi, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Li, Jiong; Yang, Zhe [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Fang, Runping; Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Weiying, E-mail: zhwybao@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-04-08

    Aberrant microRNA expression has been shown to be characteristic of many cancers. It has been reported that the expression levels of miR-30e are decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the role of miR-30e in hepatocellular carcinoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the significance of miR-30e in hepatocarcinogenesis. Bioinformatics analysis reveals a putative target site of miR-30e in the 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (P4HA1) mRNA. Moreover, luciferase reporter gene assays verified that miR-30e directly targeted 3′UTR of P4HA1 mRNA. Then, we demonstrated that miR-30e was able to reduce the expression of P4HA1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Enforced expression of miR-30e suppressed proliferation of HepG2 cells by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay and reduced colony formation of these cells by colony formation analysis. Conversely, anti-miR-30e enhanced the proliferation of hepatoma cells in vitro. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of P4HA1 could efficiently rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-30e in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, silencing of P4HA1 abolished the anti-miR-30e-induced proliferation of cells. Clinically, quantitative real-time PCR showed that miR-30e was down-regulated in liver tumor tissues relative to their peritumor tissues. The expression levels of miR-30e were negatively correlated to those of P4HA1 mRNA in clinical liver tumor tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-30e suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting P4HA1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • P4HA1 is a novel target gene of miR-30e. • P4HA1 is increased in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e is negatively correlated with P4HA1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-30e suppresses the proliferation of HCC cells through

  17. Camel milk triggers apoptotic signaling pathways in human hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF7 cell lines through transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; Maayah, Zaid H; Abd-Allah, Adel R; El-Kadi, Ayman O S; Alhaider, Abdulqader A

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  18. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2 and human breast (MCF7 cancer cells. Our results showed that camel milk, but not bovine milk, significantly inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells proliferation through the activation of caspase-3 mRNA and activity levels, and the induction of death receptors in both cell lines. In addition, Camel milk enhanced the expression of oxidative stress markers, heme oxygenase-1 and reactive oxygen species production in both cells. Mechanistically, the increase in caspase-3 mRNA levels by camel milk was completely blocked by the transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D; implying that camel milk increased de novo RNA synthesis. Furthermore, Inhibition of the mitogen activated protein kinases differentially modulated the camel milk-induced caspase-3 mRNA levels. Taken together, camel milk inhibited HepG2 and MCF7 cells survival and proliferation through the activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  19. MiR-520b suppresses proliferation of hepatoma cells through targeting ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weiying; Lu, Zhanping; Gao, Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Ye, Lihong [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Song, Tianqiang, E-mail: tjchi@hotmai.com [Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: zhangxd@nankai.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Department of Cancer Research, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin (China)

    2015-05-08

    Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs are able to act as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. We previously reported that miR-520b was down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its deregulation was involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. In the present study, we report that miR-520b suppresses cell proliferation in HCC through targeting the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) mRNA. Notably, we identified that miR-520b was able to target 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) of TET1 mRNA by luciferase reporter gene assays. Then, we revealed that miR-520b was able to reduce the expression of TET1 at the levels of mRNA and protein using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. In terms of function, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation and colony formation assays demonstrated that the forced miR-520b expression remarkably inhibited proliferation of hepatoma cells, but TET1 overexpression could rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by miR-520b. Furthermore, anti-miR-520b enhanced proliferation of hepatoma cells, whereas silencing of TET1 abolished anti-miR-520b-induced acceleration of cell proliferation. Then, we validated that the expression levels of miR-520b were negatively related to those of TET1 mRNA in clinical HCC tissues. Thus, we conclude that miR-520b depresses proliferation of liver cancer cells through targeting 3′UTR of TET1 mRNA. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. - Highlights: • TET1 is a novel target gene of miR-520b. • TET1 is upregulated in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b is negatively correlated with TET1 in clinical HCC tissues. • MiR-520b depresses the proliferation of HCC cells through targeting TET1 mRNA.

  20. Sirolimus inhibits growth of human hepatoma cells alone or combined with tacrolimus, while tacrolimus promotes cell growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guido Schumacher; Marijke Oidtmann; Anne Rueggeberg; Dietmar Jacob; Sven Jonas; Jan M. Langrehr; Ruth Neuhaus; Marcus Bahra; Peter Neuhaus

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Standard immunosuppression after organ transplantation stimulates tumor growth. Sirolimus has a strong antiproliferative and a tumor inhibiting effect. The purpose is to assess the effect on tumor growth of the immunosuppressive compounds sirolimus and tacrolimus alone and in combination on cells of human hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: We used the human cell lines SK-Hep 1 and Hep 3B derived from hepatocellular carcinoma. Proliferation analyses after treatment with sirolimus, tacrolimus, or the combination of both were performed. FACS analyses were done to reveal cell cycle changes and apoptotic cell death. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was estimated by Western blots.RESULTS: Sirolimus alone or combined with tacrolimus inhibited the growth of both cell lines after 5 d by up to 35% in SK-Hep 1 cells, and by up to 68% in Hep 3B cells at 25 ng/mL. Tacrolimus alone stimulated the growth by 12% after 5 ng/mL and by 25% after 25 ng/mL in Hep 3B cells. We found an increase of apoptotic Hep 3B cells from 6 to 16%, and a G1-arrest in SK-Hep 1 cells with an increase of cells from 61 to 82%, when sirolimus and tacrolimus were combined. Bcl-2 was down-regulated in Hep 3B, but not in SK-Hep 1 cells after combined treatment.CONCLUSION: Sirolimus appears to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells alone and in combination with tacrolimus. Sirolimus seems to inhibit the growth stimulation of tacrolimus.

  1. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of (-)-epicatechin and chlorogenic acid on the regulation of the apoptotic and survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Izquierdo-Pulido, María; Goya, Luis; Bravo, Laura; Ramos, Sonia

    2007-03-07

    Dietary polyphenols have been associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases, but the precise molecular mechanisms of protection remain unclear. This work was aimed at studying the effect of (-)-epicatechin (EC) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) on the regulation of apoptotic and survival/proliferation pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). EC or CGA treatment for 18 h had a slight effect on cell viability and decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and EC alone promoted cell proliferation, whereas CGA increased glutathione levels. Phenols neither induced the caspase cascade for apoptosis nor affected expression levels of Bcl-xL or Bax. A sustained activation of the major survival signals AKT/PI-3-kinase and ERK was shown in EC-treated cells, rather than in CGA-exposed cells. These data suggest that EC and CGA have no effect on apoptosis and enhance the intrinsic cellular tolerance against oxidative insults either by activating survival/proliferation pathways or by increasing antioxidant potential in HepG2.

  3. Spermatogonial stem cell renewal following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-05-01

    The spermatogonial cell renewal system can maintain function and a steady level of cell population for relatively long periods of continuous low-level irradiation indicating that there does not appear to be a serious accumulation, over many generations, of damage affecting proliferation. Provided the dose-rate is quite low, there is an effective selective removal of damaged cells with almost complete repair of cellular nonlethal damage. At dose-rates greater than 2 rad/day, spermatogonia are very sensitive to radiation death, and the main reason for the low tolerance to continuous stress could, in part, be the limited extent of compensatory mechanisms regulating spermatogonial cell production. However, there is some capacity to change the patterns of cellular proliferation while still remaining under homeostatic control, and this capacity appears to reside in the relatively radioresistant A/sub s/ stem-cell population. Little is known about the extent to which the spermatogonial cell population can repair nonlethal cellular radiation damage accumulated under continuous stress affecting the regenerative capacity of the tissue. After acute exposure, a minimum number of surviving type A/sub s/ stem-cells are required to repopulate the functional seminiferous epithelium, regeneration proceeds along an ordered cell stage sequence, and is dependent on the time required for all stages from type A/sub s/ spermatogonia to mature spermatozoa. Under continuous irradiation, provided the dose-rate is not too high, the repopulating ability of the seminiferous epithelium is maintained, in the presence of injury, due to initial repair and long-term repair of cellular radiation damage. There is evidence for initial repair, since a dose-rate effect exists in type A survival, at low doses. Long-term repair occurs due to differential radiosensitivities of spermatogonia.

  4. Mechanism(s of Toxic Action of Zn2+ and Selenite: A Study on AS-30D Hepatoma Cells and Isolated Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria of AS-30D rat ascites hepatoma cells are found to be the main target for Zn2+ and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3. High [mu]M concentrations of Zn2+ or selenite were strongly cytotoxic, killing the AS-30D cells by both apoptotic and necrotic ways. Both Zn2+ and selenite produced strong changes in intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the mitochondrial dysfunction via the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC disturbance, the membrane potential dissipation, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The significant distinctions in toxic action of Zn2+ and selenite on AS-30D cells were found. Selenite induced a much higher intracellular ROS level (the early event compared to Zn2+ but a lower membrane potential loss and a lower decrease of the uncoupled respiration rate of the cells, whereas the mtETC disturbance was the early and critical event in the mechanism of Zn2+ cytotoxicity. Sequences of events manifested in the mitochondrial dysfunction produced by the metal/metalloid under test are compared with those obtained earlier for Cd2+, Hg2+, and Cu2+ on the same model system.

  5. FoxO3a mediates transforming growth factor-beta1-induced apoptosis in FaO rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chul

    2008-10-31

    FoxO3a is a member of the forkhead box class O (FoxO) transcription factor family and an important regulator of apoptosis. This work aimed to elucidate the involvement of FoxO3a in transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced apoptosis in FaO rat hepatoma cells. TGF-beta1 caused a time-dependent activation of FoxO3a and a subsequent increase in FoxO response-element-containing luciferase reporter activity, which was Akt-sensitive. The FaO cells stably transfected with a wild type FoxO3a were more susceptible to the formation of apoptotic bodies, populations of sub-G1 apoptotic cells, and collapse of the mitochondrial-membrane potential triggered by TGF-beta1. In contrast, transfection with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotide specific for FoxO3a significantly inhibited caspase activation in FaO cells treated with TGF-beta1. It thus appears that FoxO3a plays a crucial mediatory role in the TGF-beta1 signaling pathway leading to apoptosis.

  6. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Raza

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, including acetaminophen (APAP, have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST and multidrug resistance (MDR1 proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM, a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  7. Differential Cytotoxicity of Acetaminophen in Mouse Macrophage J774.2 and Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells: Protection by Diallyl Sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including acetaminophen (APAP), have been reported to induce cytotoxicity in cancer and non-cancerous cells. Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) causes liver injury in humans and animals. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion followed by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are believed to be the main causes of APAP toxicity. The precise molecular mechanism of APAP toxicity in different cellular systems is, however, not clearly understood. Our previous studies on mouse macrophage J774.2 cells treated with APAP strongly suggest induction of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. In the present study, using human hepatoma HepG2 cells, we have further demonstrated that macrophages are a more sensitive target for APAP-induced toxicity than HepG2 cells. Using similar dose- and time-point studies, a marked increase in apoptosis and DNA fragmentation were seen in macrophages compared to HepG2 cells. Differential effects of APAP on mitochondrial respiratory functions and oxidative stress were observed in the two cell lines which are presumably dependent on the varying degree of drug metabolism by the different cytochrome P450s and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Our results demonstrate a marked increase in the activity and expression of glutathione transferase (GST) and multidrug resistance (MDR1) proteins in APAP-treated HepG2 cells compared to macrophages. This may explain the apparent resistance of HepG2 cells to APAP toxicity. However, treatment of these cells with diallyl sulfide (DAS, 200 μM), a known chemopreventive agent from garlic extract, 24 h prior to APAP (10 μmol/ml for 18h) exhibited comparable cytoprotective effects in the two cell lines. These results may help in better understanding the mechanism of cytotoxicity caused by APAP and cytoprotection by chemopreventive agents in cancer and non-cancerous cellular systems.

  8. Correlation between Cell Killing and Initial Chromatid Breaks Measured by PCC in Human Hepatoma Cells Irradiated With γ-rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangJianshe; LiWenjian; GaoQingxiang; ZhaoJing; XiaJingguang; JinXiaodong

    2003-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most seriously lethal disease. Radiobiologists aimed to develop an assay or a combinative assay to predict the radiation response of human cancer. Precise prediction of response to radiation could provide the basis for selecting and designing clinical treatment project.

  9. Salmonella typhimurium strain SL7207 induces apoptosis and inhibits the growth of HepG2 hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowei Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium is probably most extensively studied tumor-targeting bacteria and SL7207 is one of its attenuated strains. SL7207 was first made for bacterial vaccine development and its therapeutic efficacy and safety for hepatocellular carcinoma has not been characterized. In this study, the inhibitory ability of SL7207-lux on human hepatoma HepG2 cells was tested in vitro and in vivo. A bacterial luminescent gene cluster (lux CDABE was transfected into SL7207 to better monitor the invasion of the bacteria. The results show that SL7207-lux can rapidly enter HepG2 cells and localize in the cytoplasm. This invasion represses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In vivo real-time invasion studies showed that the bacteria gradually accumulate in the tumor. This enrichment was confirmed by anatomic observation at 5 days after inoculation. About 40% of tumor growth was inhibited by SL7207-lux at 34 days post-treatment without significant loss of body weight. The area of necrosis of tumor tissue was clearly increased in the treated group. Bacterial quantification showed that the number of colony-forming units per gram of bacteria within tumor tissue was approximately 1000-fold higher than that of liver and spleen. These data suggest that attenuated S. typhimurium strain SL7207 has potential for the treatment of cancers.

  10. Profiling of promoter occupancy by the SND1 transcriptional coactivator identifies downstream glycerolipid metabolic genes involved in TNFα response in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arretxe, Enara; Armengol, Sandra; Mula, Sarai; Chico, Yolanda; Ochoa, Begoña; Martínez, María José

    2015-12-15

    The NF-κB-inducible Staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain-containing 1 gene (SND1) encodes a coactivator involved in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. While SND1 is known to interact with certain transcription factors and activate client gene expression, no comprehensive mapping of SND1 target genes has been reported. Here, we have approached this question by performing ChIP-chip assays on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and analyzing SND1 binding modulation by proinflammatory TNFα. We show that SND1 binds 645 gene promoters in control cells and 281 additional genes in TNFα-treated cells. Transcription factor binding site analysis of bound probes identified motifs for established partners and for novel transcription factors including HSF, ATF, STAT3, MEIS1/AHOXA9, E2F and p300/CREB. Major target genes were involved in gene expression and RNA metabolism regulation, as well as development and cellular metabolism. We confirmed SND1 binding to 21 previously unrecognized genes, including a set of glycerolipid genes. Knocking-down experiments revealed that SND1 deficiency compromises the glycerolipid gene reprogramming and lipid phenotypic responses to TNFα. Overall, our findings uncover an unexpected large set of potential SND1 target genes and partners and reveal SND1 to be a determinant downstream effector of TNFα that contributes to support glycerophospholipid homeostasis in human hepatocellular carcinoma during inflammation.

  11. Control of gene expression by the retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Chauvet

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-related Orphan Receptor alpha (RORα; NR1F1 is a widely distributed nuclear receptor involved in several (pathophysiological functions including lipid metabolism, inflammation, angiogenesis, and circadian rhythm. To better understand the role of this nuclear receptor in liver, we aimed at displaying genes controlled by RORα in liver cells by generating HepG2 human hepatoma cells stably over-expressing RORα. Genes whose expression was altered in these cells versus control cells were displayed using micro-arrays followed by qRT-PCR analysis. Expression of these genes was also altered in cells in which RORα was transiently over-expressed after adenoviral infection. A number of the genes found were involved in known pathways controlled by RORα, for instance LPA, NR1D2 and ADIPOQ in lipid metabolism, ADIPOQ and PLG in inflammation, PLG in fibrinolysis and NR1D2 and NR1D1 in circadian rhythm. This study also revealed that genes such as G6PC, involved in glucose homeostasis, and AGRP, involved in the control of body weight, are also controlled by RORα. Lastly, SPARC, involved in cell growth and adhesion, and associated with liver carcinogenesis, was up-regulated by RORα. SPARC was found to be a new putative RORα target gene since it possesses, in its promoter, a functional RORE as evidenced by EMSAs and transfection experiments. Most of the other genes that we found regulated by RORα also contained putative ROREs in their regulatory regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP confirmed that the ROREs present in the SPARC, PLG, G6PC, NR1D2 and AGRP genes were occupied by RORα in HepG2 cells. Therefore these genes must now be considered as direct RORα targets. Our results open new routes on the roles of RORα in glucose metabolism and carcinogenesis within cells of hepatic origin.

  12. Arecoline induces HA22T/VGH hepatoma cells to undergo anoikis - involvement of STAT3 and RhoA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Su, Shu-Jem; Huang, Li-Wen; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Hu, Yu-Chen; Hung, Thu-Ching; Chang, Kee-Lung

    2010-05-28

    Our previous study showed that, in basal cell carcinoma cells, arecoline reduces levels of the tumor cell survival factor interleukin-6 (IL-6), increases levels of tumor suppressor factor p53, and elicits cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. In preliminarily studies, we observed that arecoline induces detachment of the human-derived hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH from the extracellular matrix. In the present study, we explored the fate of the detached HA22T/VGH cells and investigated the underlying mechanism. HA22T/VGH cells or primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with arecoline, then changes in morphology, viability, apoptosis, and the expression of surface beta1-integrin, apoptosis-related proteins, and IL-6 were examined. Furthermore, activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway and the RhoA/Rock signaling pathway, including p190RhoGAP and Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase SHP2, was examined. A low concentration of arecoline (arecoline treatment. IL-6 expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, which provides protection against anoikis, were inhibited and levels of downstream signaling proteins, including Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, were decreased, while Bax expression, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activity were increased. In addition, phosphorylation/activation of p190RhoGAP, a RhoA inhibitor, and of its upstream regulator, SHP2, was inhibited by arecoline treatment, while Rho/Rock activation was increased. Addition of the RhoA inhibitor attenuated the effects of arecoline. This study demonstrated that arecoline induces anoikis of HA22T/VGH cells involving inhibition of STAT3 and increased RhoA/Rock activation and that the STAT3 and RhoA/Rock signaling pathways are connected.

  13. Regulation of activin receptor-interacting protein 2 expression in mouse hepatoma Hepal-6 cells and its relationship with collagen type Ⅳ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the regulation of activin receptor-interacting protein 2 (ARIP2) expression and its possible relationships with collagen type Ⅳ (collagen Ⅳ) in mouse hepatoma cell line Hepal-6 cells.METHODS: The ARIP2 mRNA expression kinetics in Hepal-6 cells was detected by RT-PCR, and its regulation factors were analyzed by treatment with signal transduction activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), forskolin and A23187. After pcDNA3-ARIP2 was transfected into Hepal-6 cells, the effects of ARIP2 overexpression on activin type Ⅱ receptor (ActRII)and collagen Ⅳ expression were evaluated.RESULTS: The expression levels of ARIP2 mRNA in Hapel-6 cells were elevated in time-dependent manner 12 h after treatment with activin A and endotoxin LPS, but not changed evidently in the early stage of stimulation (2 or 4 h). TheARIP2 mRNA expression was increased after stimulated with signal transduction activators such as PMA and forskolin in Hepal-6 cells, whereas decreased after treatment with A23187 (25.3% ± 5.7% vS 48.1% ± 3.6%, P < 0.01). ARIP2 overexpression could remarkably suppress the expression of ActRIIA mRNA in dose-dependent manner, but has no effect on ActRIIB in Hepal-6 cells induced by activin A. Furthermore, we have found that overexpression of ARIP2 could inhibit collagen Ⅳ mRNA and protein expressions induced by activin A in Hapel-6 cells.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ARIP2 expression can be influenced by various factors. ARIP2 may participate in the negative feedback regulation of signal transduction in the late stage by affecting the expression of ActRIIA and play an important role in regulation of development of liver fibrosis induced by activin.

  14. Species-specific differences in peroxisome proliferation, catalase, and SOD2 upregulation as well as toxicity in human, mouse, and rat hepatoma cells induced by the explosive and environmental pollutant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumenko, Ekaterina Anatolevna; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2017-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used as an explosive substance and its toxicity is still of interest as it persisted in polluted areas. TNT is metabolized in hepatocytes which are prone to its toxicity. Since analysis of the human liver or hepatocytes is restricted due to ethical reasons, we investigated the effects of TNT on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, peroxisome proliferation, and antioxidative enzymes in human (HepG2), mouse (Hepa 1-6), and rat (H4IIEC3) hepatoma cell lines. Under control conditions, hepatoma cells of all three species were highly comparable exhibiting identical proliferation rates and distribution of their cell cycle phases. However, we found strong differences in TNT toxicity with the lowest IC50 values (highest cell death rate) for rat cells, whereas human and mouse cells were three to sevenfold less sensitive. Moreover, a strong decrease in cellular dehydrogenase activity (MTT assay) and increased ROS levels were noted. TNT caused peroxisome proliferation with rat hepatoma cells being most responsive followed by those from mouse and human. Under control conditions, rat cells contained fivefold higher peroxisomal catalase and mitochondrial SOD2 activities and a twofold higher capacity to reduce MTT than human and mouse cells. TNT treatment caused an increase in catalase and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels in human and mouse, but not in rat cells. Similarly, human and mouse cells upregulated SOD2 activity, whereas rat cells failed therein. We conclude that TNT induced oxidative stress, peroxisome proliferation and mitochondrial damage which are highest in rat cells rendering them most susceptible toward TNT. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 989-1006, 2017.

  15. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  16. Rescue Effects: Irradiated Cells Helped by Unirradiated Bystander Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R. K. K.; Fung, Y. K.; Han, W.; Yu, K. N.

    2015-01-01

    The rescue effect describes the phenomenon where irradiated cells or organisms derive benefits from the feedback signals sent from the bystander unirradiated cells or organisms. An example of the benefit is the mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damages in the irradiated cells. The rescue effect can compromise the efficacy of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) (and actually all radiotherapy). In this paper, the discovery and subsequent confirmation studies on the rescue effect were reviewed. The mechanisms and the chemical messengers responsible for the rescue effect studied to date were summarized. The rescue effect between irradiated and bystander unirradiated zebrafish embryos in vivo sharing the same medium was also described. In the discussion section, the mechanism proposed for the rescue effect involving activation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway was scrutinized. This mechanism could explain the promotion of cellular survival and correct repair of DNA damage, dependence on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and modulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in irradiated cells. Exploitation of the NF-κB pathway to improve the effectiveness of RIT was proposed. Finally, the possibility of using zebrafish embryos as the model to study the efficacy of RIT in treating solid tumors was also discussed. PMID:25625514

  17. Structure and cell-specific expression of a cloned human retinol binding protein gene: the 5'-flanking region contains hepatoma specific transcriptional signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, C; Colantuoni, V; Cortese, R

    1985-08-01

    Human plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) is coded by a single gene and is specifically synthesized in the liver. We have characterized a lambda clone, from a human DNA library, carrying the gene coding for plasma RBP. Southern blot analysis and DNA sequencing show that the gene is composed of six exons and five introns. Primer elongation and S1 mapping experiments allowed the definition of the initiation of transcription and the identification of the putative promoter. The 5'-flanking region of the RBP gene was fused upstream to the coding sequence of the bacterial enzyme chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT): the chimeric gene was introduced, by calcium phosphate precipitation, into the human hepatoma cell line Hep G2 and into HeLa cells. Efficient expression of CAT was obtained only in Hep G2. Primer elongation analysis of the RNA extracted from transfected Hep G2 showed that initiation of transcription of the transfected chimeric gene occurs at a position identical to that of the natural gene. Transcriptional analysis of Bal31 deletions from the 3' end of the RBP 5'-flanking DNA allowed the identification of the RBP gene promoter.

  18. Dosimetric Analyses of Single Particle Microbeam in Cell Irradiation Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YongJian; JIANG Jiang; CHEN Lianyun; ZHAN Furu; YU Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Single particle microbeam (SPM) is uniquely capable of delivering precisely the predefined number of charged particles to determined individual cells or sub-cellular targets in situ. It has been recognized as a powerful technique for unveiling ionization irradiation mechanisms of organism. This article describes some investigations on the irradiation quality of SPM of major world laboratories by means of Monte Carlo method based on dosimetry and microdosimetry. Those parameters are helpful not only to improve SPM irradiating cell experiments but also to study the biological effects of cells irradiated by SPM.

  19. Non-receptor-mediated actions are responsible for the lipid-lowering effects of iodothyronines in FaO rat hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasselli, Elena; Voci, Adriana; Canesi, Laura; Goglia, Fernando; Ravera, Silvia; Panfoli, Isabella; Gallo, Gabriella; Vergani, Laura

    2011-07-01

    Iodothyronines influence lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. Previous studies demonstrated that 3,5-l-diiodothyronine (T(2)), as well as 3,3',5-L-triiodothyronine (T(3)), was able to both prevent and reverse hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect depends on a direct action of iodothyronines on the hepatocyte. However, the involvement of thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) in mediating the lipid-lowering effect of iodothyronines was not elucidated. In this study, we investigated the ability of T(2) and T(3) to reduce the lipid overloading using the rat hepatoma FaO cells defective for functional TRs. The absence of constitutive mRNA expression of both TRα1 and TRβ1 in FaO cells was verified by RT-qPCR. To mimic the fatty liver condition, FaO cells were treated with a fatty acid mixture and then exposed to pharmacological doses of T(2) or T(3) for 24 h. Lipid accumulation, mRNA expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α, -γ, -δ) the acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), and the stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1), as well as fuel-stimulated O(2) consumption in intact cells, were evaluated. Lipid accumulation was associated with an increase in triacylglycerol content, PPARγ mRNA expression, and a decrease in PPARδ and SCD1 mRNA expression. The addition of T(2) or T(3) to lipid-overloaded cells resulted in i) reduction in lipid content; ii) downregulation of PPARα, PPARγ, and AOX expression; iii) increase in PPARδ expression; and iv) stimulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that in the hepatocyte, the lipid-lowering actions of both T(2) and T(3) are not mediated by TRs.

  20. Genotoxic potential of montmorillonite clay mineral and alteration in the expression of genes involved in toxicity mechanisms in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Hercog, Klara; Filipic, Metka; Jos, Ángeles; Zegura, Bojana

    2016-03-01

    Montmorillonite, also known as Cloisite(®)Na(+) (CNa(+)), is a natural clay with a wide range of well-documented and novel applications, such as pharmaceutical products or food packaging. Although considered a low toxic product, the expected increased exposure to CNa(+) arises concern on the potential consequences on human and environmental health especially as its genotoxicity has scarcely been investigated so far. Thus, we investigated, for the first time, the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of CNa(+) (15.65, 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL) on genomic instability of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) by determining the formation of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Further on we studied the influence of CNa(+) on the expression of several genes involved in toxicity mechanisms using the real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CNa(+) increased the number of MNi, while the numbers of NBUDs and NPBs were not affected. In addition it deregulated genes in all the groups studied, mainly after longer time of exposure. These findings provide the evidence that CNa(+) is potentially genotoxic. Therefore further studies that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in toxic activity of CNa(+) are needed for hazard identification and human safety assessment.

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated toxic potency of dissolved lipophilic organic contaminants collected from Lincoln Creek, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, to PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida) fish hepatoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, D.L.; Crunkilton, R.L.; DeVita, W.M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Lincoln Creek is a severely degraded urban stream located in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, USA. As part of a comprehensive study on effects of urban storm water runoff on the stream biota, an in vitro bioassay with PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida) fish hepatoma cells was used to assess potential toxic potency of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active compounds, collected by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) exposed to Lincoln Creek water. Dialysates from SPMDs exposed to Lincoln Creek water caused marked cytochrome P4501A induction in PLHC-1. Toxic potency of dialysates, expressed as bioassay-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) ranged from 1,300 to 6,600 pg TCDD-EQ/g SPMD for 14-d exposures. Dialysates from SPMDs exposed to stream water at base flow had potencies consistently lower than those exposed to storm-flow (high-flow) events that occurred during the same 14-d period. Polychlorinated biphenyls were not detectable in the dialysates. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as major contaminants in the dialysates. A log-log correlation of total PAHs and TCDD-EQ yielded an r{sup 2} of 0.802. Empirical evidence suggests that AhR-active PAHs can account for about 20 to 50% of the potency observed.

  2. A new triterpene and protective effect of Periploca somaliensis Browicz fruits against CCl₄-induced injury on human hepatoma cell line (Huh7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monem, Azza R; Kandil, Zeinab A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2015-01-01

    The potential hepatoprotective effect of the methanolic extract of Periploca somaliensis Browicz fruits, its different fractions (n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol) and the major isolated compound ursolic acid was evaluated using the human hepatoma cell line (Huh7) based on the changes in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Each sample was tested at three different concentrations (1000, 100 and 10 μg/mL). All tested samples exhibited a potent concentration-independent cytoprotective effect relative to silymarin as a reference standard. Chromatographic fractionation of the chloroform-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of P. somaliensis Browicz fruits afforded two known triterpenes, namely ursolic acid, and 11α,12α-epoxy-3β-hydroxy-olean-13β,28-olide, and a newly discovered one, namely 3β-hydroxy-urs-11-en-13β,28-olide. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by the analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data.

  3. Osteogenic Matrix Cell Sheets Facilitate Osteogenesis in Irradiated Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinobu Uchihara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of large bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors is a significant challenge in orthopedic surgery. Extracorporeal autogenous irradiated bone grafting is a treatment option for bone reconstruction. However, nonunion often occurs because the osteogenic capacity is lost by irradiation. In the present study, we established an autogenous irradiated bone graft model in the rat femur to assess whether osteogenic matrix cell sheets improve osteogenesis of the irradiated bone. Osteogenic matrix cell sheets were prepared from bone marrow-derived stromal cells and co-transplanted with irradiated bone. X-ray images at 4 weeks after transplantation showed bridging callus formation around the irradiated bone. Micro-computed tomography images at 12 weeks postoperatively showed abundant callus formation in the whole circumference of the irradiated bone. Histology showed bone union between the irradiated bone and host femur. Mechanical testing showed that the failure force at the irradiated bone site was significantly higher than in the control group. Our study indicates that osteogenic matrix cell sheet transplantation might be a powerful method to facilitate osteogenesis in irradiated bones, which may become a treatment option for reconstruction of bone defects after resection of malignant musculoskeletal tumors.

  4. Cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA complex in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila; Filipič, Metka; Žegura, Bojana

    2016-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) and ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) are common environmental pollutants and can be present in high concentrations in surface waters at the same time. Therefore, chelation of Cr with EDTA can occur and thereby stable Cr(III)-EDTA complex is formed. Since there are no literature data on Cr(III)-EDTA toxicity, the aim of our work was to evaluate and compare Cr(III)-EDTA cytotoxic and genotoxic activity with those of Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-nitrate in human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. First the effect of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on cell viability was studied in the concentration range from 0.04 μg mL(-1) to 25 μg mL(-1) after 24 h exposure. Further the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of Cr(VI), Cr(III)-nitrate and Cr(III)-EDTA on DNA damage and genomic stability was determined with the comet assay and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay, respectively. Cell viability was decreased only by Cr(VI) at concentrations above 1.0 μg mL(-1). Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1) and Cr(III) at ≥1.0 μg mL(-1) induced DNA damage, while after Cr(III)-EDTA exposure no formation DNA strand breaks was determined. Statistically significant formation of micronuclei was induced only by Cr(VI) at ≥0.2 μg mL(-1), while no influence on the frequency of nuclear buds nor nucleoplasmic bridges was observed at any exposure. This study provides the first evidence that Cr(III)-EDTA did not induce DNA damage and had no influence on the genomic stability of HepG2 cells.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of membrane concentrates of landfill leachate treated with Fenton reagent and UV-Fenton reagent using human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guifang [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Lu, Gang [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yin, Pinghe, E-mail: tyinph@jnu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analysis and Test, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Ling, E-mail: zhaoling@jnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Water/Soil Toxic Pollutants Control and Bioremediation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jimmy Yu, Qiming [Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Nathan Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4111 (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Membrane concentrates have a threat to human health and environment. • Untreated membrane concentrates induces cytotoxic and genotoxic to HepG2 cells. • Both methods were effective method for degradation of BPA and NP in concentrates. • Both methods were efficient in reducing genotoxic effects of concentrates. • UV-Fenton reagent had higher removal efficiency and provides toxicological safety. - Abstract: Membrane concentrates of landfill leachates contain organic and inorganic contaminants that could be highly toxic and carcinogenic. In this paper, the genotoxicity of membrane concentrates before and after Fenton and UV-Fenton reagent was assessed. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity was determined by using the methods of methyltetrazolium (MTT), cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) and comet assay in human hepatoma cells. MTT assay showed a cytotoxicity of 75% after 24 h of exposure to the highest tested concentration of untreated concentrates, and no cytotoxocity for UV-Fenton and Fenton treated concentrates. Both CBMN and comet assays showed increased levels of genotoxicity in cells exposed to untreated concentrates, compared to those occurred in cells exposed to UV-Fenton and Fenton reagent treated concentrates. There was no significant difference between negative control and UV-Fenton treated concentrates for micronucleus and comet assay parameters. UV-Fenton and Fenton treatment, especially the former, were effective methods for degradation of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in concentrates. These findings showed UV-Fenton and Fenton reaction were effective methods for treatment of such complex concentrates, UV-Fenton reagent provided toxicological safety of the treated effluent, and the genotoxicity assays were found to be feasible tools for assessment of toxicity risks of complex concentrates.

  6. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLESIA O. GRYGORIEVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Grygorieva OO, Berezovsjka MA, Dacenko OI. 2015. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 38-42. Two cultures of Chlamydomonas actinochloris Deason et Bold in the lag-phase were exposed to the microwave irradiation. One of them (culture 1 was not treated beforehand, whereas the other (culture 2 was irradiated by microwaves 2 years earlier. The measurement of cell quantity as well as measurement of change of intensities and spectra of cultures photoluminescence (PL in the range of chlorophyll a emission was regularly conducted during the cell cultures development. Cell concentration of culture 1 exposed to the microwave irradiation for the first time has quickly restored while cell concentration of culture 2 which was irradiated repeatedly has fallen significantly. The following increasing of cell concentration of culture 2 is negligible. Cell concentration reaches the steady-state level that is about a half of the cell concentration of control culture. Initially the PL efficiency of cells of both cultures decreases noticeable as a result of irradiation. Then there is the monotonic increase to the values which are significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control cultures. The ratio of the intensities at the maxima of the main emission bands of chlorophyll for control samples of both cultures remained approximately at the same level. At the same time effect of irradiation on the cell PL spectrum appears as a temporary reduction of this magnitude.

  7. Activation of Toll-like receptor 3 impairs the dengue virus serotype 2 replication through induction of IFN-β in cultured hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoduan Liang

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an important role in innate immunity against invading pathogens. Although TLR signaling has been indicated to protect cells from infection of several viruses, the role of TLRs in Dengue virus (DENV replication is still unclear. In the present study, we examined the replication of DENV serotype 2 (DENV2 by challenging hepatoma cells HepG2 with different TLR ligands. Activation of TLR3 showed an antiviral effect, while pretreatment of other TLR ligands (including TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR4, TLR5 or TLR7/8 did not show a significant effect. TLR3 ligand poly(I:C treatment prior to viral infection or simultaneously, but not post-treatment, significantly down-regulated virus replication. Pretreatment with poly(I:C reduced viral mRNA expression and viral staining positive cells, accompanying an induction of the type I interferon (IFN-β and type III IFN (IL-28A/B. Intriguingly, neutralization of IFN-β alone successfully restored the poly(I:C-inhibited replication of DENV2. The poly(I:C-mediated effects, including IFN induction and DENV2 suppression, were significantly reversed by IKK inhibitor, further suggesting that IFN-β is the dominant factor involved in the poly(I:C mediated antiviral effect. Our study presented the first evidence to show that activation of TLR3 is effective in blocking DENV2 replication via IFN-β, providing an experimental clue that poly(I:C may be a promising immunomodulatory agent against DENV infection and might be applicable for clinical prevention.

  8. Carboxyl ester lipase overexpression in rat hepatoma cells and CEL deficiency in mice have no impact on hepatic uptake or metabolism of chylomicron-retinyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bennekum, A M; Li, L; Piantedosi, R; Shamir, R; Vogel, S; Fisher, E A; Blaner, W S; Harrison, E H

    1999-03-30

    To study the role of carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) in hepatic retinoid (vitamin A) metabolism, we investigated uptake and hydrolysis of chylomicron (CM)-retinyl esters (RE) by rat hepatoma (McArdle-RH7777) cells stably transfected with a rat CEL cDNA. We also studied tissue uptake of CM-RE in CEL-deficient mice generated by targeted disruption of the CEL gene. CEL-transfected cells secreted active enzyme into the medium. However, both control and CEL-transfected cells accumulated exogenously added CM-RE or CM remnant (CMR)-derived RE in equal amounts. Serum clearance of intravenously injected CM-RE and cholesteryl ester were not different between wild-type and CEL-deficient mice. Also, the uptake of the two compounds by the liver and other tissues did not differ. These data indicate that the lack of CEL expression does not affect the uptake of dietary CM-RE by the liver or other tissues. Moreover, the percentage of retinol formed in the liver after CM-RE uptake, the levels of retinol and retinol-binding protein in serum, and retinoid levels in various tissues did not differ, indicating that CEL deficiency does not affect hepatic retinoid metabolism and retinoid distribution throughout the body. Surprisingly, in both pancreas and liver of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous CEL-deficient mice, the levels of bile salt-dependent retinyl ester hydrolase (REH) activity were similar. This indicates that in the mouse pancreas and liver an REH enzyme activity, active in the presence of bile salt and distinct from CEL, is present, compatible with the results from our accompanying paper that the intestinal processing and absorption of RE were unimpaired in CEL-deficient mice.

  9. Arecoline induces HA22T/VGH hepatoma cells to undergo anoikis - involvement of STAT3 and RhoA activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Thu-Ching

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous study showed that, in basal cell carcinoma cells, arecoline reduces levels of the tumor cell survival factor interleukin-6 (IL-6, increases levels of tumor suppressor factor p53, and elicits cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. In preliminarily studies, we observed that arecoline induces detachment of the human-derived hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH from the extracellular matrix. In the present study, we explored the fate of the detached HA22T/VGH cells and investigated the underlying mechanism. Methods HA22T/VGH cells or primary cultured rat hepatocytes were treated with arecoline, then changes in morphology, viability, apoptosis, and the expression of surface β1-integrin, apoptosis-related proteins, and IL-6 were examined. Furthermore, activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 pathway and the RhoA/Rock signaling pathway, including p190RhoGAP and Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase SHP2, was examined. Results A low concentration of arecoline (≤ 100 μg/ml caused cytoskeletal changes in HA22T/VGH cells, but not hepatocytes, and this was accompanied by decreased β1-integrin expression and followed by apoptosis, indicating that HA22T/VGH cells undergo anoikis after arecoline treatment. IL-6 expression and phosphorylation of STAT3, which provides protection against anoikis, were inhibited and levels of downstream signaling proteins, including Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, were decreased, while Bax expression, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activity were increased. In addition, phosphorylation/activation of p190RhoGAP, a RhoA inhibitor, and of its upstream regulator, SHP2, was inhibited by arecoline treatment, while Rho/Rock activation was increased. Addition of the RhoA inhibitor attenuated the effects of arecoline. Conclusions This study demonstrated that arecoline induces anoikis of HA22T/VGH cells involving inhibition of STAT3 and increased Rho

  10. Effects of irradiated biodegradable polymer in endothelial cell monolayer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeitman, Claudia R.; Grosso, Mariela F. del [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Behar, Moni [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); García Bermúdez, Gerardo, E-mail: ggb@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (Argentina); Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, TANDAR-CNEA (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, UNSAM (Argentina)

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology of endothelial cell cultured on poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) modified by heavy ion irradiation. Thin films of PLLA samples were irradiated with sulfur (S) at energies of 75 MeV and gold (Au) at 18 MeV ion-beams. Ion beams were provided by the Tandar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) and Tandetron (Porto Alegre, Brazil) accelerators, respectively. The growth of a monolayer of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) onto unirradiated and irradiated surfaces has been studied by in vitro techniques in static culture. Cell viability and proliferation increased on modified substrates. But the results on unirradiated samples, indicate cell death (necrosis/apoptosis) with the consequent decrease in proliferation. We analyzed the correlation between irradiation parameters and cell metabolism and morphology.

  11. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  12. Genotoxic potential of montmorillonite clay mineral and alteration in the expression of genes involved in toxicity mechanisms in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisanaba, Sara, E-mail: saramh@us.es [Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, Profesor García González no. 2, 41012 Seville (Spain); Hercog, Klara; Filipic, Metka [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jos, Ángeles [Area of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sevilla, Profesor García González no. 2, 41012 Seville (Spain); Zegura, Bojana [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-03-05

    Highlights: • Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} has a wide range of well-documented and novel applications. • Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} induces micronucleus, but not nuclear bridges or nuclear buds in HepG2 cells. • Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} induces changes in the gene expression. • Gene alteration is presented mainly after 24 h of exposure to Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +}. - Abstract: Montmorillonite, also known as Cloisite{sup ®}Na{sup +} (CNa{sup +}), is a natural clay with a wide range of well-documented and novel applications, such as pharmaceutical products or food packaging. Although considered a low toxic product, the expected increased exposure to CNa{sup +} arises concern on the potential consequences on human and environmental health especially as its genotoxicity has scarcely been investigated so far. Thus, we investigated, for the first time, the influence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of CNa{sup +} (15.65, 31.25 and 62.5 μg/mL) on genomic instability of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) by determining the formation of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) with the Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay. Further on we studied the influence of CNa{sup +} on the expression of several genes involved in toxicity mechanisms using the real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that CNa{sup +} increased the number of MNi, while the numbers of NBUDs and NPBs were not affected. In addition it deregulated genes in all the groups studied, mainly after longer time of exposure. These findings provide the evidence that CNa{sup +} is potentially genotoxic. Therefore further studies that will elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in toxic activity of CNa{sup +} are needed for hazard identification and human safety assessment.

  13. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) stimulates triglyceride synthesis in Huh7 hepatoma cells via p38-dependent upregulation of DGAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paland, Nicole; Gamliel-Lazarovich, Aviva; Coleman, Raymond; Fuhrman, Bianca

    2014-11-01

    The liver is the central organ of fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism. Oxidation and synthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides is under the control of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α. Impairment of these receptors' function contributes to the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) was shown to regulate gene expression in the liver involving PPARγ transcriptional activity. In this study we questioned whether uPA modulates triglyceride metabolism in the liver, and investigated the mechanisms involved in the observed processes. Huh7 hepatoma cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of uPA for 24 h uPA dose-dependently increased the cellular triglyceride mass, and this effect resulted from increased de novo triglyceride synthesis mediated by the enzyme diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2). Also, the amount of free fatty acids was highly up regulated by uPA through activation of the transcription factor SREBP-1. Chemical activation of PPARα further increased uPA-stimulated triglyceride synthesis, whereas inhibition of p38, an upstream activator of PPARα, completely abolished the stimulatory effect of uPA on both triglyceride synthesis and DGAT2 upregulation. The effect of uPA on triglyceride synthesis in Huh7 cells was mediated via binding to its receptor, the uPAR. In vivo studies in uPAR(-/-) mice demonstrated that no lipid droplets were observed in their livers compared to C57BL/6 mice and the triglyceride levels were significantly lower. This study presents a new biological function of the uPA/uPAR system in the metabolism of triglycerides and might present a new target for an early therapeutic intervention for NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gamma-irradiation enhances transgene expression in leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecque, R; Saudemont, A; Wickham, T J; Gonzalez, R; Hetuin, D; Fenaux, P; Quesnel, B

    2003-02-01

    The majority of immunotherapy-based gene therapy protocols consist of ex vivo gene transfer in tumor cells. To prevent further in vivo growth, modified cells must be irradiated before reinjection into patients. The present study examines the effects of gamma-irradiation on transgene expression in transduced leukemic cells. Human and murine leukemic cells were transfected with retroviral vectors or plasmids carrying beta-galactosidase, GM-CSF or CD80 genes. Fresh leukemic cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were transfected with AdZ.F(pK7) adenoviral vector. gamma-irradiation at various lethal doses enhanced transgene expression in leukemic cell lines and fresh AML cells when the gene of interest was under CMV promoter but not when SV40 promoter was used. Oxidative stress also enhanced transgene expression and both irradiation and oxidative stress effects were inhibited by addition of N-acetyl-L-cysteine, a thiol anti-oxidant, indicating the involvement of reactive oxygen species. Transgene expression was also enhanced in vivo 48 and 120 h after subcutaneous injection of irradiated leukemic cells in syngeneic mice. These results show that a cell vaccine protocol using ex vivo gene transfer of transduced cells might be feasible in acute leukemia even if leukemic cells must be irradiated at lethal doses prior to reinjection to patients.

  15. Effects of niflumic acid on the proliferation of human hepatoma cells%尼氟灭酸对肝癌细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晶; 陶凌; 曹云新; 董玲; 胡玉珍; 杨安钢; 周士胜

    2003-01-01

    为了观察氯通道阻断剂尼氟灭酸(NFA)对人肝癌细胞(human hepatoma cell line, HHCC)增殖的影响, 我们将NFA作用于HHCC, 应用细胞计数法及噻唑兰(MTT)比色分析法观察细胞增殖情况; 用流式细胞仪检测细胞周期时相; 并用激光扫描共聚焦显微镜检测[Ca2+]i 的变化.结果发现, NFA使HHCC细胞数及MTT光吸收值(OD)较对照组都显著降低, 去除NFA后, OD值逐渐恢复.经100 μmol/L NFA处理48 h的HHCC细胞G1期细胞比例比对照组明显增高, S期及G2期细胞比例明显低于对照组.细胞外应用NFA (100 μmol/L)使 [Ca2+]i 快速降低, 去除NFA后, [Ca2+]i可恢复.这些结果表明, 尼氟灭酸能抑制细胞增殖, 其机制可能与细胞内信号转导Ca2+/CaM途径被抑制有关.

  16. Cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jin [Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry and Biotechnology of Ministry of Education and Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li, Feng [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Fang, Yong; Yang, Wenjian [College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China); An, Xinxin; Zhao, Liyan; Xin, Zhihong; Cao, Lin [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu, Qiuhui, E-mail: qiuhuihu@njau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); College of Food Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Tea polyphenols have strong antioxidant and antitumor activities. However, these health benefits are limited due to their poor in vivo stability and low bioavailability. Chitosan nanoparticles as delivery systems may provide an alternative approach for enhancing bioavailability of poorly absorbed drugs. In this study, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles have been prepared using two different chitosan biomaterials, and their antitumor effects were evaluated in HepG2 cells, including cell cytotoxicity comparison, cell morphology analysis, cell apoptosis and cell cycle detection. The results indicated that the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed a branch shape and heterogeneous distribution in prepared suspension. MTT assay suggested that tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the cytotoxicity rates were increased gradually and appeared an obvious dose-dependent relationship. Transmission electron microscope images showed that the HepG2 cells treated with tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited some typical apoptotic features, such as microvilli disappearance, margination of nuclear chromatin, intracytoplasmic vacuoles and the mitochondrial swelling. In addition, the tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles had relatively weak inhibitory effects on HepG2 cancer cells compared with tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenols not only induced cancer cell apoptosis, but also promoted their necrosis. However, tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited their antitumor effects mainly through inducing cell apoptosis. Our results revealed that the inhibition effects of tea polyphenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on tumor cells probably depended on their controlled drug release and effective cell delivery. The chitosan nanoparticles themselves as the delivery carrier showed limited antitumor effects compared with their encapsulated drugs. - Highlights: • Tea polyphenol

  17. Redifferentiation of human hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721) induced by two new highly oxygenated bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruidong Miao; Juan Wei; Q I Zhang; Venkateswara Sajja; Jinbo Yang; Qin Wang

    2008-12-01

    Bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes are a class of biologically active compounds that has antitumour, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and antivenom properties. We investigated the effect of two new highly oxygenated bisabolane-type sesquiterpenes (HOBS) isolated from Cremanthodium discoideum (C. discoideum) on tumour cells. Our results showed that HOBS induced morphological differentiation and reduced microvilli formation on the cell surface in SMMC-7721 cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that HOBS could induce cell-cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Moreover, HOBS was able to increase tyrosine--ketoglutarate transaminase activity, decrease -foetoprotein level and -glutamyl transferase activity. In addition, we found that HOBS inhibited the anchorage-independent growth of SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, all the above observations indicate that HOBS might be able to normalize malignant SMMC-7721 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing redifferentiation.

  18. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheva, A; Georgieva, R; Rupova, I; Boteva, R [Laboratory Molecular Radiobiology and Epidemiology, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Lyng, F [Radiation and Environmental Science Center, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin st, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: anjin_a@mail.bg

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  19. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheva, A.; Georgieva, R.; Rupova, I.; Boteva, R.; Lyng, F.

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  20. Involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen activated protein kinase pathway in multidrug resistance induced by HBx in hepatoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guan; Xiao-Ping Chen; Hong Zhu; Shun-Feng Luo; Bin Cao; Lei Ding

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the molecular mechanism of the influence of HBx protein on multidrug resistance associated genes:multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1), multidrug related protein (MRP-1), lung resistance related protein (LRP) in hepatoma cells and the potential role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathway in this process.METHODS: A cell model stably expressing the HBx protein was established by liposome-mediated transfection of HBx gene into HepG2 cell line. The expression of multidrug resistance associated genes and proteins was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. AnnexinV-FITC/PI assay was used to confirm the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype of transfected cells by fluorescence cytometry (FACS). The ERK/MAPK pathway activation was measured by Western blot through comparing the ratio of phosphorylation of ERK/MAPK to total ERK/MAPK protein. After treated with the ERK/MAPK pathway inhibitor U0126, the HBx-expressing cells were harvested. Then RT-PCR, Western blot and FACS were used to analyze the alterations in the expression of multidrug resistance associated genes and the MDR phenotype after exposure.RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the transfected cells showed a higher expression of MDR associated genes and proteins. Marked elevations in MDR-1 (64.3%), MRP-1 (87.5%) and LRP (90.8%) were observed in the transfected cells (P<0.05). RT-PCR revealed that the over-expression of MDR associated proteins was due to amplification of such genes (MDR1 2.9 fold, MRP1 1.67 fold, LRP1.95 fold).Furthermore, we found that the ERK/MAPK activity was remarkably high in the HBx-expressing cells. The activation of ERK/MAPK, as measured by the ratio of phosphorylated ERK bands normalized to the total ERK bands, was increased by 2.3-fold in HBx-transfected cells compared with cells transfected with the empty vector. After treated with the ERK/MAPK pathway inhibitor, the level of MDR associated genes and proteins in the

  1. Scutellaria barbate extract induces apoptosis of hepatoma H22 cells via the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Jun Dai; Ling-Qin Song; Xi-Jing Wang; Zong-Fang Li; Zong-Zheng Ji; Hong-Tao Ren; Wei Tang; Xiao-Xu Liu; Hua-Feng Kang; Hai-Tao Guan

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To study the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Scutellaria barbata D.Don (S.barbata) and to determine the underlying mechanism of its antitumor activity in mouse liver cancer cell line H22.METHODS:Proliferation of H22 cells was examined by MTr assay.Cellular morphology of PC-2 cells was observed under fluorescence microscope and transmission electron microscope (EM).Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined under laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) with rhodamine 123 staining.Flow cytometry was performed to analyze the cell cycle of H22 cells with propidium iodide staining.Protein level of cytochrome C and caspase-3 was measured by semi-quantitive RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.Activity of caspase-3 enzyme was measured by spectrofluorometry.RESULTS:M'IF assay showed that extracts from S.barbata (ESB) could inhibit the proliferation of H22 cells in a time-dependent manner.Among the various phases of cell cycle,the percentage of cells in S phase was significantly decreased,while the percentage of cells in G1 phase was increased.Flow cytometry assay also showed that ESB had a positive effect on apoptosis.Typical apoptotic morphologies such as condensation and fragmentation of nuclei and blebbing membrane of apoptotic cells could be observed under transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope.To further investige the molecular mechanism behind ESB-induced apoptosis,ESB-treated cells rapidly lost their mitochondrial transmembrane potential,released mitochondrial cytochrome C into cytosol,and induced caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSION:ESB can effectively inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of H22 cells involving loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential,release of cytochrome C,and activation of caspase-3.

  2. Inhibition of the growth of human hepatoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo by transducing CKI gene p21WAF-1 with GE7 targeting gene delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The EGF receptor-mediated targeting gene delivery system GE7 was used to transduce exogenous gene pCEP-p21WAF-1 into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell both in vitro and in vivo. After in vitro transduction of the exogenous gene, the growth of the cell lines SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 was significantly inhibited compared with the control. On day 8 the inhibition rates of the above cell lines reached 56.0% and 66.7%, respectively. The in vivo experiment showed that the growth of human hepatoma transplanted in nude mice injected with GE7 gene delivery system subcutaneously once a week for 3 weeks was remarkably inhibited compared with that of untransfected control. The average tumor weight of the experiment group was (0.083 ± 0.043) g, while that of the control group was (0.281± 0.173) g. The difference is significant (P<0.05). It was indicated that GE7 gene delivery system could efficiently transduce exogenous gene pCEP-p21WAF-1 into hepatoma cell with high EGF receptor expression, and inhibit the cell growth with high efficacy both in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Inhibition of the growth of human hepatoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo by transducing CKI gene p21WAF-1 with GE7 targeting gene delivery system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩峻松; 田培坤; 柳湘; 姚明; 顾健人

    2000-01-01

    The EGF receptor-mediated targeting gene delivery system GE7 was used to transduce exogenous gene pCEP-p21WAF-1 into human hepatocellular carcinoma cell both in vitro and in vivo. After in vitro transduction of the exogenous gene, the growth of the cell lines SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 was significantly inhibited compared with the control. On day 8 the inhibition rates of the above cell lines reached 56.0% and 66.7%, respectively. The in vivo experiment showed that the growth of human hepatoma transplanted in nude mice injected with GE7 gene delivery system subcutaneously once a week for 3 weeks was remarkably inhibited compared with that of untrans-fected control. The average tumor weight of the experiment group was (0.083 ?0.043) g, while that of the control group was (0.28110.173) g. The difference is significant (P<0.05). It was indicated that GE7 gene delivery system could efficiently transduce exogenous gene pCEP-p21WAF-1 into hepatoma cell with high EGF receptor expression, and inhibit the cell growt

  4. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  5. Radioprotective Effect of Alk(enyl Thiosulfates Derived from Allium Vegetables against DNA Damage Caused by X-Ray Irradiation in Cultured Cells: Antiradiation Potential of Onions and Garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate a radioprotective effect of sodium n-propyl thiosulfate (NPTS and sodium 2-propenyl thiosulfate (2PTS derived from onions and garlic, respectively, rat hepatoma H4IIE cells and mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells were preincubated with each of these compounds for 48 hours at 37°C before receiving 10 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Cell damage caused by the irradiation was quantified as comet tail moment, which represents the degree of DNA damage. X-ray-induced DNA damage was significantly decreased in both H4IIE and L5178Y cells by micromolar concentrations of NPTS and 2PTS compared with the control without the compounds. The protective effect was more potent with 2PTS than NPTS. Onions and garlic have antiradiation potential.

  6. Co-operation of the transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to transcriptional activation of the human haem oxygenase-1 gene promoter in a hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeru; Matsuura, Naomi; Kurokawa, Takako; Takahashi, Yuji; Miura, Takashi

    2002-11-01

    We reported previously that the 5'-flanking region (nucleotides -1976 to -1655) of the human haem oxygenase-1 ( hHO-1 ) gene enhances hHO-1 promoter activity in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, but not in HeLa cells [Takahashi, Takahashi, Ito, Nagano, Shibahara and Miura (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1447, 231-235]. To define more precisely the regulatory elements involved, in the present study we have functionally dissected this region and localized the enhancer to a 50 bp fragment (-1793 to -1744). Site-direct mutagenesis analysis revealed that two regions were responsible for this enhancer activity, i.e. a hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 (HNF-4) homologous region and a GC box motif homologous region. Mutation in either region alone moderately decreased enhancer activity. However, mutations in both regions reduced promoter activity to the basal level. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays demonstrated that the P5-2 fragment (-1793 to -1744) interacted with at least two nuclear factors, i.e. HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3. Co-transfection experiments using Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that HNF-4 and Sp1/Sp3 synergistically stimulated the enhancer activity of the P5-2 fragment. These results indicate that co-operation of HNF-4 with Sp1 or Sp3 leads to the activation of hHO-1 gene expression in hepatoma cells.

  7. Effects of silymarin on hepatitis C virus and haem oxygenase-1 gene expression in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Vania; Shan, Ying; Lambrecht, Richard W; Donohue, Susan E; Moschenross, Darcy; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2009-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global medical problem. The current standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, is prolonged, expensive, has serious side effects and, at best, is only 50% effective. Silymarin (SI) is a natural antioxidant often used by patients with CHC, although its efficacy for decreasing HCV levels or ameliorating CHC remains uncertain. HCV infection is associated with increased hepatic oxidative stress, and one of the antioxidant enzymes that protect cells against this stress is haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). We investigated effects of SI on HCV and HO-1 gene expression in Huh-7 cells, CNS3 and 9-13 cells (the latter two stably expressing HCV-proteins). Silymarin significantly downregulated HCV core mRNA (by 20%-36%) and protein (by 30%-60%) in CNS3 cells. In contrast, SI did not decrease HCV NS5A mRNA or protein expression in 9-13 cells. HO-1 mRNA was upregulated (60%-400%) by SI in Huh-7, CNS3 and 9-13 cells, whereas BTB and CNC homology 1 and nuclear factor erythroid related factor 2 mRNA levels were not affected. The effect of SI to downregulate HCV core was not related to changes in the Janus-activated tyrosine kinases-signal transducer and activators of transcription signalling pathway. Silymarin may be of benefit in CHC, although prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to be certain.

  8. Effects of Silymarin on Hepatitis C Virus and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Expression in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Vania; Shan, Ying; Lambrecht, Richard W.; Donohue, Susan E.; Moschenross, Darcy; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global medical problem. The current standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, is prolonged, expensive, has serious side effects and, at best, is only 50% effective. Silymarin is a natural antioxidant often used by patients with CHC, although its efficacy for decreasing HCV levels or ameliorating CHC remains uncertain. HCV infection is associated with increased hepatic oxidative stress, and one of the antioxidant enzymes which protect cells against this stress is heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Methods We investigated effects of silymarin on HCV and HO-1 gene expression in Huh-7 cells, CNS3, and 9-13 cells (the latter two stably expressing HCV-proteins). Results Silymarin significantly down-regulated HCV core mRNA (by 20% - 36%) and protein (by 30%-60%) in CNS3 cells. In contrast, silymarin did not decrease HCV NS5A mRNA or protein expression in 9-13 cells. HO-1 mRNA was up-regulated (60%-400%) by silymarin in Huh-7, CNS3 and 9-13 cells, whereas Bach1 and Nrf2 mRNA levels were not affected. The effect of silymarin to down-regulate HCV core was not related to changes in the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. Conclusions Silymarin may be of benefit in CHC, although prospective, randomized, controlled trials are needed to be certain. PMID:18694403

  9. General gambogic acids inhibited growth of human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells in vitro and in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-long GUO; Qi-dong YOU; Zhao-qiu WU; Sheng-tao YUAN; Li ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the inhibitory effect of general gambogic acids (GGA) on transplantation tumor SMMC-7721 in experimental animal model and SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. METHODS: Anti-tumor activity of GGA in the experimental transplantation tumor SMMC-7721 was evaluated by relative tumor growth ratio. Cell morphology was observed with inverted microscope and electron microscope. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay and the telomerase activity was determined by PCR. RESULTS: In vivo study indicated that GGA (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg,iv, 3 times per week for 3 weeks) displayed an inhibitory effect on the growth of transplantation tumor SMMC7721 in nude mice compared with the normal saline group (P<0.01). At the concentrations of 0.625-5.0 mg/L,GGA remarkably inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells in vitro. GGA 2 mg/L dramatically changed morphology of SMMC-7721 cells and inhibited the telomerase activity in SMMC-7721 cells. CONCLUSION:GGA had inhibitory effect on the growth of SMMC-7721, which might be related to its inhibition of telomerase activity.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF HUMAN SINGLE CHAIN INTELEUKIN-12 GENE TRANSDUCTION ON THE BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF HEPATOMA 7721 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金莉; 来保长; 耿宜萍; 王一理; 司履生

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the anti-tumor effects of human single chain interleukin-12 (hscIL-12). Method. pcDNA/hscIL-12 recombinant was transfected into human hepatic carcinoma cells (7721 cells) by lipofectin method. The 7721/hscIL-12 cells which secrete hscIL-12 stably, were obtained via G418 selection, and in vitro the influence of hscIL-12 gene transduction on the growth of tumor cells was evaluated by cellcycle analysis. In vivo, genetically engineered 7721 cells (7721/hscIL-12, 7721/pcDNA) and parental cells were implanted into BALB/c nude mice, respectively. 7721/pcDNA and 7721/hscIL-12 groups were divided into two sub-groups on day 8: one was administered with hPBL twice, 6 days at interval; the other was given equalvolume of PBS. Mice were sacrificed on day 26, and spleens and tumors were taken out for histologic assay. Results. hscIL-12 produced stably by 7721/hscIL-12 cells had bioactivity, and it was proved by Western blot, immunocytochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In vitro, compared with 7721 and 7721/pcDNA, the7721/hscIL-12 grew much more slowly. FACS assay showed apparent G1 arrest of 7721/hscIL-12 cells. In ani-mal experiment, on day 8 after inoculation, the tumors of 7721 and 7721/pcDNA group were up to 5 -7mm,while those of 7721/hscIL-12 group were 2 -4mm. When treated with hPBL, the tumor of 7721/hscIL-12 groupdisappeared completely. Histologically, the tumors from 7721/hscIL-12 without hPBL treatment had numerouslymphocyte infiltration, the tumor cells displayed depression looking, atrophy, focal necrosis and apoptosis, whereas the tumors of 7721 and 772l/pcDNA groups grew thrivingly.Conclusion. hsclL-12 transduced 7721 cells could induced significant antitumor immune response which resulted in tumor regression totally when the hPBL was inoculated, and also hscIL-12 has certain effects on mice immune system. These findings suggest that hscIL-12 and hscIL-12 gene therapy might have promising prospects in clinical application.

  11. Efficient replication of genotype 3a and 4a hepatitis C virus replicons in human hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Mohsan; Scheel, Troels K H; Gottwein, Judith M;

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C, the quest for pan-genotype, effective, and well-tolerated inhibitors continues. To facilitate these efforts, it is desirable to have in vitro replication systems for all major HCV genotypes. However, cell culture replication systems exist...... for only genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a. In this study, we generated G418-selectable subgenomic replicons for prototype strains of genotypes 3a (S52) and 4a (ED43). Production of G418-resistant colonies by S52 and ED43 in Huh-7.5 cells required the amino acid substitutions S2210I and R2882G, respectively, cell...... culture adaptive mutations originally reported for genotype 1b replicons. RNA replication was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and detection of viral protein. Sequencing of multiple independent replicon clones revealed the presence of additional nonsynonymous mutations. Interestingly...

  12. Ultrastructural morphometry of parotid acinar cells following fractionated irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grehn, A.-L.; Gustafsson, H.; Franzen, L.; Thornell, L.-E.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects on the ultrastructure of parotid glands after fractionated irradiation. The method implemented involved 5 x 6 Gy and 5 x 8 Gy, Monday to Friday 6 MV photons. By unilateral irradiation, the contralateral parotid gland served as a control. Although irradiation diminished the acinar cell density in light microscopic sections from 75 to 32% after 5 x 8 Gy of irradiation, ultrastructural morphometry could not detect any statistically significant differences in acinar cell size, nuclear size, nuclear density, granule area, mean granule size, or granule density. In general, greater differences were seen between rats receiving 30 or 40 Gy, on both the irradiated and the control side, than between the irradiated side and the control side. This was interpreted as due to differences in the nutritional state of the animals. This analysis concluded that individual acinar cells that survive irradiation seem not to be damaged in the long term when evaluated at the ultrastructural level. The study further stresses the importance of adequate sampling sizes and the use of adequate controls. (author).

  13. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as carriers for drug delivery to cancer cells. However, reports on their potential cytotoxicity raise questions of their safety and this matter needs attentive consideration. In this paper, for the first time, the cytotoxic effects of two...... are suitable for drug cytotoxicity tests....

  14. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) induced micronucleus formation and DNA damage in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Evelyn; Kassie, Fekadu; Gminski, Richard; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2004-01-15

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), identified in diesel exhaust and in airborne particulate matter, is a potent mutagen in Salmonella, induces micronuclei formation in mice and in human cells and DNA adducts in rats. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxic potency of 3-NBA in human HepG2 cells using the micronucleus (MN) assay and the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). 3-NBA caused a genotoxic effect at concentrations > or =12 nM in both assays. In the micronucleus assay, we found 98.7+/-10.3 MN/1000 BNC at a concentration of 100 nM 3-NBA in comparison to 27.3+/-0.6 MN/1000 BNC with the negative control. At the same concentration, the DNA-migration (SCGE) showed an Olive tail moment (OTM) of 2.7+/-0.45 and %DNA in the tail of 8.28+/-0.76; OTM and %DNA in the tail of cells treated with the negative control were 0.73+/-0.08 and 2.81+/-0.30, respectively. The results are discussed under consideration of former studies.

  15. Multitargeting and antimetastatic potentials of silibinin in human HepG-2 and PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Reza; Ghaffari, Seyed H; Momeny, Majid; Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Yousefi, Mehdi; Malehmir, Mohsen; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common sort of primary liver malignancy with poor prognosis. This study aimed at examining the effects of silibinin (a putative antimetastatic agent) on some transcriptional markers mechanistically related to HCC recurrence and metastasis in HepG-2 [hepatitis B virus (HBV)-negative and P53 intact) and PLC/PRF/5 (HBV-positive and P53 mutated) cells. The expression of 27 genes in response to silibinin was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. The MMP gelatinolytic assay and microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) were tested. Silibinin was capable of suppressing the transcriptional levels of ANGPT2, ATP6L, CAP2, CCR6, CCR7, CLDN-10, cortactin, CXCR4, GLI2, HK2, ID1, KIAA0101, mortalin, PAK1, RHOA, SPINK1, and STMN1 as well as the enzymatic activity of MMP-2 but promoted the transcripts of CREB3L3, DDX3X, and PROX1 in both cells. Some significant differences between the cells in response to silibinin were detected that might be related to the differences of the cells in terms of HBV infection and/or P53 mutation, suggesting the possible influence of silibinin on HCC through biological functions of these 2 prognostic factors. In conclusion, our findings suggest that silibinin could potentially function as a multitargeting antimetastatic agent and might provide new insights for HCC therapy particularly for HBV-related and/or P53-mutated HCCs.

  16. The binding of human lipoprotein lipase treated VLDL by the human hepatoma cell line HepG2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Wit, E.de; Havekes, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    It has been suggested that besides the LDL-receptor, hepatocytes possess an apo E or remnant receptor. To evaluate which hepatic lipoprotein receptor is involved in VLDL remnant catabolism, we studied the binding of VLDL remnants to HepG2 cells. Native VLDL was obtained from type IIb hyperlipidemic

  17. Effect of mitomycin C on the activation of adenylate cyclase in rat ascites hepatoma AH130 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1986-09-01

    Isoproterenol (IPN)-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner by exposure of AH130 cells to mitomycin C (MMC). The enhancement was also observed in prostaglandin E1-, guanine nucleotide analog-, NaF-, cholera toxin- and forskolin-stimulated activities of the enzyme but not in manganese-stimulated activity. In addition, even when the cells pretreated with islet-activating protein were exposed to MMC, IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase was enhanced. Anaerobic exposure of AH130 cells to MMC somewhat inhibited IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase in contrast with aerobic exposure. Exposure of cells to adriamycin also caused enhancement of IPN-stimulated activity of adenylate cyclase but exposure to nitrogen mustard inhibited the enzyme stimulation by IPN. The enhancing effect of MMC was lost by the combined treatment with alpha-tocopherol. From these results, it was shown that MMC modulated the activity of adenylate cyclase, probably through alterations in membrane structure.

  18. The effect of oleuropein from olive leaf (Olea europaea) extract on Ca²⁺ homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Sun, Wei-Chih; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound found in the olive leaf (Olea europaea), has been shown to have biological activities in different models. However, the effects of oleuropein on Ca(2+) homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in liver cells have not been analyzed. Oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises only in HepG2 cells but not in AML12, HA22T or HA59T cells due to the different status of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase expression. In HepG2 cells, this Ca(2+) signaling response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+), and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers 2-APB and SKF96365. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the ER Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished oleuropein-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Oleuropein induced cell cycle arrest which was associated with the regulation of p53, p21, CDK1 and cyclin B1 levels. Furthermore, oleuropein elevated intracellular ROS levels but reduced GSH levels. Treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM or the antioxidant NAC partially reversed oleuropein-induced cytotoxicity. Together, in HepG2 cells, oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, oleuropein induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity that involved ROS signaling and cell cycle arrest. This compound may offer a potential therapy for treatment of human hepatoma.

  19. LNO3 AND L3 Are Associated With Antiproliferative And Pro-Apoptotic Action In Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Campos Zanelatto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of antitumoral substances is the focus of intense biomedical research. Two structural analogues of thalidomide, LNO3 and L3, are two synthetic compounds that might possess such antitumor properties. We evaluated the toxicological effects of these substances, including cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in HTC cells. Additionally, the production of free radicals (nitric oxide and superoxide was investigated, and the expression of caspases genes 3, 8, and 9 were determined by RT-qPCR. The compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects that resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. LNO3 showed to be more effective and toxic than L3 in all assays. LNO3 stimulated the release of NO and superoxide, which was accompanied by the formation of peroxynitrite. Apoptosis was induced in a dose-dependent manner by both compounds; however, the expression of caspases 3, 8 and 9 was unchanged. These results suggested that L3 and LNO3 possess antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in HTC cells. Additionally, although they exhibited cytotoxicity, L3 and LNO3 might be useful coadjuvants in tumor treatment studies.

  20. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-pei Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2.

  1. Hemoglobin Regulates the Metabolic, Synthetic, Detoxification, and Biotransformation Functions of Hepatoma Cells Cultured in a Hollow Fiber Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic hollow fiber (HF) bioreactors constitute one type of extracorporeal bioartificial liver assist device (BLAD). Ideally, cultured hepatocytes in a BLAD should closely mimic the in vivo oxygenation environment of the liver sinusoid to yield a device with optimal performance. However, most BLADs, including hepatic HF bioreactors, suffer from O2 limited transport toward cultured hepatocytes, which reduces their performance. We hypothesize that supplementation of hemoglobin-based O2 carriers into the circulating cell culture medium of hepatic HF bioreactors is a feasible and effective strategy to improve bioreactor oxygenation and performance. We examined the effect of bovine hemoglobin (BvHb) supplementation (15 g/L) in the circulating cell culture medium of hepatic HF bioreactors on hepatocyte proliferation, metabolism, and varied liver functions, including biosynthesis, detoxification, and biotransformation. It was observed that BvHb supplementation supported the maintenance of a higher cell mass in the extracapillary space, improved hepatocyte metabolic efficiency (i.e., hepatocytes consumed much less glucose), improved hepatocyte capacity for drug metabolism, and conserved both albumin synthesis and ammonia detoxification functions compared to controls (no BvHb supplementation) under the same experimental conditions. PMID:20528678

  2. Structure of a rat hepatoma heparan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedarko, N.S.; Ishihara, M.; Conrad, H.E.

    1986-05-01

    Previous studies showed that as monolayer cultures of a rat hepatocyte cell line passed from log growth to confluency there was an increase in sulfation of heparan sulfate (HS) and the accumulation of a unique species of HS with a high content of sulfated GlcA residues in the nucleus. The present study compares the HS metabolism of a rat (Morris) hepatoma line. Cells were labeled with /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and the structure and distribution of (/sup 35/SO/sub 4/)HS from the culture medium (CM), the pericellular matrix (Ma), the nucleus (NUC), the outer nuclear membrane (NM), and the remaining cytoplasmic (CP) pool was measured as nitrous acid-susceptible material. The amount of label incorporated into each pool was 1/10 that observed in the hepatocyte line. The HS proteglycan and the free HS chains from the hepatoma showed size distributions similar to those found for the hepatocytes, but a lower average charge density. In the HS from the CM, Ma, and CP pools 56% of glucosamine residues were sulfated; in that from the NM and NUC pools 46% were sulfated. HONO treatment gave mono- and disulfated disaccharides in a ratio of 1.5:1 for all five cellular pools, but showed that the HS from the NUC pool did not contain high levels of sulfated GlcA residues.

  3. Hepatitis C virus core protein down-regulates p21(Waf1/Cip1 and inhibits curcumin-induced apoptosis through microRNA-345 targeting in human hepatoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yue Shiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV has been reported to regulate cellular microRNAs. The HCV core protein is considered to be a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, but HCV core-modulated cellular microRNAs are unknown. The HCV core protein regulates p21(Waf1/Cip1 expression. However, the mechanism of HCV core-associated p21(Waf1/Cip1 regulation remains to be further clarified. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether HCV core-modulated cellular microRNAs play an important role in regulating p21(Waf1/Cip1 expression in human hepatoma cells. METHODS: Cellular microRNA profiling was investigated in core-overexpressing hepatoma cells using TaqMan low density array. Array data were further confirmed by TaqMan real-time qPCR for single microRNA in core-overexpressing and full-length HCV replicon-expressing cells. The target gene of microRNA was examined by reporter assay. The gene expression was determined by real-time qPCR and Western blotting. Apoptosis was examined by annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by propidium iodide staining. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. RESULTS: HCV core protein up- or down-regulated some cellular microRNAs in Huh7 cells. HCV core-induced microRNA-345 suppressed p21(Waf1/Cip1 gene expression through targeting its 3' untranslated region in human hepatoma cells. Moreover, the core protein inhibited curcumin-induced apoptosis through p21(Waf1/Cip1-targeting microRNA-345 in Huh7 cells. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: HCV core protein enhances the expression of microRNA-345 which then down-regulates p21(Waf1/Cip1 expression. It is the first time that HCV core protein has ever been shown to suppress p21(Waf1/Cip1 gene expression through miR-345 targeting.

  4. Effects of two organomodified clays intended to food contact materials on the genomic instability and gene expression of hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Jordá-Beneyto, María; Cameán, Ana M; Jos, Ángeles

    2016-02-01

    Globally, food industries have made significant progress in order to increase the shelf-life of food products and have fewer economic losses. In this sense, the use of organomodified clays destined to be incorporated in polymer matrices play a novel role, leading to improved materials named nanocomposites with enhanced technological profiles. Due to the presence of these clays into the package, the safety of the consumers is a main concern. Cloisite(®)30B and Clay1 are two organomodified clays containing quaternary ammonium salts as modifiers, that can be potentially used to reinforce packaging polymers. Available toxicity data about these clays, specifically genotoxicity, is still limited and inconclusive in some aspects. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate both clays ability to induce genomic instability through the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN) and for the first time, their influence in the modulation of several genes involved in genotoxicity and cell death mechanisms. Overall, no genotoxicity response was obtained in any case at the conditions tested. On the other hand, significant expression changes were observed on the genes selected. Nevertheless, further studies are highly needed to elucidate and increase the knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of clays toxicity.

  5. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  6. Inhibitory effect of coffee on hepatoma proliferation and invasion in culture and on tumor growth, metastasis and abnormal lipoprotein profiles in hepatoma-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yutaka; Ono, Kanako; Okauchi, Rieko; Yagasaki, Kazumi

    2004-02-01

    We have already reported that instant coffee powder (ICP) and ICP-loaded rat sera could suppress proliferation and invasion of rat ascites hepatoma cell line of AH109A in vitro. In this report, we examined the mechanisms for suppression of tumor cell proliferation and invasion by ICP, and the effect of ICP on in vivo tumor growth, metastasis and abnormal lipoprotein profiles in hepatoma-bearing rats. ICP, when directly added to the culture media, induced cell cycle arrest (elongation of S phase) at a lower concentration (0.3 mg/mL) and apoptosis at a higher concentration (0.6-1.2 mg/mL). ICP and ICP-loaded rat sera showed reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging property and canceled the enhancement of invasive activity of hepatoma cells induced by ROS in vitro. These results suggest that ICP suppresses the proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the invasion by scavenging ROS and that ICP could retain these properties after their gastrointestinal absorption. The hepatoma-bearing rats were fed with a 20% casein diet (20C) or 20C supplemented with 0.1%, ICP for 14 d. Dietary ICP significantly reduced solid tumor growth and tended to reduce hepatoma metastases to lung and lymphatic nodes, suggesting that ICP could suppress tumor cell proliferation and invasion in vivo. In addition, dietary ICP significantly increased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and tended to reduce very low-density and low-density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL)-cholesterol, resulting in amelioration of abnormal lipoprotein profiles occurred in hepatoma-bearing rats. In conclusion, ICP has the ability to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hepatoma cells and to suppress tumor cell invasion by reducing oxidative stresses in vitro, and it could also exhibit these effects in vivo, leading to the inhibition of tumor growth and metastases.

  7. Identification of genes that regulate multiple cellular processes/responses in the context of lipotoxicity to hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yedwabnick Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to devise efficient treatments for complex, multi-factorial diseases, it is important to identify the genes which regulate multiple cellular processes. Exposure to elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α alters multiple cellular processes, causing lipotoxicity. Intracellular lipid accumulation has been shown to reduce the lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. We hypothesized that the genes which simultaneously regulate lipid accumulation as well as cytotoxicity may provide better targets to counter lipotoxicity of saturated FFA. Results As a model system to test this hypothesis, human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2 were exposed to elevated physiological levels of FFAs and TNF-α. Triglyceride (TG accumulation, toxicity and the genomic responses to the treatments were measured. Here, we present a framework to identify such genes in the context of lipotoxicity. The aim of the current study is to identify the genes that could be altered to treat or ameliorate the cellular responses affected by a complex disease rather than to identify the causal genes. Genes that regulate the TG accumulation, cytotoxicity or both were identified by a modified genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA/PLS analysis. The analyses identified NADH dehydrogenase and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs as important regulators of both cytotoxicity and lipid accumulation in response to FFA and TNF-α exposure. In agreement with the predictions, inhibiting NADH dehydrogenase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK reduced cytotoxicity significantly and increased intracellular TG accumulation. Inhibiting another MAPK pathway, the extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, on the other hand, improved the cytotoxicity without changing TG accumulation. Much greater reduction in the toxicity was observed upon inhibiting the NADH dehydrogenase and MAPK (which were identified by the dual-response analysis, than for the

  8. Rescue effects in radiobiology: Unirradiated bystander cells assist irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhao, Y. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chiu, S.K. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhu, L. [Office of Admission and Careers Advisory Service, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Wu, L. [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-10

    Mammalian cells respond to ionization radiation by sending out extracellular signals to affect non-irradiated neighboring cells, which is referred to as radiation induced bystander effect. In the present paper, we described a phenomenon entitled the 'rescue effects', where the bystander cells rescued the irradiated cells through intercellular signal feedback. The effect was observed in both human primary fibroblast (NHLF) and cancer cells (HeLa) using two-cell co-culture systems. After co-culturing irradiated cells with unirradiated bystander cells for 24 h, the numbers of 53BP1 foci, corresponding to the number of DNA double-strand breaks in the irradiated cells were less than those in the irradiated cells that were not co-cultured with the bystander cells (0.78 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell vs. 0.90 {+-} 0.04 foci/cell) at a statistically significant level. Similarly, both micronucleus formation and extent of apoptosis in the irradiated cells were different at statistically significant levels if they were co-cultured with the bystander cells. Furthermore, it was found that unirradiated normal cells would also reduce the micronucleus formation in irradiated cancer cells. These results suggested that the rescue effects could participate in repairing the radiation-induced DNA damages through a media-mediated signaling feedback, thereby mitigating the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of ionizing radiation.

  9. Proliferation of normal and malignant human epithelial cells post irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mothersill, C.; Seymour, C.B.; O' Brien, A.; Hennessy, T. (Saint James Hospital, Dublin (Ireland). Radiobiological Research Group Dublin Inst. of Tech. (Ireland). Physics Dept.)

    1991-01-01

    Fragments of human oesophageal mucosa, urothelium, squamous and adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and carcinoma of the bladder have been plated in culture and irradiated. The cells growing from the explanted tissues have then been studied for four weeks post irradiation to assess the overall rate of growth from the irradiated explants and the fraction of profilerating cells. Th results show that when using cell number as an endpoint it is possible to derive growth curves from this type of data which permit a doubling time to be obtained for the cell population surviving different doses. In an attempt to determine the proliferating fraction of the cell population, cultures were labelled at appropriate intervals with tritiated thymidine and were also stained with Ki-67 antiproliferating antigen. The results show an interesting relationship between the dose response obtained for cell labelling with tritiated thymidine and area of cellular outgrowth. Ki-67 staining when used carefully and analysed as described was a useful indicator of proliferating cells. The results provid a means of determining the post irradiation growth potential of fragments of tissue from human organs and may be important for determined overall response of the tumour bulk to proposed treatment. (orig.).

  10. Verification of cell irradiation dose deposition using a radiochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomic, N [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gosselin, M [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Wan, Jonathan F [Radiation Oncology Department, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Saragovi, Uri [Department of Pharmacology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Podgorsak, E B [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Evans, M [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Devic, S [Medical Physics Department, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2007-06-07

    We describe a technique for the MTT assay that irradiates all cells at once by a combination of couch movement and a step-and-shoot irradiation technique on a linear accelerator with 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams. In two experimental setups, we obtained maximum to minimum dose ranges of 10 for the constant MU/bin (monitor units per bin) setup and 20 for the variable MU/bin technique. The irradiation technique described is dose rate independent and it can be used on any teletherapy irradiation machine. We also employed radiochromic film dosimetry to verify dose delivered in each of the wells within the dish. It is shown that for the lowest doses, relative dose variation within wells reaches a value of 6%. We also demonstrated that the radiochromic film positioned below the 96-well plate does not underestimate dose deposited within each compartment by more than 2% due to the vertical dose gradient.

  11. Verification of cell irradiation dose deposition using a radiochromic film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomic, N.; Gosselin, M.; Wan, Jonathan F.; Saragovi, Uri; Podgorsak, E. B.; Evans, M.; Devic, S.

    2007-06-01

    We describe a technique for the MTT assay that irradiates all cells at once by a combination of couch movement and a step-and-shoot irradiation technique on a linear accelerator with 6 MV and 18 MV photon beams. In two experimental setups, we obtained maximum to minimum dose ranges of 10 for the constant MU/bin (monitor units per bin) setup and 20 for the variable MU/bin technique. The irradiation technique described is dose rate independent and it can be used on any teletherapy irradiation machine. We also employed radiochromic film dosimetry to verify dose delivered in each of the wells within the dish. It is shown that for the lowest doses, relative dose variation within wells reaches a value of 6%. We also demonstrated that the radiochromic film positioned below the 96-well plate does not underestimate dose deposited within each compartment by more than 2% due to the vertical dose gradient.

  12. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Emerging Compounds Research Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Tsui-Chun [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Ta [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ding-Yan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-An [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yan-Pu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen, E-mail: yfwang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd{sup 2+} levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of CdCl{sub 2} were 0.414 {mu}M (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 {mu}M) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 {mu}M (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 {mu}M) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  13. Cell death and cell proliferation in mouse submandibular gland during early post-irradiation phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bralic,Marina

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available

    The effects of irradiation on different cell compartments in the submandibular gland were analyzed in adult C57BL/6 mice exposed to X-ray irradiation and followed up for 10 days. Apoptosis was quantified using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling method (TUNEL. Cell proliferation was detected using immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Radiation-induced apoptosis occurred rapidly, reaching a maximum 3 days post-irradiation. The percentage of apoptotic cells increased with the irradiation dose. At day 1 post-irradiation, cell proliferation was significantly reduced in comparison to sham-irradiated controls. After post-irradiation arrest of the cell cycle, proliferation increased in all gland compartments, reaching a maximum at day 6 post-irradiation. The proliferation response corresponded to the dose of irradiation. We suggest that the reason for gland dysfunction could be the coexistence of high apoptotic and proliferative activity in the irradiated gland.

  14. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. III. Difference between the receptor-adenylate cyclase regulating systems in AH130 cells and cultured normal rat liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Matsunaga, T; Miyamoto, K; Koshiura, R

    1986-10-01

    The responsiveness to three beta-adrenergic agonists, isoproterenol (IPN), epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE) in AH13O cells was examined compared with that in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. As regards to the activation of adenylate cyclase in the cell homogenates, the relative affinity of the three agonists was in order of IPN greater than NE greater than Epi in AH130 cells and IPN greater than Epi greater than NE in cultured normal liver cells. While the efficacies of the three agonists were similar in cultured liver cells, those of NE and Epi were markedly lower than that of IPN in AH13O cells and were increased to the similar level of IPN by pretreatment with phentolamine, but not with prazosin. Clonidine inhibited the activation of adenylate cyclase by IPN in AH13O cells. When cells were preincubated with islet-activating protein (IAP), the activity of adenylate cyclase in the presence or absence of agonist in both cell lines increased. In IAP-treated AH13O cells, the efficacies of NE and Epi became close to that of IPN. Adenylate cyclase in IAP-treated AH13O cells was activated by GTP in a dose-dependent manner, but that in IAP-treated cultured liver cells was not. In the presence of IPN, biphasic (activatory and inhibitory) effects of GTP on the cyclase were observed, and the inhibitory phase was eliminated by the IAP-treatment in both cell lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. E2F is involved in radioresistance of carbon ion induced apoptosis via Bax/caspase 3 signal pathway in human hepatoma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Si, Jing; Wang, Yu-Pei; Li, Hong-Yan; Di, Cui-Xia; Yan, Jun-Fang; Ye, Yan-Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Shan; Zhang, Hong

    2017-05-13

    Deletion of p53, most common genetic alteration, is observed in human tumors and reported to lead to improve in cell radioresistance. Heavy-ion irradiation (IR) could induce p53(-/-) cancer cells apoptosis. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism in this type of cell apoptosis. The present studies have focused on mechanisms state of signaling pathways as an activator of the cell fate decisions induced by heavy ion IR without p53. Carbon ion IR could induce up-regulation of E2F1 expression in cancer cells. This phenomenon was not observed in X-ray IR group. Up-regulation of E2F1 could cause a higher reduction in clonogenic survival, low level of cellular activity, G2 /M phase arrest, promotion of apoptosis rate, up-regulation of phosphor-Rb, Bax, and cleaved-caspase 3 proteins expressions without p53. Changes of E2F1 expressions could partly alter radioresistance in cancer cells. The results were suggested that heavy ion IR could induce p53(-/-) cancer cells apoptosis via E2F1 signal pathway. Our study provides a scientific rationale for the clinical use of heavy ion as radiotherapy in patients with p53-deficient tumors, which are often resistant to radiotherapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Increase of Candida cell virulence by anticancer drugs and irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, E; Tanida, T; Yoneda, K; Yamamoto, T; Osaki, T

    2001-08-01

    The influence of anticancer drugs and irradiation on Candida cell proliferation, adherence to HeLa cells and susceptibility to antifungal drugs (amphotericin B and miconazole) and neutrophils were examined using two Candida albicans strains. After treatment with 5-fluorouracil (25 microg/ml to 250 microg/ml), cis-diammine-dichloroplatinum (10 microg/ml to 100 microg/ml), peplomycin (0.5 microg/ml to 5 microg/ml) or 137Cs (20 Gy to 40 Gy) for 3 days or more, surviving Candida cells proliferated more rapidly than did untreated control cells. Anticancer agent-pretreated Candida cells revealed an increased adhesion to HeLa cells corresponding to an increase of binding to the lectins. The concentration of half limited colony formation (IC50) of amphotericin B and miconazole was increased to near two-fold that of the control by pretreatment of Candida cells with the anticancer agents, except peplomycin, which only weakly increased IC50. In addition, the enolase and Candida acid proteinase activities in the culture supernatants were increased by pretreatment with the drugs and irradiation. Correspondingly, surviving Candida cells after these treatments were resistant to neutrophils, with a reduction to half of the killing. These results indicate that anti-cancer drugs and irradiation potentiate the virulence of Candida cells, or they eliminate Candida cells with low virulence, thereby enhancing the risk of oral and systemic candidiasis.

  17. Modulation of the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin by isoflavone extracts in a rat hepatoma cell line Modulação do efeito mutagênico do benzo[a]pireno e bleomicina por extratos de isoflavonas em células de hepatoma de roedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Sérgio Mantovani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies show that the intake of foods rich in isoflavones (phytoestrogens, such as soybeans, confers protection against various types of cancer, what increases the scientific and popular interest on these compounds. In the present study, phytoestrogens extracts from soybeans were tested for genotoxic potential and modulatory effects on benzo[a]pyrene and bleomycin. Two phytoestrogens were evaluated in vitro, phytoestrogen “A” was supplied by EMBRAPA-Soja, Londrina – PR, and phytoestrogen “B” was purchased in a local drug store. The methods used were the comet assay (genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity and micronucleus test with cytokinesis block (mutagenicity in rat hepatoma cells (HTC cell. The isoflavones were tested at three concentrations pre-established by the MTT cytotoxicity assay. Both isoflavone extracts showed no genotoxic effects in the comet assay, but showed induction of micronucleus. In the evaluation of the phytoestrogens for a modulatory effect, both phytoestrogens extracts showed antigenotoxicity in the comet assay.Estudos epidemiológicos mostram que a ingestão de alimentos ricos em isoflavonas (fitoestrógenos, como a soja, confere proteção contra vários tipos de câncer, o que aumenta o interesse científico e popular sobre esses compostos. No presente estudo, os fitoestrógenos de extrato de soja foram testados quanto aos efeitos genotóxicos e modulador de benzo [a] pireno e bleomicina. Dois fitoestrogênios foram avaliados in vitro, o fitoestrógenos “A” foi fornecido pela Embrapa-Soja, Londrina - PR, e o fitoestrógenos “B” foi comprado em uma farmácia de manipulação local. Os métodos utilizados foram o teste do Cometa (genotoxicidade e antigenotoxicidade e teste do Micronúcleo com Bloqueio Citocinese (mutagenicidade em células de hepatoma de rato (HTC celulares. As isoflavonas foram testadas em três concentrações pré-estabelecidas pelo ensaio de citotoxidade MTT. Ambos os

  18. Experimental Studies on PNP Suicide Gene Therapy of Hepatoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the killing effect of PNP/MeP-dR suicide gene system on hepatoma cells,pcDNA3. 0/PNP, an eukaryotic expression vector harboring E. coli PNP gene, was transfected into human hepatoma HepG2 cells by liposome-mediated method. A HepG2 cell line with stable PNP gene expression, HepG2/PNP, was established with presence of G418 selection. The cell growth curves were determined with trypan blue staining. The sensitivity of HepG2/PNP to MePdR and bystander effects were assayed by MTT and FCM methods. The enzymatic activity of the product of PNP gene was determined by HPLC method. The cytotoxic effects of MeP-dR on HepG2/PNP cells were obvious (IC50 =4.5μmol/L) and all HepG2/PNP cells were killed 4 days after the treatment with 100μmol/L MeP~dR. In mixed cultures containing increasing percentages of HepG2/PNP cells, total population killing was demonstrated when HepG2/PNP cells accounted for as few as 5% of all HepG2 cells 8 days after the treatment with 100μmol MeP-dR. Highpressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) demonstrated that the PNP enzyme could convert MePdR into 6-MP. PNP/MeP-dR suicide gene system had an advantage over traditional suicide gene systems for hepatoma gene therapy. Our e results suggest that high-level bystander effects of this system result in significant anti-tumor responses to hepatoma gene therapy, especially in vivo.

  19. Total body irradiation in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fundagul Andic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Total body irradiation is used in conjunction with chemotherapy as a conditioning regimen in the treatment of many disease such as leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, multiple myeloma and lymphoma prior to the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation. The main purposes of the hematopoetic stem cell transplantation are eradication of the recipient bone marrow and any residual cancer cells, creation of space in the receipient bone marrow for donor hematopoetic stem cells, and immunosuppression to prevent rejection of donor stem cells in the case of an allotransplant. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 398-410

  20. Using microdispensing to manufacture a customized cell dish for microbeam irradiation of single, living cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, E.J.C. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)], E-mail: charlotta.nilsson@nuclear.lu.se; Olsson, M.G. [Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, S-22184 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, J. [Department of Electrical Measurements and Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Pallon, J.; Masternak, A. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Paczesny, J. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, S-22184 Lund (Sweden); Arteaga-Marrero, N.; Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, C. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Akerstroem, B. [Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, S-22184 Lund (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    In this paper is described the preparation of patterned cell dishes to be used in studies of low dose irradiation effects on living cells. Using a droplet microdispenser, an 8 {mu}m thick polypropylene cell substrate, to which cells do not naturally adhere, was coated in a matrix pattern with the cell adhesive mussel protein Cell-Tak. Cells were shown to adhere and grow on the protein-coated spots, but not on the uncoated parts, providing for guided cell growth. Cultivation of isolated cell colonies provides an opportunity to study how low doses of ionizing radiation affect neighbouring un-irradiated cell colonies.

  1. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Sodi, S A; Chakraborty, A K; Fargnoli, M C; Pawelek, J M

    1994-10-01

    Cultured mouse Cloudman melanoma cells, EMT6 breast carcinoma cells, and 3T3 fibroblasts all accumulated in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle when exposed to UVB radiation. The effects of UVB were maximal at 20-30 mJ/cm2 for all three cell lines, and could be observed by flow cytometry as early as 12 hr post irradiation. It has been known since the mid-1970s that MSH receptor binding activity is highest on Cloudman melanoma cells when they are in the G2/M phase of their cycle. Here we show that either UVB irradiation or synchronization of Cloudman cells with colchicine results in a stimulation of MSH binding within 24 hr following treatment, a time when both treatments have resulted in accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of the cycle. Furthermore, the two treatments performed together on the melanoma cells stimulated MSH receptor activity to the same extent as either treatment performed separately, suggesting that each may be influencing MSH receptor activity solely through a G2/M accumulation of cells. Together, these results raise the possibility that an increase in the number of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle is a generalized cellular response to injury, such as UV irradiation. However, in the case of pigment cells this response includes a mechanism for increasing melanin formation, i.e., increased MSH receptor activity. Should this be the case, similar G2/M "injury responses" of other cell types might be expected, consistent with their differentiated phenotypes.

  2. Thermal response of photovoltaic cell to laser beam irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yu-Chen; Wu, Chen-Wu

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly presents the concept of using dual laser beam to irradiate the photovoltaic cell, so as to investigate the temperature dependency of the efficiency of long distance energy transmission. Next, the model on the multiple reflection and absorption of any monochromatic light in multilayer structure has been established, and the heat generation in photovoltaic cell has been interpreted in this work. Then, the finite element model has been set up to calculate the temperature of ph...

  3. The use of gamma-irradiation and ultraviolet-irradiation in the preparation of human melanoma cells for use in autologous whole-cell vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denlinger Chadrick E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cancer vaccines incorporating autologous tumor cells carry a risk of implantation and subsequent metastasis of viable tumor cells into the patient who is being treated. Despite the fact that the melanoma cell preparations used in a recent vaccine trial (Mel37 were gamma-irradiated (200 Gy, approximately 25% of the preparations failed quality control release criteria which required that the irradiated cells incorporate 3H-thymidine at no more than 5% the level seen in the non-irradiated cells. We have, therefore, investigated ultraviolet (UV-irradiation as a possible adjunct to, or replacement for gamma-irradiation. Methods Melanoma cells were gamma- and/or UV-irradiated. 3H-thymidine uptake was used to assess proliferation of the treated and untreated cells. Caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation were measured as indicators of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis was used to assess antigen expression. Results UV-irradiation, either alone or in combination with gamma-irradiation, proved to be extremely effective in controlling the proliferation of melanoma cells. In contrast to gamma-irradiation, UV-irradiation was also capable of inducing significant levels of apoptosis. UV-irradiation, but not gamma-irradiation, was associated with the loss of tyrosinase expression. Neither form of radiation affected the expression of gp100, MART-1/MelanA, or S100. Conclusion These results indicate that UV-irradiation may increase the safety of autologous melanoma vaccines, although it may do so at the expense of altering the antigenic profile of the irradiated tumor cells.

  4. Antibody formation by bone marrow cells in irradiated mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playfair, J. H. L.; Purves, Elizabeth C.

    1971-01-01

    Bone marrow-thymus cooperation experiments were carried out in lethally irradiated mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as the antigen and direct plaque-forming cells (PFC) as the end point. Various parameters were altered, with the following results: (1) Above 800 rad, the response by marrow cells alone, as well as the increase due to added thymus cells, was independent of irradiation dose. (2) The response of marrow cells was greatest at high SRBC concentrations, but the co-operative effect of thymus cells was most evident at lower SRBC levels, and completely absent at high levels. (3) Increasing the number of marrow cells, without thymus, gave increasing numbers of PFC, but the dose-response curve did not suggest cell synergism. (4) Thymectomy and antithymocyte serum treatment of host or donor did not prevent the response by marrow cells alone. It was concluded that this was a true IgM response by antibody-forming precursors from the marrow, unaided by thymus-derived cells. PMID:4934135

  5. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi

    1997-03-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  6. In vivo – in vitro toxicogenomic comparison of TCDD-elicited gene expression in Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells and C57BL/6 hepatic tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boverhof Darrell R

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro systems have inherent limitations in their ability to model whole organism gene responses, which must be identified and appropriately considered when developing predictive biomarkers of in vivo toxicity. Systematic comparison of in vitro and in vivo temporal gene expression profiles were conducted to assess the ability of Hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells to model hepatic responses in C57BL/6 mice following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Results Gene expression analysis and functional gene annotation indicate that Hepa1c1c7 cells appropriately modeled the induction of xenobiotic metabolism genes in vivo. However, responses associated with cell cycle progression and proliferation were unique to Hepa1c1c7 cells, consistent with the cell cycle arrest effects of TCDD on rapidly dividing cells. In contrast, lipid metabolism and immune responses, representative of whole organism effects in vivo, were not replicated in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Conclusion These results identified inherent differences in TCDD-mediated gene expression responses between these models and highlighted the limitations of in vitro systems in modeling whole organism responses, and additionally identified potential predictive biomarkers of toxicity.

  7. Immunotherapy of hepatoma with a monoclonal antibody against murine endoglin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Hong Tan; Feng-Ying Huang; Hua Wang; Yong-Hao Huang; Ying-Ying Lin; Yue-Nan Li

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore the capability of a monoclonal antibody(mAb) against murine endoglin to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and suppression of hepatoma growth in murine models.METHODS: A monoclonal antibody against murine endoglin was purified by affinity chromatography and passively transfused through tail veins in two murine hepatoma models. Tumor volume and survival time were observed at three-day intervals for 48 d. Microvessels in tumor tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry against CD31, and angiogenesis in vivo was determined by alginate encapsulated assay. In addition, tumor cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay.RESULTS: Passive immunotherapy with anti-endoglin mAb could effectively suppress tumor growth, and prolonged the survival time of hepatoma-bearing mice.Angiogenesis was apparently inhibited within the tumor tissues, and the vascularization of alginate beads was also reduced in the mice passively transfused with antiendoglin mAb. In addition, increased apoptotic cells were observed within the tumor tissues from the mice passively transfused with anti-endoglin mAb.CONCLUSION: Passive immunotherapy with antiendoglin mAb effectively inhibits tumor growth via inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and increasing tumor cell apoptosis, which may be highly correlated with the blockage of endoglin-related signal pathway induced by anti-endoglin mAb.

  8. Knockdown of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptosis of H1299 cells via ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hong Shik [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Um, Hong-Duck; Park, Jong Kuk; Park, In-Chul [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant H1299 cells. • Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. • ROS generation enhances NF-κB activity, which acts as an upstream signal in the c-Myc/Noxa apoptotic pathway. - Abstract: We previously identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistant biomarker in p53 wild-type A549 cells and found that p53-dependent induction of the PUMA pathway was a critical event in regulating the radioresistant phenotype. Here, we found that HRP-3 knockdown regulates the radioresistance of p53-null H1299 cells through a distinctly different molecular mechanism. HRP-3 depletion was sufficient to cause apoptosis of H1299 cells by generating substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. Subsequent, ROS-dependent and p53-independent NF-κB activation stimulated expression of c-Myc and Noxa proteins, thereby inducing the apoptotic machinery. Our results thus extend the range of targets for the development of new drugs to treat both p53 wild-type or p53-null radioresistant lung cancer cells.

  9. Quercetin induces apoptosis via caspase activation, regulation of Bcl-2, and inhibition of PI-3-kinase/Akt and ERK pathways in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2006-11-01

    Dietary polyphenols have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, but the precise underlying mechanism of protection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Treatment of cells for 18 h with quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner; however, a shorter treatment (4 h) had no effect on cell viability. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin for 18 h induced apoptosis by the activation of caspase-3 and -9, but not caspase-8. Moreover, this flavonoid decreased the Bcl-xL:Bcl-xS ratio and increased translocation of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signals, Akt and extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), also occurred in quercetin-treated cells. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade (mitochondrial pathway) and by inhibiting survival signaling in HepG2.

  10. Gene expression profiles in irradiated cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, L.; Bravatà, V.; Russo, G.; Ripamonti, M.; Gilardi, M. C.

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying cellular response to radiation may provide new avenues to develop innovative predictive tests of radiosensitivity of tumours and normal tissues and to improve individual therapy. Nowadays very few studies describe molecular changes induced by hadrontherapy treatments, therefore this field has to be explored and clarified. High-throughput methodologies, such as DNA microarray, allow us to analyse mRNA expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in order to discover new genes and pathways as targets of response to hadrontherapy. Our aim is to elucidate the molecular networks involved in the sensitivity/resistance of cancer cell lines subjected to hadrontherapy treatments with a genomewide approach by using cDNA microarray technology to identify gene expression profiles and candidate genes responsible of differential cellular responses.

  11. Gene expression profiles in irradiated cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minafra, L.; Bravatà, V.; Russo, G.; Ripamonti, M.; Gilardi, M. C. [IBFM CNR - LATO, Cefalù, Segrate (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    Knowledge of the molecular and genetic mechanisms underlying cellular response to radiation may provide new avenues to develop innovative predictive tests of radiosensitivity of tumours and normal tissues and to improve individual therapy. Nowadays very few studies describe molecular changes induced by hadrontherapy treatments, therefore this field has to be explored and clarified. High-throughput methodologies, such as DNA microarray, allow us to analyse mRNA expression of thousands of genes simultaneously in order to discover new genes and pathways as targets of response to hadrontherapy. Our aim is to elucidate the molecular networks involved in the sensitivity/resistance of cancer cell lines subjected to hadrontherapy treatments with a genomewide approach by using cDNA microarray technology to identify gene expression profiles and candidate genes responsible of differential cellular responses.

  12. Cell adhesion behavior on the silicone rubber surface modified by using ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, In Tae; Jung, Chan Hee; Nh, Young Chang; Choi, Jae Hak [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kuk, In Seol [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Mi Young [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    In this study we studied cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of a silicone rubber modified by ion beam irradiation. The surface property of the irradiated silicone rubber was characterized by water contact angle and FT-IR analyses. It was observed that human (HEK293) fibroblast cells exhibit strong adhesion to the irradiated silicone surface. This enhanced adhesion of mammalian cells can be attributed to the increase in the hydrophilicity of the silicone surface by ion beam irradiation.

  13. 华蟾素注射液对人肝癌HepG-2细胞增殖及周期的影响%Impact of Cinobufacini injection on proliferation and cell cycle of human hepatoma HepG-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Sun; Xinxin Lu; Xinmiao Liang; Xiaonan Cui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Cinobufacini injection on the proliferation and cell cycle of human hepatoma HepG-2 cells. Methods: Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, cell cycle distributionwas detected by the flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of Cyclin A, CDK2 mRNA levels were examined by RT-PCR.Quantitative colorimetric assay was used to analyze Cyclin NCDK2 activity in HepG-2 cells. Results: Cinobufacini injection significantly inhibited HepG-2 cells proliferation in dose- and time-dependent ways; FCM analysis showed Cinobufacini injection induced cell cycle arrest at S phase; RT-PCR assay showed Cinobufacini injection down-regulated Cyclin A, CDK2expression at mRNA levels; Quantitative colorimetric assay showed Cinobufacini injection deceased Cyclin A/CDK2 activity in HepG-2 cells. Conclusion: Cinobufacini injection can inhibit human hepatoma HepG-2 cells growth, induce cell apoptosis and induce cell cycle arrest at S phase, the mechanism of which might be partly related to the down-regulation of Cyclin A,CDK2 mRNA expression and inhibition of Cyclin A/CDK2 activity.

  14. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation.

  15. Low doses of gamma-irradiation induce an early bystander effect in zebrafish cells which is sufficient to radioprotect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term "bystander effect" is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01-0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors.

  16. Hepatitis C virus core protein increases Snail expression and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway in hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Jia; Meng, Zhe; He, Xiao-Yu; Cheng, Di; Ye, Hui-Lin; Deng, Xiao-Geng; Chen, Ru-Fu

    2017-05-01

    Aberrant expression of Snail, a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is crucial for cancer invasiveness and metastasis. Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein has been implicated in hepatocarcinogenesis, the relationship between HCV core and Snail expression has not been clarified. HepG2 and Huh7 stable cell lines were established by transfection with pcDNA-HCVc. HepG2-HCVc and Huh7-HCVc cells were co-administered with AG490. Cell migration and invasiveness were tested. STAT3 and Snail expression was analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that HCV core is capable of increasing Snail expression and inducing EMT in hepatoma cells. HCV core-induced Snail expression was accompanied by activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), inhibition of STAT3 abrogated HCV core-induced Snail expression and EMT. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that phosphorylated STAT3 directly binds to the Snail promoter. Collectively, these results suggest that HCV core would play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma invasiveness and metastasis by activating the STAT3 pathway, increasing Snail expression and subsequently triggering EMT. These findings would advance the understanding of HCV-mediated invasiveness and metastasis, and might provide a new potential therapeutic target for HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  17. Estrogen enhanced cell-cell signalling in breast cancer cells exposed to targeted irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Held Kathryn D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation-induced bystander responses, where cells respond to their neighbours being irradiated are being extensively studied. Although evidence shows that bystander responses can be induced in many types of cells, it is not known whether there is a radiation-induced bystander effect in breast cancer cells, where the radiosensitivity may be dependent on the role of the cellular estrogen receptor (ER. This study investigated radiation-induced bystander responses in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 and estrogen receptor-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Methods The influence of estrogen and anti-estrogen treatments on the bystander response was determined by individually irradiating a fraction of cells within the population with a precise number of helium-3 using a charged particle microbeam. Damage was scored as chromosomal damage measured as micronucleus formation. Results A bystander response measured as increased yield of micronucleated cells was triggered in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The contribution of the bystander response to total cell damage in MCF-7 cells was higher than that in MDA-MB-231 cells although the radiosensitivity of MDA-MB-231 was higher than MCF-7. Treatment of cells with 17β-estradiol (E2 increased the radiosensitivity and the bystander response in MCF-7 cells, and the effect was diminished by anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TAM. E2 also increased the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in MCF-7 cells in the absence of radiation. In contrast, E2 and TAM had no influence on the bystander response and ROS levels in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the treatment of MCF-7 cells with antioxidants eliminated both the E2-induced ROS increase and E2-enhanced bystander response triggered by the microbeam irradiation, which indicates that ROS are involved in the E2-enhanced bystander micronuclei formation after microbeam irradiation. Conclusion The observation of bystander responses in breast

  18. Down-regulation of G protein-coupled receptor 137 by RNA interference inhibits cell growth of two hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xin; Liu, Yong; Huang, Hai; Zhuang, Linyuan; Luo, Tianping; Huang, Huping; Ge, Xinguo

    2015-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important signal transduction mediators and pharmacological therapeutic targets. G protein-coupled receptor 137 (GPR137) was initially reported as a novel orphan GPCR around 10 years ago. Some orphan GPCRs have been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and migration. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR137 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). GPR137 is widely expressed in several human HCC cell lines, as determined by real-time PCR. We then applied lentivirus mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down GPR137 expression in two HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel7404. Depletion of GPR137 remarkably inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. Knockdown of GPR137 in HepG2 cells led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and G2/M phase, and induced cell apoptosis, as determined by flow cytometry analysis, which contributed to cell growth inhibition. Our findings suggested that GPR137 could facilitate HCC cell proliferation and thus promote hepatocarcinogenesis.

  19. Proton irradiation effects of amorphous silicon solar cell for solar power satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Yousuke; Oshima, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Sasaki, Susumu; Kuroda, Hideo; Ushirokawa, Akio

    1997-03-01

    Flexible amorphous silicon(fa-Si) solar cell module, a thin film type, is regarded as a realistic power generator for solar power satellite. The radiation resistance of fa-Si cells was investigated by the irradiations of 3,4 and 10 MeV protons. The hydrogen gas treatment of the irradiated fa-Si cells was also studied. The fa-Si cell shows high radiation resistance for proton irradiations, compared with a crystalline silicon solar cell. (author)

  20. Deficiency in Homologous Recombination Renders Mammalian Cells More Sensitive to Proton Versus Photon Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Nicole; Fontana, Andrea O. [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Hug, Eugen B.; Lomax, Antony; Coray, Adolf [Center for Proton Therapy, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Augsburger, Marc [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Paganetti, Harald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sartori, Alessandro A. [Institute of Molecular Cancer Research, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Pruschy, Martin, E-mail: martin.pruschy@usz.ch [Laboratory for Molecular Radiobiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of the 2 major DNA repair machineries on cellular survival in response to irradiation with the 2 types of ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: The DNA repair and cell survival endpoints in wild-type, homologous recombination (HR)-deficient, and nonhomologous end-joining-deficient cells were analyzed after irradiation with clinically relevant, low-linear energy transfer (LET) protons and 200-keV photons. Results: All cell lines were more sensitive to proton irradiation compared with photon irradiation, despite no differences in the induction of DNA breaks. Interestingly, HR-deficient cells and wild-type cells with small interfering RNA-down-regulated Rad51 were markedly hypersensitive to proton irradiation, resulting in an increased relative biological effectiveness in comparison with the relative biological effectiveness determined in wild-type cells. In contrast, lack of nonhomologous end-joining did not result in hypersensitivity toward proton irradiation. Repair kinetics of DNA damage in wild-type cells were equal after both types of irradiation, although proton irradiation resulted in more lethal chromosomal aberrations. Finally, repair kinetics in HR-deficient cells were significantly delayed after proton irradiation, with elevated amounts of residual γH2AX foci after irradiation. Conclusion: Our data indicate a differential quality of DNA damage by proton versus photon irradiation, with a specific requirement for homologous recombination for DNA repair and enhanced cell survival. This has potential relevance for clinical stratification of patients carrying mutations in the DNA damage response pathways.

  1. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, R.K.K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Han, Wei [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Rescue effect was observed in both irradiated and HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells. • Novel setup and procedures to separate the rescue signals and the bystander signals. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using activation inhibitor. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using anti-NF-κB p65 antibody. - Abstract: We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased

  2. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (pactive components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models.

  3. DNA-PKcs deficiency sensitizes the human hepatoma HepG2 cells to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Chai, Zongtao; Wang, Dansong; Kuang, Tiantao; Wu, Wenchuan; Lou, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DNA-PKcs deficiency on the chemosensitivity of human hepatoma HepG2 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. After transfection with DNA-PKcs siRNA or control siRNA, HepG2 cells were exposed to combination treatment of CDDP and 5-Fu. The cell viability, DNA damage, cell apoptosis, intracellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione (GSH) level, expression of apoptosis related proteins, activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways were assessed. The combination of CDDP and 5-Fu had a synergistic cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells in terms of the cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis, and oxidative stress level. DNA-PKcs siRNA could sensitize the HepG2 cells to the combined treatment. DNA-PKcs suppression further reduced the Akt phosphorylation level and Bcl-2 expression in HepG2 cells exposed to CDDP and 5-Fu, but enhanced the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins p53 and caspase-3. Moreover, CDDP could inhibit the transcriptional activity of NF-κB through degradation of IkB-α, while 5-Fu alone seemed in some extent increases the NF-κB activity. The combined treatment with CDDP and 5-Fu resulted in significantly decrease of the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, which was further aggravated by DNA-PKcs siRNA treatment. In conclusion, DNA-PKcs suppression had complementary effects in combination with CDDP and 5-Fu treatment in HepG2 cells, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway cascade, activation of caspase-3 and p53, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2 and GSH.

  4. In vitro neutron irradiation of glioma and endothelial cultured cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menichetti, L. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: luca.menichetti@ifc.cnr.it; Gaetano, L. [University Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Zampolli, A.; Del Turco, S. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Ferrari, C. [University of Pavia, Department of Surgery, Laboratory of experimental Surgery, Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S.; Stella, S.; Altieri, S. [University of Pavia, Department of Nuclear Physics, Pavia (Italy); National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Section of Pavia (Italy); Salvadori, P.A. [Department of PET and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, C.N.R. Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy); Cionini, L. [Unit of Radiotherapy, AOUP-University Hospital, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    To fully develop its potential boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires the combination of a suitable thermal/epithermal neutron flux together with a selective intake of {sup 10}B-boron nuclei in the target tissue. The latter condition is the most critical to be realized as none of the boron carriers used for experimental or clinical purposes proved at the moment an optimal selectivity for cancer cells compared to normal cells. In addition to complex physical factors, the assessment of the intracellular concentration of boron represent a crucial parameter to predict the dose delivered to the cancer cells during the treatment. Nowadays the dosimetry calculation and then the prediction of the treatment effectiveness are made using Monte Carlo simulations, but some of the model assumption are still uncertain: the radiobiological dose efficacy and the probability of tumour cell survival are crucial parameters that needs a more reliable experimental approach. The aim of this work was to evaluate the differential ability of two cell lines to selectively concentrate the boron-10 administered as di-hydroxyboryl-phenylalanine (BPA)-fructose adduct, and the effect of the differential boron intake on the damage produced by the irradiation with thermal neutrons; the two cell lines were selected to be representative one of normal tissues involved in the active/passive transport of boron carriers, and one of the tumour. Recent in vitro studies demonstrated how BPA is taken by proliferating cells, however the mechanism of BPA uptake and the parameters driving the kinetics of influx and the elimination of BPA are still not clarified. In these preliminary studies we analysed the survival of F98 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells line after irradiation, using different thermal fluencies at the same level of density population and boron concentration in the growing medium prior the irradiation. This is first study performed on endothelium model obtained by

  5. Proteomic analysis of proton beam irradiated human melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kedracka-Krok

    Full Text Available Proton beam irradiation is a form of advanced radiotherapy providing superior distributions of a low LET radiation dose relative to that of photon therapy for the treatment of cancer. Even though this clinical treatment has been developing for several decades, the proton radiobiology critical to the optimization of proton radiotherapy is far from being understood. Proteomic changes were analyzed in human melanoma cells treated with a sublethal dose (3 Gy of proton beam irradiation. The results were compared with untreated cells. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed with mass spectrometry to identify the proteins. At the dose of 3 Gy a minimal slowdown in proliferation rate was seen, as well as some DNA damage. After allowing time for damage repair, the proteomic analysis was performed. In total 17 protein levels were found to significantly (more than 1.5 times change: 4 downregulated and 13 upregulated. Functionally, they represent four categories: (i DNA repair and RNA regulation (VCP, MVP, STRAP, FAB-2, Lamine A/C, GAPDH, (ii cell survival and stress response (STRAP, MCM7, Annexin 7, MVP, Caprin-1, PDCD6, VCP, HSP70, (iii cell metabolism (TIM, GAPDH, VCP, and (iv cytoskeleton and motility (Moesin, Actinin 4, FAB-2, Vimentin, Annexin 7, Lamine A/C, Lamine B. A substantial decrease (2.3 x was seen in the level of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the metastatic properties of melanoma.

  6. Systematization of the Mechanism by Which Plasma Irradiation Causes Cell Growth and Tumor Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    New methods and technologies have improved minimally invasive surgical treatment and saved numerous patients. Recently, plasma irradiation has been demonstrated that might be useful in medical field and the plasma irradiation device is expected to become practically applicable. Mild plasma coagulator showed some advantages such as hemostasis and adhesion reduction in experimental animal model, but the mechanism of plasma irradiation remains unclear. Our study group aim to clarify the mechanism of plasma irradiation effects, mainly focusing on oxidative stress using cultured cell lines and small animal model. First, a study using cultured cell lines showed that the culture medium that was activated by plasma irradiation (we called this kind of medium as ``PAM'' -plasma activated medium-) induced tumor cell death. Although this effect was mainly found to be due to hydrogen peroxide, the remaining portion was considered as the specific effect of the plasma irradiation and we are now studying focusing on this effect. Second, we established a mouse intra-peritoneal adhesion model and checked biological reaction that occurred in the adhesion part. Histopathological study showed inflammatory cells infiltration into adhesion part and the expression of PTX3 that might involve tissue repair around adhesion part. We also confirmed that cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 might be useful as a marker of adhesion formation in this model. Applying ``PAM'' or mild plasma irradiation in this model, we examine the effects of plasma on inflamed cells. The samples in these experiments would be applied to targeted proteomics analysis, and we aim to demonstrate the systematization of the cell's reaction by plasma irradiation.

  7. 柞蚕蛹虫草抑制人肝癌SMMC-7721细胞增殖和诱导凋亡的作用%Cordyceps Militaris of Antheraea pernyi Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis of Hepatoma SMMC-7721 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林美; 都兴范; 李学军; 米锐; 李亚洁; 李树英

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate new medical value of the cordyceps militaris of Antheraea pernyi, the human hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were treated with different concentrations of the aqueous extract of A.pernyi cordycep militaris (AEoAPC) for 24, 48, and 72 h respectively in vitro. The proliferation and apoptosis of the hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells were examined by an inverted phase contrast microscope, a transmission electron microscope, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay, and flow cytometry (FCM). The results showed that addition of AEoAPC into cell culture plates with mass concentrations of 0.1,0.2, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 g/L respectively could inhibit proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells significantly and the inhibition was in a time and dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 1.0 g/L AEoAPC for 24, 48,and 72 h had an inhibitory rate to hepatoma SMMC-7721 cell growth of 18.9%, 46.4%, and 77. 2% respectively. After AEoAPC treatment, a large number of cancer cells showed chromatin margination, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptotic bodies. SMMC-7721 cell apoptotic rate from treatment with 1.0 g/L AEoAPC for 24, 48,and 72 h was 7.65%, 11.04%, and 23.02% respectively. The degree of apoptosis had positive correlation with AEoAPC treatment duration, and the cell cycle of SMMC-7721 was apparently arrested at G1 phase by AEoAPC treatment for 72 h. Our results suggested that AEoAPC could inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of the hepatoma SMMC-7721 cells, and its antitumor function was related with induction of apoptosis to tumor cells.%为鉴定柞蚕蛹虫草新的医用价值,将不同浓度的柞蚕蛹虫草水提物(AEoAPC)分别作用于体外培养的人肝癌SMMC-7721细胞,于24、48、72 h后采用倒置相差显微镜和透射电子显微镜观察、四甲基偶唑蓝(MTT)比色及流式细胞术(FCM)检测细胞的增殖和凋亡情况.结果表明:细胞培养板中分别加入质量浓度为0.1、0.2、0.5、0.8、1.0、2

  8. A mycosis fungoides d'emblee showing morphological change in infiltrating lymphoid cells after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabata, Hideyuki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hidekazu (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-11-01

    A 67-year-old woman was treated with electron beam irradiation for Mycosis fungoides d'emblee. Blast-like cells were remarkably increased after irradiation, which replaced mycosis cells. Morphological analysis showed that these cells were similar to those observed in cases of classic mycosis fungoides. Such a noticeable increase of blast-like cells seemed be attributable not only to the aggravation of the underlying disease but also to the involvement of electron beam irradiation. (N.K.).

  9. The Anti-tumor Immunity of Dendritic Cells Modified by IFN γ Gene on Mice Bearing Ascite Hepatoma Cell H22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction Dendritc cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines have shown to been effective both in clinical trials and in animal tumor models. Some clinical trials have been on the phase Ⅲ, but some problems are challenging now. The functions of DC from patient with malignant tumor were depressed by tumor-secreting cytokines such as IL-10. it is critical to find out some methods to improve DC differentiation maturation for priming naive T cells and initiating the specific anti-tumor immunity effectively. IFNγ is ...

  10. Signal regulation of POKemon and NF-κB p65 in hepatoma cells%POKemon和NF-κB p65在肝癌细胞中的信号调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵心恺; 宁巧明; 孙晓宁; 田德安

    2012-01-01

    目的:旨在探讨原癌基因POKemon和核因子-κB(nuclear factor-kappa B,NF-κB) p65在肝癌细胞中的信号调控作用.方法:采用实时荧光定量-PCR(real-time fluorogenic quantitative-PCR,RFQ-PCR)和蛋白质印迹法分别检测POKemon、NF-κB p65 mRNA和蛋白在肝癌细胞株HepG2和SMMC7721及人胚胎肝细胞LO2中的表达情况;随后应用小干扰RNA(small interference RNA,siRNA)法依次分别抑制POKemon和NF-κB p65在肝癌细胞中的表达,观察二者在肝癌细胞中的变化,并应用FCM法检测对肝癌细胞凋亡的影响.结果:POKemon和NF-κB p65在肝癌细胞HepG2和SMMC7721中的表达量明显高于人胚胎肝细胞LO2;特异性针对POKemon基因的siRNA抑制POKemon的表达后,NF-κB p65在HepG2和SMMC7721细胞中的表达量也明显下降,转染前后分别为2.12±0.14vs 1.37±0.11和2.08±0.16vs 1.35±0.13,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),且肝癌细胞凋亡明显增加分别为(5.07±0.46)%vs (39.65±3.75)%和(5.71±0.83)%vs (33.21±3.66)%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);特异性针对NF-κB基因的siRNA抑制NF-κB p65的表达后,POKemon在HepG2和SMMC7721细胞中的表达则无明显变化,其表达量转染前后分别为1.86±0.12vs 1.90±0.13和1.91±0.11 vs 1.85±0.11,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但明显提高HepG2和SMMC7721细胞的凋亡率,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:原癌基因POKemon可通过调控NF-κB p65的表达而阻遏肿瘤细胞凋亡,促进肝癌的发生、发展.%Objective: To investigate the signal regulation of POKemon and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 in hepatoma cells. Methods: The expression levels of POKemon and NF-kB p65 mRNAs and proteins in human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC7721 as well as human embryo liver cell line LO2 were detected by real-time fluorogenic quantitative-PCR (RFQ-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Then the expression levels of POKemon and NF-kB p65 proteins in HepC2 and SMMC7721 cells transfected

  11. The Anti-tumor Immunity of Dendritic Cells Modified by IFN γ Gene on Mice Bearing Ascite Hepatoma Cell H22

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-You CUI; Hong-Yan YANG; You-Tian HUANG; Zhi-min ZHENG; Ming-Yao ZHAO; Zi-Ming DONG

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Dendritc cell (DC)-based cancer vaccines have shown to been effective both in clinical trials and in animal tumor models. Some clinical trials have been on the phase Ⅲ , but some problems are challenging now. The functions of DC from patient with malignant tumor were depressed by tumor-secreting cytokines such as IL-10. it is critical to find out some methods to improve DC differentiation maturation for priming naive T cells and initiating the specific anti-tumor immunity effectively. IFNγ is a pluripotent cytokine that can exert more the expressions of different molecules in various cells. Now, some data have shown that DCs can produce IFNγ and IFNγ can promote the maturation of DCs, which plays very important roles in promoting protective immune response as the same as IFNγ produced in NK and NKT cells. In our research,we transfected IFNγ gene into DCs in order to investigate the effect of IFNγ on DCs and monitor the anti-tumor response of the tumor bearing mice after vaccination by IFNγ-modified DCs.

  12. Effect of continuous irradiation with 125I radioactive seeds in inhibiting HepG2 cell proliferation and related mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIDAN Wangjiu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of continuous irradiation with 125I radioactive seeds in inhibiting HepG2 cell proliferation and possible mechanisms in inducing apoptosis. Methods Human hepatoma cell line HepG2 was selected as the research object and exposed to continuous irradiation with 125I radioactive seeds. The initial dose rate was 5.32 cGy/h, and HepG2 cells were exposed to a dose of 0, 2, or 4 Gy. A light microscope and Hoechst33258 staining were used to observe the morphological change of HepG2 cells, the colony-forming assay was used to calculate plating efficiency, the scratch test was used to evaluate the change in migration ability, flow cytometry was used to measure cell apoptosis, and Western Blot was used to measure the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. An analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups, and the least significant difference method was used for further comparison between any two groups. Results After HepG2 cells were exposed to 125I radioactive seeds at a dose of 0 Gy, 2 Gy, or 4 Gy, the 4 Gy group showed a reduction in cell density and an increase in the number of spherical free dead cells, as was shown by the light microscope; Hoechst33258 staining showed that the 4 Gy group had typical features of apoptotic cells, such as karyopyknosis, fragmentation, and margination. The colony-forming assay showed that there were significant differences in plating efficiency between the control group, 2 Gy group, and 4 Gy group (120.00%±3.61%, 112.00%±2.00%, and 45.00%±3.61%, F=508.90, P<0.001. The scratch test showed that there were significant differences in cell migration rate between the control group, 2 Gy group, and 4 Gy group (21.24%±4.36%, 19.93%±3.37%, and 11.42%±0.65%, F=8.29, P<0.001. The results of flow cytometry for cell apoptosis showed that there were significant differences in cell apoptosis rate between the control group, 2 Gy group, and 4 Gy group (4.33%±0.67%, 6

  13. Effect of hepatoma H22 on lymphatic endothelium in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Yu; Hong-Zhi Zhou; Chun-Mei Wang; Xiao-Ming Gu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of metastatic hepatoma cells on lymphangioma-derived endothelium, and to establish in vitro model systems for assessing metastasis-related response of lymphatic endothelium.METHODS: Benign lymphangioma, induced by intraperitonea linjection of the incomplete Freund's adjuvant in BALB/c mice, was embedded in fibrin gel or digested and then cultured in the conditioned medium derived from hepatoma H22. Light and electron microscopy, and the transwell migration assay were used to determine the effect of H22 on tissue or cell culture. Expressions of Flt-4, c-Fos, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured cells, and content of nitric oxide in culture medium were also examined.RESULTS: The embedded lymphangioma pieces gave rise to array of capillaries, while separated cells from lymphangioma grew to a cobblestone-like monolayer. H22 activated growth and migration of the capillaries and cells, induced expressions of Flt-4, c-Fos, PCNA and iNOS in cultured cells, and significantly increased the content of NO in the culture medium.CONCLUSION: Lymphangioma-derived cells keep the differentiated phenotypes of lymphatic endothelium, and the models established in this study are feasible for in vitro study of metastasis-related response of lymphatic endothelium.

  14. [Effects of mesenchymal stem cells on cell cycle and apoptosis of hematopoietic tissue cells in irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai-Xun; Zhao, Shi-Fu; Guo, Mei; Ai, Hui-Sheng

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on cell cycle and apoptosis of thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells in mice totally irradiated with sublethal dose, and to explore its mechanisms. BALB/c mice irradiated with 5.5 Gy 60Co gamma-ray were randomly divided into control group and MSC group. Mice in MSC group were infused with 0.4 ml containing 2.5x10(7)/kg of MSCs through tail vein at 1 hour after irradiation. Mice in control group were infused with 0.4 ml normal saline. The cell apoptosis and cell cycle of thymus, spleen and bone marrow cells were detected by flow cytometry at 6, 12, 24 and 72 hours after irradiation and the P53 protein expressions in thymus and bone marrow cells were assayed by immunohistochemistry at 12 hours after irradiation. The results showed that the arrest of cells in G0/G1 and G2/M phase, and decrease of cells in S phase appeared at 6 hours after irradiation, those reached peak respectively at 12 hours in thymus cells, 6 hours in spleen and 24 hours in bone marrow, then the cell counts in G0/G1 phase decreased and the cell counts in S and G2/M phases increased. At 72 hours the cell counts in G0/G1 phase were less than the normal level and the cell counts in S phase were more than the normal level. The above changes of cell cycle in thymus and spleen were more rapid in spleen and more obvious in amplitude than that in bone marrow, the change of cell cycle in MSC group was more rapid and obvious than those in control group. After irradiation the apoptosis cells increased from 6 hours, reached the highest level at 12 hours and decreased to the normal level gradually after 24 hours in two groups; the apoptosis rates in spleen and thymus cells were higher than that in bone marrow cells. In comparison with the control group, the apoptosis rate in thymus cells at 12 hours, in spleen cells at 12 and 24 hours, and in bone marrow cells at 24 hours were fewer in MSC group. The cells expressing P53

  15. PCBP-1 regulates alternative splicing of the CD44 gene and inhibits invasion in human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Changhui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCBP1 (or alpha CP1 or hnRNP E1, a member of the PCBP family, is widely expressed in many human tissues and involved in regulation of transcription, transportation process, and function of RNA molecules. However, the role of PCBP1 in CD44 variants splicing still remains elusive. Results We found that enforced PCBP1 expression inhibited CD44 variants expression including v3, v5, v6, v8, and v10 in HepG2 cells, and knockdown of endogenous PCBP1 induced these variants splicing. Invasion assay suggested that PCBP1 played a negative role in tumor invasion and re-expression of v6 partly reversed the inhibition effect by PCBP1. A correlation of PCBP1 down-regulation and v6 up-regulation was detected in primary HCC tissues. Conclusions We first characterized PCBP1 as a negative regulator of CD44 variants splicing in HepG2 cells, and loss of PCBP1 in human hepatic tumor contributes to the formation of a metastatic phenotype.

  16. Phosphorus NMR of isolated perfused morris hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Brown, T.R.; Sauer, L.A.

    1986-03-05

    The authors are developing techniques for the study of perfused solid tumors by NMR. Tissue-isolated solid hepatomas were grown to 1-2 cm diameter as described previously. The arterial supply was isolated and the tumors perfused (0.5 - 1.0 ml/min) in vitro at 25 C with a 15% suspension of red blood cells in Krebs-Henseliet solution. /sup 31/P-NMR spectra were acquired at 162 MHz in a specially-designed NMR probe using a solenoidal coil. Intracellular pH (monitored from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate) and ATP levels were stable for up to 6 hrs during perfusion. During 30 min of global ischemia, ATP decreased by 75% and pH fell from 7.0 to 6.7. These changes were reversed by 1 hr reperfusion. In addition to ATP and phosphate, the spectra included a large resonance due to phosphomonoesters, as well as peaks consistent with glycerylphosphocholine, glyceryl-phosphoethanolamine, phosphocreatine, NAD, and UDPG. However, the most novel feature of the spectra was the presence of an unidentified peak in the phosphonate region (+ 16.9 ppm). The peak was not present in spectra of muscle, liver, brain, kidney, or fat tissues excised from the same animals. They are presently attempting to identify the compound that gives rise to this peak and to establish its metabolic origin.

  17. Cinnamaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells involves the mitochondrial death pathway and is sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporin A and z-VAD-fmk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chang, Shun-Pang; Chen, Jin-Liang; Wu, Shu-Jing; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2013-12-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) has been shown to exert chemopreventive activity against several types of human cancer cells. We previously reported that CIN induced apoptosis of human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 cells and this effect was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins and the MAPK cascade. To further clarify the underlying mechanism of CIN-induced apoptosis, we examined in this study its relationship with the mitochondrial death pathway using the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), and the general caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk. Results indicated that CIN-induced apoptosis involved enhanced ROS generation, disruption of mitochondrial potential, and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO into the cytosol, which in turn promoted caspase-3 to its active form and the subsequent cleavage of PARP. Treatment with CIN also downregulated protein levels of the anti-apoptotic factors XIAP and Bcl-2 with concomitant accumulation of the pro-apoptotic Bax in a timedependent manner. These mitochondria-related apoptotic effects induced by CIN were however blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk pretreatments, which prevented cells from undergoing programmed cell death triggered by CIN. Furthermore, the increase of Bax and decrease of Bcl-2 and XIAP protein expression due to CIN treatment were also reversely modulated by the two inhibitors. Taken together, these results suggested that CIN is an apoptotic inducer that acts on the mitochondrial death pathway in PLC/PRF/5 cells and its effect could be blocked by CsA and z-VAD-fmk.

  18. MeV single-ion beam irradiation of mammalian cells using the Surrey vertical nanobeam, compared with broad proton beam and X-ray irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand); Jeynes, J.C.G.; Merchant, M.J.; Kirkby, K.; Kirkby, N. [Surrey Ion Beam Center, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thopan, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: •Recently completed nanobeam at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre was used. •3.8-MeV single and broad proton beams irradiated Chinese hamster cells. •Cell survival curves were measured and compared with 300-kV X-ray irradiation. •Single ion irradiation had a lower survival part at ultra-low dose. •It implies hypersensitivity, bystander effect and cell cycle phase of cell death. -- Abstract: As a part of a systematic study on mechanisms involved in physical cancer therapies, this work investigated response of mammalian cells to ultra-low-dose ion beam irradiation. The ion beam irradiation was performed using the recently completed nanobeam facility at the Surrey Ion Beam Centre. A scanning focused vertical ion nano-beam was applied to irradiate Chinese hamster V79 cells. The V79 cells were irradiated in two different beam modes, namely, focused single ion beam and defocused scanning broad ion beam of 3.8-MeV protons. The single ion beam was capable of irradiating a single cell with a precisely controlled number of the ions to extremely low doses. After irradiation and cell incubation, the number of surviving colonies as a function of the number of the irradiating ions was measured for the cell survival fraction curve. A lower survival for the single ion beam irradiation than that of the broad beam case implied the hypersensitivity and bystander effect. The ion-beam-induced cell survival curves were compared with that from 300-kV X-ray irradiation. Theoretical studies indicated that the cell death in single ion irradiation mainly occurred in the cell cycle phases of cell division and intervals between the cell division and the DNA replication. The success in the experiment demonstrated the Surrey vertical nanobeam successfully completed.

  19. 奥美拉唑对肝癌HepG2细胞增殖与凋亡的影响%Effects of Omeprazole on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Hepatoma Cell Line HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳; 梁宁林; 朱永军; 吴文超; 刘小菁; 杨丽

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of omeprazole (OME), a proton pump inhibitor, on the proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Methods HepG2 cells were cultured to the logarithmic phase, and then treated with OME of different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg/L) for 24 h or 48 h. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, DNA synthesis was measured with 5 ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (Edu) fluorescent assay and the apoptosis of cells was measured by the Hoechst33342 assay. Results MTT assay showed that OME (40, 80 and 160 mg/L concentrations) could inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells for 24 h or 48 h treatment (P<0. 05) and 80 mg/L group has strongest effect. Compared with that of 24 h treatment, the same concentration of OME could inhibit HepG2 more significantly with 48 h treatment. After different concentrations of OME treatment for 24 h and then incubation with Edu for 2 h, compared with the control group, the proportion of Cells in S phase in 20, 40, 80, 160 mg/L groups decreased. Hoechst33342 staining demonstrated that treatment with OME (40,80,160 mg/L) for 24 h could significantly promote the cell apoptosis. Conclusion Omeprazole could inhibit human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cell proliferation and promote apoptosis.%目的 探讨质子泵抑制剂奥美拉唑(omeprazole,OME)对肝癌HepG2细胞增殖和细胞凋亡的影响.方法 不同浓度(0、10、20、40、80、160 mg/L)的OME作用于HepG2细胞后,分别于不同时间(24 h、48 h),采用甲基四唑蓝(MTT)法测定OME对HepG2细胞增殖的影响;5-乙炔基-2’-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(Edu)荧光检测法测定DNA合成期(S期)细胞所占比例;Hoechst33342染色法检测细胞凋亡.结果 MTT结果示,10、20 mg/L OME对HepG2细胞增殖无明显抑制,而40、80、160 mg/L OME可产生明显抑制作用,其中80 mg/L OME作用最强;且相同浓度OME作用下,48 h较24 h对HepG2的抑制率增加.Edu荧光检测法表明,不同浓度OME处理细胞24h

  20. Theileria parva: effects of irradiation on a culture of parasitized bovine lymphoid cells. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    Aliquots of a culture of Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were irradiated at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 rads. The short-term effects of irradiation were evaluated on examination of Giemsa-stained smears and on autoradiography of cells labeled with (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Irradiation inhibited cell division but parasite division did not appear to be inhibited and macroschizont nuclear particles increased in number, frequently to several hundred per schizont. There was no evidence of an increased percentage switch from macro- to microschizont. Apparently viable cells were still present in all cultures 4 days after irradiation.

  1. 沙利度胺对人肝癌细胞株SMMC-7721体外生长的抑制作用%Inhibitory effect of thalidomide on growth of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙萍; 张良明; 孙等军; 董亮亮

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thalidomide on the growth of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 cells in vitro, and to explore the curative possibility of hepatocellular carcinoma with thalidomide. Methods SMMC-7721 cells were treated with Thalidomide at different concentrations. The cell growth and proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. DNA ladder, apoptosis rate and changes of cell nuclei were studied by agarose electrophresis, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of caspase-3 was analyzed with flow cytometry. The VEGF content of SMMC-7721 cells in culture medium was tested by ELSIA. Results When the concentration of Thalidomide .solution was increased from 3. 125 μg/ml to 200 μg/ml, the cell growth was inhibited by from 11.7% to 34.2%. Compared with the control group, the thalidomide solution at a concentration of 25,50, I00 and 200 μg/ml solution significantly inhibited the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells ( P 25 μg/ml时,其对SMMC-7721细胞的增殖抑制作用明显强于空白对照组(P<0.05).200 μg/ml的沙利度胺处理SMMC-7721细胞24 h后,行琼脂糖凝胶电泳,可见到DNA梯形条带;48 h后梯形条带更明显,并且在荧光显微镜下可见SMMC-7721细胞出现核固缩和核裂解现象.200μg/ml的沙利度胺处理SMMC-7721细胞12、24、48和72 h时,碘化丙啶(PI)法检测SMMC-7721细胞的凋亡率分别为3.1%±0.5%、8.4%±1.3%、19.4%±3.5%和25.8%±2.1%,24 h起的凋亡率均明显高于空白对照组SMMC-7721细胞48 h的自然凋亡率(1.6%±0.6%,均P<0.05).50、100和200μg/ml的沙利度胺处理SMMC-7721细胞48 h时,Annexin V-FITC/PI双标法检测SMMC-7721细胞的凋亡率分别为8.7%±1.2%、16.8%±2.5%和25.4%±4.5%,均明显高于空白对照组SMMC-7721细胞48 h的自然凋亡率(2.1%±0.5%,均P<0.05).随着沙利度胺浓度的增加,表达caspase-3蛋白的SMMC-7721细胞数量不断增加,而SMMC-7721细胞中VEGF的

  2. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  3. Immunological network activation by low-dose rate irradiation. Analysis of cell populations and cell surface molecules in whole body irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ina, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Kazuo [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The effects of low-dose rate whole body irradiation on biodefense and immunological systems were investigated using female C57BL/6 (B6) mice. These B6 mice were exposed continuously to {gamma}-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low-dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI for 0 - 12 weeks at a dose rate of 0.95 mGy/hr. In the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood of the irradiated mice, changes in cell populations and cell surface molecules were examined. The cell surface functional molecules (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD45R/B220, ICAM-1, Fas, NK-1.1, CXCR4, and CCR5), and activation molecules (THAM, CD28, CD40, CD44H, CD70, B7-1, B7-2, OX-40 antigen, CTLA-4, CD30 ligand, and CD40 ligand) were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4{sup +} T cells and cell surface CD8 molecule expressions on the CD8{sup +} T cells increased significantly to 120-130% after 3 weeks of the irradiation, compared to non-irradiated control mice. On the other hand, the percentage of CD45R/B220{sup +} CD40{sup +} B cells, which is one of the immunological markers of inflammation, infection, tumor, and autoimmune disease, decreased significantly to 80-90% between the 3rd to 5th week of irradiation. There was no significant difference in other cell population rates and cell surface molecule expression. Furthermore, abnormal T cells bearing mutated T cell receptors induced by high-dose rate irradiation were not observed throughout this study. These results suggest that low-dose rate irradiation activates the immunological status of the whole body. (author)

  4. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Düsman

    Full Text Available The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L. are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes. Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI, and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and

  5. Effect of processing, post-harvest irradiation, and production system on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. juices in HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-01-01

    The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m² for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption.

  6. Tumor-targeted gene therapy using Adv-AFP-HRPC/IAA prodrug system suppresses growth of hepatoma xenografted in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, M; Liu, J; Chen, D-E; Rao, Y; Tang, Z-J; Ho, W-Z; Dong, C-Y

    2012-02-01

    Clinical efficacy of current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment is limited. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is non-toxic for mammalian cells. Oxidative decarboxylation of IAA by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) leads to toxic effects of IAA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel gene-targeted enzyme prodrug therapy with IAA on hepatoma growth in vitro and in vivo mouse hepatoma models. We generated a plasmid using adenovirus to express HRP isoenzyme C (HRPC) with the HCC marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as the promoter (pAdv-AFP-HRPC). Hepatocellular cells were infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and treated with IAA. Cell death was detected using MTT assay. Hepatoma xenografts were developed in mice by injection of mouse hepatoma cells. The size and weight of tumors and organs were evaluated. Cell death in tumors was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. HRPC expression in tissues was detected using Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. IAA stimulated death of hepatocellular cells infected with pAdv-AFP-HRPC, in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in control cells. Growth of hepatoma xenografts, including the size and weight, was inhibited in mice treated with pAdv-AFP-HRPC and IAA, compared with that in control group. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment induced cell death in hepatoma xenografts in mice. HRPC gene expressed only in hepatoma, but not in other normal organs of mice. pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA treatment did not cause any side effects on normal organs. These findings suggest that pAdv-AFP-HRPC/IAA enzyme/prodrug system may serve as a strategy for HCC therapy.

  7. Prompt cytomolecular identification of chromosome aberration in irradiated blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: understanding the genomic alteration induced by ionizing radiation still remains to be a methodological challenge in genetic field. The energy released from this type of radiation can potentially causes structural and numerical alterations in lymphocytes, which in turn converts them into abnormal tumor cells. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with specific type of hematological malignancies are determinant factors in evaluation of radiation dose and its potential in harming the body. None the less early detection of chromosomal aberration (CA is crucial in prognosis and selection of therapy for the people exposed to irradiations. The aim of this study was to explore a swift and accurate genetic test that identifies CAs in radiologist exposed to X-rays. In addition synergistic effect of other clastogens in irradiated workers was also evaluated. Material and methods: thirty four heparinized blood samples were obtained from radiology workers exposed to X-rays. Blood samples were cultured in RPMI 1640 and F-10 Medias with and without PHA stimulation. Lymphocytes were harvested, separated and arrested at metaphase and their chromosomes were analyzed by solid and G-Banding techniques. Lymphocytic CA was also analyzed through whole chromosome painting FISH. Results: of the 37 blood sample from workers, 60% had various structural aberrations in which both the frequency and type of CAs were intensified among tobacco smokers. Conclusion: the results did not show any significant differences between the genders but other carcinogen like smoking can significantly increases the rate of CAs

  8. Cytochrome P4501A induction, benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, and nucleotide adduct formation in fish hepatoma cells: Effect of preexposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, J.M.W.; Voormolen, A.; Tillitt, D.E.; Everaarts, J.M.; Seinen, W.; Vanden Berg, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    In PLHC-1 hepatoma cells, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) caused a maximum induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activity, measured as ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), after 4 to 8 h of exposure, depending on the B[a]P concentration. The decline of EROD activity at longer exposure times was probably caused by the rapid metabolism of B[a]P in this system (57% metabolism within 4 h incubation). In subsequent experiments, PLHC-1 cells were preinduced with PCB 126 for 24 h and then received a dose of 10, 100, or 1,000 nM 3H-B[a]P. A 1-nM concentration of PCB 126 caused an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity, resulting in an increase in B[a]P metabolism of less than 10%, except at the highest concentration of B[a]P (1,000 nM), where a 50% increase was observed. In another experiment, an 80-fold induction of CYP1A activity caused a 20% increase in the metabolism of B[a]P (100 nM), and RNA adduct formation was increased approximately twofold. These results indicate that, at exposure concentrations up to 100 nM B[a]P, CYP1A activity is not rate limiting for B[a]P metabolism. Furthermore, CYP1A seems to also he specifically involved in B[a]P activation in PLHC-1 cells. However, CYP1A induction causes only a relatively small increase in activation, probably because of the action of other enzymes involved in B[a]P activation and deactivation.

  9. A high irradiance solar furnace for solar cell characterization and nanomaterial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babai, Dotan; Feuermann, Daniel; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

    2010-08-01

    A high irradiance solar furnace geared toward elucidating the distinctive physics of concentrator photovoltaics and driving high-temperature reactors for the generation of novel nanostructures is described, with a target irradiance up to 12 W/mm2. The opto-mechanical design permits real-sun flash illumination at a millisecond time scale so that solar cells can be characterized with only insubstantial increases in cell temperature even at irradiance levels of thousands of suns.

  10. Effect of light irradiation by light emitting diode on colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kurita, Nobuhiro; Sato, Hirohiko; Iwata, Takashi; Higashijima, Jun; Chikakiyo, Motoya; Nishi, Masaaki; Kashihara, Hideya; Takasu, Chie; Eto, Shohei; Takahashi, Akira; Akutagawa, Masatake; Emoto, Takahiro

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of irradiation from light emitting diodes (LED) for wound healing, anti-inflammation and anticancer therapies. However, little is known about the effects of visible light in colon cancer cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological response (including gene expression changes) of human colon cancer cells to different wavelengths of LED irradiation. Human colon cancer cells (HT29 or HCT116) were seeded onto laboratory dishes that were then put on LED irradiation equipment with a 465 nm-, 525 nm-, or 635 nm-LED. Irradiation at 15 or 30 mW was performed 10 min/day, each day for 5 days. The cell counting kit8 was then used to measure cell viability. Apoptosis and expression of several mRNAs (caspase, MAPK and autophagy pathway) in HT29 cultures irradiated with 465 nm LED were evaluated via AnnexinV/PI and RT-PCR, respectively. Viability of HT29 and HCT116 cells was lower in 465 nm-LED irradiated cultures than in control cultures, but viability of HT29 cells did not differ between control cultures and 525 nm-LED or 635 nm-LED irradiated cultures. Moreover, the expression of FAS, caspase-3, capase-8, and JUK were significantly higher in 465 nm-LED irradiated cultures than in control cultures, and expression of ERK1/2 and LC3 was lower in blue-irradiated cells. LED irradiation at 465 nm inhibited the proliferation of HT29 cells and of HCT116 cells. Notably, LED irradiation at 465 nm promoted apoptosis inHT29 cultures via the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and the MAPK pathway. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation rescue: mesenchymal stromal cells protect from lethal irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lange

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful treatment of acute radiation syndromes relies on immediate supportive care. In patients with limited hematopoietic recovery potential, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantation is the only curative treatment option. Because of time consuming donor search and uncertain outcome we propose MSC treatment as an alternative treatment for severely radiation-affected individuals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mouse mesenchymal stromal cells (mMSCs were expanded from bone marrow, retrovirally labeled with eGFP (bulk cultures and cloned. Bulk and five selected clonal mMSCs populations were characterized in vitro for their multilineage differentiation potential and phenotype showing no contamination with hematopoietic cells. Lethally irradiated recipients were i.v. transplanted with bulk or clonal mMSCs. We found a long-term survival of recipients with fast hematopoietic recovery after the transplantation of MSCs exclusively without support by HSCs. Quantitative PCR based chimerism analysis detected eGFP-positive donor cells in peripheral blood immediately after injection and in lungs within 24 hours. However, no donor cells in any investigated tissue remained long-term. Despite the rapidly disappearing donor cells, microarray and quantitative RT-PCR gene expression analysis in the bone marrow of MSC-transplanted animals displayed enhanced regenerative features characterized by (i decreased proinflammatory, ECM formation and adhesion properties and (ii boosted anti-inflammation, detoxification, cell cycle and anti-oxidative stress control as compared to HSC-transplanted animals. CONCLUSIONS: Our data revealed that systemically administered MSCs provoke a protective mechanism counteracting the inflammatory events and also supporting detoxification and stress management after radiation exposure. Further our results suggest that MSCs, their release of trophic factors and their HSC-niche modulating activity rescue endogenous hematopoiesis

  12. Prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlov, Anne; Tietze, Anna; Khalil, Azza Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prophylactic cerebral irradiation (PCI) is a standard treatment for all small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients with response to chemotherapy. The aims of this study were: to evaluate patients undergoing PCI with regard to cerebral recurrence rate, site of recurrence, and overall...... retrospectively with regard to disease stage, treatment, date of PCI, steroid dose during PCI, toxicity, time to recurrence, site of recurrence and time of death. The median follow up time was 16.6months (range 3-54months). RESULTS: Of the 118 patients undergoing PCI, 74 had limited disease (LD-SCLC) and 44 had.......8%) were diagnosed with cerebral recurrence. Five of these presented with metastatic disease within the limbic system. Of these five patients, four had miliary cerebral disease and one had non-oligometastatic disease. The time from PCI to cerebral recurrence ranged from 4 to 27months. Prednisolone...

  13. A novel 785-nm laser diode-based system for standardization of cell culture irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Emery C; Oliveira, Camila F; Guimarães, Orlando C C; Costa, Carlos A de Souza; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel device that concatenates alignment of infrared lasers and parallel procedure of irradiation. The purpose of this is to seek standardization of in vitro cell irradiation, which allows analysis and credible comparisons between outcomes of different experiments. Experimental data obtained from infrared laser therapies have been strongly dependent upon the irradiation setup. Although further optical alignment is difficult to achieve, in contact irradiation it usually occurs. Moreover, these methods eventually use laser in a serial procedure, extending the time to irradiate experimental samples. A LASERTable (LT) device was designed to provide similar infrared laser irradiation in 12 wells of a 24 well test plate. It irradiated each well by expanding the laser beam until it covers the well bottom, as occurs with unexpanded irradiation. To evaluate the effectiveness of this device, the spatial distribution of radiation was measured, and the heating of plain culture medium was monitored during the LT operation. The irradiation of LT (up to 25 J/cm(2) - 20 mW/cm(2); 1.250 sec) was assessed on odontoblast-like cells adhered to the bottom of wells containing 1 mL of plain culture medium. Cell morphology and metabolism were also evaluated. Irradiation with LT presented a Gaussian-like profile when the culture medium was not heated >1°C. It was also observed that the LT made it 10 times faster to perform the experiment than did serial laser irradiation. In addition, the data of this study revealed that the odontoblast-like cells exposed to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) using the LT presented higher metabolism and normal morphology. The experimental LASERTable assessed in this study provided parameters for standardization of infrared cell irradiation, minimizing the time spent to irradiate all samples. Therefore, this device is a helpful tool that can be effectively used to evaluate experimental LLLT protocols.

  14. Estrogen receptor α and aryl hydrocarbon receptor cross-talk in a transfected hepatoma cell line (HepG2 exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Göttel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prototype dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is known to exert anti-estrogenic effects via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR by interfering with the regulation of oestrogen homeostasis and the estrogen receptor α (ERα signalling pathway. The AhR/ER cross-talk is considered to play a crucial role in TCDD- and E2-dependent mechanisms of carcinogenesis, though the concerted mechanism of action in the liver is not yet elucidated. The present study investigated TCDD's impact on the transcriptional cross-talk between AhR and ERα and its modulation by 17β-estradiol (E2 in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is AhR-responsive but ERα-negative. Transient transfection assays with co-transfection of hERα and supplementation of receptor antagonists showed anti-estrogenic action of TCDD via down-regulation of E2-induced ERα signaling. In contrast, enhancement of AhR signaling dependent on ERα was observed providing evidence for increased cytochrome P450 (CYP induction to promote E2 metabolism. However, relative mRNA levels of major E2-metabolizing CYP1A1 and 1B1 and the main E2-detoxifying catechol-O-methyltransferase were not affected by the co-treatments. This study provides new evidence of a TCDD-activated AhR-mediated molecular AhR/ERα cross-talk mechanism at transcriptional level via indirect inhibition of ERα and enhanced transcriptional activity of AhR in HepG2 cells.

  15. Alterations in microRNA expression profile in HCV-infected hepatoma cells: Involvement of miR-491 in regulation of HCV replication via the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Hisashi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Hosui, Atsushi; Nawa, Takatoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Shimizu, Satoshi; Hikita, Hayato; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Hayashi, Norio [Kansai Rosai Hospital, 3-1-69, Inabaso, Amagasaki 660-8511 (Japan); Takehara, Tetsuo, E-mail: takehara@gh.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} HCV infection upregulated miR-192, -194, -215, downregulated miR-320, -491. {yields} Transfection of miR-192, -215, and -491 enhanced HCV replication. {yields} Transfection of miR-491 inhibited Akt phosphorylation. {yields} Akt inhibition could be responsible for augmentation of HCV replication by miR-491. -- Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miRNA) on hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in hepatoma cells. Using miRNA array analysis, miR-192/miR-215, miR-194, miR-320, and miR-491 were identified as miRNAs whose expression levels were altered by HCV infection. Among them, miR-192/miR-215 and miR-491 were capable of enhancing replication of the HCV replicon as well as HCV itself. HCV IRES activity or cell proliferation was not increased by forced expression of miR-192/miR-215 or miR-491. Investigation of signaling pathways revealed that miR-491 specifically suppressed the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase/Akt pathway. Under inhibition of PI3 kinase by LY294002, the suppressive effect of miR-491 on HCV replication was abolished, indicating that suppression of HCV replication by miR-491 was dependent on the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. miRNAs altered by HCV infection would then affect HCV replication, which implies a complicated mechanism for regulating HCV replication. HCV-induced miRNA may be involved in changes in cellular properties including hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  17. Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harteveld, M.L. van

    2007-01-01

    Optimization of total body irradiation: the match between (maximal) leukemic cell kill and (minimal) late effects: In this thesis, cataract formation and renal dysfunction as late effects of high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) as part of the conditioning before hematological stem cell transplanta

  18. Generation of breast cancer stem cells by steroid hormones in irradiated human mammary cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Vares

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation was shown to result in an increased risk of breast cancer. There is strong evidence that steroid hormones influence radiosensitivity and breast cancer risk. Tumors may be initiated by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. In order to assess whether the modulation of radiation-induced breast cancer risk by steroid hormones could involve CSCs, we measured by flow cytometry the proportion of CSCs in irradiated breast cancer cell lines after progesterone and estrogen treatment. Progesterone stimulated the expansion of the CSC compartment both in progesterone receptor (PR-positive breast cancer cells and in PR-negative normal cells. In MCF10A normal epithelial PR-negative cells, progesterone-treatment and irradiation triggered cancer and stemness-associated microRNA regulations (such as the downregulation of miR-22 and miR-29c expression, which resulted in increased proportions of radiation-resistant tumor-initiating CSCs.

  19. Latent and persistent lethal injury in mouse salivary gland cells following gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.

    1976-07-01

    Newly synthesized DNA in previously irradiated and isoproterenol-stimulated mouse salivary gland cells was found to be quickly degraded when the stimulation for DNA synthesis was given 10 days after a dose of 1000 rad ..gamma.. radiation. The degradation of the DNA was due to degeneration of acinar cells prior to mitosis. When the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 1 or 3 months after irradiation, DNA degradation in parotids was not detectable. An autoradiographic analysis revealed, however, that about half of the acinar cells labeled with tritiated thymidine were eliminated from irradiated parotids in a few days, even when the stimulation with isoproterenol was given 3 months after irradiation. This indicates that irradiation of mouse salivary gland cells produced latent lethal damage and that this damage is unmasked by the stimulation for DNA synthesis and cell division.

  20. A study on proton irradiation effects of home-made solar cell for space use

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Rong; Zhang Xin Hui; Guo Zeng Liang; Zhai Zuo Xu

    2001-01-01

    The proton irradiation effects of Si solar cell and GaAs/Ge solar cell for space use are studied. The cells are irradiated by protons with an energy of 10 MeV at fluences ranging from 1 x 10 sup 9 to 5 x 10 sup 1 sup 3 cm sup - sup 2 , and then photovoltaic properties are measured at AMO. It is shown that the degradation of electric performances of two kinds of solar cells is different as proton irradiation fluence increases. The electric parameters I sub s sub c and P sub m sub a sub x of GaAs/Ge solar cell degrade slower than that of Si solar cell under 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2 , but degrade rapidly above 3 x 10 sup 1 sup 2 cm sup - sup 2 , and the irradiation tolerance of GaAs/Ge solar cell is better than that of Si solar cell. The degradation of the performance is related to proton irradiation-induced defects E sub c -0.41 eV in irradiated GaAs/Ge cell, and E sub v + 0.14 eV and E sub v + 0.43 eV in irradiated Si cell

  1. HIGH-ENERGY PROTON IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON GaAs/Ge SPACE SOLAR CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Wang; S.D. Yao

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the high-energy proton irradiation effects on GaAs/Ge space solarcells. The solar cells were irradiated by protons with energy of 5-20Me V at fluenceranging from 1 × 109 to 7× 1013 cra-2, and then their electric parameters were measuredat AM0. It was shown that the Isc, Voc and Pmax degrade as the fiuence increasingrespectively, but the degradation rates of Isc, Voc and Pmax decrease as the protonenergy increasing, and the degradation is relative to proton irradiation-induced defectwith a level of Ec -0. 41eV in irradiated GaAs/Ge cells.

  2. In vivo UVB irradiation induces clustering of Fas (CD95) on human epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Bo; Gniadecki, Robert; Larsen, Jørgen K

    2003-01-01

    a single dose of UVB irradiation. Normal healthy individuals were irradiated with three minimal erythema doses (MED) of UVB on forearm or buttock skin. Suction blisters from unirradiated and irradiated skin were raised, and Fas, FasL, and apoptosis of epidermal cells quantified by flow cytometry....... Clustering of Fas was from skin biopsied. Soluble FasL in suction blister fluid was quantified by ELISA. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated increased expression intensity of Fas after irradiation, with 1.6-,2.2- and 2.7-fold increased median expression at 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation, respectively (n...... of soluble FasL in suction blister fluid from UVB-irradiated skin did not differ from those in unirradiated skin (n=5). Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a rapid clustering of Fas within 30 min after irradiation. A simultaneous clustering of the adapter signalling protein FADD suggested that Fas...

  3. Hepatoma cell line HepG2.2.15 demonstrates distinct biological features compared with parental HepG2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Zhao; Tian-Zhen Wang; Dan Kong; Lei Zhang; Hong-Xue Meng; Yang Jiang; Yi-Qi Wu; Zu-Xi Yu; Xiao-Ming Jin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological features of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells. METHODS: The cell ultrastructure, cell cycle and apop-tosis, and the abilities of proliferation and invasion of HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 and the parent HepG2 cells were examined by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trans-well assay. Oncogenicity of the two cell lines was compared via subcutaneous injection and orthotopic injection or implantation in nude mice, and the pathological analysis of tumor formation was performed. Two cytoskeletal proteins were detected by Western blotting.RESULTS: Compared with HepG2 cells, HepG2.2.15 cells showed organelle degeneration and filopodia disappear-ance under electron microscope. HepG2.2.15 cells pro-liferated and migrated slowly in vitro, and hardly formed tumor and lung metastasis in nude mice. Flow cytom-etry showed that the majority of HepG2.2.15 cells were arrested in G1 phase, and apoptosis was minor in both cell lines. Furthermore, the levels of cytoskeletal pro-teins F-actin and Ezrin were decreased in HepG2.2.15 cells.CONCLUSION: HepG2.2.15 cells demonstrated a low-er proliferation and invasion ability than the HepG2 cells due to HBV transfection.

  4. Fabrication of Micro-cell UO{sub 2} Pellet for HALDEN Irradiation Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Keon Sik; Kim, Jong Hun; Rhee, Young Woo; Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The micro-cell UO2 pellet consists of UO2 grains or granules enveloped by thin cell walls. Depending on the materials used for making the cell walls, there are ceramic and metallic micro-cell UO2 pellets. The ceramic wall in ceramic micro-cell UO2 pellets is composed of oxides having chemical affinity to volatile fission products such as Cs or I, which are highly radioactive and corrosive fission products, and act as multiple traps to immobilize the volatile fission products. That is to say, the ceramic micro-cell walls can block the migration of fission products to the pellet outside. The increased retention capability of fission products will reduce the stress corrosion cracking at the inner surface of cladding as well as the rod internal pressure. By implementing the metallic cell walls with high thermal conductivity, the thermal conductivity of a micro-cell UO2 pellet can be increased. To investigate the irradiation behaviors of the micro-cell UO2 fuel pellet materials, a HALDEN irradiation test is planned for two kinds of micro-cell UO2 pellets. Two kinds (ceramic and metallic) of micro-cell UO2 pellets were prepared. The in-situ data of irradiated micro-cell UO2 pellets are expected to be obtained, and the progress of the irradiation testing continuously reported. Through the irradiation test and post-irradiation examination, the designed fuel performances of the micro-cell UO2 fuel pellets will be verified.

  5. 人体肝癌细胞系SMMC-7721非显带技术下的核型分析%Karyotype analysis of human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 using non-banding techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宁; 高磊; 汪艳; 米亚静; 景晓红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze karyotype of human hepatoma cell lines SMMC-7721 using non-banding technique. Methods SMMC-7721 cells were cultured in vitro, followed by cell synchronization with colchicine, hy-potonic treatment and Giemsa staining, and then non-banding karyotype was analyzed. Results The majority number of karyotypes of SMMC-7721 cell lines was 60 to 70. Peaks occurred mainly in the E group, and the majority of E, F, G groups were more than half of the total number of chromosomes or even more than 60%(25/128). For the structure of chromosomes, dicentric chromosome, chromosome sharing three centromeres and ring chromosome could be found in a few cells. Conclusion The analysis of the abnormal chromosome will help us to deeply understand transforma-tion and deterioration of liver cells, which provides the genetic basis for preliminary clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的 应用非显带技术,分析人体肝癌细胞系SMMC-7721的染色体核型.方法 体外培养SMMC-7721细胞,通过秋水仙素使细胞同步化,低渗、滴片、吉姆萨染色,进行非显带染色体核型分析.结果 数目方面,SMMC-7721细胞系核型的众数为60~70条,峰值主要出现在E组,通过分析染色体数目在50~70个之间的较清晰的25个核型发现,E、F、G组染色体总数大多过半甚至超过60%;结构方面,分辨出双着丝粒染色体、含有3个着丝粒的染色体和环状染色体.结论 上述染色体的数目异常与结构畸变,对认识肝细胞的转化、恶变以及临床的初步诊治提供了细胞遗传学基础.

  6. Increased oxidative stress and toxicity in ADH and CYP2E1 overexpressing human hepatoma VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Karthikeyan; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Kumar, S Mathan; Clemens, Dahn L; Dey, Aparajita

    2012-05-01

    High glucose mediated oxidative stress and cell death is a well documented phenomenon. Using VL-17A cells which are HepG2 cells over-expressing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and control HepG2 cells, the association of ADH and CYP2E1 with high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity in liver cells was investigated. Cell viability was measured and apoptosis or necrosis was determined through caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and detecting decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation and the formation of advanced glycated-end products were assessed. The levels of several antioxidants which included glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were altered in high glucose treated VL-17A cells. Greater toxicity was observed in VL-17A cells exposed to high glucose when compared to HepG2 cells. Oxidative stress parameters were greatly increased in high glucose exposed VL-17A cells and apoptotic cell death was observed. Inhibition of CYP2E1 or caspase 3 or addition of the antioxidant trolox led to significant decreases in high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity. Thus, the over-expression of ADH and CYP2E1 in liver cells is associated with increased high glucose mediated oxidative stress and toxicity.

  7. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  8. Effect of irradiation on human T-cell proliferation: low dose irradiation stimulates mitogen-induced proliferation and function of the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualde, N.; Goodwin, J.S.

    1984-04-01

    Unfractionated human T cells exposed to 10-50 rad of X irradiation incorporated less (/sup 3/H)thymidine than nonirradiated T cells when subsequently cultured with PHA or Con A. The cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset, isolated as either OKT8(+) or OKT4(-) cells, demonstrated significantly enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in PHA- or Con A-stimulated cultures after exposure to 10-50 rad, compared to unirradiated cells, while the proliferation of the OKT4(+) helper/inducer subset was inhibited by low dose irradiation. It has been previously reported that approximately 30% of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset also stains with OKM1. When the cytotoxic/suppressor subset was further subdivided into OKT4(-), OKM1(+), and OKT4(-), OKM1(-) cells, proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(+) population was inhibited by exposure to 25 rad while proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(-) population was stimulated. The increase in proliferation of the cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset after low dose irradiation is paralleled by an increase in suppressor activity of these cells. T cells exposed to 25 rad and then cultured with Con A for 48 hr caused greater inhibition of IgG production when added to fresh autologous lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen than did unirradiated cells. Thus, low dose irradiation enhances both the proliferation and function of the human suppressor T-cell subset.

  9. Effects of Photodynamic Therapy on the Localization of Transferred Natrual Killer Cells in Transplanted Heps Hepatoma%光动力疗法对输入的NK细胞在荷Heps肝癌鼠瘤内分布的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宛莹; 张南征; 刘军权; 白爽; 周忠海; 陈复兴; 孙蕾清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the distributional regularity of natural killer cells ( NK) on Hepatoma-Heps-bearing mice in vivo, and whether photodynamic therapy (PDT) can promote the infiltration of NK cells in tumors. Methods The hepatoma model was established by subcutaneously inoculating Heps cells to 96 KM mice, who were then divided into the control, cell (NK) and photo immunotherapy (PIT) groups, each having 32 mice. The mice of the control group were only administered with NS. For the NK group, NK cells were labeled with 4, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and then injected into the mice tail veins. As to the PIT group, labeled NK cells were injected into the mice tail veins immediately after PDT light exposure. The tumors, lungs, spleens and livers were removed on day 1,2,4,6 and 8 after the treatment and observed for the distributional regularity under fluorescence microscope. The histopathological changes of tumors were observed via HE staining on day 2. Blood samples from the mice eyes were taken on day 1,2,4,6 and 12 after the treatment and the percentage of NK cells in peripheral blood was tested with flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of the mice spleen cells were determined through lactate dehydrogenase (1,1)11) release assay on day 6. Results (1) On day 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8, labeled cells could be observed in all the said viscera organs of the treated mice. Labeled cells accumulated mostly in the tumors. On day 2 after the injection, much more labeled cells were seen in the tumors than at other time points (P < 0.01). The infiltration density of labeled cells in the PIT group was higher than that of the NK group (P < 0. 01). (2) On day 1, 2 and 4 after the treatment, the percentage of NK cells in mice peripheral blood of the NK group was larger than that of the PIT group (P<0. 01). (3) When T ratio being 10 = 1, 20 = 1 and 50:1, the cytotoxicity of spleen cells in the PIT group and NK group were far higher than that in the control group (P<0. 01), and that

  10. Effects of Normothermic Conditioned Microwave Irradiation on Cultured Cells Using an Irradiation System with Semiconductor Oscillator and Thermo-regulatory Applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Mamiko; Sakaguchi, Minoru; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kashimura, Keiichiro; Mitani, Tomohiko; Kawase, Masaya; Matsumura, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Takako; Fujita, Yoshikazu; Tabuse, Katsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of microwave irradiation under normothermic conditions on cultured cells. For this study, we developed an irradiation system constituted with semiconductor microwave oscillator (2.45 GHz) and thermos-regulatory applicator, which could irradiate microwaves at varied output powers to maintain the temperature of cultured cells at 37 °C. Seven out of eight types of cultured cells were killed by microwave irradiation, where four were not affected by thermal treatment at 42.5 °C. Since the dielectric properties such as ε’, ε” and tanδ showed similar values at 2.45 GHz among cell types and media, the degree of microwave energy absorbed by cells might be almost the same among cell types. Thus, the vulnerability of cells to microwave irradiation might be different among cell types. In HL-60 cells, which were the most sensitive to microwave irradiation, the viability decreased as irradiation time and irradiation output increased; accordingly, the decrease in viability was correlated to an increase in total joule. However, when a high or low amount of joules per minute was supplied, the correlation between cellular viability and total joules became relatively weak. It is hypothesized that kinds of cancer cells are efficiently killed by respective specific output of microwave under normothermic cellular conditions. PMID:28145466

  11. Alteration of T cell function in healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, C.H.L.; Kraft, S.C.; Rothberg, R.M.

    1975-10-01

    The possible late effects of x irradiation to the infantile thymus were investigated by studying immune functions in 12 healthy persons with a history of thymic x irradiation and healthy control subjects. No differences were found in serum immunoglobulin values, humoral antibody levels, lymphocyte counts, and lymphocyte reactivity to phytohemagglutinin, vaccinia virus, purified protein derivative (PPD), and allogeneic cells. The irradiation group exhibited cellular hyperresponsiveness to streptokinase-streptodornase (SK-SD). In contrast, mean skin and in vitro lymphocyte responses to Candida albicans were depressed in the patients with thymic irradiation. A dissociation of these two Candida responses was found in only 1 of 14 healthy control subjects but in 7 of 12 irradiated individuals. While thymic irradiation did not result in impaired immunologic defenses leading to clinical disease, it caused alterations in T cell responses similar to those reported in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

  12. Hepatocyte growth factor protects endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-ying HU; Hai-feng DUAN; Qing-fang LI; Yue-feng YANG; Jin-long CHEN; Li-sheng WANG; Hua WANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effect of HGF on proliferation, apoptosis and migratory ability of human vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation.Methods: ECV304 cells derived from adult human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were irradiated with a single gamma ray dose of 20 Gy. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to detect c-Met protein expression and HGF/c-Met signal pathway. In the HGF-treated groups, ECV304 cells were incubated with HGF (20 or 40 ng/mL) 3 h prior to irradiation. At 48 h post-irradiation, the proliferation of ECV304 cells was measured by MTT assay, the apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry, and the migratory ability of ECV304 cells was measured by transwell chamber assay.Results: c-Met protein is expressed in ECV304 cells and can be activated by HGF. Gamma ray irradiation inhibits proliferation and migration of ECV304 cells in a dose-dependent manner. HGF significantly promoted the proliferation of ECV304 cells, and flow cytom-etry revealed that HGF can inhibit apoptosis of ECV304 cells. Transwell chamber assay also showed that HGF increases migration activity of endothelial cells.Conclusion: HGF may afford protection to vascular endothelial cells against gamma ray irradiation-induced damage.

  13. Effects of CD147 Gene Silencing by siRNA on Apoptosis and Proliferation of Hepatoma Cells%siRNA沉默CD147基因对肝癌细胞的影响