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Sample records for iron copper aluminium

  1. Comparative performance of aluminium copper and iron solar stills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioha, I.J.; Nwagbo, E.E.; Gulma, N.A.

    1990-12-01

    Three different metal sheets have been used in the fabrication of three different single sloping solar stills of the same surface geometry. The metals were galvanized iron, aluminium and copper. This paper presents the performance of the different stills operating under the same environmental conditions. The observed distillate yields was greatest for copper, then aluminium and lastly, iron still. The differences in the yields is attributed to the differences in the thermal conductivities of the metals. The equivalent local costs for the fabrication of the copper, aluminium and iron stills are respectively $160, $95 and $60. Taking the long run costs into consideration, the copper still is preferred because of its availability, durability, weldability and relatively higher conductivity of 380Wm -1 K -1 value. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J.; Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P.

    1958-01-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  3. Aluminium/iron reinforced polyfurfuryl alcohol resin as advanced biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium and iron are widely used in construction sectors for the preparation of advanced composites with epoxy resins as matrices. In recent times, there are several reports on the polymerization of polyfufuryl alcohol (PFA a thermoset bioresins from furfuryl alcohol (FA. FA is obtained from waste of sugarcane bagasse. In this work, first the possibility of curing PFA from FA in the presence of aluminium or iron has been explored. Absorbance results from colorimeter/spectrophotometerindicated that the curing of FA to PFA in presence of aluminium started easily while in presence of iron the curing of FA to PFA could not start. Based on the above results, aluminium wire reinforced composites were successfully prepared with three different weight fractions (0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 of aluminium wire. The mechanical properties of these composites were determined theoretically and reported.

  4. Effect of iron and silicon in aluminium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, I.

    1990-01-01

    The iron and silicon are the main impurities in aluminium, they are always present in alloys made from commercially pure base material. The solid solubility of iron in aluminium is very low, therefore its largest amount forms intermetallic compounds the kind of which depends strongly on the other impurities of alloying elements. Although the solid solubility of silicon is much larger than that of the iron, it is the constituent of both the primary and the secondary particles, the structure of which depends in general on the iron-silicon concentration ratio. These Fe and Si containing particles can cause various and basic changes in the macroscopic properties of the alloy. Since commercially pure aluminium has extensive consumer and industrial use, it is very important to know, not only from scientific but also from practical point of view, the effect of iron and silicon on the physical and mechanical properties of aluminium and its alloys. The aim of the ''International Workshop on the Effect of Iron and Silicon in Aluminium and its Alloys'' was to clarify the present knowledge on this subject. The thirty papers presented at the Workshop and collected in this Proceedings cover many important fields of the subject. I hope that they will contribute to both the deeper understanding of the related phenomena and the improvement of technologies for producing better aluminium alloys

  5. Irradiation damage in aluminium single crystals produced by 50-keV aluminium and copper ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1968-01-01

    Aluminium single crystals, thin enough to be examined by electron microscopy, have been irradiated with 50-keV aluminium and copper ions. The irradiation fluxes were in the range 1011–1014 cm−2 s−1 and the doses were from 6 × 1012 to 6 × 1014 cm−2. Irradiation along either a or a direction produces...... rows of dislocation loops all lying parallel to one particular direction. If the aluminium target is quenched from 600 °C and annealed at room temperature prior to irradiation with aluminium ions, the rows of loops are suppressed. The amount of damage observed is considerably less than would...

  6. The chemical transformation of copper in aluminium oxide during heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y-L; Wang, H-C; Yang, Y-W; Lee, J-F

    2004-01-01

    Thermal treatment has recently been emerging as a promising environmental technology to stabilize heavy metal-containing industrial sludge. This study used x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify the species of copper contaminant contained in aluminium oxide that is one of the main compositions of sludge and soil. Results indicate that the originally loaded copper nitrate was transformed into Cu(OH) 2 after its dissolution in the aluminium oxide slurry. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) fitting indicates that the main copper species in the 105 deg. C dried Cu(NO 3 ) 2 -loaded aluminium oxide is Cu(OH) 2 which accounts for ca. 75% of the loaded copper. After thermal treatment at 500 deg. C for 1 h, both x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and EXAFS fitting results show that CuO became the prevailing copper species (about 85%); the rest of the copper consisted of ∼ 15% Cu(OH) 2 and a negligible amount of Cu(NO 3 ) 2 . It was found that most Cu(OH) 2 and Cu(NO 3 ) 2 decomposed into CuO at 500 deg. C. Further increase of the heating temperature from 500 to 900 deg. C resulted in more decomposition of Cu(OH) 2 and Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ; therefore CuO remained as the main copper species. However, it was suggested that about 15% of the loaded copper formed CuAl 2 O 4 through the chemical reaction between CuO and Al 2 O 3 at 900 deg. C

  7. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.; Delaplace, J.; Silvent, A.

    1966-01-01

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author) [fr

  8. Silane pre-treatments on copper and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorian, F.; Rossi, S.; Fedrizzi, L.

    2006-01-01

    A large part of aluminium products are coated with an organic layer in order to improve the corrosion resistance. Copper surfaces are also sometimes protected with an organic coating to improve the durability or the aesthetic properties. Examples of industrial applications are household appliances and heat exchanger components. For these applications it is not rare to have the industrial need to treat at the same time components made of aluminium and copper. In order to extend the service life of the organic coated copper a specific surface pre-treatment is often required. Nevertheless, probably because of the limited market of this application, no specific pre-treatments for copper are industrially developed, with the exception of cleaning procedures, but simply extensions of existing pre-treatments optimised for other metals (aluminium, zinc) are used. The application of silane pre-treatments as adhesion promoters for organic coated metals is remarkably increasing in the last decade, because silanes offer very good performance together with high environmental compatibility. The idea is therefore to try to develop a specific silane based pre-treatment for copper. The starting point is the existing silane products for aluminium, optimising the composition and the application conditions (concentration, temperature, pH of the bath, etc.) in order to develop a high performance copper alloy pre-treatment increasing the protective properties and the adhesion of a successively applied organic coating. Moreover these pre-treatments could be used for aluminium alloys too and therefore could be suggested for multi-metals components. The deposits were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy and optical and electron microscopic observations. A careful electrochemical characterisation, mainly by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (EIS) was carried out to highlight the presence of silane and to evaluate the performance of the different deposits. In order to study an

  9. The structure of high-quality aluminium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kopyciński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study presents the analyse of aluminium iron cast structure (as-cast condition which are used in high temperature. While producing the casts of aluminium iron major influence has been preserve the structure of technological process parameters. The addition to Fe-C-Al alloy V, Ti, Cr leads to the improvement of functional and mechanical cast qualities. In this study, a method was investigated to eliminate the presence of undesirable Al4C3 phases in a aluminium cast iron structure and thus improve the production process. V and Ti additions in aluminium cast iron allows to development of FeAl - VC or TiC alloys. In particular, V or Ti contents above 5 wt.% were found to totally eliminate the presence of Al4C3. In addition, preliminary work indicates that the alloy with the FeAl - VC or TiC structure reveals high oxidation resistance. The introduction of 5 wt.% chromium to aluminium cast iron strengthened Al4C3 precipitate. Thus, the resultant alloy can be considered an intermetallic FeAl matrix strengthened by VC and TiC or modified Al4C3 reinforcements.

  10. Corrosion of aluminium in copper-aluminium couples under a marine environment: Influence of polyaniline deposited onto copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Rosa; Verdugo, Patricia; Orellana, Marco; Munoz, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The presence of Polyaniline in the Al-Cu system produces a decrease in the oxygen reduction reaction. → In the marine enviroment, aluminium in Al-Cu couples, suffers pitting and exfoliation. → The aluminium deterioration increases with chloride and enviromental sulphur dioxide presence, mainly when it is united to bare copper. - Abstract: In this study, we examined how aluminium corrosion in Al-Cu/PANI galvanic couples in a marine environment is influenced by deposition of polyaniline (PANI) on copper. Polarization curves and immersion assays in 0.1 M NaCl were performed. The morphologies of etched Al and corrosion products were observed by SEM, and the Al ions in solution were quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy. A reduction in aluminium damage due to galvanic corrosion was observed as a result of decreased effective area for the oxygen reduction reaction on Cu/PANI electrode. Furthermore, an electrochemical reduction of PANI from leucoemeraldine to emeraldine base is proposed.

  11. Determination of aluminium in iron ores and ferroalloys by complexometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.N.; Grigorovich, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The present method is based on fusing iron ore samples and ferroalloys with NaOH, leaching of the alloy in water, and complexometric estimation of aluminium in the filtrate by back titration of excess EDTA with a CuSO 4 solution in the presence of a glycine-thymol blue tracer, using NaF to increase selectivity. The final titration point is fixed by means of a photoelectrical titrator. Fifty-fold amounts of Cu(2), Mg, Zn, In, Pb, Fe(3) and Ni, twenty-five-fold amounts of Ca, Sr and Cd, ten-fold amounts of Co, five-fold amounts of Hg(2), Bi and Mo(6), two-fold amounts of Mn, and equal amounts of Ga, Tl(3), Zr, V(5) and W(6) do not impede determination. Determination is impeded by metals that form strong fluoride complexes with Sc, Y, rare-earth elements, Ti(4), Sn(2) and V(4), even when those metals are contained in equal amounts; it is also impeded by equal amounts of Cr(3). The selectivity of the given method has been compared with that of methods involving titration with a solution constituting zinc chloride with xylenol orange and with a solution comprising copper chloride and sulphur chrome-azurol in the presence of cytil trimethyl ammonium. The method is more selective. A hexamethylenetetramine buffer solution has been used to obtain an optimum (pH 6) medium. The above procedure is employed to assay standard ferroboron samles of iron ore

  12. Hereditary iron and copper deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about......, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently...

  13. Consolidation of copper and aluminium powders by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiprasad, M.; Atchayakumar, R.; Thiruppathi, K.; Raghuraman, S.

    2016-09-01

    Processing in the powder metallurgy route has emerged as an economical process for the production of near net shaped components with a wide range of desired mechanical properties suitable for various applications of industrial needs. This research work was conducted with an objective of studying the improvisation of density and hardness of Copper-Aluminium alloy prepared by spark plasma sintering. Cu-Al alloy with a composition of 95% copper and 5% aluminium was prepared by SPS process. SPS is a low voltage, DC pulse current activated, pressure-assisted sintering, which enables sintering at lower temperatures and shorter durations. The combination offered by Cu-Al alloy of high strength and high corrosion resistance results their applications under a wide variety of conditions. The density and hardness of the prepared sample were measured by conducting appropriate tests. Apparently, the values of hardness and density of the specimen prepared by SPS seemed to be better than that of conventional sintering. The experimental procedure, testing methodologies and analysis are presented.

  14. Hyperfine interactions of iron implanted into aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Drwiega, M.; Sawicki, J.; Stanek, J.

    1976-01-01

    Systematical investigations of the stable 57 Fe implanted into Al at energies of 10 to 70 keV and doses of 10 14 to 2.10 17 ions/cm 2 were performed by means of conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. The spectra measured were interpreted as originated by iron monomers (single line) and by iron associations, mostly dimers (dublet). The isomer shifts of both components differ considerably and are constant against iron concentration. The ratio of both components depends strongly on the iron concentration. The quadrupole splitting of the doublet rises with the concentration, the rise being reproduced by computer simulations of efg distributions in densely packed random charge defected lattices. The annealing processes were investigated. The spectra of the Fe-Al samples made by ion implantation and by a splat-cooling technique are well comparable. (author)

  15. IEC 61267: Feasibility of type 1100 aluminium and a copper/aluminium combination for RQA beam qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, David L; Rainford, Louise; Zhao, Wei; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    In the course of performance acceptance testing, benchmarking or quality control of X-ray imaging systems, it is sometimes necessary to harden the X-ray beam spectrum. IEC 61267 specifies materials and methods to accomplish beam hardening and, unfortunately, requires the use of 99.9% pure aluminium (Alloy 1190) for the RQA beam quality, which is expensive and difficult to obtain. Less expensive and more readily available filters, such as Alloy 1100 (99.0% pure) aluminium and copper/aluminium combinations, have been used clinically to produce RQA series without rigorous scientific investigation to support their use. In this paper, simulation and experimental methods are developed to determine the differences in beam quality using Alloy 1190 and Alloy 1100. Additional simulation investigated copper/aluminium combinations to produce RQA5 and outputs from this simulation are verified with laboratory tests using different filter samples. The results of the study demonstrate that although Alloy 1100 produces a harder beam spectrum compared to Alloy 1190, it is a reasonable substitute. A combination filter of 0.5 mm copper and 2 mm aluminium produced a spectrum closer to that of Alloy 1190 than Alloy 1100 with the added benefits of lower exposures and lower batch variability. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The determination of sulphur in copper, nickel and aluminium alloys by proton activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Dewaele, J.; Esprit, M.; Goethals, P.

    1981-01-01

    The 34 S(p,n) 34 sup(m)Cl reaction, induced by 13 MeV protons is used for the determination of sulphur in copper, nickel and aluminium alloys. The 34 sup(m)Cl is separated by repeated precipitation as silver chloride. The results obtained were resp. 3.08 +- 0.47, 1.47 +- 0.17 and -1 for copper, nickel and aluminium alloys. (orig.)

  17. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H.; Fournier, R.; Grall, L.; Hure, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Departement de Metallurgie et de Chimie Appliquee (France); Herenguel, J.; Lelong, P. [Centre de Recherches d' Antony, des Trefileries et Laminoirs du Havre (France)

    1958-07-01

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  18. Tensile Strength and Hardness Correlations with Microscopy in Friction welded Aluminium to Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Rengarajan; Seshagiri Rao, Vaddi; Ananthapadmanaban, Dattaguru; Ravi, Balappa

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and copper are good conductors of heat and electricity, copper being the better conductor, is a costly metal indeed. On the other hand, aluminium is cheap, easily available and also has a lower density than copper. Hence, worldwide efforts are being made to partially replace copper wire. Solid state welding should be used to join aluminium to copper. This is because the use of fusion welding results in brittle phases formed in the weld interface. One of the solid state welding techniques used for joining aluminium to copper is friction welding. In this paper, an attempt has been made to join aluminium to copper by friction welding by varying the friction welding parameters, namely friction pressure, upset pressure, burn-off length and speed of rotation of the workpiece. Nine different friction welding parameter combinations were used during welding in accordance with ASTM standards and results have been reported. Tensile strength and hardness tests were carried out for each parameter combination. Optimum friction welding parameter combination was identified with respect to tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron dispersive spectroanalysis were obtained to identify modes of fracture and presence of intermetallic phases for each friction welding combination with the aim to narrow down friction welding parameters that give good properties on the whole.

  19. High temperature oxidation of copper and copper aluminium alloys: Impact on furnace side wall cooling systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia Barrera, Gabriel

    The high temperature oxidation behaviours of copper and dilute Cu-Al alloys were investigated. Experiments were carried out by: (i) Oxidizing under various oxygen potentials at different temperatures using a combined TG-DTA apparatus. (ii) Oxidizing in a muffle furnace (in air) at different temperatures for extended periods of time. The oxidation mechanisms were evaluated based upon the kinetic data obtained as well as by X-ray diffraction and microscopical (SEM and optical) analyses. It was found that oxidation of copper strongly depends on the temperature. Two distinct mechanisms were encountered. Between 300 and 500°C, the oxidation rate is controlled by lateral growth of the oxide on the metal surface, whereas between 600 and 1000°C oxidation is controlled by lattice diffusion of copper ions through the oxide scale. On the other hand, the partial pressure of oxygen only has a small effect on the oxidation of copper. Alloy oxidation is also dependent on the temperature. As temperature increases, more aluminium is required to protect copper from being oxidized. It was shown that if the amount of oxygen that dissolves in the alloy exceeds the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, an internal oxidation layer will develop, leading to the formation of a tarnishing scale. On the other hand if the oxygen content in the alloy lies below the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, no oxidation products will form since a tight protective alumina layer will form on the alloy surface. Surface phenomena may affect the oxidation behaviour of dilute Cu-Al alloys. Immersion tests in molten copper matte and copper converting slag, using laboratory scale cooling elements with various copper based materials, were conducted. Results from these tests showed that alloying copper with 3 to 4 wt% Al decreases the oxidation rate of pure copper by 4 orders of magnitude; however due to a significant drop in thermal conductivity, the ability to extract heat is compromised, leading to

  20. Comparative study on life cycle environmental impact assessment of copper and aluminium cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Wei; Lin, Ling; Song, Dan; Guo, Huiting; Chen, Liang; Sun, Liang; Liu, Mei; Chen, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of industrialization and urbanization in China, domestic demands for copper and aluminium resources increase continuously and the output of copper and aluminium minerals rises steadily. The output of copper in China increased from 0.6 million tons (metal quantity) in 2003 to 1.74 million tons (metal quantity) in 2014, and the output of bauxite increased from 21 million tons in 2006 to 59.21 million tons in 2014. In the meantime, the import of copper and aluminium minerals of China is also on a rise. The import of copper concentrate and bauxite increased from 4.94 million tons and 9.68 million tons in 2006 to 10.08 million tons and 70.75 million tons in 2013 respectively. Copper and aluminium resources are widely applied in fields such as construction, electrical and electronics, machinery manufacturing, and transportation, and serve as important material basis for the national economic and social development of China. Cable industry is a typical industry where copper and aluminium resources are widely used. In this paper, a product assessment model is built from the perspective of product life cycle. Based on CNLCD database, differences in environmental impacts of copper and aluminium cables are analyzed from aspects such as resource acquisition, product production, transportation, utilization, and resource recycling. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of products at different stages with different types of environmental impact are analyzed, so as to provide data support for cable industry in terms of product design and production, etc.

  1. Radiological impact of very slightly radioactive copper and aluminium recovered from dismantled nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.; Cahuzac, O.; Guetat, P.; Haristoy, D.; Renaud, P.

    1991-01-01

    This work is in keeping with a large evaluation of doses likely to be received by public and non nuclear workers when dismantling nuclear installations. A bibliographic study and inquiries are realized, in the nuclear field to evaluate quantities of very slightly radioactive materials, in the conventional copper and aluminium recovery fields: waste recovery, metal refinery and processing, occupational or domestic uses of the metals or their alloys. In fact copper and aluminium waste arising from the dismantling of nuclear installations are mainly electrical cables constituents including insulation material which is mainly polyvinyle chloride (PVC). Estimated quantities are relatively low compared to steel quantities arising from dismantling. The study is based on the hypothesis of two PWRs dismantled per year, estimated quantities are 200 tonnes of copper, 40 tonnes of aluminium and 500 tonnes of PVC. A special case is also studied, which is the dismantling of low and medium uranium enrichment plant in Pierrelatte (France); the plant pipework is mainly made of an aluminium and magnesium alloy: AG3. From these informations, one can define exposure scenarios which may occur with a non negligible probability. The doses likely to be received under the foreseen conditions are calculated. Reference doses are established from recommendations of international organisations as ICRP, IAEA, NEA. Comparing the calculated doses and the reference doses, the activity level of the initial waste can be deduced as to follow the recommendations. The mean specific activity of main beta-gamma emitters in copper, aluminium and PVC are of the same order of magnitude, 10Bq.g -1 . In the case of alpha emitters specific activity levels depend on the material and on the radionuclide, from 2 Bq.g -1 to 10 Bq.g -1 in copper, from 10 Bq.g -1 to 50 Bq.g -1 in aluminium

  2. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics.

  3. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, Mahmoud A.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics

  4. Improving Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag by Modifying the Molten Copper Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqi Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new technology was developed to improve the beneficiation of copper and iron components from copper slag, by modifying the molten slag to promote the mineralization of valuable minerals and to induce the growth of mineral grains. Various parameters, including binary basicity, dosage of compound additive, modification temperature, cooling rate and the end point temperature of slow cooling were investigated. Meanwhile, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS was employed to determine the mineralogy of the modified and unmodified slag, as well as to reveal the mechanisms of enhancing beneficiation. The results show that under the proper conditions, the copper grade of rougher copper concentrate was increased from 6.43% to 11.04%, iron recovery of magnetic separation was increased significantly from 32.40% to 63.26%, and other evaluation indexes were changed slightly, in comparison with unmodified copper slag. Moreover, matte and magnetite grains in the modified slag aggregated together and grew obviously to the mean size of over 50 μm, resulting in an improvement of beneficiation of copper and iron.

  5. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  6. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism

  7. Electrochemical synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole on copper modified aluminium substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddaramanna, Ashoka; Saleema, N.; Sarkar, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrication of highly ordered conducting polymers on metal surfaces has received a significant interest owing to their potential applications in organic electronic devices. In this context, we have developed a simple method for the synthesis of highly ordered polypyrrole (PPy) on copper modified aluminium surfaces via electrochemical polymerization process. A series of characteristic peaks of PPy evidenced on the infrared spectra of these surfaces confirm the formation of PPy. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of PPy deposited on copper modified aluminium surfaces also confirmed the deposition of PPy as a sharp and intense peak at 2θ angle of 23° attributable to PPy is observed while this peak is absent on PPy deposited on as-received aluminium surfaces. An atomic model of the interface of PPy/Cu has been presented based on the inter-atomic distance of copper–copper of (1 0 0) plane and the inter-monomer distance of PPy, to describe the ordering of PPy on Cu modified Al surfaces.

  8. Multi-Copper Oxidases and Human Iron Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashchenko, Ganna; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-copper oxidases (MCOs) are a small group of enzymes that oxidize their substrate with the concomitant reduction of dioxygen to two water molecules. Generally, multi-copper oxidases are promiscuous with regards to their reducing substrates and are capable of performing various functions in different species. To date, three multi-copper oxidases have been detected in humans—ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen. Each of these enzymes has a high specificity towards iron with the resulting ferroxidase activity being associated with ferroportin, the only known iron exporter protein in humans. Ferroportin exports iron as Fe2+, but transferrin, the major iron transporter protein of blood, can bind only Fe3+ effectively. Iron oxidation in enterocytes is mediated mainly by hephaestin thus allowing dietary iron to enter the bloodstream. Zyklopen is involved in iron efflux from placental trophoblasts during iron transfer from mother to fetus. Release of iron from the liver relies on ferroportin and the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin which is found in blood in a soluble form. Ceruloplasmin, hephaestin and zyklopen show distinctive expression patterns and have unique mechanisms for regulating their expression. These features of human multi-copper ferroxidases can serve as a basis for the precise control of iron efflux in different tissues. In this manuscript, we review the biochemical and biological properties of the three human MCOs and discuss their potential roles in human iron homeostasis. PMID:23807651

  9. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the tissues of the largemouth yellowfish, Labeobarbus kimberleyensis (Gilchrist and Thompson, 1913), from the Vaal Dam, South Africa, and associated consumption risks.

  10. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  11. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  12. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  13. Tissue levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in iron deficient rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of iron deficiency on the levels of iron, copper, zinc and magnesium in the brain, liver, kidney, heart and lungs of albino rats (Rattus novergicus) was investigated. Forty rats were divided into two groups and the first group was fed a control diet containing 1.09g iron/kg diet while the test group was fed diet ...

  14. Study of granitic biotites by X-ray fluorescence analysis: determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toubes, R. O.; Bermudez Polonio, J.

    1968-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium potassium, silicon, and aluminium, is reported, Sample preparation is carried out by the miniature flux technique, and rubidium is used as internal standard for silicon and aluminium. (Author) 5 refs

  15. Investigations of Ferritic Nodular Cast Iron Containing About 5-6% Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soiński M.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presents results of investigations concerning the production of cast iron containing about 5-6% aluminium, with the ferritic matrix in the as-cast state and nodular or vermicular graphite precipitates. The examined cast iron came from six melts produced under the laboratory conditions. It contained aluminium in the amount of 5.15% to 6.02% (carbon in the amount of 2.41% to 2.87%, silicon in the amount of 4.50% to 5.30%, and manganese in the amount of 0.12% to 0.14%. After its treatment with cerium mixture and graphitization with ferrosilicon (75% Si, only nodular and vermicular graphite precipitates were achieved in the examined cast iron. Moreover, it is possible to achieve the alloy of pure ferritic matrix, even after the spheroidizing treatment, when both the aluminium and the silicon occur in cast iron in amounts of about 5.2÷5.3%.

  16. Aluminium and copper analysis in metallic alloys by neutron activation analysis from an 241 Am-Be source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J. de.

    1980-01-01

    Aluminium and copper have been determined in aluminium alloys by the method of activation with neutrons from an 241 Am-Be source of intensity 9,8 x 10 6 n/s. The activity induced due to reactions 27 Al (n, γ) 28 Al and 63 Cu (n, γ) 64 Cu have been measured with a NaI (Tl) detector coupled to a single channel system. In order to obtain the samples and standards of about the same composition, the material to be irradiated was powdered. In view of low intensity of neutron source it was necessary to use samples of up to 50 g. A series of preliminary irradiations were carried out to ensure that the geometry for the irradiation and for the counting are reproducible. The results have been compared with those obtained by chemical methods. Assuming that the results obtained by chemical method is exact, a maximum relative error of 3,6% is obtained by this method. The method has a good reproducibility. The time needed for analysis of aluminium and copper are 18 min and 2 hours 40 minutes respectively. Four different samples were analysed. The average of five measurements for one of the samples was: 88.0% for aluminium and 10.0% for copper. The standard deviation and coefficient of variation were 0,8 and 1.0% for aluminium and 0,2 and 2.0% for copper. (author)

  17. Effect of tempering on corrosion resistance of cast aluminium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.; Klemetti, K.; Haenninen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of this study is corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes, which are copper base alloys containing aluminium up to 12% with additions of nickel, iron and manganese. The main conclutions that can be drawn are: (1) The dealloying corrosion resistance of nickel-aluminium bronze is much better than that of aluminium bronze with iron and manganese additions, but it is not immune; (2) The dealloying corrosion resistance of aluminium bronzes can be improved by appropiate heat treatments. The best properties were obtained by temperering between 600 and 800 deg C, depending on the initial microstructure; (3) In crevice conditions, where local acidification can occur, dealloying of aluminium bronzes is a consequence of the preferential attack of aluminium-rich phases. By appropriate tempering, a uniform distribution of aluminium-rich phases is obtained and the continous path for selective corrosion is not formed

  18. The development and mechanical characterization of aluminium copper-carbon fiber metal matrix hybrid composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Feroze, M.; Ahmad, T.; Kamran, M.; Butt, M. T. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) come under advanced materials that can be used for a wide range of industrial applications. MMCs contain a non-metallic reinforcement incorporated into a metallic matrix which can enhance properties over base metal alloys. Copper-Carbon fiber reinforced aluminium based hybrid composites were prepared by compo casting method. 4 weight % copper was used as alloying element with Al because of its precipitation hardened properties. Different weight compositions of composites were developed and characterized by mechanical testing. A significant improvement in tensile strength and micro hardness were found, before and after heat treatment of the composite. The SEM analysis of the fractured surfaces showed dispersed and embedded Carbon fibers within the network leading to the enhanced strength.

  19. Angular distributions of sputtered particles from lithium-implanted aluminium and copper crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, A.; Johnson, E.; Sarholt-Kristensen, L.; Steenstrup, S.; Andersen, H.H.; Buhanov, V.M.; Chernysh, V.S.; Ivanov, I.N.; Minnebaev, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    The anisotropy of angular distributions of sputtered ions from lithium implanted aluminium and copper single crystals, measured by SIMS analysis, have been used to obtain information about the microstructure of the implanted layers. Sputtered Al + distributions from the {111} surface show three-fold symmetry with maximum intensity near the and directions respectively, while Li + distributions show maximum intensity only in the directions. From {100} crystals the Al + distributions have four-fold symmetry while there are no preferential ejection directions for the Li + ions. This agrees conceptually with the fact that the implanted layer contains the ordered Al 3 Li (δ') phase, which has earlier been observed by TEM analysis on implanted samples. In contrast, a similar study of Li + implanted copper crystals shows that the implanted lithium is randomly located. (orig.)

  20. Interesting properties of some iron(II), copper(I) and copper(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Tridendate ligands with nitrogen centers, generally well-known as the tripod ligands, have been of considerable interest to inorganic chemists dealing with the preparation of model compounds for hemocyanin, tyrosinase etc. We have found that such ligands when complexed with iron(II) and copper(II) and copper(I) ions ...

  1. Thermal migration of iron implanted in aluminium at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asundi, V.K.; Joshi, M.C.; Deb, S.K.; Soud, D.K.; Kulkarni, V.N.; Sundararaman, M.

    1978-01-01

    The anneal behaviour of the Fe-Al metastable system produced by implantation of Fe + ions at 30 keV has been reported. The implant concentrations between 18-42 at percent have been chosen, in order to exceed the normal solid solubility of Fe in Al by about three orders of magnitude. Isothermal annealing has been done under vacuum (55 x 10 -6 Torr) at 400deg C and 570 deg C. The iron depth profiles have been determined, by Rutherford backscattering of 2 MeV He + ions. It has been found that 1) as annealing proceeds, all specimens show rapid enhanced diffusion initially (upto about 30 m), followed by a much slower diffusion as iron ions migrate inwards (2) at implant concentrations 23 at percent, double peaks appear in iron depth profiles, followed by rapid migration of diffused iron towards surface and (3) at still higher anneal times, the out-diffused iron moves inward again. This kind of out-diffusion behaviour in a metallic system has not been reported earlier in the literature. Also, the presence of Fe 4 Al 13 has been identified as terminal phase, using x-ray diffraction techniques. (K.B.)

  2. Freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, D.; Moeschke, M.; Werle, H.

    1983-10-01

    The freezing of aluminium oxide and iron flowing upward in circular quartz glass tubes has been studied in a series of experiments. Several tubes were used in the same test. This demonstrated a good reproducibility and allowed systematic parameter variations, especially of the channel diameter. The time-dependance of the penetration was observed with a film camera and these date provide a good basis for a detailed check of sophisticated models which are in development. (orig.) [de

  3. A study of formation of iron nanoparticles in aluminium matrix with helium pores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kichanov, S.E.; Kozlenko, D. P.; Belushkin, A.V.; Reutov, V.F.; Samoilenko, S.O.; Jirák, Zdeněk; Savenko, B. N.; Bulavin, L. A.; Zubavichus, Y.V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 351, č. 1 (2012), "012013-1"-"012013-5" ISSN 1742-6588. [International Workshop on SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor - Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's Birth /2./. Dubna, 27.05.2011-30.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : iron nanoparticles * aluminium matrix * helium pores Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Iron and aluminium oxides containing industrial wastes as adsorbents of heavy metals: Application possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz-Sobala, Irena; Ociński, Daniel; Kociołek-Balawejder, Elżbieta

    2015-07-01

    Industrial wastes with a high iron or aluminium oxide content are produced in huge quantities as by-products of water treatment (water treatment residuals), bauxite processing (red mud) and hard and brown coal burning in power plants (fly ash). Although they vary in their composition, the wastes have one thing in common--a high content of amorphous iron and/or aluminium oxides with a large specific surface area, whereby this group of wastes shows very good adsorbability towards heavy metals, arsenates, selenates, etc. But their physical form makes their utilisation quite difficult, since it is not easy to separate the spent sorbent from the solution and high bed hydraulic resistances occur in dynamic regime processes. Nevertheless, because of the potential benefits of utilising the wastes in industrial effluent treatment, this issue attracts much attention today. This study describes in detail the waste generation processes, the chemical structure of the wastes, their physicochemical properties, and the mechanisms of fixing heavy metals and semimetals on the surface of iron and aluminium oxides. Typical compositions of wastes generated in selected industrial plants are given. A detailed survey of the literature on the adsorption applications of the wastes, including methods of their thermal and chemical activation, as well as regeneration of the spent sorbents, is presented. The existing and potential ways of modifying the physical form of the discussed group of wastes, making it possible to overcome the basic limitation on their practical use, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Relation between feeding mechanisms and solidification mode in 380 aluminium alloy with different iron contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovio, D. O.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Mugica, G. W.; Cuyas, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the effect of iron (0.15, 0.42 and 0.86%) content in feeding mechanisms for 380 aluminium alloy has been studied. The feeding capacity has been evaluated by a device that produces a barrier removable to allowing the movement of the inter dendritic liquid. The results show the flow of different quantity of liquid, it depends of the temperature of operating the device and of the iron content. For minimum and maximum iron content, the inter dendritic and bursts feeding mechanisms are fundamentally involved, for 0.42% of iron the feeding mechanisms was the inter dendritic. The authors establish this behavior by the solidification mode of alloy, which promotes the presence of particles of Si or plates of b-Al 3 FeDi phase, in the inter dendritic channels and produce the different feeding mechanisms. (Author) 15 refs

  6. Dependence of the phosphate sorption capacity on the aluminium and iron in Finnish soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armi Kaila

    1963-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to study to what extent the capacity of the more or less acid soils in Finland to sorb phosphate may be explained on the basis of their content of aluminium and iron. The indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity was calculated on the basis of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm according to the procedure proposed by TERÄSVUORI (8. The material consisted of 390 samples from cultivated and virgin soils representing both topsoils and subsoils. The indicator of the phosphate sorption capacity, the coefficient k, varied in the present material from 40 to 1510. The mean values (with the confidence limits at the 95 per cent level were for the 109 samples of sand and fine sand soils 290 ± 17, for the 103 samples of loam and silt soils 201 ± 24, for the 151 clay soils 308 ± 20, and for the 27 humus soils 236 ± 41. The total linear correlation coefficients between k and the soil pH, and its contents of organic carbon or clay were low or negligible in most of the soil groups. The correlation of k with the content of aluminium extracted by Tamm’s acid ammonium oxalate was fairly close in the clay soils (r = 0.84***, lower in the sand and fine sand soils (r = 0.77***, and in the loam and silt soils, and in the humus soils it was rather poor (r = 0.65*** and 0.63*** resp.. The elimination of the effect of the ammonium oxalate soluble iron decreased the correlation in the two latter groups quite markedly (to 0.32** and 0.37 resp., while the corresponding decrease in the coefficients for the former groups was less significant (to 0.64*** and 0.75*** resp.. The elimination of the effect of the ammonium oxalate soluble aluminium, on the other hand, decreased the correlation coefficients between k and the ammonium oxalate soluble iron in the sand and fine sand soils from 0.59*** to 0.26**, in the loam and silt soils from 0.73*** to 0.54***, in the clay soils from 0.70*** to 0.51***, and in the humus soils from 0.68*** to 0.49*. The

  7. Dissolution of copper and iron from malachite ore and precipitation of copper sulfate pentahydrate by chemical process

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kokes; M.H. Morcali; E. Acma

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes an investigation of a chemical process for the recovery of copper and iron from malachite ore. For the dissolution of copper and iron, H2SO4 was employed as well as H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. The effects of reaction temperature and time, acid concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio and agitation rate on the copper and iron percentage were investigated. Following the steps of dissolving the copper and iron sulfate and filtering, iron (III) hydroxide was precipitated by...

  8. MICRO-MATERIAL HANDLING EMPLOYING E-BEAM GENERATED TOPOGRAPHIES OF COPPER AND ALUMINIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the employment of copper and aluminium in a micro-material handling system actuated by Van der Waals forces. Electron beam (e-beam evaporator deposited both materials on a silicon substrate at a rate of 0.6-1.2 Angstroms/second, vacuum pressure between 2x10-6 and 3x10-6mbar, and at a current less than 10mA. A Veeco NanoMan V Atomic Force Microscope with Nanoscope version 7.3 software was used to analyse the root mean square (rms surface roughnesses of the generated topographies. Rumpf-Rabinovich’s rms formula was used to determine the Van der Waals forces exerted by the surfaces. It was synthesised that an e-beam deposition of 7 minutes’ duration on both materials produced an optimum micro-material handling solution, with copper suitable for the pick-up position and aluminium for the placement position.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die fokus van die artikel is op die gebruik van koper en aluminium in ‘n mikromateriaalhanteringstelsel, aangedryf deur Van der Waalskragte. ‘n Elektronstraal-verdamper plaas albei materiale op ‘n silikonbasis teen ‘n tempo van 0.6-1.2 Angstrom/sekonde, vakuumdruk tussen 2x10-6 en 3x10-6mbar, en teen ‘n stroom van minder as 10mA. ‘n Veeco NanoMan V Atomic Force mikroskoop, met Nanoscope 7.3 program-matuur is gebruik om die wortel-gemiddelde-kwadraat (wgk oppervlak ruheid van die gegenereerde topografieë te analiseer. Rumpf-Rabinovich se wgk-formule is gebruik om die Van der Waalskrage wat deur die oppervlaktes uitgeoefen word te bepaal. Dit is vasgestel dat ‘n elektronstraalafsetting van 7 minute op albei materiale die optimale materiaalhanteringoplossing bied, met koper geskik vir die optelposisie en aluminium vir die plasingsposisie.

  9. Galvanic corrosion of copper-cast iron couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, N.R.; Rance, A.P.; Fennell, P.A.H.

    2005-01-01

    To ensure the safe encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel rods for geological disposal, SKB are considering using the Copper-Cast Iron Canister, which consists of an outer copper canister and an inner cast iron container. The canister will be placed into boreholes in the bedrock of a geologic repository and surrounded by bentonite clay. In the unlikely event of the outer copper canister being breached, water would enter the annulus between the inner and outer canister and at points of contact between the two metals there would be the possibility of galvanic interactions. Although this subject has been considered previously from both a theoretical standpoint and by experimental investigations there was a need for further experimental studies in support of information provided by SKB to the Swedish regulators (SKI). In the work reported here copper-cast iron galvanic couples were set up in a number of different environments representing possible conditions in the SKB repository. The tests investigated two artificial porewaters at 30 deg C and 50 deg C, under aerated and deaerated conditions. Tests were also carried out in a 30 wt% bentonite slurry made up in artificial groundwater. The potential of the couples and the currents passing between the coupled electrodes were monitored for several months. The effect of growing an oxide film on the surface of the cast iron prior to coupling it with copper was investigated. In addition, some crevice specimens based on the multi-crevice assembly (MCA) design were used to simulate the situation where the copper canister will be in direct contact with the cast iron inner vessel. The electrochemical results are presented graphically in the form of electrode potentials and galvanic corrosion currents as a function of time. The galvanic currents in aerated conditions were much higher than in deaerated conditions. For example, at 30 deg C, galvanic corrosion rates as low as 0.02 μm/year for iron were observed after deaeration, but

  10. Magnetic and Structural Properties of Electrodeposited Iron on Copper and Silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koempe, K.; Kuehl, E.; Nagorny, K.

    2002-01-01

    Electrodeposition of iron on copper or silver leads to the formation of bcc-iron or amorphous iron. Thermal annealing usually results in soluted iron (also γ-iron and clusters) in copper. On silver the insolubility of iron never causes the formation of bcc-iron. Instead on copper as well as on silver fcc-iron states are formed, especially at relatively low temperatures with short times of annealing. Moessbauer spectroscopy accompanied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) are applied for characterisation of the iron states.

  11. Material Characterization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welded Aluminium and Copper Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, K. O.; Akinlabi, E. T.

    2017-08-01

    In this research study, material characterization of dissimilar friction stir spot welded Aluminium and Copper was evaluated. Rotational speeds of 800 rpm and transverse speeds of 50 mm/min, 150 mm/min and 250 mm/min were used. The total numbers of samples evaluated were nine altogether. The spot welds were characterised by microstructure characterization using optical microscope (OEM) and scanning electron microscopy technique (SEM) by observing the evolution of the microstructure across the weld’s cross-section. lap-shear test of the of the spot weld specimens were also done. From the results, it shows that welding of metals and alloys using Friction stir spot welding is appropriate and can be use in industrial applications.

  12. Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... Arsenic, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, selenium and zinc in the ... and sediment were collected and trace element concentrations were measured with an ICP-MS. ..... Clay minerals are known to have high sorption affinities ..... sediment/water quality interaction with particular reference to the.

  13. Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrients such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) play important physiological roles in humans and animals. Zn and B are the micronutrients most often deficient in maize, in Iran. A completely randomized factorial block design experiment was carried out at Fars province of Iran during ...

  14. Atomic scale numerical simulation study of elementary mechanisms of plasticity in aluminium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, Antoine

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with elementary mechanisms of plasticity, such as the dissociation of a perfect edge dislocation into Shockley partials, the annihilation of dislocation dipoles and the interaction between a dislocation and an interface (free surface and grain boundary). Dislocation core effects are expected to influence crucially these interactions. A deeper understanding of these situations is thus achieved by resorting to an atomistic numerical approach, the application of the elastic theory of dislocations being no longer justified. Two FCC metals are considered: aluminium and copper, with respectively a small and a large dissociation width. An empirical potential for aluminium was designed to study the perfect as well as the dissociated states of the dislocation. The results are compared to the ones obtained with the interaction model for copper, for both the edge and the screw characters. The obtained core radius value ensures the continuity between the atomic and the elastic treatments. The calculations concerning edge dislocation dipole configurations show that there exists a critical distance between the glide planes of the two constitutive dislocations under which a spontaneous recombination occurs. We then compute the variation of the excess energy associated to the gradual approach of an edge dislocation toward the free surface of a crystal. An estimation of the energy required for the introduction of a dislocation in a thin film is obtained. The study of the interaction between a dislocation and a tilt grain boundary shows that the dislocation is absorbed in the interface, the stress required for its extraction being rather large. Finally, by proceeding to the simulation of a tensile test, we demonstrate that the surface steps constitute favoured sites for the nucleation of the dislocations. (author) [fr

  15. Strain hardening of aluminium alloy 3004 in the deep drawing and ironing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbon, J.; Duval, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The evolution of material hardening resulting from the canmaking operations on aluminium beverage cans has been investigated. Tensile tests in cup walls revealed that deep drawing induced softening in the hoop direction and hardening in the meridian direction. This anisotropy is retained in the ironing operation. Changes in strain path on a heavily cold-rolled material probably cause such a complex behaviour. To determine hardening laws for deep drawing, simple shear tests were thus performed because of the strain path similarity. They allowed to determine hardening laws over larger strains than tension could reach and revealed a saturation of stress. Altogether they proved adapted to the understanding of deep drawing. (orig.)

  16. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouturat, P.

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [fr

  17. Properties of experimental copper-aluminium-nickel alloys for dental post-and-core applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittapai, Apiwat; Urapepon, Somchai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep; Harniratisai, Choltacha

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to develop a copper-aluminium-nickel alloy which has properties comparable to that of dental alloys used for dental post and core applications with the reasonable cost. Sixteen groups of experimental copper alloys with variants of 3, 6, 9, 12 wt% Al and 0, 2, 4, 6 wt% Ni were prepared and casted. Their properties were tested and evaluated. The data of thermal, physical, and mechanical properties were analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The alloy toxicity was evaluated according to the ISO standard. The solidus and liquidus points of experimental alloys ranged from 1023℃ to 1113℃ and increased as the nickel content increased. The highest ultimate tensile strength (595.9 ± 14.2 MPa) was shown in the Cu-12Al-4Ni alloy. The tensile strength was increased as the both elements increased. Alloys with 3-6 wt% Al exhibited a small amount of 0.2% proof strength. Accordingly, the Cu-9Al-2Ni and Cu-9Al-4Ni alloys not only demonstrated an appropriate modulus of elasticity (113.9 ± 8.0 and 122.8 ± 11.3 GPa, respectively), but also had a value of 0.2% proof strength (190.8 ± 4.8 and 198.2 ± 3.4 MPa, respectively), which complied with the ISO standard requirement (>180 MPa). Alloys with the highest contents of nickel (6 wt% Ni) revealed a widespread decolourisation zone (5.0-5.9 mm), which correspondingly produced the largest cell response, equating positive control. The copper alloys fused with 9 wt% Al and 2-4 wt% Ni can be considered for a potential use as dental post and core applications.

  18. Anaerobic Copper Toxicity and Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Guoqiang; Yang, Jing; Li, Tang; Zhao, Jin; Sun, Shujuan; Li, Xiaokang; Lin, Chuxian; Li, Jianghui; Zhou, Huaibin; Lyu, Jianxin; Ding, Huangen

    2017-08-15

    While copper is an essential trace element in biology, pollution of groundwater from copper has become a threat to all living organisms. Cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity, however, are still not fully understood. Previous studies have shown that iron-sulfur proteins are among the primary targets of copper toxicity in Escherichia coli under aerobic conditions. Here, we report that, under anaerobic conditions, iron-sulfur proteins in E. coli cells are even more susceptible to copper in medium. Whereas addition of 0.2 mM copper(II) chloride to LB (Luria-Bertani) medium has very little or no effect on iron-sulfur proteins in wild-type E. coli cells under aerobic conditions, the same copper treatment largely inactivates iron-sulfur proteins by blocking iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis in the cells under anaerobic conditions. Importantly, proteins that do not have iron-sulfur clusters (e.g., fumarase C and cysteine desulfurase) in E. coli cells are not significantly affected by copper treatment under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, indicating that copper may specifically target iron-sulfur proteins in cells. Additional studies revealed that E. coli cells accumulate more intracellular copper under anaerobic conditions than under aerobic conditions and that the elevated copper content binds to the iron-sulfur cluster assembly proteins IscU and IscA, which effectively inhibits iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. The results suggest that the copper-mediated inhibition of iron-sulfur proteins does not require oxygen and that iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is the primary target of anaerobic copper toxicity in cells. IMPORTANCE Copper contamination in groundwater has become a threat to all living organisms. However, cellular mechanisms underlying copper toxicity have not been fully understood up to now. The work described here reveals that iron-sulfur proteins in Escherichia coli cells are much more susceptible to copper in medium under anaerobic conditions than they

  19. Numerical simulation of ductile-brittle behaviour of cracks in aluminium and bcc iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacharopoulos, Marios

    2017-01-01

    The principal aim of the present dissertation is to investigate the role of sharp cracks on the mechanical behaviour of crystals under load at the atomic scale. The question of interest is how a pure crystal, which contains a single crack in mechanical equilibrium, deforms. Two metals were considered: aluminium, ductile at any temperature below its melting point, and iron, being transformed from ductile to brittle upon decreasing temperature below T=77 K. Cohesive forces in both metals were modeled via phenomenological n-body potentials. A (010)[001] mode I nano-crack was introduced in the perfect crystalline lattice of each of the studied metals by using appropriate displacements ascribed by anisotropic elasticity. At T=0 K, equilibrium crack configurations were obtained via energy minimization with a mixed type of boundary conditions. Both models revealed that the crack configurations remained stable under a finite range of applied stresses due to the lattice trapping effect. The present thesis proposes a novel approach to interpret the intrinsic mechanical behaviour of the two metallic systems under loading. In particular, the ductile or brittle response of a crystalline system can be determined by examining whether the lattice trapping barrier of a pre-existing crack is sufficient to cause the glide of pre-existing static dislocations on the available slip systems. Simulation results along with experimental data demonstrate that, according to the model proposed, aluminium and iron are ductile and brittle at T=0 K, respectively. (author) [fr

  20. Influence of heat treatment on fatigue performances for self-piercing riveting similar and dissimilar titanium, aluminium and copper alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xianlian; He, Xiaocong; Xing, Baoying; Zhao, Lun; Lu, Yi; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue performances of self-piercing riveting (SPR) joints connecting similar and dissimilar sheets of TA1 titanium alloy (TA1), Al5052 aluminium alloy (Al5052) and H62 copper alloy (H62) were studied in this paper. The specimens of similar TA1 sheets treated with stress relief annealing were prepared to investigate the influence of relief annealing on the mechanical properties of SPR joints. Fatigue tests were conducted to characterize the fatigue lives and failure modes of the joints. ...

  1. Effect of Microstructure on the Thermal Properties of Sintered Iron-copper Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarteche, Caroline Velasques; Furlan, Kaline Pagnan; Pereira, Rafaela do Vale; Trindade, Gabriel; Binder, Roberto; Binder, Cristiano; Klein, Aloisio Nelmo

    2015-01-01

    Copper is a well know material for use as heat sink or heat exchanger. However, copper has a considerable low tensile strength and temperature limit. A material that has a good thermal conductivity, low cost, but also resistance is the desired. Effects of copper on the sintering and thermal properties of iron-copper composites produced by powder metallurgy and Fe on copper-iron composites have been investigated. Copper and iron were varied from 20 to 80 vol.% in the samples, alternating the c...

  2. Sintering studies on iron-carbon-copper compacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perianayagam Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sintered Iron-Carbon-Copper parts are among the most widely used powder metallurgy product in automobile. In this paper, studies have been carried out to find out the sintering characteristics of iron-carbon-copper compacts when sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of various processing parameters on the sintering characteristics were studied. The various processing parameters considered were compaction pressure, green density and sintering temperature. The sintering characteristics determined were sintered density, porosity, dimensional change, micro hardness and radial crush strength. The results obtained have been discussed on the basis of micro structural observations. The characteristics of SEM fractography were also used to determine the mechanism of fracture. The fracture energy is strongly dependent on density of the compact.

  3. Dissolution of copper and iron from malachite ore and precipitation of copper sulfate pentahydrate by chemical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kokes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes an investigation of a chemical process for the recovery of copper and iron from malachite ore. For the dissolution of copper and iron, H2SO4 was employed as well as H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. The effects of reaction temperature and time, acid concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio and agitation rate on the copper and iron percentage were investigated. Following the steps of dissolving the copper and iron sulfate and filtering, iron (III hydroxide was precipitated by adjusting the pH level of the solution. Subsequently, copper sulfate pentahydrate was obtained by using various precipitants (i.e. ethanol, methanol and sulfuric acid.

  4. Characterization of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Single crystal growth of pure and copper-doped iron tartrate crystals bearing composition Cu Fe(1−) C4H4O6 · H2O, where = 0, 0.07, 0.06, 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, is achieved using gel technique. The elemental analysis has been done using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) spectrum. The characterization studies ...

  5. Sublethal effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to mixtures of copper, aluminium and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heier, Lene Sørlie; Teien, Hans Christian; Oughton, Deborah; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Olsvik, Pål A.; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Lind, Ole Christian; Farmen, Eivind; Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects in presmolt of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al) and gamma radiation, individually or in combination. Fish were exposed for 48 h to metals added to lake water; 10, 40 and 80 μg Cu/L, 250 μg Al/L and a combination of 40 μg Cu/L and 250 μg Al/L. In addition, gamma radiation (4–70 mGy delivered over 48 h) was added as an additional exposure stressor. Selected endpoints were chosen to reveal different toxic mechanisms and included Cu and Al accumulation on gills, blood chemistry and haematological variables (plasma sodium and chloride, haematocrit, glucose), hepatic levels of reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and hepatic transcriptional response of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), metallothionein (MT) and ubiquitin. Exposure to Cu alone resulted in gill accumulation of Cu, reduction of plasma ions and increased transcriptional response of GPx, MT and ubiquitin. Exposure to Al alone reduced plasma ion levels but did not affect any of the hepatic biomarkers except for ubiquitin. The combined metal exposure (Cu + Al) altered the GSH levels, however GPx and MT were not affected suggesting a different mode of detoxification in the combined exposure. Gamma radiation appeared to influence GSH and ubiquitin levels. The observed effects seemed to be both stressor and concentration dependent

  6. Neutralization of the negative influence of iron and silicon on the mechanical properties of aluminium casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotorevsky, V.S.; Axenov, A.A.; Belov, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    In most of casting aluminium alloys iron is a harmful impurity due to the appearance of rough particles with needle, plate or sceleton shapes of intermetallic compounds during crystallization. As a result of it the plasticity, fracture toughness and sometimes the strength are decreased

  7. Kinetics of atmospheric corrosion of mild steel, zinc, galvanized iron and aluminium at 10 exposure stations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, M.; Venkatachari, G.; Palaniswamy, N.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of updating Corrosion Map of India project, atmospheric corrosion behaviour of commercially available engineering materials such as mild steel, galvanized iron, zinc and aluminium metals was studied in marine, industrial, urban, and rural environments by weight loss method at 10 exposure stations in India over a period of 5 years. The results of these studies demonstrated that galvanized iron, zinc and aluminium metals were several times more durable than mild steel. Compared to galvanized iron and zinc, aluminium provided superior protection in industrial and marine environment except at Mormugao Port Trust (MPT). It also offered much better resistance to corrosion in rural environments. At certain places, galvanized iron proved to be more durable than aluminium. The results obeyed well with the empirical kinetics equation of the form C = Kt n , where K and C are the corrosion losses in μm after 1 and 't' years of the exposure, respectively, and 'n' is a constant. Based on 'n' values, the corrosion mechanisms of these metals are predicted. The corrosion products formed on the metal samples in Chennai marine atmosphere were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis

  8. Extraction of copper zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of different extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhivkova, Svetlana [Institute of Chemical Engineering - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The extraction of copper, zinc and iron from hydrochloric acid solutions has been studied. The experiments have been carried out using various solvents, involving different extraction mechanisms – solvating, anion-exchange, cation-exchange, bifunctional . Mixtures of these extractants have been also used. The extraction properties of these extractant mixtures toward copper, zinc and iron, the effect of used modifiers and diluents have been also investigated. Key words: Copper, Zinc, Iron, Extraction, Extractant, Modifier, Diluent.

  9. The low-aluminium cast iron of reduced silicon content treated with cerium mischmetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Soiński

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the effect of cerium mischmetal used in quantities of 0.1 and 0.2 wt-% and ferrosilicon used in quantities from 0.5% to 1.5% on the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in the low-aluminium cast iron from seven heats, basing on the examination of its structure. The hypereutectic cast iron of the relatively high carbon content (4.0÷4.2% at the prior-to-treatment silicon and manganese content equal to ca. 0.6% and ca. 0.04%, respectively, has been examined.It has been found that the performed treatment leads to the change in the alloy matrix from the nearly almost pearlitic to the ferritic-pearlitic one accompanied by changes in the shape of graphite precipitates. Due to applying both of the mentioned substances in the above stated amounts the graphite precipitates in cast iron have taken the shape of nodular and vermicular ones, and no presence of flake graphite has been revealed. A quantitative analysis of the performed treatment i.e. determining the fractions of graphite precipitates of different shapes has been possible by means of a computer image analyser.

  10. Texture investigation in aluminium and iron - silicon samples by neutron diffraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, R.; Yamasaki, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    By means of the neutron diffraction technique the texture of 5% and 98% rolled-aluminium and of iron-silicon steel used in the core of electric transformers, have been determined. The measurements were performed by using a neutron diffractometer installed at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor, in the Beam-Hole n 0 . 6. To avoid corrections such as neutron absorption and sample luminosity the geometric form of the samples were approximated to spheric or octagonal prism, and its dimensions do not exceed that of the neutron beam. The texture of the samples were analysed with the help of a computer programme that analyses the intensity of the diffracted neutron beam and plot the pole figures. (author) [pt

  11. The evaluation of neutron total cross section for natural iron and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shirui; Wang Chunhao; Zhao Defang

    1990-05-01

    The experimental data of total cross section were collected and evaluated for natural iron in the energy region from 1 keV to 20 MeV and for natural aluminium from 4.07 keV to 20 MeV. The evaluated data were recommended in the regions for them. The minimum values of Fe total cross section in the keV region were specially recommended. The resonance structures were briefly discussed for both Fe and Al. To make the evaluation better, all experimental measurements of neutron total cross section relative to Fe and Al were studied. Considering the resonance feature of medium weight nuclides, two criteria for selecting total cross section were presented: 1) the correlation between the precission of total cross section and neutron source; 2) the correlation between the accuracy of total cross section and the resolving power of the neutron spectrometer

  12. Determination of iron and copper contents in certain indigenous varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Abbas, N.; Shaheen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forty seven wheat varieties were tested for their iron and copper contents. The iron and copper contents were found to differ significantly (P 0.05) with respect to iron and copper contents. The variety named Dirk was found to possess the highest iron contents, while the variety Pasban-90 showed the highest copper contents. The varieties Dirk, Sariab, Tandojam-83, Punjab-88, Sarsabz, Punjab-81, Sandal and Sind-81 contained significantly higher iron contents as compared to other wheat varieties. The varieties, which contained the highest concentrations of copper, were Pasban-90, Chenab-79, Faisalabad-85, Lyp-73, Sind-81, Anmol-91, C-271, Rohtas-90 and Chakwal-86. However, the differences in copper contents among all these wheat varieties were non-significant (P>0.05). These varieties can therefore, be recommended to be included for future breeding and commercial exploitation. (author)

  13. Atomic-scale simulation study of some bulk and interfacial properties of iron aluminium ordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Remy

    1997-01-01

    A semi-empirical potential was designed for B 2 and DO 3 iron aluminides and used to study point defects and grain boundaries in these compounds. At low temperature, departure from B 2 stoichiometry is accommodated with antisite defects; when T increases, iron vacancies appear and defects have a trend to form clusters, the structure of which is very sensitive to this departure. Our calculations, relying on T = 0 K formation energies, predict the nature of major defects, but lead to underestimated quantitative results, which may point out the essential role of atomic vibrations. In the stoichiometric B 2 compound, the diffusion of both species is induced by four-jump cycles involving iron vacancies. Although the agreement between our calculated activation energies and other experiments is good, the calculated diffusion coefficients are below the experimental ones. Here again, this discrepancy may be put down to the overlooking of phonon contributions. The second application concerns the atomic structures of the [001] (310) symmetric tilt grain boundary in the B 2 and DO 3 compounds. At low temperature, in the stoichiometric B 2 compound, we obtain an iron-rich single stable structure (pseudo-symmetric), whose structure is strongly influenced by the bulk composition (with intergranular segregation of the major element). In the stoichiometric DO 3 compound, many energetically equivalent structures exist, all being systematically aluminium-rich. The study of the B 2 grain boundary structure at high temperature shows a phase transition favouring a symmetric structure. Its high excess energy at low temperature emphasizes the influence of atomic vibrations in the interfacial properties of B 2 Fe-Al compounds. (author) [fr

  14. Study of iron solubility in aluminium and SAP-type materials by the method of nuclear gamma resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechaev, Yu.S.; Edigarov, V.S.; Pustov, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are the results of studying equilibrium solubility of iron (FeAl 3 ) in aluminium crystals with a conventional density of dislocations (rhosub(perpendicular) approximately 10 6 cm -2 ), and in crystals of the SAP type with rhosub(perpendicular) approximately 10 9 cm -2 . The method of gamma-resonance spectroscopy, chemical analysis were used as well as measurements of residual electric resistivity. Changes in entropy and enthalpy are determined while dissolving a FeAl 3 mole in aluminium lattice. The analysis of the data obtained allows one to suppose the presence of regions with high local concentrations of iron atoms near dislocations, the atoms being in two different states which provide respectively a doublet and a singlet in the Moessbauer spectrum

  15. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration equations for energy-dispersive XRF determination of copper, iron and lead in copper ore slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakosz, M.

    1976-01-01

    Calibration equations for the X-ray fluorescence analysis determination of copper, iron and lead in copper ore slurries have been derived and tested. The measurement of Ksub(α) lines of copper and iron and Lsub(α) line of lead excited by rays from 238 Pu source have been used. Si/Li detector coupled to multichannel analyzer and minicomputer have been applied in measurements. The matrix and density effect have been eliminated by additional measurement of back-scattered primary radiation. (author)

  17. Cavitation erosion of copper and aluminium in water at elevated-temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Auret, JG

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available anomaly was investigated by employing specially developed cells for corrosion rate and temperature measurements on a cavitating aluminium sample. It was found that an increase in corrosion rate was mainly responsible for the high cavitation erosion rate...

  18. The green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Charophyta) shows high iron and aluminium tolerance: protection mechanisms and photosynthetic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herburger, Klaus; Remias, Daniel; Holzinger, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Streptophyte green algae, ancestors of Embryophytes, occur frequently in terrestrial habitats being exposed to high light intensities, water scarcity and potentially toxic metal cations under acidic conditions. The filamentous Zygogonium ericetorum synthesizes a purple vacuolar ferrous pigment, which is lost after aplanospore formation. However, it is unknown whether this cellular reorganization also removes excessive iron from the protoplast and how Z. ericetorum copes with high concentrations of aluminium. Here we show that aplanospore formation shifts iron into the extracellular space of the algal filament. Upon germination of aplanospores, aluminium is bound in the parental cell wall. Both processes reduce iron and aluminium in unpigmented filaments. Comparison of the photosynthetic oxygen production in response to light and temperature gradients in two different Z. ericetorum strains from an Austrian alpine and a Scottish highland habitat revealed lower values in the latter strain. In contrast, the Scottish strain showed a higher optimum quantum yield of PSII during desiccation stress followed by rehydration. Furthermore, pigmented filaments of both strains exhibited a higher light and temperature dependent oxygen production when compared to the unpigmented phenotype. Our results demonstrate a high metal tolerance of Z. ericetorum, which is crucial for surviving in acidic terrestrial habitats. © FEMS 2016.

  19. B2-ordered iron-aluminium alloys strengthening. Influence of additions (Ni and B) and microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colas, David

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of additions (Ni and B) and microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of 40 at. % Al iron-aluminium alloys. From a macroscopic point of view, we show that nickel reinforces FeAl alloys over the whole temperature range, but that it simultaneously leads to emphasize the room temperature brittleness of these alloys through a cleavage stress decrease. We confirm powder metallurgy grain refining interest to enhance yield stress as well as fracture resistance. We show that nickel-induced yield stress effect is additive to 'Hall-Petch' one. Also, we point out that the strengthening phenomena (nickel or grain size) cause the yield stress anomaly, which these alloys usually present, to be hidden. Through a dislocation structures analysis of deformed materials we precise that low temperature nickel-induced solid solution hardening (SSH) cannot be explained on the basis of classical SSH theories but more probably through nickel influence upon the Peierls stress. Moreover, we show that the APB tubes dragging model may be compatible with our microscopic and macroscopic results about the anomaly. Eventually, we put into relation a dynamic super-dislocations multiplication process observation (in situ transmission microscopy) with the nickel-containing alloys tendency to cleavage. (author) [fr

  20. The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

    2004-07-01

    The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

  1. Serum Zinc, Iron and Copper Concentrations in Dogs Infected with Hepatozoon canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Seyrek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, canine hepatozoonosis is an emerging infection with a large number of cases detected during the past five years. In the present study, serum zinc, copper and iron concentrations of dogs infected with Hepatozoon canis were measured for the first time. Compared to the controls (n = 10, serum zinc and iron concentrations in infected animals (n = 14 decreased significantly (p p p Hepatozoon canis infection may cause alterations in serum zinc iron and copper concentrations. Furthermore, in the treatment of infected animals addition of zinc and iron to the ration of infected animals should be taken into consideration.

  2. Adsorption studies of water on copper, nickel, and iron: assessment of the polarization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Staehle, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the atmospheric corrosion of copper, nickel, and iron, the adsorption of water affects the corrosion rates. Knowledge of water adsorption and metal oxyhydroxide formation is important in understanding the atmospheric corrosion process. The purposes of the present research were (i) to measure the adsorption of water on metal surfaces as a function of temperature and relative humidity (RH) and (ii) to assess Bradley's polarization model of adsorption. In the present research, the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was used to measure the mass changes of copper, nickel, and iron at 0 to 100% relative humidity and 7 to 90 C under nitrogen and air environments. Less water was adsorbed on copper, nickel, and iron which form oxides than on gold. The amount of water adsorption was similar on copper, nickel, and iron under N 2 and air carrier gases. Functional relationship was first proposed as a way to include dipole/induced dipole interactions between the adsorbents and water layers. (orig.)

  3. The Role of Serum Copper and Iron in Oral Submucous Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Master Luquman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a chronic insidious disease of multifactorial etiology. The habit of chewing arecanut is thought to be one of the most important etiologic factors. Copper and iron are elements in the human body that form part of important enzymes. We estimated the serum copper and iron in patients with OSMF as well as normal controls and discuss the role of these elements in the etiology of OSMF.

  4. Copper metabolism and its interactions with dietary iron, zinc, tin and selenium in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies on copper metabolism and its interactions with selected dietary trace elements in rats. The rats were fed purified diets throughout. High intakes of iron or tin reduced copper concentrations in plasma, liver and kidneys. The dietary treatments also

  5. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben

    2010-01-01

    compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation...... of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content...

  6. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  7. Brittleness and elastic limit of iron-aluminium 40 at high strain rates; Fragilite et limite elastique du fer-aluminium 40 aux grandes vitesses de deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottu, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Iron-aluminium 40 - a B2 ordered solid solution - was tensile tested to provide information on the brittleness of this alloy and its dependence on strain rate and temperature. For slow strain rates (0.34 per cent s{sup -1}) cleaved fracture prevails when temperature is kept below 400 deg. C, while a ductile rupture is observed, with an almost 100 per cent necking at higher temperatures. In this case, recrystallization occurs during the deformation. For higher strain rates - 335 per cent s{sup -1}), a ductility reduction - owed to intergranular fracture - precedes the brittle-ductile transition. This property may be bound to the peak on the yield stress temperature curve, which is itself connected to the ordered structure of this alloy. (author) [French] Les essais de traction que nous avons effectues sur le fer-aluminium 40, solution solide ordonnee de type B2, ont pour but de preciser l'influence de la vitesse de deformation et de la temperature sur la fragilite de l'alliage. Pour les faibles vitesses (0,34 pour cent s{sup -1}), la rupture est surtout clivee si la temperature est inferieure a 400 deg. C, puis ductile avec une striction voisine de 100 pour cent aux temperatures superieures; la recristallisation intervient alors ou cours meme de la deformation. Aux vitesses elevees (335 pour cent s{sup -1}) la transition fragile-ductile est precedee d'une chute de ductilite liee a une decohesion intergranulaire. Nous avons associe cette derniere propriete a la presence d'un pic de limite elastique apparaissant a chaud, a vitesse elevee et pouvant etre relie au caractere ordonne de l'alliage. (auteur)

  8. Aluminium or copper substrate panel for selective absorption of solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M. L.; Sharpe, M. H.; Krupnick, A. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method for making panels which selectively absorb solar energy is disclosed. The panels are comprised of an aluminum substrate, a layer of zinc thereon, a layer of nickel over the zinc layer and an outer layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide or a copper substrate with a layer of nickel thereon and a layer of solar energy absorbing nickel oxide distal from the copper substrate.

  9. Impairment of Interrelated Iron- and Copper Homeostatic Mechanisms in Brain Contributes to the Pathogenesis of Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters. PMID:23055972

  10. Determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the Azores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ribeiro de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the determination of iron, copper, manganese and zinc in the soils, grapes and wines of the three viticultural regions of the Azores. Iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and manganese by graphite furnace atomic absorption. The concentrations of the four elements differed in soils of the three regions; there was no difference in the concentration in grapes, whereas significant differences were observed for the wines as regards the amounts of iron, manganese and zinc. The concentrations of these four elements in wine correspond with the mean values observed for other European regions.

  11. Determination of copper and iron in the human aqueous humor by atomic absorption spectrometer with graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mohammad, Z.; Shah, M.T.; Saeed, M.; Imdadullah

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of copper and iron was determined in human aqueous humor using atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace. The mean (+- SEM) concentrations of copper (n=16) and iron (n=14) were 0.0234 -+ 0.0045 mu g.ml/sup -1/ and 0.045 -+ 0.0092 mu.ml/sup -1/ respectively. In male and female, the concentrations of copper (p< 0.82) and iron (p<0.38) were not significantly different. (author)

  12. Impairment of interrelated iron- and copper homeostatic mechanisms in brain contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben

    2012-01-01

    is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead...... involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells...

  13. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  14. An investigation on mechanical property of commercial copper tube to aluminium 2025 tube plate by FWTPET process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, S., E-mail: kannan.dgl201127@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India); Senthil Kumaran, S., E-mail: sskumaran@ymail.com [Research and Development Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, RVS Educational Trust' s Group of Institutions, RVS School of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul, Tamilnadu 624005 (India); Kumaraswamidhas, L.A., E-mail: lakdhas1978@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India)

    2016-07-05

    Frictional welding of tube to tube plate by external tool (FWTPET) posses wide spread industrial in mass production process for joint similar and dissimilar materials. Frictional welding process allows welding of some materials that are exceptionally hard to fusion weld. The good quality joint between the tube and tube plate is achieved by selecting the proper process parameter. In this present research, the frictional welding is done between the Aluminium 2025 tube plate and commercial copper tube possessing a clearance fit of 0.1 mm between tube and hole. In this study, two conditions were considered while handing out this experiment. The condiction1 is tube without holes [WOH] and condition 2 is tube with holes [WH] on the tube circumference. In total, twenty seven work pieces have been considered separately for both conditions and the mechanical property such as compression strength and hardness value has been measured for the both set of work piece in two conditions to analysis the joint strength of the welding process. Taguchi L{sub 27} orthogonal array has been used in this process to identify the process parameter which influences the joint strength of the welded samples. ANOVA method is used to calculate the percentage of contribution by each process parameter which influences the better joint strength. Genetic algorithm is used to authenticate the outcome obtained from the both experimental value and optimization value. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) has been performed to probe microstructures and chemical compositions for work piece without holes which has higher mechanical property. - Highlights: • FWTPET for dissimilar metals commercial copper tube and Al 2025 tube plate. • The hardness value for tube without holes are 180.988 Hv. • The compression strength for tube without holes are 376.05 MPa. • SEM confirm heat production is done to melt parent metal by diffusion process. • EDX prove no trace

  15. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiang, E-mail: huxiang@mail.buct.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Centre for Environmental Pollution Control and Resource Reuse Engineering of Beijing City, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Hua [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Research Centre for Environmental Pollution Control and Resource Reuse Engineering of Beijing City, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Zhirong, E-mail: zrsun@bjut.edu.cn [College of Environmental & Energy Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The graphic abstract describes the research that we used modified activated carbons impregnated with iron nitrate, copper nitrate and aluminium nitrate to adsorb ceftazidime from aqueous solution. The surface functional groups of the modified activated carbons were different, and thus resulted in the big difference in the adsorption performance of the modified activated carbons. The theory and the experiments both showed the preferable adsorption of ceftazidime could be achieved on modified activated carbons. - Highlights: • Three modified activated carbons were prepared by impregnating metal nitrate. • Characteristics of the modified activated carbons were analyzed. • Adsorption capacity of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons was improved. • The adsorption behavior of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons were revealed. • The nature of ceftazidime adsorption on modified activated carbons was elucidated. - Abstract: In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g{sup −1} (298 K), 196.1 mg g{sup −1} (303 K) and 185.2 mg g

  16. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The graphic abstract describes the research that we used modified activated carbons impregnated with iron nitrate, copper nitrate and aluminium nitrate to adsorb ceftazidime from aqueous solution. The surface functional groups of the modified activated carbons were different, and thus resulted in the big difference in the adsorption performance of the modified activated carbons. The theory and the experiments both showed the preferable adsorption of ceftazidime could be achieved on modified activated carbons. - Highlights: • Three modified activated carbons were prepared by impregnating metal nitrate. • Characteristics of the modified activated carbons were analyzed. • Adsorption capacity of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons was improved. • The adsorption behavior of ceftazidime on modified activated carbons were revealed. • The nature of ceftazidime adsorption on modified activated carbons was elucidated. - Abstract: In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g"−"1 (298 K), 196.1 mg g"−"1 (303 K) and 185.2 mg g"−"1 (308 K

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar joints of aluminium alloy and pure copper by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloy (AlA and pure copper (Cu were evaluated at variable tool rotational speeds from 150 to 900 rpm in steps of 150 rpm at 60 mm/min travel speed and constant tilt angle 2°. The interfacial microstructures of the joints were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The Al4Cu9, AlCu, Al2Cu and Al2Cu3 intermetallic compounds have been observed at the interface and stir zone region of dissimilar Al/Cu FSWed joints. Variation in the grain size was observed in the stir zone depending upon the heat input value. Axial force, traverse force and torque value were analysed with variation in tool rotational speed. Residual stresses were measured at the stir zone by X-ray diffraction technique. Maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼75% of AlA strength for AlA–AlA joints has been obtained at 750 rpm and for Cu–Cu joint tensile strength of ∼100% of tensile strength of Cu was obtained at 300 rpm. However, for Cu–AlA joint when processed at 600 rpm tool rotational speed achieved maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼77% of AlA.

  18. Rapid Separation of Copper Phase and Iron-Rich Phase From Copper Slag at Low Temperature in a Super-Gravity Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xi; Gao, Jintao; Huang, Zili; Guo, Zhancheng

    2018-06-01

    A novel approach for quickly separating a metal copper phase and iron-rich phase from copper slag at low temperature is proposed based on a super-gravity method. The morphology and mineral evolution of the copper slag with increasing temperature were studied using in situ high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Fe3O4 particles dispersed among the copper slag were transformed into FeO by adding an appropriate amount of carbon as a reducing agent, forming the slag melt with SiO2 at low temperature and assisting separation of the copper phase from the slag. Consequently, in a super-gravity field, the metallic copper and copper matte were concentrated as the copper phase along the super-gravity direction, whereas the iron-rich slag migrated in the opposite direction and was quickly separated from the copper phase. Increasing the gravity coefficient (G) significantly enhanced the separation efficiency. After super-gravity separation at G = 1000 and 1473 K (1200 °C) for 3 minutes, the mass fraction of Cu in the separated copper phase reached 86.11 wt pct, while that in the separated iron-rich phase was reduced to 0.105 wt pct. The recovery ratio of Cu in the copper phase was as high as up to 97.47 pct.

  19. Daily dietary intake of iron, copper, zinc and manganese in a Spanish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Revert, Consuelo; Reguera, Juan Ignacio; Burgos, Antonio; Hardisson, Arturo

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the daily dietary intake of essential metals in the Canary Islands, the iron, copper, zinc and manganese contents in 420 food and drink samples collected in local markets were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The estimated daily dietary intakes of iron, copper, zinc and manganese are 13.161 mg/day, 2.098 mg/day, 8.954 mg/day and 2.372 mg/day, respectively. The iron dietary intake was found to be below the recommendations fixed for adult women, while the copper and manganese dietary intakes fulfilled the Recommended Dietary Allowances. The mean daily intake of zinc was below the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Cereals were found to be the food group that contributed most to the intake of these metals. While the island of El-Hierro presented iron, copper, zinc and manganese mean intakes over the estimated intakes for the whole archipelago, Fuerteventura island showed the lowest intakes. Tenerife and Fuerteventura showed the lowest iron intakes, being below the recommendations.

  20. Formation of Copper Sulfide Precipitate in Solid Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao

    The growth rate of copper sulfide precipitates has been measured in low carbon steel samples such as Fe-0.3mass%Cu-0.03mass%S-0.1mass%C and Fe-0.1mass%Cu-0.01mass%S- 0.1mass%C. Heat-treatment of the samples was conducted at 1273, 1423 and 1573 K for 100 s - 14.4 ks for precipitation of copper sulfides and then the samples were observed by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope to measure the diameter of copper sulfides precipitated in the samples. The growth rate of copper sulfide has been found to be well described by the Ostwald growth model, as follows: R\

  1. Interactions between iron oxides and copper oxides under hydrothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarvey, G B; Owen, D G

    1995-08-01

    Under hydrothermal conditions, magnetite and hematite have been shown to undergo interconversion reactions, the extent of which is controlled in part by the presence of copper oxides. In oxygenated water, the degree to which magnetite was oxidized to hematite was found to be dependent on the presence of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O. When these materials were absent, the oxidation of magnetite was limited by the dissolved oxygen in the aqueous system. Participation of the copper oxides in the oxidation process was confirmed by more complete conversion of magnetite was also influenced by the presence of the copper oxides. In addition to driving the reduction to completion, the presence of the copper oxides also exerted a strong influence over the morphology of the magnetite that formed. (author). 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Study of granitic biotites by X-ray fluorescence analysis: determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon and aluminium; Estudio de biotitas graniticas por fluorescencia de rayos X: Determinacion de hierro, manganeso, titanio, calcio, potasio, silicio y aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toubes, R. O.; Bermudez Polonio, J.

    1968-07-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of iron, manganese, titanium, calcium potassium, silicon, and aluminium, is reported, Sample preparation is carried out by the miniature flux technique, and rubidium is used as internal standard for silicon and aluminium. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  4. The effect of iron and copper impurities on the wettability of sphalerite (110) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Darren J; Bredow, Thomas; Chandra, Anand P; Cavallaro, Giuseppe P; Gerson, Andrea R

    2011-07-15

    The effect of impurities in the zinc sulfide mineral sphalerite on surface wettability has been investigated theoretically to shed light on previously reported conflicting results on sphalerite flotation. The effect of iron and copper impurities on the sphalerite (110) surface energy and on the water adsorption energy was calculated with the semi-empirical method modified symmetrically orthogonalized intermediate neglect of differential overlap (MSINDO) using the cyclic cluster model. The effect of impurities or dopants on surface energies is small but significant. The surface energy increases with increasing surface iron concentration while the opposite effect is reported for increasing copper concentration. The effect on adsorption energies is much more pronounced with water clearly preferring to adsorb on an iron site followed by a zinc site, and copper site least favorable. The theoretical results indicate that a sphalerite (110) surface containing iron is more hydrophilic than the undoped zinc sulfide surface. In agreement with the literature, the surface containing copper (either naturally or by activation) is more hydrophobic than the undoped surface. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Parametric Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonic spot welded Aluminium to Copper sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Satpathy, Mantra; Das Mohapatra, Kasinath; Sahoo, Ananda Kumar; Sahoo, Susanta Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonic welding is one of the promising solid state welding methods which have been widely used to join highly conductive materials like aluminum and copper. Despite these applications in the automotive field, other industries also have a strong interest to adopt this process for joining of various advanced alloys. In some of its applications, poor weld strength and sticking of the workpiece to the tool are issues. Thus, an attempt has been taken in the present study to overcome these issues by performing experiments with a suitable range of weld parameters. The major objectives of this study are to obtain a good joint strength with a reduced sticking phenomenon and microstructure of Al-Cu weld coupons. The results uncovered the mechanical strength of the joint increased up to 0.34 sec of weld time and afterward, it gradually decreased. Meantime, the plastic deformation in the weld zone enhanced the formation of an intermetallic layer of 1.5 μm thick, and it is composed of mainly Al2Cu compound. The temperature evolved during the welding process is also measured by thermocouples to show its relationship with the plastic deformation. The present work exemplifies a finer understanding of the failure behavior of joints and provides an insight of ultrasonic welding towards the improvement in the quality of weld.

  6. Effect of copper addition and section thickness on the mechanical and physical properties of grey cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, F.A.; Zahid, M.; Hassan, M.A.; Sheikh, M.A.; Alam, S.; Qazi, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Copper is a graphitizer at the stage of solidification and it acts as antiferritizer during transformation cooling range. Due to this, copper additions to grey cast iron prevent at formation of free ferrite in heavy sections. It also reduces the chilling in thin sections, therefore uniform structure is imparted to grey iron by the copper addition. This gives the appropriate strength and hardness properties to grey iron. Thus copper addition gives certain advantages in relation to the machinability and wear resistance which are important for many engineering properties requires by high duty cast iron. The application of copper as allying element is acceptable due to its price and availability as compared to other alloying elements. (author)

  7. Interactions of cadmium with copper, zinc, and iron in different organs and tissues of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julshamn, K.; Utne, F.; Brackkan, O.R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cadmium on tissue concentrations of iron, zinc and copper was studied in male rats. Two littermate groups were fed a stock diet with or without a supplement of 100 ..mu..g cadmium per g. Every three weeks ten animals from each group were sampled and the liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, testes, muscle, fur, feces and urine were individually analyzed. Except for the fur, all the other organs showed highly significantly increased levels of cadmium when compared with the control group. The iron levels were significantly depressed in all organs. As the content in the feces remained unchanged and the urinary excretion showed an increase, it could be concluded that the cadmium supplementation resulted in a depletion of the body stores of iron. The zinc levels showed a significant increase in the liver and testes and a correspondingly significant decrease in the spleen. The levels of copper generally showed no significant changes.

  8. Iron and copper in Plagioscion squamosissimus (Piscis: Sciaenidae) of river Orinoco, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. R.; Marquez, A.; Chung, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Bauxite exploitation of the Orinoco River in recent years is an important source of heavy metals discharge in the ecosystem, changing the natural biochemical flow of these elements and their concentrations in water, sediment and organisms. Iron and copper concentrations were measured in the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in the Orinoco river, by sampling the fish population for three months (September-November 1998) in the main channel of the middle Orinoco. The internal organs of 30 fishes per month and site were stove-dried, pulverized and dried in disecator for 30 min to use as indicators with the acid digestion method for predicting the effect of heavy metals. We found relatively high values of iron and copper concentrations in fishes of the lagoon, and high seasonal variations in the iron concentration. (Author) [es

  9. Electrokinetic copper and iron migration in anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Virkutyte, J.; Sillanpää, M.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The application of low-level direct electric current (0.15 mA cm¿2) as an electrokinetic technique to treat copper-contaminated mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. The sludge was obtained from a full scale UASB reactor treating paper-mill wastewater and was artificially

  10. Relation between serum lipoperoxide concentrations and iron or copper status over one year in Cuban adult men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, J.; Renversez, J.C.; Favier, A.E. [Dept. de Biologie Integree, CHUG, Grenoble (France); Fleites, P.; Perez-Cristia, R. [Centro national de Toxicologia (CENATOX), La Habana (Cuba); Chassagne, M.; Barnouin, J. [INRA, Unite d' Ecopathologie, Saint Genes Champanelle (France); Verdura, T. [Inst. Finlay, La Lisa, La Habana (Cuba); Garcia, I.G. [Inst. de Farmacia y Alimentos, La Coronela, La Lisa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba); Tressol, J.C. [INRA, Unite maladies metaboliques et micronutriments, Saint Genes Champanelle (France)

    2001-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the relations between iron and copper status and lipid peroxidation at different periods over one year in low-income and low-energy intake healthy subjects. The study was conducted in 199 middle-aged healthy Cuban men from March 1995 to February 1996. Iron status was assessed by the determination of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, whole blood hemoglobin and iron intakes. Copper status was evaluated by the determination of serum copper and copper intakes. Serum thiobarbituric acid substances (TBARS) determination was used as an index of lipid peroxidation. Rank correlations were observed between serum TBARS concentrations and iron or copper status indices at different periods. In period 3 (end of the rainy season), serum TBARS and ferritin concentrations were maximum whereas blood hemoglobin levels and iron intake were minimum. Serum TBARS concentrations were significantly higher than the reference values of the laboratory whereas, iron and copper status were within the reference ranges. These results suggested that iron and copper status may be associated with lipid peroxidation in subjects without metal overloads and that variations over the year needed to be taken in account. (orig.)

  11. Effects of iron, tin, and copper on zinc absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc absorption as measured by body retention of [65Zn]zinc chloride or a turkey test meal extrinsically labeled with 65Zn was determined in human subjects by whole body counting after 7 days. Average 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride in persons with a high iron-absorbing capacity was similar to persons with a low capacity to absorb iron. Inorganic iron, 920 mumol (51 mg), or HB iron, 480 mumol (26 mg), inhibited 65Zn absorption from 92 mumol (6 mg) of zinc chloride. When 610 mumol of iron (34 mg) was added to a turkey test meal containing 61 mumol of zinc (4 mg), 65Zn absorption was not inhibited. Tin, 306 mumol (36 mg), given with zinc chloride or turkey test meals (61 mumol, 4 mg, of Zn) significantly reduced 65Zn absorption. Copper, 79 mumol (5 mg), had no significant effect on the 65Zn absorption from 7.9 mumol (0.5 mg) of zinc chloride. In summary, the capacity to absorb iron did not influence 65Zn absorption, but both inorganic iron and heme-iron inhibited 65Zn absorption from zinc chloride. Inorganic iron had no effect, however, on 65Zn absorption from the turkey test meal. Tin in a large dose also inhibited 65Zn absorption from both zinc chloride and the turkey test meal

  12. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content; Proprietes elastiques et plastiques des alliages fer-aluminium. Problemes particuliers poses par la fragilite des alliages a forte teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouturat, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte les resultats obtenus avec des alliages fer-aluminium dont la composition s'etend de 0 a pres de 50 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. Nous avons etudie successivement les conditions d'elaboration et de transformation, le module elastique et la limite elastique; un dernier chapitre est consacre a l'etude du phenomene Portevin-le-Chatelier dans les alliages a 40 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. I) La principale difficulte a resoudre residait dans la fragilite intergranulaire des alliages ordonnes; celle-ci a ete

  13. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content; Proprietes elastiques et plastiques des alliages fer-aluminium. Problemes particuliers poses par la fragilite des alliages a forte teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouturat, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte les resultats obtenus avec des alliages fer-aluminium dont la composition s'etend de 0 a pres de 50 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. Nous avons etudie successivement les conditions d'elaboration et de transformation, le module elastique et la limite elastique; un dernier chapitre est consacre a l'etude du phenomene Portevin-le-Chatelier dans les alliages a 40 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. I) La principale difficulte a resoudre residait dans la fragilite intergranulaire des alliages ordonnes; celle-ci a ete considerablement reduite par des conditions

  14. FEATURES OF SPHEROIDIZING MODIFICATION OF HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH MASTER ALLOYS BASED ON COPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase of efficiency of modification process for ductile iron is topically, thereby increasing its mechanical and operational properties. For these purposes, in practice, various magnesium containing alloys are used, including «heavy» ones on the basis of Copper and Nickel. The analysis has shown that the application of bulk inoculating alloys based on copper basis were not effectively due to long dissolution period. From this point of view, the interest is high-speed casting, allowing the production of inoculating alloys in the form of strips – chips that are characterized by a low dissolution time and low piroeffekt. The aim of this work is to study the features of structure formation in nodular cast iron using different spheroidizing alloys based on copper. Studies have shown that the transition from the use of briquetted form alloys based on copper and magnesium to the «chips-inoculating alloys» allowed increasing the efficiency of the spheroidizing process. Further improvement in the quality of ductile iron can be achieved by the use in «chip-inoculating alloys» additives of nanosized yttrium oxide powder. 

  15. Effect of Iron-Containing Intermetallic Particles on the Corrosion Behaviour of Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the corrosion behaviour of binary Al-Fe alloys containing iron at levels between 0.04 and 0.42 wt.% was investigated by electrochemical measurements in both acidic and alkaline chloride solutions. Comparing solution heat-treated and quenched materials with samples...... with {100} facets, and are observed to contain numerous intermetallic particles. Fine facetted filaments also radiate out from the periphery of pits. The results demonstrate that the corrosion of "pure" 99.96% Al is thus dominated by the role of iron, which is the main impurity, and its electrochemical...... that had been subsequently annealed to promote precipitation of Al3Fe intermetallic particles, it was found that annealing increases both the cathodic and anodic reactivity. The increased cathodic reactivity is believed to be directly related to the increased available surface area of the iron...

  16. Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Poston, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of copper oxides, iron oxides, and zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbents was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy at temperatures of 298 to 823 K. Analysis of copper oxides indicated that the satellite structure of the Cu22p region was absent in the Cu(I) state but was present in the Cu(II) state. Reduction of CuO at room temperature was observed when the ion gauge was placed close to the sample. The satellite structure was absent in all the copper oxides at 823 K in vacuum. Differentiation of the oxidation state of copper utilizing both Cu(L 3M 4,5M 4,5) X-ray-induced Auger lines and Cu2p satellite structure, indicated that the copper in zinc copper ferrite was in the + 1 oxidation state at 823 K. This + 1 state of copper was not significantly changed after exposure to H 2, CO, and H 2O. There was an increase in Cu/Zn ratio and a decrease in Fe/Zn ratio on the surface of zinc copper ferrite at 823 K compared to that at room temperature. These conditions of copper offered the best sulfidation equilibrium for the zinc copper ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Analysis of iron oxides indicated that there was some reduction of both Fe 2O 3 and FeO at 823K. The iron in zinc copper ferrite was similar to that of Fe 2O 3 at room temperature but there was some reduction of this Fe(III) state to Fe(II) at 823 K. This reduction was more enhanced in the presence of H 2 and CO. Reduction to Fe(II) may not be desirable for the lifetime of the sorbent.

  17. Analysis of serum copper and iron levels in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is a chronic debilitating disease and a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well established. Trace elements such as copper and iron play an important role in the pathogenesis of OSF. Estimation of these elements in serum of the patients may be helpful in understanding the pathologic mechanism. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze the level of serum copper and iron in the population of Central India. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was carried out on 35 patients with clinically diagnosed of OSF and 35 healthy controls. OSF patients were categorized by clinical staging. Serum copper and iron concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Results of the study shows that the mean serum copper concentration was greater in study group (133.3 ± 19.2 compared to control group (113.9 ± 22.1 and the mean serum iron was lower in study group (116.0 ± 24.1 compared to control group (128.2 ± 23.4. The result obtained was statistically significant. The serum copper level increases as the clinical staging of OSF progresses, whereas serum iron level decreases as clinical staging progresses. Conclusion: There was an increase in copper level and decrease in iron level in study group compared to control group; this suggests that there is an increase in copper level with the advancement of clinical staging of OSF.

  18. Copper Deficiency Leads to Anemia, Duodenal Hypoxia, Upregulation of HIF-2α and Altered Expression of Iron Absorption Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700

  19. Phormidium autumnale Growth and Anatoxin-a Production under Iron and Copper Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine M. J. Harland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on planktonic cyanobacteria have shown variability in cyanotoxin production, in response to changes in growth phase and environmental factors. Few studies have investigated cyanotoxin regulation in benthic mat-forming species, despite increasing reports on poisoning events caused by ingestion of these organisms. In this study, a method was developed to investigate changes in cyanotoxin quota in liquid cultures of benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria. Iron and copper are important in cellular processes and are well known to affect growth and selected metabolite production in cyanobacteria and algae. The effect of iron (40–4000 μg L−1 and copper (2.5–250 μg L−1 on growth and anatoxin-a quota in Phormidium autumnale was investigated in batch culture. These concentrations were chosen to span those found in freshwater, as well as those previously reported to be toxic to cyanobacteria. Anatoxin-a concentrations varied throughout the growth curve, with a maximum quota of between 0.49 and 0.55 pg cell−1 measured within the first two weeks of growth. Growth rates were significantly affected by copper and iron concentrations (P < 0.0001; however, no statistically significant difference between anatoxin-a quota maxima was observed. When the iron concentrations were 800 and 4000 μg L−1, the P. autumnale cultures did not firmly attach to the substratum. At 250 μg L−1 copper or either 40 or 4000 μg L−1 iron, growth was suppressed.

  20. Summary of ENDF/B-V evaluations for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and ENDF/B-V Revision 2 for calcium and iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y

    1982-09-01

    This report, together with documents already published, describes the ENDF/B-V evaluations of the neutron and gamma-ray-production cross sections for carbon, calcium, iron, copper, and lead and the ENDF/B-V Revision 2 evaluations for calcium and iron.

  1. Effect of Copper and Iron Ions on the Sulphidizing Flotation of Copper Oxide in Copper Smelting Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Qing-qing Pan; Hui-qing Peng

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of smelting slag has attracted much attention nowadays. This study investigates the influence of Na2S, CuSO4, and FeCl3 on sulphidizing flotation of copper oxide. The results show that a proper Cu2+ concentration can increase the sulphidizing effect of copper oxide, while Fe3+ inhibits the sulphidizing effect. Further analysis shows that Cu2+ ions can reduce the surface potential, increase the S2− adsorption, then generate more polysulfide, and therefore promote the sulphidizing...

  2. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferr...

  3. Numerical integration of electromagnetic cascade equations, discussion of results for air, copper, iron, and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, A.; Fuchs, B.; Thielheim, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    The longitudinal development of electromagnetic cascades in air, copper, iron, and lead is studied on the basis of results derived recently by numerical integration of the cascade equations applying rather accurate expressions for the cross-sections involved with the interactions of high energy electrons, positrons, and photons in electromagnetic cascades. Special attention is given to scaling properties of transition curves. It is demonstrated that a good scaling may be achieved by means of the depth of maximum cascade development. (author)

  4. Evaluation of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in oral hospital diets.

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Cerqueira, Isabel B.; Oliveira, Ana P. F. de; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2013-01-01

    Background & aims: Many trace elements are nutrients essential to humans, acting in the metabolism as constituents or as enzymatic co-factors. The iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium contents of hospital diets (regular, blend and soft) and of oral food complement (OFC) were determined, evaluating the adequacy of each element in relation to the nutritional recommendations (DRIs) and the percent contribution alone and with OFC. Methods: Duplicate samples were taken of six daily meals ...

  5. Method for producing superconductive wires of multifilaments which are encased in copper or a copper alloy and contain niobium and aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flukiger, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing a superconductive wire of multifilaments having components comprising niobium and aluminum encased in copper or a copper alloy, wherein the multifilament configuration and the formation of a superconductive A15 phase are positively developed from the components disposed in a copper or copper alloy tube having an interior metallic coating serving as a diffusion barrier, by cold forming and subsequent heat treatment

  6. The effects of impurities on the properties of OFP copper specified for the copper iron canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, W.H.

    1999-09-01

    A brief literature study has addressed the effects of impurities on OF copper to which 50 ppm of phosphorus has been added. This copper is the candidate material for the corrosion resistant coating to be applied to the container under development by SKB for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The levels of impurities expected in this grade of copper and the final use have controlled the focus of the work. It is concluded that the impurities of greatest importance in the context of the proposed application are sulphur, phosphorus, bismuth and lead. The addition of 50 ppm of phosphorus should ensure very low oxygen content in the copper such that, As, Ni, Mn, Cr, Fe, Sn, Zn, Si, Al, Sb and Cd present as impurities all remain in solution in the copper at all temperatures of interest. In this state they will exert no material effect on the fitness for purpose of the material. Sulphur is expected to be present in amounts exceeding the solubility limit such that it will occur as grain boundary films or particles. Such segregation can cause embrittlement and it will be more serious as grain size increases. There is no evidence to support the assertion that the phosphorus addition modifies the segregation behaviour of sulphur. There is evidence that sulphur will combine with V, Zr, or Ti, even when they are present at extremely low levels, but there is no indication of the likely effects of these combinations on the segregation behaviour or embrittling effects. There is clear evidence that when creep failure occurs by intergranular cracking, sulphur causes the creep strain to fracture to be reduced to less than 1%. The amount of sulphur required for this is very low (i.e. less than the amount permitted in the specification) and dependant on grain size. The transition from transgranular to intergranular failure in creep is influenced by temperature, stress, grain size, and composition. The addition of phosphorus increases the temperature at which the transition occurs

  7. The effects of impurities on the properties of OFP copper specified for the copper iron canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, W.H. [Meadow End Farm, Farnham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    A brief literature study has addressed the effects of impurities on OF copper to which 50 ppm of phosphorus has been added. This copper is the candidate material for the corrosion resistant coating to be applied to the container under development by SKB for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The levels of impurities expected in this grade of copper and the final use have controlled the focus of the work. It is concluded that the impurities of greatest importance in the context of the proposed application are sulphur, phosphorus, bismuth and lead. The addition of 50 ppm of phosphorus should ensure very low oxygen content in the copper such that, As, Ni, Mn, Cr, Fe, Sn, Zn, Si, Al, Sb and Cd present as impurities all remain in solution in the copper at all temperatures of interest. In this state they will exert no material effect on the fitness for purpose of the material. Sulphur is expected to be present in amounts exceeding the solubility limit such that it will occur as grain boundary films or particles. Such segregation can cause embrittlement and it will be more serious as grain size increases. There is no evidence to support the assertion that the phosphorus addition modifies the segregation behaviour of sulphur. There is evidence that sulphur will combine with V, Zr, or Ti, even when they are present at extremely low levels, but there is no indication of the likely effects of these combinations on the segregation behaviour or embrittling effects. There is clear evidence that when creep failure occurs by intergranular cracking, sulphur causes the creep strain to fracture to be reduced to less than 1%. The amount of sulphur required for this is very low (i.e. less than the amount permitted in the specification) and dependant on grain size. The transition from transgranular to intergranular failure in creep is influenced by temperature, stress, grain size, and composition. The addition of phosphorus increases the temperature at which the transition occurs

  8. Effect of Copper and Iron Ions on the Sulphidizing Flotation of Copper Oxide in Copper Smelting Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-qing Pan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of smelting slag has attracted much attention nowadays. This study investigates the influence of Na2S, CuSO4, and FeCl3 on sulphidizing flotation of copper oxide. The results show that a proper Cu2+ concentration can increase the sulphidizing effect of copper oxide, while Fe3+ inhibits the sulphidizing effect. Further analysis shows that Cu2+ ions can reduce the surface potential, increase the S2− adsorption, then generate more polysulfide, and therefore promote the sulphidizing flotation. However, Fe3+ ions would increase the surface potential, reduce the S2− adsorption, generate more sulfur element, and therefore inhibit the sulphidizing flotation.

  9. Aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, B.; Ayers, J.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium is the most important non-ferrous metal by quantity. Aluminium is produced by electrolysis of aluminium oxide (also known as alumina). Alumina is produced by refining bauxite. The quantity of primary and secondary aluminium production in ECE-countries between 1992 and 1998 is shown. The European aluminium industry employs approximately 200 000 employees. The annual aluminium production in the European Union was 3.58 million tonnes in 1994, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. In 1996 3.96 million tonnes of aluminium were produced in the EU, of which 44 % was secondary aluminium. (author)

  10. Study of thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary liquid alloys of aluminium with the elements iron, cobalt, nickel and oxygen; Etude des proprietes thermodynamiques des alliages liquides binaires et ternaires de l'aluminium avec les elements fer, cobalt, nickel et l'oxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vachet, F [CEA Vallee du Rhone, 26-Pierrelatte (France)

    1966-07-01

    The present work deals with the thermodynamic study of aluminium liquid alloys with the metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The experiments carried out lead to the activity, at 1600 deg C, of aluminium in the (Al, Fe), (Al, Co), (Al, Ni) liquid alloys. The experimental method used consists in studying the partition of aluminium between the liquid immiscible phases made up with the pairs of metals (Fe, Ag), (Co, Ag), (Ni, Ag). The informations so obtained are used for drawing the isothermal equilibrium phases diagrams sections of (Al, Fe, Ag), (Al, Co, Ag), (Al, Ni, Ag) systems. The study of the partition of silver between lead and aluminium joined with the determinations of several authors allows us to determine the aluminium activity, analytically presented, in the metal M (iron cobalt and nickel). The Wagner's interaction parameters of aluminium in metal M are determined. The results obtained as the equilibrium phases diagrams of (Al, M) systems allow to compare the thermodynamic properties of the Al Fe system in liquid and solid states and to estimate the enthalpies of melting of the AlCo and AlNi intermetallic compounds. The activity, at 1600 deg C, of aluminium in (Al, Fe, Co), (Al, Fe, Ni), (Al, Co, Ni) liquid alloys is estimated through thermodynamic properties of binary components systems by application of several methods leading to results in good agreement. The study of aluminium-oxygen interactions in the liquid metallic solvants M allows us to propose an explanation for the shape of the deoxidation equilibrium line of iron, cobalt and nickel by aluminium and to compare the de-oxidizing power of aluminium toward iron, cobalt and nickel oxides. (author) [French] Le travail presente se rapporte a l'etude thermodynamique des alliages liquides de l'aluminium avec les metaux fer, cobalt et nickel. Les experiences effectuees ont pour but de determiner l'activite, a 1600 C, de l'aluminium dans les alliages liquides (Al, Fe), (Al, Co), (Al, Ni). La methode

  11. Bio-accumulation of copper, zinc, iron and manganese in oyster Saccostrea cucullata, Snail Cerithium rubus and Clam Tellina angulata from the Bombay coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Nair, V.R; Moraes, C.

    accumulation was high in S. cucullata, manganese in C. rubus and iron in T. angulata. Similarly, copper and zinc in S. cucullata and copper in C. rubus were found occasionally higher than accepted health standards...

  12. Soil iron and aluminium concentrations and feet hygiene as possible predictors of Podoconiosis occurrence in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muli, Jacinta; Kagai, Jim

    2017-01-01

    significant (P≤0.05). By modeling the different soil mineral concentrations and pH while adjusting for the variable frequency of wearing shoes, only iron concentration was significant and in the negative dimension (P≤0.05). However, controlling for Iron, Aluminum concentrations turned significant. Conclusion/Significance This study has pointed to a hitherto unreported occurrence of Podoconiosis cases and has contributed to the baseline knowledge on the occurrence of Podoconiosis in Kenya. Consistent with many studies, wearing shoes remain an important risk factor for the occurrence of the disease. However, our findings are inconsistent with some of the hitherto postulations that associate Podoconiosis prevalence with certain minerals in the soil in other regions in Africa. These findings provide new beginnings for the cross-disciplinary research of Podoconiosis in environmental health, socio-ecology and ecological niche and geo-spatial modeling and prediction. PMID:28832604

  13. Trace Elements Iron, Copper and Zinc in Vitreous of Patients with Various Vitreoretinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulochana Konerirajapuram

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in human vitreous and to interpret their levels with various vitreoretinal diseases like proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign body, Eales′ disease and macular hole. Methods: Undiluted vitreous fluid collected during pars plana vitrectomy was used to measure trace elements using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: The level of vitreous iron increased threefold in Eales′ disease (1.85 ± 0.36 pg/ml, 2.5-fold in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (1.534 ± 0.17 pg/ml and 2.3-fold in eyes with intraocular foreign body (1.341 ± 0.25 pg/ml when compared with macular hole (0.588 ± 0.16 pg/ml. This was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Zinc was found to be low in Eales′ disease (0.57 ± 0.22 pg/ml when compared with other groups, though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The increased level of iron with decreased zinc content in Eales′ disease confirms the earlier reported oxidative stress mechanism for the disease. In proliferative diabetic retinopathy and intraocular foreign body the level of iron increases. This is undesirable as iron can augment glycoxidation, which can lead to increased susceptibility to oxidative damage, in turn causing vitreous liquefaction, posterior vitreous detachment and ultimately retinal detachment and vision loss

  14. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma del Carmen; Villalpando, Salvador; García-Guerra, Armando; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo-Pérez, Ricardo; Avila-Arcos, Marco Antonio; Rivera, Juan A

    2012-01-01

    To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006) and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. Serum samples were used (n=5 060) to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin) 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC), were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61) or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97) were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32) and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97) were protective against MLSC. Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.

  15. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  16. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  17. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  18. Optimal copper supply is required for normal plant iron deficiency responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Brian M; Armbrust, Laura C

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) homeostasis are tightly linked across biology. Understanding crosstalk between Fe and Cu nutrition could lead to strategies for improved growth on soils with low or excess metals, with implications for agriculture and phytoremediation. Here, we show that Cu and Fe nutrition interact to increase or decrease Fe and/or Cu accumulation in leaves and Fe uptake processes. Leaf Cu concentration increased under low Fe supply, while high Cu lowered leaf Fe concentration. Ferric reductase activity, an indicator of Fe demand, was inhibited at insufficient or high Cu supply. Surprisingly, plants grown without Fe were more susceptible to Cu toxicity.

  19. Assessment of serum copper, iron and immune complexes in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu TIWARI

    Full Text Available Abstract Potentially malignant disorders (PMDs of oral cavity and oral cancer remain a cause of serious concern despite intensive research and development. Diet and immunity have been identified to play a crucial role as modifying factors in these diseases. Our study intended to explore this relationship by estimating and comparing the serum levels of copper, iron and circulating immune complexes (CICs in patients diagnosed with PMDs and oral cancer and normal healthy individuals. In this study, 40 histopathologically diagnosed cases of PMDs and oral cancer were included along with 30 healthy controls and 5 ml of venous blood was drawn using venipuncture. Serum estimation of copper, iron and CIC then followed using the colorimetric and spectrophotometric methods. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using one way ANOVA and Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Test. The mean serum copper level was measured as 138.98 ± 10.13µg/100ml in the PMD group and 141.99 ± 21.44 µg/100ml in the oral cancer as compared to 105.5 + 18.81µ/100ml in the controls. The mean serum CIC levels was highest in the oral cancer (9.65 ± 0.16OD470 followed by the PMD group (0.18 + 0.21 OD470 and least in the control group (0.048 ± 0.02OD470. Whereas, the serum levels of iron showed a significant decrease in the PMD group (110.9 ± 10.54 µg/100ml and the oral cancer group (114.29 ± 25.83 µg/100ml as compared with the control group (136.85 ± 14.48 µg/100ml. There was no positive correlation obtained between the three groups with respect to the chosen parameters indicating that the variables were independent of each other. It can be thus be ascertained that trace elements like copper and iron as well as humoral responses (CICs have a close relationship with PMDs and oral cancers.

  20. Assessment of zerovalent iron for stabilization of chromium, copper, and arsenic in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Ore, Solvita; Renella, Giancarlo; Mench, Michel; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Stabilization of soil contaminated with trace elements is a remediation practice that does not reduce the total content of contaminants, but lowers the amounts of mobile and bioavailable fractions. This study evaluated the efficiency of Fe to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of Cr, Cu, As and Zn in a chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-contaminated soil using chemical, biochemical and biotoxicity tests. Contaminated soil was stabilized with 1% iron grit. This treatment decreased As and Cr concentrations in leachates (by 98% and 45%, respectively), in soil pore water (by 99% and 94%, respectively) and in plant shoots (by 84% and 95%, respectively). The stabilization technique also restored most of analyzed soil enzyme activities and reduced microbial toxicity, as evaluated by the BioTox TM test. After stabilization, exchangeable and bioaccessible fractions of Cu remained high, causing some residual toxicity in the treated soil. - Zerovalent iron effectively reduces mobility and bioavailability of As and Cr, but does not adequately stabilize Cu

  1. Galvanic corrosion of copper-cast iron couples in relation to the Swedish radioactive waste canister concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, N.R.; Fennell, P.A.H.; Rance, A.P.; Werme, L.O.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the safe encapsulation of spent nuclear fuel rods for geological disposal, SKB are considering using the Copper-Iron Canister, which consists of an outer copper canister and an inner cast iron container. The canister will be placed into boreholes in the bedrock of a geologic repository and surrounded by bentonite clay. In the unlikely event of the outer copper canister being breached, water could enter the annulus between the inner and outer canister and at points of contact between the two metals there would be a possibility of galvanic interactions. To study this effect, copper-cast iron galvanic couples were set up in a number of different environments representing possible conditions in the SKB repository. The tests investigated two artificial pore-waters and a bentonite slurry, under aerated and deaerated conditions, at 30 deg. C and 50 deg. C. The currents passing between the coupled electrodes and the potential of the couples were monitored for several months. In addition, some bimetallic crevice specimens based on the multi-crevice assembly (MCA) design were used to simulate the situation where the copper canister will be in direct contact with the cast iron inner vessel. The effect of growing an oxide film on the surface of the cast iron prior to coupling it with copper was also investigated. The electrochemical results are presented graphically in the form of electrode potentials and galvanic corrosion currents as a function of time. The galvanic currents in aerated conditions were much higher than in deaerated conditions. For example, at 30 deg. C, galvanic corrosion rates as low as 0.02 μm/year were observed for iron in groundwater after de-aeration, but of the order of 100 μm/year for the cast iron at 50 deg. C in the presence of oxygen. The galvanic currents were generally higher at 50 deg. C than at 30 deg. C. None of the MCA specimens exhibited any signs of crevice corrosion under deaerated conditions. It will be shown that in deaerated

  2. Biosorption phenomena of chromium, copper, iron and zink by dispersed bacterial extracellular polymeric substance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals removing is generally performed using chemical coagulant that generates the chemical pollutant, so it is necessary to replace it by another alternative material as the Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) resulting from the extraction of bacteria. The EPS contains the negatively functional groups (RCOOH, ROPO 3 H, ROPO 3 Na, ROSO 3 H, ROSO 3 Na, etc) as the cation sorbent and the positively functional groups (ROH, RC(NH 2 )HCOOH, etc) as the anion sorbent. The EPS absorbs the ion pollutants, then EPS containing the loaded metals be settled by gravitation. The utilization of EPS for removing of chromium, copper, iron, and zink was performed for biosorption phenomena study. Two hundred mg of EPS is mixed with 300 ml of the liquid waste having the pH of 2,4 containing 3,06 ppm of chromium; 4,83 ppm of copper; 1,6 ppm of iron and 15,07 ppm of zink. The solution is then agitated on 150 rpm and the pH of 7. The separated water supernatant is then sampled every 2 hours for its analysis of metals content. The experiment is repeated again for the solution pH of 4 and 8. The results of experiment indicates that the EPS composition are 11% of polysaccharides, 77% of protein, and 11% of fat ,and EPS contains the chemical bounding of C-H, OH, NH, and C=O. Indicating that EPS contains RCOOH, ROH and (RC(NH 2 )HCOOH. The best condition for metals biosorption is pH 8, and on the 6 hours of process time, the metal concentration on the water supernatant for chromium, copper, iron and zinc are 0,99 ppm; 0,51 ppm; 0,17 ppm; and 4,61 ppm respectively. Its selectivities are Fe 3+ > Cr 3+ >Cu 2+ >Fe 2+ >Zn 2+ , on the 6 hours of process time the location of cations functional groups was filled by the cations of Cr 3+ ,Cu 2+ , dan Fe 2+ . The cation of Zn 2+ enters to that location on the end of period so on the 6 hours of process time its concentration of 4,61 ppm not conforms to its concentration of regulation value of 2 ppm. On the process time of 6 hours the removing

  3. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  4. Effect of Phosphorylation and Copper(II or Iron(II Ions Enrichment on Some Physicochemical Properties of Spelt Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rożnowski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper provides an assessment of the effect of saturation of spelt starch and monostarch phosphate with copper or iron ions on selected physicochemical properties of the resulting modified starches. Native and modified spelt starch samples were analyzed for selected mineral element content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. Thermodynamic properties were measured using DSC, and pasting properties by RVA. Flow curves of 5% pastes were plotted and described using the Herschel-Bulkley model. The structure recovery ratio was measured. AAS analysis established the presence of iron(II and copper(II ions in the samples of modified starches and that potassium and magnesium ions had leached from them. In comparison to unfortified samples, enriching native starch with copper(II ions decreases value of all temperatures of phase transformation about 1.3-2.7 °C, but in case of monostarch phosphates bigger changes (2.8-3.7 °C were observed. Fortified native spelt starch with copper(II ions caused increasing the final viscosity of paste from 362 to 429 mPa·s. However, presence iron(II ions in samples caused reduced its final viscosity by 170 (spelt starch and 103 mPa·s (monostarch phosphate. Furthermore, enriching monostarch phosphate contributed to reduce degree of structure recovery of pastes from 70.9% to 66.6% in case of copper(II ions and to 59.9% in case of iron(II ions.

  5. Interaction of cysteine and copper ions on the surface of iron: EIS, polarization and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Deab, Mohamed S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The current study demonstrates a comprehensive study for Cysteine + Cu(II) ions as an efficient inhibitor as demonstrated by EIS, XPS and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, in addition to traditional weight loss measurements. → The novelty of the current work originates from the combined use of an eco-friendly compound (i.e., cysteine) with a minute amount of copper ions (in the micro molar range) as a corrosion inhibitor for low carbon steel in acidic medium. To this end, cysteine shows only moderate inhibition ca. 60% for iron which jumps up to more than 95% in the presence of micro molar range of Cu(II) ions. → Cysteine-Cu(II) blends are found superior to benzotriazole (BTAH)-Cu(II) blends in terms of their long-term stability in addition to the avoidance of the use of the well-reported highly toxic BTAH. - Abstract: This study addresses the enhancing effect of copper ions on the inhibition efficiency (IE) of cysteine (an eco-friendly compound) against the corrosion of iron in 0.5 M sulphuric acid. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data revealed a significant increase in the polarization resistance (R p ) of the iron/solution interface in the presence of cysteine and Cu(II) ions instead of cysteine alone. That is, IE of 95% is obtained in the presence of 5 mM cysteine and 25 μM Cu(II) ions, compared to 66% in absence of Cu(II) ions. Moreover, electrochemical polarization measurements indicate that cysteine and Cu(II) ions blends act as mixed-type inhibitors for the corrosion of iron. The formation of Cu(I)-cysteinate complex and/or cysteine SAM at Cu atop the iron surface (as evident from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) blocks the underlying iron surface and imparts a pronounced protection against its corrosion. IE of cysteine-Cu(II) blend remains effectively unchanged with immersion time indicating its high stability in the used acidic medium.

  6. Multimicronutrient Slow-Release Fertilizer of Zinc, Iron, Manganese, and Copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siladitya Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process for the production of a slow-release micronutrient fertilizer is described. The compound contains zinc, iron, manganese, and copper as micronutrients and is produced by polymerizing a system containing phosphoric acid, zinc oxide, hematite, pyrolusite, copper sulfate, and magnesium oxide followed by neutralization of the polyphosphate chain with ammonium hydroxide. Changes in temperature, density, and viscosity of the reaction system during polymerization were studied. Reaction kinetics was studied at three different temperatures. Rate curves revealed a multistage process with essentially linear rates at each stage. Thus, each stage displayed zero order kinetics. The product was crystalline and revealed ordering of P-O-P chains. It had low solubility in water but high solubility in 0.33 M citric acid and 0.005 M DTPA. Three different field trials showed significant yield increments using the slow-release micronutrient fertilizer compared to the conventional micronutrients. Yield increments in rice were in the range of 10–55% over control (with no micronutrient and up to 17% over the conventional micronutrient fertilizers. There were significant increases in total uptake of zinc, iron, and manganese in the grain. Slow-release fertilizers also produced significant yield increases in potato as well as significant increase in vitamin C content of the tuber.

  7. Study on Selective Removal of Impurity Iron from Leached Copper-Bearing Solution Using a Chelating Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubiao Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to selectively remove iron from copper laden solution after leaching but prior to electrowinning, equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic studies have been conducted on an a chelating resin of Rexp-501 at pH 1.0 and at various temperatures. Both Langmuir and Freundlich models were investigated, with the Langmuir model proving to be more suitable for fitting iron removal performance, with little influence from copper concentration. Compared with the pseudo first order kinetic model, the pseudo second order kinetic model fitted the dynamic adsorption process better, indicating a chemisorption mechanism. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR results indicated that C=O from carbonyl group played a key role in combining with iron and can be regenerated and reused. However, the C=O of the acylamino group combining with iron was not able to be released after oxalic acid was applied.

  8. Comparison of sound absorbing performances of copper foam and iron foam with the same parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. C.; Shen, X. M.; Xu, P. J.; Zhang, X. N.; Bai, P. F.; Peng, K.; Yin, Q.; Wang, D.

    2018-01-01

    Sound absorbing performances of the copper foam and the iron foam with the same parameters were investigated by the AWA6128A detector according to standing wave method. Two modes were investigated, which included the pure metal foam mode and the combination mode with the settled thickness of metal foam. In order to legibly compare the sound absorbing coefficients of the two metal foams, the detected sound frequency points were divided into the low frequency range (100 Hz ~ 1000 Hz), the middle frequency range (1000 Hz ~ 3200 Hz), and the high frequency range (3500 Hz ~ 6000 Hz). Sound absorbing performances of the two metal foams in the two modes were discussed within the three frequency ranges in detail. It would be calculated that the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam in the pure metal foam mode were 12.6%, 22.7%, 34.6%, 43.6%, 51.1%, and 56.2% when the thickness was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm. meanwhile, in the combination mode, the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam with the thickness of 10 mm were 30.6%, 34.8%, 36.3%, and 35.8% when the cavity was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. In addition, those of iron foam in the pure metal foam mode were 13.4%, 20.1%, 34.4%, 43.1%, 49.6%, and 56.1%, and in the combination mode were 25.6%, 30.5%, 34.3%, and 33.4%.

  9. The separation and determination of trace elements in iron ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The separation, concentration, and determination of trace elements in iron ores are described. After the sample has been dissolved, the iron is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with a liquid cation-exchanger, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The trace elements aluminium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, potassium, sodium, vanadium, and zinc are determined in the aqueous phase by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in presence of iron with eriochrome cyanine R. Essays with a decolorated reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1962-01-01

    The behaviour of the extinction coefficient of aqueous solutions of Eriochrome Cyanine R is studied. It is found that at pH 5-6 the diluted acid solutions decolorate rapidly according to an exponential law (538 mμ). The fact that the decoloree solutions go on still reacting with the aluminium has. (Author) 12 refs

  11. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Melek, Esra [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-11-30

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 2.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples.

  12. In Vitro Bioavailability of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, Zinc, and Copper from Gluten-Free Breads Supplemented with Natural Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, J; Cerba, A; Suliburska, J; Tinkov, A A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the content of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, and copper and determine the bioavailability of these ingredients in gluten-free breads fortified with milk and selected seeds. Due to the increasing prevalence of celiac disease and mineral deficiencies, it has become necessary to produce food with higher nutritional values which maintains the appropriate product characteristics. This study was designed for gluten-free breads fortified with milk and seeds such as flax, poppy, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds or nuts, and flour with amaranth. Subsequently, digestion was performed in vitro and the potential bioavailability of the minerals was measured. In the case of calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, higher bioavailability was observed in rice bread, and, in the case of copper and zinc, in buckwheat bread. This demonstrated a clear increase in bioavailability of all the minerals when the bread were enriched. However, satisfactory results are obtained only for the individual micronutrients.

  13. Structure of the Copper–Enriched Layer Introduced by Anodic Oxidation of Copper-Containing Aluminium Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Zhou, X.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the structure of the copper–enriched layer formed at the alloy/anodic film interface during anodizing of Al–2 wt.% Cu binary alloy using transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that θ′ phase was formed within the copper–enriched layer. For the copper–enriched layer formed on {1 0 0} aluminum planes, the interface between the aluminum matrix and the θ′ phase within the copper-enriched layer is coherent. For the copper–enriched layer formed on {1 1 0} and {1 1 1} aluminum planes, the interfaces between the aluminum matrix and the θ′ phase within the copper-enriched layer are semi-coherent or incoherent. The interfacial coherency influences the formation of oxygen gas bubbles within the resultant anodic films.

  14. A Holistic Model That Physicochemically Links Iron Oxide - Apatite and Iron Oxide - Copper - Gold Deposits to Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. C.; Reich, M.; Knipping, J.; Bilenker, L.; Barra, F.; Deditius, A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits (IOCG) are important sources of their namesake metals and increasingly for rare earth metals in apatite. Studies of natural systems document that IOA and IOCG deposits are often spatially and temporally related with one another and coeval magmatism. However, a genetic model that accounts for observations of natural systems remains elusive, with few observational data able to distinguish among working hypotheses that invoke meteoric fluid, magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, and immiscible melts. Here, we use Fe and O isotope data and high-resolution trace element (e.g., Ti, V, Mn, Al) data of individual magnetite grains from the world-class Los Colorados (LC) IOA deposit in the Chilean Iron Belt to elucidate the origin of IOA and IOCG deposits. Values of d56Fe range from 0.08‰ to 0.26‰, which are within the global range of ~0.06‰ to 0.5‰ for magnetite formed at magmatic conditions. Values of δ18O for magnetite and actinolite are 2.04‰ and 6.08‰, respectively, consistent with magmatic values. Ti, V, Al, and Mn are enriched in magnetite cores and decrease systematically from core to rim. Plotting [Al + Mn] vs. [Ti + V] indicates that magnetite cores are consistent with magmatic and/or magmatic-hydrothermal (i.e., porphyry) magnetites. Decreasing Al, Mn, Ti, V is consistent with a cooling trend from porphyry to Kiruna to IOCG systems. The data from LC are consistent with the following new genetic model for IOA and IOCG systems: 1) magnetite cores crystallize from silicate melt; 2) these magnetite crystals are nucleation sites for aqueous fluid that exsolves and scavenges inter alia Fe, P, S, Cu, Au from silicate melt; 3) the magnetite-fluid suspension is less dense that the surrounding magma, allowing ascent; 4) as the suspension ascends, magnetite grows in equilibrium with the fluid and takes on a magmatic-hydrothermal character (i.e., lower Al, Mn, Ti, V); 5) during ascent, magnetite, apatite and

  15. Effect of Copper Coated SiC Reinforcements on Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Wear of Aluminium Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kori, P. S.; Vanarotti, Mohan; Angadi, B. M.; Nagathan, V. V.; Auradi, V.; Sakri, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental investigations are carried out to study the influence of copper coated Silicon carbide (SiC) reinforcements in Aluminum (Al) based Al-SiC composites. Wear behavior and mechanical Properties like, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness are studied in the present work. Experimental results clearly revealed that, an addition of SiC particles (5, 10 and 15 Wt %) has lead in the improvement of hardness and ultimate tensile strength. Al-SiC composites containing the Copper coated SiC reinforcements showed better improvement in mechanical properties compared to uncoated ones. Characterization of Al-SiC composites are carried out using optical photomicrography and SEM analysis. Wear tests are carried out to study the effects of composition and normal pressure using Pin-On Disc wear testing machine. Results suggested that, wear rate decreases with increasing SiC composition, further an improvement in wear resistance is observed with copper coated SiC reinforcements in the Al-SiC metal matrix composites (MMC’s).

  16. Atomic absorption determination of iron and copper impurities in rare earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelyukova, Yu.V.; Kravchenko, J.B.; Kucher, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    An extraction atomic absorption method for the determination of copper and iron impurities in rare earth compounds has been developed. The extraction separation of determined elements as hydroxy quinolinates with isobuthyl alcohol was used. It increased the sensitivity of these element determination and excluded the effect of the analysed sample. Cu, Te, Zn, Bi, Sn, In, Ga, Tl and the some other elements can be determined at pH 2.0-3.0 but rare earths are remained in an aqueous phase. The condition of the flame combustion does not change during the introduction of isobutyl extract but the sensitivity of the determination of the elements increased 2-3 times. The limit of Fe determination is 0.01 mg/ml and the limit of Cu determination is 0.014 mg/ml

  17. Copper-substituted, lithium rich iron phosphate as cathode material for lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.B.; Cho, S.H.; Heo, J.B.; Aravindan, V.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-free, copper-doped, lithium rich iron phosphates, Li 1+x Fe 1-y Cu y PO 4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15, 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.005), have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. From the optimization, the Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 phase showed superior performances in terms of phase purity and high discharge capacity. The structural, morphological, and electrochemical properties were studied and compared to LiFePO 4 , Li 1.05 FePO 4 , LiFe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 , and materials. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was conducted to ensure copper doping. Only smooth surface morphologies were observed for lithium rich iron phosphates, namely Li 1.05 FePO 4 and Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 . The Li/Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 cell delivered an initial discharge capacity of 145 mAh/g and was 18 mAh/g higher than the Li/LiFePO 4 cell without any carbon coating effect. Cyclic voltammetry revealed excellent reversibility of the Li 1.05 Fe 0.997 Cu 0.003 PO 4 material. High rate capability studies were also performed and showed a capacity retention over 95% during the cycling. We concluded that substituted Li and Cu ions play an important role in enhancing battery performance of the LiFePO 4 material through improving the kinetics of the lithium insertion/extraction reaction on the electrode.

  18. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Gaona, Berenice; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Robledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were 14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.

  19. Effects of mine drainage on the River Hayle, Cornwall. Factors affecting concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in water, sediments and dominant invertebrate fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.E.

    1977-02-15

    Concentrations of copper, zinc and iron were measured in waters, sediments and invertebrates collected from the River Hayle. In river water at least 70% of copper and iron was associated with the ''particulate'' fraction whereas 80% of zinc was in the ''soluble'' form. Although total concentrations of zinc in water exceeded those of copper approximately ten fold, copper predominated over zinc in the sediments by a factor of approximately three. Iron was the most abundant metal recorded in both water and sediments. Seasonal differences in ''total'' metal content of waters suggested that concentrations of copper, zinc and iron increased during periods of high flow and decreased during lower flows. Copper concentrations in the sediment, unlike zinc and iron, showed markedly higher values during the summer sampling period when flows were minimal. In the ''free-living'' Trichoptera larvae, concentrations of copper and zinc in the tissue appeared to follow copper and zinc levels in the water. Similar relationships in Odonata and Plecoptera larvae were not obtained. Factors affecting animal/metal relationships are discussed with particular reference to adaptation shown by organisms exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals in their environment.

  20. The iron and cerium oxide influence on the electric conductivity and the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Kellie Provazi de

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different treatments on the aluminum system covered with aluminum oxide is investigated. The aluminum anodization in sulphuric media and in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric media was used to alter the corrosion resistance, thickness, coverage degree and microhardness of the anodic oxide. Iron electrodeposition inside the anodic oxide was used to change its electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. Direct and pulsed current were used for iron electrodeposition and the Fe(SO 4 ) 2 (NH 4 ) 2 .6H 2 O electrolyte composition was changed with the addition of boric and ascorbic acids. To the sealing treatment the CeCl 3 composition was varied. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS), the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (FRX) and the morphologic analysis by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) allowed to verify that, the pulsed current increase the iron content inside the anodic layer and that the use of the additives inhibits the iron oxidation. The chronopotentiometric curves obtained during iron electrodeposition indicated that the boric and ascorbic acids mixture increased the electrodeposition process efficiency. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE), the Vickers (Hv) microhardness measurements and morphologic analysis evidenced that the sealing treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the anodic film modified with iron. The electrical impedance (EI) technique allowed to prove the electric conductivity increase of the anodized aluminum with iron electrodeposited even after the cerium low concentration treatment. Iron nanowires were prepared by using the anodic oxide pores as template. (author)

  1. Analysis of ambient pH stress response mediated by iron and copper intake in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Mori, Hikari; Kubota, Takeo; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2018-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of tolerance to alkaline pH is well studied in model fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, how fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe survives under alkaline stress remains largely unknown, as the genes involved in the alkaline stress response pathways of A. nidulans and S. cerevisiae were not found in the genome of this organism. Since uptake of iron and copper into cells is important for alkaline tolerance in S. cerevisiae, here we examined whether iron and copper uptake processes were involved in conferring tolerance to alkaline stress in S. pombe. We first revealed that S. pombe wild-type strain could not grow at a pH higher than 6.7. We further found that the growths of mutants harboring disruption in the iron uptake-related gene frp1 + , fio1 + or fip1 + were severely inhibited under ambient pH stress condition. In contrast, derepression of these genes, by deletion of their repressor gene fep1 + , caused cells to acquire resistance to pH stress. Together, these results suggested that uptake of iron is essential for ambient pH tolerance in S. pombe. We also found that copper is required for the pH stress response because disruptants of ctr4 + , ctr5 + , ccc2 + and cuf1 + genes, all of which are needed for regulating intracellular Cu + , displayed ambient pH sensitivity. Furthermore, supplementing Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ions to the culture media improved growth under ambient pH stress. Taken together, our results suggested that uptake of iron and copper is the crucial factor needed for the adaptation of S. pombe to ambient pH stress. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  3. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghiţă, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases

  4. The interplay between siderophore secretion and coupled iron and copper transport in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaisen, Kerstin; Hahn, Alexander; Valdebenito, Marianne; Moslavac, Suncana; Samborski, Anastazia; Maldener, Iris; Wilken, Corinna; Valladares, Ana; Flores, Enrique; Hantke, Klaus; Schleiff, Enrico

    2010-11-01

    Iron uptake is essential for Gram-negative bacteria including cyanobacteria. In cyanobacteria, however, the iron demand is higher than in proteobacteria due to the function of iron as a cofactor in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, but our understanding of iron uptake by cyanobacteria stands behind the knowledge in proteobacteria. Here, two genes involved in this process in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 were identified. ORF all4025 encodes SchE, a putative cytoplasmic membrane-localized transporter involved in TolC-dependent siderophore secretion. Inactivation of schE resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to high metal concentrations and decreased secretion of hydroxamate-type siderophores. ORF all4026 encodes a predicted outer membrane-localized TonB-dependent iron transporter, IacT. Inactivation of iacT resulted in decreased sensitivity to elevated iron and copper levels. Expression of iacT from the artificial trc promoter (P(trc)) resulted in sensitization against tested metals. Further analysis showed that iron and copper effects are synergistic because a decreased supply of iron induced a significant decrease of copper levels in the iacT insertion mutant but an increase of those levels in the strain carrying P(trc)-iacT. Our results unravel a link between iron and copper homeostasis in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Phosphorylation and Copper(II) or Iron(II) Ions Enrichment on Some Physicochemical Properties of Spelt Starch

    OpenAIRE

    Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa; Nowak, Katarzyna; Szuba, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper provides an assessment of the effect of saturation of spelt starch and monostarch phosphate with copper or iron ions on selected physicochemical properties of the resulting modified starches. Native and modified spelt starch samples were analyzed for selected mineral element content using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Thermodynamic properties were measured using DSC, and pasting properties by RVA. Flow curves of 5% pastes were plotted and described using the Hersc...

  6. Ductile–brittle behavior at blunted cavities in 3D iron crystals uncovered and covered by copper atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelikán, Vladimír; Hora, Petr; Červená, Olga; Spielmannová, Alena; Machová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2010), s. 191-200 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/07/0789; GA AV ČR KJB200760802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : molecular dynamics * bcc iron crystal * blunted cavity * copper cover * ductile –brittle behavior Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://www.kme.zcu.cz/acm/index.php/acm/article/view/48

  7. Determination of calcium, copper, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1981-01-01

    The direct determinacao of calcium, copper, chomium, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, sodium and zinc in ethanol by atomic absorption spectrometry with, air-acetylene flame is proposed. Effects of fuel/oxidant ratio, burner height and water content in the samples were investigated in detail. The method allows the determition of the elements with good precision (r.s.d. -1 for the elements tested. (author) [pt

  8. The Variations of Glycolysis and TCA Cycle Intermediate Levels Grown in Iron and Copper Mediums of Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of optimal metabolic function by microorganism depends on various parameters, especially essential metal supplementation. In the present study, the effects of iron and copper metals on metabolism were investigated by determination of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites' levels with respect to the metal concentrations and incubation period in Trichoderma harzianum. The pyruvate and citrate levels of T. harzianum increased up to 15 mg/L of copper via redirection of carbon flux though glycolysis by suppression of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the α-ketoglutarate levels decreased at concentration higher than 5 mg/L of copper to overcome damage of oxidative stress. The fumarate levels correlated with the α-ketoglutarate levels because of substrate limitation. Besides, in T. harzianum cells grown in various concentrations of iron-containing medium, the intracellular pyruvate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate levels showed positive correlation with iron concentration due to modifying of expression of glycolysis and TCA cycle enzymes via a mechanism involving cofactor or allosteric regulation. However, as a result of consuming of prior substrates required for fumarate production, its levels rose up to 10 mg/L.

  9. Numerical Modelling of Mechanical Integrity of the Copper-Cast Iron Canister. A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanru Jing

    2004-04-01

    This review article presents a summary of the research works on the numerical modelling of the mechanical integrity of the composite copper-cast iron canisters for the final disposal of Swedish nuclear wastes, conducted by SKB and SKI since 1992. The objective of the review is to evaluate the outstanding issues existing today about the basic design concepts and premises, fundamental issues on processes, properties and parameters considered for the functions and requirements of canisters under the conditions of a deep geological repository. The focus is placed on the adequacy of numerical modelling approaches adopted in regards to the overall mechanical integrity of the canisters, especially the initial state of canisters regarding defects and the consequences of their evolution under external and internal loading mechanisms adopted in the design premises. The emphasis is the stress-strain behaviour and failure/strength, with creep and plasticity involved. Corrosion, although one of the major concerns in the field of canister safety, was not included

  10. Electronic and magnetic coupling of iron and copper phthalocyanine to ferromagnetic Co(100) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Felix; Sauther, Jens; Lach, Stefan; Ziegler, Christiane [Department of Physics, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schroedinger Str. 56, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Ali, Ehesan; Oppeneer, Peter [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    Metallo-phthalocyanines are organic semiconductors which show in certain cases promising magnetic properties, advertising them for use in organic spintronics. Here, copper (CuPc) and iron phthalocyanine (FePc) were grown on ultra thin layers of Co(100) substrates with well known highly spin-polarized electron injection capability. Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals different interactions between the pyrolytic nitrogen atoms and the cobalt surface for the two phthalocyanines. The analysis of the different multiplet structures appearing for the nitrogen core levels in the submonolayer regime and UPS investigations of the valence band electronic structure of the Co dominated region near the Fermi level indicates a particularly electronic coupling and a rehybridisation of the molecular orbitals with the cobalt orbitals. In order to clarify the influence of the two different central atoms on the electronic- and subsequently the magnetic coupling to the Co substrate, theoretical calculations using the GGA and GGA+U methodologies on a structure of Fe/Cu-phthalocyanine adsorbed on a 3-layered cobalt surface were performed indicating a ferromagnetic coupling between FePc and Co.

  11. Evaluation of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium in oral hospital diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Daniele C F; de Sá, Júlia S M; Cerqueira, Isabela B; Oliveira, Ana P F; Morgano, Marcelo A; Quintaes, Késia D

    2014-10-01

    Many trace elements are nutrients essential to humans, acting in the metabolism as constituents or as enzymatic co-factors. The iron, zinc, copper, manganese and selenium contents of hospital diets (regular, blend and soft) and of oral food complement (OFC) were determined, evaluating the adequacy of each element in relation to the nutritional recommendations (DRIs) and the percent contribution alone and with OFC. Duplicate samples were taken of six daily meals and of the OFC on two non-consecutive days from a hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil) in May and September of 2010 and January of 2011. The elements were determined by ICP OES. Of the diets, the soft diet showed the highest elements content. Offering the OFC was insufficient to provide adequate levels of the trace elements. The oral hospital diets were inadequate in relation to the RDAs for the trace elements studied and the use of the OFCs was insufficient to compensate the values. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural and magnetic order of ThMn12-type rare earth-iron-aluminium intermetallics studied by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, W.; Halevy, I.; Gal, J.

    2000-01-01

    neutron powder diffraction data of ThMn 12 -type compounds RFe 4 Al 8 , RFe 5 Al 7 , and RFe 6 Al 6 (R = heavy rare earth) are compared to work out the structural variations and the different magnetic properties of these ternary intermetallics as a function of increasing iron concentrations. The variations of unit cell metric, of atomic coordinations and of interatomic distances are discussed. A magnetic phase diagram is presented showing the increase of the magnetic ordering temperatures from 120 K to 340 K and the change of the magnetic order from two separate magnetic phase transitions of rare earth and iron sublattices to one common ferrimagnetic transition of both sublattices, when changing the ratio of Fe/Al atoms from 4/8 to 6/6, respectively. Long range order is hampered by frozen spins. Magnetically ordered rare earth and iron moments are given. (orig.)

  13. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  14. [Interaction among the trace elements zinc, copper and iron after depletion and repletion of dairy cows with zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M; Schwarz, F J; Roth, H P; Schwarz, W A

    1978-12-01

    Imbalances in the supply with trace elements may be caused by the excessive administration of one or several elements or the insufficient administration in relation to other trace elements. This article deals with the interactions between the trace elements zinc and copper resp. zinc and iron under the conditions of the insufficient supply with Zn (6 mg per kg dry matter of the fodder) and the supply according to the demand with other trace elements (14 mg copper resp. 83 mg iron per dry matter of the fodder). For this purpose we investigated the copper, iron and zinc content of the milk and the serum of cows that were first depleted of zinc through a semi-synthetic zinc deficiency diet and then repleted with extra allowances of zinc. The closest connections exist between the copper and zinc content of the milk. Thus extreme Zn-deficiency feeding conditions the decreased Zn-content on the one hand and increased Cu-content on the other. In contrast to this, the cows' Zn-excretion in the milk increases after Zn-repletion whereas the Cu-content decreases. This shows a distinctly negative correlation. A loose connection could only be detected for the Cu- and Zn-content of the serum. Though the Zn-content changed considerably in dependence on the Zn-supply, the Cu-content remained largely uninfluenced. The Fe-content of both milk and serum shows no interaction with the nutritive Zn-supply. Only after 19 test weeks of extreme Zn-deficiency could a slight increase of the Fe-concentration be indicated.

  15. Relation between feeding mechanisms and solidification mode in 380 aluminium alloy with different iron contents; Relacion entre los mecanismos de alimentacion y el modo de solidificacion en una aleacion de aluminio 380 con distintos contenidos de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovio, D. O.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Mugica, G. W.; Cuyas, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    In the present work the effect of iron (0.15, 0.42 and 0.86%) content in feeding mechanisms for 380 aluminium alloy has been studied. The feeding capacity has been evaluated by a device that produces a barrier removable to allowing the movement of the inter dendritic liquid. The results show the flow of different quantity of liquid, it depends of the temperature of operating the device and of the iron content. For minimum and maximum iron content, the inter dendritic and bursts feeding mechanisms are fundamentally involved, for 0.42% of iron the feeding mechanisms was the inter dendritic. The authors establish this behavior by the solidification mode of alloy, which promotes the presence of particles of Si or plates of b-Al{sub 3}FeDi phase, in the inter dendritic channels and produce the different feeding mechanisms. (Author) 15 refs.

  16. Aluminium bridges, aluminium bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade. In building and civil engineering the increase of aluminium applications is due to various aspects like light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions, and esthetics. The paper starts

  17. DFT investigation on the selective complexation of Fe3+ and Al3+ with hydroxypyridinones used for treatment of the aluminium and iron overload diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Sadegh; Izadyar, Mohammad; Housaindokht, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    The chelating agents for Al 3+ and Fe 3+ metal cations with therapeutic applications have been considered in the recent years. In designing of the hydroxypyridinones (HPOs) as the therapeutic chelating agents for iron and aluminium overload pathologies, quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are necessary for predicting the binding energies and thermodynamic parameters of the metal-HPO complexes. Three derivatives of the HPOs called 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethylpyridin-4(1H)-one (DFP), 3-hydroxy-4(1H)-pyridinone (HOPO) and 5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridin-4(1H)-one (P1) were investigated for complexation with Fe 3+ and Al 3+ metal ions. Because of the maximum interaction between Fe 3+ and HPOs, all HPOs form stable complexes with Fe 3+ metal ion. Moreover, it was found that [Fe-P1] 2+ is a more stable complex than [Fe-DFP] 2+ and [Fe-3,4-HOPO] 2+ in the gas phase and water, confirming that P1 is the strongest selective iron chelator. The more stability of [Fe-P1] 2+ was attributed to an intramolecular hydrogen bond formation between the hydrogen atom of NH group and the oxygen atom of CH 2 OH chain. All complexes of the HPOs with Fe 3+ and Al 3+ were formed through the oxygen atoms of the CO and OH groups of the HPO. Natural bond orbital analysis showed that the interaction of the lone pair electrons of the oxygen atom of the chelator and antibonding orbitals of the Al 3+ and Fe 3+ are important in the complex formation. Topological parameters at the bond critical points confirmed the effective interaction between the Al 3+ and Fe 3+ metal ions and HPO as well as the nature of the metal-oxygen bonds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Maternal Helicobacter pylori Infection on Trace Elements (Copper, Iron and Zinc and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I Akubugwo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: H. pylori infection has been suggested to interfere with micronutrient metabolism and influence pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: This study therefore seeks to document the prevalence of H. pylori seroposivity among pregnant women and to determine its impact on some trace element status and pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nine consenting pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27. 04 ± 4. 75 years and gestational age ≤ 25 weeks (mean 21.77 ± 3.14 wks attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, between July 2007 and September 2008 participated in the study. H. Pylori antibody (IgG was determined by a new generation ELISA method. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were analysed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific AVG 210 Model while haemoglobin and albumin were analysed using standard haematological and biochemical techniques. Both maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters were recorded at recruitment. The women were followed-up till delivery after which neonatal anthropometrics and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: H. pylori seroprevalence of 24.1% (84/349 was recorded with higher prevalence in multiparous and older women. H. pylori infected women had significantly higher BMI (29.00 ± 3.89 vs. 26.86 ± 4.10, p = 0.020 and lower (p > 0.05 plasma levels of Cu, Fe, Zn, albumin, and haemoglobin when compared to non-infected women. Also H. pylori infected women had significantly (p < 0.05 higher rates of convulsion and concomitant illnesses than their non-infected counterparts, although there was no difference in the two groups for other pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: H. pylori infection during pregnancy seems to interfere with trace element metabolism and contribute significantly to increased maternal morbidity. Prior to confirmation of these findings in a well controlled randomised trial, it is suggested that pregnant women be

  19. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Ranville, James F.; Lesher, Emily K.; Diedrich, Daniel J.; McKnight, Diane M.; Sofield, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  20. Studies performed on neutron-irradiated copper-doped iron specimens by means of neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.

    1978-01-01

    By means of neutron small-angle scattering precipitation arising from heat-treatment and reactor irradiation in copper-alloyed iron specimens were studied. Copper content varried between 0 and 1.5%, irradiation temperature between 310 and 563K. The specimens had been cooled from the melt partly fast, partly slowely. By taking account of magnetic scattering and by investigating the azimuthal dependence of the total scattering it became possible to distinguish between copper precipitations and vacancy agglomerates. The most obvious effect in the slowly cooled specimens after irradiation with 2-10 19 fast neutrons per cm 2 at a temperature of 563 K is the existence of copper agglomerates with diameters of the order of magnitude of 5nm. Precipitation already occurs to a much lesser extent by the influence of temperature alone. Fast cooling from the melt or low irradiation temperature reduce precipitation during reactor irradiation. Moreover, there are indications on the formation of vacancy accumulations and dislocation rings, the latter especially in the fast cooled specimens. (orig.) [de

  1. Microdistribution of copper-carbonate and iron oxide nanoparticles in treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Hiroshi, E-mail: mhiroshi@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Kiguchi, Makoto [Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (Japan); Evans, Philip D. [University of British Columbia, Centre for Advanced Wood Processing (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Aqueous dispersions of copper-carbonate nanoparticles and microparticles have just begun to be exploited commercially for the preservative treatment of wood. The success of the new systems will depend, in part, on the uniform distribution of the preservative in wood and the ability of copper to penetrate cell walls. We examined the distribution of copper in wood treated with a nano-Cu preservative. Copper particles are not uniformly distributed in treated wood, but they accumulate in voids that act as the flow paths for liquids in wood. Particles are deposited on, but not within cell walls. Nevertheless, elemental copper is present within cell walls, but at a lower level than that in wood treated with a conventional wood preservative. These findings suggest that nano-Cu preservatives are able to deliver bioactive components into wood cell walls even though the majority of copper particles are too large to penetrate the cell wall's nanocapillary network.

  2. Observed transitions in n = 2 ground configurations of copper, nickel, iron, chromium and germanium in tokamak discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.; Sato, K.

    1981-11-01

    A number of spectrum lines of highly ionized copper, nickel, iron, chromium, and germanium have been observed and the corresponding transitions identified. The element under study is introduced into the discharge of the PLT Tokamak by means of rapid ablation by a laser pulse. The ionization state is generally distinguishable from the time behavior of the emitted light. New identifications of transitions are based on predicted wavelengths (from isoelectronic extrapolation and other data) and on approximate expected intensities. All the transitions pertain to the ground configurations of the respective ions, which are the only states strongly populated at tokamak plasma conditions. These lines are expected to be useful for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics in the 1-3 keV temperature range, and they provide direct measurement of intersystem energy separations from chromium through copper in the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon isoelectronic sequences

  3. Determination of copper, iron and zinc in spirituous beverages by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, T.; Marcó, L. M.; Alvarado, J.; Greaves, E. D.

    1999-10-01

    The concentration of copper in traditional homemade alcoholic distillates produced in Venezuela (Cocuy de Penca) were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) using vanadium as internal standard. The results were compared to those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Three preparative methods of addition of vanadium were compared: classical internal standard addition, 'layer on layer' internal standard addition and in situ addition of internal standard. The TXRF procedures were accurate and the precision was comparable to that obtained by the FAAS technique. Copper levels were above the maximum allowed limits for similar beverages. Zinc and iron in commercial and homemade distilled beverages were also analyzed by TXRF with in situ addition of internal standard demonstrating the usefulness of this technique for trace metal determination in distillates.

  4. Iodometric determination of peroxydiphosphate in the presence of copper(II) or iron(II) as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, S; Sharma, P D; Gupta, Y K

    1975-09-01

    Peroxydiphosphate can be determined iodometrically in the presence of a large excess of potassium iodide with copper(II) or iron(II) as catalyst through the operation of the Cu(II)/Cu(I) or Fe(II)/Fe(III) cycle. The method is applicable in HClO(4), H(2)SO(4), HCl and CH(3)COOH acid media in the range 0.1-1.0M studied. Nickel, manganese(II), cobalt(II), silver, chloride and phosphate are without effect.

  5. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  6. Effect of anaerobic digestion and liming on plant availability of phosphorus in iron- and aluminium-precipitated sewage sludge from primary wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Emilio; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Vråle, Lasse

    2017-04-01

    More efficient plant utilisation of the phosphorus (P) in sewage sludge is required because rock phosphate is a limited resource. To meet environmental legislation thresholds for P removal from wastewater (WW), primary treatment with iron (Fe) or aluminium (Al) coagulants is effective. There is also a growing trend for WW treatment plants (WWTPs) to be coupled to a biogas process, in order to co-generate energy. The sludge produced, when stabilised, is used as a soil amendment in many countries. This study examined the effects of anaerobic digestion (AD), with or without liming as a post-treatment, on P release from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludges originating from primary WWTPs. Plant uptake of P from Fe- and Al-precipitated sludge after lime treatment but without AD was also compared. Chemical characterisation with sequential extraction of P and a greenhouse experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) were performed to assess the treatment effects on plant-available P. Liming increased the P-labile fraction in all cases. Plant P uptake increased from 18.5 mg pot -1 to 53 mg P pot -1 with liming of Fe-precipitated sludge and to 35 mg P pot -1 with liming of the digestate, while it increased from 18.7 mg pot -1 to 39 and 29 mg P pot -1 for the Al-precipitated substrate and digestate, respectively. Thus, liming of untreated Fe-precipitated sludge and its digestate resulted in higher P uptake than liming its Al-precipitated counterparts. AD had a negative impact on P mobility for both sludges.

  7. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Vernon G.; McGill, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C. Most of the spheres had disintegrated completely to a fine powder by day 14. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from the spheres was linear over time; all r > 0.974; all P < 0.001. The mean rate of release of copper, tin, and iron was 30.4 mg, 2.74 mg, and 0.38 mg per g tungsten-bronze per day, respectively. These rates of metal release were compared to those in published studies to determine whether the simultaneous ingestion of eight spheres of 3.48 mm diameter would pose a toxic risk to birds. The potential absorption rates of iron and tin (0.54 mg Fe/day, and 3.89 mg Sn/day) from eight tungsten-bronze spheres of total mass 1.42 g would not prove toxic, based on empirical studies of tin and iron ingestion in waterfowl. The release of 43.17 mg copper/day from eight tungsten-bronze spheres, while exceeding the daily copper requirements of domesticated birds, is far below the levels of copper known to cause copper toxicosis in birds. We conclude that sintered tungsten-bronze material made into gunshot, fishing weights, or wheel balance weights, would not pose a toxic risk to wild birds when ingested

  8. Comparison of the mineralogy of the Boss-Bixby, Missouri copper-iron deposit, and the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandom, R.T.; Hagni, R.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    An ore microscopic examination of 80 polished sections prepared from selected drill core specimens from the Boss-Bixby, Missouri copper-iron deposit has shown that its mineral assemblage is similar to that of the Olympic Dam (Roxby Downs) copper-uranium-gold deposit in South Australia. A comparison with the mineralogy reported for Olympic Dam shows that both deposits contain: 1) the principal minerals, magnetite, hematite, chalcopyrite, and bornite, 2) the cobalt-bearing phases, carrollite and cobaltian pyrite, 3) the titanium oxides, rutile and anatase, 4) smaller amounts of martite, covellite, and electrum, 5) fluorite and carbonates, and 6) some alteration minerals. The deposits also are similar with regard to the sequence of mineral deposition: 1) early oxides, 2) then sulfide minerals, and 3) a final oxide generation. The deposits, however, are dissimilar with regard to their host rock lithologies and structural settings. The Boss-Bixby ores occupy breccia zones within a hydrothermally altered basic intrusive and intruded silicic volcanics, whereas the Olympic Dam ores are contained in sedimentary breccias in a graben or trough. Also, some minerals have been found thus far to occur at only one of the deposits. The similarity of mineralogy in these deposits suggests that they were formed from ore fluids that had some similarities in character and that the St. Francois terrane of Missouri is an important region for further exploration for deposits with this mineral assemblage

  9. Magnetic and gravity gradiometry framework for Mesoproterozoic iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits, southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Phillips, Jeffrey; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution airborne magnetic and gravity gradiometry data provide the geophysical framework for evaluating the exploration potential of hidden iron oxide deposits in Mesoproterozoic basement rocks of southeast Missouri. The data are used to calculate mineral prospectivity for iron oxide-apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element (REE) and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Results delineate the geophysical footprints of all known iron oxide deposits and reveal several previously unrecognized prospective areas. The airborne data are also inverted to three-dimensional density and magnetic susceptibility models over four concealed deposits at Pea Ridge (IOA ± REE), Boss (IOCG), Kratz Spring (IOA), and Bourbon (IOCG). The Pea Ridge susceptibility model shows a magnetic source that is vertically extensive and traceable to a depth of greater than 2 km. A smaller density source, located within the shallow Precambrian basement, is partly coincident with the magnetic source at Pea Ridge. In contrast, the Boss models show a large (625-m-wide), vertically extensive, and coincident dense and magnetic stock with shallower adjacent lobes that extend more than 2,600 m across the shallow Precambrian paleosurface. The Kratz Spring deposit appears to be a smaller volume of iron oxides and is characterized by lower density and less magnetic rock compared to the other iron deposits. A prospective area identified south of the Kratz Spring deposit shows the largest volume of coincident dense and nonmagnetic rock in the subsurface, and is interpreted as prospective for a hematite-dominant lithology that extends from the top of the Precambrian to depths exceeding 2 km. The Bourbon deposit displays a large bowl-shaped volume of coincident high density and high-magnetic susceptibility rock, and a geometry that suggests the iron mineralization is vertically restricted to the upper parts of the Precambrian basement. In order to underpin the evaluation of the prospectivity and three

  10. Aluminium alloyed iron-silicide/silicon solar cells: A simple approach for low cost environmental-friendly photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Dalapati, Goutam; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Kumar, Avishek; Cheh Tan, Cheng; Ru Tan, Hui; Chi, Dongzhi

    2015-12-03

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of silicide/silicon based solar cell towards the development of low cost and environmental friendly photovoltaic technology. A heterostructure solar cells using metallic alpha phase (α-phase) aluminum alloyed iron silicide (FeSi(Al)) on n-type silicon is fabricated with an efficiency of 0.8%. The fabricated device has an open circuit voltage and fill-factor of 240 mV and 60%, respectively. Performance of the device was improved by about 7 fold to 5.1% through the interface engineering. The α-phase FeSi(Al)/silicon solar cell devices have promising photovoltaic characteristic with an open circuit voltage, short-circuit current and a fill factor (FF) of 425 mV, 18.5 mA/cm(2), and 64%, respectively. The significant improvement of α-phase FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells is due to the formation p(+-)n homojunction through the formation of re-grown crystalline silicon layer (~5-10 nm) at the silicide/silicon interface. Thickness of the regrown silicon layer is crucial for the silicide/silicon based photovoltaic devices. Performance of the α-FeSi(Al)/n-Si solar cells significantly depends on the thickness of α-FeSi(Al) layer and process temperature during the device fabrication. This study will open up new opportunities for the Si based photovoltaic technology using a simple, sustainable, and los cost method.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES OF DOPING OF CAST IRON THROUGH THE SLAG PHASE WITH USING OF THE SPENT NICKEL- AND COPPER-CONTAINING CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Provorova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have defined the regularities of the doping of cast iron through the slag phase of nickel and copper due to the waste catalysts using a carbonaceous reducing agent. We have justified the need to use the cast iron chips as a seed in the composition of the slag mixture. We have defined the dependence of the degree of extraction of nickel or copper from spent catalyst on the amount of the catalyst, on the basicity of the slag mixture, on the temperature and time of melting.

  12. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-07

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Adsorption of low concentration ceftazidime from aqueous solutions using impregnated activated carbon promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Hua; Sun, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, three impregnated activated carbon IAC (AC-Cu, AC-Fe, and AC-Al) promoted by Iron, Copper and Aluminum were used for adsorption of ceftazidime. Iron(III), Copper(II) and Aluminum(III) nitrate were used as an impregnant. The IACs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).The influence of factors, such as ion strength, pH, temperature, initial concentration, and concentration of natural organic matter organic matter on the adsorption process were studied. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of ceftazidime were studied for the three IACs. The results showed that the adsorption was accurately represented by pseudo-second order model. Under different temperature, the maximum adsorption quantity of ceftazidime on AC-Cu calculated by pseudo-second order kinetic model were 200.0 mg g-1 (298 K), 196.1 mg g-1 (303 K) and 185.2 mg g-1 (308 K). It was much higher than that of AC-Fe and AC-Al. And the process was controlled by both film diffusion and intra particle mass transport. The results also showed that, the Freundlich and Temkin isotherm fit the adsorption well.

  14. Synergy of iron and copper oxides in the catalytic formation of PCDD/Fs from 2-monochlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Phillip M; Guan, Xia; Lomnicki, Slawomir M

    2018-07-01

    Transition metal oxides present in waste incineration systems have the ability to catalyze the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) through surface reactions involving organic dioxin precursors. However, studies have concentrated on the catalytic effects of individual transition metal oxides, while the complex elemental composition of fly ash introduces the possibility of synergistic or inhibiting effects between multiple, catalytically active components. In this study, we have tested fly ash surrogates containing different ratios (by weight) of iron (III) oxide and copper (II) oxide. Such Fe 2 O 3 /CuO mixed-oxide surrogates (in the Fe:Cu ratio of 3.5, 0.9 and 0.2 ) were used to study the cooperative effects between two transition metals that are present in high concentrations in most combustion systems and are known to individually catalyze the formation of PCDD/Fs. The presence of both iron and copper oxides increased the oxidative power of the fly ash surrogates in oxygen rich conditions and led to extremely high PCDD/F yields under pyrolytic conditions (up to >5% yield) from 2-monochlorophenol precursor. PCDD/F congener profiles from the mixed oxide samples are similar to results obtained from only CuO, however the total PCDD/F yield increases with increasing Fe 2 O 3 content. Careful analysis of the reaction products and changes to the oxidation states of active metals indicate the CuO surface sites are centers for reaction while the Fe 2 O 3 is affecting the bonds in CuO and increasing the ability of copper centers to form surface-bound radicals that are precursors to PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of the reagent concentration of the colorimetric copper determination with sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate (abbreviated: D.D.C.) and its importance for the determination of copper in the presence of large amounts of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, P.; Rademaker, S.C.; Walraven, J.J.

    1950-01-01

    From a research about the influence of the reagent concentration on the copper determination with sodium di-ethyl-di-thio-carbamate in the presence of large amounts of iron some insight was gained into factors which had never been examined so far and which were found to have great influence on the

  16. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  17. Effect of excess dietary iron as ferrous sulfate and excess dietary ascorbic acid on liver zinc, copper and sulfhydryl groups and the ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.H.; Adkins, J.S.; Harrison, B.

    1986-01-01

    Female guinea pigs of the NIH 13/N strain, weighing between 475 and 512 g, were fed diets supplemented with 50 to 2500 mg of iron per kg of diet as ferrous sulfate and 0.2 to 8.0 g of ascorbic acid per kg of diet. A significant effect was observed on tissue copper and zinc, ovary weight and liver protein sulfhydryl groups. The mean ovary weight for guinea pigs fed 2500 mg of iron was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron, 0.045 +/- 0.012 g and 0.061 +/- 0.009 g, respectively. Liver zinc content of animals fed 2500 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid per kg of diet was significantly less than that of animals fed 50 mg of iron and 200 mg of ascorbic acid, 16.3 +/- 3.3 μg and 19.6 +/- 1.6 μg, respectively. There was no difference in liver copper due to dietary iron, but when dietary ascorbic acid was increased to 8 g per kg of diet, there was a significant decrease (from 22.8 +/- 8.1 μg to 10.5 +/- 4.8 μg) in liver copper. Excess dietary ascorbic acid decreased ovarian zinc significantly when increased to 8 g per kg of diet, 2929 +/- 919 μg vs 1661 +/- 471 μg, respectively, when compared to the control group

  18. [Vitamin and mineral supplements in the diet of military personnel: effect on the balance of iron, copper and manganese, immune reactivity and physical work-capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, I P; Nosolodin, V V; Zaĭtsev, O N; Gladkikh, I P; Koznienko, I V; Beliakov, R A; Arshinov, N P

    2012-03-01

    Conducted with the participation of 50 students of military educational study the effect of various vitamin and mineral complexes for the provision by the body naturally iron, copper and manganese on the immune and physical status. Found that diets enriched BMV was accompanied by a significant delay in the micro-elements, mainly iron, which indicates a deficiency of these bioelements in chickens Santo during the summer. Under the influence of vitamin-mineral complexes significantly increased rates of natural and specific immunity. As the delay increases significantly increased iron medical indicators of immunological reaction efficiency and physical performance.

  19. Preconcentration and determination of iron and copper in spice samples by cloud point extraction and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Cigdem Arpa, E-mail: carpa@hacettepe.edu.tr [Hacettepe University, Chemistry Department, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Tokgoez, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema [Hacettepe University, Chemistry Department, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    A flow injection (FI) cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of iron and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) has been improved. The analytes were complexed with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral Red, NR) and octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) was added as a surfactant. The micellar solution was heated above 50 {sup o}C and loaded through a column packed with cotton for phase separation. Then the surfactant-rich phase was eluted using 0.05 mol L{sup -1} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables influencing the instrumental and extraction conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions for 25 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enrichment factors were 98 and 69, the limits of detection (3s) were 0.7 and 0.3 ng mL{sup -1}, the limits of quantification (10s) were 2.2 and 1.0 ng mL{sup -1} for iron and copper, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten replicate measurements of 10 ng mL{sup -1} iron and copper were 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of iron and copper in spice samples.

  20. One-shot flow injection spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera with newly developed multi-compartment flow cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Norio; Gotoh, Shingo; Ida, Kazunori; Sakai, Tadao

    2006-01-01

    We propose here an affordable flow injection method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera. The use of a newly designed multi-compartment flow cell allowed the simultaneous determination of the three metals with a single injection ('one-shot') and a double beam spectrophotometer. The chemistry relied on the reactions of these metals with 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (nitro-PAPS) to form corresponding colored complexes. At pH 3.8, only copper-nitro-PAPS complex was formed in the presence of pyrophosphate as a masking agent for iron, and then the copper and iron(II) complexes were formed in the presence of reductant (ascorbic acid) at the same pH, and finally all three metals reacted with nitro-PAPS at pH 8.6. The characteristics were introduced into the flow system to determine each metal selectively and sensitively. Under the optimum conditions, linear calibration curves for the three metals were obtained in the range of 0.01-1 mg L -1 with a sample throughput rate of 20 h -1 . The limits of detection (3σ) were 3.9 μg L -1 for copper, 4.1 μg L -1 for iron and 4.0 μg L -1 for zinc. The proposed method was applied to analysis of some patients' sera

  1. Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, V.R.; Dykhno, I.S.; Deev, G.F.; Karikh, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of smelt aluminium on mechanical properties of armco-iron and 12 Kh18N10T steel is studied. It is stated that in smelt aluminium and aluminium alloy contact with armco-iron the sample ductility is decreased. Corrosion effect of smelt alluminium on (18Kh15N5AM3) steel in the form of reinforced wire in aluminium-steel KAS-1A composite material is investigted. It is stated in experiment that during smelt alluminium-steel contact interaction of heterogeneous phases takes place

  2. The use of radioisotopes and low abundance stable isotopes for the study of bioavailability and the metabolism of iron, zinc and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggett, P.J.; Fairweather Tait, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of whole body counting and imaging with ''area of interest'' counting to monitor the metabolism of zinc in healthy volunteers and patients with coeliac diseases and cirrhosis is described as are studies of interaction between iron and copper. Stable isotopes of iron, copper and zinc have been used to investigate the metabolism of these elements in young infants and have proved useful in assessing the validity of current estimated requirements particularly of iron. Stable isotopes have also been used to improve the classic metabolic balance approach to the study of the homeostasis of zinc in zinc deprived volunteers, and have progressed to studies using plasma kinetic curves of the systemic compartmentation of zinc

  3. Phosphorus collectors from filter paper and synthetic cloth coated with iron or aluminium oxide to provide phosphorus by diffusion in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bernardi Luchese

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus collectors made from filter paper and synthetic cloth, were tested to evaluate their feasibility of determining the need for phosphate application. The collectors were coated with two types of oxides, iron oxide and aluminium oxide. The capacity of the collectors was tested by placing them in a 2 mL of solution containing phosphorus (PO4(3- in the concentration of 0.0, 1.00, 3.00, 5.00, 7.00, 9.00 and 11.00 µ g.mL-1, respectively, after which they were placed in contact with four types of soil (LBa, LRd, LEd and Ca and incubed for 0.0 and 24 h. In this test the soils were kept at a humidity equivalent to 150 mmHg suction. The amount of phosphorus extracted from the solutions was tested at intervals between 0,0 and 11.0 µ g of phosphorus/mL. Results indicated that collectors were most efficient in Dystrophic Dark-Red Latosol (LEd and less efficient in "Bruno álico" Latosol (LBa and Cambisol (Ca. Synthetic cloth was the support yielding the best performance, whereas iron oxide lining was the most adequate lining material. Phosphorus collection increased with time of incubation.Coletores de fósforo feitos de papel filtro e pano sintético (perfex foram usados no estudo da determinação da necessidade de adubação fosfatada. Foram preparados coletores impregnados com óxido de ferro e outros com óxido de alumínio. A capacidade foi testada colocando-os em 2 mL de uma solução padrão de fósforo (na forma de fosfato com 0,0; 1,00; 3,00; 5,00; 7,00; 9,00 e 11;00 µg.mL-1 , depois foram colocados em contato com 4 tipos de solos (Lba, LRd, Led e Ca e incubados por 0,0 e 24 horas. No teste, os solos foram mantidos com uma umidade equivalente a 150 mmHg de sucção. Os resultados mostraram que os coletores foram mais eficientes, na extração de fósforo, no solo LED e menos eficiente no LBa e Ca (Cambissolo. O pano sintético foi a matriz (material suporte que proporcionou melhores resultados. O óxido de ferro foi o substrato foi o

  4. The Stoichiometry of Isoquercitrin Complex with Iron or Copper Is Highly Dependent on Experimental Conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Catapano, M.C.; Tvrdý, V.; Karlíčková, J.; Migkos, T.; Valentová, Kateřina; Křen, Vladimír; Mladěnka, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2017), s. 1193 ISSN 2072-6643 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD15082 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : chelator * copper * quercetin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 3.550, year: 2016

  5. QUANTITATIVE CHANGES OF IRON, MANGANESE, ZINC AND COPPER IN PINE BARK COMPOSTED WITH PLANT MASS AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Czekała

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to ascertain changes in the total contents, as well as water-soluble forms of iron, manganese, zinc and copper during the process of composting of pine bark with plant material (PM, with or without the addition of effective microorganisms (EM. Experiments were carried out at a forest nursery area and comprised the following treatments: pile 1. pine bark, pile 2. pine bark + PM, pile 3. pine bark + PM + EM. Compost piles were formed from pine bark (4 m3 and as described above, 2 Mg of plant material were added to pile 2 and to pile 3 – plant material and effective microorganisms in the amount of 3 dm3·m-3 bark. All compost files were also supplemented with 0.3 kg P2O5·m-3 (in the form of superphosphate 20% P2O5 and 0,1 kg K2O·m-3 (in the form of potassium salt 60%. The plant material comprised a mixture of buckwheat, field pea, serradella and vetch harvested before flowering. Piles were mixed and formed with the tractor aerator. At defined dates, using the method of atomic spectrophotometry, total contents of iron, manganese, zinc and copper, as well as their water-soluble forms were determined. It was found that all the examined elements underwent changes, albeit with different dynamics. This was particularly apparent in the case of water-soluble forms. This solubility was, in general, high during the initial days of the process and declined with the passage of time. No significant impact of effective microorganisms on the solubility of the examined chemical elements was determined, especially in mature composts.

  6. Evaluation of brake parameters in copper discs of various thicknesses and speeds using Neodymium – Iron – Boron Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Krishna G. L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neodymium – Iron – Boron (NdFeB permanent magnets of 12.5 mm thickness and 50 mm diameter are chosen for analyses because of their higher remanence and coercivity. Experimental analyses were carried out with Copper discs of thickness 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm at 2000 rpm, 3000 rpm, 4000 rpm and 5000 rpm. Experiments were conducted with three different positions of magnets such as 2 coaxial magnets, single magnet and single magnet with sudden application conditions. The brake parameters recorded are % speed reduction, deceleration and time taken. In 2 coaxial magnets condition, brake parameters are better in 6 mm thick disc. In single magnet condition, the brake parameters in 6 mm thick disc are found to be more consistent than 4 mm and 8 mm thick discs. In single magnet with sudden application condition, in 4 mm thick disc, the brake parameters are found better. During analysis, very high repulsion was experienced by magnet with 8 mm thick Copper disc at all the above mentioned speeds in single magnet with sudden application condition. For high speed train applications, single magnet condition with 6mm thick disc may be suitable. For high speed automotive applications, single magnet with sudden application condition with 4 mm thick disc may be suitable.

  7. Aluminium cables in automotive applications : Prestudy of aluminium cable uses in Scania products&Failure analysis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Man, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand of light constructed vehicles as well as soaring price of copper metal owing to limited nature resources have been promoting the use of aluminium metal as an alternative conductor of automotive cables. This thesis work is to lay theoretical foundations for further research and development regarding the introduction of new automotive cables i.e. aluminium cables. Current application of automotive aluminium cables in automotive industry as well as failure analysis and eval...

  8. Regional framework and geology of iron oxide-apatite-rare earth element and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Mesoproterozoic St. Francois Mountains Terrane, southeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Warren C.; Slack, John F.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Seeger, Cheryl M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the genesis of Mesoproterozoic igneous rocks and associated iron oxide ± apatite (IOA) ± rare earth element, iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG), and iron-rich sedimentary deposits in the St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeast Missouri, USA. The St. Francois Mountains terrane lies along the southeastern margin of Laurentia as part of the eastern granite-rhyolite province. The province formed during two major pulses of igneous activity: (1) an older early Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.50–1.44 Ga) episode of volcanism and granite plutonism, and (2) a younger middle Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.33–1.30 Ga) episode of bimodal gabbro and granite plutonism. The volcanic rocks are predominantly high-silica rhyolite pyroclastic flows, volcanogenic breccias, and associated volcanogenic sediments with lesser amounts of basaltic to andesitic volcanic and associated subvolcanic intrusive rocks. The iron oxide deposits are all hosted in the early Mesoproterozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic sequences. Previous studies have characterized the St. Francois Mountains terrane as a classic, A-type within-plate granitic terrane. However, our new whole-rock geochemical data indicate that the felsic volcanic rocks are effusive derivatives from multicomponent source types, having compositional similarities to A-type within-plate granites as well as to S- and I-type granites generated in an arc setting. In addition, the volcanic-hosted IOA and IOCG deposits occur within bimodal volcanic sequences, some of which have volcanic arc geochemical affinities, suggesting an extensional tectonic setting during volcanism prior to emplacement of the ore-forming systems.The Missouri iron orebodies are magmatic-related hydrothermal deposits that, when considered in aggregate, display a vertical zonation from high-temperature, magmatic ± hydrothermal IOA deposits emplaced at moderate depths (~1–2 km), to magnetite-dominant IOA veins and IOCG deposits emplaced at shallow

  9. Influence of ocean acidification on the organic complexation of iron and copper in Northwest European shelf seas; a combined observational and model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth eAvendaño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The pH of aqueous solutions is known to impact the chemical speciation of trace metals. In this study we conducted titrations of coastal seawaters with iron and copper at pH 7.91, 7.37 and 6.99 (expressed on the total pH scale. Changes in the concentration of iron and copper that complexed with the added ligands 1-nitroso-2-napthol and salicylaldoxime respectively were determined by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry - competitive ligand equilibrium (AdCSV-CLE. Interpretation of the results, assuming complexation by a low concentration of discrete ligands, showed that conditional stability constants for iron complexes increased relative to inorganic iron complexation as pH decreased by approximately 1 log unit per pH unit, whilst those for copper did not change. No trend was observed for concentrations of iron and copper complexing ligands over the pH range examined. We also interpreted our titration data by describing chemical binding and polyelectrolytic effects using non-ideal competitive adsorption in Donnan-like gels (NICA-Donnan model in a proof of concept study. The NICA-Donnan approach allows for the development of a set of model parameters that are independent of ionic strength and pH, and thus calculation of metal speciation can be undertaken at ambient sample pH or the pH of a future, more acidic ocean. There is currently a lack of basic NICA-Donnan parameters applicable to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM so we assumed that the measured marine dissolved organic carbon could be characterized as terrestrial fulvic acids. Generic NICA-Donnan parameters were applied within the framework of the software program visual MINTEQ and the metal –added ligand concentrations [MeAL] calculated for the AdCSV-CLE conditions. For copper, calculated [MeAL] using the NICA-Donnan model for DOM were consistent with measured [MeAL], but for iron an inert fraction with kinetically inhibited dissolution was required in addition to the NICA

  10. Serum zinc, copper and iron status of children with coeliac disease on three months of gluten-free diet with or without four weeks of zinc supplements: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, K; Kumar, R; Sharma, L; Datta, S P; Choudhury, M; Kumar, P

    2018-04-01

    Data about the effect of zinc supplementation with gluten-free diet on normalisation of plasma zinc, copper and iron in patients with coeliac disease are scanty. We evaluated the effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc, copper and iron levels in patients with coeliac disease, by randomising 71 children newly diagnosed with coeliac disease into two groups: Group A = gluten-free diet (GFD); and Group B = gluten-free diet with zinc supplements (GFD +Zn). The rise in iron and zinc was significantly higher in the latter, but the mean rise of copper levels was slightly higher in the former, but the difference was not significant.

  11. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  12. The determination of copper and nickel in iron- and chromium-bearing materials by a pressed-powder technique and x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaes, A.M.E.; Dixon, K.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed that is suitable for the determination of copper and nickel in ores such as those from the Merensky and UG-2 Reefs. The sample was ground finely and diluted with river sand so that matrix variations were avoided as much as possible. After the addition of a wax-polystyrene binder, the material was pelletized. The matrix effects of iron and chromium, and the effects of their mutual interferences on the determination of copper and nickel, were then investigated. Equations were derived for the corrected copper and nickel Kα intensities, and were applied to the analyses of head, concentrate, middling, and tailing samples. Comparative values obtained by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry were found to be in reasonable agreement with the X-ray values; the average deviation was +0,3 per cent for copper and -1,6 per cent for nickel relative to the AAS values. The limits of detection of the method for copper and nickel are 31 and 40μg/g respectively; the limit of determination for copper is 92μg/g and for nickel is 119μg/g. The relative standard deviation at 900 and 2400μg of copper and nickel per gram is 0,02

  13. Enhancing elevated temperature strength of copper containing aluminium alloys by forming L12 Al3Zr precipitates and nucleating θ″ precipitates on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Makineni, Surendra; Sugathan, Sandeep; Meher, Subhashish; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Saswata; Kumar, Subodh; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio

    2017-09-11

    Strengthening by precipitation of second phase is the guiding principle for the development of a host of high strength structural alloys, in particular, aluminium alloys for transportation sector. Higher efficiency and lower emission demands use of alloys at higher operating temperatures (200 °C-250 °C) and stresses, especially in applications for engine parts. Unfortunately, most of the precipitation hardened aluminium alloys that are currently available can withstand maximum temperatures ranging from 150-200 °C. This limit is set by the onset of the rapid coarsening of the precipitates and consequent loss of mechanical properties. In this communication, we present a new approach in designing an Al-based alloy through solid state precipitation route that provides a synergistic coupling of two different types of precipitates that has enabled us to develop coarsening resistant high-temperature alloys that are stable in the temperature range of 250-300 °C with strength in excess of 260 MPa at 250 °C.

  14. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314112596; Hugen, S.; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936; Vernooij, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340304596; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074236539; Rothuizen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071276033

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study

  15. Urinary excretion of copper, zinc and iron with and without D-penicillamine administration in relation to hepatic copper concentration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, H.; Hugen, S.; Ingh, van den T.S.G.A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Bode, P.; Watson, A.L.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Rothuizen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary copper-associated hepatitis in dogs resembles Wilson’s disease, a copper storage disease in humans. Values for urinary copper excretion are well established in the diagnostic protocol of Wilson’s disease, whereas in dogs these have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to

  16. Corrosion characterization of in-situ titanium diboride (TiB2) reinforced aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloy by two methods: Salts spray fog and linear polarization resistance (LPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmamuhamadani, R.; Talari, M. K.; Yahaya, Sabrina M.; Sulaiman, S.; Ismail, M. I. S.; Hanim, M. A. Azmah

    2018-05-01

    Aluminium-copper (Al-Cu) alloys is the one of most Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have important high-strength Al alloys. The aluminium (Al) casting alloys, based on the Al-Cu system are widely used in light-weight constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. In this research, Al-Cu master alloy was reinforced with 3 and 6wt.% titanium diboride (TiB2) that obtained from salts route reactions. The salts used were were potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) and potassium tetrafluoroborate (KBF4). The salts route reaction process were done at 800 °C. The Al-Cu alloy then has characterized on the mechanical properties and microstructure characterization. Salts spray fog test and Gamry-electrode potentiometer instruments were used to determine the corrosion rate of this alloys. From results obtained, the increasement of 3wt.%TiB2 contents will decrease the value of the corrosion rate. In corrosion test that conducted both of salt spray fog and Gamry-electrode potentiometer, the addition of 3wt.%TiB2 gave the good properties in corrosion characterization compare to Al-Cu-6wt.%TiB2 and Al-Cu cast alloy itself. As a comparison, Al-Cu with 3wt.%TiB2 gave the lowest value of corrosion rate, which means alloy has good properties in corrosion characterization. The results obtained show that in-situ Al-Cu alloy composites containing the different weight of TiB2 phase were synthesized successfully by the salt-metal reaction method.

  17. Hemoglobin and Myoglobin as Reducing Agents in Biological Systems. Redox Reactions of Globins with Copper and Iron Salts and Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikova, G B; Shekhovtsova, E A

    2016-12-01

    In addition to reversible O2 binding, respiratory proteins of the globin family, hemoglobin (Hb) and myoglobin (Mb), participate in redox reactions with various metal complexes, including biologically significant ones, such as those of copper and iron. HbO 2 and MbO 2 are present in cells in large amounts and, as redox agents, can contribute to maintaining cell redox state and resisting oxidative stress. Divalent copper complexes with high redox potentials (E 0 , 200-600 mV) and high stability constants, such as [Cu(phen) 2 ] 2+ , [Cu(dmphen) 2 ] 2+ , and CuDTA oxidize ferrous heme proteins by the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism through overlapping π-orbitals of the heme and the copper complex. Weaker oxidants, such as Cu2+, CuEDTA, CuNTA, CuCit, CuATP, and CuHis (E 0 ≤ 100-150 mV) react with HbO 2 and MbO 2 through preliminary binding to the protein with substitution of the metal ligands with protein groups and subsequent intramolecular electron transfer in the complex (the site-specific outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism). Oxidation of HbO 2 and MbO 2 by potassium ferricyanide and Fe(3) complexes with NTA, EDTA, CDTA, ATP, 2,3-DPG, citrate, and pyrophosphate PP i proceeds mainly through the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism via the exposed heme edge. According to Marcus theory, the rate of this reaction correlates with the difference in redox potentials of the reagents and their self-exchange rates. For charged reagents, the reaction may be preceded by their nonspecific binding to the protein due to electrostatic interactions. The reactions of LbO 2 with carboxylate Fe complexes, unlike its reactions with ferricyanide, occur via the site-specific outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism, even though the same reagents oxidize structurally similar MbO 2 and cytochrome b 5 via the simple outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. Of particular biological interest is HbO 2 and MbO 2 transformation into met-forms in the presence

  18. Aluminium alloy containing iron and nickel. Influence of structure and composition on the corrosion behaviour in high temperature water; Alliages d'aluminium contenant du fer et du nickel. Influence de la structure et de la teneur sur la resistance a la corrosion par l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coriou, H; Grall, L; Hure, J; Roux, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The corrosion structures are determined on a series of aluminium (A{sub 9}) base alloys which contain a total Fe + Ni not superior to 3%. The tests are carried out to 5,000 hours in 350 deg. C deionized water in autoclave. The principal results were as follows: - For iron and nickel contents superior to 0,5%, the first factor is the distribution structure of insoluble intermetallic compounds: the particles must be as fine and randomly dispersed as possible. - The corrosion products developed on the surface may be subdivided in three distinct layers which total thickness tends rapidly towards a limit and stabilises itself. (author) [French] On a determine les structures de corrosion d'une gamme d'alliages a base d'aluminium A{sub 9} ayant une teneur Fe + Ni ne depassant pas 3%. Les essais ont ete effectues jusqu'a 5000 heures en autoclave a 350 deg. C dans l'eau demineralisee. Les resultats principaux sont les suivants: - Pour les teneurs superieures a 0,5 % en fer et en nickel, le facteur preponderant est la structure de repartition des composes intermetalliques en phase separee, qui doivent etre en particules aussi fines et uniformement reparties que possible. - Les produits de corrosion developpes en surface se subdivisent en trois couches distinctes dont l'epaisseur totale tend rapidement vers une limite et se stabilise. (auteur)

  19. Effect of Microstructures on Working Properties of Nickel-Manganese-Copper Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Medyński

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the effects, on basic usable properties (abrasive wear and corrosion resistance, of solidification (acc. to the stable and non-stable equilibrium system and transformations occurring in the matrix during the cooling of castings of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron were determined. Abrasive wear resistance was mainly determined by the types and arrangements of high-carbon phases (indicated by eutectic saturation degree, and the kinds of matrices (indicated by the nickel equivalent value, calculated from chemical composition. The highest abrasive wear resistance was found for white cast iron, with the highest degree of austenite to martensite transformation occurring in its matrix. Irrespective of solidification, a decrease of the equivalent value below a limit value resulted in increased austenite transformation, and thus, to a significant rise in hardness and abrasive wear resistance for the castings. At the same time, corrosion resistance of the alloy was slightly reduced. The examinations showed that corrosion resistance of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron is, too a much lesser degree, decided by the means of solidification of the castings, rather than transformations occurring in the matrix, as controlled by nickel equivalent value (especially elements with high electrochemical potential.

  20. Influence of boron on ferrite formation in copper-added spheroidal graphite cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the original work of the authors published recently, describing the influence of B on the matrix of the Cuadded spheroidal graphite cast iron. The effect of Cu has been corrected as a ferrite formation promoter in the matrix of the grey cast iron by the usage of high-purity material. Also, this paper focuses on the ferrite formation and the observation of the Cu distribution in the B-added and B-free Cu-containing spheroidal graphite cast iron. The Cu film on the spheroidal graphite can be successfully observed in the B-free sample using a special etching method. However, in the B-added sample, no Cu film could be found, while the secondary graphite was formed on the surface of the spheroidal graphite. The interaction between B and Cu is stressed as a peculiar phenomenon by the employment of a contrast experiment of B and Mn. The heat treatment could make Cu precipitate more significantly in the eutectic cells and in the matrix in the form of large Cu particles because of the limited solubility of Cu.

  1. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  3. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Bin, Xu; Wang, Qiongfang; Ding, Shunke

    2016-12-15

    The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of aluminium and selenium supplementation on brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This in vivo study was designed to investigate the potential of aluminium (Al), in the absence of added iron, to participate in either antioxidant or pro-oxidant events. Some markers of oxidative stress were determined in liver and brain of rats exposed to aluminium lactate, either alone or in the presence of dietary supplements ...

  5. Spatial distribution of iron, copper and lead in mangrove sediments in a degradation gradient in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro State)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Anderson C.; Dias, Jailson C.; Machado, Wilson; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Sella, Silvia M.

    2007-01-01

    Iron, copper and lead distribution was evaluated in sediment cores from a disturbed mangrove area in Guanabara Bay: a core from a seaward site where mangrove vegetation was removed ~20 yr before sampling (MD); a core from an intermediate site with dead vegetation, apparently due to insect attack (MP), and a core from a landward site with living vegetation (MV). Metal concentrations showed increasing values seaward while organic matter content showed an inverse trend, displaying a negative cor...

  6. Regenerable mixed copper-iron-inert support oxygen carriers for solid fuel chemical looping combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Tian, Hanjing

    2016-12-20

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier for a chemical looping cycle, such as the chemical looping combustion of solid carbonaceous fuels, such as coal, coke, coal and biomass char, and the like. The oxygen carrier is comprised of at least 24 weight % (wt %) CuO, at least 10 wt % Fe2O3, and an inert support, and is typically a calcine. The oxygen carrier exhibits a CuO crystalline structure and an absence of iron oxide crystalline structures under XRD crystallography, and provides an improved and sustained combustion reactivity in the temperature range of 600.degree. C.-1000.degree. C. particularly for solid fuels such as carbon and coal.

  7. The effect of the cooling rate during quenching, electron bombardment and plastic deformation on the kinetics of a solid solution disintegration in iron-copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, G.B.; Zhukov, V.P.; Braun, A.G.; Smirnov, E.A.

    1974-01-01

    From the electroresistivity variation at 77 0 K, the influence of nonequilibrium point defect density and of complexes and dislocations on the decay process of the iron-copper solid solution is determined. Owing to high quenching rate of thin foils, isochrones of their electroconductivity curves appear shifted by about 200 0 C to lower temperatures. For quenched and irradiated specimens at 200-250 0 C a sharp retardation of electroconductivity decline is observed due to a zone stage. The plastic deformation (15%) leads to a partial suppression of that stage. Both irradiation and deformation initiate the process of copper separation from the solid solution, the latter being the stronger, the more copper is in the solid solution

  8. Optimization of the composition and structure of heat-resistant casting aluminium alloys with additions of cerium, iron, nickel and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, N.A.; Lavrishchev, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the effect of composition and structure on mechanical properties of cast alloys of the Al-Ce-Ni-Fe-Zr system in which binary and ternary eutectics with participation of low alloyed aluminium solid solution and Al 4 Ce, Al 3 Ni and Al 9 FeNi phases are crystallized. It is found that microhardness of eutectics is heavily dependent on the volume fraction of aluminides and their dispersivity. It was shown that essential hardening of aluminium matrix can be achieved at the cost of zirconium additive in quantity of 0.6 % when using two-stage manufacturing operation. Experimental compositions of Al-10 % Ce-5% Ni-0.6 % Zr and Al-1.5 % Fe-1.5 % Ni-0.6 % Zr on the basis of ternary and binary eutectics respectively as billets essentially exceed industrial heat-resistant cast aluminium alloys AK12MMgN and AM5 as to a set of room and high-temperature mechanical properties and hot brittleness index [ru

  9. Coumarin-Based Fluorescent Probes for Dual Recognition of Copper(II and Iron(III Ions and Their Application in Bio-Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpo García-Beltrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new coumarin-based “turn-off” fluorescent probes, (E-3-((3,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS1 and (E-3-((2,4-dihydroxybenzylideneamino-7-hydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one (BS2, were synthesized and their detection of copper(II and iron(III ions was studied. Results show that both compounds are highly selective for Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions over other metal ions. However, BS2 is detected directly, while detection of BS1 involves a hydrolysis reaction to regenerate 3-amino-7-hydroxycoumarin (3 and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, of which 3 is able to react with copper(II or iron(III ions. The interaction between the tested compounds and copper or iron ions is associated with a large fluorescence decrease, showing detection limits of ca. 10−5 M. Preliminary studies employing epifluorescence microscopy demonstrate that Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions can be imaged in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the tested probes.

  10. Power distribution: conductors in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, R.

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of aluminium conductors in medium and low-voltage cables. The author discusses how the increasing price of copper has led to the increasing use of aluminium as a material for the production of the conductors used in medium and low-voltage power cables. Aid is provided that is to help purchasers make the correct decisions when buying medium and low-voltage cables. The current market situation is examined and the appropriate norms are looked at. Technical data and economic aspects are discussed, both for medium and low-voltage applications. The electrical characteristics of the type of cable to be used are examined and discussed

  11. Investigations into the corrosion resistance of copper aluminium alloys. Effect of phosphorus as corrosion resistant third alloying element in the ternary system CuAl20P1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwardt, A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes is studied in detail in this work. A literature review showed that there are a lot of things known about the microstructure and the mechanical properties of Al-bronzes. In spite of their corrosion resistance the corrosion properties and the structure of the protective oxide films of Al-bronzes were seldom a matter of interest. Systematic studies of the influence of different alloying elements on the oxide film and the corrosion properties are rare. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, made by alloying particular elements. The high corrosion resistance of the new alloy CuAl 20 P 1 was the reason to investigate the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion properties of Al-bronzes in more detail. A systematic study of the microstructure and the corrosion properties of Cu, CuP x , CuAl 20 and CuAl 20 P x offers an insight into the effect of aluminium and phosphorus on the formation of the oxide film on Al-bronzes. It was found that there exists a critical amount of 1 at.-% of phosphorus. Above and below this amount the corrosion resistance becomes worse. This behaviour could be explained by XPS-and electrochemical measurements. Although there are still some questions about the influence of phosphorus on the corrosion resistance of Al-bronzes, this work has produced some important results, which in the future may be helpful to develop new high corrosion resistant Al-bronzes more efficiently: - on clean surface Al-bronze, the oxidation of Al and Cu takes place simultaneously, - Al promotes the formation of Cu 2 O but impedes the formation of Cu(II)-oxide/-hydride in neutral solutions, - P impedes the formation of Cu 2 O and as a consequence promotes the formation of aluminium oxide. This results in a higher amount of Al in the oxide film on the surface of the alloy, which leads to a better corrosion resistance. (author) figs., tabs., 106 refs

  12. Sulfate radical degradation of acetaminophen by novel iron-copper bimetallic oxidation catalyzed by persulfate: Mechanism and degradation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Qian; Hong, Junming

    2017-11-01

    A novel iron coupled copper oxidate (Fe2O3@Cu2O) catalyst was synthesized to activate persulfate (PS) for acetaminophen (APAP) degradation. The catalysts were characterized via field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The effects of the catalyst, PS concentration, catalyst dosage, initial pH, dissolved oxygen were analyzed for treatment optimization. Results indicated that Fe2O3@Cu2O achieved higher efficiency in APAP degradation than Fe2O3/PS and Cu2O/PS systems. The optimal removal efficiency of APAP (90%) was achieved within 40 min with 0.6 g/L PS and 0.3 g/L catalyst. To clarify the mechanism for APAP degradation, intermediates were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three possible degradation pathways were identified. During reaction, Cu(I) was found to react with Fe(III) to generate Fe(II), which is the most active phase for PS activation. Through the use of methanol and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as radical trappers, SO4rad - was identified as the main radical species that is generated during oxidation.

  13. STUDY ON THE EVOLUTION OF MICRO- AND MACROELEMENTS DURING THE WINEMAKING STAGES: THE IMPORTANCE OF COPPER AND IRON QUANTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana NOROCEL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of mineral elements from winemaking products, particularly from the final product is important because of their influence on wine quality. Some metal ions such as iron and copper can induce haze formation and changes in the sensory proprieties of wine. The presence of heavy metals in wine is due to different factors including vineyard soil, agricultural practices (the use of fertilizers and pesticides, and can be at the same time a result of environmental pollution. In addition, the acidity of wine and grape must (freshly pressed grape juice can dissolve Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn from winemaking equipment like pumps and taps. As wine is the most widely consumed alcoholic beverage, analytical control of mineral elements content is required during the whole process of wine production, from the grapes used to the final product. In this study the content of micro- and macroelements in grape pomace, yeast sediment, grape must and wine was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Samples of winemaking products originating from five grape varieties were analyzed in four forms in order to determine to what measure the values varied the PCA (Principal component analysis. The obtained results using PCA highlighted major differences in the content in trace elements between samples.

  14. Method for aluminium dross utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucheva, B.; Petkov, R.; Tzonev, Tz.

    2003-01-01

    A new hydrometallurgical method has been developed for metal aluminum utilization from secondary aluminum dross. Secondary aluminum dross is a powder product with an average of 35% aluminium content (below 1mm). It is waste from primary aluminum dross pyrometallurgical flux less treatment in rotary DC electric arc furnace. This method is based on aluminum leaching in copper chloride water solution. As a result an aluminum oxychloride solution and solids, consisting of copper and oxides are obtained. In order to copper chloride solution regenerate hydrochloric acid is added to the solids. The process is simple, quick, economic and safe. The aluminum oxychloride solution contains 56 g/l Al 2 O 3 . The molar ratios are Al:Cl=0,5; OH:Al=1. The solution has 32 % basicity and 1,1 g/cm 3 density. For increasing the molar ratio of aluminium to chlorine aluminum hydroxide is added to this solution at 80 o C. Aluminum hydroxide is the final product from the secondary aluminum dross alkaline leaching. As a result aluminum oxychloride solution of the following composition is prepared: Al 2 O 3 - 180 g/l; Al:Cl=1,88; OH:Al=4,64; basicity 82%; density 1,22 g/cm 3 , pH=4 -4,5. Aluminum oxychloride solution produced by means of this method can be used in potable and wastewater treatment, paper making, in refractory mixture as a binder etc. (Original)

  15. Mass balances and energy flows, reference concept. (Spent Fuel - Copper-Iron - Bentonite - Granite)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordman, H.; Lehikoinen, J.

    2008-12-01

    In this work, a semi-quantitative analysis of mass and energy flows and balances in a deep repository of the KBS-3V type subject to a glacial cycle has been carried out. The energy flows and temperatures show the maximum temperature at the canister surface not to exceed the design temperature of 100 deg C. If the measures taken to limit the water flow into the underground facilities are appropriate, the lifetime of the calcite buffer in the hydraulically conductive fracture zones was calculated to extend well beyond the operational phase of the repository. The results from hydrogeochemical model calculations in the backfill imply a long-term exchange of sodium for calcium in the clay component, if MX-80 bentonite is used. As this constitutes a potential threat to the swelling pressure of backfill in saline water environments, the physicochemical properties of a backfill should be carefully adjusted to meet its preplanned function. Despite short-lived episodes of oxygen-rich glacial water intrusion, the corrosion of the copper canister will likely be minor in the long term. (orig.)

  16. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuhawar, M.Y.; Das, P.; Dewani, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The reagent 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MPAPT) has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The method is based on the complexation and extraction of cadmium (II), cobalt(III), copper(II), lead(II), nickel(II), iron(II), iron(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) in chloroform. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid (1:1) or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained 10-25 times. Metal ions recovery was 95.4-100.8% with coefficient of variation 0.2-7.5%. The method used for the determination of metals in canal and sewerage waters, within 2-6433 mu g/L with C. V 0.-5.2%. (author)

  17. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  18. APPLICATION OF SPHEROIDIZING «CHIPS»-MASTER ALLOY ON COPPER BASE CONTAINING NANOSCALE PARTICLES OF YTTRIUM OXIDE FOR HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kalinichenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of the technology of obtaining high-strength cast iron is application in out-furnace treatment various inoculants containing magnesium. In practice of foundry production spheroidizing master alloys based on ferrosilicon (Fe-Si-Mg type and «heavy» alloying alloys on copper and nickel base are widespread. The urgent issue is to improve their efficiency by increasing the degree of magnesium assimilation, reduction of specific consumption of additives, and minimizing dust and gas emissions during the process of spheroidizing treatment of liquid iron. One method of solving this problem is the use of inoculants in a compact form in which the process of dissolution proceeds more efficiently. For example, rapidly quenched granules or «chip»-inoculants are interesting to apply.The aim of present work was to study the peculiarities of production and application of «Chips»-inoculants on copper and magnesium base with additions of yttrium oxide. The principle of mechatronics was used, including the briquetting inoculants’ components after their mixing with the subsequent high-speed mechanical impact and obtaining plates with a thickness of 1–2 mm.Spheroidizing treatment of molten metal has been produced by ladle method using «Chips»-inoculants in the amount of 0.8%. Secondary graphitization inoculation was not performed. Studies have shown that when the spheroidizing treatment of ductile iron was performed with inoculants developed, the process of interaction of magnesium with the liquid melt runs steadily without significant pyroeffect and emissions of metal outside of the ladle.This generates a structure of spheroidal graphite of regular shape (SGf5. The presence in the inoculant of yttrium oxide has a positive impact on the spheroidal graphite counts and the tendency of high-strength cast iron to form «white» cast iron structure. Mechanical properties of the obtained alloy correspond to high-strength cast iron HSCI60.

  19. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  20. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  1. Formation of aluminium nitride and segregation of Cu impurity atoms in aluminium implanted by high dose nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chenglu; Hemment, P.L.F.; Li Jinhua; Zou Shichang

    1994-01-01

    Aluminium films with a thickness of 7000 A (containing 0.85% copper) were deposited on silicon substrates. 400 keV N 2 + or 350 keV N + ions were implanted into the aluminium films or at the interface between the aluminium and silicon, respectively. Automatic spreading resistance (ASR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channelling were used to characterize the formation of aluminium nitride and the depth distribution of the Cu impurity in the aluminium films after ion implantation and post-annealing. The formation of a stoichiometric AlN layer with high resistance was evident from ASR, RBS analysis and FTIR measurements by the presence of the absorption band at 650 cm -1 . When the implanted nitrogen is near the interface between the aluminium and silicon, a multilayer structure can be obtained, which consists of aluminium, aluminium nitride and the silicon substrate. Cu, which is a background impurity in the deposited aluminium films, segregated into the synthesised aluminium nitride during high dose nitrogen ion implantation. This is due to irradiation-induced segregation during ion implantation. (orig.)

  2. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONTENT OF IRON AND COPPER IN THE SOILS AND WINES FROM THE LOCAL VINEYARDS OF THE CONTINENTAL CROATIA: A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ružičić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of red and white wine together with corresponding soils from the domestic vineyards of the continental Croatia were selected for analysis. Vineyard soil cover (Stagnosols and Rendzina is developed over the Plio-Quaternary non-consolidated deposits (gravel, sand, silt, clay or marly limestones. Within soils overlying non-consolidated deposits containing clays pH value range from 5.4 to 6.6, whereas maximum measured pH of 7.5 is attributed to soil developed over marly limestones. Soil and wine samples was determined by the total content of copper and iron using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Results are compared to the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC by the relevant Croatian regulations. Copper concentrations are elevated within all measured wines (from 1.7× to 2.0× with respect to MPC and two soil samples (up to 2.4× with respect to MPC, due to extensive use of agrochemicals in the vineyards. Increased concentrations of iron within wine and corresponding soil were determined at locality with low soil pH (5.5. Preliminary research demonstrates a plausible link between the content of elements within soils developed over a specific lithology and associated wines. Increased copper concentration within wines of domestic production points to need for education of population in line with use of eco-agrochemicals. Further extensive studies with detailed physico-chemical processing of soil samples are needed (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keates, Adam C.; Wang, Qianlong; Weller, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K 2 MP 2 O 7 (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42 1 m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP 2 O 7 ] 2− with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO 4 tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P 2 O 7 ] 4− diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO 8 square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d 6 Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d 9 Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K 2 MP 2 O 7 , M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP 2 O 7 ] 2− , formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO 4 tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d 6 Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d 9 Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d 10 distorted coordinations

  4. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xue

    Full Text Available The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu in maize (Zea mays L. were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain. Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60% and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1 rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively. The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.

  5. Trace Element Status (Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Iron, Manganese) in Patients with Long-Term Home Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastych, Milan; Šenkyřík, Michal; Dastych, Milan; Novák, František; Wohl, Petr; Maňák, Jan; Kohout, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) in blood plasma and manganese (Mn) in the whole blood in patients with long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in comparison to the control group. We examined 68 patients (16 men and 52 women) aged from 28 to 68 years on a long-term HPN lasting from 4 to 96 months. The short bowel syndrome was an indication for HPN. The daily doses of Zn, Cu, Fe, Se and Mn in the last 3 months were determined. No significant differences in blood plasma were found for Zn, Cu and Fe in patients with HPN and in the control group (p > 0.05). The concentration of Mn in whole blood was significantly increased in HPN patients (p < 0.0001), while Se concentration in these patients was significantly decreased (p < 0.005). The concentration of Mn in the whole blood of 16 patients with cholestasis was significantly increased compared to the patients without cholestasis (p < 0.001). The Cu concentration was increased with no statistical significance. In long-term HPN, the status of trace elements in the patients has to be continually monitored and the daily substitution doses of these elements have to be flexibly adjusted. Dosing schedule needs to be adjusted especially in cases of cholestatic hepatopathy. A discussion about the optimal daily dose of Mn in patients on HPN is appropriate. For clinical practice, the availability of a substitution mixture of trace elements lacking Mn would be advantageous. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The role of copper and oxalate in the redox cycling of iron in atmospheric waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, David L.; Hoigné, Jürg

    During daytime, the redox cycling of dissolved iron compounds in atmospheric waters, and the related in-cloud transformations of photooxidants, are affected by reactions of Fe and Cu with hydroperoxy (HO 2) and superoxide (O 2-) radicals and the photoreduction of Fe(III)-oxalato complexes. We have investigated several of the important chemical reactions in this redox cycle, through laboratory simulation of the system, using γ-radiation to produce HO 2/O 2-. At concentrations comparable to those measured in atmospheric waters, the redox cycling of Fe was dramatically affected by the presence of oxalate and trace concentrations of Cu. At concentrations more than a hundred times lower than Fe, Cu consumed most of the HO 2/O 2-, and cycled between the Cu(II) and Cu(I) forms. Cu + reacted with FeOH 2+ to produce Fe(II) and Cu(II), with a second order rate constant of approximately 3 × 10 7 M -1s -1. The presence of oxalate resulted in the formation of Fe(III)-oxalato complexes that were essentially unreactive with HO 2/O 2-. Only at high oxalate concentrations was the Fe(II)C 2O 4 complex also formed, and it reacted relatively rapidly with hydrogen peroxide ( k = (3.1 ± 0.6) × 10 4 M -1s -1). Simulations incorporating measurements for other redox mechanisms, including oxidation by ozone, indicate that, during daytime, Fe should be found mostly in the ferrous oxidation state, and that reactions of FeOH 2+ with Cu(I) and HO 2/O 2-, and to a lesser degree, the photolysis of Fe(III)-oxalato complexes, are important mechanisms of Fe reduction in atmospheric waters. The catalytic effect of Cu(II)/Cu(I) and Fe(III)/Fe(II) should also significantly increase the sink function of the atmospheric liquid phase for HO 2 present in a cloud. A simple kinetic model for the reactions of Fe, Cu and HO 2/O 2-, accurately predicted the changes in Fe oxidation states that occurred when authentic fogwater samples were exposed to HO 2/O 2-.

  7. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Effects of silicon, copper and iron on static and dynamic properties of alloy 206 (aluminum-copper) in semi-solids produced by the SEED process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Alain

    The advantages of producing metal parts by rheocasting are generally recognised for common foundry alloys of Al-Si. However, other more performing alloys in terms of mechanical properties could have a great interest in specialized applications in the automotive industry, while remaining competitive in the forming. Indeed, the growing demand for more competitive products requires the development of new alloys better suited to semi-solid processes. Among others, Al-Cu alloys of the 2XX series are known for their superior mechanical strength. However, in the past, 2XX alloys were never candidates for pressure die casting. The main reason is their propensity to hot tearing. Semi-solid processes provide better conditions for molding with the rheological behavior of dough and molding temperatures lower reducing this type of defect. In the initial phase, this research has studied factors that reduce hot tearing susceptibility of castings produced by semi-solid SEED of alloy 206. Subsequently, a comparative study on the tensile properties and fatigue was performed on four variants of the alloy 206. The results of tensile strength and fatigue were compared with the specifications for applications in the automotive industry and also to other competing processes and alloys. During this study, several metallurgical aspects were analyzed. The following main points have been validated: i) the main effects of compositional variations of silicon, iron and copper alloy Al-Cu (206) on the mechanical properties, and ii) certain relationships between the mechanism of hot cracking and the solidification rate in semi-solid. Parts produced from the semi-solid paste coming from the SEED process combined with modified 206 alloys have been successfully molded and achieved superior mechanical properties than the requirements of the automotive industry. The fatigue properties of the two best modified 206 alloys were higher than those of A357 alloy castings and are close to those of the

  9. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  10. Quantitative determination of iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel in electronic waste samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaseer, A. S.; Musbah, A. S; Ammar, M. M. G.; Salah, M. A.; Aisha, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy in conjunction with microwave assisted extraction technique was used for the analysis of twenty electronic waste samples. The analysis was limited to the printed circuit boards of electronic devices. Iron, copper, lead, chromium and nickel were quantitatively determined in the samples. The samples were carefully milled to fine powder and 50mg was digested by acid using microwave digestion procedure. The digested samples solution was spread together with gallium as internal standard on the reflection disk and analyzed. The results showed that the cassette recorder boards contain the highest concentration of iron, lead and nickel. The average concentrations of these metals were 78, 73 and 71g/Kg respectively. Computer boards contained the highest copper average concentration 39g/Kg. the highest chromium average concentration 3.6 g/Kg was in mobile phone boards. Measurements were made using PicoTAX portable x-ray device. the instrument was used for quantitative multi-element analysis. An air cooled x-ray tube (40KV, 1 mA) with Mo target and Be window was used as x-ray source. The optics of the device was a multilayer Ni/C, 17.5 keV, 80% reflectivity provides analysis of elements from Si to Zr (K series) and Rh to U (L series). A Si PIN-diode detector (7mm"2, 195eV) was used for the elements detection. In this study heavy metals average concentration in electronic circuit boards in the in the order of iron (35.25g/kg), copper (21.14g/Kg), lead (16.59g/Kg), nickel (16.01g/Kg) and chromium (1.07g/Kg).(author)

  11. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  12. Study of the Chemistry of Coordination of Oxide-anions of Nitrogen with Species of Iron and Copper as Models of Enzymes of the Cycle of the Nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Espinoza, F

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, a study is carried out about the reactivity of some nitrogen oxide-anions, like nitrite (NO 2 - ) and trioxide-dinitrate (N 2 O 3 2- ), besides nitric oxide (NO), with copper species, iron, and cobalt in their states of oxidation II, in presence of the binding spectator bispicen. The synthesis and characterization of the [Cu(bispicen)NO 2 ]BF 4 was obtained, which can help to consolidate some mechanisms, proposed for the action of the nitrite reductase. The Fe(bispicen)(NO 2 ) 2 was also characterized; this is the fourth compound that presents two nitrites coordinated to an iron (II) through nitrogen. It has the characteristic of possessing short connection distances, which gives it a special attractiveness, and it opens the possibility of studying a spin exchange [es

  13. Electrical connection for aluminium conductors in automotive applications : Prestudy of available solutions for electrical connection methods of aluminium cables

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedi, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing weight of electrical component and wiring harnesses in a vehicle contrary to the demand of light constructed vehicles as well as the constantly increasing and fluctuating price of copper compared to aluminium’s stable and far lower price, the use of aluminium conductors as an alternative have been promoted.  This thesis work lay theoretical research of the available methods used for electrical connection of aluminium conductors in order to increase the knowledge about the av...

  14. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  15. Synthesis and structural characterisation of iron(II) and copper(II) diphosphates containing flattened metal oxotetrahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keates, Adam C. [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hampshire SO17 1B,. UK (United Kingdom); Wang, Qianlong [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Weller, Mark T., E-mail: m.t.weller@bath.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Single crystal and bulk polycrystalline forms of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7} (M=Fe(II), Cu(II)) have been synthesised and their structures determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group P-42{sub 1}m. Their structures are formed from infinite sheets of linked oxopolyhedra of the stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2−} with potassium cations situated between the layers. The MO{sub 4} tetrahedra share oxygen atoms with [P{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 4−} diphosphate groups and the potassium ions have KO{sub 8} square prismatic geometry. In both compounds the M(II) centre has an unusual strongly flattened, tetrahedral coordination to oxygen, as a result of the Jahn–Teller (JT) effect for the high spin d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing or a second order JT effect for d{sup 9} Cu(II) centres in four fold coordination. The uncommon transition metal ion environments found in these materials are reflected in their optical absorption spectra and magnetism data. - Graphical abstract: The structures of the tetragonal polymorphs of K{sub 2}MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, M=Cu(II), Fe(II), consist of infinite sheets of stoichiometry [MP{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sup 2−}, formed from linked pyrophosphate groups and MO{sub 4} tetrahedra, separated by potassium ions. In both compounds the unusual tetrahedral coordination of the M(II) centre is strongly flattened as a result of Jahn–Teller (JT) effects for high spin, d{sup 6} Fe(II) and p-orbital mixing and second-order JT effects for d{sup 9} Cu(II). Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetrahedral copper and iron(II) coordinated by oxygen. • New layered phosphate structure. • Jahn–Teller and d{sup 10} distorted coordinations.

  16. Operation of the NETL Chemical Looping Reactor with Natural Gas and a Novel Copper-Iron Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Douglas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Bayham, Samuel [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Weber, Justin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The proposed Clean Power Plan requires CO2 emission reductions of 30% by 2030 and further reductions are targeted by 2050. The current strategies to achieve the 30% reduction targets do not include options for coal. However, the 2016 Annual Energy Outlook suggests that coal will continue to provide more electricity than renewable sources for many regions of the country in 2035. Therefore, cost effective options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel power plants are vital in order to achieve greenhouse gas reduction targets beyond 2030. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Combustion Program, the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s Research and Innovation Center (NETL R&IC) is investigating the feasibility of a novel combustion concept in which the GHG emissions can be significantly reduced. This concept involves burning fuel and air without mixing these two reactants. If this concept is technically feasible, then CO2 emissions can be significantly reduced at a much lower cost than more conventional approaches. This indirect combustion concept has been called Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) because an intermediate material (i.e., a metal-oxide) is continuously cycled to oxidize the fuel. This CLC concept is the focus of this research and will be described in more detail in the following sections. The solid material that is used to transport oxygen is called an oxygen carrier material. The cost, durability, and performance of this material is a key issue for the CLC technology. Researchers at the NETL R&IC have developed an oxygen carrier material that consists of copper, iron, and alumina. This material has been tested extensively using lab scale instruments such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical attrition (ASTM D5757), and small fluidized bed reactor tests. This report will describe the results from a realistic, circulating, proof-of-concept test that was

  17. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. [Reference values of iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols for the Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria Nieves; Landaeta, Maritza; Adrianza de Baptista, Gertrudis; Murillo, Carolain; Rincón, Mariela; Bou Rached, Lizet; Bilbao, Arantza; Anderson, Hazel; García, Doris; Franquiz, Julia; Puche, Rafael; Garcia, Omar; Quintero, Yurimay; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients.

  19. Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Copper and Cobalt in Food Samples by CCD-diode Array Detection-Flow Injection Analysis with Partial Least Squares Calibration Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Jiaping; Li Yuanqian; Zhou Xiaoli; Zheng Bo; Zhou Ying

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection-CCD diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) program for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and cobalt in food samples has been established. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of the three metal ions and 2- (5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, 5-Br-PADAP in acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5) with Triton X-100 and ascorbic acid. The overlapped spectra of the colored complexes were collected by charge-coupled device (CCD) - diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Optimum reaction conditions and parameters of flow injection analysis were investigated. The samples of tea, sesame, laver, millet, cornmeal, mung bean and soybean powder were determined by the proposed method. The average recoveries of spiked samples were 91.80%∼100.9% for Iron, 92.50%∼108.0% for Copper, 93.00%∼110.5% for Cobalt, respectively with relative standard deviation (R.S.D) of 1.1%∼12.1%. The sampling rate is 45 samples h -1 . The determination results of the food samples were in good agreement between the proposed method and ICP-AES

  20. Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Copper and Cobalt in Food Samples by CCD-diode Array Detection-Flow Injection Analysis with Partial Least Squares Calibration Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi Jiaping; Li Yuanqian; Zhou Xiaoli; Zheng Bo; Zhou Ying [West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection-CCD diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) program for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and cobalt in food samples has been established. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of the three metal ions and 2- (5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, 5-Br-PADAP in acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5) with Triton X-100 and ascorbic acid. The overlapped spectra of the colored complexes were collected by charge-coupled device (CCD) - diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Optimum reaction conditions and parameters of flow injection analysis were investigated. The samples of tea, sesame, laver, millet, cornmeal, mung bean and soybean powder were determined by the proposed method. The average recoveries of spiked samples were 91.80%{approx}100.9% for Iron, 92.50%{approx}108.0% for Copper, 93.00%{approx}110.5% for Cobalt, respectively with relative standard deviation (R.S.D) of 1.1%{approx}12.1%. The sampling rate is 45 samples h{sup -1}. The determination results of the food samples were in good agreement between the proposed method and ICP-AES.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Iron, Copper and Cobalt in Food Samples by CCD-diode Array Detection-Flow Injection Analysis with Partial Least Squares Calibration Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jiaping; Li, Yuanqian; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zheng, Bo; Zhou, Ying

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection-CCD diode array detection spectrophotometry with partial least squares (PLS) program for simultaneous determination of iron, copper and cobalt in food samples has been established. The method was based on the chromogenic reaction of the three metal ions and 2- (5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, 5-Br-PADAP in acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer solution (pH5) with Triton X-100 and ascorbic acid. The overlapped spectra of the colored complexes were collected by charge-coupled device (CCD) - diode array detector and the multi-wavelength absorbance data was processed using partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. Optimum reaction conditions and parameters of flow injection analysis were investigated. The samples of tea, sesame, laver, millet, cornmeal, mung bean and soybean powder were determined by the proposed method. The average recoveries of spiked samples were 91.80%~100.9% for Iron, 92.50%~108.0% for Copper, 93.00%~110.5% for Cobalt, respectively with relative standard deviation (R.S.D) of 1.1%~12.1%. The sampling rate is 45 samples h-1. The determination results of the food samples were in good agreement between the proposed method and ICP-AES.

  2. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Sirajuddin; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Sabir; Kadar, Salma

    2017-08-01

    Epidemiological data among the human population has shown a significantly increased incidence of gallstone (GS) disease worldwide. It was studied that some essential (calcium) and transition elements (iron and copper) in bile play an important role in the development of GS. The estimation of calcium, copper and iron were carried out in the serum, gall bladder bile and different types of GS (cholesterol, mixed and pigmented) of 172 patients, age ranged 20-55years. For comparative purpose age matched referents not suffering from GS diseases were also selected. Biliary concentrations of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) were correlated with their concentrations in serum and different types of GS samples. The ratio of Ca, Fe and Cu in bile with serum was also calculated. Understudy metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy after acid decomposition of matrices of selected samples. The Ca concentrations in serum samples were significantly higher in patients with pigmented GS as compared to controls (p0.001). The contents of Cu and Fe in serum and bile of all patients (except female cholesterol GS patient have low serum iron concentration) were found to be higher than control, but difference was significant in those patients who have pigmented GS. The concentration of Ca, Fe and Cu in different types GS were found in the order, Pigmented>mixed>cholesterol. The bile/serum ratio for Ca, Cu and Fe was found to be significantly higher in pigmented GS patients. Gall bladder bile was slightly alkaline in patients as compared to referents. The density of bile was found to be higher in patients as compared to the referents. Various functional groups present in different types of GS samples were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The higher density and pH of bile, elevated concentrations of transition elements in all types of biological samples (serum, bile and GS), could be an important factor for the formation of different types of

  3. The influence of the manufacturing method on the microstructure and drawing properties of copper wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, A.; Jeglitsch, F.

    1982-01-01

    Copper is the third most important common metal from production figures after iron and aluminium and is largely used as pure metal in the electroindustry mainly here in the form of wires of different sizes due to its excellent electrical properties. Therefore all factors influencing the drawing ability are very important. The following work deals with the influence of impurity measurements as well as of the microstructure on the deformation or recrystallization behaviour in manufacturing continuous casting and rolling wire and dip-forming wire, and gives a rupture cause specific to each manufacturing method in the wire drawing process. (orig.) [de

  4. 78 FR 65573 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... shot, causing sediment/soil and water contamination and the direct ingestion of shot by aquatic and.... Shot[supreg]. * Coatings of copper, nickel, tin, zinc, zinc chloride, zinc chrome, and fluoropolymers...

  5. Remediation of Chlorpyrifos-Contaminated Soils by Laboratory-Synthesized Zero-Valent Nano Iron Particles: Effect of pH and Aluminium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the insecticide chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils was investigated using laboratory synthesized zero-valent nano iron (ZVNI particles. The synthesized ZVNI particles were characterized as nanoscale sized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The zero-valent state (Fe0 of iron was confirmed by EDAX analysis and the morphology of the ZVNI particles was studied by XRD. Batch experiments were conducted by treating the chlorpyrifos contaminated soil with ZVNI, our results indicate that 90% of chlorpyrifos was degraded after 10 days of incubation. Only 32% degradation was observed with micro zero-valent iron (mZVI and no considerable degradation was attained without ZVNI. The degradation of chlorpyrifos followed the first-order kinetics with a rate constant and a half-life of 0.245 day−1 and 2.82 days, respectively. Degradation was monitored at two different pH values, that is, pH 10 and pH 4. Chlorpyrifos degradation rate constant increased as the pH decreases from 10 to 4. The corresponding rate constant and half-lives were 0.43 day−1 and 1.57days for pH 4, 0.18 day−1 and 3.65 days for pH 10. In addition, an attempt was made by augmenting Al2(SO43 with ZVNI and it was found that the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was greatly enhanced and the rate constant was rapidly increased from 0.245 day−1 to 0.60 day−1. Hydrolysis and stepwise dechlorination pathway of chlorpyrifos with ZVNI was the dominant reaction.

  6. Aluminium in Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are used in infrastructures such as pedestrian bridges or parts of it such as handrail. This paper demonstrates that aluminium alloys are in principle also suited for heavy loaded structures, such as decks of traffic bridges and helicopter landing platforms. Recent developments in

  7. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  8. Iron oxide copper-gold deposits in the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 79): Chapter M in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernette, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Mauritania hosts one significant copper-gold deposit, Guelb Moghrein and several occurrences, which have been categorized as iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) deposits but which are atypical in some important respects. Nonetheless, Guelb Moghrein is an economically significant mineral deposit and an attractive exploration target. The deposit is of Archean age and is hosted by a distinctive metacarbonate rock which is part of a greenstone-banded iron formation (BIF) package within a thrust stack in the northern part of the Mauritanide Belt. The surrounding area hosts a number of similar copper-gold occurrences. Based on the characteristics of the Guelb Moghrein deposit and its geologic environment, five tracts which are considered permissive for IOCG type mineralization similar to Guelb Moghrein have been delineated.

  9. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  10. Antibacterial, Prooxidative and Genotoxic Activities of Gallic Acid and its Copper and Iron Complexes against Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    JONATHAN M. BARCELO; MILDIAMOND GUIEB; ANDERSON VENTURA; ARYZA NACINO; HERMINIA PINASEN; LEAH VIERNES; TRISHIA YODONG; BIANCA LOU ESTRADA; DANIEL VALDEZ; THRESHA BINWAG

    2014-01-01

    In this study, gallic acid and its complexes with aluminum and iron were investigated for their antibacterial, pro-oxidative, and genotoxic properties at alkaline pH. At 4.0μmol/mL, gallic acid displayed bacteriostatic property while aluminum-gallic acid and iron-gallic acid complexes showed bactericidal property against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A higher antibacterial activity was observed in the turbidimetric assay compared to the well-diffusion assay. The metal complexes of ...

  11. Up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} and separation of copper, iron, zinc from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin-Young, Lee; Jyothi Rajesh, Kumar; Ho-Seok, Jeon; Joon-Soo, Kim, E-mail: rajeshkumarphd@rediffmail.com, E-mail: rkumarphd@kigam.re.kr [Extractive Metallurgy Department, Mineral Resources Research Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    The present research paper deals with the oxidation process of molybdenum ore. The main target of the present study is the up-gradation of MoO{sub 3} from roasted molybdenum ore by a leaching process without waste generation. The most important application of hydrometallurgical processing is the leaching process of the ore and it is the primary process to make pure metal from ore. The present investigations optimize the following experimental parameters to improve the concentration of MoO{sub 3} as well as the separation of copper, iron and zinc in roasted molybdenum ore: effect of acid concentration, temperature, pulp density and leaching time were studied systematically. The temperature study was carried out at 550-595 Degree-Sign C for the oxidation process. The XRD result shows that oxidation process of molybdenum ore and SEM pictures were taken for particles before and after the oxidation process at 585 Degree-Sign C for 360 min. (author)

  12. Corrosion resisting properties of 90/10 copper-nickel-iron alloy with particular reference to offshore oil and gas applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P T

    1979-01-01

    The use of a copper-nickel-iron alloy for seawater pipeline systems and various other applications on offshore oil and gas platforms is now proving attractive, according to the UK's Yorkshire Imperial Metals Ltd. The alloy has already proved a useful and reliable material in many applications: It has given good results in seawater-cooled condensers and heat exchangers and seawater piping systems, in power stations, ships, desalination plant, and refrigeration service. Its antifouling and corrosion-resistant properties are valuable in these applications. The main limitations that have to be observed in its use are (1) the design, construction, and operation of systems within prescribed velocity and turbulence limits, to avoid the occurrence of impingement attack, and (2) problems that may arise because of badly polluted seawater.

  13. Combined Effects of Copper and Tin at Intermediate Level of Manganese on the Structure and Properties of As-Cast Nodular Graphite Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacaze J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper, manganese and tin are commonly used as pearlite promoter elements in cast irons. A number of studies have been aimed at quantitatively evaluate the effect of each of these elements, individually or at given levels of the others. As a matter of fact, while tin may be necessary for achieving a fully pearlitic matrix, it is known that when in excess it is detrimental for mechanical properties. As the pearlite promoting effect of each of those elements is totally different, it is of real interest to know the optimum combination of them for a given cooling rate. The present report is a first part of a work dedicated at characterizing the best alloying levels in terms of room temperature mechanical properties of as-cast pearlitic materials.

  14. Study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst, by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Alonso, A.; Tumbarell, O.; Bustanmete, E.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), has the advantage of its simplicity, speed and low cost. All this, together with its high sensibility and selectivity, makes the AAS one the most widely used analytic techniques. The present work shows, the study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst of a refinery, by using this technique. The results are compared to those of two laboratories which use the ICP-AES and AAS techniques and shows the processing of the statistics with the use of the t of Student and the F of Snedecor. The results using different methods are also shown as well as the recommended application of this results in the chemical characterization of this type of catalysts

  15. Development of a selective and sensitive flotation method for determination of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, copper and iron in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Ghaedi, M; Shokrollahi, A; Rajabi, H R; Soylak, M; Karami, B

    2008-02-28

    A simple, selective and rapid flotation method for the separation-preconcentration of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, iron and copper ions using phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone oxime (PPKO) has been developed prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influence of pH, amount of PPKO as collector, type and amount of eluting agent, type and amount of surfactant as floating agent and ionic strength was evaluated on the recoveries of analytes. The influences of the concomitant ions on the recoveries of the analyte ions were also examined. The enrichment factor was 93. The detection limits based on 3 sigma for Cu, Ni, Co and Fe were 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method has been successfully applied for determination of trace amounts of ions in various real samples.

  16. Development of a selective and sensitive flotation method for determination of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, copper and iron in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, H.; Ghaedi, M.; Shokrollahi, A.; Rajabi, H.R.; Soylak, M.; Karami, B.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, selective and rapid flotation method for the separation-preconcentration of trace amounts of cobalt, nickel, iron and copper ions using phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone oxime (PPKO) has been developed prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The influence of pH, amount of PPKO as collector, type and amount of eluting agent, type and amount of surfactant as floating agent and ionic strength was evaluated on the recoveries of analytes. The influences of the concomitant ions on the recoveries of the analyte ions were also examined. The enrichment factor was 93. The detection limits based on 3 sigma for Cu, Ni, Co and Fe were 0.7, 0.7, 0.8, and 0.7 ng mL -1 , respectively. The method has been successfully applied for determination of trace amounts of ions in various real samples

  17. Survey of heavy metal pollution (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron and manganese in drinking water resources of Nurabad city, Lorestan, Iran 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHodratolah Shams Khorramabadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy water passes through the pipelines from supply resources to consuming places in which passing from these stages may cause some cases of contamination like heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese in water resources of Nurabad city of Lorestan in 2013. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were collected from 7 wells of drinking water and 2 water storage tanks during 6 months in Nurabad. So that, heavy metal parameters such as copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, iron, and manganese were measured using an atomic absorption device and also electrical conductivity, sulfate, chloride and total dissolved solids were also measured in accordance with standard methods. Results: Results indicated that the concentration of studied metals in water sources was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard, and in the water supply system the concentration of some metals was more than standard level. Moreover, the results showed that the concentration of studied heavy metals were more in winter than in autumn. Conclusion: Generally, in the water resources of Nurabad city the concentration of studied heavy metals was lower than the national standards and World Health Organization standard and there are not problems for water consumers. However, due to public health and the presence of a high concentration of these metals in the distribution supply, the heavy metal concentration in drinking water of this region should be monitored regularly by responsible organizations.

  18. Fabrication of mesoporous iron (Fe) doped copper sulfide (CuS) nanocomposite in the presence of a cationic surfactant via mild hydrothermal method for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. William; Ramesh, P. S.; Geetha, D.

    2018-02-01

    We report fabrication of mesoporous Fe doped CuS nanocomposites with uniform mesoporous spherical structures via a mild hydrothermal method employing copper nitrate trihydrate (Cu (NO3).3H2O), Thiourea (Tu,Sc(NH2)2 and Iron tri nitrate (Fe(No3)3) as initial materials with cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylamoniame bromide (CTAB) as stabilizer/size controller and Ethylene glycol as solvent at 130 °C temperature. The products were characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX, TEM, FTIR and UV analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the Fe doped CuS nanocomposites which are crystalline in nature. EDX and XRD pattern confirmed that the product is hexagonal CuS phase. Fe doped spherical structure of CuS with grain size of 21 nm was confirmed by XRD pattern. Fe doping was identified by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results revealed the occurrence of active functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. Studies showed that after a definite time relining on the chosen copper source, the obtained Fe-CuS nanocomposite shows a tendency towards self-assembly and creating mesoporous like nano and submicro structures by TEM/SAED. The achievable mechanism of producing this nanocomposite was primarily discussed. The electrochemical study confirms the pseudocapacitive nature of the CuS and Fe-CuS electrodes. The CuS and Fe-CuS electrode shows a specific capacitance of about 328.26 and 516.39 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 5 mVs-1. As the electrode in a supercapacitor, the mesoporous nanostructured Fe-CuS shows excellent capacitance characteristics.

  19. Recovery in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    In the present thesis the development of a unique experimental method for volume characterisation of individual embedded crystallites down to a radius of 150 nm is presented. This method is applied to in-situ studies of recovery in aluminium. The method is an extension of 3DXRD microscopy, an X...... are represented as strings. To identify the strings a combination of a 5D connected component type algorithm and multi-peak fitting was found to be superior. The first use of the method was a study of recovery of a deformed aluminium alloy (AA1050). The aluminium alloy was deformed by cold rolling to a thickness...

  20. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. [CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux I, UMR 5084, Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bio environnementale, Le Haut Vigneau, BP120, 33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan (France)]. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H. [CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux I, UMR 5084, Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bio environnementale, Le Haut Vigneau, BP120, 33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Deves, G. [CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux I, UMR 5084, Chimie Nucleaire Analytique et Bio environnementale, Le Haut Vigneau, BP120, 33175 Bordeaux-Gradignan (France); Guillou, F. [INRA-CNRS-Universite de Tours-Haras nationaux, UMR 6175, Physiologie de la Reproduction et des Comportements, 37380 Nouzilly (France)

    2005-04-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter.

  1. Calcium, potassium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in the white and gray matter of the cerebellum and corpus callosum in brain of four genetic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Guillou, F.

    2005-01-01

    In the central nervous system, metallic cations are involved in oligodendrocyte maturation and myelinogenesis. Moreover, the metallic cations have been associated with pathogenesis, particularly multiple sclerosis and malignant gliomas. The brain is vulnerable to either a deficit or an excess of available trace elements. Relationship between trace metals and myelinogenesis is important in understanding a severe human pathology : the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. One approach to understand this disease has used mutant or transgenic mice presenting myelin deficiency or excess. But to date, the concentration of trace metals and mineral elements in white and gray matter areas in wild type brain is unknown. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentrations of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) in the white and gray matter of the mouse cerebellum and corpus callosum. The brains of four different genetic mouse strains (C57Black6/SJL, C57Black6/D2, SJL and C3H) were analyzed. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow PIXE (Proton-induced X-ray emission) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. The results obtained give the first reference values. Furthermore, one species out of the fours testes exhibited differences in calcium, iron and zinc concentrations in the white matter

  2. The ground stone assemblage of a metal workers community: An unexplored dimension of Iron Age copper production at Timna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Greener

    2016-10-01

    In the framework of the renewed excavations at several of the copper smelting sites at Timna, a pioneering study was conducted in which more than 1000 ground stone tools were identified and registered. These tools include, among others, grinding stones, pounders, anvils and mortars; most were manufactured of compacted sandstone and granite, exposed in several locations in the valley. In this paper we present a typology and quantitative analysis of the ground stone tools which were used by the metal workers, and offer an interpretation of how the various types of tools were employed as part of the copper production process. This provides new insights regarding the smelting process and the conditions needed for its successful outcome.

  3. Contrasting Physiological and Proteomic Adaptations to Iron and/or Copper Limitation in Two Strains of the Same Open Ocean Diatom Thalassiosira oceanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuback, N.; Hippmann, A.; Maldonado, M. T.; Allen, A. E.; McCrow, J.; Foster, L. J.; Green, B. R.; Alami, M.

    2016-02-01

    Iron plays a significant role in controlling marine primary productivity. Despite that extremely low dissolved iron (Fe) concentrations are found in Fe-limited regions, some phytoplankton are able to survive and thrive. Two strains of the model oceanic diatom Thalassiosira oceanica, TO 1003 and TO 1005, have both been used in previous studies to characterize adaptations to iron limitation. These studies have shown that T. oceanica has lowered its Fe requirements and increased its Fe acquisition efficiency compared to coastal counterparts. Both strategies may impose a higher cellular copper (Cu) demand. However, the underlying biochemical adaptations in these oceanic diatoms remain unknown. Recently, the genome, as well as the first proteomic and transcriptomic analyses of T. oceanica 1005 grown under different Fe levels, were published. To further our understanding of the interplay between Fe- and Cu- physiology in open ocean diatoms, we examined an array of physiological responses to varying degrees of Fe-, Cu- and Fe/Cu co-limitation in both strains. We also determined the differential expression of proteins using stable isotope labeling and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis. The two strains, TO 1003 and TO 1005, need markedly different metal concentrations in the media. TO1003 requires 30% less Cu to sustain its optimal growth and less than 1/10th of the minimum Cu that is needed by TO 1005 to survive. In contrast, TO 1005 is able to grow with less Fe available in the media. The physiological and proteomic responses of these two strains when acclimated to low Fe and/or Cu concentrations will be presented. The evolutionary implications will be discussed.

  4. Oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and release of nuclides from a copper/iron canister. Model developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcheng Liu

    2001-12-01

    Three models have been developed and applied in the performance assessment of a final repository. They are based on accepted theories and experimental results for known and possible mechanisms that may dominate in the oxidative dissolution of spent fuel and the release of nuclides from a canister. Assuming that the canister is breached at an early stage after disposal, the three models describe three sub-systems in the near field of the repository, in which the governing processes and mechanisms are quite different. In the model for the oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix, a set of kinetic descriptions is provided that describes the oxidative dissolution of the fuel matrix and the release of the embedded nuclides. In particular, the effect of autocatalytic reduction of hexavalent uranium by dissolved H{sub 2}, using UO{sub 2} (s) on the fuel pellets as a catalyst, is taken into account. The simulation results suggest that most of the radiolytic oxidants will be consumed by the oxidation of the fuel matrix, and that much less will be depleted by dissolved ferrous iron. Most of the radiolytically produced hexavalent uranium will be reduced by the autocatalytic reaction with H{sub 2} on the fuel surface. It will reprecipitate as UO{sub 2} (s) on the fuel surface, and thus very little net oxidation of the fuel will take place. In the reactive transport model, the interactions of multiple processes within a defective canister are described, in which numerous redox reactions take place as multiple species diffuse. The effect of corrosion of the cast iron insert of the canister and the reduction of dissolved hexavalent uranium by ferrous iron sorbed onto iron corrosion products and by dissolved H{sub 2} are particularly included. Scoping calculations suggest that corrosion of the iron insert will occur primarily under anaerobic conditions. The escaping oxidants from the fuel rods will migrate toward the iron insert. Much of these oxidants will, however, be consumed

  5. Environmental application of millimeter-scale sponge iron (s-Fe(0)) particles (II): the effect of surface copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yongming; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Runlong; Li, Guohua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yanyan; Wei, Dongyang; Fang, Jiande; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-04-28

    To enhance the catalytic reactivity of millimeter-scale particles of sponge iron (s-Fe(0)), Cu(2+) ions were deposited on the surface of s-Fe(0) using a simple direct reduction reaction, and the catalytic properties of the bimetallic system was tested for removal of rhodamine B (RhB) from an aqueous solution. The influence of Cu(0) loading, catalyst dosage, particle size, initial RhB concentration, and initial pH were investigated, and the recyclability of the catalyst was also assessed. The results demonstrate that the 3∼5 millimeter s-Fe(0) particles (s-Fe(0)(3∼5mm)) with 5wt% Cu loading gave the best results. The removal of RhB followed two-step, pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Cu(0)-s-Fe(0) showed excellent stability after five reuse cycles. Cu(0)-s-Fe(0) possesses great advantages compared to nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron power, and iron flakes as well as its bimetals. The surface Cu(0) apparently catalyzes the production of reactive hydrogen atoms for indirect reaction and generates Fe-Cu galvanic cells that enhance electron transfer for direct reaction. This bimetallic catalyst shows great potential for the pre-treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Additionally, some oxides containing iron element are selected to simulate the adsorption process. The results prove that the adsorption process of FeOOH, Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 played minor role for the removal of RhB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of radioactivation analysis for determination of impurities in aluminium, raw materials and in samples from aluminium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    Trace elements in aluminium, raw materials and in the samples from different stages of aluminium production were determined by nondestructive neutron radioactivation analysis. The samples were taken from the Bayer's process of alumina production (bauxite, red sludge and alumina), from the components of the reduction cell (anode, criolyte and AlF 3 ) and of the final product - aluminium (purity 99.5-99.7%). Under given set of conditions ten trace elements (V,La,Ga,Mn,Co,Cr,Sc,Sb,Zn and Fe) were determined in aluminium and followed through the production process. It was found that the main impurities in aluminium are iron (0.15%) and zinc (0.O6%). It has been concluded that the purity of produced aluminium depends mainly on the purity of used alumina. The second important source of contamination of aluminium is anode. The results obtained by radioactivation analysis for V, Mn, Cr and Fe fall within the ranges of concentrations of these elements determined by use of other methods (volumetry, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption). Higher values for zinc were obtained by radioactivation analysis, probably due to unsatisfactory irradiation and measuring conditions for this element. The possibilities of application of radioactivation analysis to these kinds of samples are also disscused

  7. Environmental application of millimeter-scale sponge iron (s-Fe{sup 0}) particles (II): The effect of surface copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yongming, E-mail: juyongming@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Liu, Xiaowen, E-mail: liuxiaowen@scies.org [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Liu, Runlong; Li, Guohua; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yanyan; Wei, Dongyang; Fang, Jiande [South China Institute of Environmental Sciences, The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the PRC, Guangzhou 510655 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D., E-mail: dionysios.d.dionysiou@uc.edu [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering (DBCEE), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0012 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Facile reduction reaction achieves decoration of Cu{sup 0} onto the surface of s-Fe{sup 0}. • The removal efficiency of RhB over Cu{sup 0}–s-Fe{sup 0} was similar to that of Cu{sup 0}–nZVI. • Cu{sup 0}–s-Fe{sup 0} can operate under mild condition with lower cost compared to nZVI. • The reductive mechanism over Cu{sup 0}–s-Fe{sup 0} under US condition is also elucidated. - Abstract: To enhance the catalytic reactivity of millimeter-scale particles of sponge iron (s-Fe{sup 0}), Cu{sup 2+} ions were deposited on the surface of s-Fe{sup 0} using a simple direct reduction reaction, and the catalytic properties of the bimetallic system was tested for removal of rhodamine B (RhB) from an aqueous solution. The influence of Cu{sup 0} loading, catalyst dosage, particle size, initial RhB concentration, and initial pH were investigated, and the recyclability of the catalyst was also assessed. The results demonstrate that the 3 ∼ 5 millimeter s-Fe{sup 0} particles (s-Fe{sup 0}(3 ∼ 5 mm)) with 5 wt% Cu loading gave the best results. The removal of RhB followed two-step, pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. Cu{sup 0}–s-Fe{sup 0} showed excellent stability after five reuse cycles. Cu{sup 0}–s-Fe{sup 0} possesses great advantages compared to nanoscale zero-valent iron, iron power, and iron flakes as well as its bimetals. The surface Cu{sup 0} apparently catalyzes the production of reactive hydrogen atoms for indirect reaction and generates Fe-Cu galvanic cells that enhance electron transfer for direct reaction. This bimetallic catalyst shows great potential for the pre-treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Additionally, some oxides containing iron element are selected to simulate the adsorption process. The results prove that the adsorption process of FeOOH, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} played minor role for the removal of RhB.

  8. The shift of microbial communities and their roles in sulfur and iron cycling in a copper ore bioleaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jiaojiao; Deng, Jie; Xiao, Yunhua; He, Zhili; Zhang, Xian; van Nostrand, J. D.; Liang, Yili; Deng, Ye; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2016-10-01

    Bioleaching has been employed commercially to recover metals from low grade ores, but the production efficiency remains to be improved due to limited understanding of the system. This study examined the shift of microbial communities and S&Fe cycling in three subsystems within a copper ore bioleaching system: leaching heap (LH), leaching solution (LS) and sediment under LS. Results showed that both LH and LS had higher relative abundance of S and Fe oxidizing bacteria, while S and Fe reducing bacteria were more abundant in the Sediment. GeoChip analysis showed a stronger functional potential for S0 oxidation in LH microbial communities. These findings were consistent with measured oxidation activities to S0 and Fe2+, which were highest by microbial communities from LH, lower by those from LS and lowest form Sediment. Moreover, phylogenetic molecular ecological network analysis indicated that these differences might be related to interactions among microbial taxa. Last but not the least, a conceptual model was proposed, linking the S&Fe cycling with responsible microbial populations in the bioleaching systems. Collectively, this study revealed the microbial community and functional structures in all three subsystems of the copper ore, and advanced a holistic understanding of the whole bioleaching system.

  9. Determination of ultratrace amounts of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization/ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Kakurai, Yousuke

    1993-01-01

    A method has been developed for determining the 0.01 ng g -1 level of uranium and thorium in aluminium and aluminium alloys by electrothermal vaporization (ETV)/ICP-MS. This method was found to be significantly interfered with any matrices or other elements contained. An ion-exchange technique was therefore applied to separate uranium and thorium from aluminium and other elements. It was known that uranium are adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin and thorium are adsorbed on cation-exchange resin. However, aluminium and copper were eluted with 6 M hydrochloric acid. Dissolve the sample with hydrochloric acid containing copper which was added for analysis of pure aluminium, and oxidize with hydrogen peroxide. Concentration of hydrochloric acid in the solution was adjusted to 6 M, and then passed the solution through the mixed ion-exchange resin column. After the uranium and thorium were eluted with 1 M hydrofluoric acid-0.1 M hydrochloric acid, the solution was evaporated to dryness. It was then dissolved with 1 M hydrochloric acid. Uranium and thorium were analyzed by ETV/ICP-MS using tungsten and molybdenum boats, respectively, since the tungsten boat contained high-level thorium and the molybdenum boat contained uranium. The determination limit of uranium and thorium were 0.003 and 0.005 ng g -1 , respectively. (author)

  10. Extração seqüencial de cobre, ferro e zinco em ervas medicinais Sequential extraction of copper, iron and zinc in medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-12-01

    initially for the pharmacists, indicates the ratio of the nutrient that is absorbed and used by the organism. This way, the determination of the total content of the metal ingested by the organism does not make possible to trace a profile of the efficiency of its absorption. Techniques of chemical speciation, as the sequential extraction, can assist in the evaluation of the bioavailability of minerals. Samples of medicinal grass of two lots were analyzed in relation to the total content of copper, iron and zinc for spectroscopy of atomic absorption in the flame, and the sequential extraction was applied. F, Dixon and t-student tests were used. One observed that, in average, the samples presented copper, iron and zinc total content of respectively 1.37 mg%, 5.13 mg% and 2.96 mg%. When comparing these values with the content of these metals in foods of vegetal origin, it can be verified that the analyzed medicinal grass can be considered a good source of metals. It was still observed that the metals have copper, iron and zinc can be found in the samples under at least four distinct chemical species and that extractors I and Iv were more efficient. Techniques of chemical speciation that can identify the compounds obtained from different extractors can assist in the evaluation of their bioavailability, as well as in the absorption processes.

  11. Innovative cast iron pipes. Part 1. Corrosion protection of buried cast iron pipes on the basis of a zinc-aluminium alloy 85-15; Gussrohr-Innovation. T. 1. Korrosionsschutz von erdueberdeckten Rohrleitungen aus duktilem Gusseisen auf Basis einer Zink-Aluminium-Legierung 85-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischo, Michael [SAINT-GOBAIN PAM DEUTSCHLAND GmbH und Co. KG, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    On the basis of more than 50 years of experience with zinc-coated pipes and more than 25 years of experience with the alloy ZnAl 85-15, an innovative coating system was developed for pipes made of ductile cast iron. While the conventional system consists of a Zn coating of 200 g/m{sup 2} and a bitumen coating, the ZnAl 85-15 coating is twice as thick, i.e. 400 g/m{sup 2}, and has a blue epoxy resin cover coating which identifies the pipes as water pipes. (orig.)

  12. Magnetotelluric evidence for a deep-crustal mineralizing system beneath the Olympic Dam iron oxide copper-gold deposit, southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinson, Graham S.; Direen, Nicholas G.; Gill, Rob M.

    2006-07-01

    The iron oxide copper-gold Olympic Dam deposit, situated along the margin of the Proterozoic Gawler craton, South Australia, is the world's largest uranium deposit and sixth-largest copper deposit; it also contains significant reserves of gold, silver, and rare earth elements. Gaining a better understanding of the mechanisms for genesis of the economic liberalization is fundamental for defining exploration models in similar crustal settings. To delineate crustal structures that may constrain mineral system fluid pathways, coincident deep crustal seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) transects were obtained along a 220 km section that crosses Olympic Dam and the major crustal boundaries. In this paper we present results from 58 long-period (10 104 s) MT sites, with site spacing of 5 10 km. A two-dimensional inversion of MT data from 33 sites to a depth of 100 km shows four notable features: (1) sedimentary cover sequences with low resistivity (1000 Ω·m) Archean crustal core from a more conductive crust and mantle to the north (typically Olympic Dam, the upper-middle crust to ˜20 km is quite resistive (˜1000 Ω·m), but the lower crust is much more conductive (Olympic Dam, we image a low-resistivity region (Olympic Dam may be due to the upward movement of CO2-bearing volatiles near the time of deposit formation that precipitated conductive graphite liberalization along grain boundaries, simultaneously annihilating acoustic impedance boundaries. The source of the volatiles may be from the mantle degassing or retrograde metamorphism of the lower crust associated with Proterozoic crustal deformation.

  13. Preparation and investigations of thermal properties of copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of copper oxide, aluminium oxide and graphite on the thermal and structural properties of the organic ... solar energy, and heat regulation of electronics, biomedical ..... We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by.

  14. Effects of metformin treatment on Iron, Zinc and Copper status concentration in the serum of female rats with induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsin S. G. Al-Moziel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to investigate the effects of metformin drug on serum Iron, Zinc and Copper concentration in Estradiol Valerate(EV induced polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS in virgin rats. Thirty virgin rats were randomly allotted to constitute Normal control (NC-I group and induced polycystic ovary (PCO-I and PCO-II groups having 10 rats in each group. Rats from NC-I group were administered intramuscularly with 0.2 ml of corn oil whereas polycystic ovary was induced in rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups by administering single intra-muscular injection of estradiol Valerate 4mg/rat. The rats from PCO-I and PCO-II groups were left for 60 days for development of polycystic ovary syndrome. Animals from PCO-I group were then administered with 0.2 ml normal saline as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals were kept as PCO control group animals whereas those from PCO-II groups received metformin (50mg/kg B.wt as oral gavage for 15 days, these animals served as metformin treated PCO group animals. All the rats were thereafter sacrificed for collecting blood from inferior vena-cava. Serum samples from each rat were assessed for iron, zinc and copper status in each experimental group. The results revealed a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Fe and Zn and a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Cu concentration in PCO group 1 compared with control non-treated group. The PCO group2 treated with metformin showed a significant (p≤0.05 decrease in serum Fe concentration as compared with those in animals from group NC-I and PCO-I. While, no significant differences were found in serum Zn concentration between all treated groups. On the other hand, a significant (p≤0.05 increase in serum Cu concentration appeared in metformin treated group compared with PCO group 1 which appears significant decrease compared with control group.

  15. Ion nitriding of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitz, T.

    2002-09-01

    The present study is devoted to the investigation of the mechanism of aluminium nitriding by a technique that employs implantation of low-energy nitrogen ions and diffusional transport of atoms. The nitriding of aluminium is investigated, because this is a method for surface modification of aluminium and has a potential for application in a broad spectrum of fields such as automobile, marine, aviation, space technologies, etc. However, at present nitriding of aluminium does not find any large scale industrial application, due to problems in the formation of stoichiometric aluminium nitride layers with a sufficient thickness and good quality. For the purposes of this study, ion nitriding is chosen, as an ion beam method with the advantage of good and independent control over the process parameters, which thus can be related uniquely to the physical properties of the resulting layers. Moreover, ion nitriding has a close similarity to plasma nitriding and plasma immersion ion implantation, which are methods with a potential for industrial application. (orig.)

  16. Raw materials for aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to to raw materials which used in aluminium production. Therefore, the using of alumina, and fluoride salts in aluminium production was considered. The physical properties of alumina were studied.

  17. The effects of a lipid‐based nutrient supplement and antiretroviral therapy in a randomized controlled trial on iron, copper, and zinc in milk from HIV‐infected Malawian mothers and associations with maternal and infant biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahab‐Ferdows, Setareh; Gertz, Erik; Flax, Valerie L.; Adair, Linda S.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S.; Kamwendo, Debbie; van der Horst, Charles M.; Allen, Lindsay H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and lipid‐based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on iron, copper, and zinc in milk of exclusively breastfeeding HIV‐infected Malawian mothers and their correlations with maternal and infant biomarkers. Human milk and blood at 2, 6, and 24 weeks post‐partum and blood during pregnancy (≤30 weeks gestation) were collected from 535 mothers/infant‐pairs in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. The participants received ARV, LNS, ARV and LNS, or no intervention from 0 to 28 weeks post‐partum. ARVs negatively affected copper and zinc milk concentrations, but only at 2 weeks, whereas LNS had no effect. Among all treatment groups, approximately 80–90% of copper and zinc and negatively correlated with milk iron at 2 and 6 weeks (r = −.18, p milk minerals with each other were the strongest correlations observed (r = .11–.47, p milk higher in iron when ferritin was higher or TfR lower. At 6 weeks, higher maternal α‐1‐acid glycoprotein and C‐reactive protein were associated with higher milk minerals in mildly anaemic women. Infant TfR was lower when milk mineral concentrations were higher at 6 weeks and when mothers were moderately anaemic during pregnancy. ARV affects copper and zinc milk concentrations in early lactation, and maternal haemoglobin during pregnancy and lactation could influence the association between milk minerals and maternal and infant iron status and biomarkers of inflammation. PMID:28851037

  18. Propriedades texturais e catalíticas de óxidos de ferro contendo cromo e cobre Textural and catalytic properties of chromium and copper-doped iron oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluce Oliveira da Guarda Souza

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromium and copper-doped hematites were prepared with the aim of studying the synergistic effect of these dopants on the textural and on the catalytic properties of the iron oxides towards the high temperature shift reaction. It was found that the most active catalysts were those with the highest amount of copper. They had the Fe(II/Fe(III ratio near the stoichiometric value of magnetite, the highest surface areas under the reactional atmosphere and the greatest tendency to produce the active form; they also were poorly crystalline solids. The best performance was shown by the catalyst with Fe/Cu=10, heated at 300ºC. It can thus be concluded that copper acts both as textural and structural promoter in these catalysts.

  19. Correlations in distribution and concentration of calcium, copper and iron with zinc in isolated extracellular deposits associated with age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Jane M; Kakalec, Peter; Tappero, Ryan; Jones, Blair F.; Lengyel, Imre

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is abundantly enriched in sub-retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) deposits, the hallmarks of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and is thought to play a role in the formation of these deposits. However, it is not known whether Zn is the only metal relevant for sub-RPE deposit formation. Because of their involvement in the pathogenesis of AMD, we determined the concentration and distribution of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) and compared these with Zn in isolated and sectioned macular (MSD), equatorial (PHD) and far peripheral (FPD) sub-RPE deposits from an 86 year old donor eye with post mortem diagnosis of early AMD. The sections were mounted on Zn free microscopy slides and analyzed by microprobe synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (μSXRF). Metal concentrations were determined using spiked sectioned sheep brain matrix standards, prepared the same way as the samples. The heterogeneity of metal distributions was examined using pixel by pixel comparison. The orders of metal concentrations were Ca ⋙ Zn > Fe in all three types of deposits but Cu levels were not distinguishable from background values. Zinc and Ca were consistently present in all deposits but reached highest concentration in MSD. Iron was present in some but not all deposits and was especially enriched in FPD. Correlation analysis indicated considerable variation in metal distribution within and between sub-RPE deposits. The results suggest that Zn and Ca are the most likely contributors to deposit formation especially in MSD, the characteristic risk factor for the development of AMD in the human eye.

  20. Antibacterial, Prooxidative and Genotoxic Activities of Gallic Acid and its Copper and Iron Complexes against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONATHAN M. BARCELO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, gallic acid and its complexes with aluminum and iron were investigated for their antibacterial, pro-oxidative, and genotoxic properties at alkaline pH. At 4.0μmol/mL, gallic acid displayed bacteriostatic property while aluminum-gallic acid and iron-gallic acid complexes showed bactericidal property against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. A higher antibacterial activity was observed in the turbidimetric assay compared to the well-diffusion assay. The metal complexes of gallic acid also generated a higher concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide compared to gallic acid alone at > 0.50µmol/mL. Using the SOS response of the DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli PQ37, the metal complexes of gallic acid resulted to a significantly higher SOS Induction Factors (ρ<0.01 at ≥0.25μmol/mL. In addition, gallic acid and its metal complexes decrease the cell surface hydrophobicity of E. coli ATCC 25922 in a dose-dependent manner. The present study suggests that the antibacterial property of gallic acid and its metal complexes against Escherichia coli was caused by its pro-oxidative and genotoxic properties. Since metals are involved in the synthesis of the metal complexes of gallic acid, further tests should be conducted to determine their stability and effects to human health.

  1. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Mahesh Chand

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

  2. A Study of Protection of Copper Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. A.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile treatment of high capacity boiler water with hydrazine and ammonia is studied. Ammonia comes from the decomposition of excess hydrazine injected to treat dissolved oxygen. Ammonia is also injected for the control of pH. To find an effect of such ammonia on the copper alloy, the relations between pH and iron, and ammonia and copper are studied. Since the dependence of corrosion of iron on pH differs from that of copper, a range of pH was selected experimentally to minimize the corrosion rates of both copper and iron. Corrosion rates of various copper alloys are also compared

  3. INFLUENCE OF IRON CONTENT AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 8011-TYPE Al-Fe-Si ALLOY. O. H. Yakubu1, I. ... properties such as formability, corrosion, light weight and also ... In aluminium alloy, a large number of iron-containing intermetallic ... conditions and alloy composition. Although ... and tensile behaviour of 7075 aluminium alloy [8] observed ...

  4. Constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of monograph is devoted to constructions of aluminium electrolytic cells. Therefore, the general characteristic and classification of aluminium electrolytic cells was considered. The anode and cathode structure was studied. The lining of cathode casing, the process of collection of anode gases, electrolytic cell cover, and electrical insulation was studied as well. The installation and dismantling of aluminium electrolytic cells was described.

  5. Modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.E.; Bourgeois, L.; Nie, J.-F.; Muddle, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Ab initio modelling of heterogeneous clustering in aluminium has been carried out in order to study the precipitation hardening of alloys. This process is based on the addition of small amounts of solute element to the pure metal. With increasing computational power, atomic scale effects can now be better simulated to determine the nature of the hardening mechanism. Comparisons are made between results obtained from two computational packages. These are the Linear Augmented Plane Wave WEEN2K and the plane wave pseudopotential density functional theory package fhi98md. The study of the optimal geometry of very small size clusters inside aluminium has begun with the testing of initial convergence conditions by determination of binding energies for a variety of super cell sizes of the aluminium host crystal. These are compared with total energy calculations for small size precipitates of copper and transition metals of fixed geometry. Such local optimal determinations are seen as precursors to full Monte Carlo calculations of the notional best local geometry for larger precipitates

  6. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Montes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson’s disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson’s disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson’s disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson’s disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology.

  7. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  8. Biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Usta, Canan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    The biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin for preconcentration-separation of them have been investigated. The sorbed analytes on biosorbent were eluted by using 1 mol L -1 HCl and analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of analytical parameters including amounts of pH, B. sphaericus, sample volume etc. on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of alkaline, earth alkaline ions and some metal ions on the retentions of the analytes on the biosorbent were also examined. Separation and preconcentration of Cu, Pb, Fe and Co ions from real samples was achieved quantitatively. The detection limits by 3 sigma for analyte ions were in the range of 0.20-0.75 μg L -1 for aqueous samples and in the range of 2.5-9.4 ng g -1 for solid samples. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials (NRCC-SLRS 4 Riverine Water, SRM 2711 Montana soil and GBW 07605 Tea). The presented method was applied to the determination of analyte ions in green tea, black tea, cultivated mushroom, boiled wheat, rice and soil samples with successfully results

  9. Assessment of thermochemical hydrogen production. Project 8994 mid-contract progress report, July 1--November 1, 1977. [Iron chloride and copper sulfate cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafler, J.R.; Foh, S.E.; Schreiber, J.D.

    1977-12-01

    We have completed the base-case (first-cut) flowsheet analysis for two thermochemical water-splitting cycles that have been under study at the Institute of Gas Technology: a four-step iron chloride cycle (denoted B-1) and a four-step copper sulfate cycle (denoted H-5). In the case of Cycle B-1, an energy balance has located the worst problem areas in the cycle, and flowsheet modifications have begun. Calculations of equilibrium effects due to the hydrolysis of ferrous chloride at pressures high enough to interface with projected hydrogen transmission systems will, apparently, necessitate higher temperature process heat input for this step. Higher pressure operation of some critical separation processes yields more favorable heat balances. For Cycle H-5, the unmodified (base-case) flowsheet indicates that reaction product separations will be relatively simple with respect to Cycle B-1. Work of Schuetz and others dealing with the electrolysis and thermodynamics of HBr/H/sub 2/O/SO/sub 2/ systems is being extensively reviewed. Work plans for this part of the contract are currently being reviewed.

  10. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clean hydrometallurgical route to recover zinc, silver, lead, copper, cadmium and iron from hazardous jarosite residues produced during zinc hydrometallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Shaohua; Zhang Yifei; Zhang Yi; Xue Peiyi; Wang Yihui

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The extraction fractions of various valuable metals during NH 4 Cl leaching are very high. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. → The process can detoxified the hazardous elements such as Pb, As, Cd thoroughly. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. → The final residue contains about 55 wt% Fe, and have the potential to be used as iron concentrate. - Abstract: A hydrometallurgical process for treating the hazardous jarosite residue from zinc hydrometallurgy was proposed, for not only detoxifying the residue, but also recovering the contained valuable metal components. The jarosite was initially activated and decomposed by sintering at 650 o C for 1 h. The sintered residue was leached in 6 mol L -1 aqueous NH 4 Cl solution at 105 o C, followed by filtration. The leaching extraction of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Ag are more than 95%. During reduction with Zn powder, more than 93% of Pb, Cu, Ag and Cd can be simultaneously recovered. Then the NH 4 Cl leaching residue were leached again in 30 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 1 h at 160 o C, and about 94% of As and 73% of Si were removed from the residue. The final residue was almost completely detoxified, and contains about 55 wt% Fe, which can be used as an iron concentration.

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in presence of iron with eriochrome cyanine R. Essays with a decolorated reagent; Determinacion espectrofotometrica de aluminio en presencia de hierro con eriocromocianina R. Ensayos con un reactivo decolorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina Gomez, M; Gasco Sanchez, L; Fernandez Cellini, R

    1962-07-01

    The behaviour of the extinction coefficient of aqueous solutions of Eriochrome Cyanine R is studied. It is found that at pH 5-6 the diluted acid solutions decolorate rapidly according to an exponential law (538 m{mu}). The fact that the decoloree solutions go on still reacting with the aluminium has. (Author) 12 refs.

  13. Mobility and stability of large vacancy and vacancy-copper clusters in iron: An atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castin, N., E-mail: ncastin@sckcen.be [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etudes de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Unit Structural Materials Modelling and Microstructure-Boeretang 200, B2400 Mol (Belgium); Pascuet, M.I., E-mail: pascuet@cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Malerba, L. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etudes de l' energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Unit Structural Materials Modelling and Microstructure-Boeretang 200, B2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    The formation of Cu-rich precipitates under irradiation is a major cause for changes in the mechanical response to load of reactor pressure vessel steels. In previous works, it has been shown that the mechanism under which precipitation occurs is governed by diffusion of vacancy-copper (VCu) complexes, also in the absence of irradiation. Coarse-grained computer models (such as object kinetic Monte Carlo) aimed at simulating irradiation processes in model alloys or steels should therefore explicitly include the mobility of Cu precipitates, as a consequence of vacancy hops at their surface. For this purpose, in this work we calculate diffusion coefficients and lifetimes for a large variety of VCu complexes. We use an innovative atomistic model, where vacancy migration energies are calculated with little approximations, taking into account all effects of static relaxation and long-range chemical interaction as predicted by an interatomic potential. Our results show that, contrary to what intuition might suggest, saturation in vacancies tend to slow down the transport of Cu atoms.

  14. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  15. Sintered aluminium powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, M.G.; Matveev, B.I.

    1974-01-01

    The mechanical and physical properties of aluminium powder alloys and the various methods employed to produce them are considered. Data are given on the hardening of the alloys SAP and SPAK-4, as well as the powder-alloy system Al-Cr-Zr. (L.M.)

  16. A Study of Moroccan Pupils' Difficulties at Second Baccalaureate Year in Solving Chemistry Problems Relating to the Reactivity of Ethanoate Ions and to Copper-Aluminium Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouasri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the difficulties that Moroccan pupils (18-19) of the second Baccalaureate year encountered in solving chemical equilibrium problems relating to ethanoate ions' reactivity with water and methanoic acid, and to copper-aluminum cells. The pupils were asked to provide answers to questions derived from two problems. The…

  17. Opacity of iron, nickel, and copper plasmas in the x-ray wavelength range: Theoretical interpretation of 2p-3d absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenski, T.; Loisel, G.; Poirier, M.; Thais, F.; Arnault, P.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Porcherot, Q.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Villette, B.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Foelsner, W.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with theoretical studies on the 2p-3d absorption in iron, nickel, and copper plasmas related to LULI2000 (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, 2000J facility) measurements in which target temperatures were of the order of 20 eV and plasma densities were in the range 0.004-0.01 g/cm 3 . The radiatively heated targets were close to local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The structure of 2p-3d transitions has been studied with the help of the statistical superconfiguration opacity code sco and with the fine-structure atomic physics codes hullac and fac. A new mixed version of the sco code allowing one to treat part of the configurations by detailed calculation based on the Cowan's code rcg has been also used in these comparisons. Special attention was paid to comparisons between theory and experiment concerning the term features which cannot be reproduced by sco. The differences in the spin-orbit splitting and the statistical (thermal) broadening of the 2p-3d transitions have been investigated as a function of the atomic number Z. It appears that at the conditions of the experiment the role of the term and configuration broadening was different in the three analyzed elements, this broadening being sensitive to the atomic number. Some effects of the temperature gradients and possible non-LTE effects have been studied with the help of the radiative-collisional code scric. The sensitivity of the 2p-3d structures with respect to temperature and density in medium-Z plasmas may be helpful for diagnostics of LTE plasmas especially in future experiments on the Δn=0 absorption in medium-Z plasmas for astrophysical applications.

  18. Tailored Aluminium based Coatings for Optical Appearance and Corrosion Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerbeck, Martin

    potential differences in the microstructure, and protection from the network of the Al3Ti phases precipitated during the heat treatment. Laser surface cladding of aluminium containing up to 20 wt. % Ti6Al4V were studied focusing on the microstructure and the alkaline corrosion properties. Due......The current project investigated the possibility of designing aluminium based coatings focusing on the effect of composition and surface finish on the optical appearance and on the alkaline corrosion properties using titanium as the main alloying element. The main results and discussions...... that the roughness after etching increases with higher amounts of alloying elements (especially iron and silicon). Proper polishing requires some alloy hardness, while alloy purity is required for a glossy appearance after anodisation. Magnetron sputtered aluminium based coatings containing up to 18 wt. % titanium...

  19. Laser welding of aluminium alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    This thesis treats laser welding of aluminium alloys from a practical perspective with elements of mathematical analysis. The theoretical work has in all cases been verified experimentally. The aluminium alloys studied are from the 5xxx and 6xxx groups which are common for example in the automotive industry. Aluminium has many unique physical properties. The properties which more than others have been shown to influence the welding process is its high reflection, high thermal conductivity, lo...

  20. Chapter 1. Economic aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to economic aspects of aluminium production. Therefore, the perspectives of development of aluminium production, the base components of aluminium cost and economic security of enterprise are considered in this chapter.

  1. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... of the cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  2. Copper welding in solid phase; Svarka medi v tverdoj faze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avagyan, V Sh

    1993-12-31

    An analysis of the publications on the technology of diffusion welding of copper in solid phase is carried out. The aspects of diffusion welding of copper with silver, aluminium, nickels, chromium, titanium, stainless steel and refractory metals are considered 35 refs.

  3. The iron and cerium oxide influence on the electric conductivity and the corrosion resistance of anodized aluminium; A influencia do ferro e do oxido de cerio sobre a condutividade eletrica e a resistencia a corrosao do aluminio anodizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellie Provazi de

    2006-07-01

    The influence of different treatments on the aluminum system covered with aluminum oxide is investigated. The aluminum anodization in sulphuric media and in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric media was used to alter the corrosion resistance, thickness, coverage degree and microhardness of the anodic oxide. Iron electrodeposition inside the anodic oxide was used to change its electric conductivity and corrosion resistance. Direct and pulsed current were used for iron electrodeposition and the Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O electrolyte composition was changed with the addition of boric and ascorbic acids. To the sealing treatment the CeCl{sub 3} composition was varied. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS), the x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (FRX) and the morphologic analysis by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) allowed to verify that, the pulsed current increase the iron content inside the anodic layer and that the use of the additives inhibits the iron oxidation. The chronopotentiometric curves obtained during iron electrodeposition indicated that the boric and ascorbic acids mixture increased the electrodeposition process efficiency. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIE), the Vickers (Hv) microhardness measurements and morphologic analysis evidenced that the sealing treatment improves the corrosion resistance of the anodic film modified with iron. The electrical impedance (EI) technique allowed to prove the electric conductivity increase of the anodized aluminum with iron electrodeposited even after the cerium low concentration treatment. Iron nanowires were prepared by using the anodic oxide pores as template. (author)

  4. Transport of trace metals in the Magela Creek system, Northern Territory. I. Concentrations and loads of iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc during flood periods in the 1978-1979 wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, B.T.; Davies, S.H.R.; Thomas, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    In order that realistic effluent standards may be established for the Ranger uranium operations at Jabiru, Northern Territory, it is necessary that there be a clear and detailed knowledge of the pre-mining levels of trace metals and their behaviour within the Magela Creek system. During the wet season, floodwaters were sampled for conductivity, suspended solids and the trace metals, iron, manganese, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc. All concentrations were found to be very low, as were the denudation rates for the trace metals and suspended materials

  5. Fatigue test on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, van IJ.J.

    2005-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  6. Advanced shipbuilding in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, H.; Svensson, L.E.; Karlsson, L.

    1997-01-01

    The applicability of two different welding techniques for welding ships in aluminium is discussed. Conventional MIG welding and the recently developed Friction Super Stir Welding (FSSW) are compared concerning weld metal microstructures and mechanical properties. Results from testing of FSSW welds are also presented. It was observed that the grain size was smaller in FSSW welds are also presented. It was observed that the grain size was smaller in FSSW welds than in MIG welds whereas precipitates generally were larger in FSSW welds. The two methods produced welds with comparable mechanical properties. Good fatigue behaviour was obtained for FSSW welds. Advantages of the welding methods are also discussed. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  8. Inspection of copper canisters for spent nuclear fuel by means of ultrasound. Ultrasonic imaging of EB weld, theory of harmonic imaging of welds, NDE of cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, T.; Lingvall, F.; Ping Wu [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science

    2001-07-01

    The objective of task presented in the first chapter, ultrasonic imaging of EB weld is to investigate imaging methods capable of improving ultrasonic imaging of defects in EB-welds. Algorithms based on ideas from ultrasonic tomography were examined as the first step. After a concise review of literature in the field of tomography the attention is focused on synthetic focusing and particularly on using linear phased array systems for imaging. Synthetic focusing is a technique where the focusing is performed by software after gathering the ultrasonic data. General principles of synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) - a synthetic focusing technique especially suitable for linear ultrasonic arrays are presented. Problems related to the application of SAFT to ultrasonic transducers with large apertures are identified and the solution is proposed. It appears that when the probe becomes larger (i.e., cannot be regarded as a point source) the ultrasonic pulses that it generates will be smeared by its spatial impulse response (SIR). This impairs the spatial resolution achieved for the finite aperture probes comparing to the point source. Thus, a proper application of synthetic focusing requires taking into account the spatially varying probe's SIR. The SIR has to be calculated (measured) in the interesting points of space and than deconvoluted. A technique for deconvoluting the SIR based on Wiener filter is proposed and illustrated by experimental results. Some preliminary results from immersion testing of copper blocks using the ALLIN system in our lab facility are presented. Nonlinear propagation of plane waves in fluids based on the Burgers equation is investigated in the second chapter. The presented method is basically adopted from the existing literature although some modification has been made to adapt to our situation. The solution has been re-derived and two alternative forms feasible for computer calculation are given and some numerical results are

  9. Cloud point extraction of copper, lead, cadmium, and iron using 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and nonionic surfactant, and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in water and canned food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    A cloud point extraction procedure was optimized for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), and iron(III) ions in various water and canned food samples. The metal ions formed complexes with 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine that were extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. LOD values based on three times the SD of the blank (3Sb) were 0.38, 0.48, 1.33, and 1.85 microg/L for cadmium(II), copper(II), lead(II), and iron(III) ions, respectively. The precision (RSD) of the method was in the 1.86-3.06% range (n=7). Validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST-SRM) 1568a Rice Flour and GBW 07605 Tea. The method was applied to water and canned food samples for determination of metal ions.

  10. Anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiency in Mexican adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 Anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To describe the frequency of anemia and iron, zinc, copper and magnesium deficiencies among Mexican adolescents in the probabilistic survey ENSANUT 2006. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample included 2447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 y. Capillary hemoglobin and venous blood samples were collected to measure the concentrations of ferritin, sTFR, CRP, zinc, iron, copper and magnesium. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess the risk for mineral deficiencies. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 11.8 and 4.6%, body iron deficiency 18.2 and 7.9% for females and males, respectively. Overall prevalence of tissue iron deficiency was 6.9%, low serum copper were14.4 and 12.25%; zinc 28.4 and 24.5%, magnesium 40 and 35.3%; for females and males, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of mineral deficiency in Mexican adolescents; females were more prone to have more mineral deficiencies. Nutritional interventions are necessaries in order to reduce and control them.OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de anemia y deficiencia de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en adolescentes mexicanos en la encuesta probabilística ENSANUT 2006. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra incluyó 2447 adolescentes de 12 a 19 años de edad. Se tomó hemoglobina capilar y muestras de sangre venosa para medir las concentraciones séricas de ferritina, sTFR, CRP, zinc, hierro, cobre y magnesio. Se construyeron modelos de regresión logística para evaluar el riesgo de deficiencia de minerales. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de anemia fue de 11.8% en mujeres y 4.6% en hombres. Las deficiencias de hierro fueron de 18.2 y 7.9% La deficiencia tisular de hierro fue 6.9%; la baja concentración de cobre fue de 14.4 y 12.25% la de zinc de 28.4 y 24.5%, la de magnesio fue 40 y 35.3% en mujeres y hombres, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Existe una alta prevalencia de deficiencia de minerales en los adolescentes; las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo. Son necesarias

  11. Reactions on carbon anodes in aluminium electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidet, Trygve

    1997-12-31

    The consumption of carbon anodes and energy in aluminium electrolysis is higher than what is required theoretically. This thesis studies the most important of the reactions that consume anode materials. These reactions are the electrochemical anode reaction and the airburn and carboxy reactions. The first part of the thesis deals with the kinetics and mechanism of the electrochemical anode reaction using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The second part deals with air and carboxy reactivity of carbon anodes and studies the effects of inorganic impurities on the reactivity of carbon anodes in the aluminium industry. Special attention is given to sulphur since its effect on the carbon gasification is not well understood. Sulphur is always present in anodes, and it is expected that the sulphur content of available anode cokes will increase in the future. It has also been suggested that sulphur poisons catalyzing impurities in the anodes. Other impurities that were investigated are iron, nickel and vanadium, which are common impurities in anodes which have been reported to catalyze carbon gasification. 88 refs., 92 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. SEM–EDS analysis of copper, glass and iron recovered from the 1st century AD shipwreck site off Godawaya, Southern Sri Lanka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandraratne, W.M.; Gaur, A.S.; Rao, B.R.; Bhushan, R.; Muthucumarana, R.; Manders, M.; Khedekar, V.D.; Dayananda, A.M.A.

    contaminants8, thus indicating different source materials. During the Harappan times, Khetri mines of Rajast- han, India, had been a major source of copper in addition to Oman and UAE in the Gulf region9. The copper alloy in the present study is composed... to Godawaya, there are famous monasteries at Mahanavulupura and Ramba monastic complexes, which have been either exca- vated or thoroughly explored. Results of these studies indicate active maritime activity in the historical and medieval periods...

  13. KS R41B. A high performance steel-aluminium composite material; KS R41B. Ein Stahl-Aluminium-Verbundwerkstoff fuer hohe Belastungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deicke, K. [KS Gleitlager GmbH (Germany). Bereich Metall; Matucha, H.; Schubert, W. [KS Gleitlager GmbH, St. Leon-Rot (Germany); Steffens, T. [KS Gleitlager GmbH, Neckarsulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Aluminium-tin alloys have been well-known for a long time and have proved to be suitable bearing materials for crankshaft bearings for many years. The known alloy AlZn4,5SiCuPb is one of the aluminium materials capable of sustaining the highest mechanical loads. In order to achieve optimum sliding properties, it would be necessary to increase the share of the soft lead phase in the alloy. This article by KS Gleitlager GmbH shows a reasonably priced manufacturing technology for high-performance aluminium-zinc-silicon-copper alloys. (orig.) [German] Die Aluminium-Zinn-Lagerlegierungen sind seit langem bekannt und haben sich seit Jahren als Lagerwerkstoff fuer Kurbelwellenlager bewaehrt. Die Legierung AlZn4,5SiCuPb gehoert zu den mechanisch am hoechsten belastbaren Aluminium-Werkstoffen. Um optimale Gleiteigenschaften zu erzielen, muesste in der Legierung der Anteil des weichen Bleis noch weiter erhoeht werden. Dieser Beitrag der KS Gleitlager GmbH zeigt eine kostenguenstige Herstelltechnologie fuer hochbelastbare Aluminium-Zink-Silizium-Kupfer-Legierungen. (orig.)

  14. Recycling of aluminium swarf by direct incorporation in aluminium melts

    OpenAIRE

    Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J.; Soares, Delfim; Silva, Filipe Samuel; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to recover a standard AlSi12Cu1 alloy from machining chips inside the foundry plant, by using an environmentally friend technique to produce cast ingots with characteristics similar to those of the commercially available 2nd melt raw material. The recyclability of aluminium swarf using different melting techniques and the influence of chips preparation in the aluminium alloy recovery rate and dross production was experimentally studied and evaluated...

  15. Wettability of hot-pressed samples of boron-containing aluminium compounds by liquid metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Nizhenko, V.I.; Kirillova, N.V.; Floka, L.I.

    2000-01-01

    Highly dispersed powders of aluminium borides and borocarbides were sintered by hot pressing method. Temperature dependence of wettability of hot-pressed boride samples (α-AlB 12 and AlB 18 ) and aluminium borocarbides (Al 3 B 48 C 2 , Al 8 B 4 C 2 and AlB 24 C) by liquid aluminium, copper, germanium, silicon and melts Al + 25 wt.%Si and Cu + (3-6) wt.%Ti was studied. Dependence of a compound wettability on the ratio of components in it was analyzed [ru

  16. Features of argon-arc welding of aluminium alloy AD1 to stainless steel 12Kh18N10T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadov, I.I.

    1982-01-01

    Welding of pipes made of the 12Kh18N10T stainless steel and the AD1 aluminium alloy is proposed to perform using one-sided aluminizing. It is recommended to use shields in order to protect internal and external surfaces of pipes, aluminizing of which is impossible. It is shown that developed technological process for welded joints made of aluminium and stainless steel for cryogenic apparatus permits to create light-duty cryostat assembly using aluminium alloys instead of copper alloys, to increase reliability of apparatus (usage of welded joints instead of soldered ones), and to improve labour conditions

  17. Disponibilidad de cobre, hierro, manganeso, zinc en suelos del NO argentino Pant availability of copper, iron, manganesum and zinc in the north west of Agentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria Roca

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Cobre, hierro, manganeso y zinc son cuatro metales esenciales para el crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de las pequeñas cantidades requeridas por las plantas, los suelos agrícolas suelen ser deficitarios en uno o más micronutrientes de forma que su concentración en los tejidos de los vegetales cae por debajo de los niveles que permiten un crecimiento óptimo. La naturaleza del suelo juega un papel fundamental en la disponibilidad de micronutrientes y en su comportamiento a nivel suelo-planta. Los objetivos planteados en el presente estudio son: a establecer la relación entre los parámetros edáficos y la dinámica de los metales dentro del perfil del suelo, y b determinar la biodisponibilidad y zonas de deficiencia de micronutrientes en suelos agrícolas y suelos con riesgo de salinización. El porcentaje de materia orgánica es el factor determinante en el contenido y distribución de los micronutrientes en el suelo objeto de estudio, siendo el horizonte superficial el de mayor acumulación. Tanto CuDTPA, FeDTPA como MnDTPA tienen cierta movilidad en el perfil, mientras que ZnDTPA permanece adsorbido sin un desplazamiento vertical. El ZnDTPA es el único metal que además, muestra diferencias como consecuencia de la salinidad y granulometría de los suelos. No obstante, las condiciones geoquímicas del suelo implican una baja extractabilidad y una cierta dificultad de absorción de los micronutrientes por parte de las plantas.Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are among the essential elements for plant growth. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more of these micronutrients. Therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the optimum levels. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behavior at a soil-plant level. The aims of this paper were: a to establish the relationship between soil properties and micronutrient dynamics within

  18. Noble gas and halogen constraints on fluid sources in iron oxide-copper-gold mineralization: Mantoverde and La Candelaria, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Robert; Kendrick, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    The noble gas (Ar, Kr, Xe) and halogen (Cl, Br, I) composition of fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz and calcite related to the hypogene iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) mineralization at Mantoverde and Candelaria, Chile, have been investigated to provide new insights of fluid and salinity sources in Andean IOCG deposits. A combination of mechanical extraction by crushing and thermal decrepitation methods was applied and collectively indicate that fluid inclusions with salinities ranging from 3.4 up to 64 wt% NaCl equivalent have molar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios of between 0.5 × 10-3 and 3.0 × 10-3 and I/Cl of between 8 × 10-6 and 25 × 10-6 in the majority of samples, with maximum values of 5.2 × 10-3 obtained for Br/Cl and 64 × 10-6 for I/Cl in fluid inclusions within individual samples. The fluid inclusions have age-corrected 40Ar/36Ar ratios ranging from the atmospheric value of 296 up to 490 ± 45, indicating the presence of crustal- or mantle-derived excess 40Ar in the fluid inclusions of most samples. The fluid inclusions have 84Kr/36Ar and 130Xe/36Ar ratios intermediate of air and air-saturated water. However, 40Ar/36Ar is not correlated with either 84Kr/36Ar or 130Xe/36Ar, and the fluid inclusion 36Ar concentrations of 0.2-3.5 × 10-10 mol/g (calculated from measured Cl/36Ar and thermometric salinity measurements) extend below the seawater value of 0.34 × 10-10 mol/g, suggesting that contamination with modern air is a minor artifact. The range of fluid inclusion Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios overlap those previously documented for the mantle and magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits, and the fluids' unusually low 36Ar concentration is consistent with the involvement of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Input of additional non-magmatic fluid components is suggested by the spread in Br/Cl and I/Cl to values characteristic of bittern brine sedimentary formation waters and near atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar. These data are compatible with mixing of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids

  19. Aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium can exist in a number of oxyhydroxide mineral phases including corundum, diaspore, boehmite and gibbsite. The stability constants at zero ionic strength reported for Al(OH) 3 (aq) vary linearly with respect to the inverse of absolute temperature. A full suite of thermodynamic parameters is available for all aluminium phases and hydrolysis species. Gallium hydrolyses to a greater extent than aluminium, with the onset of hydrolysis reactions occurring just above a pHof 1. In fact, even though aluminium has the smallest ionic radius of this series of metals, it has the weakest hydrolysis species and oxide/hydroxide phases.This is due to the presence of stabilising d-orbitals in the heavier metals, gallium, indium and thallium(III). There are few available data for the stability constants of indium(III) hydrolysis species. Of those that are available, the range in the proposed stability constants covers many orders of magnitude.

  20. Searching for new aluminium chelating agents: a family of hydroxypyrone ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Leonardo; Crisponi, Guido; Nurchi, Valeria M; Crespo-Alonso, Miriam; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Mansoori, Delara; Arca, Massimiliano; Santos, M Amélia; Marques, Sérgio M; Gano, Lurdes; Niclós-Gutíerrez, Juan; González-Pérez, Josefa M; Domínguez-Martín, Alicia; Choquesillo-Lazarte, Duane; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    Attention is devoted to the role of chelating agents in the treatment of aluminium related diseases. In fact, in spite of the efforts that have drastically reduced the occurrence of aluminium dialysis diseases, they so far constitute a cause of great medical concern. The use of chelating agents for iron and aluminium in different clinical applications has found increasing attention in the last thirty years. With the aim of designing new chelators, we synthesized a series of kojic acid derivatives containing two kojic units joined by different linkers. A huge advantage of these molecules is that they are cheap and easy to produce. Previous works on complex formation equilibria of a first group of these ligands with iron and aluminium highlighted extremely good pMe values and gave evidence of the ability to scavenge iron from inside cells. On these bases a second set of bis-kojic ligands, whose linkers between the kojic chelating moieties are differentiated both in terms of type and size, has been designed, synthesized and characterized. The aluminium(III) complex formation equilibria studied by potentiometry, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), quantum-mechanical calculations and (1)H NMR spectroscopy are here described and discussed, and the structural characterization of one of these new ligands is presented. The in vivo studies show that these new bis-kojic derivatives induce faster clearance from main organs as compared with the monomeric analog. © 2013.

  1. Nickel, copper and cobalt coalescence in copper cliff converter slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of various additives on coalescence of nickel, copper and cobalt from slags generated during nickel extraction. The analyzed fluxes were silica and lime while examined reductants were pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon compound. Slag was settled at the different holding temperatures for various times in conditions that simulated the industrial environment. The newly formed matte and slag were characterized by their chemical composition and morphology. Silica flux generated higher partition coefficients for nickel and copper than the addition of lime. Additives used as reducing agents had higher valuable metal recovery rates and corresponding partition coefficients than fluxes. Microstructural studies showed that slag formed after adding reductants consisted of primarily fayalite, with some minute traces of magnetite as the secondary phase. Addition of 5 wt% of pig iron, ferrosilicon and copper-silicon alloys favored the formation of a metallized matte which increased Cu, Ni and Co recoveries. Addition of copper-silicon alloys with low silicon content was efficient in copper recovery but coalescence of the other metals was low. Slag treated with the ferrosilicon facilitated the highest cobalt recovery while copper-silicon alloys with silicon content above 10 wt% resulted in high coalescence of nickel and copper, 87 % and 72 % respectively.

  2. [Balance of iron and copper in cadets of military school during physical exercise and next-day rest at different times of the year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtseva, I P; Nasolodin, V V; Beliakov, R A; Arshinov, N P; Zaĭtsev, O N; Meshcheriakov, S I

    2013-03-01

    According to examination, with the help of emission spectrum analysis method, of 24 cadets-athletes of different specialization it was determined that during physical exercise in summer and in winter loss of ferrum and copper with excrements exceeded the intake if these microelements with food. The next day rise of impaction of microelements and decrease of excretion. But despite the positive balance of ferrum and copper, spend of these microelements during physical exercise wasn't compensated for the day of rest. That is why there is a possibility of microelement deficit.

  3. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabane, G.; Englander, M.; Lehmann, J.

    1955-01-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase γ, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase α) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl 2 ) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl 2 particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  4. An Optical Model Study of Neutrons Elastically Scattered by Iron, Nickel, Cobalt, Copper, and Indium in the Energy Region 1.5 to 7.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmqvist, B; Wiedling, T

    1967-03-15

    Angular distributions of elastically scattered neutrons have been measured for cobalt and copper at nine energies between 1.5 and 7.0 MeV, for natural iron at 4.6 MeV, for natural nickel and indium at four energies between 3.0 and 4.6 MeV, by using time-of-flight technique. The observed angular distributions were corrected for neutron flux attenuation, multiple elastic scattering, and the finite geometry of the source-sample-detector system by using a Monte Carlo program. Theoretical angular distributions have been fitted to the experimental angular distributions by using an optical model potential with Saxon-Woods form factors. A computer program was used to find parameter values of the potential giving the best fittings to the experimental angular distributions.

  5. Avaliação do uso de ervas medicinais como suplemento nutricional de ferro, cobre e zinco Evaluation of the use of medicinal grass as nutritional supplement of iron, copper and zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édira Castello Branco de Andrade

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre, ferro e zinco, considerados elementos essenciais ao corpo humano, apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função da forma química que se encontram em um alimento. As ervas medicinais, amplamente utilizadas, podem apresentar novas indicações quanto a suplementação destes metais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo avaliar os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco em ervas medicinais, pós e ervas secas, e promover a extração seqüencial visando a biodisponibilidade. Os teores de cobre, ferro e zinco foram determinados através da espectroscopia de absorção atômica. A extração seqüencial foi aplicada com os extratores cloreto de cálcio 1,0M; ácido acético 0,1M com acetato de amônio 5% (pH=5,0; ácido acético 0,5M e HCl 0,5M. Os resultados apresentaram teores altos de cobre, ferro e zinco, quando comparados com outras fontes alimentícias destes metais, além de indicar que os mesmos se apresentam sob, no mínimo, 4 espécies químicas distintas nas ervas analisadas. O extrator I foi o de melhor eficiência para os três metais. Considerando que o consumo destas ervas é feito com visão farmacológica, acredita-se que uso das mesmas em preparos de alimentos pode favorecer a suplementação dos metais cobre, ferro e zinco.Copper, iron and zinc, considered essential elements in the human body, present changeable biodisponibility in chemical form more than if found in a food. Medicinal plants, widely used, can present new indications as to how much the suplementation of these metals, aiming at such an objective, can be shown to evaluate the amounts of copper, iron, and zinc in medicinal plants, powder and dry grass, and to promote the extraction sequencial aiming at the biodisponibility. The copper amount, iron and zinc had been determined through the spectroscopy of atomic absorption. The extraction sequencial was applied with the extractors calcium chloride 1,0M; acetic acid 0,1M with ammonium acetate 5% ( pH=5,0 ; acetic acid 0

  6. Bonding of aluminium matrix composites for application in the transport industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena, A.; Gomez de Salazar, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A discontinuously reinforced MMC containing 12 vol % SiC particles in an Al-Cu-Mg alloy (AA 2124) matrix has been diffusion bonded. Thick interlayers of different superplastic aluminium alloys (Al-Li 8090 and Al-Cu SUPRAL) were used to reduce the bonding pressure and ensure complete surface contact. Microstructural studies shown higher continuity in joints bonded with 8090 interlayer than with other alloys. Precipitation of rich-copper intermetallic was detected, after bonding, in the interlayer because diffusion of Cu from 2124 matrix. Results suggest that Li contained in the interlayer favours the partial disruption of the aluminium oxide film, making easier the solid state bonding. (orig.)

  7. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...... temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction...... and decreasing particle size of the dispersed particles. A general expression for k1 was derived for the relationship between the dislocation density and the strain in dispersion-strengthened products...

  8. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content; Alliages uranium-aluminium a faible teneur en aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabane, G; Englander, M; Lehmann, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase {gamma}, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase {alpha}) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl{sub 2}) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl{sub 2} particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  9. Determination of Aluminium Content in Aluminium Hydroxide Formulation by FT-NIR Transmittance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lai, Xuxin; Zheng, Yiwu; Søndergaard, Ib

    2007-01-01

    A method for determining the aluminium content of an aluminium hydroxide suspension using near infrared (NIR) transmittance spectroscopy has been developed. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) was used as reference method. The factors influencing the NIR analysis...... aluminium content in aluminium hydroxide suspension. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Synthesis and properties of bimetallic aluminium alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyshinskaya, K.I.; Vasil'ev, G.A.; Vishnyakova, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A single stage method of aluminium bimetallic alkoxide synthesis, which consists in activated aluminium reaction with metal salts in the relevant alcohols, has been developed. Properties of the compounds prepared are described

  11. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    OpenAIRE

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-01-01

    Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  12. Cathodic protection of mild steel and copper in deep waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Wagh, A.B.

    Performance of cathodic protection system to mild steel and copper in deep (> 1000 m) oceanic waters of the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has been assessed using aluminium and mild steel sacrificial anodes. The corrosion rates of unprotected metals...

  13. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen...... in aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  14. Corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent fuel in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    water chemistry. Water conductivity near 1 μS/cm generally ensures that aggressive impurity ions such as chlorides are in the ppb range. When chemistry is maintained in this regime, corrosion of aluminium alloys is minimized. Good water chemistry alone does not always guarantee that corrosion will be prevented, as shown by the extensive testing conducted in the Argentine storage pools, where iron oxide particles deposited from the water caused pitting even in high purity water. This has also been seen in other fuel storage basins. Corrosion mechanisms involved in this pitting can be both galvanic and oxygen depletion cells. The CRP has succeeded in making all the participating countries more aware that the successful wet storage of aluminium clad spent fuel does not come about automatically but requires diligence in maintaining high quality water conditions. Moreover, from papers written and published during the CRP by the participants and from the presentation of some of the results at international conferences, the whole research reactor community is now more fully aware of the susceptibility of aluminium cladding to localized corrosion and the measures that can be taken to minimize it

  15. Chapter 2. Theoretical aspects of aluminium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanko, E.A.; Kabirov, Sh.O.; Safiev, Kh.; Azizov, B.S.; Mirpochaev, Kh.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article is devoted to theoretical aspects of aluminium production. Thus, the electrochemistry of electrolysis process, calculation of base industrial indicators of aluminium electrolytic cell, and processes occurring on anode and cathode were considered. Factors, which increase the current output and electrolytic cell productivity were studied. The side effects, including anode effect, sodium extraction on cathode, aluminium dissolution in the electrolyte, aluminium carbide formation, and influence of admixtures in the electrolyte were studied as well.

  16. Design and analysis of aluminium brdiges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Applications of aluminium have grown considerably in building and civil engineering the last decade, which is due to various aspects: light weight, durability and maintenance, use of extrusions. The paper starts with a short history of aluminium bridges and then focuses on aluminium bridges in the

  17. Molybdenum extraction from copper-molybdenum ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevaeva, L.M.

    1982-01-01

    Molybdenum extraction from copper-molybdenum ores as practised in different countries is reviewed. In world practice the production process including depression of copper and iron sulfides and flotation of molybdenite is widely spread. At two USA factories the process of a selective flotation with molybdenite depression by dextrin is used

  18. Hot workability of aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yeon Chul; Oh, Kyung Jin

    1986-01-01

    Hot Workability of aluminium alloys, 2024, 6061 and 7075, has been studied by hot torsion tests at temperatures from 320 to 515 deg C and at strain rates from 1.26 x 10 -3 to 5.71 x 10 -3 sec -1 . Hot working condition of these aluminium alloys was determined quantitatively from the constitutive equations obtained from flow stress curves in torsion. Experimental data of the logarith of the Zener-Hollomonn parameter showed good linear relationships to the logarith of sinh(ασ-bar)

  19. Copper hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage, Simon W; Faurschou, Annesofie; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2014-01-01

    hypersensitivity, a database search of PubMed was performed with the following terms: copper, dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, contact hypersensitivity, contact sensitization, contact allergy, patch test, dental, IUD, epidemiology, clinical, and experimental. Human exposure to copper is relatively common...

  20. Microscopic and magnetic properties of template assisted electrodeposited iron nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, M. I., E-mail: imrancssp@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Yar, A., E-mail: asfandyarhargan@gmail.com [Department of Fundamental & Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia); Ahmad, F., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my; Abdullah, M. Z., E-mail: zaki-abdullah@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 PERAK (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Nanowires of magnetic materials such as Iron, nickel, cobalt, and alloys of them are one of the most widely investigated structures because of their possible applications in high density magnetic recording media, sensor elements, and building blocks in biological transport systems. In this work, Iron nanowires have been prepared by electrodeposition technique using Anodized Aluminium Oxide (AAO) templates. The electrolyte used consisted of FeSO{sub 4.}6H{sub 2}O buffered with H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and acidized by dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. FESEM analysis shows that the asdeposited nanowires are parallel to one another and have high aspect ratio with a reasonably high pore-filing factor. To fabricate the working electrode, a thin film of copper (∼ 220 nm thick) was coated on back side of AAO template by e-beam evaporation system to create electrical contact with the external circuit. The TEM results show that electrodeposited nanowires have diameter around 100 nm and are polycrystalline in structure. Magnetic properties show the existence of anisotropy for in and out of plane configuration. These nanowires have potential applications in magnetic data storage, catalysis and magnetic sensor applications.

  1. Developments in the US aluminium recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolling, R N

    1983-06-01

    In the USA scrap recovery of aluminium has gained in importance since the war. Today its amounts to about 32% of total supply. On the other hand primary production in the US seems to have hardly any expansion possibilities. The development of the aluminium beverage can is the clearest example for recycling growth. The increased use of aluminium in passenger cars has led to very close technical and local relations of aluminium foundries and secondary smelters. The changing nature of the aluminium business caused by the growth of recycling should be recognized and made use of.

  2. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail.

  3. Aluminium and energy. An interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, E R

    1978-06-01

    The interview between METALL and the president of Aluswuisse refers mainly to aspects of energy and deals more closely with the questions whether western Europe in view of relatively high prices for electricity is still competitive and which part can be played by aluminium in overcoming the energy crisis.

  4. Recovery mechanisms in nanostructured aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tianbo; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5–100C. Hardness...

  5. Dynamical study of liquid aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, G.S.; Chaturvedi, D.K.

    1979-09-01

    Recent molecular dynamics data of Ebbsjoe et al. in liquid aluminium have been analysed through the memory function formalism. Two forms of the memory functions which have correct asymptotic limit at large wavenumbers but accounts for interatomic correlations in a different manner are considered. The results for ω 2 s(q, ω) obtained from both models are compared with experimental data. (author)

  6. Effect of Bio char on Plant Growth and Aluminium Form of Soil under Aluminium Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lianwen; Li, Qingbiao; Sun, Jingwei; Feng, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Aluminium-enriched acid red soils in South China easily cause aluminium toxicity to plants, but biochip can improve soils and eliminate soil contaminations. In this project, biochip was used in potted plant control test to study the effect of biochip on plant growth in soil under acid aluminium stress and the migration and conversion of aluminium in plant-soil system. The fin dings show that the application of biochip increases the pH value of soil under aluminium stress significantly, changes the existing form of aluminium ion in soil, reduces the plants’ absorption of aluminium, and alleviates the aluminium toxicity to plants, but too much biochip may inhibit the growth of plants. In this case, further study should be carried out as regards the volume and way of biochip input in practical applications as well as the timeliness of aluminium toxicity removal.

  7. Development of microstructure during sintering and aluminium exposure of titanium diboride ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Gunnar

    1997-12-31

    In the production of aluminium, much less energy need be consumed if an inert, wetted cathode is present in the electrolysis cell. Titanium diboride, TiB{sub 2}, is easily wetted and does not readily dissolve in liquid aluminium, but it degrades, probably because aluminium penetrates into it during electrolysis. This degradation is linked to impurities present in the TiB{sub 2} after sintering. This thesis studies the sintering process and how aluminium penetrates into the material. High-purity, high-density TiB{sub 2} compacts were made by hot pressing at 50 MPa in an argon atmosphere at 1790-1960 {sup o}C. Samples were made with different impurity additions. These samples were exposed to liquid aluminium at 980 {sup o}C for 24 hours. All samples were penetrated, but the amount and appearance depended on the sintering aid used. Unlike the other samples, pure TiB{sub 2} was easily penetrated by metallic aluminium because of the open porosity and microcracks of this material. Grain boundary penetration was common among the samples. Differences in penetration behaviour between grain boundaries are probably due to differences in grain boundary energy. But no relation to segregants or boundary misorientation was found. The orientation of grain boundary planes and de-wetting of thin films upon cooling may explain the observed microstructure development. The samples sintered with Ti addition suffered extensive penetration despite their high densities. The grain boundaries of these samples became faceted and contained thicker films of metallic aluminium, presumably because of increased solubility due to iron segregations. All secondary phases present in the grain junctions after sintering, except from the B{sub 4}C phase, reacted with the penetrated aluminium. This did not cause swelling and cracking, as has been suggested by other authors. 101 refs., 48 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khodadadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  9. Development of solar selective absorber layers on aluminium. Final report; Entwicklung solarselektiver Absorberschichten auf Aluminium fuer Solarkollektoren. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenicke, D.; Moeller, T.; Schwarz, T.

    1998-01-31

    A new electrolytic process was developed to form solar selective layers on aluminium. In the developed process, both the formation of the alumina layer and the deposition of metals into the layer takes place in only one treatment step using a single electrolysis bath. The main step of the so called ISOC-method (impulse structured oxide ceramic) is the anodic oxidation of aluminium which was carried out by using a pulse technique at different voltages. During the anodic polarisation a thin alumina ceramic layer was formed, while the cathodic led to the metal deposition as copper and nickel. The conditions of the electrolysis were varied in order to estimate optimal parameters achieving solar selective layers with high selectivity. Furthermore, a scale-up of the lab scale apparatus to a mini plant was carried out. Finally, the corrosion resistance of the absorber layers was improved by the formation of a thin hydrophobic overlayer using a sol-gel treatment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein neuartiges Behandlungsverfahren zur Erzeugung von solarselektiven Absorberschichten auf Aluminium wurde entwickelt. Bei dieser elektrochemischen Behandlung wird in einem Einstufenprozess mit einem Elektrolyten durch eine Kombination von anodischer Oxidation und bipolarer Pulsbehandlung auf der Oberflaeche des Aluminiums eine impulsstrukturierte Oxidkeramik (ISOK) erzeugt. Dabei entsteht durch eine anodische Oxidation eine strukturierte Aluminiumoxidschicht. Bei der bipolaren Pulsbehandlung erfolgt dann eine Abscheidung der im ISOK-Elektrolyten befindlichen Metalle Cu und Ni auf oder in die Aluminiumoxidoberflaeche. Die ISOK-Behandlung wurde vom Labormassstab zu einem ISOK-Verfahren im Miniplant-Massstab entwickelt. Der Einfluss der elektrischen Parameter und der chemischen Zusammensetzung der ISOK-Elektrolyte wurde untersucht. Durch eine auf das ISOK-Verfahren abgestimmte Nachbehandlung, ein Tauchverfahren in einer Sol-Gel-Loesung, entsteht ein Schichtsystem mit hoher Solarselektivitaet

  10. The chloride induced localised corrosion of aluminium and beryllium: A study by electron and X-ray spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Christopher F.

    Beryllium is an important metal in the nuclear industry for which there are no suitable replacements. It undergoes localised corrosion at the site of heterogeneities in the metal surface. Corrosion pits are associated with a range of second phase particles. To investigate the role of these particles in corrosion, a safe experimental protocol was established using an aluminium alloy as a corrosion material analogue. The 7075-T6 alloy had not previously been investigated using the experimental methodology used in this thesis. This work led to the development of the experimental methodology and safe working practices for handling beryllium. The range and composition of the second phase particles present in S-65 beryllium billet were identified using a combination of SEM, AES, EDX and WDX. Following the identification of a range of particles with various compositions, including the AlFeBe4 precipitate which has been previously associated with corrosion, the location of the particles were marked to enable their repeated study. Attention was focused on the microchemistry in the vicinity of second phase particles, as a function of immersion time in pH 7, 0.1 M NaCl solution. The corrosion process associated with different particles was followed by repeatedly relocating the particles to perform analysis by means of SEM, AES and EDX. The use of traditional chlorinated vapour degreasing solvents on beryllium was investigated and compared to two modern commercially available cleaning solutions designed as drop-in replacements. This work expanded the range of solvents suitable for cleaning beryllium and validated the conclusions from previous thermodynamic modelling. Additionally, a new experimental methodology has been developed which enables the acquisition of chemical state information from the surface of micron scale features. This was applied to sub-micron copper and iron particles, as well as a copper intermetallic.

  11. Research and development of advanced aluminium/graphite composites for thermal management applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wyszkowska, Edyta; Bertarelli, Alessandro

    Thermal management materials are continuously gaining importance as a consequence of everlasting evolution in performance of electronic and electric devices. In particular, by improving the heat exchanger’s materials' properties (i.e. thermal conductivity) it is possible to boost further performance and miniaturization of such devices. Due to their high thermal conductivity, Copper and Aluminium are currently the most commonly used materials for thermal management applications. However, the mismatch in thermal expansion between Cooper/Aluminium and Silicon is limiting the heat transfer at the interface between the electronic chip and the heat exchanger. Furthermore, Copper is indeed characterized by a high thermal conductivity but at the same time its high density (8.9 g/cm3) increases weight of the final product, which in most of the cases does not meet specific application requirements. High cost of these materials is another constraint which limits their application. Due to aforementioned facts, monolith...

  12. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  13. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  14. Research and development of advanced aluminium/graphite composites for thermal management applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wyszkowska, Edyta; Olejnik, Ewa; Bertarelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Thermal management materials are continuously gaining importance as a consequence of everlasting evolution in performance of electronic and electric devices. In particular, by improving the heat exchanger’s materials' properties (i.e. thermal conductivity) it is possible to boost further performance and miniaturization of such devices. Due to their high thermal conductivity, Copper and Aluminium are currently the most commonly used materials for thermal management applications. However, the m...

  15. Theoretical interpretation for 2p − nd absorption spectra of iron, nickel, and copper in X-ray range measured at the LULI2000 facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2p − nd absorption structures in medium Z elements present a valuable benchmark for atomic models since they exhibit a complex dependence on temperature and density. For these transitions lying in the X-ray range, one observes a competition between the spin-orbit splitting and the broadening associated to the excitation of complex structures. Detailed opacity codes based on the HULLAC or FAC suites agree with the statistical code SCO; but in iron computations predict higher peak absorption than measured. An addition procedure on opacities calculated with detailed codes is proposed and successfully tested.

  16. The Possible Role of Smoking and Mild Inflammation on Iron, Copper Ions and Related Metalloproteins in Male Volunteers Working in Radiation Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, M.M.; Amer, M.M.; Michael, M.I.; El Daly, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress implies that cells have intact pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems that continuously generate and detoxify oxidants during normal aerobic metabolism. When additional oxidative events occur, the pro-oxidant systems out balance the anti-oxidant, potentially producing oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids ultimately leading to cell death in severe oxidative stress. A disturbance in pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant systems results from a myriad of different oxidative challenges, including radiation, metabolism of environmental pollutants and administered drugs and immune system response to disease or infection. Forty male volunteers have participated in this study to evaluate the effect of smoking and mild infection on ferric and copper ions, related metalloproteins and glutathione peroxidase in males working in the radiation fields. The results denoted that those two stress ors added further imbalance in the pro oxidant-antioxidant status

  17. Synthesis and characterization of iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes of salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L1) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H2L2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouEl-Enein, S A; El-Saied, F A; Kasher, T I; El-Wardany, A H

    2007-07-01

    Salicylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(1)) and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene-N-anilinoacetohydrazone (H(2)L(2)) and their iron(III), manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by IR, electronic spectra, molar conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities and ESR. Mononuclear complexes are formed with molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 (M:L). The IR studies reveal various modes of chelation. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that the iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(1) have octahedral geometry. While the cobalt(II) complexes of H(2)L(2) were separated as tetrahedral structure. The copper(II) complexes have square planar stereochemistry. The ESR parameters of the copper(II) complexes at room temperature were calculated. The g values for copper(II) complexes proved that the Cu-O and Cu-N bonds are of high covalency.

  18. Influence of biochars, compost and iron grit, alone and in combination, on copper solubility and phytotoxicity in a Cu-contaminated soil from a wood preservation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustriere, Nadège; Marchand, Lilian; Galland, William; Gabbon, Lunel; Lottier, Nathalie; Motelica, Mikael; Mench, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Two biochars, a green waste compost and iron grit were used, alone and in combination, as amendment to improve soil properties and in situ stabilize Cu in a contaminated soil (964mgCukg(-1)) from a wood preservation site. The pot experiment consisted in 9 soil treatments (% w/w): untreated Cu-contaminated soil (Unt); Unt soil amended respectively with compost (5%, C), iron grit (1%, Z), pine bark-derived biochar (1%, PB), poultry-manure-derived biochar (1%, AB), PB or AB+C (5%, PBC and ABC), and PB or AB+Z (1%, PBZ and ABZ). After a 3-month reaction period, the soil pore water (SPW) was sampled in potted soils and dwarf beans were grown for a 2-week period. In the SPW, all amendments decreased the Cu(2+) concentration, but total Cu concentration increased in all AB-amended soils due to high dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration. No treatment improved root and shoot DW yields, which even decreased in the ABC and ABZ treatments. The PBZ treatment decreased total Cu concentration in the SPW while reducing the gap with common values for root and shoot yields of dwarf bean plants. A field trial is underway before any recommendation for the PB-based treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Leif

    1963-08-15

    Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.

  20. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  1. Surface treatments for aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardelean, M.; Lascău, S.; Ardelean, E.; Josan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Typically, in contact with the atmosphere, the aluminium surface is covered with an aluminium oxide layer, with a thickness of less than 1-2μm. Due to its low thickness, high porosity and low mechanical strength, this layer does not protect the metal from corrosion. Anodizing for protective and decorative purposes is the most common method of superficial oxidation processes and is carried out through anodic oxidation. The oxide films, resulted from anodizing, are porous, have a thickness of 20-50μm, and are heat-resistant, stable to water vapour and other corrosion agents. Hard anodizing complies with the same obtains principles as well as decorative and protective anodization. The difference is in that hard anodizing is achieved at low temperatures and high intensity of electric current. In the paper are presented the results of decorative and hard anodization for specimens made from several aluminium alloys in terms of the appearance of the specimens and of the thickness of the anodized.

  2. Analysis of the behavior of orthogonal-core-type push-pull parametric transformer with iron and copper losses. Tetsuson oyobi doson wo koryoshita chokko jishinkei push pull parametric hen prime atsuki no dosa kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, K; Anazawa, Y; Kaga, A [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Ichinokura, O [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-04-30

    This paper reports on a precise numerical analysis of operating characteristics of the push-pull parametric transformer of orthogonal-core type (proposed by the authors in the preceding papers) made in consideration of both the iron loss of its magnetic core and the copper loss of its windings. A model of magnetic circuit in the core is presented, which involves magnetic reluctances representing saturation characteristics of the core and magnetic inductances representing effects produced by hysteresis. Use is made of the function that expresses the saturation characteristics by a twenty-first power series of magnetic flux, the coefficient of each term being determined by use of experimental data on a specified sample of the magnetic core. Furthermore, recourse is had to the circuit simulator SPICE in order to analyze the operating characteristics of the transformer. Comparing results of the present analysis with experimental results, the following are noted: first, both output voltages and currents of windings of the transformer under the condition of parametric oscillation are calculated with sufficient accuracy; second, the present analysis is capable of evaluating the conversion efficiency of electric power and input power factor of the transformer, and of providing more accurate values of both voltage and current in the case of the maximum output under loading conditions as compared with the analyses so far presented. 8 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Estado nutricional, ferro, cobre e zinco em escolares de favelas da cidade de São Paulo Nutritional status, iron, copper, and zinc in school children of shantytowns of Sao Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete B. Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a antropometria, a composição corporal e o estado nutricional em ferro, cobre e zinco segundo o gênero, de crianças e adolescentes institucionalizados, moradores de duas favelas da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal utilizando medidas de peso, estatura, circunferência braquial, dobras cutâneas, bioimpedância elétrica, os escores Z da relação estatura para idade, índice de massa corporal, área do braço, área muscular do braço e área de gordura do braço. Os percentuais de gordura corporal e massa magra foram analisados segundo fórmulas de Siri e Slaughter. Foram determinados hemoglobina, hematócrito, ferro, ferritina, cobre e zinco séricos. RESULTADOS: Foram maiores o peso corporal, circunferência do braço, dobras cutâneas do tríceps e subescapular, resistência elétrica, escores Z da área do braço, área muscular do braço e percentual de gordura corporal no sexo feminino em relação ao masculino. Baixa estatura foi encontrada em 8% das meninas e 5,6% dos meninos, sem diferença quanto ao gênero. Houve menor prevalência de desnutrição (2% das meninas e 5,6% nos meninos, do que de sobrepeso e obesidade (30% e 11,2%, respectivamente. Observou-se anemia em 24,4% e ferropenia em 10,5% dos escolares com ou sem anemia. Apresentaram valores abaixo do limite inferior do padrão de referência para cobre e zinco séricos, respectivamente três e sete indivíduos. CONCLUSÃO: Na população estudada, de baixo nível econômico e institucionalizada, ocorre o processo de transição nutricional e alta prevalência de anemia que não resulta da interação ferro, cobre e zinco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometry, body composition and iron, copper and zinc nutritional status, according to gender, of institutionalized children and adolescents living in two shantytowns in the city of Sao Paulo. METHODS: A cross sectional study using weight, height, arm circumference, skinfolds, electrical

  4. Detection of aluminium in different culinary media using black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacques Blessing

    The interactions between food and aluminium local kitchen utensils can be a potential source of aluminium released which can ... need to be adopted to preserve consumers' health. ..... Corrosion behaviour of different ... Aluminium beverage.

  5. Introduction. Aluminium production on electrolytic cells with calcined anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushkin, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter presents the monograph content, which includes the description of physicochemical processes in aluminium electrolytic cells, and mechanism of electrolytic aluminium obtaining. The short description of aluminium electrolytic cells construction is presented in this book as well.

  6. Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, J.W.G.A.; Willems, J.W.M.M.; Metselaar, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for the preparation of pure yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) powder with small grain size is the subject of this study. Starting materials are sulphates and chlorides of yttrium and aluminium. To obtain pure YAG (Y3Al5O12), the pH during flocculation

  7. Toxicity of aluminium on five aquatic invertebrates; Aluminiums toksisitet paa 5 akvatiske invertebrater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, J [Oslo Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper deals with the experiments done by investigating the effects from the toxicity of aluminium on aquatic invertebrates. The aim of the experiments was to compare the toxicity of unstable aluminium compounds with stable forms of aluminium. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Aluminium in foodstuffs and diets in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorhem, L; Haegglund, G

    1992-01-01

    The levels of aluminium have been determined in a number of individual foodstuffs on the Swedish market and in 24 h duplicate diets collected by women living in the Stockholm area. The results show that the levels in most foods are very low and that the level in vegetables can vary by a factor 10. Beverages from aluminium cans were found to have aluminium levels not markedly different from those in glass bottles. Based on the results of the analysis of individual foods, the average Swedish daily diet was calculated to contain about 0.6 mg aluminium, whereas the mean content of the collected duplicate diets was 13 mg. A cake made from a mix containing aluminium phosphate in the baking soda was identified as the most important contributor of aluminium to the duplicate diets. Tea and aluminium utensils were estimated to increase the aluminium content of the diets by approximately 4 and 2 mg/day, respectively. The results also indicate that a considerable amount of aluminium must be introduced from other sources.

  9. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years Estado nutricio de hierro, zinc, cobre y magnesio en niños mexicanos de 1 a 11 años de edad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Morales-Ruán

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the micronutrient nutritional status of a national sample of 1-11 year old Mexican children surveyed in 2006 in National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2006 and their association with dietary and sociodemographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum samples were used (n=5 060 to measure the concentrations of ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, copper and magnesium. RESULTS: Prevalence of deficiencies in 1-4 and 5-11y old children were for iron (using low ferritin 26.0 and 13.0%; zinc, 28.1 and 25.8%, respectively; and copper, ≈30% in both age groups. Magnesium low serum concentrations (MLSC, were found in 12.0% and 28.4% of the children, respectively. Being beneficiary of Liconsa (OR=0.32; C.I.95%, 0.17-0.61 or belonging to higher socioeconomic status (OR=0.63; C.I.95%, 0.41-0.97 were protective against iron deficiency. Increasing age (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 1.19-1.32 and living in the Central Region (OR=0.59; C.I.95%, 0.36-0.97 were protective against MLSC. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of iron and zinc are serious public health problems in Mexican children.OBJETIVO: Describir el estado nutricio de micronutrimentos en niños de 1-11 años de edad de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 y su asociación con factores dietéticos y sociodemográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se usaron muestras séricas (n=5060 para medir las concentraciones de ferritina, receptor de transferrina, zinc, cobre y magnesio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencias de deficiencias en niños de 1-4 y de 5 a 11 años fueron para ferritina, 26.0 y 13%; zinc, 28.1 y 25.8% respectivamente y cobre ≈30% en ambos grupos. Las concentraciones bajas de magnesio (CBM fueron 12.0 y 28.4%, respectivamente. Ser beneficiario de Liconsa (RM=0.32; IC 95%: 0.17-0.61 y pertenecer al nivel socioeconómico alto (RM=0.63; IC, 95%: 0.41-0.97 fueron protectores para deficiencia de hierro. La edad (RM=1.26; IC, 95%: 1.19-1.32 y vivir en la región Centro (RM=0.59; IC, 95

  10. Antimicrobial and mutagenic activity of some carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands and their copper(II), iron(II) and zinc(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, A; Carcelli, M; Pelagatti, P; Pelizzi, C; Pelizzi, G; Zani, F

    1999-06-15

    Several mono- and bis- carbono- and thiocarbonohydrazone ligands have been synthesised and characterised; the X-ray diffraction analysis of bis(phenyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone is reported. The coordinating properties of the ligands have been studied towards Cu(II), Fe(II), and Zn(II) salts. The ligands and the metal complexes were tested in vitro against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. In general, the bisthiocarbonohydrazones possess the best antimicrobial properties and Gram positive bacteria are the most sensitive microorganisms. Bis(ethyl 2-pyridyl ketone) thiocarbonohydrazone, bis(butyl 2-pyridyl ketone)thiocarbonohydrazone and Cu(H2nft)Cl2 (H2nft, bis(5-nitrofuraldehyde)thiocarbonohydrazone) reveal a strong activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.7 microgram ml-1 against Bacillus subtilis and of 3 micrograms ml-1 against Staphylococcus aureus. Cu(II) complexes are more effective than Fe(II) and Zn(II) ones. All bisthiocarbono- and carbonohydrazones are devoid of mutagenic properties, with the exception of the compounds derived from 5-nitrofuraldehyde. On the contrary a weak mutagenicity, that disappears in the copper complexes, is exhibited by monosubstituted thiocarbonohydrazones.

  11. Sputtering and emission intensity of copper alloys in a Grimm glow lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, T.; Kashima, J.; Naganuma, K.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the metallurgical structure and the aluminium content of copper-aluminium alloy (1-12% Al) on the sputtering and intensities of spectral lines in the Grimm glow lamp are reported. The electrical current and sputtering yield decreased linearly with increasing aluminium content; the intensities of the Al I lines depended linearly on the amount of aluminium in the sputtering yield at a fixed voltage and argon pressure. The structure affected the intensities of the Al I and Cu I lines but not the intensity ratio (Al I/Cu I) for about 100 s after burn-off. Working curves for aluminium for samples of different structure were very similar. (Auth.)

  12. Analytical applications of N-phenyl-n-butyro hydroxamic and N-p-tolyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acids towards chromium (VI), copper (II), iron (III) and uranium (VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhadir, A. Y. F.

    2001-05-01

    Two aliphatic hydroxamic acids were prepared; N-phenyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acid and N-p-tolyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acid, by the reaction of β-phenylhydroxylamine and p-tolyl hydroxylamine with n-butyryl chloride. The acids were identified by: their melting points, characteristic reactions with acidic solutions of vanadium (V) and iron (III), infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen content and molecular weight determination. The extractability of these acids towards Cr (VI), Cu (II), Fe (III) and U (VI) were investigated at different pH values and molar acid concentrations. N-phenyl-n- butyro hydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction (98.80%) for Cr (VI) at 4 M H 2 SO 4 , (83.25%) for Cu (II) at pH 6, (99.17%) for Fe (III) at pH 5 and (99.76%) at 4 M HNO 3 for U (VI) respectively. N-p-tolyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction (98.40%) for Cr (VI)at 4 M H 2 SO 4 , (81.30%) for Cu (II) at pH 6, (92.80%) for Fe (III) at pH 5 and (99.64%) for U (VI) at 4 M HNO 3 , respectively. The ratios of the metal to ligands were determined by job method (continuous variation method) and were found to be 1:2 for Cr (VI) and U (VI). (Author)

  13. Analytical applications of N-phenyl-n-butyro hydroxamic and N-p-tolyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acids towards chromium (VI), copper (II), iron (III) and uranium (VI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkhadir, A Y. F. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2001-05-01

    Two aliphatic hydroxamic acids were prepared; N-phenyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acid and N-p-tolyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acid, by the reaction of {beta}-phenylhydroxylamine and p-tolyl hydroxylamine with n-butyryl chloride. The acids were identified by: their melting points, characteristic reactions with acidic solutions of vanadium (V) and iron (III), infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen content and molecular weight determination. The extractability of these acids towards Cr (VI), Cu (II), Fe (III) and U (VI) were investigated at different pH values and molar acid concentrations. N-phenyl-n- butyro hydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction (98.80%) for Cr (VI) at 4 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (83.25%) for Cu (II) at pH 6, (99.17%) for Fe (III) at pH 5 and (99.76%) at 4 M HNO{sub 3} for U (VI) respectively. N-p-tolyl-n-butyro hydroxamic acid has a maximum extraction (98.40%) for Cr (VI)at 4 M H{sub 2} SO{sub 4}, (81.30%) for Cu (II) at pH 6, (92.80%) for Fe (III) at pH 5 and (99.64%) for U (VI) at 4 M HNO{sub 3}, respectively. The ratios of the metal to ligands were determined by job method (continuous variation method) and were found to be 1:2 for Cr (VI) and U (VI). (Author)

  14. Effect of pH and Calcium on the Adsorptive Removal of Cadmium and Copper by Iron Oxide–Coated Sand and Granular Ferric Hydroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Uwamariya, V.

    2015-08-17

    Iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) and granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) were used to study the effect of Ca2+ and pH on the adsorptive removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ from groundwater using batch adsorption experiments and kinetic modeling. It was observed that Cu2+ and Cd2+ were not stable in synthetic waters. The extent of precipitation increased with increasing pH. Removal of Cu2+ and Cd2+ was achieved through both precipitation and adsorption, with IOCS showing higher adsorption efficiency. Increase of pH (from 6 to 8) resulted in a higher overall removal efficiency of both Cu2+ and Cd2+, with precipitation as predominant removal mechanisms at higher pH values, especially for Cu2+. An increase in Ca2+ concentration increased the precipitation of Cu2+ [as Cu2(OH)2CO3 and Cu3(OH)2(CO3)2] and Cd2+ [as Cd(OH)2 and CdCO3]. In addition, Ca2+ competes with Cu2+ and Cd2+ for surface adsorption sites on IOCS and GFH, and reduces their adsorption capacity. The kinetic modeling revealed that the adsorption of Cd2+ onto IOCS is a complex process, with limited contribution of chemisorption that increases in the presence of Ca2+. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  15. Phase transformation of aluminium hydroxide to aα- alumina prepared from different aluminium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masliana Muslimin; Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2006-01-01

    The study intends to look at the most suitable aluminium salt to produce a single-phase a-alumina by the hydrothermal method. In the process to produce alumina from the calcination of aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH) 3 ), three different aluminium salts namely aluminium sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 2), aluminium nitrate (A(NO 3 ) 3 ) and aluminium chloride (AlCl 3 ) were tried. The process involved the used of NH 4 OH as the precipitating medium. Aluminium hydroxide produced from each of these salts were characterised by x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to identity the crystalline phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced by all the different aluminium salts is present as boehmite or pseudo-boehmite phase. Aluminium hydroxide produced from Al 2 (SO) 2 , Al(NO) 3 and AlCl 3 shows the transformation of the boehmite phase to a α-alumina phase at 500 0 C. On further heating, the α-alumina continuously formed at 800 o C followed soon at 1000 o C. But for the Al(NO3) 3 salts a different phase transitions occurs on heating especially at 1000 o C. Here it was observed not a single alumina phase is presence but the presence of both α and γ--alumina phases. At 1300 o C, the single α-alumina phase was formed. The study concluded that aluminium sulphate is recommended in order to obtain a single-phase α-alumina with the required characteristics. (Author)

  16. Preparation of aluminium lakes by electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapai Pradabkham

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium lakes have been prepared by electrocoagulation employing aluminium as electrodes. The electrocoagulation is conducted in an aqueous alcoholic solution and is completed within one hour. The dye content in the lake ranges approximately between 4-32%.

  17. Electron Conditioning of Technical Aluminium Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pimpec, F

    2004-09-02

    The effect of electron conditioning on commercially aluminium alloys 1100 and 6063 were investigated. Contrary to the assumption that electron conditioning, if performed long enough, can reduce and stabilize the SEY to low values (= 1.3, value of many pure elements [1]), the SEY of aluminium did not go lower than 1.8. In fact, it reincreases with continued electron exposure dose.

  18. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form -Al2O3 at ∼ 400°C but the formation of -Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material derived ...

  19. Characterisation and concentration profile of aluminium during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An aluminium(Al) characterisation study was conducted at a surface water treatment plant (Buffalo Pound Water Treatment Plant (BPWTP) in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada) to understand better the effect of alum coagulant on various Al fractions. The raw water source for BPWTP is Buffalo Pound Lake water. The Al ...

  20. Thermal formation of corundum from aluminium hydroxides ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Aluminium hydroxides have been precipitated from various aluminium salts and the differences in their thermal behaviour have been investigated. Pseudoboehmite derived from the nitrate, sulfate and chloride all form γ-Al2O3 at ~ 400°C but the formation of α-Al2O3 at 1200°C occurs more readily in the material ...

  1. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 alleviates aluminium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Leilei; Zhai, Qixiao; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhao, Jianxin; Narbad, Arjan; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Fengwei; Chen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Aluminium (Al) is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. Al exposure can cause a variety of adverse physiological effects in humans and animals. Our aim was to demonstrate that specific probiotic bacteria can play a special physiologically functional role in protection against Al toxicity in mice. Thirty strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were tested for their aluminium-binding ability, aluminium tolerance, their antioxidative capacity, and their ability to survive the exposure to artificial gastrointestinal (GI) juices. Lactobacillus plantarum CCFM639 was selected for animal experiments because of its excellent performance in vitro. Forty mice were divided into four groups: control, Al only, Al plus CCFM639, and Al plus deferiprone (DFP). CCFM639 was administered at 10(9) CFU once daily for 10 days, followed by a single oral dose of aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 5.14 mg aluminium (LD50) for each mouse. The results showed that CCFM639 treatment led to a significant reduction in the mortality rates with corresponding decrease in intestinal aluminium absorption and in accumulation of aluminium in the tissues and amelioration of hepatic histopathological damage. This probiotic treatment also resulted in alleviation of hepatic, renal, and cerebral oxidative stress. The treatment of L. plantarum CCFM639 has potential as a therapeutic dietary strategy against acute aluminium toxicity.

  3. A serials of sandwich-like trinuclear and one-dimensional chain cyanide-bridged iron(III)-copper(II) complexes: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingwen; Lan, Wenlong; Ren, Yanjie; Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Hui; Dong, Yunhui; Zhang, Daopeng

    2018-04-01

    Four pyridinecarboxamide trans-dicyanideiron(III) building blocks and one macrocyclic copper(II) compound have been employed to assemble cyanide-bridged heterometallic complexes, resulting in a serials of cyanide-bridged FeIII-CuII complexes with different structure types. The series of complexes can be formulated as: {[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpb)(CN)2]2}·4H2O (1), {{[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpb)(CN)2]}ClO4}n·nH2O (2), and {[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpmb)(CN)2]2}·4H2O (3), {[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpClb)(CN)2]2}·4H2O (4) and {{[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpdmb)(CN)2]}ClO4}n·2nCH3OH (5) (bpb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate, bpmb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4-methyl-benzenate, bpClb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4-chloro-benzenate, bpdmb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4,5-dimethyl-benzenate, Cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and structural determination. Single X-ray diffraction analysis shows the similar neutral sandwich-like structures for complexes 1, 3 and 4, in which the two cyano precursors acting as monodentate ligand through one of their two cyanide groups were coordinated face to face to central Cu(II) ion. The complexes 2 and 5 can be structurally characterized as one-dimensional cationic single chain consisting of alternating units of [Cu(Cyclam)]2+ and [Fe(bpb/bpdmb)(CN)2]- with free ClO4- as balanced anion. Investigation over magnetic properties of the whole serials of complexes reveals the antiferromagnetic magnetic coupling between the neighboring cyanide-bridged Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions in complexes 3 and 4 and the ferromagnetic interaction in complexes 1, 2 and 5, respectively.

  4. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed...... into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium is strictly...... regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms of aluminium oxide (γ-AlO(OH) , Al(OH)3...

  5. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, Tolga; Soutis, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  6. Copper Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the arm and/or a 24-hour urine sample is collected. Sometimes a health practitioner performs a liver ... disease , a rare inherited disorder that can lead to excess storage of copper in the liver, brain, and other ...

  7. Origin of sulfur and crustal recycling of copper in polymetallic (Cu-Au-Co-Bi-U ± Ag) iron-oxide-dominated systems of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Góngora, P.; Gleeson, S. A.; Samson, I. M.; Corriveau, L.; Ootes, L.; Jackson, S. E.; Taylor, B. E.; Girard, I.

    2018-03-01

    The Great Bear Magmatic Zone, in northwest Canada, contains numerous polymetallic mineral occurrences, prospects, and deposits of the iron oxide copper-gold deposit (IOCG) family. The mineralization is hosted by the Treasure Lake Group and igneous rocks of the Great Bear arc and was deposited concomitantly with the arc magmatism (ca. 1.88 to 1.87 Ga). In situ δ 34S ( n = 48) and δ 65Cu ( n = 79) analyses were carried out on ore-related sulfides from a number of these systems. The δ 34S values mainly vary between 0 and +5‰, consistent with derivation of sulfur from the mantle. Lower δ 34S values (-7.7 to +1.4‰) from the Sue-Dianne breccia may indicate SO2 disproportionation of a magmatic hydrothermal fluid. The δ 65Cu values vary between -1.2 and -0.3‰, and are lower than the igneous δ 65Cu range of values (0.0 ± 0.27‰). The S and Cu isotopic data are decoupled, which suggests that Cu (and possibly some S) was dissolved and remobilized from supracrustal rocks during early stages of alteration (e.g., sodic alteration) and then precipitated by lower temperature, more oxidizing fluids (e.g., Ca-Fe-K alteration). A limited fluid inclusion dataset and δ 13C and δ 18O values are also presented. The δ 18Ofluid values are consistent with a magmatic origin or a host-rock equilibrated meteoric water source, whereas the δ 13Cfluid values support a marine carbonate source. Combined, the S and Cu isotopic data indicate that while the emplacement of the Great Bear magmatic bodies may have driven fluid convection and may be the source of fluids and sulfur, metals such as Cu could have been recycled from crustal sources.

  8. Aluminium and breast cancer: Sources of exposure, tissue measurements and mechanisms of toxicological actions on breast biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, Philippa D; Mannello, Ferdinando; Exley, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This review examines recent evidence linking exposure to aluminium with the aetiology of breast cancer. The human population is exposed to aluminium throughout daily life including through diet, application of antiperspirants, use of antacids and vaccination. Aluminium has now been measured in a range of human breast structures at higher levels than in blood serum and experimental evidence suggests that the tissue concentrations measured have the potential to adversely influence breast epithelial cells including generation of genomic instability, induction of anchorage-independent proliferation and interference in oestrogen action. The presence of aluminium in the human breast may also alter the breast microenvironment causing disruption to iron metabolism, oxidative damage to cellular components, inflammatory responses and alterations to the motility of cells. The main research need is now to investigate whether the concentrations of aluminium measured in the human breast can lead in vivo to any of the effects observed in cells in vitro and this would be aided by the identification of biomarkers specific for aluminium action. © 2013.

  9. Influence of Iron in AlSi10MgMn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žihalová M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled aluminium alloys. Better understanding of iron influence in this kind of alloys can lead to reduction of final castings cost. Presented article deals with examination of detrimental iron effect in AlSi10MgMn cast alloy. Microstructural analysis and ultimate tensile strength testing were used to consider influence of iron to microstructure and mechanical properties of selected alloy.

  10. Formation enthalpy of iron, chromium and aluminium vanadates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Cheshnitskij, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Tret' yakov, Yu.D.

    1985-04-01

    The enthalpies of formation of FeVO/sub 4/, CrVO/sub 4/ and AlVO/sub 4/ orthovanadates are determined. The method for measuring reaction heats of direct synthesis of oxide compounds is used. All experiments have been conducted at 973 K. The measurements have been performed by the drop-calorimetry method using high temperature differential microcalorimeter. The specified enthalpy values of FeVO/sub 4/, CrVO/sub 4/, AlVO/sub 4/ and FeCr(VO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ formation are obtained.

  11. Formation enthalpy of iron, chromium and aluminium vanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, Ya.A.; Cheshnitskij, S.M.; Fotiev, A.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.

    1985-01-01

    The enthalpies of formation of FeVO 4 , CrVO 4 and AlVO 4 orthovanadates are determined. The method for measuring reaction heats of direct synthesis of oxide compounds is used. All experiments have been conducted at 973 K. The measurements have been performed by the drop-calorimetry method using high temperature differential microcalorimeter. The specified enthalpy values of FeVO 4 , CrVO 4 , AlVO 4 and FeCr(VO 4 ) 2 formation are obtained

  12. Vegetation Effects on Pedogenetic Forms of Iron and Aluminium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The citrate bicarbonate dithionite (CBD) extractable Fe and Al slightly decreased with aging plantation, which was ascribed to the inhibitory effects of organic matter on the crystallization of Fe and Al. Similarly the active Fe value was less than unity, which implied increased crystalline forms of Fe and Al oxides are as a result ...

  13. Behaviour of aluminium, silicon and iron in Tapi Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, P.; Zingde, M.D.

    as compared to that associated with the end members. Higher, percentage of removal during spring tides as compared to neaps was attributed to large scale disturbance of bed sediment by high energy spring tides. An inverse relationship between dissolved Al...

  14. Incorporation of aluminium and iron into the zeolite MCM-58

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košová, Gabriela; Ernst, S.; Hartmann, M.; Čejka, Jiří

    -, č. 6 (2005), s. 1154-1161 ISSN 1434-1948 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB4040402; GA ČR GA203/03/0804 Grant - others:Volkswagen-Stiftung(DE) I/75 886 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acidity * aluminum * kinetics * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.514, year: 2005

  15. Variation in aluminium patch test reactivity over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemund, Ingrid; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Hindsén, Monica

    2017-11-01

    Contact allergy to aluminium has been reported more frequently in recent years. It has been pointed out that positive patch test reactions to aluminium may not be reproducible on retesting. To investigate possible variations in patch test reactivity to aluminium over time. Twenty-one adults, who had previously reacted positively to aluminium, were patch tested with equimolar dilution series in pet. of aluminium chloride hexahydrate and aluminium lactate, four times over a period of 8 months. Thirty-six of 84 (43%) serial dilution tests with aluminium chloride hexahydrate and 49 of 84 (58%) serial dilution tests with aluminium lactate gave negative results. The range of reactivity varied between a negative reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 10% and/or to aluminium lactate at 12%, and a positive reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 0.1% and/or to aluminium lactate at 0.12%. The highest individual difference in test reactivity noticed was 320-fold when the two most divergent minimal eliciting concentrations were compared. The patch test reactivity to aluminium varies over time. Aluminium-allergic individuals may have false-negative reactions. Therefore, retesting with aluminium should be considered when there is a strong suspicion of aluminium contact allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of 7000 series aluminium alloys with cerium diphenyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Julie-Anne [Department of Materials Engineering and Australian Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Wellington Rd, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Markley, Tracey [Department of Materials Engineering and Australian Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Wellington Rd, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); CSIRO, Division of Materials Science and Technology, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Forsyth, Maria, E-mail: maria.forsyth@deakin.edu.au [Department of Materials Engineering and Australian Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Wellington Rd, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Howlett, Patrick C. [Department of Materials Engineering and Australian Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Wellington Rd, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Hinton, Bruce R.W. [Department of Materials Engineering and Australian Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, Wellington Rd, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria (Australia); Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-02-03

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron micrographs of microtomed surface shows pristine surface free of corrosion related 'mud cracking' inset for an inhibited AA7050 specimen when only 150 ppm Ce(dpp)3 is present in 0.1 M NaCl solution. Display Omitted Research highlights: > The thin film of hydrolysis products of Ce(dpp)3 and aluminium oxide is proposed to cause the inhibition. > The film consists of discrete Ce rich particles and a thin film over the matrix of Ce, P and Al oxides. > Discrete deposition of Ce is specifically influenced by Cu rich intermetallics. - Abstract: Cerium diphenyl phosphate (Ce(dpp){sub 3}) has previously been shown to be a strong corrosion inhibitor for aluminium-copper magnesium alloy AA2024-T3 and AA7075 in chloride solutions. Surface characterisation including SEM and ToF-SIMS coupled with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements are used to propose a mechanism of corrosion inhibition which appears to involve the formation of a complex oxide film of aluminium and cerium also incorporating the organophosphate component. The formation of a thin complex film consisting of hydrolysis products of the Ce(dpp){sub 3} compound and aluminium oxide is proposed to lead to the observed inhibition. SEM analysis shows that some intermetallics favour the creation of thicker deposits predominantly containing cerium oxide compounds.

  17. Attaching Copper Wires to Magnetic-Reed-Switch Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamila, Rudolf

    1987-01-01

    Bonding method reliably joins copper wires to short iron-alloy leads from glass-encased dry magnetic-reed switch without disturbing integrity of glass-to-metal seal. Joint resistant to high temperatures and has low electrical resistance.

  18. COPPER AND COPPER-CONTAINING PESTICIDES: METABOLISM, TOXICITY AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Husak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief review of the current knowledge regarding metabolism and toxicity of copper and copper-based pesticides in living organisms. Copper is an essential trace element in all living organisms (bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals, because it participates in different metabolic processes and maintain functions of organisms. The transport and metabolism of copper in living organisms is currently the subject of many studies. Copper is absorbed, transported, distributed, stored, and excreted in the body via the complex of homeostatic processes, which provide organisms with a needed constant level of this micronutrient and avoid excessive amounts. Many aspects of copper homeostasis were studied at the molecular level. Copper based-pesticides, in particularly fungicides, bacteriocides and herbicides, are widely used in agricultural practice throughout the world. Copper is an integral part of antioxidant enzymes, particularly copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, and plays prominent roles in iron homeostasis. On the other hand, excess of copper in organism has deleterious effect, because it stimulates free radical production in the cell, induces lipid peroxidation, and disturbs the total antioxidant capacity of the body. The mechanisms of copper toxicity are discussed in this review also.

  19. Electron beam welding of aluminium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maajid, Ali; Vadali, S.K.; Maury, D.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium is one of the most widely used materials in industries like transportation, shipbuilding, manufacturing, aerospace, nuclear, etc. The challenges in joining of aluminium are distortion, cleanliness and quality. Main difficulties faced during fusion welding of aluminium components are removal of surface oxide layer, weld porosity, high heat input requirement, distortion, hot cracking, etc. Physical properties of aluminium such as its high thermal conductivity, high coefficient of thermal expansion, no change in colour at high temperature, large difference in the melting points of the metal and its oxide (∼ 1400 °C) compound the difficulties faced during welding. Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Plasma Arc Welding (PAW), etc are generally used in industries for fusion welding of aluminium alloys. However in case of thicker jobs the above processes are not suitable due to requirements of elaborate edge preparation, preheating of jobs, fixturing to prevent distortion, etc. Moreover, precise control over the heat input during welding and weld bead penetration is not possible with above processes. Further, if heat sensitive parts are located near the weld joint then high energy density beam welding process like Electron Beam Welding (EBW) is the best possible choice for aluminium welding.This paper discusses EB welding of aluminium components, typical geometry of components, selection/optimization of welding parameters, problems faced during standardization of welding and process parameters and their remedies etc.

  20. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  2. Challenges in LCA modelling of multiple loops for aluminium cans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Olsen, Stig Irving

    considered the case of closed-loop recycling for aluminium cans, where body and lid are different alloys, and discussed the abovementioned challenge. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) modelling of aluminium processes is traditionally based on a pure aluminium flow, therefore neglecting the presence of alloying...... elements. We included the effect of alloying elements on the LCA modelling of aluminium can recycling. First, we performed a mass balance of the main alloying elements (Mn, Fe, Si, Cu) in aluminium can recycling at increasing levels of recycling rate. The analysis distinguished between different aluminium...... packaging scrap sources (i.e. used beverage can and mixed aluminium packaging) to understand the limiting factors for multiple loop aluminium can recycling. Secondly, we performed a comparative LCA of aluminium can production and recycling in multiple loops considering the two aluminium packaging scrap...

  3. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-rare-earth element (REE) deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt in east-central Idaho provide evidence of multistage epigenetic mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal processes in an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) system. Deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt comprise three types: (1) strata-bound sulfide lenses in the Blackbird district, which are cobaltite and, less commonly, chalcopyrite rich with locally abundant gold, native bismuth, bismuthinite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, and the Be-rich silicate gadolinite-(Y), with sparse uraninite, stannite, and Bi tellurides, in a gangue of quartz, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, chloritoid, and/or siderite, with locally abundant fluorapatite or magnetite; (2) discordant tourmalinized breccias in the Blackbird district that in places have concentrations of cobaltite, chalcopyrite, gold, and xenotime; and (3) strata-bound magnetite-rich lenses in the Iron Creek area, which contain cobaltiferous pyrite and locally sparse chalcopyrite or xenotime. Most sulfide-rich deposits in the Blackbird district are enclosed by strata-bound lenses composed mainly of Cl-rich Fe biotite; some deposits have quartz-rich envelopes.Whole-rock analyses of 48 Co- and/or Cu-rich samples show high concentrations of Au (up to 26.8 ppm), Bi (up to 9.16 wt %), Y (up to 0.83 wt %), ∑REEs (up to 2.56 wt %), Ni (up to 6,780 ppm), and Be (up to 1,180 ppm), with locally elevated U (up to 124 ppm) and Sn (up to 133 ppm); Zn and Pb contents are uniformly low (≤821 and ≤61 ppm, respectively). Varimax factor analysis of bulk compositions of these samples reveals geochemically distinct element groupings that reflect statistical associations of monazite, allanite, and xenotime; biotite and gold; detrital minerals; chalcopyrite and sparse stannite; quartz; and cobaltite with sparse selenides and tellurides. Significantly, Cu is statistically separate from Co and As

  4. Pathogenic adaptations to host-derived antibacterial copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that both host and pathogen manipulate copper content in infected host niches during infections. In this review, we summarize recent developments that implicate copper resistance as an important determinant of bacterial fitness at the host-pathogen interface. An essential mammalian nutrient, copper cycles between copper (I) (Cu+) in its reduced form and copper (II) (Cu2+) in its oxidized form under physiologic conditions. Cu+ is significantly more bactericidal than Cu2+ due to its ability to freely penetrate bacterial membranes and inactivate intracellular iron-sulfur clusters. Copper ions can also catalyze reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which may further contribute to their toxicity. Transporters, chaperones, redox proteins, receptors and transcription factors and even siderophores affect copper accumulation and distribution in both pathogenic microbes and their human hosts. This review will briefly cover evidence for copper as a mammalian antibacterial effector, the possible reasons for this toxicity, and pathogenic resistance mechanisms directed against it. PMID:24551598

  5. Investigation of the aluminium-aluminium oxide reversible transformation as observed by hot stage electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, C. A.; Judd, G.; Ansell, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin foils of high purity aluminium and an Al-Al2O3 SAP type of alloy were oxidised in a specially designed hot stage specimen chamber in an electron microscope. Below 450 C, amorphous aluminium oxide formed on the foil surface and was first detectable at foil edges, holes, and pits. Islands of aluminium then nucleated in this amorphous oxide. The aluminium islands displayed either a lateral growth with eventual coalescence with other islands, or a reoxidation process which caused the islands to disappear. The aluminium island formation was determined to be related to the presence of the electron beam. A mechanism based upon electron charging due to the electron beam was proposed to explain the nucleation, growth, coalescence, disappearance, and geometry of the aluminium islands.

  6. Confined recrystallization of high-purity aluminium during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekhonin, Paul; Beausir, Benoît; Scharnweber, Juliane; Oertel, Carl-Georg; Hausöl, Tina; Höppel, Heinz Werner; Brokmeier, Heinz-Günter; Skrotzki, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium laminates consisting of high-purity aluminium and commercially pure aluminium have been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) at ambient temperature for up to 10 cycles. To study the microstructure and texture development of the high-purity aluminium layers with regard to the shrinking layer thickness during ARB, microstructure and texture investigations were carried out by electron backscatter diffraction and neutron and X-ray diffraction, respectively. While the commercially pure aluminium layers develop an ultrafine-grained microstructure, partial discontinuous recrystallization occurs in the high-purity layers. The texture of the high-purity layers mainly consists of Cube and “Tilted Cube” (tilted with respect to the transverse direction) components. The experimental results are discussed with respect to confined recrystallization in the ARB aluminium laminates.

  7. Niobium-base grain refiner for aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pontes, P. da; Robert, M.H.; Cupini, N.L.

    1980-01-01

    A new chemical grain refiner for aluminium has been developed, using inoculation of a niobium-base compound. When a bath of molten aluminium is inoculated whith this refiner, an intermetallic aluminium-niobium compound is formed which acts as a powerful nucleant, producing extremely fine structure comparable to those obtained by means of the traditional grain refiner based on titanium and boron. It was found that the refinement of the structure depends upon the weight percentage of the new refiner inoculated as well as the time of holding the bath after inoculation and before pouring, but mainly on the inoculating temperature. (Author) [pt

  8. Net shape powder processing of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost-effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminium powder metallurgy. Net shape processing of aluminium using the classical press-and-sinter powder metallurgy technique is a unique and important metal-forming method which is cost effective in producing complex parts at, or very close to, final dimensions. This paper provides an overview of the net shape powder processing of aluminium. Current research is critically reviewed and the future potential is briefly considered

  9. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  10. Energy and environmental implications of copper production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvardo, Sergio [Chile Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Santiago (Chile); Maldonado, Pedro; Jaques, Ivan [Chile Univ., Energy Research Program, Santiago (Chile)

    1999-04-01

    Primary copper production is a major activity in the mining sector. It is highly energy-intensive, ranking third in specific energy consumption (SEC) among the five major basic metals (aluminum, copper, iron, lead and zinc) and poses important environmental hazards. We examine the large discrepancy between theoretical (from thermodynamics) and actual (from empirical data) SECs and then describe relevant environmental issues, focusing on the most significant energy-related environmental impacts of primary copper production with emphasis on greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. An example of GHG energy-related abatement that concurrently improves energy use is presented. (Author)

  11. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5{sup '} and 3{sup '} untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  12. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport

  13. Aluminium Toxicity Targets in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium (Al is the third most abundant metallic element in soil but becomes available to plants only when the soil pH drops below 5.5. At those conditions, plants present several signals of Al toxicity. As reported by literature, major consequences of Al exposure are the decrease of plant production and the inhibition of root growth. The root growth inhibition may be directly/indirectly responsible for the loss of plant production. In this paper the most remarkable symptoms of Al toxicity in plants and the latest findings in this area are addressed. Root growth inhibition, ROS production, alterations on root cell wall and plasma membrane, nutrient unbalances, callose accumulation, and disturbance of cytoplasmic Ca2+ homeostasis, among other signals of Al toxicity are discussed, and, when possible, the behavior of Al-tolerant versus Al-sensitive genotypes under Al is compared.

  14. Studies for determining thermal ion extraction potential for aluminium plasma generated by electron beam evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V Dileep; Barnwal, Tripti A; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L M, E-mail: dileepv@barc.gov.i [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-02-01

    For effective evaporation of refractory metal, electron beam is found to be most suitable vapour generator source. Using electron beam, high throughput laser based purification processes are carried out. But due to highly concentrated electron beam, the vapour gets ionised and these ions lead to dilution of the pure product of laser based separation process. To estimate the concentration of these ions and extraction potential requirement to remove these ions from vapour stream, experiments have been conducted using aluminium as evaporant. The aluminium ingots were placed in water cooled copper crucible. Inserts were used to hold the evaporant, in order to attain higher number density in the vapour processing zone and also for confining the liquid metal. Parametric studies with beam power, number density and extraction potential were conducted. In this paper we discuss the trend of the generation of thermal ions and electrostatic field requirement for extraction.

  15. COPPER LEACHING FROM WASTE ELECTRIC CABLES BY BIOHYDROMETALLURGY

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Fanny; Bastin, David; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan; Léonard, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90%...

  16. How Will Copper Contamination Constrain Future Global Steel Recycling?

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, Katrin; Cabrera Serrenho, Andre; Allwood, Julian Mark

    2017-01-01

    Copper in steel causes metallurgical problems, but is pervasive in end-of-life scrap and cannot currently be removed commercially once in the melt. Contamination can be managed to an extent by globally trading scrap for use in tolerant applications and dilution with primary iron sources. However, the viability of long-term strategies can only be evaluated with a complete characterization of copper in the global steel system and this is presented in this paper. The copper concentration of flow...

  17. Measurements and FLUKA Simulations of Bismuth, Aluminium and Indium Activation at the upgraded CERN Shielding Benchmark Facility (CSBF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulou, E.; Bamidis, P.; Brugger, M.; Froeschl, R.; Infantino, A.; Kajimoto, T.; Nakao, N.; Roesler, S.; Sanami, T.; Siountas, A.; Yashima, H.

    2018-06-01

    The CERN High energy AcceleRator Mixed field (CHARM) facility is situated in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) East Experimental Area. The facility receives a pulsed proton beam from the CERN PS with a beam momentum of 24 GeV/c with 5·1011 protons per pulse with a pulse length of 350 ms and with a maximum average beam intensity of 6.7·1010 protons per second. The extracted proton beam impacts on a cylindrical copper target. The shielding of the CHARM facility includes the CERN Shielding Benchmark Facility (CSBF) situated laterally above the target that allows deep shielding penetration benchmark studies of various shielding materials. This facility has been significantly upgraded during the extended technical stop at the beginning of 2016. It consists now of 40 cm of cast iron shielding, a 200 cm long removable sample holder concrete block with 3 inserts for activation samples, a material test location that is used for the measurement of the attenuation length for different shielding materials as well as for sample activation at different thicknesses of the shielding materials. Activation samples of bismuth, aluminium and indium were placed in the CSBF in September 2016 to characterize the upgraded version of the CSBF. Monte Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code have been performed to estimate the specific production yields of bismuth isotopes (206 Bi, 205 Bi, 204 Bi, 203 Bi, 202 Bi, 201 Bi) from 209 Bi, 24 Na from 27 Al and 115 m I from 115 I for these samples. The production yields estimated by FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations are compared to the production yields obtained from γ-spectroscopy measurements of the samples taking the beam intensity profile into account. The agreement between FLUKA predictions and γ-spectroscopy measurements for the production yields is at a level of a factor of 2.

  18. Steam Initiated Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud

    The extensive demand of aluminium alloys in various industries such as in transportationis mainly due to the high strength to weight ratio, which could be translated into fuel economy and efficiency. Corrosion protection of aluminium alloys is an important aspect for all applications which includes...... the use of aluminium alloys in the painted form requiring a conversion coating to improve the adhesion. Chromate based conversion coating processes are extremely good for these purposes, however the carcinogenic and toxic nature of hexavalent chromium led to the search for more benign and eco......, crystalline nano-particles, role of steam-based treatment on adhesion of industrially applied powder coating, and investigations of a failed painted aluminium window profile due to defects in the extruded profile. Chapters 13 and 14 describe the overall discussion, conclusions and future work based...

  19. Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Generation and characterization of nano aluminium powder obtained through wire ... Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology. Madras, Chennai 600 .... pressure developed due to current flow (z-Pinch). Figure 2.

  20. Irradiation effects in magnesium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    Effects of neutron irradiation on microstructure, mechanical properties and swelling of several magnesium and aluminium alloys were studied. The neutron fluences of 2-3 X 10 22 n/cm 2 , >0.2 MeV produced displacement doses of 20 to 45 displacements per atom (dpa). Ductility of the magnesium alloys was severely reduced by irradiation induced recrystallization and precipitation of various forms. Precipitation of transmuted silicon occurred in the aluminium alloys. However, the effect on ductility was much less than for the magnesium alloys. The magnesium and aluminium alloys had excellent resistance to swelling: The best magnesium alloy was Mg/3.0 wt% Al/0.19 wt% Ca; its density decreased by only 0.13%. The best aluminium alloy was 6063, with a density decrease of 0.22%. (Auth.)

  1. COMBINED ALUMINIUM SULFATE/HYDROXIDE PROCESS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulfate, and used for fluoride removal from water by combining with Nalgonda Technique. ... effects on human health and could result in fluorosis. ... [23], nanoscale aluminium oxide hydroxide (AlOOH) [24] and natural zeolite [25], were among.

  2. Aluminium reprocessing with local mineral raw material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2002-01-01

    With the purpose of utilization of ice sediment, receiving from mud fields solutions and flotation tails and at using local aluminium and fluorine-containing raw material was elaborated fundamental technologic scheme presented in this chapter of book

  3. Deformation features of aluminium in tensile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadros, N.F. de.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a method to analyse stress-strain curves. Plastic and elastic strains were studied. The strains were done by tensile tests in four types of materials: highly pure aluminium, pure aluminium, commercially pure aluminium and aluminium - uranium. The chemical compositions were obtained by spectroscopy analysis and neutron activation analysis. Tensile tests were carried out at three strain rates, at room temperature, 100,200, 300 and 400 0 C, with knives extensometer and strain-gages to studied the elastic strain region. A multiple spring model based on two springs model to analyse elastic strain caused by tests without extensometers, taking in account moduli of elasticity and, an interactive analysis system with graphic capability were developed. It was suggested a qualitative model to explain the quantized multielasticity of Bell. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Treatment of highly concentrated tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation: Influence of the quality of aluminium used for the electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elabbas, S.; Ouazzani, N.; Mandi, L.; Berrekhis, F.; Perdicakis, M.; Pontvianne, S.; Pons, M-N.; Lapicque, F.; Leclerc, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • COD and Cr(III) species can be simultaneously removed by electrocoagulation. • Cu-containing Al alloy is more efficient than pure Al as electrodes. • Dilution of too concentrated tannery wastewater is required for efficient treatment. - Abstract: This paper deals with the ability of electrocoagulation (EC) to remove simultaneously COD and chromium from a real chrome tanning wastewater in a batch stirred electro-coagulation cell provided with two aluminium-based electrodes (aluminium/copper/magnesium alloy and pure aluminium). Effects of operating time, current density and initial concentration of Cr(III) and COD have been investigated. The concentrations of pollutants have been successfully reduced to environmentally acceptable levels even if the concentrated effluent requires a long time of treatment of around 6 h with a 400 A/m"2 current density. The aluminium alloy was found to be more efficient than pure aluminium for removal of COD and chromium. Dilution of the waste has been tested for treatment: high abatement levels could be obtained with shorter time of treatment and lower current densities. Energy consumption of the electrocoagulation process was also discussed. The dilution by half of the concentrated waste leads to a higher abatement performance of both COD and chromium with the best energy efficiency.

  5. Treatment of highly concentrated tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation: Influence of the quality of aluminium used for the electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elabbas, S; Ouazzani, N; Mandi, L; Berrekhis, F; Perdicakis, M; Pontvianne, S; Pons, M-N; Lapicque, F; Leclerc, J-P

    2016-12-05

    This paper deals with the ability of electrocoagulation (EC) to remove simultaneously COD and chromium from a real chrome tanning wastewater in a batch stirred electro-coagulation cell provided with two aluminium-based electrodes (aluminium/copper/magnesium alloy and pure aluminium). Effects of operating time, current density and initial concentration of Cr(III) and COD have been investigated. The concentrations of pollutants have been successfully reduced to environmentally acceptable levels even if the concentrated effluent requires a long time of treatment of around 6h with a 400A/m(2) current density. The aluminium alloy was found to be more efficient than pure aluminium for removal of COD and chromium. Dilution of the waste has been tested for treatment: high abatement levels could be obtained with shorter time of treatment and lower current densities. Energy consumption of the electrocoagulation process was also discussed. The dilution by half of the concentrated waste leads to a higher abatement performance of both COD and chromium with the best energy efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of highly concentrated tannery wastewater using electrocoagulation: Influence of the quality of aluminium used for the electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elabbas, S.; Ouazzani, N.; Mandi, L. [Laboratoire d’Hydrobiologie, Ecotoxicologie et Assainissement (LHEA, URAC 33), Faculté de Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco); Centre National d’Etude et de Recherche sur l’Eau et l’Energie (CNEREE), Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 511, Marrakech (Morocco); Berrekhis, F. [Equipe de Physico-chimie des Matériaux, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Cadi Ayyad, BP 2400, 40000 Marrakech (Morocco); Perdicakis, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l’Environnement (LCPME) UMR 7564, Université de Lorraine—CNRS, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, F-54602 Villers-lès Nancy Cedex (France); Pontvianne, S.; Pons, M-N.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP) UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex (France); Leclerc, J-P, E-mail: jean-pierre.leclerc@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés (LRGP) UMR 7274, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, 1 rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy cedex (France)

    2016-12-05

    Highlights: • COD and Cr(III) species can be simultaneously removed by electrocoagulation. • Cu-containing Al alloy is more efficient than pure Al as electrodes. • Dilution of too concentrated tannery wastewater is required for efficient treatment. - Abstract: This paper deals with the ability of electrocoagulation (EC) to remove simultaneously COD and chromium from a real chrome tanning wastewater in a batch stirred electro-coagulation cell provided with two aluminium-based electrodes (aluminium/copper/magnesium alloy and pure aluminium). Effects of operating time, current density and initial concentration of Cr(III) and COD have been investigated. The concentrations of pollutants have been successfully reduced to environmentally acceptable levels even if the concentrated effluent requires a long time of treatment of around 6 h with a 400 A/m{sup 2} current density. The aluminium alloy was found to be more efficient than pure aluminium for removal of COD and chromium. Dilution of the waste has been tested for treatment: high abatement levels could be obtained with shorter time of treatment and lower current densities. Energy consumption of the electrocoagulation process was also discussed. The dilution by half of the concentrated waste leads to a higher abatement performance of both COD and chromium with the best energy efficiency.

  7. Silane based coating of aluminium mold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    having at least one closed cavity is provided, at least one surface of the at least one cavity being an aluminium surface coated with a silane based coating layer. The silane based anti-stiction coating improves the anti-stiction properties of the mold which may allow for molding and demolding...... of structures which would otherwise be difficult to mold. The resistance of the coated aluminium mold is significantly improved by applying a silane-based coating layer....

  8. Characterization of aluminium alloys rapidly solidified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discussed the investigation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the aluminium alloys (3003; 7050; Al-9% Mg) rapidly solidified by melt spinning process (cooling rate 10 4 - 10 6 K/s). The rapidly solidification process of the studied aluminium alloys brought a microcrystallinity, a minimum presence of coarse precipitation and, also, better mechanical properties of them comparing to the same alloys using ingot process. (author) [pt

  9. Accumulation and hyperaccumulation of copper in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, V.; Trnkova, L.; Huska, D.; Babula, P.; Kizek, R.

    2009-04-01

    Copper is natural component of our environment. Flow of copper(II) ions in the environment depends on solubility of compounds containing this metal. Mobile ion coming from soil and rocks due to volcanic activity, rains and others are then distributed to water. Bio-availability of copper is substantially lower than its concentration in the aquatic environment. Copper present in the water reacts with other compounds and creates a complex, not available for organisms. The availability of copper varies depending on the environment, but moving around within the range from 5 to 25 % of total copper. Thus copper is stored in the sediments and the rest is transported to the seas and oceans. It is common knowledge that copper is essential element for most living organisms. For this reason this element is actively accumulated in the tissues. The total quantity of copper in soil ranges from 2 to 250 mg / kg, the average concentration is 30 mg / kg. Certain activities related to agriculture (the use of fungicides), possibly with the metallurgical industry and mining, tend to increase the total quantity of copper in the soil. This amount of copper in the soil is a problem particularly for agricultural production of food. The lack of copper causes a decrease in revenue and reduction in quality of production. In Europe, shows the low level of copper in total 18 million hectares of farmland. To remedy this adverse situation is the increasing use of copper fertilizers in agricultural soils. It is known that copper compounds are used in plant protection against various illnesses and pests. Mining of minerals is for the development of human society a key economic activity. An important site where the copper is mined in the Slovakia is nearby Smolníka. Due to long time mining in his area (more than 700 years) there are places with extremely high concentrations of various metals including copper. Besides copper, there are also detected iron, zinc and arsenic. Various plant species

  10. Structural evolution in nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocca, Emmanuel; Vantelon, Delphine; Reguer, Solenn; Mirambet, François

    2012-01-01

    Nanoporous and self-organized layers of aluminium alloys are used in many applications as membranes, templates for nanometric objects or corrosion protection for aluminium alloys. The use of this nanometric structure widely remains empirical, especially in the case of very small pores ( 4 into AlO 6 cluster and a partial release of sulphate ions are an important chemical transformation of the amorphous structure. This structural transformation defines the chemistry (pH and surface charge) inside the nanopores, the ageing behaviour and the possible incorporation or diffusion of chemical species in the nanostructure. Highlights: ► Investigations of local chemical environment of aluminium atoms in anodic aluminium oxide. ► The oxide structure is constituted by 2/3 of aluminium in tetrahedral coordination 1/3 in octahedral coordination. ► In contact with water, AlO 4 clusters are transformed into AlO 6 cluster and the aluminium sulphate bonds are hydrolysed. ► These transformations induce a pH decrease inside the nanostructure.

  11. Study of solubility of akaline earth metals in liquid iron and in alloys on its base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, Yu.A.; Archugov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Solubility of magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium in liquid iron and its alloys with aluminium, silicon, nickel, chromium and carbon at 1600 deg C has been measured. Interaction parameters taking account of the effect of added elements on alkaline earth metal solubility in liquid iron have been estimated

  12. [Aluminium content in foods with aluminium-containing food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Mami; Suzuki, Kumi; Kabashima, Junichiro; Nakazato, Mitsuo; Uematsu, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    The aluminium (Al) content of 105 samples, including bakery products made with baking powder, agricultural products and seafoods treated with alum, was investigated. The amounts of Al detected were as follows (limit of quantification: 0.01 mg/g): 0.01-0.37 mg/g in 26 of 57 bakery products, 0.22-0.57 mg/g in 3 of 6 powder mixes, 0.01-0.05 mg/g in all three agricultural products examined, 0.03-0.90 mg/g in 4 of 6 seafood samples, 0.01-0.03 mg/g in 3 of 11 samples of instant noodles, 0.04-0.14 mg/g in 3 of 4 samples of vermicelli, 0.01 mg/g in 1 of 16 soybean products, but none in soybeans. Amounts equivalent to the PTWI of a 16 kg infant were detected in two samples of bakery products, two samples of powder mixes and one sample of salted jellyfish, if each sample was taken once a week. These results suggest that certain foods, depending on the product and the intake, might exceed the PTWI of children, especially infants.

  13. Aluminium exclusion and aluminium tolerance in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium (Al cation Al3+ is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al3+ conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al3+ from root cells (exclusion mechanisms and those that enable plants to tolerate Al3+ once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms. The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al3+ exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al3+ adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  14. Copper and nickel alloys and titanium for seawater applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, H.

    1977-01-01

    Copper and nickel alloys and titanium have been successfully used for heat exchangers on ships, in power plants and for chemical apparatus and piping systems because of their resistance against corrosion in sea water. Aluminium brass and copper nickel alloys, the standard materials for condensers and coolers, however, may be attacked, the corrosion depending on water quality, water velocity, and structural conditions. The mechanisms of corrosion are discussed. Under severe conditions the use of titanium may be indicated. The use of nickel base alloys is advantageous at elevated temperatures, e.g. for chemical reactions and for evaporation processes. Examples are given for application and for prevention of corrosion. (orig.) [de

  15. TEM investigation of aluminium containing precipitates in high aluminium doped silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Leung, J.; FitzGerald, J.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Silicon carbide is a promising semiconductor material for applications in high temperature and high power devices. The successful growth of good quality epilayers in this material has enhanced its potential for device applications. As a novel semiconductor material, there is a need for studying its basic physical properties and the role of dopants in this material. In this study, silicon carbide epilayers were grown on 4H-SiC wafers of (0001) orientation with a miscut angle of 8 deg at a temperature of 1550 deg C. The epilayers contained regions of high aluminium doping well above the solubility of aluminium in silicon carbide. High temperature annealing of this material resulted in the precipitation of aluminium in the wafers. The samples were analysed by secondary ion mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Selected area diffraction studies show the presence of aluminium carbide and aluminium silicon carbide phases. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  16. NIVELES SÉRICOS DE MAGNESIO, HIERRO Y COBRE EN POBLACIÓN DE ADULTOS DE CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA I SERUM LEVELS OF MAGNESIUM , IRON AND COPPER IN ADULT POPULATION FROM CIUDAD BOLIVAR, BOLIVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caride

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Determination of bioelements concentrations in serum are considered very important, since they allow to establish reference levels that can be used to detect essential elements deficiency or poisoning by their excess. The aim of this study was to identify the serum levels of magnesium, iron and copper in a population of apparently healthy adults, residents of an urban area of Ciudad Bolivar, Bolivar State, The sample consisted of 57 individuals (28 men and 29 women that were not occupationally exposed residents in Ciudad Bolivar, aged between 25 and 60 years. Bioelements were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES after acid digestion of serum samples. The average concentration values (± SD of magnesium, iron and copper obtained were, respectively, 22 ± 3 mg.L-1, 1.1 ± 0.2 mg.L-1 y 1.0 ± 0.2 mg.L-1. Regarding the studied bioelement levels, only magnesium levels of men were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the levels of women. The mean concentrations of bioelements were within ranges of reference values reported in the literature for healthy people, but significantly different (p < 0,05 to those from Merida, another region from Venezuela, and a possible consequence of changes in eating habits and environment conditions among these two Venezuelan regions.

  17. Investigation of aluminium-rich alloy system of aluminium-strontium-silicium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganiev, I.N.; Vakhobov, A.B.; Dzhuraev, T.D.; Alidzhanov, F.N.

    1976-01-01

    An area of the solid solution based on aluminium was studied, and the surface was plotted of the liquidus adjoining the apex of the aluminium corner of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system. The investigation was carried out by microstructure and differential thermal analyses and by the measurement of the microhardness of the component phases. A combined solubility of silicon and strontium in aluminium was studied along three radial sections at Sr-to-Si ratios of 1/2, 1/1 and 2/1. The relationships of ''composition vs. Microhardness'', obtained in these sections, made it possible to define the boundaries of the phase regions in the aluminium corner of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system at 500 deg C. The greatest solubility is that along the Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 section at a Sr/Si ratio of 1/2. A further increase in the content of strontium brings about a drop in the solubility of silicon in solid aluminium. The projection of the liquidus surface of the strontium-aluminium-silicon system, rich in aluminium, includes four surfaces of primary crystallization: α-Al, SrAl 4 , SrAl 2 Si 2 and Si. The system comprises a section of Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 representing a quasibinary system of an eutectic type. The eutectic reaction takes place at a temperature of 640 deg C. The quasibinary Al-SrAl 2 Si 2 section divides the aluminium corner of the Sr-Al-Si system into two independent systems Al-SrAl 4 -SrAl 2 Si 2 and Al-Si-SrAl 2 Si 2 of an eutectic type

  18. Microcapillary Features in Silicon Alloyed High-Strength Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Hasanli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study explores features of silicon micro capillary in alloyed high-strength cast iron with nodular graphite (ductile iron produced in metal molds. It identified the nature and mechanism of micro liquation of silicon in a ductile iron alloyed with Nickel and copper, and demonstrated significant change of structural-quality characteristics. It was concluded that the matrix of alloyed ductile iron has a heterogeneous structure with cross reinforcement and high-silicon excrement areas.

  19. F-radiographic study of uranium distribution in iron hydroxides from crusts of weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmodik, S.M.; Mironov, A.G.; Nemirovskaya, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of study of uranium concentrations and peculiarities of its distribution in iron hydroxides from crusts of weathering of aluminium silicate and carbonate rocks. The age of one crusts of weathering is Quaternary, of others - Tertiary. The effect of climatic conditions, composition of source rocks, hydrochemical zoning of the crust of weathering on the uranium fixation by iron hydroxides has been studied. Gamma-spectroscopy, luminescence and autoradiography methods have been used. The mechanism of formation of increased uranium concentrations in iron hydroxides is considered. A conclusion is made that increased uranium concentrations in iron hydroxides may appear in the process of weathering both of aluminium-silicate and carbonate-containing rocks as a result of uranium sorption by fine dispersed iron hydrates. The use of iron hydroxides with increased (anomalous) uranium concentrations as a direct search feature without additional investigations can lead to wrong conclusions

  20. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion ... of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. ... silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical ...

  1. Aluminium hydroxide-the carrier for catalysts coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normatov, I.Sh.; Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2003-01-01

    At present time several methods of receiving aluminium hydroxide are exist. But all they differ by much staging of process connected with preliminary receiving of intermediate compounds, with application of expensive metallic aluminium

  2. Effects of toxic levels of sodium, arsenic, iron and aluminum on the rice plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockard, R G; McWalter, A R

    1956-01-01

    The results of two sand culture experiments on rice plants are described. In one, the toxic effects of sodium, as sodium chloride, and of arsenic, as sodium arsenate, were tested; in the other, iron, chelated with the disodium salt of ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid, and aluminium, as aluminium sulfate, were tried out. The former was undertaken because of the existence of these sub

  3. Effect of Sintering Temperature on the Properties of Aluminium-Aluminium Oxide Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aluminium-aluminium oxide (Al-Al2O3 metal matrix composites of different weight percentage reinforcements of aluminium oxide were processed at different sintering temperatures. In order to prepare these composite specimens, conventional powder metallurgy (PM method was used. Three types specimens of different compositions such as 95%Al+5%Al2O3, 90%Al+10%Al2O3 and 85%Al+15%Al2O3 were prepared under 20 Ton compaction load. Then, all the specimens were sintered in a furnace at two different temperatures 550oC and 580oC. In each sintering process, two different heating cycles were used. After the sintering process, it was observed that undistorted flat specimens were successfully prepared for all the compositions. The effects of sintering temperature and weight fraction of aluminium oxide particulates on the density, hardness and microstructure of Al-Al2O3 composites were observed. It was found that density and hardness of the composite specimens were significantly influenced by sintering temperature and percentage aluminium oxide reinforcement. Furthermore, optical microscopy revealed that almost uniform distribution of aluminium oxide reinforcement within the aluminium matrix was achieved.

  4. Aluminium and the human breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbre, P D

    2016-06-01

    The human population is exposed to aluminium (Al) from diet, antacids and vaccine adjuvants, but frequent application of Al-based salts to the underarm as antiperspirant adds a high additional exposure directly to the local area of the human breast. Coincidentally the upper outer quadrant of the breast is where there is also a disproportionately high incidence of breast cysts and breast cancer. Al has been measured in human breast tissues/fluids at higher levels than in blood, and experimental evidence suggests that at physiologically relevant concentrations, Al can adversely impact on human breast epithelial cell biology. Gross cystic breast disease is the most common benign disorder of the breast and evidence is presented that Al may be a causative factor in formation of breast cysts. Evidence is also reviewed that Al can enable the development of multiple hallmarks associated with cancer in breast cells, in particular that it can cause genomic instability and inappropriate proliferation in human breast epithelial cells, and can increase migration and invasion of human breast cancer cells. In addition, Al is a metalloestrogen and oestrogen is a risk factor for breast cancer known to influence multiple hallmarks. The microenvironment is established as another determinant of breast cancer development and Al has been shown to cause adverse alterations to the breast microenvironment. If current usage patterns of Al-based antiperspirant salts contribute to causation of breast cysts and breast cancer, then reduction in exposure would offer a strategy for prevention, and regulatory review is now justified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation...... of the effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  6. Advances in development and application of aluminium batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    2001-01-01

    Aluminium has long attracted attention as a potential battery anode because of its high theoretical voltage and specific energy. The protective oxide layer at aluminium surface is however detrimental to its performance to achieve its reversible potential, and also causing the delayed activation o...... aluminium batteres, especially aluminium-air batteries, and a wide range of their applications from emergency power supplies, reserve batteries field portable batteries, to batteries for electric vehicles and underwater propulsion....

  7. Toxicity and deficiency of copper in Elsholtzia splendens affect photosynthesis biophysics, pigments and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongyun; Kroneck, Peter M H; Küpper, Hendrik

    2013-06-18

    Elsholtzia splendens is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in China. Spatially and spectrally resolved kinetics of in vivo absorbance and chlorophyll fluorescence in mesophyll of E. splendens were used to investigate the copper-induced stress from deficiency and toxicity as well as the acclimation to excess copper stress. The plants were cultivated in nutrient solutions containing either Fe(III)-EDTA or Fe(III)-EDDHA. Copper toxicity affected light-acclimated electron flow much stronger than nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) or dark-acclimated photochemical efficiency of PSIIRC (Fv/Fm). It also changed spectrally resolved Chl fluorescence kinetics, in particular by strengthening the short-wavelength (<700 nm) part of NPQ altering light harvesting complex II (LHCII) aggregation. Copper toxicity reduced iron accumulation, decreased Chls and carotenoids in leaves. During acclimation to copper toxicity, leaf copper decreased but leaf iron increased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels. Copper tolerance in E. splendens was inducible; acclimation seems be related to homeostasis of copper and iron in E. splendens. Copper deficiency appeared at 10 mg copper per kg leaf DW, leading to reduced growth and decreased photosynthetic parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII). The importance of these results for evaluating responses of phytoremediation plants to stress in their environment is discussed.

  8. Aluminium hydroxide-induced granulomas in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtulini, S; Macchi, C; Ballanti, P

    2005-01-01

    The effect of intramuscular injection of 40 mg/2 ml aluminium hydroxide in the neck of pigs was examined in a number of ways. The investigation followed repeated slaughterhouse reports, according to which 64.8% of pigs from one particular farm were found at slaughter to have one or more nodules...... in the muscles of the neck (group slaughtered). The pigs had been injected with a vaccine containing 40 mg/2 ml dose of aluminium hydroxide as adjuvant. Research consisted of two phases: first, an epidemiological study was carried out, aimed at determining the risk factors for the granulomas. The results...... and adjuvant) to pigs inoculated twice with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group water) and to pigs inoculated once with the adjuvant and once with apyrogenic bi-distilled water (group adjuvant/water). Both studies agreed in their conclusions, which indicate that the high amount of aluminium hydroxide...

  9. Analysis of aluminium in rat following administration of allergen immunotherapy using either aluminium or microcrystalline-tyrosine-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart A; Heath, Matthew D; Kramer, Matthias F; Skinner, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Investigation into the absorption, distribution and elimination of aluminium in rat after subcutaneous aluminium adjuvant formulation administration using ICP-MS is described. Assays were verified under the principles of a tiered approach. There was no evidence of systemic exposure of aluminium, in brain or in kidney. Extensive and persistent retention of aluminium at the dose site was observed for at least 180 days after administration. This is the first published work that has quantified aluminium adjuvant retention based on the quantity of aluminium delivered in a typical allergy immunotherapy course. The results indicate that the repeated administration of aluminium-containing adjuvants will likely contribute directly and significantly to an individual's body burden of aluminium.

  10. Aluminium toxicity tolerance in crop plants: Present status of research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tolerance of which genes of the Aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) families are prominent. In this review, the progress of research in identifying aluminium toxicity tolerant genes is discussed. Keywords: Aluminium toxicity, soil acidity, hydroponic screening, ...

  11. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...... examine the incidence, the symptoms and the prognosis for the vaccination granulomas and the allergy. Finally we discuss the status in Denmark....

  12. Aluminium allergy and granulomas induced by vaccinations for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rosa Marie O; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination with aluminium-adsorbed vaccines can induce aluminium allergy with persistent itching subcutaneous nodules at the injection site - vaccination granulomas. In this article we give an overview of childhood aluminium-adsorbed vaccines available in Denmark. Through literature studies we...

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of aluminium in steel with xylenol orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, A.; Javed, N.; Khan, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Spectrophotometric determination of Aluminium in steel based on colour reaction between Aluminium and xylenol orange has been carried out. Red coloured complex formed in weak acidic solution is measured for its absorbance at 550 nm. The various optimum experimental conditions for Aluminium xylenol orange (Al-Xo) complex have been studied. (author)

  14. Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kanter, J.L.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Summary accompanying the thesis: Energy Absorption of Monolithic and Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Cylinders by Jens de Kanter This thesis presents the investigation of the crush behaviour of both monolithic aluminium cylinders and externally fibre reinforced aluminium cylinders. The research is based

  15. Corrosion behaviour of borated aluminium used as neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmerich, R. [EaglePicher Technologies GmbH, Oehringen (Germany); Ensinger, W.; Enders, B. [Philipps-Univ. of Marburg, Dept. of Chemistry, Material Science Centre (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of pure and borated aluminium was examined. Measurements were performed in two different electrolytes at 90 C containing different trace-amounts of chloride. For borated aluminium current transients, i.e. metastable depassivation events were found. It is suggested to attribute these transients to less stable passivation layers in comparison to pure aluminium.

  16. Process for the manufacture of plates containing neutron poison from aluminium and aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Pollmann, E.; Srostlik, P.

    1985-01-01

    A process for guaranteeing sub-critical arrangements of nuclear fuel in tranport and/or storage containers is described, in which a homogeneous distribution of neutron poison in the aluminium matrix is guaranteed. A homogeneous mixture of aluminium powder and neutron poison powder is produced, this is pressed into plates in several stages, dried and made into hollow aluminium profiles of rectangular cross-section. The open ends of the hollow profile are then closed and this is rolled to the required dimension at 470-500 0 C. (orig./HP) [de

  17. TITANIUM CARBON ALUMINIUM : A NOVEL GRAIN REFINER FOR ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Birch , M.; Cowell , A.

    1987-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of achieving grain size control in aluminium-lithium alloys with the titanium carbon aluminium (TiCAl) master alloys invented at the Technical University of Berlin and developed by London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co Ltd (LSM). Grain refining tests were conducted on a single batch of 8090 alloy using addition rates of 0.2wt% and 0.4wt% of TiCAl and 3/1 titanium boron aluminium (TiBAl). Other tests using 0.4wt% of binary TiAl gave poor results, showing t...

  18. Molybdenum solubility in aluminium nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, X.; Sans, D.; Bertrand, M.; Eysseric, C. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DRCP, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Excoffier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, DTEC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Valery, J.F. [AREVA-NC, DOR/RDP, Paris - La Defense (France)

    2016-07-01

    For over 60 years, research reactors (RR or RTR for research testing reactors) have been used as neutron sources for research, radioisotope production ({sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc), nuclear medicine, materials characterization, etc... Currently, over 240 of these reactors are in operation in 56 countries. They are simpler than power reactors and operate at lower temperature (cooled to below 100 C. degrees). The fuel assemblies are typically plates or cylinders of uranium alloy and aluminium (U-Al) coated with pure aluminium. These fuels can be processed in AREVA La Hague plant after batch dissolution in concentrated nitric acid and mixing with UOX fuel streams. The aim of this study is to accurately measure the solubility of molybdenum in nitric acid solution containing high concentrations of aluminium. The higher the molybdenum solubility is, the more flexible reprocessing operations are, especially when the spent fuels contain high amounts of molybdenum. To be most representative of the dissolution process, uranium-molybdenum alloy and molybdenum metal powder were dissolved in solutions of aluminium nitrate at the nominal dissolution temperature. The experiments showed complete dissolution of metallic elements after 30 minutes long stirring, even if molybdenum metal was added in excess. After an induction period, a slow precipitation of molybdic acid occurs for about 15 hours. The data obtained show the molybdenum solubility decreases with increasing aluminium concentration. The solubility law follows an exponential relation around 40 g/L of aluminium with a high determination coefficient. Molybdenum solubility is not impacted by the presence of gadolinium, or by an increasing concentration of uranium. (authors)

  19. Polystyrene films as barrier layers for corrosion protection of copper and copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Románszki, Loránd; Datsenko, Iaryna; May, Zoltán; Telegdi, Judit; Nyikos, Lajos; Sand, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    Dip-coated polystyrene layers of sub-micrometre thickness (85-500nm) have been applied on copper and copper alloys (aluminium brass, copper-nickel 70/30), as well as on stainless steel 304, and produced an effective barrier against corrosion and adhesion of corrosion-relevant microorganisms. According to the dynamic wettability measurements, the coatings exhibited high advancing (103°), receding (79°) and equilibrium (87°) contact angles, low contact angle hysteresis (6°) and surface free energy (31mJ/m(2)). The corrosion rate of copper-nickel 70/30 alloy samples in 3.5% NaCl was as low as 3.2μm/a (44% of that of the uncoated samples), and in artificial seawater was only 0.9μm/a (29% of that of the uncoated samples). Cell adhesion was studied by fluorescence microscopy, using monoculture of Desulfovibrio alaskensis. The coatings not only decreased the corrosion rate but also markedly reduced the number of bacterial cells adhered to the coated surfaces. The PS coating on copper gave the best result, 2×10(3)cells/cm(2) (1% of that of the uncoated control). © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exigência líquida de zinco, cobre e ferro para cordeiros em pastejo no semiárido = Net requirements of zinc, copper and iron to grazing lambs in semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza Mendes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar as exigências líquidas de zinco (Zn, cobre (Cu e ferro (Fe de cordeiros Santa Inês em pastejo na região semiárida. Os animais com peso vivo entre 20 e 30 kg apresentaram conteúdo corporal no peso de corpo vazio (PCV para esses minerais de 60,26 a 76,37 mg kg-1, 10,78 a 16,72 mg kg-1 e 133,44 a 126,98 mg kg-1, respectivamente. Observou-se que com o aumento do PCV, as concentrações de Cu e Zn também aumentavam, enquanto a de Fe diminuía. As exigências líquidas para cordeiros em regime de pastejo variaram de 1,69 a 7,86 mg dia-1 para Cu e 7,20 a 27,4 mg dia-1 para Zn. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho, para exigências desses minerais, foram maiores do que as exigências dietéticas recomendadas pelo do NRC (1985, que são de 7 a 11 mg, com máximo de 25 mg e de 20 a 30 mg, com máximo de 750 mg kg-1 de alimento, para Cu e Zn, respectivamente. As exigências líquidas de Fe variaram de 8,46 a 26,66 mg dia-1, e portanto, menores do que as recomendadas pelo NRC (1985 para este mineral que são de 30 a 50 mg kg-1 de alimento.This work had as an aim determine the net requirements of Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu and Iron (Fe of Santa Inês lambs raised grazing in the semi-arid area. Animals with body weight between 20 e 30 kg showed corporea contents in empty body weight (EBW in these minerals from 60.26 to 76.37 mg kg-1, 10.78 to 16.72 mg kg-1 and from 133.44 to126.98 mg kg-1, respectively. It was observed that increasing the PCV increased Cu and Zn concentration but decreased the Fe concentratiêson. The net requirements for lambs under pasture varied from 1.69 to 7.86 mg day-1 for Cu and from 7.20 to 27.4 mg day-1 for Zn. The results obtained in the present experiment suggest that the dietary requirements in Cu and Zn are higher than those recommended by NRC (1985, between 7 and 11 mg, with a maximum value of 25 mg for Cu and between 20 and 30 mg, with a maximum of 750 mg kg-1 of food for Zn

  1. CONCENTRAÇÕES RESIDUAIS DE COBRE, FERRO, MANGANÊS E ZINCO EM LATOSSOLO ROXO EUTRÓFICO SOB DIFERENTES TIPOS DE MANEJO RESIDUAL CONCENTRATION OF COPPER, IRON, MANGANESE AND ZINC IN EUTROPHIC 'LATOSSOLO ROXO’ UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Pereira de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    shallow harrow plowing and 4 deep stirring, using a chiseling plower and three level of fertilization: 1 Check (natural soil fertility, 2 Goiás State recommendation and 3 Fertilizers to cover the nutrients extracted by grain exportation. Larger values of the pH were observed in the superficial layer of soil submitted to deep moldboard plowing in relation to no-till, shallow harrow plowing and deep stirring. Uniform distributions of iron, manganese and zinc were observed in areas submitted to deep moldboard plowing. The 40-60 cm layer presented similar concentrations in all types of soil management. Copper tried in the superficial layer and at deepest layers can be explained by the larger concentration of organic matter and origin of the soil. No variation was observed in relation to fertilizers application.

    KEY-WORDS: Micronutrients; no till system; cerrado soil.

  2. Defect generation during solidification of aluminium foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, M.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Banhart, J.

    2010-01-01

    The reason for the frequent occurrence of cell wall defects in metal foams was investigated. Aluminium foams often expand during solidification, a process which is referred as solidification expansion (SE). The effect of SE on the structure of aluminium foams was studied in situ by X-ray radioscopy and ex situ by X-ray tomography. A direct correlation between the magnitude of SE and the number of cell wall ruptures during SE and finally the number of defects in the solidified foams was found.

  3. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  4. The determination of trace oxygen in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy by helium-3 activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, C.; Goethals, P.; Kieffer, R.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of oxygen in aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy by helium-3 activation is studied. The 18 F formed from oxygen is separated by distillation followed by precipitation of leadfluorochloride. The chemical yield is determined by activation in an isotopic neutron source. Concentrations of resp. 27 and 64 ng.g -1 with a precision for a single determination of resp. 30 and 13% are found in 99.5% aluminium and in aluminium-silicon (3%) alloy. (author)

  5. Durability of bare and anodised aluminium in atmosphere of very different corrosivities I. Bare aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. A.; Escudero, E.; Lopez, V.; Simancas, J.; Morcillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of bare aluminium is studied in atmospheric exposure at 11 natural testing stations with salinity levels ranging between 2.1 and 684 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. In atmospheres of low or moderate aggressivity aluminium behaves as a passive material, though the insignificant corrosion that is produced is sufficient to spoil its appearance. In contrast, at salinity levels of 50 mg Cl''- m''-2 ''-1 or above, aluminium is susceptible to pitting corrosion even in the first year of atmospheric exposure, or in the second year at salinities of ≤ 10 mg Cl''- m''-2 d''-1. For comparative purposes, results are included for aluminium protected with an anodic film of 28 μm thickness exposed at the same testing stations. A 28 μm anodic film, correctly sealed, prevents the risk of localised corrosion even in the most unfavourable situations. (Author) 23 refs

  6. Identifying Marine Copper-Binding Ligands in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, H.; Hollibaugh, J. T.; Maldonado, M. T.; Ouchi, S.; van den Berg, S. M.

    2016-02-01

    Complexation reactions are important because they affect the bioavailability of trace metals such as copper and iron. For example, organic complexation can determine whether copper is a limiting or a toxic micronutrient at natural levels. Copper competes with iron for complexing ligands, and when iron is limiting, copper can also substitute for iron in some metabolic pathways. The speciation of copper can be measured using complexing capacity titrations, which provide the concentration of individual ligand classes (L1, L2 etc.) and the complex stabilities (log K). Using methods recently developed in our laboratory, we show that the ligands within these classes can be measured independently of titrations, thus confirming the titration method and simultaneously identifying the ligands within each class. Thiols were identified as the L1 ligand class and humic compounds as the weaker L2 class in samples from coastal Georgia, USA, collected monthly from April to December. Log K values of the ligand complexes were consistent with values expected for thiols and humic substances. Recent results from culture studies and from samples collected along Line P, a coastal - oceanic transect in the HNLC region of the NE subarctic Pacific, will be presented in comparison to the estuarine results. This comparison will help to broaden our perspective on copper complexation and the ligands responsible, furthering our understanding of ligand sources and life cycles.

  7. Residual Stress Measurement of Coarse Crystal Grain in Aluminium Casting Alloy by Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Hanabusa, Takao

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Neutron stress measurement can detect strain and stress information in deep region because of large penetration ability of neutron beams. The present paper describes procedure and results in the residual stress measurement of aluminium casting alloy by neutron diffraction. Usually, the aluminium casting alloy includes the large crystal grains. The existence of large crystal grains makes it difficult to estimate the residual stresses in highly accuracy. In this study, the modified three axial method using Hook's equation was employed for neutron stress measurement. These stress measurements were performed under the two kinds of new techniques. One is a rocking curve method to calculate the principal strains in three directions. The peak profiles which appear discretely on rocking curves were translated to principle stresses by the Bragg law and the basic elastic theory. Another is the consideration of measurement positions and the edge effect in the neutron irradiated area (volume gage). The edge effect generates the errors of 2θ-peak position in the neutron stress measurement. In this study, the edge effect was investigated in detail by a small bit of copper single crystal. The copper bit was moved and scanned on three dimensionally within the gage volume. Furthermore, the average strains of symmetrical positions are measure by the sample turning at 180 degrees, because the error distributions of the 2θ-peak position followed to positions inside the gage volume. Form these results of this study, the residual stresses in aluminium casting alloy which includes the large crystal grains were possible to estimate by neutron stress measurement with the rocking curve method and the correction of the edge effect. (author)

  8. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has ...

  9. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanto

    2002-01-01

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  10. Warm Deep Drawing of Aluminium Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminium sheet drawing processes can be improved by manipulating local flow behaviour by means of elevated temperatures and temperature gradients in the tooling. Forming tests showed that a substantial improvement is possible not only for 5xxx but also for 6xxx series alloys. Finite element method

  11. Complexes of alkylphenols with aluminium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golounin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction of aluminium halides with alkylphenols is studied through the NMR method. The peculiarity of complex formation of pentamethylphenol with AlI 3 is revealed. By AlI 3 action on the pentamethylphenol the complexes are formed both of keto- and oxy form [ru

  12. Plasma metallization of aluminium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Petrunichev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering ability of cermets of metallized granulas of aluminium and matrix materials, such as chromium, nickel and nichrome is studied. Deformation tests of samples of cermets with molybdenum coated granules show satisfactory results at normal and high temperatures without fracture of metall-oxide interfaces [ru

  13. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  14. Molecular breeding of cereals for aluminium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminium (Al3+) toxicity is the primary factor limiting crop production on acidic soils worldwide. In addition to an application of lime for soil amelioration, Al3+ resistant plant varieties have been deployed to raise productivity on such hostile soils. This has been possible due to the exploita...

  15. Constant structure creep experiments on aluminium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Milička, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2011), s. 307-318 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2041203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : mechanical properties * high temperature deformation * creep * aluminium Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2011

  16. Creep properties of aluminium processed by ECAP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Petr; Dvořák, Jiří; Jäger, Aleš; Kvapilová, Marie; Horita, Z.; Sklenička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2016), s. 441-451 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) * aluminium * ultrafine-grained microstructure * creep Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.366, year: 2016

  17. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is lower and copper chaperone CCS is higher in erythrocytes of copper-deficient rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of a sensitive blood biochemical marker of copper status would be valuable for assessing marginal copper intakes. Rodent models were used to investigate whether erythrocyte concentrations of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the copper metallochaperone for SOD (CCS) were sensitive to dietary copper changes. Several models of copper deficiency were studied in postweanling male Holtzman rats, male Swiss Webster mice offspring, and both rat and mouse dams. Treatment resulted in variable but significantly altered copper status as evaluated by the presence of anemia, and lower liver copper and higher liver iron concentrations in copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate animals. Associated with this copper deficiency were consistent reductions in immunoreactive SOD and robust enhancements in CCS. In most cases, the ratio of CCS:SOD was several-fold higher in red blood cell extracts from copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate rodents. Determination of red cell CCS:SOD may be useful for assessing copper status of humans.

  18. Distribuição espacial de ferro, cobre e chumbo em sedimentos de manguezal em um gradiente de degradação na Baía de Guanabara (Estado do Rio de Janeiro Spatial distribution of iron, copper and lead in mangrove sediments in a degradation gradient in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson C. Borges

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron, copper and lead distribution was evaluated in sediment cores from a disturbed mangrove area in Guanabara Bay: a core from a seaward site where mangrove vegetation was removed ~20 yr before sampling (MD; a core from an intermediate site with dead vegetation, apparently due to insect attack (MP, and a core from a landward site with living vegetation (MV. Metal concentrations showed increasing values seaward while organic matter content showed an inverse trend, displaying a negative correlation with metals. This unusual correlation indicates opposite sources, since metals come from the bay and the main OM origin is probably degraded mangrove vegetation. Plant cover loss seems to be a critical factor affecting metal accumulation, particularly due to changes in OM input.

  19. Antwerp Copper Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes.......In addition to presenting a short history of copper paintings, topics detail artists’ materials and techniques, as well as aspects of the copper industry, including mining, preparation and trade routes....

  20. Iron Oxide-Supported Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (Nanocat-Fe-CuO): Magnetically Recyclable Catalysts for the Synthesis of Pyrazole Derivatives, 4-Methoxyaniline, and Ullmann-type Condensation Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An efficient and benign protocol is reported for the synthesis of 4-methoxyaniline, medicinally important pyrazole derivatives, and Ullmann-type condensation reaction using magnetically separable and reusable magnetite-supported copper (nanocat-Fe-CuO) nanoparticles under mild co...