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Sample records for iron content increased

  1. Increasing Provasculature Complexity in the Arabidopsis Embryo May Increase Total Iron Content in Seeds: A Hypothesis

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    Hannetz Roschzttardtz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to iron deficiency is a worldwide issue, affecting mainly children and women. Seed iron is a major source of this micronutrient for feeding, however, in most crops these levels are too low to meet daily needs. Thus, increasing iron allocation and its storage in seeds can represent an important step to enhance iron provision for humans and animals. Our knowledge on seed iron homeostasis is mainly based on studies performed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where iron accumulates in endodermis cells surrounding the embryo provasculature. It has been reported that cotyledon provasculature pattern complexity can be modified, thus we hypothesize that changes in the complexity of embryo vein patterns may affect total iron content in Arabidopsis seeds. This approach could be used as basis to develop strategies aimed to biofortify seeds.

  2. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

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    Desirrê Morais Dias

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7: Pontal bean (PB; rice + Pontal bean (R + BP; Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP; Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P; Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P; Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP; positive control (Ferrous Sulfate. The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE, gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1, duodenal citocromo B (DcytB, ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC. The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p < 0.05 than the control. Gene expression of DMT-1, DcytB and ferroportin increased (p < 0.05 in the groups fed with high content carotenoid crops (sweet potato or pumpkin. The PB group presented lower (p < 0.05 TAC than the other groups. The combination of rice and common beans, and those with high carotenoid content crops increased protein gene expression, increasing the iron bioavailability and antioxidant capacity.

  3. Rice and Bean Targets for Biofortification Combined with High Carotenoid Content Crops Regulate Transcriptional Mechanisms Increasing Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Gomes, Mariana Juste Contin; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency affects thousands of people worldwide. Biofortification of staple food crops aims to support the reduction of this deficiency. This study evaluates the effect of combinations of common beans and rice, targets for biofortification, with high carotenoid content crops on the iron bioavailability, protein gene expression, and antioxidant effect. Iron bioavailability was measured by the depletion/repletion method. Seven groups were tested (n = 7): Pontal bean (PB); rice + Pontal bean (R + BP); Pontal bean + sweet potato (PB + SP); Pontal bean + pumpkin (PB + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + P); Pontal bean + rice + sweet potato (PB + R + SP); positive control (Ferrous Sulfate). The evaluations included: hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), gene expression of divalente metal transporter 1 (DMT-1), duodenal citocromo B (DcytB), ferroportin, hephaestin, transferrin and ferritin and total plasma antioxidant capacity (TAC). The test groups, except the PB, showed higher HRE (p bioavailability and antioxidant capacity. PMID:26610564

  4. Prediction of reducible soil iron content from iron extraction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Reeven, van J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Soils contain various iron compounds that differ in solubility, reducibility and extractability. Moreover, the contribution of the various iron compounds to total iron (Fe) and total Fe concentrations differs highly among soils. As a result, the total reducible Fe content can also differ among

  5. IRON CONTENT OF FOOD COOKED IN IRON UTENSILS: A TRADITIONAL INDIAN WAY

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    Bibifatima Bawakhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since most of the Indian population depends on vegetarian diet, prevalence of iron deficiency status is higher in India compared to other developing countries. In spite of many national programs and treatment options available in correcting this, the incidence is increasing due to poor patient compliance and intolerance to treatment. This study was an effort to show how iron content of Indian food can be increased just by following the traditional way of cooking. OBJECTIVE To compare the iron levels in the Jowar roti cooked in iron and non-iron utensils. METHODOLOGY A cross-sectional study was conducted at KIMS, Hubli. Jowar rotis were prepared from equal quantity of jowar flour in iron and non-iron tawa. Another sample of roti was prepared in iron tawa after treating with lemon juice. Six samples were homogenised and filtered. The filtrates were replicated and analysed for iron levels by FerroZine method. RESULTS In the present study, we found no change in iron levels in the roti prepared in non-iron utensil, 1.45 and 1.94 fold increase in the roti prepared in new iron tawa without water boiled in it and with water boiled in it for dough preparation respectively when compared with iron levels of plain jowar flour. There was 5.77 fold rise in iron levels in lemon juice treated roti which signifies the bioavailability of iron in food. The study showed statistical significance at ‘p’- value < 0.05. CONCLUSION Several studies have shown the similar results and this was done to strengthen the findings in our staple food. Hence, the daily iron requirement can be met easily and effectively by taking the food cooked with lemon juice in iron utensils.

  6. Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lanzerstorfer; M. Hinterberger

    2017-01-01

    The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-graine...

  7. The Effect Of Local Coal And Smelting Sponge Iron On Iron Content Of Pig Iron

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    Oediyani, Soesaptri; Juwita Sari, Pramita; Hadi P, Djoko

    2018-03-01

    The new regulation on mineral resources was announced by Ministry of Energy and Mineral resources (ESDM) of Indonesia at 2014 which it called Permen ESDM No 1/2014. Therefore, this research was conducted to add the value of local iron ores by using smelting technology. The objective of the research is to produce pig iron that meet the requirement of the new regulation of mineral resources such as 90% Fe. First, iron ores and coal mixed together with lime as a flux, then smelted in a Electric Arc Furnace at 1800°C. The process variables are (1; 1.25; 1.5; 1.75; 2.0) and the composition of coal (0.8%, 1.6%, 3.0%). The type of coal that used in this research was bituminous coal from Kalimantan and also the iron ores from Kalimantan. The products of the smelting technology are Pig iron and slag. Both pig iron and slag then analyzed by SEM-EDS to measure the iron content. The result shows that the maximum iron content on pig iron is about 95.04% meanwhile the minimum iron content on slag is about 3.66%. This result achieved at 1.6% coal and 2.0.

  8. Obesity alters adipose tissue macrophage iron content and tissue iron distribution.

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    Orr, Jeb S; Kennedy, Arion; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K; Webb, Corey D; Fordahl, Steve C; Erikson, Keith M; Zhang, Yaofang; Etzerodt, Anders; Moestrup, Søren K; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) expansion is accompanied by the infiltration and accumulation of AT macrophages (ATMs), as well as a shift in ATM polarization. Several studies have implicated recruited M1 ATMs in the metabolic consequences of obesity; however, little is known regarding the role of alternatively activated resident M2 ATMs in AT homeostasis or how their function is altered in obesity. Herein, we report the discovery of a population of alternatively activated ATMs with elevated cellular iron content and an iron-recycling gene expression profile. These iron-rich ATMs are referred to as MFe(hi), and the remaining ATMs are referred to as MFe(lo). In lean mice, ~25% of the ATMs are MFe(hi); this percentage decreases in obesity owing to the recruitment of MFe(lo) macrophages. Similar to MFe(lo) cells, MFe(hi) ATMs undergo an inflammatory shift in obesity. In vivo, obesity reduces the iron content of MFe(hi) ATMs and the gene expression of iron importers as well as the iron exporter, ferroportin, suggesting an impaired ability to handle iron. In vitro, exposure of primary peritoneal macrophages to saturated fatty acids also alters iron metabolism gene expression. Finally, the impaired MFe(hi) iron handling coincides with adipocyte iron overload in obese mice. In conclusion, in obesity, iron distribution is altered both at the cellular and tissue levels, with AT playing a predominant role in this change. An increased availability of fatty acids during obesity may contribute to the observed changes in MFe(hi) ATM phenotype and their reduced capacity to handle iron.

  9. Liver Iron Contents in Rats after Administration of Certain Iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of consumption of certain iron compounds on liver iron deposition was ... extra iron probably depends on the type of food prepared, .... main groups. Each main group consisted of 4 subgroups. (8 rats per subgroup) which received the same basic diet but differing amounts of iron of a specific type. Each animal was ...

  10. High Neonatal Blood Iron Content Is Associated with the Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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    Julie Nyholm Kyvsgaard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Iron requirement increases during pregnancy and iron supplementation is therefore recommended in many countries. However, excessive iron intake may lead to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we aim to test if higher neonatal iron content in blood is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D in childhood; (2 Methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 199 children diagnosed with T1D before the age of 16 years from 1991 to 2005 and 199 controls matched on date of birth. Information on confounders was available in 181 cases and 154 controls. Iron was measured on a neonatal single dried blood spot sample and was analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate if iron content in whole blood was associated with the risk of T1D; (3 Results: A doubling of iron content increased the odds of developing T1D more than two-fold (odds ratio (95% CI, 2.55 (1.04; 6.24. Iron content increased with maternal age (p = 0.04 and girls had higher content than boys (p = 0.01; (4 Conclusions: Higher neonatal iron content associates to an increased risk of developing T1D before the age of 16 years. Iron supplementation during early childhood needs further investigation, including the causes of high iron in neonates.

  11. Iron contents of Malawian foods when prepared in iron cooking pots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen Geerligs, P. D.; Brabin, B. J.; Hart, D. J.; Fairweather-Tait, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the iron content of Malawian foods prepared in iron pots and to examine the effects of continuous cooking time and added oil on the iron content of the food prepared. Foods prepared, which included a staple (Nsima), relish vegetables, and beans, had an

  12. Aluminum and iron contents in phosphate treated swamp rice farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2006 aluminum and iron contents were determined in phosphate treated swamp rice farm of Mbiabet, Akwa Ibom State. The objectives were to determine the aluminum and iron contents, the effect of drying, phosphate and lime application in an acid sulphate soil grown to rice in Nigeria. The soil samples used were ...

  13. Correlations between iron content in knee joint tissues and chosen indices of peripheral blood morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Roczniak, Wojciech; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Koczy, Bogdan; Kwapuliński, Jerzy; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    Iron as a cofactor of enzymes takes part in the synthesis of the bone matrix. Severe deficiency of iron reduces the strength and mineral density of bones, whereas its excess may increase oxidative stress. In this context, it is essential to determine the iron content in knee joint tissues. The study objective was to determine the level of iron in the tissues of the knee joint, i.e., in the femoral bone, tibia and meniscus. Material for analysis was obtained during endoprosthetic surgery of the knee joint. Within the knee joint, the tibia, femur and meniscus were analyzed. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of iron content was performed with the ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. The lowest iron content was in the tibia (27.04 μg/g), then in the meniscus (38.68 μg/g) and the highest in the femur (41.93 μg/g). Statistically significant differences were noted in the content of iron in knee joint tissues. In patients who underwent endoprosthesoplasty of the knee joint, statistically significant differences were found in the levels of iron in various components of the knee joint. The highest iron content was found in the femoral bone of the knee joint and then in the meniscus, the lowest in the tibia. The differences in iron content in the knee joint between women and men were not statistically significant.

  14. Nanoparticulate NaA zeolite composites for MRI: Effect of iron oxide content on image contrast

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    Gharehaghaji, Nahideh; Divband, Baharak; Zareei, Loghman

    2018-06-01

    In the current study, Fe3O4/NaA nanocomposites with various amounts of Fe3O4 (3.4, 6.8 & 10.2 wt%) were synthesized and characterized to study the effect of nano iron oxide content on the magnetic resonance (MR) image contrast. The cell viability of the nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay method. T2 values as well as r2 relaxivities were determined with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The results of the MTT assay confirmed the nanocomposites cytocompatibility up to 6.8% of the iron oxide content. Although the magnetization saturations and susceptibility values of the nanocomposites were increased as a function of the iron oxide content, their relaxivity was decreased from 921.78 mM-1 s-1 for the nanocomposite with the lowest iron oxide content to 380.16 mM-1 s-1 for the highest one. Therefore, Fe3O4/NaA nanocomposite with 3.4% iron oxide content led to the best MR image contrast. Nano iron oxide content and dispersion in the nanocomposites structure have important role in the nanocomposite r2 relaxivity and the MR image contrast. Aggregation of the iron oxide nanoparticles is a limiting factor in using of the high iron oxide content nanocomposites.

  15. Effects of iron content on microstructure and crevice corrosion of titanium Grade-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.; Noel, J.J.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of iron content on microstructure and crevice corrosion of titanium Grade-2 (Ti-2) were studied using a galvanic coupling technique combined with optical microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) imaging. The study reveals that iron content has a significant effect on the microstructure and crevice corrosion behavior of Ti-2. The grain size decreases significantly with the increasing iron content. For Ti-2 material of medium iron content, crevice corrosion was readily initiated and exhibited extensive intergranular attack which could be associated with the more reactive iron-stabilized β-phase within the α-phase matrix as revealed by SIMS imaging. By contrast, Ti-2 materials with low and high iron content showed suppressed crevice attack. The small surface area of available grain boundaries in Ti-2 of low iron content accounted for this limited attack. For the material with high iron content, SIMS imaging suggest that some Ti x Fe intermetallic particles were formed. These particles may act as proton reduction catalysts and enhance crevice corrosion resistance. (author)

  16. Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr) in the detection of iron deficiency.

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    Urrechaga Igartua, Eloísa; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Escanero, Jesús F

    2017-09-01

    Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration within the reference interval does not exclude iron deficiency (ID): individuals with normal stores lose iron during a long period before their Hb falls below of the level that is defined as anemia. The process entails a decrease of storage iron, shown by serum ferritin below reference range, followed by iron depletion, eventually leading to iron restricted erythropoiesis; consequence of an imbalance between erythropoietic iron requirements and too low supply is a reduction of Hb synthesis in reticulocytes. We study the potential utility of mean reticulocyte hemoglobin content (MCHr), reported by CELL-DYN Sapphire (Abbott Diagnostics) analyzer, in the detection of ID in non-anemic adults. 207 patients with Hb within the reference range were enrolled. ID was defined as Hb>120g/L (women), >130g/L (men) and serum ferritin iron deficient adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Determining Iron Content in Foods by Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment for secondary school chemistry students utilizing the classic reaction between the iron(III) ion and the thiocyanate ion. The experiment also works very well in other chemistry courses as an experience in spectrophotometric analysis. (PVD)

  18. Long-term aerobic exercise increases redox-active iron through nitric oxide in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Xiao, De-Sheng

    2014-01-30

    Adult hippocampus is highly vulnerable to iron-induced oxidative stress. Aerobic exercise has been proposed to reduce oxidative stress but the findings in the hippocampus are conflicting. This study aimed to observe the changes of redox-active iron and concomitant regulation of cellular iron homeostasis in the hippocampus by aerobic exercise, and possible regulatory effect of nitric oxide (NO). A randomized controlled study was designed in the rats with swimming exercise treatment (for 3 months) and/or an unselective inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS) (L-NAME) treatment. The results from the bleomycin-detectable iron assay showed additional redox-active iron in the hippocampus by exercise treatment. The results from nonheme iron content assay, combined with the redox-active iron content, showed increased storage iron content by exercise treatment. NOx (nitrate plus nitrite) assay showed increased NOx content by exercise treatment. The results from the Western blot assay showed decreased ferroportin expression, no changes of TfR1 and DMT1 expressions, increased IRP1 and IRP2 expression, increased expressions of eNOS and nNOS rather than iNOS. In these effects of exercise treatment, the increased redox-active iron content, storage iron content, IRP1 and IRP2 expressions were completely reversed by L-NAME treatment, and decreased ferroportin expression was in part reversed by L-NAME. L-NAME treatment completely inhibited increased NOx and both eNOS and nNOS expression in the hippocampus. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise could increase the redox-active iron in the hippocampus, indicating an increase in the capacity to generate hydroxyl radicals through the Fenton reactions, and aerobic exercise-induced iron accumulation in the hippocampus might mainly result from the role of the endogenous NO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. INFLUENCE OF IRON CONTENT AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF 8011-TYPE Al-Fe-Si ALLOY. O. H. Yakubu1, I. ... properties such as formability, corrosion, light weight and also ... In aluminium alloy, a large number of iron-containing intermetallic ... conditions and alloy composition. Although ... and tensile behaviour of 7075 aluminium alloy [8] observed ...

  20. Iron content and acid phosphatase activity in hepatic parenchymal lysosomes of patients with hemochromatosis before and after phlebotomy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleton, M.I.; de Bruijn, W.C.; van Blokland, W.T.; Marx, J.J.; Roelofs, J.M.; Rademakers, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal structures in liver parenchymal cells of 3 patients with iron overload and of 3 subjects without iron-storage disorders were investigated. A combination of enzyme cytochemistry--with cerium as a captive ion to demonstrate lysosomal acid phosphatase activity--and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) was used. We were able (1) to define and quantify lysosomal structures as lysosomes, siderosomes, or residual bodies, (2) to quantify the amount of iron and cerium simultaneously in these structures, and (3) to evaluate a possible relation between iron storage and enzyme activity. With histopathologically increased iron storage, the number of siderosomes had increased at the cost of lysosomes, with a corresponding increase in acid phosphatase activity in both organelles. In histopahtologically severe iron overload, however, acid phosphatase activity was low or not detectable and most of the iron was stored in residual bodies. After phlebotomy treatment, the number of siderosomes had decreased in favor of the lysosomes, approaching values obtained in control subjects, and acid phosphatase activity was present in all iron-containing structures. In this way a relationship between iron storage and enzyme activity was established. The iron content of the individual lysosomal structures per unit area had increased with histopathologically increased iron storage and had decreased after phlebotomy treatment. From this observation, it is concluded that the iron status of the patient is not only reflected by the amount of iron-containing hepatocytes but, as well, by the iron content lysosomal unit area

  1. Hepatic iron content is independently associated with serum hepcidin levels in subjects with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Moreno, María; Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Ortega, Francisco; Xifra, Gemma; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Serum hepcidin concentration is known to increase in parallel to circulating markers of iron stores. We aimed to investigate whether this is reflected at the tissue level in subjects with obesity. Serum hepcidin and ferritin levels (ELISA) and hepatic iron content (using magnetic resonance imaging) were analyzed longitudinally in 44 participants (19 without obesity and 25 with obesity). In a subgroup of 16 participants with obesity, a weight loss intervention was performed. Serum hepcidin, ferritin and hepatic iron content (HIC) were significantly increased in participants with obesity. Age- and gender-adjusted serum hepcidin was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, ferritin and HIC. In addition, age- and gender-adjusted serum hepcidin was positively correlated with ferritin and HIC in both non-obese and obese participants. In multivariate regression analysis, hepatic iron content (p obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. High neonatal blood iron content is associated with the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Julie Nyholm; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Thorsen, Steffen Ullitz

    2017-01-01

    with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in childhood; (2) Methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 199 children diagnosed with T1D before the age of 16 years from 1991 to 2005 and 199 controls matched on date of birth. Information on confounders was available in 181 cases......: A doubling of iron content increased the odds of developing T1D more than two-fold (odds ratio (95% CI), 2.55 (1.04; 6.24)). Iron content increased with maternal age (p = 0.04) and girls had higher content than boys (p = 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Higher neonatal iron content associates to an increased risk...

  3. Determination of Iron Content in Iron Deficiency Drugs by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate a simple, precise and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of iron in the iron deficiency drugs, namely are Feroglobin B12, Ferose-F and Ferose. The proposed method is based on the reaction of iron with ammonium thiocyanate after the wet digestion of the drugs under study with HNO3 and H2O2.  Effects of pH, temperature, standing time and thiocyanate concentration on the determination of iron in drugs containing iron have been investigated. The λmax was 430 nm and the molar absorptivity of 0.0399 L mol-1 cm-1. The linear regression was in the range 0.5 - 60 μg/mL for iron content in hemoglobin. The detection limit and the limit of quantification were found to be 0.040 and 0.122 µg mL-1 for the iron respectively, and with a linear regression correlation coefficient of 0.998. Recovery measurements ranged from 99.63-100.20%. This method is simple and fast can be used for the determination of iron in the iron deficiency drugs in pharmaceutical laboratories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.953

  4. Enhancement of iron content in spinach plants stimulated by magnetic nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulianto, Agus; Astuti, Budi; Amalia, Saptaria Rosa [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Semarang (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    In our previous study, the iron content in spinach plants could be detected by magnetic susceptibility values. In the present work, magnetic nano particles were found from the iron sand. The magnetic nano particles are synthesis by using co-precipitation process and sol-gel technique. The stimulation of magnetic nano particles in the plant has been done by the provision of magnetic nano particles in growing media. After certain time, plant samples was characterized using susceptibility-meter MS2B and atomic absorption spectroscopy to measure the magnetic susceptibility and the amount of iron content that absorbed of the plant, respectively. The iron content in the spinach plants was increased when the magnetic nano particles was injected in the growing media.

  5. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; Günther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; Möhle, Henrik; Düngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-05-30

    The so-called "hepatic lipidosis" in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from hepatic lipidosis. The conspicuous livers (n = 85) were collected from 20 flocks where the phenomenon of massive increased animal losses accompanied by marked macroscopically visible pathological liver steatosis suddenly occurred. For comparison and as a reference, livers (n = 16) of two healthy flocks were taken. Healthy and diseased flocks were fed identical diets concerning official nutrient recommendations and were operating under standardized, comparable conventional conditions. Compared to livers of healthy animals, in the livers of turkeys died from hepatic lipidosis there were found massively increased fat levels (130 ± 33.2 vs. 324 ± 101 g/kg dry matter-DM). In all fatty livers, different fatty acids concentrations were present in significantly increased concentrations compared to controls (palmitic acid: 104 g/kg DM, +345%; palmitoleic acid: 18.0 g/kg DM, + 570%; oleic acid: 115 g/kg DM, +437%). Fatty acids concentrations relevant for liver metabolism and inflammation were significantly reduced (arachidonic acid: 2.92 g/kg DM, -66.6%; eicosapentaenoic acid: 0.141 g/kg DM, -78.3%; docosahexaenoic acid: 0.227 g/kg DM, -90.4%). The ratio of certain fatty acids to one another between control and case livers changed analogously to liver diseases in humans (e.g.: C18:0/C16:0 - 0.913 against 0.311; C16:1n7/C16:0 - 0.090 against 0.165; C18:1/C18:0 - 0.938 against 4.03). The iron content in the liver tissue also increased massively (271 ± 51.5 vs 712 ± 214 mg/kg DM). The hepatic

  6. Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; Dutra de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pereira, Helton Santos; Carvalho, José Luiz Vianna de; Abrams, Steven A; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Cunha; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of biofortified foods such as beans with higher iron content may be a useful tool in preventing iron deficiency. The biofortification aims to reach the root of the problem of malnutrition, targets the neediest population, uses embedded distribution mechanisms, is scientifically feasible and effective in terms of cost, and complements other ongoing interventions to control micronutrient deficiency. However, to ensure effectiveness, measurement of the absorption of minerals is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of common bean BRS Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with common bean BRS Estilo in man through reliable techniques that have not been previously used in Brazil. The study included 29 young adult volunteers divided into 2 groups: Group CB (13 subjects) received 100 g of common beans (BRS-Estilo) cooked labeled with iron-58 ( 58 Fe) and Group TBB (16 patients) received 100 g common bean target for iron biofortification (BRS-Pontal), cooked and labeled with iron58 ( 58 Fe). The next day they received the reference dose of ferrous sulfate enriched iron-57 ( 57 Fe). Isotopic evaluation of iron for measurement of iron incorporation into erythrocytes was performed 14 days after consumption. The beans used, were produced, through conventional breeding program, by EMBRAPA/Rice and Beans. The iron absorption was evaluated by assessing the isotopic enrichment of the stable isotope. Mean iron absorption from the meal with common beans was 0.409% (±0.040%) and mean iron incorporation from the meal with target beans for biofortification 0.407% (±0.038%) and did not differ between the groups. This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration

  7. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan; Beyene, Getu; Chauhan, Raj Deepika; Gaitán-Solis, Eliana; Grusak, Michael A; Taylor, Nigel; Anderson, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indicates a potential application for iron biofortification in crop plants. Here, we have overexpressed AtVIT1 in the starchy root crop cassava using a patatin promoter. Under greenhouse conditions, iron levels in mature cassava storage roots showed 3-4 times higher values when compared with wild-type plants. Significantly, the expression of AtVIT1 showed a positive correlation with the increase in iron concentration of storage roots. Conversely, young leaves of AtVIT1 transgenic plants exhibit characteristics of iron deficiency such as interveinal chlorosis of leaves (yellowing) and lower iron concentration when compared with the wild type plants. Interestingly, the AtVIT1 transgenic plants showed 4 and 16 times higher values of iron concentration in the young stem and stem base tissues, respectively. AtVIT1 transgenic plants also showed 2-4 times higher values of iron content when compared with wild-type plants, with altered partitioning of iron between source and sink tissues. These results demonstrate vacuolar iron sequestration as a viable transgenic strategy to biofortify crops and to help eliminate micronutrient malnutrition in at-risk human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Quentin Philippot

    Full Text Available Free iron in lung can cause the generation of reactive oxygen species, an important factor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD pathogenesis. Iron accumulation has been implicated in oxidative stress in other diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, but little is known about iron accumulation in COPD. We sought to determine if iron content and the expression of iron transport and/or storage genes in lung differ between controls and COPD subjects, and whether changes in these correlate with airway obstruction. Explanted lung tissue was obtained from transplant donors, GOLD 2-3 COPD subjects, and GOLD 4 lung transplant recipients, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells were obtained from non-smokers, healthy smokers, and GOLD 1-3 COPD subjects. Iron-positive cells were quantified histologically, and the expression of iron uptake (transferrin and transferrin receptor, storage (ferritin and export (ferroportin genes was examined by real-time RT-PCR assay. Percentage of iron-positive cells and expression levels of iron metabolism genes were examined for correlations with airflow limitation indices (forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 and the ratio between FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC. The alveolar macrophage was identified as the predominant iron-positive cell type in lung tissues. Furthermore, the quantity of iron deposit and the percentage of iron positive macrophages were increased with COPD and emphysema severity. The mRNA expression of iron uptake and storage genes transferrin and ferritin were significantly increased in GOLD 4 COPD lungs compared to donors (6.9 and 3.22 fold increase, respectively. In BAL cells, the mRNA expression of transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin correlated with airway obstruction. These results support activation of an iron sequestration mechanism by alveolar macrophages in COPD, which we postulate is a protective mechanism against iron induced oxidative

  9. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

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    Gargul K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research involving alkaline leaching tests of low zinc content iron-bearing materials. These tests were preceded by the analysis of the elemental, phase and grain size composition, and analysis of the thermodynamic conditions of the leaching process. The main aim of research was to decrease the content of the zinc in the sludge to the level where it is suitable as an iron-bearing material for iron production (~1% Zn. Leaching at elevated temperatures (368 K, 60 min has led to a decrease in the zinc content in the sludge of about 66%. The research revealed that long hour leaching (298 K, 100 hours carried out at ambient temperatures caused a reduction in zinc content by 60% to the value of 1.15-1.2% Zn.

  10. Impact of multi parity on iron content in multiparous women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, A.; Rauf, S.; Hassan, U.; Sadiq, N.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of multiple pregnancies, a very common pattern in reproductive lifestyle of Pakistani women, needs to be addressed to see if it affects the iron content and hence cause iron deficiency. Recognising this deficiency prior to development of anaemia can prevent disastrous consequences that can complicate the life of the mother and foetus especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the effect that the stress of multiple pregnancies has on the iron status of the body. Methods: This comparative study was conducted in a focus group of female population. Two hundred subjects were selected by convenient sampling and grouped depending on their parity status. Data regarding diet, and socioeconomic history was collected on pre-designed questionnaire. Serum Ferritin was used to assess iron deficiency using the Electro chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA). Data was statistically analysed using SPSS-17. Results: Mean value of serum Ferritin in the nulliparous group was 76.52 +- 4.92 eta g/mL with 16% of nulliparous subjects showing lower than normal values. Thirty-six percent of uniparous subjects showed low serum Ferritin values, mean value being 45.74 +- 4.51 eta g/mL. Seventy-two percent of the multiparous subjects showed iron deficiency with Ferritin levels of <20 eta g/mL. Mean serum Ferritin in this group was 25.21+- 2.75 g/mL. The differences between the Ferritin levels of the study groups were highly significant (p<0.01). Conclusions: Multiparous women had lower serum Ferritin levels than the control group suggesting that the stress of multiple pregnancies takes its toll on the iron content of the body. (author)

  11. Effect of Initial Iron Content in a Zinc Bath on the Dissolution Rate of Iron During a Hot Dip Galvanizing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Myung; Lee, Suk Kyu; Paik, Doo-Jin; Park, Joo Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of iron dissolution and the effect of initial Fe content in a Zn bath on the dissolution rate of iron were investigated using a finger rotating method (FRM). When the initial iron content, [Fe]°, in the zinc bath was less than the solubility limit, the iron content in the zinc bath showed a rapid increase, whereas a moderate increase was observed when [Fe]° was close to the solubility limit. Based on Eisenberg's kinetic model, the mass transfer coefficient of iron in the present experimental condition was calculated to be k M = 1.2 × 10-5 m/s, which was similar to the results derived by Giorgi et al. under industrial practice conditions. A dissolution of iron occurred even when the initial iron content in the zinc bath was greater than the solubility limit, which was explained by the interfacial thermodynamics in conjunction with the morphology of the surface coating layer. By analyzing the diffraction patterns using TEM, the outermost dendritic-structured coating layer was confirmed as FeZn13 ( ζ). In order to satisfy the local equilibrium based on the Gibbs-Thomson equation, iron in the dendrite-structured phase spontaneously dissolved into the zinc bath, resulting in the enrichment of iron in front of the dendrite tip. Through the diffusion boundary layer in front of the dendritic-structured layer, dissolved Fe atoms diffused out and reacted with Zn and small amounts of Al, resulting in the formation of dross particles such as FeZn10Al x ( δ). It was experimentally confirmed that the smaller the difference between the initial iron content in the zinc bath and the iron solubility limit at a given temperature, the lower the number of formed dross particles.

  12. Iron solubility related to particle sulfur content in source emission and ambient fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, M; Ingall, E D; Lai, B; Shafer, M M; Hays, M D; Liu, Z G; Russell, A G; Weber, R J

    2012-06-19

    The chemical factors influencing iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) were investigated in source emission (e.g., biomass burning, coal fly ash, mineral dust, and mobile exhaust) and ambient (Atlanta, GA) fine particles (PM2.5). Chemical properties (speciation and mixing state) of iron-containing particles were characterized using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and micro-X-ray fluorescence measurements. Bulk iron solubility (soluble iron/total iron) of the samples was quantified by leaching experiments. Major differences were observed in iron solubility in source emission samples, ranging from low solubility (iron solubility did not correspond to silicon content or Fe(II) content. However, source emission and ambient samples with high iron solubility corresponded to the sulfur content observed in single particles. A similar correspondence between bulk iron solubility and bulk sulfate content in a series of Atlanta PM2.5 fine particle samples (N = 358) further supported this trend. In addition, results of linear combination fitting experiments show the presence of iron sulfates in several high iron solubility source emission and ambient PM2.5 samples. These results suggest that the sulfate content (related to the presence of iron sulfates and/or acid-processing mechanisms by H(2)SO(4)) of iron-containing particles is an important proxy for iron solubility.

  13. Development of neutron shielding concrete containing iron content materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Demet; Küçer, Rahmi

    2018-02-01

    Concrete is one of the most important construction materials which widely used as a neutron shielding. Neutron shield is obtained of interaction with matter depends on neutron energy and the density of the shielding material. Shielding properties of concrete could be improved by changing its composition and density. High density materials such as iron or high atomic number elements are added to concrete to increase the radiation resistance property. In this study, shielding properties of concrete were investigated by adding iron, FeB, Fe2B, stainless - steel at different ratios into concrete. Neutron dose distributions and shield design was obtained by using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The determined shield thicknesses vary depending on the densities of the mixture formed by the additional material and ratio. It is seen that a combination of iron rich materials is enhanced the neutron shielding of capabilities of concrete. Also, the thicknesses of shield are reduced.

  14. Increased glucose dependence in resting, iron-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.A.; Henderson, S.A.; Dallman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Rates of blood glucose and lactate turnover were assessed in resting iron-deficient and iron-sufficient (control) rats to test the hypothesis that dependence on glucose metabolism is increased in iron deficiency. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 21 days old, were fed a diet containing either 6 mg iron/kg feed (iron-deficient group) or 50 mg iron/kg feed (iron-sufficient group) for 3-4 wk. The iron-deficient group became anemic, with hemoglobin levels of 6.4 ± 0.2 compared with 13.8 ± 0.3 g/dl for controls. Rats received a 90-min primed continuous infusion of D-[6- 3 H]glucose and sodium L-[U- 14 C]lactate via a jugular catheter. Serial samples were taken from a carotid catheter for concentration and specific activity determinations. Iron-deficient rats had significantly higher blood glucose and lactate concentrations than controls. The iron-deficient group had a significantly higher glucose turnover rate than the control group. Significantly more metabolite recycling in iron-deficient rats was indicated by greater incorporation of 14 C into blood glucose. Assuming a carbon crossover correction factor of 2, half of blood glucose arose from lactate in deficient animals. By comparison, only 25% of glucose arose from lactate in controls. Lack of a difference in lactate turnover rates between deficient rats and controls was attributed to 14 C recycling. The results indicate a greater dependence on glucose metabolism in iron-deficient rats

  15. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

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    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  16. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  17. Aspergillus niger Secretes Citrate to Increase Iron Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; van Gaal, Merlijn P.; Schonewille, Tom; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus niger has an innate ability to secrete various organic acids, including citrate. The conditions required for A. niger citrate overproduction are well described, but the physiological reasons underlying extracellular citrate accumulation are not yet fully understood. One of the less understood culture conditions is the requirement of growth-limiting iron concentrations. While this has been attributed to iron-dependent citrate metabolizing enzymes, this straightforward relationship does not always hold true. Here, we show that an increase in citrate secretion under iron limited conditions is a physiological response consistent with a role of citrate as A. niger iron siderophore. We found that A. niger citrate secretion increases with decreasing amounts of iron added to the culture medium and, in contrast to previous findings, this response is independent of the nitrogen source. Differential transcriptomics analyses of the two A. niger mutants NW305 (gluconate non-producer) and NW186 (gluconate and oxalate non-producer) revealed up-regulation of the citrate biosynthesis gene citA under iron limited conditions compared to iron replete conditions. In addition, we show that A. niger can utilize Fe(III) citrate as iron source. Finally, we discuss our findings in the general context of the pH-dependency of A. niger organic acid production, offering an explanation, besides competition, for why A. niger organic acid production is a sequential process influenced by the external pH of the culture medium. PMID:28824560

  18. Iron content of some samples of the black murrams and red ochres from different parts of Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriithi, N.

    1985-01-01

    A number of samples of the black or dark ironstone(commonly referred to as murram) and some red ochres collected from different parts of Kenya were analysed, particularly for their iron content. The results show that some of the materials examined are potential iron ores. Heating the black murram or the red ochres to 500 0 C increases the iron content in the residue by between 10% and 20%. On the other hand boiling the materials with 3M sodium hydroxide increases the proportion of iron in the residue by only 7%. X-ray analysis shows that most of the murrams and the red ochres examined contain the mineral geothite as the main iron-bearing material. (author)

  19. Fat content, fatty acid pattern and iron content in livers of turkeys with hepatic lipidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Visscher, Christian; Middendorf, Lea; G?nther, Ronald; Engels, Alexandra; Leibfacher, Christof; M?hle, Henrik; D?ngelhoef, Kristian; Weier, Stefan; Haider, Wolfram; Radko, Dimitri

    2017-01-01

    Background The so-called ?hepatic lipidosis? in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from...

  20. An algorithm using reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) measurement in screening adolescents for iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffman, Nava; Brugnara, Carlo; Woods, Elizabeth R

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate whether the use of an algorithm including reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr), a new hematologic parameter, in addition to the screening complete blood count (CBC), improves detection of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in healthy adolescents. After initiation of an algorithm using CHr in addition to CBC results for identifying iron-deficient patients in a primary care hospital-based adolescent clinic, we reviewed results of all hematological tests performed in the clinic during an 8-month period. Electronic medical records were screened for health status and inclusion criteria. We determined the number of patients with low hematocrit values, low mean cell volume (MCV), and low CHr. To evaluate the impact of the protocol, we calculated the percentage of cases in which the CHr results suggested a management plan different from that which would have been formulated using the CBC results only. A total of 381 patients (mean age 16.8 +/- 3.1 years) were included in the study. Anemia was diagnosed by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines in 63 patients (16.5%), low MCV in 170 patients (44.6%), and a low CHr in 80 (21%) patients. In 68% of anemia cases, a normal CHr suggested that iron deficiency was not the cause of the anemia. Although low MCV values were found in 38 (60.4%) of all anemic cases, mean MCV was significantly (p < 0.001) lower in the 19 cases with a low CHr as well. In 19% of 318 patients with a normal hematocrit (HCT), a low CHr suggested the need for treatment of early iron deficiency. In 103 (27%) cases, CHr suggested a different treatment plan from that which would have been formulated using the screening CBC only. The use of an algorithm including CHr to screen for iron deficiency anemia may increase the accuracy of diagnosis, enabling early detection and treatment of iron deficiency in adolescents without the need for additional costly iron studies.

  1. Formation of iron nanoparticles and increase in iron reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Baker, Alex R; Jickells, Timothy D; Benning, Liane G

    2009-09-01

    The formation of iron (Fe) nanoperticles and increase in Fe reactivity in mineral dust during simulated cloud processing was investigated using high-resolution microscopy and chemical extraction methods. Cloud processing of dust was experimentally simulated via an alternation of acidic (pH 2) and circumneutral conditions (pH 5-6) over periods of 24 h each on presieved (formation of Fe-rich nanoparticle aggregates, which were not found initially. Similar Fe-rich nanoparticles were also observed in wet-deposited Saharen dusts from the western Mediterranean but not in dry-deposited dust from the eastern Mediterranean. Sequential Fe extraction of the soil samples indicated an increase in the proportion of chemically reactive Fe extractable by an ascorbate solution after simulated cloud processing. In addition, the sequential extractions on the Mediterranean dust samples revealed a higher content of reactive Fe in the wet-deposited dust compared to that of the dry-deposited dust These results suggestthat large variations of pH commonly reported in aerosol and cloud waters can trigger neo-formation of nanosize Fe particles and an increase in Fe reactivity in the dust

  2. Determination of iron and copper contents in certain indigenous varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.S.; Abbas, N.; Shaheen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Forty seven wheat varieties were tested for their iron and copper contents. The iron and copper contents were found to differ significantly (P 0.05) with respect to iron and copper contents. The variety named Dirk was found to possess the highest iron contents, while the variety Pasban-90 showed the highest copper contents. The varieties Dirk, Sariab, Tandojam-83, Punjab-88, Sarsabz, Punjab-81, Sandal and Sind-81 contained significantly higher iron contents as compared to other wheat varieties. The varieties, which contained the highest concentrations of copper, were Pasban-90, Chenab-79, Faisalabad-85, Lyp-73, Sind-81, Anmol-91, C-271, Rohtas-90 and Chakwal-86. However, the differences in copper contents among all these wheat varieties were non-significant (P>0.05). These varieties can therefore, be recommended to be included for future breeding and commercial exploitation. (author)

  3. The iron content and ferritin contribution in fresh, dried, and toasted nori, Pyropia yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Taro; Yamamoto, Ami; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Iron is one of the essential trace elements for humans. In this study, the iron contents in fresh, dried, and toasted nori (Pyropia yezoensis) were analyzed. The mean iron content of fresh, dried, and toasted nori were 19.0, 22.6, and 26.2 mg/100 g (dry weight), respectively. These values were superior to other food of plant origin. Furthermore, most of the iron in nori was maintained during processing, such as washing, drying, and toasting. Then, the form of iron in fresh, dried, and toasted nori was analyzed. As a result, an iron storage protein ferritin contributed to iron storage in raw and dried nori, although the precise rate of its contribution is yet to be determined, while ferritin protein cage was degraded in the toasted nori. It is the first report that verified the ferritin contribution to iron storage in such edible macroalgae with commercial importance.

  4. Proton MR spectroscopic features according to change of hepatic parenchymal iron content after SPIO injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Cho, Soon Gu; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Hyung Jin

    2001-01-01

    To determine the effect of iron on proton MR spectra ( 1 H-MRS) by evaluating changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver according to changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. We evaluated serial changes in 1 H-MRS of the liver after intravenous infusion of SPIO in 40 rabbits. These were divided into eight groups of five, and in each group, respectively, 1 H-MRS and T2WI MR images were acquired prior to SPIO infusion, just after infusion, and at 15 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 24 and 96 hours after infusion. MR spectra were evaluated with particular attention ot the curve pattern observed at specific times after the infusion of SPIO, and the results were correlated with the signal intensity observed on T2WI images and the histologic giade of iron content of samples of resected liver parenchyma. As observed on T2WI, the mean signal intensity of rabbit liver in tis pre-SPIO infusion state, just after infusion, at 15 minutes, and at 1, 2, 4 and 96 hours after SPIO infusion was 121.3±15.5, 41.5±12.7, 30.3±7.9, 31.3±3.5, 33.6±9.4, 45.5±10.9, 80.3±15.7 and 110.4±22.9, respectively (p<0.05). Mean standard deviation of the ratio of the area of the peak (3.9-4.1 ppm)/lipid peak (1.3 ppm) peak at each of the above times except for the pre-infusion state was 1.10±0.13, 1.86±0.21, 1.80±0.30, 1.76±0.27, 1.74±0.20, 0.07±0.02 and 0.03±0.01, respectively (p<0.05). The hepatic parenchymal iron content increased rapidly from just after SPIO infusion, reaching its maximal level (as revealed by histologic specimens) at 15 minutes, sustaining this for up to 4 hours, and then decreasing gradually over periods of 24 and 96 hours. These results show that serial changes in patterns of MR spectra and the signal intensity seen on T2WI images correlate closely with changes in hepatic parenchymal iron content. Elevated hepatic parenchymal iron content leads to increases in the relative intensity of unknown peaks at around 4.0 ppm and decreases in the relative intensity of lipid peaks

  5. Development of a method for determination of metallic iron content within hot briquette iron (HBI for steelmaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcali M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of metallic iron in metallurgy and industrial chemical applications requires a fast, easy and cheap method for the determination of metallic iron, not merely in recyclable materials, such as iron pellets, reduced iron mill scale dust, electric arc furnace dust and pig iron, but from hot briquette iron (HBI as well. This study investigates a new method for determination of metallic iron within HBI used for steel-making materials. The effects of reaction time, temperature, and stirring rate were studied. The concentration of iron was determined via Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS. After the optimization study, high-purity metallic iron powder (Sigma-Aldrich, PubChem Substance ID 24855469 was used to compare efficiencies and identify the optimum conditions; The present study was matched with international standard methods (BS ISO 5416:2006, IS 15774:2007. Results were consistent with certified values and metallic iron content could be determined within the 95% confidence level. The purposed method is easy, straightforward, and cheap.

  6. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Lankosz, M.; Molodynska, W.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH) [de

  7. Investigation on effect of iron and corundum content on corrosion resistance of the NiFe-Al2O3 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosta, R.; Zielinski, A.

    1999-01-01

    The alloy NiFe and composite NiFe-Al 2 O 3 coatings, obtained by electrodeposition on the base of cast iron, were investigated. The iron content in alloy coatings was dependent on iron content in galvanic bath, and was estimated by means of X-ray microanalysis at 18.5 wt. pct. and 41.2 wt. pct. No existence of ordered Ni 3 Fe phase was found by diffraction technique. Both potentiodynamic and impedance measurements disclosed that a presence of Al 2 O 3 or increasing iron content in the layer caused the decrease in corrosion resistance. (author)

  8. Increased iron bioavailability from lactic-fermented vegetables is likely an effect of promoting the formation of ferric iron (Fe(3+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Nathalie; Rossander-Hulthen, Lena; Torsdottir, Inga; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2016-02-01

    Lactic fermentation of foods increases the availability of iron as shown in a number of studies throughout the years. Several explanations have been provided such as decreased content of inhibitory phytate, increased solubility of iron, and increased content of lactic acid in the fermented product. However, to our knowledge, there are no data to support that the bioavailability of iron is affected by lactic fermentation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the bioavailability of iron from a vegetable mix was affected by lactic fermentation and to propose a mechanism for such an event, by conducting human and cell (Caco-2, HepG2) studies and iron speciation measurements (voltammetry). We also investigated whether the absorption of zinc was affected by the lactic fermentation. In human subjects, we observed that lactic-fermented vegetables served with both a high-phytate and low-phytate meal increased the absorption of iron, but not zinc. In vitro digested fermented vegetables were able to provoke a greater hepcidin response per ng Fe than fresh vegetables, indicating that Fe in the fermented mixes was more bioavailable, independent on the soluble Fe content. We measured that hydrated Fe(3+) species were increased after the lactic fermentation, while there was no significant change in hydrated Fe(2+). Furthermore, lactate addition to Caco-2 cells did not affect ferritin formation in response to Fe nor did lactate affect the hepcidin response in the Caco-2/HepG2 cell system. The mechanism for the increased bioavailability of iron from lactic-fermented vegetables is likely an effect of the increase in ferric iron (Fe(3+)) species caused by the lactic fermentation. No effect on zinc bioavailability was observed.

  9. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau. This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5.41% along Qilian Shan and 3.85% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. The iron fractional solubility averages about 0.25% in Eastern Tien Shan, 0.05–2% along Qilian Shan and 1.5% in the Southern Tibetan Plateau. Among the controlling factors that can affect iron solubility in Asian dust, such as dust composition and particle grain size, acidity seems to be the most significant and can increase the iron solubility by one or two orders of magnitude with acidification of pH=0.66. Our results reveal that iron solubility of dust in the remote downwind sites is higher than that in high-alpine snow, confirming the strong pH-dependence of iron solubility, and indicating that Asian dust shows a large variation in iron solubility on a regional scale.

  10. Dephytinisation with Intrinsic Wheat Phytase and Iron Fortification Significantly Increase Iron Absorption from Fonio (Digitaria exilis) Meals in West African Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Brouwer, Inge D.

    2013-01-01

    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8–7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8–17.9) in FWFP (Pphytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges. PMID:24124445

  11. Effect of silicon content and defects on the lifetime of ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhussein Akram

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties has been studied for different grades of ferritic ductile cast iron. Mechanical tests were carried out and the effect of silicon on the resistance of material was well noticed. An increasing silicon content increases the strength and decreases the ductility of material. The lifetime and endurance limit of material were affected by the presence of defects in material and microstructure heterogeneity. Metallurgical characterizations showed that the silicon was highly segregated around graphite nodules which leads to the initiation of cracks. The presence of defects causes the stress concentration and leads to the initiation and propagation of cracks.

  12. Serum and tissue contents of copper, calcium, iron and magnesium elements in cases of acne vulgaris after zinc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, S.M.; El-Bedewi, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of zinc therapy on some trace elements contents in serum and skin was studied in normal group (forty) and patients group with acne vulgaris (26 males and 14 females) with age ranged between 14-30 year. They were under medical treatment with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 weeks. Highly significant decreases in both serum and tissue contents of copper and calcium were detected, as well as, highly significant decrease in the serum content of magnesium was recorded. The serum content of iron was highly significantly increased and that for tissue content was slightly significantly increased. It could be concluded that zinc therapy could be valuable through modulation of copper. calcium, iron and magnesium in acne patients

  13. Virtual iron concentration imaging based on dual-energy CT for noninvasive quantification and grading of liver iron content: An iron overload rabbit model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xian Fu; Yang, Yi; Xie, Xue Qian; Zhang, Huan; Chai, Wei Min; Yan, Fu Hua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Yan, Jing [Siemens Shanghai Medical Equipment Ltd., Shanghai (China); Wang, Li [Fudan University, Center of Analysis and Measurement, Shanghai (China); Schmidt, Bernhard [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To assess the accuracy of liver iron content (LIC) quantification and grading ability associated with clinical LIC stratification using virtual iron concentration (VIC) imaging on dual-energy CT (DECT) in an iron overload rabbit model. Fifty-one rabbits were prepared as iron-loaded models by intravenous injection of iron dextran. DECT was performed at 80 and 140 kVp. VIC images were derived from an iron-specific algorithm. Postmortem LIC assessments were conducted on an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer. Correlation between VIC and LIC was analyzed. VIC were stratified according to the corresponding clinical LIC thresholds of 1.8, 3.2, 7.0, and 15.0 mg Fe/g. Diagnostic performance of stratification was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis. VIC linearly correlated with LIC (r = 0.977, P < 0.01). No significant difference was observed between VIC-derived LICs and ICP (P > 0.05). For the four clinical LIC thresholds, the corresponding cutoff values of VIC were 19.6, 25.3, 36.9, and 61.5 HU, respectively. The highest sensitivity (100 %) and specificity (100 %) were achieved at the threshold of 15.0 mg Fe/g. Virtual iron concentration imaging on DECT showed potential ability to accurately quantify and stratify hepatic iron accumulation in the iron overload rabbit model. (orig.)

  14. Transgenic expression of phytase in wheat endosperm increases bioavailability of iron and zinc in grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Nabeela; Khatoon, Asia; Maqbool, Asma; Irfan, Muhammad; Bashir, Aftab; Asif, Irsa; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, Asma; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Malik, Kauser A

    2017-02-01

    Phytate is a major constituent of wheat seeds and chelates metal ions, thus reducing their bioavailability and so the nutritional value of grains. Transgenic plants expressing heterologous phytase are expected to enhance degradation of phytic acid stored in seeds and are proposed to increase the in vitro bioavailability of mineral nutrients. Wheat transgenic plants expressing Aspergillus japonicus phytase gene (phyA) in wheat endosperm were developed till T 3 generation. The transgenic lines exhibited 18-99 % increase in phytase activity and 12-76 % reduction of phytic acid content in seeds. The minimum phytic acid content was observed in chapatti (Asian bread) as compared to flour and dough. The transcript profiling of phyA mRNA indicated twofold to ninefold higher expression as compared to non transgenic controls. There was no significant difference in grain nutrient composition of transgenic and non-transgenic seeds. In vitro bioavailability assay for iron and zinc in dough and chapatti of transgenic lines revealed a significant increase in iron and zinc contents. The development of nutritionally enhanced cereals is a step forward to combat nutrition deficiency for iron and zinc in malnourished human population, especially women and children.

  15. Milk iron content in breast-feeding mothers after administration of intravenous iron sucrose complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breymann, Christian; von Seefried, Bettina; Stahel, Michele; Geisser, Peter; Canclini, Camillo

    2007-01-01

    To study the transfer of parenteral iron sucrose into maternal milk in the postpartum period. Ten healthy lactating mothers with functional iron deficiency 2-3 days after delivery received 100 mg intravenous iron sucrose and were observed together with a control group (n=5) without iron treatment during four days. Milk samples were taken before the treatment and every day afterwards. Mean milk iron levels at baseline were 0.43 and 0.46 mg/kg in the treatment and control group and decreased until the end of observation in both groups by 0.11 mg/kg. No significant difference between the groups was found on any study day as well as in the mean change from baseline over all four days. We could not show transfer of iron-sucrose into maternal milk for the given dosage. Since parenteral iron sucrose is widely used in obstetrics, the results provide information about safety of parenteral iron sucrose in the lactation period. The findings are also in agreement with other reports on active biological mammary gland regulation of milk iron concentration.

  16. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jörg Bernhard; Floege, Jürgen; Shah, N. J.; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krüger, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuro...

  17. In vivo assessment of iron content of the cerebral cortex in healthy aging using 7-Tesla T2*-weighted phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Mathijs; Doan, Nhat Trung; van Rooden, Sanneke; Versluis, Maarten J; van Lew, Baldur; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Accumulation of brain iron has been suggested as a biomarker of neurodegeneration. Increased iron has been seen in the cerebral cortex in postmortem studies of neurodegenerative diseases and healthy aging. Until recently, the diminutive thickness of the cortex and its relatively low iron content have hampered in vivo study of cortical iron accumulation. Using phase images of a T2*-weighted sequence at ultrahigh field strength (7 Tesla), we examined the iron content of 22 cortical regions in 70 healthy subjects aged 22-80 years. The cortex was automatically segmented and parcellated, and phase shift was analyzed using an in-house developed method. We found a significant increase in phase shift with age in 20 of 22 cortical regions, concurrent with current understanding of cortical iron accumulation. Our findings suggest that increased cortical iron content can be assessed in healthy aging in vivo. The high spatial resolution and sensitivity to iron of our method make it a potentially useful tool for studying cortical iron accumulation in healthy aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Manganese, iron and copper contents in leaves of maize plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrients such as boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) play important physiological roles in humans and animals. Zn and B are the micronutrients most often deficient in maize, in Iran. A completely randomized factorial block design experiment was carried out at Fars province of Iran during ...

  19. Iron chelating activity, phenol and flavonoid content of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... require regular blood transfusions in order to improve both quality of ... fused red blood cells and the excess iron is deposited as ... potentiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and .... The percentage inhibition of ferrozine–Fe2+ complex formation was ... estimation of the chelating activity of the coexisting.

  20. ARTICLE - Path analysis of iron and zinc contents and others traits in cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane de Oliveira Moura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the direct and indirect effects of agronomic and culinary traits on iron and zinc contents in 11 cowpea populations. Correlations between traits were estimated and decomposed into direct and indirect effects using path analysis. For the study populations, breeding for larger grain size, higher number of grains per pod, grain yield, reduced cooking time, and number of days to flowering can lead to decreases in the levels of iron and zinc in the grain. Genetic gains for the iron content can be obtained by direct selection for protein content by indirect effects on the number of grains per pod, 100-grain weight and grain yield. The positive direct effect of grain size and protein content on the zinc content indicates the possibility of simultaneous gain by combined selection of these traits.

  1. Relation between feeding mechanisms and solidification mode in 380 aluminium alloy with different iron contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovio, D. O.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Mugica, G. W.; Cuyas, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work the effect of iron (0.15, 0.42 and 0.86%) content in feeding mechanisms for 380 aluminium alloy has been studied. The feeding capacity has been evaluated by a device that produces a barrier removable to allowing the movement of the inter dendritic liquid. The results show the flow of different quantity of liquid, it depends of the temperature of operating the device and of the iron content. For minimum and maximum iron content, the inter dendritic and bursts feeding mechanisms are fundamentally involved, for 0.42% of iron the feeding mechanisms was the inter dendritic. The authors establish this behavior by the solidification mode of alloy, which promotes the presence of particles of Si or plates of b-Al 3 FeDi phase, in the inter dendritic channels and produce the different feeding mechanisms. (Author) 15 refs

  2. Three-body abrasive wear behaviour of metastable spheroidal carbide cast irons with different chromium contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efremenko, Vasily; Pastukhova, Tatiana; Chabak, Yuliia; Efremenko, Alexey [Pryazovskyi State Technical Univ., Mariupol (Ukraine); Shimizu, Kazumichi; Kusumoto, Kenta [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Brykov, Michail [Zaporozhye National Technical Univ., Zaporozhye (Ukraine)

    2018-02-15

    The effect of heat treatment and chromium contents (up to 9.1 wt.%) on the wear resistance of spheroidal carbide cast iron (9.5 wt.% V) was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry and three-body abrasive testing. It was found that quenching from 760 C and 920 C improved the alloys' wear resistance compared to the as-cast state due to the formation of metastable austenite transforming into martensite under abrasion. The wear characteristics of alloys studied are 1.6 - 2.3 times higher than that of reference cast iron (12 wt.% V) having stable austenitic matrix. Chromium addition decreases surface damage due to the formation of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides, while it reduces wear resistance owing to austenite stabilization to abrasion-induced martensite transformation. The superposition of these factors results in decreasing the alloys' wear behaviour with chromium content increase.

  3. Staphylococcus aureus redirects central metabolism to increase iron availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B Friedman

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment or genetic (Deltafur alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB, a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus.

  4. Prebiotics increase heme iron bioavailability and do not affect non-heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinborn, Valerie; Valenzuela, Carolina; Olivares, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel; Weill, Ricardo; Pizarro, Fernando

    2017-05-24

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a prebiotic mix on heme and non-heme iron (Fe) bioavailability in humans. To this purpose, twenty-four healthy women were randomized into one of two study groups. One group ate one yogurt per day for 12 days with a prebiotic mix (prebiotic group) and the other group received the same yogurt but without the prebiotic mix (control group). Before and after the intake period, the subjects participated in Fe absorption studies. These studies used 55 Fe and 59 Fe radioactive isotopes as markers of heme Fe and non-heme Fe, respectively, and Fe absorption was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The results showed that there were no significant differences in heme and non-heme Fe bioavailability in the control group. Heme Fe bioavailability of the prebiotic group increased significantly by 56% post-prebiotic intake. There were no significant differences in non-heme Fe bioavailability in this group. We concluded that daily consumption of a prebiotic mix increases heme Fe bioavailability and does not affect non-heme iron bioavailability.

  5. Concentration-dependent sedimentation properties of ferritin: implications for estimation of iron contents of serum ferritins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niitsu, Y.; Adachi, C.; Takahashi, F.; Goto, Y.; Kohgo, Y.; Urushizaki, I.; Listowsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritins from various sources sedimented at lower densities than tissue ferritins in sucrose gradient centrifugation systems. The sedimentation patterns of ferritins, however, were shown to be dependent on the concentration of the protein; as the concentration decreased the protein appeared to sediment at lower densities. Thus, at the low concentration levels usually used for analysis of serum ferritin, tissue ferritins also sedimented in the same lower density regions. Iron labeling experiments indicated that the sedimentation changes upon dilution were not due to release of iron or was there any indication that the protein dissociated into subunits. The anomalous sedimentation behavior of serum ferritin should therefore not be interpreted in terms of its iron content. The disclosure that serum ferritins may have full complements of iron is counter to the prevalent view that serum ferritins are low iron forms and has potential implications with regard to the sources and possible function of this protein in the circulation

  6. Effects of iron supplementation on red blood cell hemoglobin content in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet Schoorl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a mild degree of anemia is common in the third trimester of pregnancy, it remains a challenge to establish whether a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb concentration is physiological or pathological. The World Health Organization suggested a Hb concentration of 110 g/L to discriminate anemia. Several European investigators recommended Hb cut-off values of between 101-110 g/L. The aim of this study was to establish short-term effects of iron supplementation on the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes (Ret-He and red blood cells (RBC-He in case of suspected iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE in the third trimester of pregnancy. Twenty-five subjects with suspected IDE during pregnancy (Hb ≤110g/L, Ret-He <29.6 pg, zinc protoporphyrin >75 mol/mol hem participated in the study. After iron supplementation, reticulocyte counts increased from 0.061±0.015x1012/L to 0.079±0.026x1012/L and Ret-He increased from 23.6±2.8 pg to 28.3±2.6 pg (P=<0.001. RBC-He increased from 26.9±1.9 pg to 27.4±1.8 pg (not significant, NS and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio increased from 0.97±0.06 towards 1.07±0.05 (P=<0.001. Hb concentrations demonstrated an obvious increase from 105±6 g/L towards 115±5 g/L (P≤0.001 after supplementation. An obvious increase in RBC distribution width was observed from 45.0±3.6 fL towards 52.3±7.0 fL (P≤0.001. We recommend that Ret-He and Ret-He/RBC-He ratio be integrated into the protocols for anemia screening and for monitoring effects of iron supplementation during pregnancy. In particular, the parameters should be considered in subjects with Hb results in the controversial range of 101-108 g/L.

  7. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55 increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions.

  8. Estimation of Trace Elements (Iodine and Iron Content in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Belykh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of iodine and iron content in breast milk (n = 88 has been carried out. The study shows that the concentration of iodine and iron in breast milk of the women did not correspond to the physiological needs of an infant. It has been demonstrated that the use of iron-containing vitamin-mineral supplements during lactation has no significant effect on the level of iron in breast milk. The iodine content in breast milk depends on the iodine subsidies. It is shown that the level of micronutrients in breast milk is not affected by the presence of gestational maternal anemia and goiter, due date and place of residence of the family. It is concluded that a statistically significant impact on the level of iodine in the breast milk of combined iodine prophylaxis (acceptance by the mother during lactation drugs potassium iodide (200 mg/day due to the use of iodized salt.

  9. Lack of Plasma Protein Hemopexin Results in Increased Duodenal Iron Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorito, Veronica; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Silengo, Lorenzo; Aime, Silvio; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    The body concentration of iron is regulated by a fine equilibrium between absorption and losses of iron. Iron can be absorbed from diet as inorganic iron or as heme. Hemopexin is an acute phase protein that limits iron access to microorganisms. Moreover, it is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for heme and thus it mediates heme-iron recycling. Considering its involvement in iron homeostasis, it was postulated that hemopexin may play a role in the physiological absorption of inorganic iron. Hemopexin-null mice showed elevated iron deposits in enterocytes, associated with higher duodenal H-Ferritin levels and a significant increase in duodenal expression and activity of heme oxygenase. The expression of heme-iron and inorganic iron transporters was normal. The rate of iron absorption was assessed by measuring the amount of (57)Fe retained in tissues from hemopexin-null and wild-type animals after administration of an oral dose of (57)FeSO4 or of (57)Fe-labelled heme. Higher iron retention in the duodenum of hemopexin-null mice was observed as compared with normal mice. Conversely, iron transfer from enterocytes to liver and bone marrow was unaffected in hemopexin-null mice. The increased iron level in hemopexin-null duodenum can be accounted for by an increased iron uptake by enterocytes and storage in ferritins. These data indicate that the lack of hemopexin under physiological conditions leads to an enhanced duodenal iron uptake thus providing new insights to our understanding of body iron homeostasis.

  10. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellison Jarles da Silva Diniz

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV, were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05 found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology.

  11. Influence of redox condition in iron, silicon and hydrogen contents of leached glass surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manara, A.; Lanza, F.; Della Mea, G.; Rossi, C.; Salvagno, G.

    1984-01-01

    Surface analysis has been conducted on samples leached in a Sochlet apparatus at 100 0 C in the presence and in the absence of air. The XPS technique was applied to analyze the content of iron and silicon while the nuclear reaction method was utilized to analyze the content of hydrogen. Samples leached in argon atmosphere have shown a smaller content of iron and silicon with respect to the samples leached in air atmosphere. The H concentration has shown the same behavior. The results are discussed in terms of possible formation of iron compounds in the different redox condition and of their different stabilities and in terms of their efficiency in reducing exchange between Na + and H + ions. 11 references, 3 figures, 1 table

  12. The Effects of Dietary Fat and Iron Interaction on Brain Regional Iron Contents and Stereotypical Behaviors in Male C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumei Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adequate brain iron levels are essential for enzyme activities, myelination, and neurotransmitter synthesis in the brain. Although systemic iron deficiency has been found in genetically or dietary-induced obese subjects, the effects of obesity-associated iron dysregulation in brain regions have not been examined. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary fat and iron interaction on brain regional iron contents and regional-associated behavior patterns in a mouse model. Thirty C57BL/6J male weanling mice were randomly assigned to six dietary treatment groups (n=5 with varying fat (control/high and iron (control/high/low contents. The stereotypical behaviors were measured during the 24th week. Blood, liver, and brain tissues were collected at the end of the 24th week. Brains were dissected into the hippocampus, midbrain, striatum, and thalamus regions. Iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in these regions were measured. Correlations between stereotypical behaviors and brain regional iron contents were analyzed at the 5% significance level. Results showed that high-fat diet altered the stereotypical behaviors such as inactivity and total distance traveled (P<0.05. The high-fat diet altered brain iron contents and ferritin-H (FtH protein and mRNA expressions in a regional-specific manner: 1 high-fat diet significantly decreased the brain iron content in the striatum (P<0.05, but not other regions; and 2 thalamus has a more distinct change in FtH mRNA expression compared to other regions. Furthermore, high-fat diet resulted in a significant decreased total distance traveled and a significant correlation between iron content and sleeping in midbrain (P<0.05. Dietary iron also decreased brain iron content and FtH protein expression in a regionally specific manner. The effect of interaction between dietary fat and iron was observed in brain iron content and behaviors. All these findings will lay

  13. Overexpression of Arabidopsis VIT1 increases accumulation of iron in cassava roots and stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is extremely abundant in the soil, but its uptake in plants is limited due to low solubility in neutral or alkaline soils. Plants can rely on rhizosphere acidification to increase iron solubility. AtVIT1 was previously found to be involved in mediating vacuolar sequestration of iron, which indi...

  14. Atmospheric processing outside clouds increases soluble iron in mineral dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zongbo; Krom, Michael D; Bonneville, Steeve; Benning, Liane G

    2015-02-03

    Iron (Fe) is a key micronutrient regulating primary productivity in many parts of the global ocean. Dust deposition is an important source of Fe to the surface ocean, but most of this Fe is biologically unavailable. Atmospheric processing and reworking of Fe in dust aerosol can increase the bioavailable Fe inputs to the ocean, yet the processes are not well understood. Here, we experimentally simulate and model the cycling of Fe-bearing dust between wet aerosol and cloud droplets. Our results show that insoluble Fe in dust particles readily dissolves under acidic conditions relevant to wet aerosols. By contrast, under the higher pH conditions generally relevant to clouds, Fe dissolution tends to stop, and dissolved Fe precipitates as poorly crystalline nanoparticles. If the dust-bearing cloud droplets evaporated again (returning to the wet aerosol stage with low pH), those neo-formed Fe nanoparticles quickly redissolve, while the refractory Fe-bearing phases continue to dissolve gradually. Overall, the duration of the acidic, wet aerosol stage ultimately increases the amount of potentially bioavailable Fe delivered to oceans, while conditions in clouds favor the formation of Fe-rich nanoparticles in the atmosphere.

  15. Protein, Calcium, Zinc, and Iron Contents of Finger Millet Grain Response to Varietal Differences and Phosphorus Application in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wekha N. Wafula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the influence of phosphorus fertilizers on the concentrations of nutrients, particularly calcium, protein, zinc, and iron in finger millet grains grown in different agro-ecologies in Kenya. The on-station experiments were carried out at Kiboko (Eastern Kenya, Kakamega, and Alupe (Western Kenya in 2015 during the short and long rainy seasons. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with three replicates. The treatments comprised of four levels of phosphorus (0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 and three finger millet varieties (U-15, P-224 and a local variety. Application of phosphorus significantly (p ≤ 0.05 increased the protein content of finger millet grain in varieties in all the three sites. Variety U-15 had the highest protein content (11.0% at 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 with the control (zero P on variety P-224 eliciting the lowest (4.4% at Kiboko. At Kakamega, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 treatment with U-15 variety had the highest protein content (15.3% while the same variety at 12.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 rate elicited the highest protein content (15.0% at Alupe. Phosphorus application significantly enhanced the nutritional quality of finger millet grains specifically protein, calcium, iron, and zinc. Variety P-224 had the highest calcium content in all sites and highest iron content at Kakamega while the local varieties had the highest zinc content in all sites. The varieties responded differently to each quality component but generally, based on the protein content, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 is recommended.

  16. Liver iron content determined by MRI. Spin-echo vs. gradient-echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchems, M.S.; Wunderlich, A.P. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Cario, H. [Universitaetskliniken Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Schmid, M. [Stadtspital Triemli, Zuerich (Switzerland). Medizinische Onkologie und Haematologie

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Liver iron content (LIC) measurement plays a central role in the management of patients with transfusional iron overload. Calculating the LIC with data obtained from standardized MRI sequences represents an attractive alternative diagnostic possibility. The purpose of this study was to compare the LIC measurement obtained with gradient-echo (GRE) sequences to the mean liver proton transverse relaxation (R2) acquired with SE sequences. Materials and Methods: 68 patients with iron overload (median age: 24, range: 3 - 88) underwent 1.5 T MRI for liver iron content measurement. All patients received spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) sequences. Results: The two MRI methods revealed different liver iron content results although a significant correlation was found (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). Values evaluated using GRE sequences (median: 260 {mu}mol/g dry weight [d.w.], range: 6 - 732) were generally higher than those obtained by SE examinations (median: 161 {mu}mol /g d.w., range: 5 - 830). Conclusion: In conclusion, our study revealed different results for both MRI measurements, which could lead to different decisions concerning the management of chelation therapy in individual patients. (orig.)

  17. Reference Values of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content and Their Relation With Other Indicators of Iron Status in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruzafa, Encarnación; Vázquez-López, Maria A; Lendinez-Molinos, Francisco; Poveda-González, Juan; Galera-Martínez, Rafael; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio; Martín-González, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    Reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr) is considered an indicator of functional iron deficiency, but is understudied in children. The goals of this study are to determine the reference intervals for CHr in healthy children, and their relation with iron parameters, erythropoiesis, and individual conditions. A total of 902 children without iron deficiency, aged 1 to 11 years were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Besides a physical examination of the subjects and a questionnaire completed by their parents, the complete blood count, serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte protoporphyrin, serum erythropoietin, C-reactive protein, and CHr levels were measured. Changes in CHr, iron status, and erythropoiesis at different age intervals were analyzed and linear multiple regression was used to identify the factors that determine CHr variability. Mean value obtained for CHr was 30.9±1.8 pg (P2.5-P97.5: 26.9 to 34.3 pg), but the influence of age on CHr (the values increased with age) and on the iron parameters justified the establishment of different reference ranges. In addition to age, nutritional status, hematologic measurements, reticulocytes, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin accounted for 39% of CHr variability.

  18. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in

  19. Hepcidin and hemoglobin content parameters in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients with anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, S. van; Dongen-Lases, E.C. van; Vegt, F. de; Laarakkers, C.M.; Riel, P.L. van; Ede, A.E. van; Swinkels, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the utility of the novel iron indices hepcidin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content (Ret-Hgb), and erythrocyte (red blood cell) hemoglobin content (RBC-Hgb) for detection of iron deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with anemia and active inflammation and to compare

  20. Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content Helps Avoid Iron Overload in Hemodialysis Patients: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Domenico; Cataldi, Mauro; Vinciguerra, Mauro; Mosca, Teresa; Barretta, Salvatore; Ragosta, Annalisa; Sorrentino, Aniello; Vecchione, Alessandra; Barretta, Luca; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Anemia in patients suffering from end-stage renal failure is currently treated with Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESA). This treatment needs sufficient iron supplementation to avoid an inadequate dosage of ESA. Nowadays modern analytical instruments allow to accurately calculate the content of Hemoglobin (Hb) in reticulocytes (CHr), that can be used as a guide for prescribing patients with the appropriate amount of iron. Patients, undergoing hemodialysis, were retrospectively selected from the database and were divided in two groups: group A received intravenous (IV) iron and subcutaneously ESA, and their dosages were adjusted on the basis of the following parameters: Hb, Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), CHr with consequent MCH/CHr ratio and reticulocyte count determined by the ADVIA 120 Hematology System of Siemens; group B patients were administered IV iron and ESA monitoring iron storage, Hb and ferritin. The aforementioned parameters and the administered amount of iron and ESA were monitored at baseline, four and eight months from the begining of the study. For ESA supplementation, no difference was observed between the groups at the various observed times. Despite similar Hb levels, the patients of group A needed significant lower doses of IV iron (-57.8%) avoiding risks of organ toxicity and obtaining consequent cost saving of nearly 1 €/patient/month. The use of CHr and its related parameters allows the avoidance of overdosage of IV iron, which can potentially damage organs, and the reduction of health care direct and indirect costs. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  2. X-ray fluorescence diffractionless analyzer for determining light element content in iron ore mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksa, L.K.; Kochmola, N.M.; Bondarenko, V.P.; Bogdanov, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Diffractionless X-ray fluorescence analyzer for detecting calcium oxide and silicon dioxide contents in dry iron ore materials has been developed. The analyzer includes a charging unit, sample-conveying device, spectrometric units for detecting calcium and silicon, computing racks and sample-removing device. Results of calcium oxide and silicon dioxide analyses in iron ore mixtures are presented. Errors are evaluated. It is shown that the analyzer provides high accuracy of one-time determinations, as well as reading constancy for a long time

  3. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  4. Preparation and investigation of structural properties of magnetic diatomite nanocomposites formed with different iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusan, Sabriye, E-mail: sabriye.doyurum@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Korzhynbayeva, Kuralay [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Aytas, Sule [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Tazhibayeva, Sagdat; Musabekov, Kuanyshbek [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic diatomite nanocomposites were generated by partial reduction co-precipitation method. • VSM results showed that nanocomposites have superparamagnetic behaviour. • The nanocomposites were also characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, DTA/TGA and BET. - Abstract: Magnetic diatomite nanocomposites (MDNC) were synthesized successfully by partial reduction co-precipitation method from iron salt solution at different concentrations and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analyses (DTA/TGA), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and surface area measurements (BET). The XRD pattern of magnetic diatomite nanocomposites is face centered cubic with an average diameter of 4.67, 4.11 and 4. 82 nm as MDNC-1, MDNC-2 and MDNC-3, respectively. The saturation magnetization values for magnetic diatomite composites (diatomite/Fe ratio 1:1.5, 1:2.0 and 1:3.0) were found to be 13.81, 13.37 and 16.42 emu/g, respectively. By FT-IR spectra it was found that the main features of the silica framework were maintained after magnetite incorporation and some peak intensities were increased with magnetite loading. The cell parameter increase and the surface area decrease with increase in Fe content, observed by N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption technique, were considered as evidence of metal concentration effect in the synthesis procedure.

  5. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  6. Clinical Significance of Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content in the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Karagülle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of reticulocyte hemoglobin content (CHr in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia (IDA and to compare it with other conventional iron parameters. METHODS: A total of 32 female patients with IDA (serum hemoglobin 120 g/L and serum ferritin <20 ng/mL were enrolled. RESULTS: CHr was 24.95±3.92 pg in female patients with IDA and 29.93±2.96 pg in female patients with iron deficiency. CHr showed a significant positive correlation with hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, and transferrin saturation and a significant negative correlation with transferrin and total iron-binding capacity. The cut-off value of CHr for detecting IDA was 29 pg. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that CHr is a useful parameter that can be confidently used in the diagnosis of IDA, and a CHr cut-off value of 29 pg predicts IDA.

  7. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR. Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice, higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  8. Free fatty acids increase hepatic glycogen content in obese males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G.; Sprangers, F.; Weverling, G. J.; Ackermans, M. T.; Meijer, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Bisschop, P. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased hepatic glycogen content. In vivo and in vitro data suggest that plasma free fatty acids (FFA) may cause this increase. In this study we investigated the effect of physiological plasma FFA levels on hepatic glycogen metabolism by studying intrahepatic glucose

  9. Structural characterization of hog iron oxide content glasses obtained from zinc hydrometallurgy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M.; Rincon, J.M.; Musik, S.; Kozhujharov, W.

    1997-01-01

    It has been carried out the structural characterization of high oxide content glasses obtained by melting of a goethite industrial waste from the zinc hydrometallurgy with other raw materials as dolomite and glass cullet. The structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Diffraction by Amorphous Dispersion (RDF) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. It has been determined the interatomic distance, the oxidation state and the coordination of iron atoms in these glasses. (Author) 16 refs

  10. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillairet, J.; Delaplace, J.; Silvent, A.

    1966-01-01

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author) [fr

  11. Increased iron availability resulting from increased CO2 enhances carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the economical marine red macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Zou, Dinghui; Yang, Yufeng

    2017-04-01

    Ocean acidification caused by rising CO 2 is predicted to increase the concentrations of dissolved species of Fe(II) and Fe(III), leading to the enhanced photosynthetic carbon sequestration in some algal species. In this study, the carbon and nitrogen metabolism in responses to increased iron availability under two CO 2 levels (390 μL L -1 and 1000 μL L -1 ), were investigated in the maricultivated macroalga Pyropia haitanensis (Rhodophyta). The results showed that, elevated CO 2 increased soluble carbonhydrate (SC) contents, resulting from enhanced photosynthesis and photosynthetic pigment synthesis in this algae, but declined its soluble protein (SP) contents, resulting in increased ratio of SC/SP. This enhanced photosynthesis performance and carbon accumulation was more significant under iron enrichment condition in seawater, with higher iron uptake rate at high CO 2 level. As a key essential biogenic element for algae, Fe-replete functionally contributed to P. haitanensis photosynthesis. Increased SC fundamentally provided carbon skeletons for nitrogen assimilation. The significant increase of carbon and nitrogen assimilation finally contributed to enhanced growth in this alga. This was also intuitively reflected by respiration that provided energy for cellular metabolism and algal growth. We propose that, in the predicted scenario of rising atmospheric CO 2 , P. haitanensis is capable to adjust its physiology by increasing its carbon and nitrogen metabolism to acclimate the acidified seawater, at the background of global climate change and simultaneously increased iron concentration due to decreased pH levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased mitochondrial content in remyelinated axons: implications for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambonin, Jessica L.; Zhao, Chao; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Campbell, Graham R.; Engeham, Sarah; Ziabreva, Iryna; Schwarz, Nadine; Lee, Sok Ee; Frischer, Josa M.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Trapp, Bruce D.; Lassmann, Hans; Franklin, Robin J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial content within axons increases following demyelination in the central nervous system, presumably as a response to the changes in energy needs of axons imposed by redistribution of sodium channels. Myelin sheaths can be restored in demyelinated axons and remyelination in some multiple sclerosis lesions is extensive, while in others it is incomplete or absent. The effects of remyelination on axonal mitochondrial content in multiple sclerosis, particularly whether remyelination completely reverses the mitochondrial changes that follow demyelination, are currently unknown. In this study, we analysed axonal mitochondria within demyelinated, remyelinated and myelinated axons in post-mortem tissue from patients with multiple sclerosis and controls, as well as in experimental models of demyelination and remyelination, in vivo and in vitro. Immunofluorescent labelling of mitochondria (porin, a voltage-dependent anion channel expressed on all mitochondria) and axons (neurofilament), and ultrastructural imaging showed that in both multiple sclerosis and experimental demyelination, mitochondrial content within remyelinated axons was significantly less than in acutely and chronically demyelinated axons but more numerous than in myelinated axons. The greater mitochondrial content within remyelinated, compared with myelinated, axons was due to an increase in density of porin elements whereas increase in size accounted for the change observed in demyelinated axons. The increase in mitochondrial content in remyelinated axons was associated with an increase in mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity. In vitro studies showed a significant increase in the number of stationary mitochondria in remyelinated compared with myelinated and demyelinated axons. The number of mobile mitochondria in remyelinated axons did not significantly differ from myelinated axons, although significantly greater than in demyelinated axons. Our neuropathological data and findings in

  13. Evaluating Iron Content and Tissue Microstructure with Off-Resonance Saturation MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sherif R.

    We present three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, each focused on applying off-resonance saturation (ORS) imaging to a different context or application. Particularly, we are interested in using ORS to evaluate the uptake of superparamagnetic MRI contrast agents in biological tissue, and to evaluate endogenous iron content. This relies on ORS being applied at low off-resonance frequency offsets where most of the negative contrast is due to signal loss from direct saturation of the water content of the sample. Additionally, we wish to combine this information with magnetization transfer contrast, which is obtained by applying ORS at offsets that are far from the resonance frequency, where magnetization transfer (MT) becomes the dominant effect rather than direct saturation (DS). In the first study, we observed the uptake of ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles in a simple model system by imaging the uptake in healthy murine liver in vivo, and by testing different metrics to quantify the uptake. Through this process, we discovered an approach that provides high sensitivity and specificity in low-signal scenarios. In the second study, we evaluated image contrast between brain regions in healthy human adults, and related these to the expected iron content in different regions based on age. Images were evaluated based on different MRI contrast mechanisms including quantitative transverse relaxation rates, as well as parameters obtained from ORS imaging. We also performed a field inhomogeneity adjustment on low-offset ORS data using the information obtained from the coarsely sampled ORS spectrum, and this was sufficient to correct for the inhomogeneities. In the third study, we used transverse relaxation, DS - which is strongly dependent on iron content, and MT contrast, in order to classify ex vivo brain samples having Alzheimer's disease pathology and normal controls, and were able to find strong classifiers. The three studies helped

  14. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from...... cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC. The meals were extrinsically labeled with Fe-55 or Fe-59. Iron absorption was determined...... from measurements of wholebody Fe-59 retention and the activity of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC, respectively, was added to the basic...

  15. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P beans significantly improved iron status in Rwandan women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group (n = 56 had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor (p < 0.05 compared with the NIDA group (n = 38 and control group (n = 46. Hematocrit, serum ferritin, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for

  17. Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Reticulocyte Hemoglobin Content on Diagnosis for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Wu, Meng; Ren, Jie; Du, Yali; Long, Zhangbiao; Li, Guoxun; Han, Bing; Yang, Lichen

    2017-05-02

    Our aim was to evaluate the cut-off value and efficiency of using reticulocyte hemoglobin content as a marker to diagnose iron deficiency anemia in Chinese adults. 140 adults who needed bone marrow aspiration for diagnosis at the hematology department of the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were enrolled according to the inclusive and exclusive criteria. Venous blood samples were collected to detect complete blood count, including hemoglobin, reticulocyte hemoglobin content, hematocrit, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin; iron indexes of serum ferritin, serum transferrin receptor, and unsaturated iron-binding capacity; and inflammation markers of C-reactive protein and α-acid glycoprotein. Bone marrow samples were obtained for the bone marrow iron staining, which was used as the standard for the evaluation of iron status in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups according to hemoglobin levels and bone marrow iron staining results: the IDA (iron deficiency anemia) group, the NIDA (non-iron deficiency anemia) group, and the control group. The differences of the above-mentioned indexes were compared among the three groups and the effect of inflammation was also considered. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content was determined by receiver operation curves. The IDA group ( n = 56) had significantly lower reticulocyte hemoglobin content, mean cellular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, hemoglobin content, and serum ferritin; and higher free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, unsaturated iron-binding capacity, and serum transferrin receptor ( p iron-binding capacity were significantly affected by inflammation while reticulocyte hemoglobin content and other parameters were not. The cut-off value of reticulocyte hemoglobin content for diagnosing iron deficiency anemia was 27.2 pg, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 92.9%. The cut-off values for

  18. Iron Overload Accelerates the Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy in Association with Increased Retinal Renin Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Kapil; Promsote, Wanwisa; Ananth, Sudha; Veeranan-Karmegam, Rajalakshmi; Tawfik, Amany; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Martin, Pamela; Smith, Sylvia B; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Kisselev, Oleg; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Gnana-Prakasam, Jaya P

    2018-02-14

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults. Increased iron accumulation is associated with several degenerative diseases. However, there are no reports on the status of retinal iron or its implications in the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we found that retinas of type-1 and type-2 mouse models of diabetes have increased iron accumulation compared to non-diabetic retinas. We found similar iron accumulation in postmortem retinal samples from human diabetic patients. Further, we induced diabetes in HFE knockout (KO) mice model of genetic iron overload to understand the role of iron in the pathogenesis of DR. We found increased neuronal cell death, vascular alterations and loss of retinal barrier integrity in diabetic HFE KO mice compared to diabetic wildtype mice. Diabetic HFE KO mouse retinas also exhibited increased expression of inflammation and oxidative stress markers. Severity in the pathogenesis of DR in HFE KO mice was accompanied by increase in retinal renin expression mediated by G-protein-coupled succinate receptor GPR91. In light of previous reports implicating retinal renin-angiotensin system in DR pathogenesis, our results reveal a novel relationship between diabetes, iron and renin-angiotensin system, thereby unraveling new therapeutic targets for the treatment of DR.

  19. The low-aluminium cast iron of reduced silicon content treated with cerium mischmetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Soiński

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the effect of cerium mischmetal used in quantities of 0.1 and 0.2 wt-% and ferrosilicon used in quantities from 0.5% to 1.5% on the alloy matrix and the shape of graphite precipitates in the low-aluminium cast iron from seven heats, basing on the examination of its structure. The hypereutectic cast iron of the relatively high carbon content (4.0÷4.2% at the prior-to-treatment silicon and manganese content equal to ca. 0.6% and ca. 0.04%, respectively, has been examined.It has been found that the performed treatment leads to the change in the alloy matrix from the nearly almost pearlitic to the ferritic-pearlitic one accompanied by changes in the shape of graphite precipitates. Due to applying both of the mentioned substances in the above stated amounts the graphite precipitates in cast iron have taken the shape of nodular and vermicular ones, and no presence of flake graphite has been revealed. A quantitative analysis of the performed treatment i.e. determining the fractions of graphite precipitates of different shapes has been possible by means of a computer image analyser.

  20. Interaction genotype by season and its influence on the identification of beans with high content of zinc and iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Andrade Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineral contents in common bean seeds are influenced, in addition to genetic variation, by environmental crop conditions, especially by the soil type and chemical composition and by the genotype x environment interaction. This study was carried out to verify if the zinc and iron contents are affected by the crop growing period. Ten lines with high iron and zinc contents and ten with low contents were assessed in three seasons: "wet season" of 2009/2010 (sowing in November; "dry season" of 2010 (sowing in February and "winter season" of 2010 (sowing in July, in Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three replications and plots consisting of two rows of two meters, with a spacing of 0.50 m. The seeds harvested were assessed in regard to iron and zinc mineral contents. The greatest contents were observed in the winter season and the smallest ones in the dry season, with sowing in February. It was observed that in the mean of the three harvests, the lines classified as having high iron and zinc content exhibited an iron quantity 11.0% and a zinc quantity 6.8% above those of low content. The lines by seasons interaction occurs. However, its interference in identification of the groups with high and low content of the two nutrients is not great.

  1. Arsenic content in pteridophytes from the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C.; Silva, Lucilene Guerra e; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos; Salino, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world and, in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities contributed to aggravate natural contamination of this area. The discovery that a fern, Pteris vitata, hyperaccumulates arsenic led to the search of other pteridophytes species with such capacity, due to their possible use for phytoremediation of contaminated areas. In the literature cited, arsenic amounts were measured by atomic absorption, using leaf and roots samples; and only one species (Pityrogramma calomelanos) had the arsenic content of its spores measured. In a preliminary study, ferns samples from the Iron Quadrangle region were collected, identified and had their leaves processed for measurement of their arsenic content through Neutron Activation Analysis - method k 0 ; also, spores of Pteris vitata had their arsenic content measured. The results showed that: spores of P. vitata present arsenic accumulation and another fern species was found to accumulate arsenic (Adiantum raddianum). Other species that were screened confirm that, among the families of ferns already studied, species from the family Pteridaceae seems the most promising for arsenic phytoremediation purposes. Considering that two species that showed arsenic accumulation in their leaves, also presented high arsenic content in their spores, it might fasten the selection if the spores of different fern species from contaminated sites are screened first, making the process of species selection for phytoremediation faster and more efficient. (author)

  2. Arsenic content in pteridophytes from the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C.; Silva, Lucilene Guerra e [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: george@cdtn.br; menezes@cdtn.br; leneguerra@bol.com.br; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos; Salino, Alexandre [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Botanica]. E-mail: rosy@icb.ufmg.br; salino@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2005-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world and, in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities contributed to aggravate natural contamination of this area. The discovery that a fern, Pteris vitata, hyperaccumulates arsenic led to the search of other pteridophytes species with such capacity, due to their possible use for phytoremediation of contaminated areas. In the literature cited, arsenic amounts were measured by atomic absorption, using leaf and roots samples; and only one species (Pityrogramma calomelanos) had the arsenic content of its spores measured. In a preliminary study, ferns samples from the Iron Quadrangle region were collected, identified and had their leaves processed for measurement of their arsenic content through Neutron Activation Analysis - method k{sub 0}; also, spores of Pteris vitata had their arsenic content measured. The results showed that: spores of P. vitata present arsenic accumulation and another fern species was found to accumulate arsenic (Adiantum raddianum). Other species that were screened confirm that, among the families of ferns already studied, species from the family Pteridaceae seems the most promising for arsenic phytoremediation purposes. Considering that two species that showed arsenic accumulation in their leaves, also presented high arsenic content in their spores, it might fasten the selection if the spores of different fern species from contaminated sites are screened first, making the process of species selection for phytoremediation faster and more efficient. (author)

  3. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  4. Increased lipid peroxidation in pregnant women after iron and vitamin C supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachili, B; Hininger, I; Faure, H; Arnaud, J; Richard, M J; Favier, A; Roussel, A M

    2001-11-01

    Iron overload could promote the generation of free radicals and result in deleterious cellular damages. A physiological increase of oxidative stress has been observed in pregnancy. A routine iron supplement, especially a combined iron and vitamin C supplementation, without biological justifications (low hemoglobin [Hb] and iron stores) could therefore aggravate this oxidative risk. We investigated the effect of a daily combined iron supplementation (100 mg/d as fumarate) and vitamin C (500 mg/d as ascorbate) for the third trimester of pregnancy on lipid peroxidation (plasma TBARS), antioxidant micronutriments (Zn, Se, retinol, vitamin E, (beta-carotene) and antioxidant metalloenzymes (RBC Cu-Zn SOD and Se-GPX). The iron-supplemented group (n = 27) was compared to a control group (n = 27), age and number of pregnancies matched. At delivery, all the women exhibited normal Hb and ferritin values. In the supplemented group, plasma iron level was higher than in the control group (26.90 +/- 5.52 mmol/L) and TBARs plasma levels were significantly enhanced (p cell antioxidant metalloenzymes. Furthermore, the alpha-tocopherol plasma level was lowered in the iron-supplemented groups, suggesting an increased utilization of vitamin E. These data show that pharmalogical doses of iron, associated with high vitamin C intakes, can result in uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. This is predictive of adverse effects for the mother and the fetus. This study illustrates the potential harmful effects of iron supplementation when prescribed only on the assumption of anemia and not on the bases of biological criteria.

  5. Association between iron level, glucose impairment and increased DNA damage during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zein, Salam; Rachidi, Samar; Shami, Nadine; Sharara, Iman; Cheikh-Ali, Khawla; Gauchez, Anne-Sophie; Moulis, Jean-Marc; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Salameh, Pascale; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle

    2017-09-01

    Elevated circulating ferritin has been reported to increase the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). When high ferritin translates into high iron stores, iron excess is also a condition leading to free radical damage. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress (OS) induced by iron status and GDM risk in non iron-supplemented pregnant women. This was a pilot observational study conducted on 93 non-anemic pregnant women. Iron status was assessed at the first trimester of gestation. Blood sampling was done at 24-28 weeks' gestation for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin and biological markers of oxidative damage tests. A significant increase in DNA damage was found in patients who developed GDM. Women with elevated DNA damage had a six-fold increased risk of developing GDM (Exp (B)=6.851, P=0.038; 95% CI [1.108-42.375]). The serum ferritin levels at first trimester were significantly correlated to lipid peroxidation (rho=0.24, p=0.012). The stratified analysis suggests that ferritin is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative stress (OS) and glucose intolerance. Moderate ferritin levels due to iron intake without iron-supplement, at early pregnancy is a modifying factor for the correlation of oxidative damage and glucose intolerance in pregnant women. Larger studies to evaluate the risk of food iron intake induced increased oxidative damage in offspring are warranted to propose nutrition advice regarding iron intake in women with a high risk of GDM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Red meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases-is increased iron load a possible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat

  7. Gluten-Free Foods in Rural Maritime Provinces: Limited Availability, High Price, and Low Iron Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Gougeon, Laura

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the price difference between gluten-free (GF) and gluten-containing (GC) foods available in rural Maritime stores. GF foods and comparable GC items were sampled through random visits to 21 grocery stores in nonurban areas of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, Canada. Wilcoxon rank tests were conducted on price per 100 g of product, and on the price relative to iron content; 2226 GF foods (27.2% staple items, defined as breads, cereals, flours, and pastas) and 1625 GC foods were sampled, with an average ± SD of 66 ± 2.7 GF items per store in rural areas and 331 ± 12 in towns. The median price of GF items ($1.76/100 g) was more expensive than GC counterparts ($1.05/100 g) and iron density was approximately 50% less. GF staple foods were priced 5% higher in rural stores than in town stores. Although the variety of GF products available to consumers has improved, higher cost and lower nutrient density remain issues in nonurban Maritime regions. Dietitians working in nonurban areas should consider the relative high price, difficult access, and low iron density of key GF items, and work together with clients to find alternatives and enhance their food literacy.

  8. Modeling human Coenzyme A synthase mutation in yeast reveals altered mitochondrial function, lipid content and iron metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ceccatelli Berti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in nuclear genes associated with defective coenzyme A biosynthesis have been identified as responsible for some forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, namely PKAN and CoPAN. PKAN are defined by mutations in PANK2, encoding the pantothenate kinase 2 enzyme, that account for about 50% of cases of NBIA, whereas mutations in CoA synthase COASY have been recently reported as the second inborn error of CoA synthesis leading to CoPAN. As reported previously, yeast cells expressing the pathogenic mutation exhibited a temperature-sensitive growth defect in the absence of pantothenate and a reduced CoA content. Additional characterization revealed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, higher iron content, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and reduced amount of lipid droplets, thus partially recapitulating the phenotypes found in patients and establishing yeast as a potential model to clarify the pathogenesis underlying PKAN and CoPAN diseases.

  9. Plasma dynamic synthesis and obtaining ultrafine powders of iron oxides with high content of ε-Fe2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, Alexander; Naiden, Evgenii; Ivashutenko, Alexander; Shanenkov, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine iron oxide powders were successfully synthesized using the plasma dynamic synthesis method, based on the use of a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with the iron electrode system. The synthesis was implemented in the high-speed iron-containing plasma jet, flowing into the space of the sealed chamber, filled with the gaseous mixture of oxygen and argon at different ratios. The XRD investigations showed that the synthesized products were heterophase and consisted of three main phases such as magnetite Fe3O4, hematite α-Fe2O3 and ε-Fe2O3. The SEM data confirmed the presence of three particle types: the hollow spheroids with sizes about hundreds of micrometers (magnetite), the particles with sizes up to 100 μm from the porous material of sintered submicron particles (hematite), and nanoscale particles (ε-phase). We found that at the higher oxygen concentration the content of ε-Fe2O3 is increased up to 50% at the same time with decreasing the Fe3O4 phase. The magnetic properties of the products are mainly determined by magnetite characteristics and are significantly reduced with decreasing its content in the powder. In order to investigate the synthesized ε-Fe2O3 on the ability to absorb the electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range, we separated the product with the higher ε-phase concentration. The fraction mainly, consisting of ε-Fe2O3, showed the occurrence of the natural resonance at frequencies of 8.3 GHz and 130 GHz.

  10. Ameliorated Austenite Carbon Content Control in Austempered Ductile Irons by Support Vector Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Yun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron has emerged as a notable material in several engineering fields, including marine applications. The initial austenite carbon content after austenization transform but before austempering process for generating bainite matrix proved critical in controlling the resulted microstructure and thus mechanical properties. In this paper, support vector regression is employed in order to establish a relationship between the initial carbon concentration in the austenite with austenization temperature and alloy contents, thereby exercising improved control in the mechanical properties of the austempered ductile irons. Particularly, the paper emphasizes a methodology tailored to deal with a limited amount of available data with intrinsically contracted and skewed distribution. The collected information from a variety of data sources presents another challenge of highly uncertain variance. The authors present a hybrid model consisting of a procedure of a histogram equalizer and a procedure of a support-vector-machine (SVM- based regression to gain a more robust relationship to respond to the challenges. The results show greatly improved accuracy of the proposed model in comparison to two former established methodologies. The sum squared error of the present model is less than one fifth of that of the two previous models.

  11. [The effect of exogenous antioxidants on the antioxidant status of erythrocytes and hepcidin content in blood of patients with disorders of iron metabolism regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbinina, S P; Levina, A A; Lisovskaia, I L; Ataullakhanov, F I

    2013-01-01

    In many diseases associated with impairments in iron metabolism, erythrocytes exhibit an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress induced in vitro. In this study, we have examined the antioxidant status of erythrocytes from healthy donors and from 12 patients with disorders of iron homeostasis by measuring the extent of t-BHP-induced hemolysis in vitro. The extent of hemolysis observed with patient erythrocytes was significantly higher than that observed in experiment with normal cells. After therapeutic infusions of the antioxidants mexidol or emoxypin, oxidative hemolysis in patients was restored to normal values and blood hepcidin content increased significantly. A significant correlation was observed between hepcidin concentration after treatment and t-BHP-induced hemolysis before treatment. These data suggest that antioxidants may exert a favorable effect under pathological conditions associated with iron overload disease.

  12. Role of androgen-mediated enhancement of erythropoiesis in the increased body iron stores of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether androgen excess contributes to the increased body iron stores of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by stimulating erythropoietic activity, by measuring serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations and its ratio to ferritin levels in patients with PCOS, as surrogate markers of erythropoietic activity and of the appropriateness of cellular iron demands for the total body iron contents, respectively. Case-control study. Academic hospital. One hundred-four patients with PCOS and 100 controls without androgen excess. Blood sampling and oral glucose tolerance test. Serum sTfR and ferritin concentrations, as well as indexes of androgen excess, inflammation, obesity, and insulin and glucose metabolism. Serum ferritin levels increased in women presenting with PCOS, obesity, and/or abnormal glucose tolerance, but these disorders did not influence sTfR concentrations. The sTfR/ferritin ratio decreased with obesity and abnormal glucose tolerance, and its logarithm correlated inversely with body mass index, free T, and C-reactive protein levels and directly with the insulin sensitivity and disposition indexes. A stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the changes in the insulin sensitivity index explained 7% of the variability of the logarithm of sTfR/ferritin ratio. Increased serum ferritin levels in patients with PCOS are associated with a reduction in insulin sensitivity but do not result from a putative enhancement of erythropoiesis by androgen excess. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased Plasmodium chabaudi malaria mortality in mice with nutritional iron deficiency can be reduced by short-term adjunctive iron supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Filip C; Maretty, Lasse; Staalsoe, Trine

    2018-01-01

    infected mice had extramedullary splenic haematopoiesis, and iron-supplemented mice had visually detectable intracellular iron stores. CONCLUSIONS: Blood transfusions are the only currently available means to correct severe anaemia in children with malaria. The potential of carefully timed, short...... parts of the world. This has rendered interventions against iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas controversial. METHODS: The effect of nutritional iron deficiency on the clinical outcome of Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection in A/J mice and the impact of intravenous iron supplementation with ferric...... deficiency was associated with increased mortality from P. chabaudi malaria. This increased mortality could be partially offset by carefully timed, short-duration adjunctive iron supplementation. Moribund animals were characterized by low levels of hepcidin and high levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. All...

  14. Iron content and solubility in dust from high-alpine snow along a north-south transect of High Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Chenglong; Li, Zhongqin; Zhang, Xuelei; Gao, Shaopeng

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the dissolved and insoluble iron fraction of dust (mineral aerosol) in high-alpine snow samples collected along a north-south transect across High Asia (Eastern Tien Shan, Qilian Shan, and Southern Tibetan Plateau). This dust provides the basic chemical properties of mid- and high-level tropospheric Asian dust that can supply the limiting iron nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the North Pacific. The iron content in Asian dust averages 4.95% in Eastern Tien Shan, 3.38–5...

  15. Amelioration of iron mine soils with biosolids: Effects on plant tissue metal content and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The achievement of environmentally sound and economically feasible disposal strategies for biosolids is a major issue in the wastewater treatment industry around the world, including Swaziland. Currently, an iron ore mine site, which is located within a wildlife sanctuary, is being considered as a suitable place where controlled disposal of biosolids may be practiced. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of urban biosolids on iron mine soils with regard to plant metal content and ecotoxicological effects on earthworms. This was done through chemical analysis of plants grown in biosolid-amended mine soil. Earthworm behaviour, reproduction and bioaccumulation tests were also conducted on biosolid-amended mine soil. According to the results obtained, the use of biosolids led to creation of soil conditions that were generally favourable to earthworms. However, plants were found to have accumulated Zn up to 346 mg kg -1 (in shoots) and 462 mg kg -1 (in roots). This was more than double the normal Zn content of plants. It was concluded that while biosolids can be beneficial to mine soils and earthworms, they can also lead to elevated metal content in plant tissues, which might be a concern to plant-dependant wildlife species. Nonetheless, it was not possible to satisfactorily estimate risks to forage quality since animal feeding tests with hyperaccumulator plants have not been reported. Quite possibly, there may be no cause for alarm since the uptake of metals from soil is greater in plants grown in pots in the greenhouse than from the same soil in the field since pot studies fail to mimic field conditions where the soil is heterogeneous and where the root system possesses a complex topology. It was thought that further field trials might assist in arriving at more satisfactory conclusions.

  16. Whey Peptide-Iron Complexes Increase the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Comparison to Iron Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Silva, Maria Elisa; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina; Bragagnolo, Neura; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2018-02-28

    Food fortification with iron may favor lipid oxidation in both food matrices and the human body. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of peptide-iron complexation on lipid oxidation catalyzed by iron, using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions as a model system. The extent of lipid oxidation of emulsions containing iron salts (FeSO 4 or FeCl 2 ) or iron complexes (peptide-iron complexes or ferrous bisglycinate) was evaluated during 7 days, measured as primary (peroxide value) and secondary products (TBARS and volatile compounds). Both salts catalyzed lipid oxidation, leading to peroxide values 2.6- to 4.6-fold higher than the values found for the peptide-iron complexes. The addition of the peptide-iron complexes resulted in the formation of lower amounts of secondary volatiles of lipid oxidation (up to 78-fold) than those of iron salts, possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron apart from the lipid phase, since the iron atom is coordinated and takes part in a stable structure. The peptide-iron complexes showed potential to reduce the undesirable sensory changes in food products and to decrease the side effects related to free iron and the lipid damage of cell membranes in the organism, due to the lower reactivity of iron in the complexed form.

  17. Study on Increasing High Temperature pH(t) to Reduce Iron Corrosion Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Man; Hur, Nam Yong; Kim, Waang Bae

    2011-01-01

    The transportation and deposition of iron corrosion products are important elements that affect both the steam generator (SG) integrity and secondary system in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants. Most of iron corrosion products are generated on carbon steel materials due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The several parameters like water chemistry, temperature, hydrodynamic, and steel composition affect FAC. It is well established that the at-temperature pH of the deaerated water system has a first order effect on the FAC rate of carbon steels through nuclear industry researches. In order to reduce transportation and deposition of iron corrosion products, increasing pH(t) tests were applied on secondary system of A, B units. Increasing pH(t) successfully reduced flow accelerated corrosion. The effect of increasing pH(t) to inhibit FAC was identified through the experiment and pH(t) evaluation in this paper

  18. Iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Bondo; Moen, I W; Mandrup-Poulsen, T

    2014-01-01

    and discuss recent evidence, suggesting that iron is a key pathogenic factor in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes with a focus on inflammatory pathways. Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced β-cell death is not fully understood, but may include iron-induced ROS formation resulting in dedifferentiation by activation...... of transcription factors, activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery or of other cell death mechanisms. The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β facilitates divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1)-induced β-cell iron uptake and consequently ROS formation and apoptosis, and we propose that this mechanism provides...

  19. Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Search the ODS website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Consumer Datos en español Health ... eating a variety of foods, including the following: Lean meat, seafood, and poultry. Iron-fortified breakfast cereals ...

  20. Iron Loading Selectively Increases Hippocampal Levels of Ubiquitinated Proteins and Impairs Hippocampus-Dependent Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Luciana Silva; de Freitas, Betânia Souza; Garcia, Vanessa Athaíde; Dargél, Vinícius Ayub; Köbe, Luiza Machado; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Schröder, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Alterations of brain iron levels have been observed in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously demonstrated that iron overload in the neonatal period results in severe and persistent memory deficits in the adulthood. Protein degradation mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central regulatory role in several cellular processes. Impairment of the UPS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we examined the effects of iron exposure in the neonatal period (12th-14th day of postnatal life) on the expression of proteasome β-1, β-2, and β-5 subunits, and ubiquitinated proteins in brains of 15-day-old rats, to evaluate the immediate effect of the treatment, and in adulthood to assess long-lasting effects. Two different memory types, emotionally motivated conditioning and object recognition were assessed in adult animals. We found that iron administered in the neonatal period impairs both emotionally motivated and recognition memory. Polyubiquitinated protein levels were increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, of adult animals treated with iron. Gene expression of subunits β1 and β5 was affected by age, being higher in the early stages of development in the hippocampus, accompanied by an age-related increase in polyubiquitinated protein levels in adults. In the cortex, gene expression of the three proteasome subunits was significantly higher in adulthood than in the neonatal period. These findings suggest that expression of proteasome subunits and activity are age-dependently regulated. Iron exposure in the neonatal period produces long-lasting harmful effects on the UPS functioning, which may be related with iron-induced memory impairment.

  1. Effect of Carbon Content on the Properties of Iron-Based Powder Metallurgical Parts Produced by the Surface Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rolling densification process has become increasingly widely used to strengthen powder metallurgy parts. The original composition of the rolled powder metallurgy blank has a significant effect on the rolling densification technology. The present work investigated the effects of different carbon contents (0 wt. %, 0.2 wt. %, 0.45 wt. %, and 0.8 wt. % on the rolling densification. The selection of the raw materials in the surface rolling densification process was analyzed based on the pore condition, structure, hardness, and friction performance of the materials. The results show that the 0.8 wt. % carbon content of the surface rolling material can effectively improve the properties of iron-based powder metallurgy parts. The samples with 0.8 wt. % carbon have the highest surface hardness (340 HV0.1 and the lowest surface friction coefficient (0.35. Even if the dense layer depth is 1.13 mm, which is thinner than other samples with low carbon content, it also meets the requirements for powder metallurgy parts such as gears used in the auto industry.

  2. Increase of the Photocatalytic Activity of TiO by Carbon and Iron Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Tryba

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of TiO2 by doping of a residue carbon and iron can give enhanced photoactivity of TiO2. Iron adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 can be an electron or hole scavenger and results in the improvement of the separation of free carriers. The presence of carbon can increase the concentration of organic pollutants on the surface of TiO2 facilitating the contact of the reactive species with the organic molecules. Carbon-doped TiO2 can extend the absorption of the light to the visible region and makes the photocatalysts active under visible-light irradiation. It was proved that TiO2 modified by carbon and iron can work in both photocatalysis and photo-Fenton processes, when H2O2 is used, enhancing markedly the rate of the organic compounds decomposition such as phenol, humic acids and dyes. The photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds on TiO2 modified by iron and carbon is going by the complex reactions of iron with the intermediates, what significantly accelerate the process of their decomposition. The presence of carbon in such photocatalyst retards the inconvenient reaction of OH radicals scavenging by H2O2, which occurs when Fe-TiO2 photocatalyst is used.

  3. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  4. Some extractable iron contents as influenced by some organic manures application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Abdullahi Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic manures are safer sources of plant nutrients and a good source of micronutrients therefore; pot experiments were carried out to estimate some extractable iron contents as influenced by organic manure application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Two types of organic manures; poultry droppings, cow dung and control were used for the experiment. Three levels of organic manures; 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare (ton ha-1 and three sampling time (30, 60 and 90 DAS were laid down in a completely randomized (CRD design replicated three times. Results obtained revealed that rate, type of organic manures and time of submergence significantly (P ≤ 0.05 changed Fe content in the soil. Mean extractable iron concentrations of 42.01, 56.13 and 24.63 mgkg-1 were recorded for ammonium oxalate extractable iron, Citrate Bicarbonate Dithionite extractable iron and sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron in the first experiment while 45.81, 59.29 and 28.89 mgkg-1 were recorded for the second experiment respectively. However, CBD which extracts both amorphous and crystalline Fe recorded the highest Fe contents throughout the treatments with poultry droppings applied pots recording superior values than that of cowdung manure. similarly, higher values of oxa-Fe and Pyro-Fe were recorded in both manures compared to the control. In conclusion poultry droppings may result in iron accumulation and toxicity hence should be used with caution in the soil of Lake Geriyo and similar soils to avoid serious soil reduction leading to iron toxicity and soil phosphorus antagonism.

  5. The impact of the iron content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of M-type ferrites Sr0.45Ca0.25La0.30FexCo0.25O19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yujie; Liu, Xiansong; Jin, Dali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sr 0.45 Ca 0.25 La 0.30 Fe x Co 0.25 O 19 (10.45 ≤ x ≤ 12.25) hexaferrites were prepared by a conventional ceramic method. • The hexagonal structure is observed for the magnets and the particles are distributed evenly. • B r , H cb , H cj , and (BH) max of the magnets first increase with iron content (x) ranging from 10.45 to 11.05 and then decrease when iron content (x) ≥ 11.05. • When iron content (x) = 11.05, B r , H cb , H cj , and (BH) max of the magnets reach the maximum values. - Abstract: M-type ferrite Sr 0.45 Ca 0.25 La 0.30 Fe x Co 0.25 O 19 (10.45 ≤ x ≤ 12.25) magnetic powders and magnets were prepared by a conventional ceramic method. Phase components of the magnetic powders were examined by X-ray diffraction. There is only the magnetoplumbite-type phase in magnetic powders with iron content (x) ranging from 10.45 to 11.65. When iron content (x) ≥ 11.85, hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) phase begins to occur. The morphology of the magnets was investigated by a field emission scanning electron microscopy. The magnets have formed a hexagonal structure and the particles are distributed evenly. Magnetic properties of the magnets and magnetic powders were measured by a permanent magnetic measuring equipment and a vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. The remanence, intrinsic coercivity, magnetic induction coercivity, and maximum energy product first increase with iron content (x) of range 10.45–11.05 and then decrease when iron content (x) continues to increase. The magnetic properties at x = 11.05 reach the maximum values

  6. BP neural network optimized by genetic algorithm approach for titanium and iron content prediction in EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Liu Mingzhe; Li Zhe; Li Lei; Shi Rui; Tuo Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative elemental content analysis is difficult due to the uniform effect, particle effect and the element matrix effect, etc, when using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. In this paper, a hybrid approach of genetic algorithm (GA) and back propagation (BP) neural network was proposed without considering the complex relationship between the concentration and intensity. The aim of GA optimized BP was to get better network initial weights and thresholds. The basic idea was that the reciprocal of the mean square error of the initialization BP neural network was set as the fitness value of the individual in GA, and the initial weights and thresholds were replaced by individuals, and then the optimal individual was sought by selection, crossover and mutation operations, finally a new BP neural network model was created with the optimal initial weights and thresholds. The calculation results of quantitative analysis of titanium and iron contents for five types of ore bodies in Panzhihua Mine show that the results of classification prediction are far better than that of overall forecasting, and relative errors of 76.7% samples are less than 2% compared with chemical analysis values, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method. (authors)

  7. Optimization of Inactive Material Content in Lithium Iron Phosphate Electrodes for High Power Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Seonbaek; Ramani, Vijay K.; Lu, Wenquan; Prakash, Jai

    2016-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) electrodes has been studied to find the optimum content of inactive materials (carbon black + polyvinylidene difluoride [PVDF] polymer binder) and to better understand electrode performance with variation in electrode composition. Trade-offs between inactive material content and electrochemical performance have been characterized in terms of electrical resistance, rate-capability, area-specific impedance (ASI), pulse-power characterization, and energy density calculations. The ASI and electrical conductivity were found to correlate well with ohmic polarization. The results showed that a 80:10:10 (active material: binder: carbon agents) electrode had a higher pulse-power density and energy density at rates above 1C as compared to 90:5:5, 86:7:7 and 70:15:15 formulations, while the 70:15:15 electrode had the highest electrical conductivity of 0.79 S cm −1 . A CB/PVDF ratio of ca. 1.22 was found to be the optimum formulation of inactive material when the LiFePO 4 composition was 80 wt%.

  8. The possibilities of increasing lignan content in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kulichová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lignans are bioactive substances which belong to polyphenols. This compounds can be found in plants including coniferous trees. Lignans are secondary plant metabolites with wide range of biological effects, such as antimicrobial, antivirus or anticancer. They also serve as antioxidants and are naturally occurring compounds which are found in food rich in fibre. There are more than 200 lignans that originate from more than 70 plant families. They can be found in all parts of the plant, mainly in seeds. Almost 37% of total lignan intake in human diet comes from drinking tea and coffee. Fruit and vegetable contain only about 1% of lignans, but they are also significant source of lignans because they are consumed in higher amounts than seeds. 7-hydroxymatairesinol is the main representative of lignans. It is white powder with great health benefits and it is present in the knots of coniferous trees, especially in knots of spruce. Lignans were extracted from the knots and used for fortifying fruit and vegetable spreads. Subsequently, the fortified products became subject to sensory analysis, their antioxidant capacity was measured by the FRAP method, total polyphenols content was found and lignan content determined using the HPLC method. The aim was enriching commonly consumed foods by healthy lignans to avoid negative effects on the sensory quality of these products by the bitter taste of the lignan extract. Of the tested foods, plum jam and red pepper paste are the best options as they best block the bitter taste of lignans. There was a positive increase in antioxidant capacity in food products fortified by the lignan extract. For plum jam, strawberry jam, strawberry spread and red pepper paste, the more lignans were added to the products, the greater was the level of antioxidant capacity. The highest antioxidant capacity was reached in samples with the added amount of 340 mg of lignan per kg of product. As with the antioxidant capacity, total

  9. Magnetic resonance cell-tracking studies: spectrophotometry-based method for the quantification of cellular iron content after loading with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Ingrid

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a user-friendly tool for quantifying the iron content of superparamagnetic labeled cells before cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Iron quantification was evaluated by using Prussian blue staining and spectrophotometry. White blood cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. Labeling was confirmed by light microscopy. Subsequently, the cells were embedded in a phantom and scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) whole-body system. Mean peak wavelengths λ(peak) was determined at A(720 nm) (range 719-722 nm). Linearity was proven for the measuring range 0.5 to 10 μg Fe/mL (r  =  .9958; p  =  2.2 × 10(-12)). The limit of detection was 0.01 μg Fe/mL (0.1785 mM), and the limit of quantification was 0.04 μg Fe/mL (0.714 mM). Accuracy was demonstrated by comparison with atomic absorption spectrometry. Precision and robustness were also proven. On T(2)-weighted images, signal intensity varied according to the iron concentration of SPIO-labeled cells. Absorption spectrophotometry is both a highly sensitive and user-friendly technique that is feasible for quantifying the iron content of magnetically labeled cells. The presented data suggest that spectrophotometry is a promising tool for promoting the implementation of magnetic resonance-based cell tracking in routine clinical applications (from bench to bedside).

  10. Magnetic Resonance Cell-Tracking Studies: Spectrophotometry-Based Method for the Quantification of Cellular Iron Content after Loading with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Böhm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present a user-friendly tool for quantifying the iron content of superparamagnetic labeled cells before cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Iron quantification was evaluated by using Prussian blue staining and spectrophotometry. White blood cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles. Labeling was confirmed by light microscopy. Subsequently, the cells were embedded in a phantom and scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance tomography (MRT whole-body system. Mean peak wavelengths Λpeak was determined at A720nm (range 719–722 nm. Linearity was proven for the measuring range 0.5 to 10 μg Fe/mL (r = .9958; p = 2.2 × 10−12. The limit of detection was 0.01 μg Fe/mL (0.1785 mM, and the limit of quantification was 0.04 μg Fe/mL (0.714 mM. Accuracy was demonstrated by comparison with atomic absorption spectrometry. Precision and robustness were also proven. On T2-weighted images, signal intensity varied according to the iron concentration of SPIO-labeled cells. Absorption spectrophotometry is both a highly sensitive and user-friendly technique that is feasible for quantifying the iron content of magnetically labeled cells. The presented data suggest that spectrophotometry is a promising tool for promoting the implementation of magnetic resonance-based cell tracking in routine clinical applications (from bench to bedside.

  11. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Amy [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Moore, Lee R. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas [Phycal Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Zborowski, Maciej, E-mail: zborowm@ccf.org [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl{sub 3} EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical.

  12. Mechanisms of an increased level of serum iron in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Li-hua; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Hu, Xiao-dan; Min, Xuan-yu; Zhou, Qi-fu; Zhang, Hai-qian

    2016-01-01

    The potential mechanisms underlying the increase in serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice were studied. The gamma irradiation dose used was 4 Gy, and cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) source was used for the irradiation. The dose rate was 0.25 Gy/min. In the serum of irradiated mice, the concentration of ferrous ions decreased, whereas the serum iron concentration increased. The concentration of ferrous ions in irradiated mice returned to normal at 21 day post-exposure. The concentration of reactive oxygen species in irradiated mice increased immediately following irradiation but returned to normal at 7 day post-exposure. Serum iron concentration in gamma-irradiated mice that were pretreated with reduced glutathione was significant lower (p < 0.01) than that in mice exposed to gamma radiation only. However, the serum iron concentration was still higher than that in normal mice (p < 0.01). This change was biphasic, characterized by a maximal decrease phase occurring immediately after gamma irradiation (relative to the irradiated mice) and a recovery plateau observed during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation, but serum iron recovery was still less than that in the gamma-irradiated mice (4 Gy). In gamma-irradiated mice, ceruloplasmin activity increased and serum copper concentration decreased immediately after irradiation, and both of them were constant during the 7th and 21st day post-irradiation. It was concluded that ferrous ions in irradiated mice were oxidized to ferric ions by ionizing radiation. Free radicals induced by gamma radiation and ceruloplasmin mutually participated in this oxidation process. The ferroxidase effect of ceruloplasmin was achieved by transfer of electrons from ferrous ions to cupric ions. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP–AA). They were grown in Sueoka’s modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl 3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed “magnetic deposition microscopy”, or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest. - Highlights: • Auxenochlorella protothecoides algae were genetically modified for biofuel production. • Algal iron metabolism was sufficient for their label-less magnetic separation. • High magnetic field and low flow required make the separation scale-up uneconomical

  14. Increases of equatorial total electron content (TEC) during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report on the analysis of equatorial electron content, TEC, during magnetic storms. Storms between 1969 and 1972 have been examined as part of an on-going study of TEC morphology during magnetically disturbed days. The published magnetic Ksup(p) indices and TEC data from the Legon abservatory have been employed. The general picture arising from the analysis is that the total electron content of the ionosphere is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms. (author)

  15. Effect of iron content on the creep behavior of Olivine: 2. Hydrous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2018-05-01

    We have undertaken an experimental investigation of the effect of iron content on the viscosity of Fe-Mg olivine aggregates deformed under hydrous conditions in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Fine-grained samples of Fe-bearing olivine with fayalite contents, Fax, of x = 100, 75, 50, 30 and 10 were deformed in triaxial compressive creep primarily in the dislocation creep regime under water-saturated conditions at temperatures of 1273 to 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Nickel sleeves around the samples of Fa10, Fa30 and Fa50 set the oxygen fugacity at the Ni:NiO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲300 MPa, while Fe sleeves around samples of Fa75 and Fa100 set the oxygen fugacity at the Fe:FeO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲200 MPa. Samples were deformed in triaxial compression to a maximum strain of 0.2 at differential stresses from 10 to 300 MPa and strain rates from 10-7 to 10-3 s-1. In the dislocation creep field at a given temperature, the viscosity of samples of Fa50 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than the viscosity of samples of Fa30, while the viscosity of samples of Fa30 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than that of samples of Fa10. Our experimental results can be described by the flow law ε˙disl =Cdisl(σ/μ) ndisl XFa pdisl exp(-(Qdisl0 +αdislXFa)/RT) fH2Omdisl with Cdisl = 99.7 MPa-5/4 s-1, ndisl = 3.7, pdisl = 0.5, Qdisl0 = 510 kJ/mol, αdisl = -120 kJ/mol, and mdisl = 5/4. This flow law indicates that the viscosity of olivine of a specific Fe:Mg ratio is a factor of ∼10 smaller than its counterpart deformed under anhydrous conditions. In a hydrous environment at the same thermodynamic conditions, the viscosity of the more Fe-rich mantle (∼Fa19) of Mars is a factor of ∼5 lower than that of the mantle (∼Fa8) of Earth.

  16. Influence of cooling rate and antimony addition content on graphite morphology and mechanical properties of a ductile iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooling rate and inoculation practice can greatly affect the graphite morphology of ductile irons. In the present research, the effects of the cooling rate and antimony addition on the graphite morphology and mechanical properties of ductile irons have been studied. Three ductile iron castings were prepared through solidification under cooling conditions S (slow, M (medium and F (fast. The cooling rates around the equilibrium eutectic temperature (1,150 ℃ for these cooling conditions (S, M and F were set at 0.21 ℃·min-1, 0.32 ℃·min-1 and 0.37 ℃·min-1, respectively. In addition, four ductile iron castings were prepared by adding 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.03% and 0.04% (by weight antimony, respectively under the slow cooling condition. The results show that the nodularity index, tensile strength and hardness of the ductile iron castings without antimony addition are all improved with the increase of cooling rate, while the ductile iron casting solidified under the medium cooling rate possesses the largest number of graphite nodules. Furthermore, for the four antimony containing castings, the graphite morphology and tensile strength are also improved by the antimony additions, and the effect of antimony addition is intensified when the addition increases from 0.01% to 0.03%. Moreover, the rare earth elements (REE/antimony ratio of 2 appears to be the most effective for fine nodular graphite formation in ductile iron.

  17. Versatile and biomass synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon matrix with high iron content and tunable reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongmao; Shi, Sheldon Q.; Pittman, Charles U.; Jiang Dongping; Che Wen; Gai Zheng; Howe, Jane Y.; More, Karren L.; Antonyraj, Arockiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Iron-based nanoparticles supported on carbon (FeNPs-C) have enormous potential for environmental applications. Reported is a biomass-based method for FeNP-C synthesis that involves pyrolysis of bleached wood fiber pre-mixed with Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. This method allows synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles with tunable chemical reactivity by changing the pyrolysis temperature. The FeNP-C synthesized at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C (FeNP-C-500) reacts violently (pyrophoric) when exposed to air, while FeNP-C prepared at 800 °C (FeNP-C-800) remains stable in ambient condition for at least 3 months. The FeNPs in FeNP-C-800 are mostly below 50 nm in diameter and are surrounded by carbon. The immediate carbon layer (within 5–15 nm radius) on the FeNPs is graphitized. Proof-of-concept environmental applications of FeNPs-C-800 were demonstrated by Rhodamine 6G and arsenate (V) removal from water. This biomass-based method provides an effective way for iron-based nanoparticle fabrication and biomass utilization.

  18. Rapid quantification of iron content in fish sauce and soy sauce: a promising tool for monitoring fortification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Icard-Vernière, Christèle; Rochette, Isabelle; Picq, Christian; Berger, Jacques; Sambath, Pol; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In a number of Southeast Asian countries and China, fish sauce and soy sauce produced at the industrial level are fortified with iron. Unfortunately, the food producers and regulatory agencies implementing fortification programs do not always have the capacity to monitor the programs on an ongoing basis. To assess a new portable device for the quantitative measurement of iron content of fortified sauces that could be used to control fortification levels. The linearity, detection limits, and inter- and intraassay variability of this device were assessed on fish sauce and soy sauce fortified with ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, and sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA); the accuracy of the results was determined by comparing them with the results obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Measurements required a minimum incubation time of 1 hour for iron sulfate or iron fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA. Linearity of the results ranged from 2 to 10 mg iron/L for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and from 1 to 10 mg iron/L for NaFeEDTA, implying the need for proper dilution, as the iron contents of fortified sauce are usually in the range of 150 to 1,000 mg/L. Depending on incubation time, iron compounds, and sauces, the coefficient of variation (CV) of intraassay precision was between 1.5% and 7.6% and the CV of interassay precision was between 2.9% and 7.4%. Comparison with results from atomic absorption spectrophotometry showed high agreement between both methods, with R = 0.926 and R = 0.935 for incubation times of 1 hour and 24 hours, respectively. The Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement between the two methods of +/- 70 mg/L in the range of fortification levels tested (100 to 500 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS; This device offers a viable method for field monitoring of iron fortification of soy and fish sauces after incubation times of 1 hour for ferrous sulfate or ferrous fumarate and 24 hours for NaFeEDTA.

  19. Heme iron content in lamb meat is differentially altered upon boiling, grilling, or frying as assessed by four distinct analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Mirlohi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.

  20. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Pourkhalili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experimental methods were compared regarding their compliance to Ferrozine method which was used for the determination of nonheme iron. Among three cooking methods, the lowest total iron and heme iron were found in boiling method. The heme iron proportions to the total iron in raw, boiled lamb meat and grilled, were counted as 65.70%, 67.75%, and 76.01%, receptively. Measuring the heme iron, the comparison of the methods in use showed that the method in which heme extraction solution was composed of 90% acetone, 18% water, and 2% hydrochloric acid was more appropriate and more correlated with the heme iron content calculated by the difference between total iron and nonheme iron.

  1. Is there a feeding strategy to increase milk casein content?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Because more than 60% of milk produced in Italy is transformed into cheese, milk economical value strongly depends on cheese yield. Among the factors that influence cheese yield, milk casein and fat content plays a major role: when milk is converted into Grana Padano and Parmigiano reggiano, three grams of seasoned cheese are produced from one gram of milk casein.....

  2. Musts with Increased Lignan Content Through Addition of Lignan Extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balík, J.; Híc, P.; Kulichová, J.; Novotná, P.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Strohalm, J.; Lefnerová, D.; Houška, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 7 (2017), s. 1367-1373 ISSN 1935-5130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MZe QJ1210258 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Enrichment of must * Lignans (HMR, CONI) * Antioxidant activity * Total polyphenol content Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.576, year: 2016

  3. The challenge of increasing vitamin C content in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-09-01

    The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  5. Plasma dynamic synthesis and obtaining ultrafine powders of iron oxides with high content of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivkov, Alexander [Institute of Power Engineering, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Naiden, Evgenii [Faculty of Radiophysics, National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin av., 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Ivashutenko, Alexander [Institute of Power Engineering, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Shanenkov, Ivan, E-mail: Swordi@list.ru [Institute of Power Engineering, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin av., 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-01

    The ultrafine iron oxide powders were successfully synthesized using the plasma dynamic synthesis method, based on the use of a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with the iron electrode system. The synthesis was implemented in the high-speed iron-containing plasma jet, flowing into the space of the sealed chamber, filled with the gaseous mixture of oxygen and argon at different ratios. The XRD investigations showed that the synthesized products were heterophase and consisted of three main phases such as magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, hematite α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The SEM data confirmed the presence of three particle types: the hollow spheroids with sizes about hundreds of micrometers (magnetite), the particles with sizes up to 100 μm from the porous material of sintered submicron particles (hematite), and nanoscale particles (ε-phase). We found that at the higher oxygen concentration the content of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is increased up to ~50% at the same time with decreasing the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase. The magnetic properties of the products are mainly determined by magnetite characteristics and are significantly reduced with decreasing its content in the powder. In order to investigate the synthesized ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the ability to absorb the electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter wavelength range, we separated the product with the higher ε-phase concentration. The fraction mainly, consisting of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, showed the occurrence of the natural resonance at frequencies of 8.3 GHz and 130 GHz. - Highlights: • We synthesized iron oxide powder with high content of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Synthesis is implemented using iron-containing plasma jet flowing into O{sub 2} atm. • Synthesized powders are heterophase and consist of ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3,} α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • ε-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content increases up to 50% with increasing the O{sub 2} volume concentration. • We found the

  6. Studies on high iron content in water resources of Moradabad district (UP, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The overload of iron may cause severe health problems such as liver cancer, diabetes, cirrhosis of liver, diseases related to heart and central nervous system, infertility etc. The presence of high concentration of iron leads to adverse changes in colour, odour and taste of water and it also stains clothes and utensils. However, the local health authority's records are not available.

  7. High Dietary Iron and Radiation Exposure Increase Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Blood and Liver of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Theriot, Corey A.; Wu, Honglu; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and increased iron (Fe) status independently cause oxidative damage that can result in protein, lipid, and DNA oxidation. During space flight astronauts are exposed to both increased radiation and increased Fe stores. Increased body Fe results from a decrease in red blood cell mass and the typically high Fe content of the food system. In this study we investigated the combined effects of radiation exposure (0.375 Gy of Cs-137 every other day for 16 days for a total of 3 Gy) and high dietary Fe (650 mg Fe/kg diet compared to 45 mg Fe/kg for controls) in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8/group). Liver and serum Fe were significantly increased in the high dietary Fe groups. Likewise, radiation treatment increased serum ferritin and Fe concentrations. These data indicate that total body Fe stores increase with both radiation exposure and excess dietary Fe. Hematocrit decreased in the group exposed to radiation, providing a possible mechanism for the shift in Fe indices after radiation exposure. Markers of oxidative stress were also affected by both radiation and high dietary Fe, evidenced by increased liver glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and serum catalase as well as decreased serum GPX. We thus found preliminary indications of synergistic effects of radiation exposure and increased dietary Fe, warranting further study. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Project.

  8. Consumption of galacto-oligosaccharides increases iron absorption from a micronutrient powder containing ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA: a stable-isotope study in Kenyan infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganini, Daniela; Uyoga, Mary A; Cercamondi, Colin I; Moretti, Diego; Mwasi, Edith; Schwab, Clarissa; Bechtler, Salome; Mutuku, Francis M; Galetti, Valeria; Lacroix, Christophe; Karanja, Simon; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-10-01

    Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear. Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants. Design: Infants ( n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk. Then, on 2 consecutive days, we fed all infants isotopically labeled maize porridge and MNP test meals containing 5 mg Fe as 57 FeFum+Na 58 FeEDTA or ferrous sulfate ( 54 FeSO 4 ). Iron absorption was measured as the erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes. Iron markers, fecal pH, and bacterial groups were assessed at baseline and 3 wk. Comparisons within and between groups were done with the use of mixed-effects models. Results: There was a significant group-by-compound interaction on iron absorption ( P = 0.011). The median percentages of fractional iron absorption from FeFum+NaFeEDTA and from FeSO 4 in the Fe group were 11.6% (IQR: 6.9-19.9%) and 20.3% (IQR: 14.2-25.7%), respectively, ( P iron absorption was greater from the FeFum+NaFeEDTA ( P = 0.047) in the Fe+GOS group but not from the FeSO 4 ( P = 0.653). The relative iron bioavailability from FeFum+NaFeEDTA compared with FeSO 4 was higher in the Fe+GOS group than in the Fe group (88% compared with 63%; P = 0.006). There was a significant time-by-group interaction on Bifidobacterium spp. ( P = 0.008) and Lactobacillus / Pediococcus / Leuconostoc spp. ( P = 0.018); Lactobacillus / Pediococcus / Leuconostoc spp. decreased in the Fe group ( P = 0.013), and there was a nonsignificant trend toward higher Bifidobacterium spp. in the Fe+GOS group ( P = 0.099). At 3 wk, iron absorption was negatively correlated with fecal pH ( P iron absorption by 62

  9. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  10. Acceptability and solubility of iron and zinc contents of modified Moringa oleifera sauces consumed in the Far-north region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawouma, Saliou; Ponka, Roger; Mbofung, Carl Moses

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of Moringa oleifera leaves is a local and inexpensive solution to iron and zinc deficiencies in the Far-north region of Cameroon. However, traditional household's cooking techniques result in sauces with high pH levels and low leaves incorporation rates that compromise the bioavailability of iron and zinc. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of modifying a standard Moringa sauce on consumer acceptability and the solubility of iron and zinc, which is an indicator of their bioavailability. Lime juice or tamarind pulp was added to a standard recipe in order to reduce the pH by about one unit, and Moringa leaf powder was incorporated in each acidulated sauce at three levels (1, 2, and 4 g/100 g of sauce). All the formulations were evaluated for their acceptability by 30 housewives using a five-point hedonic scale. The pH was measured by a digital electronic pH-meter. Moisture and ash were determined by AOAC methods. Total iron and zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and soluble iron and zinc by HCl-extractability. The lime juice-acidulated sauce and the tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder were the most acceptable formulations with scores of 3.4 and 3.6, respectively. Their chemical analysis showed a reduced pH (6.4 and 6.1, respectively), compared to the Control (7.2). Lime juice-acidulated sauce improved iron and zinc solubility from 42.19 to 66.38% and 54.03 to 82.03%, respectively. Tamarind pulp-acidulated sauce enriched with 1 g of Moringa leaf powder showed a decrease in iron solubility from 42.19 to 38.26% and an increase in zinc solubility from 54.03 to 72.86%. These results confirm the beneficial effect of lime juice in improving iron and zinc bioavailability.

  11. Decreased iron burden in overweight C282Y homozygous women: Putative role of increased hepcidin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desgrippes, Romain; Lainé, Fabrice; Morcet, Jeff; Perrin, Michèle; Manet, Ghislain; Jezequel, Caroline; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Ropert, Martine; Deugnier, Yves

    2013-05-01

    An excess of visceral adipose tissue could be involved as a modulator of the penetrance of HFE hemochromatosis since fat mass is associated with overexpression of hepcidin and low transferrin saturation was found to be associated with being overweight in women. This study was aimed at assessing the relationship between body mass index (BMI), a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, and iron burden in HFE hemochromatosis. In all, 877 patients from a cohort of C282Y homozygotes were included in the study when BMI at diagnosis and amount of iron removed (AIR) by phlebotomy were available. No relationship between AIR and BMI was found in men, whereas 15.1% (52/345) of women with AIR lean (7.9 mmoL/L ± 4.3) women (P = 0.0005). In C282Y homozygous women, BMI ≥28 kg/m(2) is independently associated with a lower amount of iron removed by phlebotomy. BMI is likely a modulator factor of the phenotypic expression of C282Y homozygosity, likely through an increase of circulating levels of hepcidin. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pengbao; Li, Bing; Chen, Haiju; Song, Changzheng; Meng, Jiangfei; Xi, Zhumei; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-02-14

    Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera ) were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe) from ferric ethylenediamine di ( o -hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (Fe-EDDHA) in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3- O -glucoside, delphinidin-3- O -glucoside, and cyanidin-3- O -(6- O -coumaryl)-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM) grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX), and anthocyanin O -methyltransferase (AOMT) exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  13. Iron Supply Affects Anthocyanin Content and Related Gene Expression in Berries of Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbao Shi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important compounds for red grape and red wine quality, and can be influenced by supply of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, and iron. The present work aims to gain a better understanding of the effect of iron supply on anthocyanins concentration in grape berries. To this end, own-rooted four-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines (Vitis vinifera were fertigated every three days with 0, 23, 46, 92, and 184 μM iron (Fe from ferric ethylenediamine di (o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA in a complete nutrient solution. Fe deficiency or excess generally led to higher concentrations of titratable acidity and skin/berry ratio, and to lower reducing sugar content, sugar/acid ratio, pH, berry weight, and concentration of anthocyanins. Most of the individual anthocyanins detected in this study, except cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-O-(6-O-coumaryl-glucoside, in moderate Fe treatment (46 μM grapes were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Genes encoding chalcone isomerase (CHI, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H, leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase (LDOX, and anthocyanin O-methyltransferase (AOMT exhibited higher transcript levels in berries from plants cultivated with 46 μM Fe compared to the ones cultivated with other Fe concentrations. We suggest that grape sugar content, anthocyanins content, and transcriptions of genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were correlated with Fe supply concentrations.

  14. Determination of iron content in whole blood in different mouse strains using a portable XRFS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Metairon, Sabrina; Suzuki, M.F.; Bahovschi, Vanessa; Rizzutto, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Iron has an important role in blood as an indicator of a great number of anomalies. Anemia due to iron-deficiency in the world is a public health problem in all ages and socioeconomic levels. Nowadays, Brazil's pharmaceutical companies are testing iron compounds to reduce the costs of those new drugs. In this study, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Technique was applied to determine Fe concentrations in blood samples of different mice strains using a Portable XRF Spectrometer. These data may help researchers choose the convenient mice strain that best meets its medical investigation, reducing costs and optimizing their researches. (author)

  15. Iron and Vitamin C Co-Supplementation Increased Serum Vitamin C Without Adverse Effect on Zinc Level in Iron Deficient Female Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khoshfetrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron supplementation can decrease the absorption of zinc and influence other antioxidants levels such as vitamin C. This study aimed to investigate the effect of iron supplements alone and in combination with vitamin C on zinc and vitamin C status in iron deficient female students. Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trail, 60 iron deficient students were selected from 289 volunteers residing in dormitory. After matching, subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: Group I (50 mg elemental iron supplements and Group II (50 mg elemental iron + 500 mg ascorbic acid. Serum ferritin, iron, serum zinc, and plasma vitamin C concentrations were measured by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spectrophotometer, atomic absorption spectrometer, and colorimeter, respectively after 6 and 12 weeks supplementation. Student′s t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data using SPSS software. Results: Serum zinc levels had no significant differences between 2 groups at the baseline; however, its concentration decreased from 80.9 ± 4.2-68.9 ± 2.7 μg/dl to 81.2 ± 4.5-66.1 ± 2.9 μg/dl (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively after 6 weeks of supplementation. Continuous supplementation increased serum zinc concentration to baseline levels (79.0 ± 2.9 μg/dl; P < 0.01 in Group I and 70.5 ± 3.1 μg/dl in Group II following 12 weeks of supplementation. Plasma vitamin C increased from 3 ± 0/1-3.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl to 2.7 ± 0. 1-4.2 ± 0.2 mg/dl (P < 0.01 in Groups I and II, respectively. At the end of study, plasma vitamin C significantly increased from 3.3 ± 0.3-4.7 ± 0.3 (P < 0.01 to 4.2 ± 0.2-7.1 ± 0.2 (P < 0.001 in Groups I and II, respectively. Conclusions: Iron supplementation with and without vitamin C led to reduction in serum Zn in iron-deficient female students after 6 weeks. However, the decreasing trend stops after repletion of iron stores and Zn levels returned to the

  16. Brain serotonin content - Increase following ingestion of carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernstrom, J. D.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    In the rat, the injection of insulin or the consumption of carbohydrate causes sequential increases in the concentrations of tryptophan in the plasma and the brain and of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin-containing neurons may thus participate in systems whereby the rat brain integrates information about the metabolic state in its relation to control of homeostasis and behavior.

  17. Evaluation of iron content in a potential fodder crop oat (avena sativa l.) grown on soil treated with sugarcane filter cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.I.; Ahmad, K.; Kashaf, S.; Fardous, A.; Gondal, S.; Ejaz, A.; Ashraf, M.; Danish, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different doses of sugarcane filter cake (SFC) on iron concentrations in the leaves of varying age of a potential fodder crop oat (Avena sativa L.) are reported in this study. Nine different treatments of SFC used were: 0 (control), 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 kg/ha applied to soil as full doses before sowing, and 600, 900, 1200, and 1500 applied as two equal splits, first before sowing and the second before flower initiation. Samples of soil were taken just after mixing the appropriate dose of SFC, whereas those of leaves were taken at the vegetative stage (45 days after sowing; hereafter they are referred as early leaves) and at the grain filling stage (hereafter referred to as late leaves). Iron (Fe) concentrations in soil and leaf samples (early and late) were determined unconnectedly. Soil Fe content increased significantly due to soil amendment with filter cake and it was well above the known critical level (2.5 mg/kg). In contrast, although soil amended with SFC improved the Fe content of both early and late leaves, their Fe content was well below the normal requirement of grazing animals. Thus, the ruminants feeding on this fodder species growing on soils amended with SFC are prone to experience Fe deficiency. Mineral supplementations containing reasonable amount of Fe sources are recommended to prevent complications caused by Fe deficiency as well as to achieve an optimal animal production of ruminants being reared on the pasture. (author)

  18. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pribulová A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process. Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting +5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5% bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  19. Influence of Addition of Briquettes with Dust Content into the Charge of Electric Induction Furnace on Cast Iron Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pribulová

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foundry dust from blasting and grinding of castings contain a high amount of iron, ergo it is possible its recycling in foundry process.Dust was compacted by briquetting, two kinds of briquettes were prepared (A contained 95% magnetic part of dust from casting blasting+5% bentonite and B contained 95% mixture of dust from casting grinding and magnetic part of dust from casting blasting + 5%bentonite and used as a part of charge into the electric induction furnace. It was found that addition of briquettes has had an influence of a chemical composition of cast iron above all on content of sulphur, phosphorus and silicon. It was not reflected in decrease in tensile strength and in microstructure. Yield of metal from briquettes was not lower then 70%.

  20. Ferritin-iron increases killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.M.; Stevens, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Stationary-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells were cultured in medium containing ferritin (∼19% iron by weight) added at concentrations ranging from 0 to 128 μg/ml. One set of cultures was unirradiated, another set exposed to 4.0 Gy of X-ray. Clonogenic cell survival was assessed in each set of cultures. In the absence of added ferritin, 4.0 Gy killed approximately 50% of the cells. In the absence of radiation, ferritin was not toxic at less than 48 μg/ml; above 48 μg/ml, toxicity increased with concentration. Apoferritin was not toxic at any concentration tested (up to 1000 μg/ml). Although 32 μg/ml ferritin, reflecting only a 3-6 fold increase in iron concentration over normal serum, was not toxic, it reduced survival of X-irradiated cells by an additional 75%. These results indicate that a sublethal concentration of ferritin can be a potent radiosensitizer. (Author)

  1. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites.

  2. Iron uptake and increased intracellular enzyme activity follow host lactoferrin binding by Trichomonas vaginalis receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.M.; Alderete, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Lactoferrin acquisition and iron uptake by pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis was examined. Saturation binding kinetics were obtained for trichomonads using increasing amounts of radioiodinated lactoferrin, while no significant binding by transferrin under similar conditions was achieved. Only unlabeled lactoferrin successfully and stoichiometrically competed with 125I-labeled lactoferrin binding. Time course studies showed maximal lactoferrin binding by 30 min at 37 degrees C. Data suggest no internalization of bound lactoferrin. The accumulation of radioactivity in supernatants after incubation of T. vaginalis with 125I-labeled lactoferrin and washing in PBS suggested the presence of low affinity sites for this host macromolecule. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of 90,000 receptors per trichomonad with an apparent Kd of 1.0 microM. Two trichomonad lactoferrin binding proteins were identified by affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation of receptor-ligand complexes. A 30-fold accumulation of iron was achieved using 59Fe-lactoferrin when compared to the steady state concentration of bound lactoferrin. The activity of pyruvate/ferrodoxin oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in trichomonal energy metabolism, increased more than sixfold following exposure of the parasites to lactoferrin, demonstrating a biologic response to the receptor-mediated binding of lactoferrin. These data suggest that T. vaginalis possesses specific receptors for biologically relevant host proteins and that these receptors contribute to the metabolic processes of the parasites

  3. A mutation in the HFE gene is associated with altered brain iron profiles and increased oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandar, Wint; Neely, Elizabeth B; Unger, Erica; Connor, James R

    2013-06-01

    Because of the increasing evidence that H63D HFE polymorphism appears in higher frequency in neurodegenerative diseases, we evaluated the neurological consequences of H63D HFE in vivo using mice that carry H67D HFE (homologous to human H63D). Although total brain iron concentration did not change significantly in the H67D mice, brain iron management proteins expressions were altered significantly. The 6-month-old H67D mice had increased HFE and H-ferritin expression. At 12 months, H67D mice had increased H- and L-ferritin but decreased transferrin expression suggesting increased iron storage and decreased iron mobilization. Increased L-ferritin positive microglia in H67D mice suggests that microglia increase iron storage to maintain brain iron homeostasis. The 6-month-old H67D mice had increased levels of GFAP, increased oxidatively modified protein levels, and increased cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression indicating increased metabolic and oxidative stress. By 12 months, there was no longer increased astrogliosis or oxidative stress. The decrease in oxidative stress at 12 months could be related to an adaptive response by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) that regulates antioxidant enzymes expression and is increased in the H67D mice. These findings demonstrate that the H63D HFE impacts brain iron homeostasis, and promotes an environment of oxidative stress and induction of adaptive mechanisms. These data, along with literature reports on humans with HFE mutations provide the evidence to overturn the traditional paradigm that the brain is protected from HFE mutations. The H67D knock-in mouse can be used as a model to evaluate how the H63D HFE mutation contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of iron doping on tetravalent nickel content in catalytic oxygen evolving films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Nancy; Bediako, D. Kwabena; Hadt, Ryan G.; Hayes, Dugan; Kempa, Thomas J.; von Cube, Felix; Bell, David C.; Chen, Lin X.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2017-01-30

    Iron doping of nickel oxide films results in enhanced activity for promoting the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Whereas this enhanced activity has been ascribed to a unique iron site within the nickel oxide matrix, we show here that Fe doping influences the Ni valency. The percent of Fe3+ doping promotes the formation of formal Ni4+, which in turn directly correlates with an enhanced activity of the catalyst in promoting OER. The role of Fe3+ is consistent with its behavior as a superior Lewis acid.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONTENT OF IRON AND COPPER IN THE SOILS AND WINES FROM THE LOCAL VINEYARDS OF THE CONTINENTAL CROATIA: A PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanko Ružičić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of red and white wine together with corresponding soils from the domestic vineyards of the continental Croatia were selected for analysis. Vineyard soil cover (Stagnosols and Rendzina is developed over the Plio-Quaternary non-consolidated deposits (gravel, sand, silt, clay or marly limestones. Within soils overlying non-consolidated deposits containing clays pH value range from 5.4 to 6.6, whereas maximum measured pH of 7.5 is attributed to soil developed over marly limestones. Soil and wine samples was determined by the total content of copper and iron using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Results are compared to the maximum permitted concentrations (MPC by the relevant Croatian regulations. Copper concentrations are elevated within all measured wines (from 1.7× to 2.0× with respect to MPC and two soil samples (up to 2.4× with respect to MPC, due to extensive use of agrochemicals in the vineyards. Increased concentrations of iron within wine and corresponding soil were determined at locality with low soil pH (5.5. Preliminary research demonstrates a plausible link between the content of elements within soils developed over a specific lithology and associated wines. Increased copper concentration within wines of domestic production points to need for education of population in line with use of eco-agrochemicals. Further extensive studies with detailed physico-chemical processing of soil samples are needed (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Influence of beryllium ceramics nano-structuring by iron atoms on increase of their stability to ionizing radiations effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, A.I.; Bitenbaev, M.I

    2007-01-01

    In the work a new results on beryllium ceramics nano-structuring effect by iron oxide atoms on radiation defects quantum yield value G in these materials and defects depth constants in ionizing radiation fields k are presented. Experimental data under dependence of G and k values from concentration of iron atoms in beryllium ceramic matrix are presented. It is shown, that structure modification of beryllium ceramics by feedings on the iron base leads to sharp decrease (almost in 30 times) of radiation defects quantum yield value, i.e. to increase of these ceramics stability enhancement to ionizing radiation effect

  7. Rapid determination of iron oxide content in magnetically modified particulate materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Nýdlová, L.; Pospíšková, K.; Baldíková, E.; Maděrová, Z.; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, June (2016), s. 114-117 ISSN 1674-2001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : magnetic iron oxide s * magnetic permeability meter * magnetically modified materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.621, year: 2016

  8. Ironic effects of antiprejudice messages: how motivational interventions can reduce (but also increase) prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.

  9. The ironic effect of guessing: increased false memory for mediated lists in younger and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Huff, Mark J.; Hutchison, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Younger and older adults studied lists of words directly (e.g., creek, water) or indirectly (e.g., beaver, faucet) related to a nonpresented critical lure (CL; e.g., river). Indirect (i.e., mediated) lists presented items that were only related to CLs through nonpresented mediators (i.e., directly related items). Following study, participants completed a condition-specific task, math, a recall test with or without a warning about the CL, or tried to guess the CL. On a final recognition test, warnings (vs. math and recall without warning) decreased false recognition for direct lists, and guessing increased mediated false recognition (an ironic effect of guessing) in both age groups. The observed age-invariance of the ironic effect of guessing suggests that processes involved in mediated false memory are preserved in aging and confirms the effect is largely due to activation in semantic networks during encoding and to the strengthening of these networks during the interpolated tasks. PMID:26393390

  10. Grape yield, and must compounds of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevine in sandy soil with potassium contents increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Nara Ciotta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Content of exchangeable potassium (K in t soil may influence on its content in grapevines leaves, grape yield, as well as, in must composition. The study aimed to assess the interference of exchangeable K content in the soil on its leaf content, production and must composition of 'Cabernet Sauvignon' cultivar. In September 2011, in Santana do Livramento (RS five vineyards with increasing levels of exchangeable K in the soil were selected. In the 2012/13 and 2013/14 harvests, the grape yield, yield components, total K content in the leaves in full bloom and berries veraison were evaluated. Values of total soluble sugar (TSS, pH, total titratable acidity (TTA, total polyphenols and anthocyanins were evaluated in the must. Exchangeable K content increase in soil with sandy surface texture increased its content in leaves collected during full flowering and in berries and must pH; however, it did not affect production of the 'Cabernet Sauvignon'.

  11. Microwave digestion for determination content of iron and zinc total in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Trejos, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    The food digestion procedure was optimized by means of a microwave oven, to quantify the iron and total zinc in different matrices by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The optimum amount of concentrated HNO 3 was analyzed at 65% to digest sample mass determined by assessment of the percentage of recovery obtained with different amount of HNO 3 . The results have not differed from those obtained by officially recommended methods of acid digestion in open systems and calcination. (author) [es

  12. Investigation of Hydrogen and Nitrogen Content in Compacted Graphite Iron Production

    OpenAIRE

    Siafakas, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research, part of a wider program called SPOFIC, is to investigate how the casting procedure affects the concentration of hydrogen and nitrogen gases in Compacted Graphite Iron used for the production of truck cylinder blocks. Hydris equipment was used for the Hydrogen measurements and the Optical Emission Spectroscopy and combustion analysis methods were used for the nitrogen measurements. The experiment was performed in one of the cooperating foundries. It was found that Hyd...

  13. Prenatal Iron Deficiency in Guinea Pigs Increases Locomotor Activity but Does Not Influence Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Fiset, Catherine; Rioux, France M.; Surette, Marc E.; Fiset, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether prenatal iron deficiency induced during gestation in guinea pigs affected locomotor activity and learning and memory processes in the progeny. Dams were fed either iron-deficient anemic or iron-sufficient diets throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were fed an iron-sufficient diet. On postnatal day 24 and 40, the pups' locomotor activity was observed within an open-field test, and from postnatal day 25 to 40, th...

  14. Increased cerebral iron uptake in Wilson's disease : A (52)Fe-citrate PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruehlmeier, M; Leenders, KL; Vontobel, P; Calonder, C; Antonini, A; Weindl, A

    Toxicity of abundant copper is the main cause of brain and liver tissue damage in patients with Wilson's disease (WD). However, there is also evidence of a disturbed iron metabolism in this genetically determined disorder. This PET study was undertaken to assess cerebral iron metabolism in WD

  15. Respiratory Effects of Inhaled Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: The Role of Particle Morphology and Iron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Amy Kathleen

    Nanotechnology provides promise for significant advancements in a number of different fields including imaging, electronics, and therapeutics. With worldwide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exceeding over 500 metric tons annually and industry growth expecting to double over the next 5 yr, there are concerns our understanding of the hazards of these nanomaterials may not be keeping pace with market demand. The physicochemical properties of CNTs may delineate the key features that determine either toxicity or biocompatibility and assist in evaluating the potential health risks posed in industrial and consumer product settings. We hypothesized that the iron content and morphology of inhaled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) influences the extent of cellular injury and alters homeostasis in the lung. To address this hypothesis, (1) an aerosol system was developed to deliver carbon-based nanomaterials in a manner of exposure that is physiologically and environmentally relevant (e.g., inhalation), (2) acute (1 d) and subacute (10 d) nose-only inhalation studies to a well-characterized aerosol of iron-containing (FeSWCNT) versus cleaned (iron removed, cSWCNTs) SWCNTs were conducted to evaluate the time-course patterns of possible injury through measurement of markers of cytotoxicity, inflammation, and cellular remodeling/homeostasis, and (3) the effects of SWCNTs were compared to other well-studied materials (e.g. non-fibrous, low-iron content ultrafine carbon black and fibrous, high-iron content, highly persistent, durable and potent carcinogen crocidolite) to offer insights into the relative toxicity of these nanomaterials as well as the possible mechanisms by which the effects occur. Rats (SD) were exposed to either aerosolized SWCNTs (raw FeSWCNT or purified cSWCNT), carbon black (CB), crocidolite, or fresh air via nose-only inhalation. Markers of inflammation and cytotoxicity in lung lavage, mucin in different airway generations, and collagen in the

  16. Self-assembled monolayers of n-alkanethiols suppress hydrogen evolution and increase the efficiency of rechargeable iron battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo; Manohar, Aswin K; Prakash, G K Surya; Narayanan, S R

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  17. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  18. Obtaining and Organophilisation of Smectite Clays with Reduced Iron Oxide Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasa Jūlija

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Raw clays from the Baltic region are characterized as smectite containing clays with significant amount of naturally occurring impurities that limiting the potential applications of crude Baltic clay resources. Purification of clay samples from Šaltiškių deposit (Venta basin was carried out by varied concentration hydrochloric acid solutions and resulted in fine removal of carbonates and iron oxide. The main idea of this work is to widen the possible applications of local clay resources providing a new type of raw material for further organoclay production.

  19. Myocardial iron content and mitochondrial function in human heart failure: a direct tissue analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melenovský, V.; Petrák, J.; Mráček, Tomáš; Beneš, J.; Borlaug, B. A.; Nůsková, Hana; Pluháček, T.; Špatenka, J.; Kovalčíková, Jana; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kautzner, J.; Pirk, J.; Houštěk, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2017), s. 522-530 ISSN 1388-9842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-36804G; GA MZd(CZ) NT14050; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MZd NT14250; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-27496A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart failure * mitochondria * iron deficiency * bioenergetics * metabolism * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.968, year: 2016

  20. Optimization and modeling of reduction of wastewater sludge water content and turbidity removal using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeong-Ha; Han, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    Economic and rapid reduction of sludge water content in sewage wastewater is difficult and requires special advanced treatment technologies. This study focused on optimizing and modeling decreased sludge water content (Y1) and removing turbidity (Y2) with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4, MION) using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). CCD and RSM were applied to evaluate and optimize the interactive effects of mixing time (X1) and MION concentration (X2) on chemical flocculent performance. The results show that the optimum conditions were 14.1 min and 22.1 mg L(-1) for response Y1 and 16.8 min and 8.85 mg L(-1) for response Y2, respectively. The two responses were obtained experimentally under this optimal scheme and fit the model predictions well (R(2) = 97.2% for Y1 and R(2) = 96.9% for Y2). A 90.8% decrease in sludge water content and turbidity removal of 29.4% were demonstrated. These results confirm that the statistical models were reliable, and that the magnetic flocculation conditions for decreasing sludge water content and removing turbidity from sewage wastewater were appropriate. The results reveal that MION are efficient for rapid separation and are a suitable alterative to sediment sludge during the wastewater treatment process.

  1. Evaluation of chromium, nickel, iron and manganese content in wheat, flour, bran and selected baked products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawiec Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional values, breadstuff plays a big part in covering human nourishment needs and constitutes a base of all day diet. Moreover, bread is an excellent source of numerous vitamins and minerals the abundance of which depends on the degree of grinding. Thus, it seems to be very important to know the composition and level of bio-elements. That is why the main target of this study was to evaluate the concentration of selected trace elements: chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn in wheat grain, wheat bran, different wheat and rye flour types and variety of breadstuff also with addition of grains and seeds from different bakeries and mills. Another task was to analyze if the technological process has an influence on secondary despoil of bread goods with heavy metal elements. The analyzed trace elements were measured with a precise and accurate atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (AAS and the results were expressed in mg/kg of selected sample. Obtained results show that bread and grain products are a good source of trace elements like chromium, nickel, iron and manganese. However, the higher levels of chromium and nickel in bread goods could rather be an effect of impurity caused by a technological process in mill and bakeries.

  2. Synthesis of novel magnetic iron metal-silica (Fe-SBA-15) and magnetite-silica (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SBA-15) nanocomposites with a high iron content using temperature-programed reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiu, H H P [Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside L69 7ZD (United Kingdom); Keane, M A [Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Lethbridge, Z A D [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Lees, M R [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Haj, A J El; Dobson, J [Institute of Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Thornburrow Drive, Hartshill, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 7QB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.p.dobson@keele.ac.uk

    2008-06-25

    Magnetic iron metal-silica and magnetite-silica nanocomposites have been prepared via temperature-programed reduction (TPR) of an iron oxide-SBA-15 (SBA: Santa Barbara Amorphous) composite. TPR of the starting SBA-15 supported Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} generated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeO as stepwise intermediates in the ultimate formation of Fe-SBA-15. The composite materials have been characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometry. The Fe oxide and metal components form a core, as nanoscale particles, that is entrapped in the SBA-15 pore network. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-SBA-15 and Fe-SBA-15 exhibited superparamagnetic properties with a total magnetization value of 17 emu g{sup -1}. The magnetite-silica composite (at an Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} loading of 30% w/w) delivered a magnetization that exceeded values reported in the literature or obtained with commercial samples. Due to the high pore volume of the mesoporous template, the magnetite content can be increased to 83% w/w with a further enhancement of magnetization.

  3. Iron Deficiency in COPD Associates with Increased Pulmonary Artery Pressure Estimated by Echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Louis L; Schoos, Mikkel M; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Iron deficiency (ID) might augment chronic pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This observational study investigates the association between ID and systolic pulmonary artery pressure estimated by echocardiography in non-anaemic COPD outpatients...

  4. Iron-induced nitric oxide leads to an increase in the expression of ferritin during the senescence of Lotus japonicus nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungopast, Sirinapa; Duangkhet, Mallika; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Ma, Jian Feng; Nomura, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for legume-rhizobium symbiosis and accumulates abundantly in the nodules. However, the concentration of free iron in the cells is strictly controlled to avoid toxicity. It is known that ferritin accumulates in the cells as an iron storage protein. During nodule senescence, the expression of the ferritin gene, Ljfer1, was induced in Lotus japonicus. We investigated a signal transduction pathway leading to the increase of Ljfer1 in the nodule. The Ljfer1 promoter of L. japonicus contains a conserved Iron-Dependent Regulatory Sequence (IDRS). The expression of Ljfer1 was induced by the application of iron or sodium nitroprusside, which is a nitric oxide (NO) donor. The application of iron to the nodule increased the level of NO. These data strongly suggest that iron-induced NO leads to increased expression of Ljfer1 during the senescence of L. japonicus nodules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased serum iron associated with coronary heart disease among nigerian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orimadegun, B.E.; Taylor, G.O.; Onuegbu, J.A.; Olisekodiaka, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the concentrations of serum iron and some risk factors of coronary heart disease in Nigerians with evidence of Coronary Heart Disease. The concentration of serum iron, the plasma cholesterol level, the hip-waist ratio and body mass index of 70 patients with evidence of CHD seen at a Cardiology Unit of a Specialist Hospital in Ibadan and 70 healthy subjects selected randomly were determined. Subjects were grouped into four age categories and three socioeconomic classes (high, middle and low). The age of the subjects ranged from 31-70 years with the mean of 53.6+-11.0 years and 50.1+-10.5 years for patients and controls respectively. The mean serum iron and plasma cholesterol levels were significantly higher among patients than controls irrespective of age and sex (p<0.05). No correlation was found between serum iron and the variables; plasma cholesterol level, age, body mass index (BMI) and hip-waist ratio. Significantly higher serum iron levels found in patients with evidence of CHD appears to support the hypothesis that there is a potential association between iron status and CHD. (author)

  6. Foods with increased protein content: A qualitative study on European consumer preferences and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovic, Marija; Arvola, Anne; Pennanen, Kyösti; Duta, Denisa E; Brückner-Gühmann, Monika; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2018-06-01

    Foods with increased protein content have rapidly become one of the fastest-growing product categories targeting image- and health-focused consumers. However, it is not clear whether consumers really understand the difference between 'inherently rich in protein' and 'artificially increased protein'. This study used a qualitative focus group approach to investigate the consumer preferences and perceptions of foods with increased protein content among mixed-age and older population in four European countries. In total fifty-two participants were involved in the study. Understanding of the concept of foods with 'increased protein' content was limited. Both older and mixed-age participants could not differentiate between natural sources of protein and foods with increased protein content, no matter whether foods with animal or plant proteins were mentioned. Older participants expressed more scepticism towards foods with increased protein content than mixed-age participants. The combination of protein type and food carrier closer to conventional foods received more acceptance among both older and mixed-age participants. Future use and acceptance of foods with increased protein content will depend on the extent to which consumer concerns about incorporating additional protein into a diet can be responded. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing the amylose content of maize through silencing of sbe2a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... 1College of Life Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China. ... activity via transgenic maize inbred line transformed by a high-efficient RNAi expression ... increase the amylose content of durum wheat.

  8. When increasing distraction helps learning: Distractor number and content interact in their effects on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, Kate; Amso, Dima; Markant, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that increasing the number of distractors in a search array can reduce interference from distractor content during target processing. However, it is unclear how this reduced interference influences learning of target information. Here, we investigated how varying the amount and content of distraction present in a learning environment affects visual search and subsequent memory for target items. In two experiments, we demonstrate that the number and content of competing distractors interact in their influence on target selection and memory. Specifically, while increasing the number of distractors present in a search array made target detection more effortful, it did not impair learning and memory for target content. Instead, when the distractors contained category information that conflicted with the target, increasing the number of distractors from one to three actually benefitted learning and memory. These data suggest that increasing numbers of distractors may reduce interference from conflicting conceptual information during encoding.

  9. Effects of iron content on electrical resistivity of oxide films on Zr-base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Toshio; Uno, Masayoshi

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of electrical resistivity were made for oxide films formed by anodic oxidation and steam oxidation (400degC/12 h) on Zr plates with different Fe contents. When the Fe content was higher than about 1,000 ppm the electrical resistivity of the steam oxide films was almost equivalent to that of the anodic oxide films, while at lower Fe content the former exhibited lower electrical resistivity than the latter by about 1∼3 orders of magnitude. The anodic oxide film was an almost homogeneous single oxide layer. The steam oxide films, on the other hand, were composed of duplex oxide layers. The oxide layer formed in the vicinity of the oxide/metal interface had higher electrical resistivity than the near-surface oxide layer by about 1∼4 orders of magnitude. The oxide layer in the vicinity of the interface could act as a protective film against corrosion and its electrical resistivity is one important factor controlling the layer protectiveness. The electrical resistivity of the oxide/metal interfacial layer was strongly dependent on the Fe content. One possible reason for Fe to improve the corrosion resistance is that Fe ions would tend to stabilize the tetragonal (or cubic) phase and consequently suppress the formation of open pores and cracks in the interfacial layer. (author)

  10. The use of pulsed magnetic fields to increase the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by living cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzhytchak, M.; Lynnyk, A.; Zablotskyy, V.; Dempsey, N.M.; Dias, A.L.; Bonfim, M.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 24 (2017), s. 243703 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : pulsed magnetic fields * increase the uptake * iron oxide * living cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  11. Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys with iron contents as high as 82 at%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jin-Feng; Liu, Xue; Zhao, Shao-Fan; Ding, Hong-Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Ke-Fu, E-mail: kfyao@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Fe-based bulk amorphous alloys (BAAs) with high Fe contents are advantageous due to their high saturation magnetization and low cost. However, preparing Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents higher than 80 at% is difficult due to their poor glass forming abilities (GFA). In this study, an Fe{sub 81}P{sub 8.5}C{sub 5.5}B{sub 2}Si{sub 3} BAA with a diameter of 1 mm and a saturation magnetization of 1.56 T was successfully prepared using the fluxing and copper mold casting methods. In addition, by introducing a small amount of elemental Mo to the alloy, an Fe{sub 82}Mo{sub 1}P{sub 6.5}C{sub 5.5}B{sub 2}Si{sub 3} BAA rod with a diameter of 1 mm, a high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T, a high yield stress of 3265 MPa, and a clear plasticity of 1.3% was prepared in the same way. The cost effectiveness and good magnetic properties of these newly-developed Fe-based BAAs with Fe contents as high as 82 at% would be advantageous and promising for industrial applications. - Highlights: • Novel Fe-based BAA with no other metallic element except 81 at% Fe was prepared. • Fe-based bulk amorphous alloy (BAA) with the highest Fe content (82%) was prepared. • Very high saturation magnetization of 1.59 T has been achieved. • A new thought for designing Fe-based BAA with high Fe content was provided.

  12. Management of the pig iron Si and slag CaO/SiO2 technological indicators in order to produce pig iron with a titanium content below 0,02 %Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kolmasiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article present the developed method for production of pig iron with a very low titanium content of Ti 2 basicity, to obtain pig iron with a [Ti] content below 0,02 %. Based on the data from the preliminary test, proper tests were carried out with a pig iron Si content in the range from 1,0 % to 1,6 % and a slag CaO/SiO2 basicity in the range from 0,96 to 1,10. Data obtained from those tests enabled a statistical model to be established in the form of regression planes of two independent variables, [Si] and (CaO/SiO2. The regression equation of the first degree, [Ti] = f[(Si, (CaO/SiO2], defined the plane that gave the process engineer the answer to the question of how to manage the [Si] and (CaO/SiO2 indicators so as to obtain pig iron with the desired [Ti] content below 0,02 %.

  13. Iron in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable amounts of iron are also found in lamb, pork, and shellfish. Iron from vegetables, fruits, grains, ... strawberries, tomatoes, and potatoes) also increase iron absorption. Cooking foods in a cast-iron skillet can also ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron- ... iron-deficiency anemia if you have certain risk factors , including pregnancy. To prevent iron-deficiency anemia, your ...

  15. Emission of BTEX and PAHs from molding sands with furan cold setting resins containing different contents of free furfuryl alcohol during production of cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Holtzer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, furan resin is the largest selling no-bake system of moulding sands. The most commonly used furan no-bake binders (FNB are condensation products of furfuryl alcohol (FA urea, formaldehyde and phenol. They are generally cured by exposure to organic sulfonic acids. FNB provide excellent mold and core strength, cure rapidly and allow the sand to be reclaimed at fairly high yields, generally 75%-80%, especially in applications where due allowance is made for the need to keep total sulfur content below 0.1%. However, due to probable carcinogenic properties of furfuryl alcohol, the EU Directive limits the content of this substance (in a monomer form in resin to 25%. The classification of furfuryl alcohol and the resulting furan resin products has changed from "harmful" to "toxic" by inhalation? The aim of this study was to determine the effect of free furfuryl alcohol content in the resin on the emission of harmful substances from the BTEX (Benzene Toluene Ethylbenzene & Xylene and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon group exposed to high temperature and how it affects the emissions allowance of reclaimed sand in the matrix. Three resins from a leading manufacturer were examined, which contain a free furfuryl alcohol content of 71%-72%, about 50% and < 25%, respectively. The hardener for each resin was 65% aqueous solution of paratoluenesulfonic acid. Tests were carried out in semi-industrial conditions where liquid cast-iron was poured into sample sand mold at 1,350 ìC. The matrix of the studied sands was reclaimed in the amount of 0, 50%, 100%, respectively. With the increase of free furfuryl alcohol content, the volume of evolved gases decreased. For all resins the main component from the BTEX group dominating in the emitted gases was benzene; however toluene also appeared in the amount of a few percentages. In contrast, ethylbenzene and xylenes occurred only in the gases emitted from resin-bonded sands with the largest furfuryl

  16. Biotic Iron Precipitation in Sand Filtration Systems by Gallionella ferruginea: Morphology and content of Exopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Charlotte

    conditions for principally biotic or abiotic iron precipitation is not well defined. An rH2 greater than 14 e.g. corresponding to an Eh a little above zero at slightly acidic pH is stated to be the best condition for biotic iron precipitation (Degremont, 1991). Abiotic iron precipitation is performed at a p...... are built with the purpose of biotic iron precipitation in order to reduce frequency of backwashing filtration systems. This is possibly due to the fact that biologically precipitated iron has a much denser structure than the corresponding abiotic precipitates (Søgaard et al. 2000). Both kinds of iron......-Peskir J. (2000) Conditions and rates of biotic and abiotic iron precipitation in selected Danish freshwater plants and microscopic analysis of precipitate morphology. Water Research, 34, 10, 2675-2682 Søgaard E.G., Aruna R., Abraham-Peskir, J. and Bender Koch, C. (2001) Conditions for iron precipitation...

  17. FOXO1 Content Is Reduced in Cystic Fibrosis and Increases with IGF-I Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is to date the most frequent complication in cystic fibrosis (CF. The mechanisms underlying this condition are not well understood, and a possible role of insulin resistance is debated. We investigated insulin signal transduction in CF. Total insulin receptor, IRS1, p85 PI3K, and AKT contents were substantially normal in CF cells (CFBE41o-, whereas winged helix forkhead (FOXO1 contents were reduced both in baseline conditions and after insulin stimulation. In addition, CF cells showed increased ERK1/2, and reduced β2 arrestin contents. No significant change in SOCS2 was observed. By using a CFTR inhibitor and siRNA, changes in FOXO1 were related to CFTR loss of function. In a CF-affected mouse model, FOXO1 content was reduced in the muscle while no significant difference was observed in liver and adipose tissue compared with wild-type. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I increased FOXO1 content in vitro and in vivo in muscle and adipose tissue. In conclusion; we present the first description of reduced FOXO1 content in CF, which is compatible with reduced gluconeogenesis and increased adipogenesis, both features of insulin insensitivity. IGF-I treatment was effective in increasing FOXO1, thereby suggesting that it could be considered as a potential treatment in CF patients possibly to prevent and treat cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

  18. Widespread Increases in Iron Concentration in European and North American Freshwaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Björnerås, C.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Evans, C. D.; Gessner, M. O.; Grossart, H. P.; Kangur, K.; Kokorite, I.; Kortelainen, P.; Laudon, H.; Lehtoranta, J.; Lottig, N.; Monteith, D. T.; Nõges, P.; Nõges, T.; Oulehle, Filip; Riise, G.; Rusak, J. A.; Räike, A.; Sire, J.; Sterling, S.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2017), s. 1488-1500 ISSN 0886-6236 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : browning * climate change * freshwaters * iron * trends Subject RIV: EH - Ecology , Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.655, year: 2016

  19. Widespread Increases in Iron Concentration in European and North American Freshwaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Björnerås, C.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Evans, C. D.; Gessner, M. O.; Grossart, H. P.; Kangur, K.; Kokorite, I.; Kortelainen, P.; Laudon, H.; Lehtoranta, J.; Lottig, N.; Monteith, D. T.; Nõges, P.; Nõges, T.; Oulehle, Filip; Riise, G.; Rusak, J. A.; Räike, A.; Sire, J.; Sterling, S.; Kritzberg, E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2017), s. 1488-1500 ISSN 0886-6236 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08124S Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : browning * climate change * freshwaters * iron * trends Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.655, year: 2016

  20. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  1. EFFORT INCREASING STARCH’S CONTENT OF ARROWROOT WITH BOKHASI AND SOIL PROCESSING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rudianto W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective this experiment knows: (1 Effect bokashi on growth and yield arrowroot,(2 optimal dosage bokashi to increase arrowroot production,(3 effect planting depth on growth and yield arrowroot , and (4 interactions between planting depth and bokashi's manure dose on arrowroot. Research carried at field experimental Agriculture Faculty of Jenderal Soedirman University, October 2010 until March 2011. Experiment used inceptisol soil and 110 meters above sea level. Experimental design was Completely Randomized Block Design with four replicates, tried factors were planting depth and bokashi's fertilizer addition. Result: bokashi increase starch's content of arrowroot from 17,38 percent to 19,63 percent. Addition of bokashi at three percent of organic matter content soil, indicated by starch content of 19,634 percent. Planting depth at 20 cm affected increasing tubber volume per plant, tubber fresh weight, and production per extends, meanwhile planting depth at 30 cm affected increasing starch's contents tubber arrowroot. Interaction between planting depth and bokashi's fertilizer on starch's content yielded 19,898 percent at addition of bokashi at amount of three percent and planting depth 30 cm.

  2. Determination of antimony by electrochemical hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry in samples with high iron content using chelating resins as on-line removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolea, E.; Arroyo, D.; Laborda, F.; Castillo, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A method for the removal of the interference caused by iron on electrochemical generation of stibine is proposed. It consists of a chelating resin Chelex 100 column integrated into a flow injection system and coupled to the electrochemical hydride generator quartz tube atomic absorption spectrometer (EcHG-QT-AAS). Iron, as Fe(II), is retained in the column with high efficiency, close to 99.9% under optimal conditions. No significant retention was observed for Sb(III) under same conditions and a 97 ± 5% signal recovery was achieved. An electrochemical hydride generator with a concentric configuration and a reticulated vitreous carbon cathode was employed. The system is able to determine antimony concentrations in the range of ng ml -1 in presence of iron concentrations up to 400 mg l -1 . The procedure was validated by analyzing PACS-2 marine sediments reference material with a 4% (w/w) iron content and a [Fe]:[Sb] ratio of 4000:1, which caused total antimony signal suppression on the electrochemical hydride generation system. A compost sample with high iron content (0.7%, w/w), was also analyzed. A good agreement was found on both samples with the certified value and the antimony concentration determined by ICP-MS, respectively

  3. Exogenous Melatonin Improves Plant Iron Deficiency Tolerance via Increased Accumulation of Polyamine-Mediated Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Liu, Zhi; Zhu, Lin; Ma, Zhongyou; Wang, Jianfei; Zhu, Jian

    2016-10-25

    Melatonin has recently been demonstrated to play important roles in the regulation of plant growth, development, and abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, the possible involvement of melatonin in Fe deficiency responses and the underlying mechanisms remained elusive in Arabidopsis thaliana . In this study, Fe deficiency quickly induced melatonin synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Exogenous melatonin significantly increased the soluble Fe content of shoots and roots, and decreased the levels of root cell wall Fe bound to pectin and hemicellulose, thus alleviating Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Intriguingly, melatonin treatments induced a significant increase of nitric oxide (NO) accumulation in roots of Fe-deficient plants, but not in those of polyamine-deficient ( adc2-1 and d-arginine-treated) plants. Moreover, the melatonin-alleviated leaf chlorosis was blocked in the polyamine- and NO-deficient ( nia1nia2noa1 and c-PTIO-treated) plants, and the melatonin-induced Fe remobilization was largely inhibited. In addition, the expression of some Fe acquisition-related genes, including FIT1 , FRO2 , and IRT1 were significantly up-regulated by melatonin treatments, whereas the enhanced expression of these genes was obviously suppressed in the polyamine- and NO-deficient plants. Collectively, our results provide evidence to support the view that melatonin can increase the tolerance of plants to Fe deficiency in a process dependent on the polyamine-induced NO production under Fe-deficient conditions.

  4. Continuously increasing δ98Mo values in Neoarchean black shales and iron formations from the Hamersley Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Wille, Martin; Schoenberg, Ronny; Taubald, Heinrich; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present Mo-, C- and O-isotope data from black shales, carbonate- and oxide facies iron formations from the Hamersley Group, Western Australia, that range in age from 2.6 to 2.5 billion years. The data show a continuous increase from near crustal δ98Mo values of around 0.50‰ for the oldest Marra Mamba and Wittenoom formations towards higher values of up to 1.51‰ for the youngest sample of the Brockman Iron Formation. Thereby, the trend in increasing δ98Mo values is portrayed by both carbonate facies iron formations and black shales. Considering the positive correlation between Mo concentration and total organic carbon, we argue that this uniformity is best explained by molybdate adsorption onto organic matter in carbonate iron formations and scavenging of thiomolybdate onto sulfurized organic matter in black shales. A temporal increase in the seawater δ98Mo over the period 2.6-2.5 Ga is observed assuming an overall low Mo isotope fractionation during both Mo removal processes. Oxide facies iron formations show lowest Mo concentrations, lowest total organic carbon and slightly lower δ98Mo compared to nearly contemporaneous black shales. This may indicate that in iron formation settings with very low organic matter burial rates, the preferential adsorption of light Mo isotopes onto Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides becomes more relevant. A similar Mo-isotope pattern was previously found in contemporaneous black shales and carbonates of the Griqualand West Basin, South Africa. The consistent and concomitant increase in δ98Mo after 2.54 billion years ago suggests a more homogenous distribution of seawater molybdate with uniform isotopic composition in various depositional settings within the Hamersley Basin and the Griqualand West Basin. The modeling of the oceanic Mo inventory in relation to the Mo in- and outflux suggests that the long-term build-up of an isotopically heavy seawater Mo reservoir requires a sedimentary sink for isotopically light Mo. The search for this

  5. The use of pulsed magnetic fields to increase the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by living cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzhytchak, Mariia; Lynnyková, Anna; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Dempsey, N.M.; Dias, A.L.; Bonfim, M.; Lunova, Mariia; Jirsa, M.; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, Oleg; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 24 (2017), s. 1-5, č. článku 243703. ISSN 0003-6951 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pulsed magnetic fields * increase the uptake * iron oxide * living cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  6. Ebselen increases cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration, stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content in rat hippocampal astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Miguel; Pariente, Jose Antonio; Salido, Gines Maria; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of the seleno-organic compound and radical scavenger ebselen on rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture. Throughout our study we carried out determinations of [Ca 2+ ] c in fura-2-loaded cells by single cell imaging, glutamate secretion employing an enzymatic-based assay and GFAP expression, which was monitorized by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Our results show that ebselen (1-20 μM) dose dependently increases [Ca 2+ ] c , stimulates glutamate release and increases GFAP content, a hallmark of astrocyte reactivity. Ebselen did not alter significantly cell viability as assayed by determination of LDH release into the extracellular medium. Ebselen-evoked glutamate release and increase in GFAP content were Ca 2+ -dependent, because incubation of astrocytes in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ (medium containing 0.5 mM EGTA) and in the presence of the intracellular Ca 2+ chelator BAPTA (10 μM) significantly reduced ebselen-evoked changes in these parameters. The effects of ebselen we have observed may underline various signalling pathways which are important for cell proliferation, differentiation and function. However, aberrations in astroglial physiology could significantly compromise brain function, due to their role as modulators of neuron activity. Therefore, we consider that careful attention should be paid when employing ebselen as a prophylactic agent against brain damage

  7. Contractions but not AICAR increase FABPpm content in rat muscle sarcolemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Albers, Peter; Luiken, Joost J.

    2009-01-01

    FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein expression, measured in lysates with western blotting, by either stimulus. AMPK thr172 and ERK1/2 thr202/204 phosphorylation were significantly increased with muscle contractions (P ...In the present study, it was investigated whether acute muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle increased the protein content of FABPpm in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the effect of AICAR stimulation on FAT/CD36 and FABPpm protein content in sarcolemma of rat skeletal muscle was evaluated....... METHODS: Male wistar rats (150 g) were anesthetized and either subjected to in situ electrically induced contractions (hindlimb muscles: 20 min, 10-20 V, 200 ms trains, 100 Hz) or stimulated with the pharmacological activator of AMPK, AICAR. To investigate changes in the content of FABPpm and FAT/CD36...

  8. Iodine application increased ascorbic acid content and modified the vascular tissue in opuntia ficus-indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuna, H.T.G.; Morales, R.; Rubio, E.M.; Mendoza, A.B.; Ruvalcaba, R.M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO/sub 3/, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO/sub 3/, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue. (author)

  9. DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE CHEMICAL EXTRACTION METHODS FOR AVAILABLE IRON CONTENT OF THE SOILS FROM EDIRNE PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ADILOGLU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe content of the soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA; 0.05 M HCl + 0.012 M H2SO4; 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8; 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M NH4OAc; 1 M MgCl2; 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M (NH42CO3; 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA methods and six biological indices (dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, relative Fe uptake were compared. Biological indices were determined with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the highest correlation coefficients (r were determined to be between the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the biological indices and between the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method and the biological indices. The correlation coefficients (r for the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 +0.1 M TEA method were r=0.621**; r=0.823**; r=0.810**; r=0.433**; r=0.558** and r=0.640** and for the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method r=0.618** ; r=0.520**; r=0.679**; r=0.521**; r=0.492** and r=0.641**, (**:p<0.01 respectively. These extraction methods, among all the methods tested were suggested for the determination of available Fe content of Edirne Province soils.

  10. Nanotube morphology changes for Ti-Zr alloys as Zr content increases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won-Gi; Choe, Han-Cheol; Ko, Yeong-Mu; Brantley, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotube morphology changes in Ti-Zr alloys as Zr content increases have been investigated. Ti-Zr (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting and heat treated for 24 h at 1000 o C in an argon atmosphere. TiO 2 nanotubes were formed on the Ti-Zr alloys by anodization in H 3 PO 4 containing 0.5 wt.% NaF. Electrochemical experiments were performed using a conventional three-electrode configuration with a platinum counter electrode and a saturated calomel reference electrode. Samples were embedded in epoxy resin, leaving an area of 10 mm 2 exposed to the electrolyte. Anodization was carried out using a scanning potentiostat, and all experiments were conducted at room temperature. Microstructures of the alloys were examined by optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The Ti-Zr alloy microstructures observed by OM and FE-SEM changed from a lamellar structure to a needle-like structure with increasing Zr content. The microstructures also changed from β phase to increasing amounts of α phase as the Zr content increased. The number of large nanotubes formed by anodization decreased, and the number of small nanotubes increased, as the Zr content increased. The mean inner diameter ranged from approximately 150 to 200 nm with a tube-wall thickness of about 20 nm. The interspace between the nanotubes was approximately 60, 70, 100 and 130 nm for Zr contents of 10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%, respectively.

  11. MLN64 induces mitochondrial dysfunction associated with increased mitochondrial cholesterol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Balboa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MLN64 is a late endosomal cholesterol-binding membrane protein that has been implicated in cholesterol transport from endosomal membranes to the plasma membrane and/or mitochondria, in toxin-induced resistance, and in mitochondrial dysfunction. Down-regulation of MLN64 in Niemann-Pick C1 deficient cells decreased mitochondrial cholesterol content, suggesting that MLN64 functions independently of NPC1. However, the role of MLN64 in the maintenance of endosomal cholesterol flow and intracellular cholesterol homeostasis remains unclear. We have previously described that hepatic MLN64 overexpression increases liver cholesterol content and induces liver damage. Here, we studied the function of MLN64 in normal and NPC1-deficient cells and we evaluated whether MLN64 overexpressing cells exhibit alterations in mitochondrial function. We used recombinant-adenovirus-mediated MLN64 gene transfer to overexpress MLN64 in mouse liver and hepatic cells; and RNA interference to down-regulate MLN64 in NPC1-deficient cells. In MLN64-overexpressing cells, we found increased mitochondrial cholesterol content and decreased glutathione (GSH levels and ATPase activity. Furthermore, we found decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrial superoxide levels in MLN64-overexpressing cells and in NPC1-deficient cells. Consequently, MLN64 expression was increased in NPC1-deficient cells and reduction of its expression restore mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial superoxide levels. Our findings suggest that MLN64 overexpression induces an increase in mitochondrial cholesterol content and consequently a decrease in mitochondrial GSH content leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, we demonstrate that MLN64 expression is increased in NPC cells and plays a key role in cholesterol transport into the mitochondria.

  12. Student Content Knowledge Increases after Participation in a Hands-on Biotechnology Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigler, Amber M.; Hanegan, Nikki L.

    2011-01-01

    Implementing biotechnology education through hands-on teaching methods should be considered by secondary biology teachers. This study is an experimental research design to examine increased student content knowledge in biotechnology after a hands-on biotechnology intervention. The teachers from both school groups participated in, Project Crawfish,…

  13. Increasing β-carotene content of phytoplankton Dunaliella salina using different salinity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, J.; Masithah, E. D.; Tjahjaningsih, W.; Abdillah, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Dunaliella salina have got great attention in the nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies because contain β-carotene. β-carotene functions as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A and can treat tumors and cancer in humans. The content of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased by increasing salinity levels in the culture medium. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing salinity may increas β-carotene content of phytoplankton D. salina. The research use data collection method with direct observation and then analyzed the result with descriptive method. The results showed that different salinity of media can influenced β-carotene content of D. salina. The highest β-carotene content of D. salina was at treatment B (30 ppt) which equal to 2.312 mg/L on 10th day. The production of β-carotene in D. salina can be increased was other environmental stress treatments in the form of stress-temperature, light and nutrients using.

  14. Using Content Acquisition Podcasts to Increase Student Knowledge and to Reduce Perceived Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael J.; Hirsch, Shanna Eisner; Dillon, Sarah E.; Rabideaux, Lindsey; Alves, Kathryn D.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of multimedia-driven instruction in college courses is an emerging practice designed to increase students' knowledge. However, limited research has validated the effectiveness of using multimedia to teach students about functional behavioral assessments (FBAs). To test the effectiveness of a multimedia tool called Content Acquisition…

  15. Enzyme-mediated quenching of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS promotes biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by increasing iron availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrix Tettmann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2-alkyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H-quinolone 2,4-dioxygenase HodC was previously described to cleave the Pseudomonas quinolone signal, PQS, which is exclusively used in the complex quorum sensing (QS system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen employing QS to regulate virulence and biofilm development. Degradation of PQS by exogenous addition of HodC to planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa attenuated production of virulence factors, and reduced virulence in planta. However, proteolytic cleavage reduced the efficacy of HodC. Here, we identified the secreted protease LasB of P. aeruginosa to be responsible for HodC degradation. In static biofilms of the P. aeruginosa PA14 lasB::Tn mutant, the catalytic activity of HodC led to an increase in viable biomass in newly formed but also in established biofilms, and reduced the expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and siderophore production, such as pvdS, pvdL, pvdA and pvdQ. This is likely due to an increase in the levels of bioavailable iron by degradation of PQS, which is able to sequester iron from the surrounding environment. Thus, HodC, despite its ability to quench the production of virulence factors, is contraindicated for combating P. aeruginosa biofilms.

  16. Dissolution behaviour of ferric pyrophosphate and its mixtures with soluble pyrophosphates: Potential strategy for increasing iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Blanco, Elena; Smoukov, Stoyan K; Velev, Orlin D; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2016-10-01

    Ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) is a widely used iron source in food fortification and in nutritional supplements, due to its white colour, that is very uncommon for insoluble Fe salts. Although its dissolution is an important determinant of Fe adsorption in human body, the solubility characteristics of FePP are complex and not well understood. This report is a study on the solubility of FePP as a function of pH and excess of pyrophosphate ions. FePP powder is sparingly soluble in the pH range of 3-6 but slightly soluble at pH8. In the presence of pyrophosphate ions the solubility of FePP strongly increases at pH 5-8.5 due to formation a soluble complex between Fe(III) and pyrophosphate ions, which leads to an 8-10-fold increase in the total ionic iron concentration. This finding is beneficial for enhancing iron bioavailability, which important for the design of fortified food, beverages, and nutraceutical products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  18. Concentration-dependent toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles mediated by increased oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naqvi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Saba Naqvi1, Mohammad Samim2, MZ Abdin3, Farhan Jalees Ahmed4, AN Maitra5, CK Prashant6, Amit K Dinda61Faculty of Engineering and Interdisciplinary Sciences, 2Department of Chemistry, 3Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, 4Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, 6Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles with unique magnetic properties have a high potential for use in several biomedical, bioengineering and in vivo applications, including tissue repair, magnetic resonance imaging, immunoassay, drug delivery, detoxification of biologic fluids, cell sorting, and hyperthermia. Although various surface modifications are being done for making these nonbiodegradable nanoparticles more biocompatible, their toxic potential is still a major concern. The current in vitro study of the interaction of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of mean diameter 30 nm coated with Tween 80 and murine macrophage (J774 cells was undertaken to evaluate the dose- and time-dependent toxic potential, as well as investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity. A 15–30 nm size range of spherical nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and zeta sizer. MTT assay showed >95% viability of cells in lower concentrations (25–200 µg/mL and up to three hours of exposure, whereas at higher concentrations (300–500 µg/mL and prolonged (six hours exposure viability reduced to 55%–65%. Necrosis-apoptosis assay by propidium iodide and Hoechst-33342 staining revealed loss of the majority of the cells by apoptosis. H2DCFDDA assay to quantify generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS indicated that exposure to a higher concentration of nanoparticles resulted in enhanced ROS generation, leading to cell injury and death. The cell membrane injury

  19. Probiotics lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and lactobacillus casei CRL 431 modestly increase growth, but non iron and zinc status, among Indonesian children aged 1-6 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Lukito, W.; Fahmida, U.; Rest, van de O.; Zimmermann, M.B.; Firmansyah, A.; Wulanti, R.; Albers, R.; Heuvel, van den E.G.H.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics and milk calcium may increase resistance to intestinal infection, but their effect on growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian children is uncertain. We investigated the hypotheses that cow milk with added probiotics would improve growth and iron and zinc status of Indonesian

  20. Gender and plasma iron biomarkers, but not HFE gene mutations, increase the risk of colorectal cancer and polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiella, Agustin; Múgica, Fernando; Zapata, Eva; Zubiaurre, Leire; Iribarren, Arantxa; de Juan, M Dolores; Alzate, Luis; Gil, Ines; Urdapilleta, Gregorio; Otazua, Pedro; Emparanza, José Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    A cohort study of patients included in the Basque Country colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme was carried out to assess the risk of adenomatous polyps and CRC (P-CRC) associated with HFE gene mutations, with gender and with iron biomarkers (serum ferritin (SF), iron (Fe) and transferrin saturation index (TSI)). Among 432 included patients (mean age 59.8 years), 263 were men (60.9 %) and 169 women (39.1 %). P-CRC were identified in 221 patients (51.2 %) and no polyps (NP) in 211 patients (48.8 %). HFE mutations were identified in 43.8 % of the patients. C282Y/wt genotypic frequency was 6.8 % in the P-CRC group and 1.4 % in the NP group (p < 0.05). The allelic frequency was 3.8 versus 1.2 % (p < 0.05). For laboratory, all three iron biomarkers showed a statistically significant difference: mean Fe, 91.29 ± 34 for P-CRC and 80.81 ± 30.59 for NP group. Mean TSI for P-CRC was 24.95 ± 8.90 and 22.74 ± 8.79 for NP group. Mean SF 308.09 ± 536.32 for P-CRC and 177.55 ± 159.95 for NP group. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only male gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.04, 1.29-3.22), SF (OR = 1.001, 1.0004-1.003) and Fe (OR = 1.01, 1.004-1.02) were related with the presence of CRC and adenoma. Men gender and raised serum iron biomarkers increase the risk of P-CRC.

  1. Determination of suitable chemical extraction methods for the available iron content of brown forest soils in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiloglu, Aydin

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe) content of brown forest soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 MTEA, 0.05 M HCl + 0.012 M H2SO4, 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8), 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M NH4OAc, 1 M MgCl2, 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M (NH4)2CO3, 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3, and 0.001 M EDDHA methods) and six biological indices (the dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, and relative Fe uptake) were compared. The biological indices were determined with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the highest correlation coefficients (r) were determined to be between the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the biological indices and between the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method and the biological indices. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r) for the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the six biological indices were 0.621**, 0.823**, 0.810** 0.433**, 0.558**, and 0.640**, respectively. For the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method, these coefficients were equal to 0.618**, 0.520**, 0.679**, 0.521**, 0.492**, and 0.641**, respectively (** indicate the validity of the relationships at p < 0.01) These extraction methods, out of all the methods tested, were suggested for the determination of the available Fe content of the brown forest soils.

  2. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metens, Thierry [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso [MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium); Moreno, Christophe [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatopancreatology, and Digestive Oncology, Hopital Erasme, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  3. Normal hepatic parenchyma visibility and ADC quantification on diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 T: influence of age, gender, and iron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metens, Thierry; Ferraresi, Kellen Fanstone; Farchione, Alessandra; Bali, Maria Antonietta; Matos, Celso; Moreno, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how normal liver parenchyma visibility on 3 T diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification are influenced by age, gender, and iron content. Between February 2011 and April 2013, 86 patients (52 women) with normal livers who underwent respiratory-triggered abdominal 3 T DWI (b = 0, 150, 600, 1,000 s/mm 2 ) were retrospectively included. Normal liver and spleen parenchyma visibility was scored independently by two readers. Correlations between visibility scores or ADC with age, gender, T2*, or recent serum ferritin (SF) were investigated. Liver visibility scores in b = 1,000 s/mm 2 images correlated with the age (Spearman R = -0.56 in women, -0.45 in men), T2* (R = 0.75) and SF (R = -0.64) and were significantly higher in women (P < 0.01). SF and T2* were within normal values (T2*: 13 - 31 ms, SF: 14 - 230 μg/L). Liver ADC correlated with visibility scores (R = 0.69) and T2* (R = 0.64) and was age- and gender-dependent. ADC ROI standard deviation negatively correlated with visibility scores (R = -0.65) and T2* (R = -0.62). The spleen visibility did not depend on age or gender. Normal liver parenchyma visibility in DWI is age- and gender-dependent, according to the iron content. Visibility scores and iron content significantly affect ADC quantification in the normal liver. (orig.)

  4. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  5. Increasing vitamin C content in plant foods to improve their nutritional value-successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2013-08-30

    Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  6. Nitrosothiol formation and protection against Fenton chemistry by nitric oxide-induced dinitrosyliron complex formation from anoxia-initiated cellular chelatable iron increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R; Lancaster, Jack R

    2014-07-18

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with (•)NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged (•)NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief (•)NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1-2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief (•)NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of (•)NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of (•)NO. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Nitrosothiol Formation and Protection against Fenton Chemistry by Nitric Oxide-induced Dinitrosyliron Complex Formation from Anoxia-initiated Cellular Chelatable Iron Increase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Chuanyu; Mahtani, Harry K.; Du, Jian; Patel, Aashka R.; Lancaster, Jack R.

    2014-01-01

    Dinitrosyliron complexes (DNIC) have been found in a variety of pathological settings associated with •NO. However, the iron source of cellular DNIC is unknown. Previous studies on this question using prolonged •NO exposure could be misleading due to the movement of intracellular iron among different sources. We here report that brief •NO exposure results in only barely detectable DNIC, but levels increase dramatically after 1–2 h of anoxia. This increase is similar quantitatively and temporally with increases in the chelatable iron, and brief •NO treatment prevents detection of this anoxia-induced increased chelatable iron by deferoxamine. DNIC formation is so rapid that it is limited by the availability of •NO and chelatable iron. We utilize this ability to selectively manipulate cellular chelatable iron levels and provide evidence for two cellular functions of endogenous DNIC formation, protection against anoxia-induced reactive oxygen chemistry from the Fenton reaction and formation by transnitrosation of protein nitrosothiols (RSNO). The levels of RSNO under these high chelatable iron levels are comparable with DNIC levels and suggest that under these conditions, both DNIC and RSNO are the most abundant cellular adducts of •NO. PMID:24891512

  8. Design and verification of bituminous mixtures with the increased content of reclaimed asphalt pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bańkowski, Wojciech; Król, Jan; Gałązka, Karol; Liphardt, Adam; Horodecka, Renata

    2018-05-01

    Recycling of bituminous pavements is an issue increasingly being discussed in Poland. The analysis of domestic and foreign experience indicates a need to develop this technology in our country, in particular the hot feeding and production technologies. Various steps are being taken in this direction, including research projects. One of them is the InnGA project entitled: “Reclaimed asphalt pavement: Innovative technology of bituminous mixtures using material from reclaimed asphalt pavement”. The paper presents the results of research involving the design of bituminous mixtures in accordance with the required properties and in excess of the content of reclaimed asphalt permitted by the technical guidelines. It presents selected bituminous mixtures with the content of RAP of up to 50% and the results of tests from verification of industrial production of those mixtures. The article discusses the details of the design process of mixtures with a high content of reclaimed asphalt, the carried out production tests and discusses the results of tests under the verification of industrial production. Testing included basic tests according to the Polish technical requirements of WT- 2 and the extended functional testing. The conducted tests and analyses helped to determine the usefulness of the developed bituminous mixtures for use in experimental sections and confirmed the possibility of using an increased amount of reclaimed asphalt up to 50% in mixtures intended for construction of national roads.

  9. Randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot to increase hemoglobin concentration in anemic, rural Cambodian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Aviva I; Whitfield, Kyly C; Chapman, Gwen E; Yada, Rickey Y; Kheang, Khin Meng; Louise, Jennie; Summerlee, Alastair J; Armstrong, Gavin R; Green, Timothy J

    2017-08-01

    Background: Anemia affects 45% of women of childbearing age in Cambodia. Iron supplementation is recommended in populations in which anemia prevalence is high. However, there are issues of cost, distribution, and adherence. A potential alternative is a reusable fish-shaped iron ingot, which, when added to the cooking pot, leaches iron into the fluid in which it is prepared. Objective: We sought to determine whether there was a difference in hemoglobin concentrations in rural Cambodian anemic women (aged 18-49 y) who cooked with the iron ingot or consumed a daily iron supplement compared with a control after 1 y. Design: In Preah Vihear, 340 women with mild or moderate anemia were randomly assigned to 1 ) an iron-ingot group, 2 ) an iron-supplement (18 mg/d) group, or 3 ) a nonplacebo control group. A venous blood sample was taken at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. Blood was analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and serum transferrin receptor. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was used to detect structural hemoglobin variants. Results: Anemia prevalence was 44% with the use of a portable hemoglobinometer during screening. At baseline, prevalence of iron deficiency was 9% on the basis of a low serum ferritin concentration. There was no significant difference in mean hemoglobin concentrations between the iron-ingot group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 118 g/L; P = 0.850) or iron-supplement group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L; P = 0.998) compared with the control group (115 g/L; 95% CI: 113, 117 g/L) at 12 mo. Serum ferritin was significantly higher in the iron-supplement group (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 64, 82 μg/L; P = 0.002) than in the control group at 6 mo; however, this significance was not maintained at 12 mo (73 μg/L; 95% CI: 58, 91 μg/L; P = 0.176). Conclusions: Neither the iron ingot nor iron supplements increased hemoglobin concentrations in this population at 6 or 12 mo. We do not recommend the use of the fish-shaped iron ingot in Cambodia or in countries where the prevalence

  10. Latex content and biomass increase in Mycorrhizal guayule (Parthenium argentatum) under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloss, H.E.; Pfeiffer, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Guayule seedlings were inoculated with two Glomus species in pasteurised soil and grown in the glasshouse without added fertilizer for 8 weeks prior to transplanting to the field. The survival rate of transplanted guayule seedlings was increased by inoculation with vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi compared wtih uninoculated controls. Inoculated guayule had greater concentrations of Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn at six months of age, and greater concentrations of Ca, Mg, and Zn at 12 months of age than did uninoculated plants. The latex content of both roots and shoots of guayule was greater in inoculated than in uninoculated guayule plants at 12 and 18 months of age. The resin content remained unchanged between treatments irrespective of sampling date.

  11. Diagnostic relevance of radioiron-absorption-measurements and immunoradiometric serum-ferritin-assay in the evaluation of iron stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Negative iron balance and enhanced iron demand respectively causes deficient iron stores (prelatent iron deficiency) with increased iron absorption, later on decrease of serum iron and increase of transferrin (latent Fe deficiency) and at least iron deficient anemia (manifest iron deficiency). In prelatend iron deficiency diagnostic 59 Fe 2+ absorption is increased and the RES cells do not show storage iron cytochemically. In latent iron deficiency in addition serum iron, transferrin iron saturation and serum ferritin is decreased and hypochromic mikrocytic anemia completes the signs of manifest iron deficiency. Besides rare cases of primary hemochromatosis and marked hyperdasia of ineffective erythropoiesis in homocygotic beta-thalassemia, hereditary non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia caused by pyruvate kinase deficiency and some sideroblastic anemias increased 59 Fe 2+ absorption is a reliable measure of exhausted iron stores. In these exceptional cases differential diagnosis between sideroachrestic and siderosensitive iron deficiency anemia can be made by measurement of serum iron and serum ferritin respectively. The etiology of iron deficiency is to be cleared by measurement of 59 Fe absorption from 59 Fe 2+ and 59 Fe-marked meat with consecutive estimation of whole body 59 Fe elimination. Shortly after completion or during oral iron therapy serum ferritin concentration is not suitable to evaluate the content of iron stores. (orig.) [de

  12. Iron-chrome-aluminum alloy cladding for increasing safety in nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2017-12-01

    After a tsunami caused plant black out at Fukushima, followed by hydrogen explosions, the US Department of Energy partnered with fuel vendors to study safer alternatives to the current UO2-zirconium alloy system. This accident tolerant fuel alternative should better tolerate loss of cooling in the core for a considerably longer time while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operation conditions. General electric, Oak ridge national laboratory, and their partners are proposing to replace zirconium alloy cladding in current commercial light water power reactors with an iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) cladding such as APMT or C26M. Extensive testing and evaluation is being conducted to determine the suitability of FeCrAl under normal operation conditions and under severe accident conditions. Results show that FeCrAl has excellent corrosion resistance under normal operation conditions and FeCrAl is several orders of magnitude more resistant than zirconium alloys to degradation by superheated steam under accident conditions, generating less heat of oxidation and lower amount of combustible hydrogen gas. Higher neutron absorption and tritium release effects can be minimized by design changes. The implementation of FeCrAl cladding is a near term solution to enhance the safety of the current fleet of commercial light water power reactors.

  13. Increase in the selenium content of extra virgin olive oil: quantitative and qualitative implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Amato, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The biofortification of food crops for human consumption is a direct strategy increasing dietary intake of selenium (Se. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of increasing the Se content of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO by spraying the olive tree canopy with sodium selenate and the effect of the increase in Se on the chemical properties and sensory characteristics of the EVOO. Se treatments were up to 50 times more effective in enhancing Se content in the EVOO compared with the untreated controls. Se concentration in all the EVOO samples can be considered adequate and useful for providing the human diet with the correct dose of Se. Se-enriched EVOO showed a significant increase in pigment and phenol content. Also, Se treatment does not produce negative effects on fruit characteristics or the sensory quality of EVOO.La biofortificación de cultivos alimenticios para el consumo humano es una estrategia directa para aumentar la ingesta de selenio (Se en la dieta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la posibilidad de aumentar el contenido de Se en aceites de oliva virgen extra (AOVE pulverizando la copa de los olivos con selenato de sodio y el efecto del aumento en el contenido de Se en las propiedades químicas y características sensoriales del AOVE. Los tratamientos con Se fueron muy eficaces consiguiendo aumentar el contenido de Se en el AOVE hasta 50 veces más en comparación con los controles no tratados. La concentración de Se en todas las muestras EVOO puede considerarse adecuada y útil para proporcionar a la dieta humana con la dosis correcta de Se. EVOO-Se enriquecido mostró un aumento significativo en pigmentos y contenido de fenoles. Además, el tratamiento de Se no implica efectos negativos sobre caracteristicas frutales ni sobre la calidad sensorial de AOVE.

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age ... athletes. Athletes, especially young females, are at risk for iron deficiency. Endurance ...

  15. Exercise Training-Induced Adaptations Associated with Increases in Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuko; Gollisch, Katja S.C.; Holton, Laura; Kim, Young–Bum; Brandauer, Josef; Fujii, Nobuharu L.; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exercise training results in numerous skeletal muscle adaptations, including increases in insulin sensitivity and glycogen content. To understand the mechanism for increased muscle glycogen, we studied the effects of exercise training on glycogen regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Female Sprague Dawley rats performed voluntary wheel running for 1, 4, or 7 weeks. After 7 weeks of training, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased in epitrochlearis muscle. Compared to sedentary control rats, muscle glycogen did not change after 1 week of training, but increased significantly after 4 and 7 weeks. The increases in muscle glycogen were accompanied by elevated glycogen synthase activity and protein expression. To assess the regulation of glycogen synthase, we examined its major activator, protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), and its major deactivator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Consistent with glycogen synthase activity, PP1 activity was unchanged after 1 week of training but significantly increased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Protein expression of RGL(GM), another regulatory PP1 subunit, significantly decreased after 4 and 7 weeks of training. Unlike PP1, GSK3 phosphorylation did not follow the pattern of glycogen synthase activity. The ~40% decrease in GSK-3α phosphorylation after 1 week of exercise training persisted until 7 weeks and may function as a negative feedback to elevated glycogen. Our findings suggest that exercise training-induced increases in muscle glycogen content could be regulated by multiple mechanisms including enhanced insulin sensitivity, glycogen synthase expression, allosteric activation of glycogen synthase and PP1activity. PMID:23206309

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... iron-deficiency anemia may require intravenous (IV) iron therapy or a blood transfusion . Iron supplements Your doctor ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such ...

  18. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding. Recommended daily iron intake for children and adults. The table lists the recommended amounts of iron, ... increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. Unhealthy environments Children ...

  19. Iron fortification adversely affects the gut microbiome, increases pathogen abundance and induces intestinal inflammation in Kenyan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeggi, T.; Kortman, G.A.; Moretti, D.; Chassard, C.; Holding, P.; Dostal, A.; Boekhorst, J.; Timmerman, H.M.; Swinkels, D.W.; Tjalsma, H.; Njenga, J.; Mwangi, A.; Kvalsvig, J.; LaCroix, C.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In-home iron fortification for infants in developing countries is recommended for control of anaemia, but low absorption typically results in >80% of the iron passing into the colon. Iron is essential for growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria. We determined the effect of

  20. Development of a Dunaliella tertiolecta Strain with Increased Zeaxanthin Content Using Random Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjae; Ahn, Junhak; Jeon, Hancheol; Jin, EonSeon

    2017-06-21

    Zeaxanthin is a xanthophyll pigment that is regarded as one of the best carotenoids for the prevention and treatment of degenerative diseases. In the worldwide natural products market, consumers prefer pigments that have been produced from biological sources. In this study, a Dunaliella tertiolecta strain that has 10-15% higher cellular zeaxanthin content than the parent strain ( zea1 ), was obtained by random mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen. This mutant, mp3 , was grown under various salinities and light intensities to optimize culture conditions for zeaxanthin production. The highest cellular zeaxanthin content was observed at 1.5 M NaCl and 65-85 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 , and the highest daily zeaxanthin productivity was observed at 0.6 M NaCl and 140-160 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 . The maximal yield of zeaxanthin from mp3 in fed-batch culture was 8 mg·L -1 , which was obtained at 0.6 M NaCl and 140-160 μmol photons·m -2 ·s -1 . These results suggest that random mutagenesis with EMS is useful for generating D. tertiolecta strains with increased zeaxanthin content, and also suggest optimal culture conditions for the enhancement of biomass and zeaxanthin production by the zeaxanthin accumulating mutant strains.

  1. Clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, J.A.H.; Wollmer, P.; Bakker, W.; Hannappel, E.; Lachmann, B.

    1992-01-01

    The authors measured clearance of 99m Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) in rabbits with experimentally increased alveolar surfactant content. In one group of animals, surfactant production was increased by treatment with ambroxol, and another group of animals was treated with tracheal instillation of natural surfactant. A group of untreated control animals and animals treated with instillation of saline were also studied. Clearance was measured during standard conditions of mechanical ventilation and during ventilation with large tidal volumes. In ambroxol- and surfactant-treated groups, clearance rate was reduced compared with untreated control animals. In contrast, clearance rate increased after saline instillation. The differences were observed at both modes of ventilation. The findings indicate that the pulmonary surfactant system is a rate-limiting factor for the clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA and that the volume dependence of clearance is not explained by stretching of the alveolar wall only. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. [Increasing reductant NADPH content via metabolic engineering of PHB synthesis pathway in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yin

    2011-07-01

    Cyanobacteria have become attractive hosts for renewable chemicals production. The low productivity, however, prevents it from industrial application. Reductant NAD(P)H availability is a chief hurdle for the production of reductive metabolites in microbes. To increase NADPH content in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, PHB synthase encoding gene phaC and phaE in Synechocystis was inactivated by replacing phaC&E genes with chloromycetin resistance cassette via homologous recombination. PCR analysis showed that mutant S.delta phaC&E with complete genome segregation was generated. The comparison between growth curves of S.wt and S.delta phaC&E indicated the knockout of phaC & phaE genes did not affect obviously the cell growth. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the accumulation of PHB in wild type was about 2.3% of the dry cell weight, whereas no PHB was detected in the mutant S.delta phaC&E. The data indicated that inactivation of PHB synthase gene phaC and phaE interrupted the synthesis of PHB. Further comparative study of wild type and mutant demonstrated that NADPH content in S.delta phaC&E was obviously increased. On the third day, the NADPH content in S.delta phaC&E was up to 1.85 fold higher than that in wild type. These results indicated that deleting PHB synthase gene phaC and phaE not only can block the synthesis of PHB, but also can save NADPH to contribute reductant sink in cyanobacteria. Hence, the engineered cyanobacterial strain S.delta phaC&E, in which carbon flux was redirected and NADPH was increased, will be a potential host strain for chemicals production in cyanobacteria.

  3. Seed-specific overexpression of AtFAX1 increases seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yinshuai; Lv, Xueyan; Xie, Guilan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-02

    Biosynthesis of plant seed oil is accomplished through the coordinate action of multiple enzymes in multiple subcellular compartments. Fatty acid (FA) has to be transported from plastid to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for TAG synthesis. However, the role of plastid FA transportation during seed oil accumulation has not been evaluated. AtFAX1 (Arabidopsis fatty acid export1) mediated the FA export from plastid. In this study, we overexpressed AtFAX1 under the control of a seed specific promoter in Arabidopsis. The resultant overexpression lines (OEs) produced seeds which contained 21-33% more oil and 24-30% more protein per seed than those of the wild type (WT). The increased oil content was probably because of the enhanced FA and TAG synthetic activity. The seed size and weight were both increased accordingly. In addition, the seed number per silique and silique number per plant had no changes in transgenic plants. Taken together, our results demonstrated that seed specific overexpression of AtFAX1 could promote oil accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds and manipulating FA transportation is a feasible strategy for increasing the seed oil content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute isoproterenol induces anxiety-like behavior in rats and increases plasma content of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Giuseppina; Guescini, Michele; Genedani, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto; Carone, Chiara; Filaferro, Monica; Sisti, Davide; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Cortelli, Pietro; Guidolin, Diego; Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Several clinical observations have demonstrated a link between heart rate and anxiety or panic disorders. In these patients, β-adrenergic receptor function was altered. This prompted us to investigate whether the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, at a dose that stimulates peripheral β-adrenergic system but has no effects at the central nervous system, can induce anxiety-like behavior in rats. Moreover, some possible messengers involved in the peripheral to brain communication were investigated. Our results showed that isoproterenol (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) increased heart rate, evoked anxiety-like behavior, did not result in motor impairments and increased extracellular vesicle content in the blood. Plasma corticosterone level was unmodified as well as vesicular Hsp70 content. Vesicular miR-208 was also unmodified indicating a source of increased extracellular vesicles different from cardiomyocytes. We can hypothesize that peripheral extracellular vesicles might contribute to the β-adrenergic receptor-evoked anxiety-like behavior, acting as peripheral signals in modulating the mental state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Counter diffusion of zinc and iron in alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, R.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Half cell technique showed that an increase in moisture tension and CaCO 3 content caused reduction in the counter diffusion coefficients of zinc and iron in an alluvial soil. Increases in bulk density, ambient temperature and concentration of synthetic chelating agents e.g. EDTA and DTPA increased the counter diffusion coefficients of both zinc and iron. (author)

  6. Ceruloplasmin deficiency reduces levels of iron and BDNF in the cortex and striatum of young mice and increases their vulnerability to stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Texel

    Full Text Available Ceruloplasmin (Cp is an essential ferroxidase that plays important roles in cellular iron trafficking. Previous findings suggest that the proper regulation and subcellular localization of iron are very important in brain cell function and viability. Brain iron dyshomeostasis is observed during normal aging, as well as in several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, coincident with areas more susceptible to insults. Because of their high metabolic demand and electrical excitability, neurons are particularly vulnerable to ischemic injury and death. We therefore set out to look for abnormalities in the brain of young adult mice that lack Cp. We found that iron levels in the striatum and cerebral cortex of these young animals are significantly lower than wild-type (WT controls. Also mRNA levels of the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, known for its role in maintenance of cell viability, were decreased in these brain areas. Chelator-mediated depletion of iron in cultured neural cells resulted in reduced BDNF expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism, suggesting a causal link between low brain iron levels and reduced BDNF expression. When the mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion, a model of focal ischemic stroke, we found increased brain damage in Cp-deficient mice compared to WT controls. Our data indicate that lack of Cp increases neuronal susceptibility to ischemic injury by a mechanism that may involve reduced levels of iron and BDNF.

  7. Increased Leg Bone Mineral Density and Content During the Initial Years of College Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerpella, John J; Buehring, Bjoern; Hetzel, Scott J; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2018-04-01

    Scerpella, JJ, Buehring, B, Hetzel, SJ, and Heiderscheit, BC. Increased leg bone mineral density and content during the initial years of college sport. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1123-1130, 2018-Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) data are useful parameters for evaluating how training practices promote bone health. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to longitudinally assess sport-specific growth in leg and total body BMD/BMC over the initial 2 years of collegiate training. Eighty-five Division 1 collegiate basketball, hockey, and soccer athletes (50 males and 35 females; age 19.0 [0.8] years) underwent annual DXA scans. Leg and total body BMD/BMC were compared within and across two 1-year intervals (periods 1 and 2) using repeated-measures analysis of variance, adjusting for age, sex, race, and sport. Leg BMD, leg BMC, and total body BMC all increased over period 1 (0.05 g·cm [p = 0.001], 0.07 kg [p = 0.002], and 0.19 kg [p BMC (p BMC (p = 0.005). Leg lean mass increased more during period 2 than period 1 (p = 0.018). Sports participation was the only significant predictor of change in leg BMD. Significant increases in both leg BMD and BMC were demonstrated over both 2-year periods, with greater gains during period 1. These gains highlight the importance of attentive training procedures, capitalizing on attendant physical benefits of increased BMD/BMC. Additional research in young adults, evaluating bone mass acquisition, will optimize performance and decrease risk of bone stress injury among collegiate athletes.

  8. Expression of β-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the aetiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β-glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript were confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometer data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (per g DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to five-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. This study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes' density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Expression of Beta-glucosidase increases trichome density and artemisinin content in transgenic Artemisia annua plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Kumar, Shashi; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin is highly effective against multidrug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, the etiological agent of the most severe form of malaria. However, a low level of accumulation of artemisinin in Artemisia annua is a major limitation for its production and delivery to malaria endemic areas of the world. While several strategies to enhance artemisinin have been extensively explored, enhancing storage capacity in trichome has not yet been considered. Therefore, trichome density was increased with the expression of β glucosidase (bgl1) gene in A. annua through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene (bgl1) integration and transcript was confirmed by molecular analysis. Trichome density increased up to 20% in leaves and 66% in flowers of BGL1 transgenic plants than Artemisia control plants. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, MS-TOF) data showed that artemisinin content increased up to 1.4% in leaf and 2.56% in flowers (g-1DW), similar to the highest yields achieved so far through metabolic engineering. Artemisinin was enhanced up to 5-fold in BGL1 transgenic flowers. The present study opens the possibility of increasing artemisinin content by manipulating trichomes density, which is a major reservoir of artemisinin. Combining biosynthetic pathway engineering with enhancing trichome density may further increase artemisinin yield in A. annua. Because oral feeding of Artemisia plant cells reduced parasitemia more efficiently than the purified drug, reduced drug resistance and cost of prohibitively expensive purification process, enhanced expression should play a key role in making this valuable drug affordable to treat malaria in a large global population that disproportionally impacts low-socioeconomic areas and underprivileged children. PMID:26360801

  10. Predicted net efflux of radiocarbon from the ocean and increase in atmospheric radiocarbon content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Rau, Greg H.; Duffy, Philip B.

    Prior to changes introduced by man, production of radiocarbon (14C) in the stratosphere nearly balanced the flux of 14C from the atmosphere to the ocean and land biosphere, which in turn nearly balanced radioactive decay in these 14C reservoirs. This balance has been altered by land-use changes, fossil-fuel burning, and atmospheric nuclear detonations. Here, we use a model of the global carbon cycle to quantify these radiocarbon fluxes and make predictions about their magnitude in the future. Atmospheric nuclear detonations increased atmospheric 14C content by about 80% by the mid-1960's. Since that time, the 14C content of the atmosphere has been diminishing as this bomb radiocarbon has been entering the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. However, we predict that atmospheric 14C content will reach a minimum and start to increase within the next few years if fossil-fuel burning continues according to a “business-as-usual” scenario, even though fossil fuels are devoid of 14C. This will happen because fossil-fuel carbon diminishes the net flux of 14C from the atmosphere to the oceans and land biosphere, forcing 14C to accumulate in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the net flux of both bomb and natural 14C into the ocean are predicted to continue to slow and then, in the middle of the next century, to reverse, so that there will be a net flux of 14C from the ocean to the atmosphere. The predicted reversal of net 14C fluxes into the ocean is a further example of human impacts on the global carbon cycle.

  11. Increasing the amylose content of durum wheat through silencing of the SBEIIa genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masci Stefania

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High amylose starch has attracted particular interest because of its correlation with the amount of Resistant Starch (RS in food. RS plays a role similar to fibre with beneficial effects for human health, providing protection from several diseases such as colon cancer, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Amylose content can be modified by a targeted manipulation of the starch biosynthetic pathway. In particular, the inactivation of the enzymes involved in amylopectin synthesis can lead to the increase of amylose content. In this work, genes encoding starch branching enzymes of class II (SBEIIa were silenced using the RNA interference (RNAi technique in two cultivars of durum wheat, using two different methods of transformation (biolistic and Agrobacterium. Expression of RNAi transcripts was targeted to the seed endosperm using a tissue-specific promoter. Results Amylose content was markedly increased in the durum wheat transgenic lines exhibiting SBEIIa gene silencing. Moreover the starch granules in these lines were deformed, possessing an irregular and deflated shape and being smaller than those present in the untransformed controls. Two novel granule bound proteins, identified by SDS-PAGE in SBEIIa RNAi lines, were investigated by mass spectrometry and shown to have strong homologies to the waxy proteins. RVA analysis showed new pasting properties associated with high amylose lines in comparison with untransformed controls. Finally, pleiotropic effects on other starch genes were found by semi-quantitative and Real-Time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Conclusion We have found that the silencing of SBEIIa genes in durum wheat causes obvious alterations in granule morphology and starch composition, leading to high amylose wheat. Results obtained with two different methods of transformation and in two durum wheat cultivars were comparable.

  12. Effect of increasing helium content and disk dwarfs evolution on the chemical enrichment of the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caimmi, R [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-07-01

    The author deals with two main effects: First the empirical metal abundance distribution in Main Sequence disk dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood, and second, the theoretical possibility of (i) an increased helium content as the Galaxy evolves, and (ii) the presence of evolutionary effects in disk dwarfs (i.e., the age of some or all stars considered up to the subgiant phase is not necessarily longer than the age of the galactic disk). Account is taken of a linear increase of helium content with metal content, and some constraints are imposed relative to initial, solar and present-day observed values of Y and Z, and to observed relative helium to heavy element enrichment, ..delta..Y/..delta..Z. In this way, little influence is found on the empirical metal abundance distribution in the range 0<=..delta..Y/..delta..Z<=3, while larger values of ..delta..Y/..delta..Zwould lead to a more significant influence. 'Evolved' and 'unevolved' theoretical metal abundance distributions are derived by accounting for a two-phase model of chemical evolution of galaxies and for a linear mass dependence of star lifetimes in the spectral range G2V-G8V and are compared with the empirical distribution. All are in satisfactory agreement due to systematic shift data by different observations; several values of collapse time Tsub(c) and age of the Galaxy T are also considered. Finally, models of chemical evolution invoking homogeneous collapse without infall and inhomogeneous collapse with infall, are briefly discussed relative to the empirical metal abundance distribution in Main Sequence disk dwarfs of the solar neighbourhood.

  13. Radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies is associated with increased salivary platelet-activating factor content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavaty, T.E.; Fisher, R.; Robbins, M.E.C.; Wheeler, J.; Funk, G.; Hussey, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Oral mucositis, characterized by pronounced erythema, edema, atrophy, and ulceration, remains a common complication of radiotherapeutic treatment of head and neck malignancies. These radiation-induced morbidities can cause a temporary cessation or indeed reduction in the extent of radiotherapy dose employed, compromising the likelihood of tumor cure. The precise pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of radiation mucositis remain ill-defined. Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a pivotal mediator of acute inflammatory reactions, has been implicated in radiation-induced mucositis (McManus et al Lab Invest 68:118-124 1993). However, these data are limited in terms both of patient numbers, and time-course. The present study evaluated saliva PAF levels in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies in terms of levels prior to, during, and after the completion of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Saliva samples (1-2 mL) were obtained from 14 patients with oral cancer, and from 14 control non-malignant individuals. Saliva samples from the oral cancer patients were collected prior to the initiation of treatment, after the administration of 30 Gy, and at the completion of the course of radiotherapy. PAF was extracted from the saliva samples using a chloroform methanol mixture (2:1). Further purification was accomplished by washing the extracts through silica minicolumns. Measurements of PAF content were performed using a scintillation proximity assay system (Amersham, UK). This combined the use of a high specific activity 3 H-PAF with an antibody specific for PAF. Results: The PAF content of saliva obtained from patients prior to the initiation of radiotherapy was 226 ± 55 ng/mL, (mean ± SE). This was significantly greater than the value of 25 ± 11 ng/mL (p value = 0.003; 2-tail t test) measured in the saliva from the control individuals. Irradiation was associated with a significant increase in the PAF content of saliva

  14. Increasing the protein content of meals and its effect on daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Alexandria D; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    High-protein preloads have been shown to enhance satiety, but little is known about the satiating effects of protein in more typical situations when meals are consumed ad libitum. To investigate the effects of protein in amounts commonly consumed over a day, a crossover study was conducted in 2008. In this experiment, 18 normal-weight women consumed ad libitum lunch and dinner entrées 1 day a week that were covertly varied in protein content (10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, or 30% energy). Entrées were manipulated by substituting animal protein for starchy ingredients and were matched for energy density, fat content, palatability, and appearance. Unmanipulated breakfasts and evening snacks were consumed ad libitum. Participants rated their hunger and fullness before and after meals as well as the taste and appearance of entrées. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model. Results showed that mean 24-hour protein intake increased significantly across conditions, from 44±2 g/day in the 10% protein condition to 82±6 g/day in the 30% condition. Daily energy intake did not differ significantly across the 10% to 30% protein conditions (means 1,870±93, 1,887±93, 1,848±111, 1,876±100, and 1,807±98 kcal in the 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% energy groups, respectively). There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings across conditions or in taste and appearance ratings of the manipulated entrées. This study showed that varying the protein content of several entrées consumed ad libitum did not differentially influence daily energy intake or affect ratings of satiety. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental hypothyroidism increases content of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, J; Ciosek, J; Slotwinska, D; Stempniak, B; Zukowska, D; Marczynski, A; Tosik, D; Bartel, H; Dabrowski, R; Szczepanowska, A

    2009-09-01

    The connective tissue matrix of the heart remains under regulatory influence of the thyroid hormones. Some conflicting data describe the connective tissue changes in subjects with thyroid gland disorders. The aim of the study was to assess the changes of the connective tissue accumulation in the heart of rats in the state of hypothyroidism and to answer the question whether TSH is involved in mechanism of the observed phenomena. Hypothyroidism in rats was induced by methylotiouracil treatment or by thyreoidectomy. The thyroid hormones [freeT3 (fT3), freeT4 (fT4)] and pituitary TSH were measured in plasma with radioimmunological method. The glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and total collagen were measured in heart muscle of both left and right ventricles. Cells from the rat's heart were isolated and cultured. The cells were identified as myofibroblasts by electron microscopy method. The effects of TSH in concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 20 mIU/ml, on connective tissue accumulation in heart myofibroblasts cultures were tested. The primary hypothyroidism was developed both in groups with thyroidectomy and with methylthiouracil. The levels of fT3 and fT4 both in rats with thyreoidectomy and animals treated with methylthiouracil were decreased and TSH level in these two experimental groups was elevated. In the heart of the rats with experimental hypothyroidism increased content of both GAG and collagen was found. Myofibroblast number in culture was increased by TSH. Regardless of the method of its induction, hypothyroidism increased collagen and GAG contents in the heart. TSH is not involved in regulation of collagen and glycosaminoglycans accumulation in the heart of rats affected with primary hypothyroidism.

  16. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. Pt. 1. Intestinal absorption of iron in rat rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronicka, E.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on iron 59 Fe absorption in rats with experimental rickets. It was found that rats with rickets as compared with controls do not show any significant differences in the degree of iron absorption in fasting state. The percent of absorbed iron increases when it is administered after previous feeding of rats. A greater rise in iron absorption after feeding was shown also by rats with rickets. On the other hand, administration of a shock dose of vitamin D at the time of rickets development causes after 7 days a significant decrease in total iron absorption given to fed rats. An excess of calcium in the diet of rats does not seem to impair directly the absorption of iron. The possibility of the causative effect of vitamin D deficiency on the composition of intestinal contents on changes in the degree of iron absorption observed after feeding of rats with rickets, is discussed. (author)

  17. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. I. Intestinal absorption of iron in rat rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronicka, E [Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on iron /sup 59/Fe absorption in rats with experimental rickets. It was found that rats with rickets as compared with controls do not show any significant differences in the degree of iron absorption in fasting state. The percent of absorbed iron increases when it is administered after previous feeding of rats. A greater rise in iron absorption after feeding was shown also by rats with rickets. On the other hand, administration of a shock dose of vitamin D at the time of rickets development causes after 7 days a significant decrease in total iron absorption given to fed rats. An excess of calcium in the diet of rats does not seem to impair directly the absorption of iron. The possibility of the causative effect of vitamin D deficiency on the composition of intestinal contents on changes in the degree of iron absorption observed after feeding of rats with rickets, is discussed.

  18. Personalized Social Network Activity Feeds for Increased Interaction and Content Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo eBerkovsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks were originally conceived as means of sharing information and activities with friends, and their success has been one of the primary contributors of the tremendous growth of the Web. Social network activity feeds were devised as a means to aggregate recent actions of friends into a convenient list. But the volume of actions and content generated by social network users is overwhelming, such that keeping users up-to-date with friend activities is an ongoing challenge for social network providers. Personalization has been proposed as a solution to combat social network information overload and help users to identify the nuggets of relevant information in the incoming flood of network activities. In this paper, we propose and thoroughly evaluate a personalized model for predicting the relevance of the activity feed items, which informs the ranking of the feeds and facilitates personalization. Results of a live study show that the proposed feed personalization approach successfully identifies and promotes relevant feed items and boosts the uptake of the feeds. In addition, it increases the contribution of user-generated content to the social network and spurs interaction between users.

  19. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  20. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  1. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  2. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  3. A higher proportion of Iron-Rich leafy vegatables in a typical burkinabe maize meal does not increase the amount of iron absorbed in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cercamondi, C.I.; Icard-Verniere, C.; Egli, I.; Vernay, M.; Hama, F.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Food-to-food fortification can be a promising approach to improve the low dietary iron intake and bioavailability from monotonous diets based on a small number of staple plant foods. In Burkina Faso, the common diet consists of a thick, cereal-based paste consumed with sauces composed of mainly

  4. Relation between feeding mechanisms and solidification mode in 380 aluminium alloy with different iron contents; Relacion entre los mecanismos de alimentacion y el modo de solidificacion en una aleacion de aluminio 380 con distintos contenidos de hierro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovio, D. O.; Gonzalez, A.C.; Mugica, G. W.; Cuyas, J. C.

    2003-07-01

    In the present work the effect of iron (0.15, 0.42 and 0.86%) content in feeding mechanisms for 380 aluminium alloy has been studied. The feeding capacity has been evaluated by a device that produces a barrier removable to allowing the movement of the inter dendritic liquid. The results show the flow of different quantity of liquid, it depends of the temperature of operating the device and of the iron content. For minimum and maximum iron content, the inter dendritic and bursts feeding mechanisms are fundamentally involved, for 0.42% of iron the feeding mechanisms was the inter dendritic. The authors establish this behavior by the solidification mode of alloy, which promotes the presence of particles of Si or plates of b-Al{sub 3}FeDi phase, in the inter dendritic channels and produce the different feeding mechanisms. (Author) 15 refs.

  5. Students using mobile phones in the classroom: Can the phones increase content learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, David Lee

    A study was conducted at a high-performing school in Southern California to explore the effects on learning content from students using their own smart phones in and out of the classroom. The study used a Switching Replications design format which allowed two independent analyses of posttest scores between a group using e-flash cards on smart phones and a group using paper flash cards. Quantitative data was collected via two tailed, t-tests and qualitative data was collected through observations and interviews. Results suggest that knowledge level learning may be increased with mobile phone use, but no effect on comprehension level learning was found. Students found the phones to be convenient in accessing flash cards anytime and anywhere. Enthusiasm for using the phones in class while initially high waned over the 1 month study duration. Students perceived the phones to not be a significant source of distraction outside of class.

  6. Large particles increase viscosity and yield stress of pig cecal contents without changing basic viscoelastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru; Sakata, Takashi

    2002-05-01

    The viscosity of gut contents should influence digestion and absorption. Earlier investigators measured the viscosity of intestinal contents after the removal of solid particles. However, we previously found that removal of solid particles from pig cecal contents dramatically lowered the viscosity of the contents. Accordingly, we examined the contribution of large solid particles to viscoelastic parameters of gut contents in the present study. We removed large particles from pig cecal contents by filtration through surgical gauze. Then, we reconstructed the cecal contents by returning all, one half or none of the original amount of the large particles to the filtrate. We measured the viscosity, shear stress and shear rate of these reconstructed cecal contents using a tube-flow viscometer. The coefficient of viscosity was larger when the large-particle content was higher (P Bingham plastic nature irrespective of large-particle content. We calculated the yield stress of these fluids assuming that the fluids behave as Bingham plastic. The yield stress of the cecal contents was greater (P Bingham plastic characteristics to pig cecal contents.

  7. The hydroxypyridinone iron chelator CP94 increases methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic cell killing by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuktee Dogra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl-aminolevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT is utilised clinically for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers and pre-cancers and the hydroxypyridinone iron chelator, CP94, has successfully been demonstrated to increase MAL-PDT efficacy in an initial clinical pilot study. However, the biochemical and photochemical processes leading to CP94-enhanced photodynamic cell death, beyond the well-documented increases in accumulation of the photosensitiser protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, have not yet been fully elucidated. This investigation demonstrated that MAL-based photodynamic cell killing of cultured human squamous carcinoma cells (A431 occurred in a predominantly necrotic manner following the generation of singlet oxygen and ROS. Augmenting MAL-based photodynamic cell killing with CP94 co-treatment resulted in increased PpIX accumulation, MitoSOX-detectable ROS generation (probably of mitochondrial origin and necrotic cell death, but did not affect singlet oxygen generation. We also report (to our knowledge, for the first time the detection of intracellular PpIX-generated singlet oxygen in whole cells via electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in conjunction with a spin trap.

  8. Iron-biofortified rice improves the iron stores of nonanemic Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jere D; Beard, John L; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; del Mundo, Angelita M; Felix, Angelina; Gregorio, Glenn B

    2005-12-01

    Iron deficiency is endemic in much of the world, and food system-based approaches to eradication may be viable with new plant breeding approaches to increase the micronutrient content in staple crops. It is thought that conventional plant breeding approaches provide varieties of rice that have 400-500% higher iron contents than varieties commonly consumed in much of Asia. The efficacy of consuming high-iron rice was tested during a 9-mo feeding trial with a double-blind dietary intervention in 192 religious sisters living in 10 convents around metro Manila, the Philippines. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either high-iron rice (3.21 mg/kg Fe) or a local variety of control rice (0.57 mg/kg Fe), and daily food consumption was monitored. The high-iron rice contributed 1.79 mg Fe/d to the diet in contrast to 0.37 mg Fe/d from the control rice. The 17% difference in total dietary iron consumption compared with controls (10.16 +/- 1.06 vs. 8.44 +/- 1.82 mg/d) resulted in a modest increase in serum ferritin (P = 0.10) and total body iron (P = 0.06) and no increase in hemoglobin (P = 0.59). However, the response was greater in nonanemic subjects for ferritin (P = 0.02) and body iron (P = 0.05), representing a 20% increase after controlling for baseline values and daily rice consumption. The greatest improvements in iron status were seen in those nonanemic women who had the lowest baseline iron status and in those who consumed the most iron from rice. Consumption of biofortified rice, without any other changes in diet, is efficacious in improving iron stores of women with iron-poor diets in the developing world.

  9. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  10. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  11. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Kasbohm, J.

    2001-10-01

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m 3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  13. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Zinc, iron, manganese and copper uptake requirement in response to nitrogen supply and the increased grain yield of summer maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xue

    Full Text Available The relationships between grain yields and whole-plant accumulation of micronutrients such as zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu in maize (Zea mays L. were investigated by studying their reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs, g of micronutrient requirement in plant dry matter per Mg of grain. Field experiments were conducted from 2008 to 2011 in North China to evaluate RIEs and shoot micronutrient accumulation dynamics during different growth stages under different yield and nitrogen (N levels. Fe, Mn and Cu RIEs (average 64.4, 18.1 and 5.3 g, respectively were less affected by the yield and N levels. ZnRIE increased by 15% with an increased N supply but decreased from 36.3 to 18.0 g with increasing yield. The effect of cultivars on ZnRIE was similar to that of yield ranges. The substantial decrease in ZnRIE may be attributed to an increased Zn harvest index (from 41% to 60% and decreased Zn concentrations in straw (a 56% decrease and grain (decreased from 16.9 to 12.2 mg kg-1 rather than greater shoot Zn accumulation. Shoot Fe, Mn and Cu accumulation at maturity tended to increase but the proportions of pre-silking shoot Fe, Cu and Zn accumulation consistently decreased (from 95% to 59%, 90% to 71% and 91% to 66%, respectively. The decrease indicated the high reproductive-stage demands for Fe, Zn and Cu with the increasing yields. Optimized N supply achieved the highest yield and tended to increase grain concentrations of micronutrients compared to no or lower N supply. Excessive N supply did not result in any increases in yield or micronutrient nutrition for shoot or grain. These results indicate that optimized N management may be an economical method of improving micronutrient concentrations in maize grain with higher grain yield.

  15. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products positively correlate with iron overload and oxidative stress markers in patients with β-thalassemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlohi, Maryam Sadat; Yaghooti, Hamid; Shirali, Saeed; Aminasnafi, Ali; Olapour, Samaneh

    2018-04-01

    The impaired biosynthesis of the β-globin chain in β-thalassemia leads to the accumulation of unpaired alpha globin chains, failure in hemoglobin formation, and iron overload due to frequent blood transfusion. Iron excess causes oxidative stress and massive tissue injuries. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are harmful agents, and their production accelerates in oxidative conditions. This study was conducted on 45 patients with major β-thalassemia who received frequent blood transfusions and chelation therapy and were compared to 40 healthy subjects. Metabolic parameters including glycemic and iron indices, hepatic and renal functions tests, oxidative stress markers, and AGEs (carboxymethyl-lysine and pentosidine) levels were measured. All parameters were significantly increased in β-thalassemia compared to the control except for glutathione levels. Blood glucose, iron, serum ferritin, non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), MDA, soluble form of low-density lipoprotein receptor, glutathione peroxidase, total reactive oxygen species (ROS), and AGE levels were significantly higher in the β-thalassemia patients. Iron and ferritin showed a significant positive correlation with pentosidine (P overload in β-thalassemia major patients and highlight the enhanced formation of AGEs, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of β-thalassemia major.

  16. Nicotianamine synthase overexpression positively modulates iron homeostasis-related genes in high iron rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eWang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one-third of the world population, mostly women and children, suffer from iron malnutrition and its consequences, such as anemia or impaired mental development. Biofortification of rice, which is a staple crop for nearly half of the world’s population, can significantly contribute in alleviating iron deficiency. NFP rice (transgenic rice expressing nicotianamine synthase, ferritin and phytase genes has a more than six-fold increase in iron content in polished rice grains, resulting from the synergistic action of nicotianamine synthase (NAS and ferritin transgenes. We investigated iron homeostasis in NFP plants by analyzing the expression of 28 endogenous rice genes known to be involved in the homeostasis of iron and other metals, in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient conditions. RNA was collected from different tissues (roots, flag leaves, grains and at three developmental stages during grain filling. NFP plants showed increased sensitivity to iron-deficiency conditions and changes in the expression of endogenous genes involved in nicotianamine (NA metabolism, in comparison to their non-transgenic siblings. Elevated transcript levels were detected in NFP plants for several iron transporters. In contrast, expression of OsYSL2, which encodes a member of Yellow Stripe-like protein family, and a transporter of the NA-Fe(II complex was reduced in NFP plants under low iron conditions, indicating that expression of OsYSL2 is regulated by the endogenous iron status. Expression of the transgenes did not significantly affect overall iron homeostasis in NFP plants, which establishes the engineered push-pull mechanism as a suitable strategy to increase rice endosperm iron content.

  17. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  18. Electrochemical study of the increased antioxidant capacity of flavonoids through complexation with iron(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porfírio, Demóstenes Amorim; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz; Malagutti, Andréa Renata; Valle, Eliana Maíra Agostini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal-Flavonoid complexes exhibit greater antioxidant capacity than the free flavonoid;. • Voltammetric profile is an additional information for determining antioxidant capacity;. • Pyrogallol group is a stronger complex-forming group than the catechol;. • Morin, quercetin and fisetin increased their antioxidant capacity in 15%, 32% and 28%, respectively. - Abstract: Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants in the human body through various mechanisms, with an emphasis on suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by inhibiting enzymes, the direct capture of ROS, and the regulation/protection of antioxidant defenses. Additionally, flavonoids can coordinate with transition metals to catalyze electron transport and promote free radical capture. Recently, metal ion chelation mechanisms have generated considerable interest, as experimental data show that flavonoids in metal complexes exhibit greater antioxidant activity than free flavonoids. However, few studies have correlated the complexing properties of flavonoids with their antioxidant capacity. Thus, the aim of this study was to use the CRAC (Ceric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) electrochemical assay to measure the antioxidant capacity of five free flavonoids and Fe 2+ -flavonoid complexes. In addition, the interactions between the flavonoids and Fe 2+ were analyzed based on the oxidation peaks formed in their cyclic voltammograms

  19. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  20. Age dynamics of zinc and iron contents in human hair determined by INAA and ICP-ES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In last decades, the determination of chemical element levels in human hair has been a subject of continual interest in the forensic, clinical, occupational and environmental medicine. Hair has been increasingly used as a monitor for many elements and has been proposed for assessing environmental exposure, nutritional status, and for diagnosis of disease. It has many advantages for assessment over the more traditional kinds of medical objects such as blood and urine because of ease of collection, transport and storage. Also, trace element concentrations in hair samples represent an integrated response over time compared with blood and urine levels, which can rapidly fluctuate in response to variations of nutritional and environmental conditions. The fact that contents of many chemical elements in hair are relatively high also facilitates the analysis. It is known that the result of the hair analysis may not directly relate to the intake amount, nor does it always reflect the amount actually absorbed. Despite these limitations, the analysis of human hair can still provide a basis for estimating ambient exposure to certain elements. The first step in construction of such basis is investigations the national population normal levels of chemical element contents in hair related to sex, age and some other factors under quality control of results. The objectives of this analytical work were to evaluate the reference range of Zn and Fe in adult scalp hair and to evaluate the effect of age and sex on elemental contents. In this study, head hair samples from adult health persons living in or near Obninsk (the small city in rural region 105 km south-west Moscow), were analysed by two methods in three analytical laboratories: instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA - one laboratory) and atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ISP-AES - two laboratories). Scalp hair samples were obtained at necropsy from eighty-three cadavers (38 women

  1. Effects of Protein-Iron Complex Concentrate Supplementation on Iron Metabolism, Oxidative and Immune Status in Preweaning Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kupczyński

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding protein-iron complex (PIC on productive performance and indicators of iron metabolism, hematology parameters, antioxidant and immune status during first 35 days of a calf’s life. Preparation of the complex involved enzymatic hydrolysis of milk casein (serine protease from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast. Iron chloride was then added to the hydrolyzate and lyophilizate. Calves were divided into treated groups: LFe (low iron dose 10 g/day calf of protein-iron complex, HFe (height iron dose 20 g/day calf, and control group. Dietary supplements containing the lower dose of concentrate had a significant positive effect on iron metabolism, while the higher dose of concentrate resulted in increase of total iron binding capacity (TIBC, saturation of transferrin and decrease of and unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC, which suggest iron overload. Additionally, treatment with the lower dose of iron remarkably increased the antioxidant parameters, mainly total antioxidant (TAS and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Higher doses of PIC were related to lower total antioxidant status. IgG, IgM, insulin, glucose, TNFα and IGF-1 concentration did not change significantly in either group after supplementation. In practice, the use of protein-iron complex concentrate requires taking into account the iron content in milk replacers and other feedstuffs.

  2. Bacterial bioeffectors modify bioactive profile and increase isoflavone content in soybean sprouts (Glycine max var Osumi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algar, Elena; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz; García-Villaraco, Ana; Sierra, M Dolores Saco; Gómez, M Soledad Martín; Gutiérrez-Mañero, F Javier

    2013-09-01

    The effect of two bacterial strains to enhance bioactive contents (total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and isoflavones) and antioxidant activity on 3-day-old soybean sprouts were investigated. To identify bacterial determinants responsible for these effects, viable and UV-treated strains were delivered to wounded seeds at different concentration. Multivariate analysis performed with all the evaluated parameters indicated the different effectiveness of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia N5.18 and Pseudomonas fluorescens N21.4 based on different structural and metabolic determinants for each. N21.4 increased total phenolics and isoflavones from the genistein family, while N5.18 triggered biosynthesis of daidzein and genistein families coupled to a decrease in total phenolics, suggesting different molecular targets in the phenilpropanoid pathway. Only extracts from N5.18 treated seeds showed an improved antioxidant activity according to the β-carotene bleaching prevention method. In summary, bioeffectors from both bacterial strains are effective tools to improve soybean sprouts quality; structural elicitors from N5.18 also enhanced antioxidant activity, being the best alternative for further development of a biotechnological procedure.

  3. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Tina; Shandas, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA) and Poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices. PMID:29707382

  4. Decreased Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Content Contributes to Increased Survival in Human Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Oraldi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Among diet components, some fatty acids are known to affect several stages of colon carcinogenesis, whereas others are probably helpful in preventing tumors. In light of this, our aim was to determine the composition of fatty acids and the possible correlation with apoptosis in human colon carcinoma specimens at different Duke's stages and to evaluate the effect of enriching human colon cancer cell line with the possible reduced fatty acid(s. Specimens of carcinoma were compared with the corresponding non-neoplastic mucosa: a significant decrease of arachidonic acid, PPARα, Bad, and Bax and a significant increase of COX-2, Bcl-2, and pBad were found. The importance of arachidonic acid in apoptosis was demonstrated by enriching a Caco-2 cell line with this fatty acid. It induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner via induction of PPARα that, in turn, decreased COX-2. In conclusion, the reduced content of arachidonic acid is likely related to carcinogenic process decreasing the susceptibility of cancer cells to apoptosis.

  5. Shape Memory Polymers Containing Higher Acrylate Content Display Increased Endothelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Govindarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs are smart materials that can recall their shape upon the application of a stimulus, which makes them appealing materials for a variety of applications, especially in biomedical devices. Most prior SMP research has focused on tuning bulk properties; studying surface effects of SMPs may extend the use of these materials to blood-contacting applications, such as cardiovascular stents, where surfaces that support rapid endothelialization have been correlated to stent success. Here, we evaluate endothelial attachment onto the surfaces of a family of SMPs previously developed in our group that have shown promise for biomedical devices. Nine SMP formulations containing varying amounts of tert-Butyl acrylate (tBA and Poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA were analyzed for endothelial cell attachment. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, contact angle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to verify bulk and surface properties of the SMPs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC attachment and viability was verified using fluorescent methods. Endothelial cells preferentially attached to SMPs with higher tBA content, which have rougher, more hydrophobic surfaces. HUVECs also displayed an increased metabolic activity on these high tBA SMPs over the course of the study. This class of SMPs may be promising candidates for next generation blood-contacting devices.

  6. Running speed in mammals increases with muscle n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ruf

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are important dietary components that mammals cannot synthesize de novo. Beneficial effects of PUFAs, in particular of the n-3 class, for certain aspects of animal and human health (e.g., cardiovascular function are well known. Several observations suggest, however, that PUFAs may also affect the performance of skeletal muscles in vertebrates. For instance, it has been shown that experimentally n-6 PUFA-enriched diets increase the maximum swimming speed in salmon. Also, we recently found that the proportion of PUFAs in the muscle phospholipids of an extremely fast runner, the brown hare (Lepus europaeus, are very high compared to other mammals. Therefore, we predicted that locomotor performance, namely running speed, should be associated with differences in muscle fatty acid profiles. To test this hypothesis, we determined phospholipid fatty acid profiles in skeletal muscles of 36 mammalian species ranging from shrews to elephants. We found that there is indeed a general positive, surprisingly strong relation between the n-6 PUFAs content in muscle phospholipids and maximum running speed of mammals. This finding suggests that muscle fatty acid composition directly affects a highly fitness-relevant trait, which may be decisive for the ability of animals to escape from predators or catch prey.

  7. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeant, C. E-mail: sergeant@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F

    2003-09-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5{sup '} and 3{sup '} untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport.

  8. Iron, transferrin and myelinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Deves, G.; Baron, B.; Guillou, F.

    2003-01-01

    Transferrin (Tf), the iron binding protein of vertebrates serum, is known to be synthesized by oligodendrocytes (Ols) in the central nervous system. It has been postulated that Tf is involved in Ols maturation and myelinogenesis. This link is particularly important in the understanding of a severe human pathology: the multiple sclerosis, which remains without efficient treatment. We generated transgenic mice containing the complete human Tf gene and extensive regulatory sequences from the 5 ' and 3 ' untranslated regions that specifically overexpress Tf in Ols. Brain cytoarchitecture of the transgenic mice appears to be normal in all brain regions examined, total myelin content is increased by 30% and motor coordination is significantly improved when compared with non-transgenic littermates. Tf role in the central nervous system may be related to its affinity for metallic cations. Normal and transgenic mice were used for determination of trace metals (iron, copper and zinc) and minerals (potassium and calcium) concentration in cerebellum and corpus callosum. The freeze-dried samples were prepared to allow proton-induced X-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analyses with the nuclear microprobe in Bordeaux. Preliminary results were obtained and carbon distribution was revealed as a very good analysis to distinguish precisely the white matter region. A comparison of metallic and mineral elements contents in brain between normal and transgenic mice shows that iron, copper and zinc levels remained constant. This result provides evidence that effects of Tf overexpression in the brain do not solely relate to iron transport

  9. Aeration to degas CO{sub 2}, increase pH, and increase iron oxidation rates for efficient treatment of net alkaline mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, C.S.; Dennis, A.; Kahler, A. [Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2009-07-15

    Passive treatment systems for mine drainage use no energy other than gravity, but they require greater area than active treatment systems. Researchers are considering 'hybrid' systems that have passive and active components for increased efficiency, especially where space limitations render passive-only technology ineffective. Flow-through reactor field experiments were conducted at two large net-alkaline anthracite mine discharges in central Pennsylvania. Assuming an Fe removal rate of 20 g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and Fe loading from field data, 3.6 x 10{sup 3} and 3.0 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2} oxidation ponds would be required for the passive treatment of Site 21 and Packer 5 discharges, respectively. However, only a small area is available at each site. This paper demonstrates aeration to drive off CO{sub 2}, increase pH, and increase Fe(II) oxidation rates, enabling treatment within a small area compared to passive treatment methods, and introduces a geochemical model to accurately predict these rates as well as semi-passive treatment system sizing parameters. Iron(II) oxidation modeling of actively aerated systems predicted that a 1-m deep pond with 10 times less area than estimated for passive treatment would lower Fe(II) concentrations to less than 1 mg L-1 at summer and winter temperatures for both sites. The use of active aeration for treatment Of CO{sub 2}-rich, net-alkaline discharges (including partially treated effluent from anoxic limestone drains) can result in considerably reduced treatment area for oxidation and may lower treatment costs, but settling of Fe hydroxides was not considered in this study. The reduced capital cost for earthmoving will need to be compared to energy and maintenance costs for aeration.

  10. Increased bioactive lipids content in human subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue correlates with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Baranowski, Marcin; Hirnle, Tomasz; Zabielski, Piotr; Lewczuk, Anna; Dmitruk, Iwona; Górski, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Intramuscular lipid accumulation of ceramides, diacylglycerols, and long chain acyl-CoA is responsible for the induction of insulin resistance. These lipids are probably implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance not only in skeletal muscle but also in fat tissue. Only few data are available about ceramide content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, there are no data on DAG and LCACoA content in adipose tissue. The aim of our study was to measure the lipids content in human SAT and epicardial adipose tissue we sought to determine the bioactive lipids content by LC/MS/MS in fat tissue from lean non-diabetic, obese non-diabetic, and obese diabetic subjects and test whether the lipids correlate with HOMA-IR. We found, that total content of measured lipids was markedly higher in OND and OD subjects in both types of fat tissue (for all p lipids content is greater in subcutaneous and epicardial fat tissue and the particular lipids content positively correlates with HOMA-IR.

  11. Lower-energy neutron sources for increasing the sensitivity of nuclear gages for measuring the water content of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    The sensitivity of a gage using a nuclear source for measuring the water content of bulk materials, such as plastic concrete, is increased by use of a lithium or fluorine neutron nuclear source. 3 figures

  12. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  13. Effect of transferrin saturation on internal iron exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, G.; Eng, M.J.; Huebers, H.A.; Finch, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioiron was introduced into the intestinal lumen to evaluate absorption, injected as nonviable red cells to evaluate reticuloendothelial (RE) processing of iron, and injected as hemoglobin to evaluate hepatocyte iron processing. Redistribution of iron through the plasma was evaluated in control animals and animals whose transferrin was saturated by iron infusion. Radioiron introduced into the lumen of the gut as ferrous sulfate and as transferrin-bound iron was absorbed about half as well in iron-infused animals, and absorbed iron was localized in the liver. The similar absorption of transferrin-bound iron suggested that absorption of ferrous iron occurred via the mucosal cell and did not enter by diffusion. The decrease in absorption was associated with an increase in mucosal iron and ferritin content produced by the iron infusion. An inverse relationship (r = -0.895) was shown between mucosal ferritin iron and absorption. When iron was injected as nonviable red cells, it was deposited predominantly in reticuloendothelial cells of the spleen. Return of this radioiron to the plasma was only 6% of that in control animals. While there was some movement of iron from spleen to liver, this could be accounted for by intravascular hemolysis. Injected hemoglobin tagged with radioiron was for the most part taken up and held by the liver. Some 13% initially localized in the marrow in iron-infused animals was shown to be storage iron unavailable for hemoglobin synthesis. These studies demonstrate the hepatic trapping of absorbed iron and the inability of either RE cell or hepatocyte to release iron in the transferrin-saturated animal

  14. Iron impregnated carbon materials with improved physicochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Irfan; Adnan, Rohana; Wan Ngah, Wan Saime; Mohamed, Norita

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The morphology of raw AC was altered upon Fe impregnation and surface oxidation. • Surface modification had increased the pores diameter and surface functionalities. • Development of iron oxides have been expected on Fe impregnated carbon materials. • The M1, M2 and M3 have revealed magnetic susceptibility in applied magnetic field. • Dyes removal efficiency of M3 was notably higher (90–99%) than the raw AC (60–85%). - Abstract: This paper highlights the effect of iron impregnation and surface oxidation on the physicochemical characteristics of iron impregnated carbon materials. These materials were characterized by various techniques like surface area, pore size distribution, SEM/EDX, CHN, XRD, FTIR, TG/DT, VSM and XPS analyses. The increase in the surface functionalities and pores diameter (3.51–5.49 nm) of the iron-impregnated carbon materials was observed with the increase in iron contents and surface oxidation. The saturated magnetization values (0.029–0.034 emu/g) for the iron-impregnated carbon materials reflected the magnetic tendency due to the development of small size iron oxides on their surfaces. The XPS spectra revealed the existence of different oxidation states of the corresponding metals on the iron impregnated carbon materials. The percentage removal of model dyes (Methylene Blue and Methyl Orange) by iron-impregnated carbon materials was enhanced (>90%) with the increase in iron contents and pores diameters.

  15. Problems of criterions of sanitary evaluation of fodder phosphates of an increased content of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarski, T.P.; Krynski, A.

    1984-01-01

    In samples of 15 fodder phosphates a proper activity of natural radionuclides K-40, Ra-226 and Th-228 was determined. It was found that the content of K-40 in the examined phosphates was from 0 to 113.6 mBq/g (0-3.07 pCi/g), Ra-226 from 5.6 to 2523.4 mBq/g (0.15-68.2 pCi/g) and Th-228 from 11.1 to 100 mBq/g (0.3-2.7 pCi/g). On the basis of the obtained data the quantity of uranium in fodder phosphates and the quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk of cows fed on these phosphates was estimated. It was found that the quantity of uranium in phosphates was harmless for animals. It was admitted that the criterion of phosphates evaluation on the basis of quantity of Ra-226 transmitted into milk is not sufficient for drawing conclusion about their sanitary value. For a complex evaluation of fodder phosphates a limit value of radioactive activity of Ra-226 37 mBq/g (1 pCi/g) is proposed. Considering the possibility of air pollution in fodder factories a disuse of phosphates in production in which the activity of Ra-226 increases to 0.37 mBq/g (10 pCi/g) and of Th-228 to 75 mBq/g (2pCi/g) was proposed. The proposed criterion of evaluation concerns all phosphates used in Poland. (author)

  16. Copper increases reductive dehalogenation of haloacetamides by zero-valent iron in drinking water: Reduction efficiency and integrated toxicity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenhai; Li, Xin; Bond, Tom; Gao, Naiyun; Bin, Xu; Wang, Qiongfang; Ding, Shunke

    2016-12-15

    The haloacetamides (HAcAms), an emerging class of nitrogen-containing disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs), are highly cytotoxic and genotoxic, and typically occur in treated drinking waters at low μg/L concentrations. Since many drinking distribution and storage systems contain unlined cast iron and copper pipes, reactions of HAcAms with zero-valent iron (ZVI) and metallic copper (Cu) may play a role in determining their fate. Moreover, ZVI and/or Cu are potentially effective HAcAm treatment technologies in drinking water supply and storage systems. This study reports that ZVI alone reduces trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) to sequentially form dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and then monochloroacetamide (MCAcAm), whereas Cu alone does not impact HAcAm concentrations. The addition of Cu to ZVI significantly improved the removal of HAcAms, relative to ZVI alone. TCAcAm and their reduction products (DCAcAm and MCAcAm) were all decreased to below detection limits at a molar ratio of ZVI/Cu of 1:1 after 24 h reaction (ZVI/TCAcAm = 0.18 M/5.30 μM). TCAcAm reduction increased with the decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.0, but values from an integrated toxic risk assessment were minimised at pH 7.0, due to limited removal MCAcAm under weak acid conditions (pH = 5.0 and 6.0). Higher temperatures (40 °C) promoted the reductive dehalogenation of HAcAms. Bromine was preferentially removed over chlorine, thus brominated HAcAms were more easily reduced than chlorinated HAcAms by ZVI/Cu. Although tribromoacetamide was more easily reduced than TCAcAm during ZVI/Cu reduction, treatment of tribromoacetamide resulted in a higher integrated toxicity risk than TCAcAm, due to the formation of monobromoacetamide (MBAcAm). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanical disruption of tumors by iron particles and magnetic field application results in increased anti-tumor immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam N Bouchlaka

    Full Text Available The primary tumor represents a potential source of antigens for priming immune responses for disseminated disease. Current means of debulking tumors involves the use of cytoreductive conditioning that impairs immune cells or removal by surgery. We hypothesized that activation of the immune system could occur through the localized release of tumor antigens and induction of tumor death due to physical disruption of tumor architecture and destruction of the primary tumor in situ. This was accomplished by intratumor injection of magneto-rheological fluid (MRF consisting of iron microparticles, in Balb/c mice bearing orthotopic 4T1 breast cancer, followed by local application of a magnetic field resulting in immediate coalescence of the particles, tumor cell death, slower growth of primary tumors as well as decreased tumor progression in distant sites and metastatic spread. This treatment was associated with increased activation of DCs in the draining lymph nodes and recruitment of both DCs and CD8(+T cells to the tumor. The particles remained within the tumor and no toxicities were observed. The immune induction observed was significantly greater compared to cryoablation. Further anti-tumor effects were observed when MRF/magnet therapy was combined with systemic low dose immunotherapy. Thus, mechanical disruption of the primary tumor with MRF/magnetic field application represents a novel means to induce systemic immune activation in cancer.

  18. Fatigue behaviour of synthetic nodular cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the influence of charge composition on microstructure, fatigue properties and failure micromechanisms of nodular cast irons. The additive of metallurgical silicon carbide (SiC in analysed specimens increases the content of ferrite in the matrix, decreases the size of graphite and increases the average count of graphitic nodules per unit of area. Consequently, the mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved. The best fatigue properties (fatigue strength were reached in the melt which was created by 60 % of steel scrap and 40 % of pig iron in the basic charge with SiC additive.

  19. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novac, D.; Pantelimon, D.; Popescu, E.

    2010-08-01

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam corellation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole "guaranteed operating range" for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the proppeler curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This coresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  20. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, D; Pantelimon, D; Popescu, E

    2010-01-01

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam correlation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole 'guaranteed operating range' for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the propeller curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This corresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  1. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novac, D; Pantelimon, D [Hidroelectrica - SH Portile de Fier, Str. I.G. Bibicescu Nr.2, Drobeta Turnu Severin, RO - 220103 (Romania); Popescu, E, E-mail: dragos.novac@hidroelectrica.r [Hidroelectrica Bucuresti, Str. C-tin Nacu Nr.3, Bucuresti, RO - 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam correlation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole 'guaranteed operating range' for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the propeller curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This corresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  2. The Increased Content of Micronutrients in Celery, Carrot, Parsnip and Parsley Plants after Treatment with Sodium Naphthenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbović Ljubica

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Young plants of celery, parsley, parsnip and carrot, grown in nutrient solution, were treated with sodium naphthenate (10−7 mol dm−3, applying foliar and root treatments. Both treatments affected the root content of all investigated elements present in the nutrient solution, but in a different way, depending on the plant species. An average change (increase/decrease in the contents of investigated essential elements was about 35%. Our experiments with naphthenate showed that this treatment may enhance the efficiency of essential elements uptake and increase its content in plants without changing concentration of these elements in the nutrient solution. Especially interesting results were obtained in the case of carrot, as increased contents were observed in the elements that are usually deficient in nutrition (Fe, Zn, Mn, whereas the other remained unchanged.

  3. Determination of Ni and Cu content of steel and pig iron samples by Si/Li/X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis-Varga, M.; Bacso, J.

    1976-01-01

    Results connected with concentration measurements of Ni and Cu in low alloy steel and pig iron samples are presented. The samples were analysed by a Si(Li) detector X-ray spectrometer developed by the authors. The characteristic X-rays of elements were excited by a 5 mCi activity ring-shaped 125 I radioisotope source which emits the K-X-rays of Te and a weak γ-line of 35 keV energy. The semiconductor detector X-ray spectrometer can be used even more advantageously for analysis of major components of metallurgical samples. The method for quantitative analysis needed only one or a small number of standards. The interelement disturbing effects were mathematically corrected with computer

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... deficiency anemia. Proton pump inhibitors interfere with iron absorption, and blood thinners increase the likelihood of bleeding ... oranges, strawberries, and tomatoes, may help increase your absorption of iron. If you are pregnant, talk to ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those over age 65. ... need for iron increases during these periods of growth and development, and it may be hard to ...

  6. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang; Sourbier, Carole; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Jeong, Suhyoung; Vira, Manish A.; Ghosh, Manik Chandra; Romero, Vladimir Valera; Sougrat, Rachid; Vaulont, Sophie; Viollet, Benoî t; Kim, Yeongsang; Lee, Sunmin; Trepel, Jane B.; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, William Marston; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  7. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  8. Heme Iron Content in Lamb Meat Is Differentially Altered upon Boiling, Grilling, or Frying as Assessed by Four Distinct Analytical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Pourkhalili, Azin; Mirlohi, Maryam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Lamb meat is regarded as an important source of highly bioavailable iron (heme iron) in the Iranians diet. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of traditional cooking methods on the iron changes in lamb meat. Four published experimental methods for the determination of heme iron were assessed analytically and statistically. Samples were selected from lambs' loin. Standard methods (AOAC) were used for proximate analysis. For measuring heme iron, the results of four experi...

  9. Influence of silicon content and heat treatment on wear resistance of white chromium cast irons under high speed solidification conditions; Influencia del contenido de silicio y el tratamiento termico en la resistencia al desgaste de fundiciones blancas al cromo en condiciones de rapida solidificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyo, L.; Varela, A.; Verhaege, M.; Garcia, A.; Mier, J.; Moors, M.

    2012-11-01

    The influence of silicon content and heat treatment on microstructure, abrasive and dry friction wear resistance of a 3 % C, 12 % Cr cast iron, under fast solidification conditions is studied. The fast solidification condition diminishes the carbide volume and the silicon content increases their dispersion and finesses. All matrixes obtained were perlitics, whit different finesses. No intermediate transformation products were noticed. Hardness had little variation. Austenization treatment show little effectivity, with tendency to increase wear in reference to as cast and maintenance treatments. Behavior under dry friction and abrasive wear were similar under test conditions applied whit more influence of carbide morphology in the abrasive wear conditions. (Author) 32 refs.

  10. Exercise Increases Insulin Content and Basal Secretion in Pancreatic Islets in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Hung Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise appears to improve glycemic control for people with type 1 diabetes (T1D. However, the mechanism responsible for this improvement is unknown. We hypothesized that exercise has a direct effect on the insulin-producing islets. Eight-week-old mice were divided into four groups: sedentary diabetic, exercised diabetic, sedentary control, and exercised control. The exercised groups participated in voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. When compared to the control groups, the islet density, islet diameter, and β-cell proportion per islet were significantly lower in both sedentary and exercised diabetic groups and these alterations were not improved with exercise. The total insulin content and insulin secretion were significantly lower in sedentary diabetics compared to controls. Exercise significantly improved insulin content and insulin secretion in islets in basal conditions. Thus, some improvements in exercise-induced glycemic control in T1D mice may be due to enhancement of insulin content and secretion in islets.

  11. High temperature properties of the Cr-Nb-Al-N coatings with increasing Al contents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W. Z.; Polcar, T.; Evaristo, M.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cr-Nb-Al-N coatings with Al content from 0 to 12 at.% were deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings were annealed in protective atmosphere at 800 and 900 °C for 1 h and exposed to air at 800, 900 and 1200 °C for different times. The chemical composition, structure, microstructure, hardness and adhesive/cohesive strength of the coatings, in as-deposited and annealed conditions, were investigated and the oxidation resistance was evaluated. As expected, the Al content increa...

  12. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) and hepcidin response to iron load in two species of pteropodid fruit bats relative to the common vampire bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N

    2018-07-01

    Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.

  13. Study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst, by using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, J.; Alonso, A.; Tumbarell, O.; Bustanmete, E.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), has the advantage of its simplicity, speed and low cost. All this, together with its high sensibility and selectivity, makes the AAS one the most widely used analytic techniques. The present work shows, the study to determine the content of vanadium, aluminum, nickel, sodium, iron and copper in a catalytic cracking catalyst of a refinery, by using this technique. The results are compared to those of two laboratories which use the ICP-AES and AAS techniques and shows the processing of the statistics with the use of the t of Student and the F of Snedecor. The results using different methods are also shown as well as the recommended application of this results in the chemical characterization of this type of catalysts

  14. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  15. Wines with Increased Lignan Content by the Addition of Lignan Extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balík, J.; Híc, P.; Kulichová, J.; Novotná, P.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Strohalm, J.; Houška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 5 (2016), s. 439-444 ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1210258 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enrichment of white and red wines * 7-hydroxymatairesinol * alpha-conidendrin * antioxidant activity * total polyphenol content * sensory evaluation Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  16. Palm kernel expeller increases milk fat content when fed to grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    van Wyngaard, Josef

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... blocks to one of four treatment concentrates: PKE0, PKE10, PKE20, and PKE30, .... Milk fat, protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) content were ... added heat-stable alpha-amylase (protein enzyme EC 3.2.1.1) (1 ...

  17. "Harder and Harder"? Is Mainstream Pornography Becoming Increasingly Violent and Do Viewers Prefer Violent Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Eran; Seida, Kimberly

    2018-04-18

    It is a common notion among many scholars and pundits that the pornography industry becomes "harder and harder" with every passing year. Some have suggested that porn viewers, who are mostly men, become desensitized to "soft" pornography, and producers are happy to generate videos that are more hard core, resulting in a growing demand for and supply of violent and degrading acts against women in mainstream pornographic videos. We examined this accepted wisdom by utilizing a sample of 269 popular videos uploaded to PornHub over the past decade. More specifically, we tested two related claims: (1) aggressive content in videos is on the rise and (2) viewers prefer such content, reflected in both the number of views and the rankings for videos containing aggression. Our results offer no support for these contentions. First, we did not find any consistent uptick in aggressive content over the past decade; in fact, the average video today contains shorter segments showing aggression. Second, videos containing aggressive acts are both less likely to receive views and less likely to be ranked favorably by viewers, who prefer videos where women clearly perform pleasure.

  18. Decreased serum hepcidin concentration correlates with brain iron deposition in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Lin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Excessive brain iron accumulation contributes to cognitive impairments in hepatitis B virus (HBV-related cirrhotic patients. The underlying mechanism remains unclear. Hepcidin, a liver-produced, 25-aminoacid peptide, is the major regulator of systemic iron metabolism. Abnormal hepcidin level is a key factor in some body iron accumulation or deficiency disorders, especially in those associated with liver diseases. Our study was aimed to explore the relationship between brain iron content in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and serum hepcidin level. METHODS: Seventy HBV-related cirrhotic patients and forty age- sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Brain iron content was quantified by susceptibility weighted phase imaging technique. Serum hepcidin as well as serum iron, serum transferrin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin saturation were tested in thirty cirrhotic patients and nineteen healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to investigate correlation between brain iron concentrations and serum hepcidin, or other iron parameters. RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients had increased brain iron accumulation compared to controls in the left red nuclear, the bilateral substantia nigra, the bilateral thalamus, the right caudate, and the right putamen. Cirrhotic patients had significantly decreased serum hepcidin concentration, as well as lower serum transferring level, lower total iron binding capacity and higher transferrin saturation, compared to controls. Serum hepcidin level negatively correlated with the iron content in the right caudate, while serum ferritin level positively correlated with the iron content in the bilateral putamen in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased serum hepcidin level correlated with excessive iron accumulation in the basal ganglia in HBV-related cirrhotic patients. Our results indicated that systemic iron overload underlined regional

  19. Aeration to degas CO2, increase pH, and increase iron oxidation rates for efficient treatment of net alkaline mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, C.S.; Dennis, A.; Kahler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive treatment systems for mine drainage use no energy other than gravity, but they require greater area than active treatment systems. Researchers are considering 'hybrid' systems that have passive and active components for increased efficiency, especially where space limitations render passive-only technology ineffective. Flow-through reactor field experiments were conducted at two large net-alkaline anthracite mine discharges in central Pennsylvania. Assuming an Fe removal rate of 20 g m -2 day -1 and Fe loading from field data, 3.6 x 10 3 and 3.0 x 10 4 m 2 oxidation ponds would be required for the passive treatment of Site 21 and Packer 5 discharges, respectively. However, only a small area is available at each site. This paper demonstrates aeration to drive off CO 2 , increase pH, and increase Fe(II) oxidation rates, enabling treatment within a small area compared to passive treatment methods, and introduces a geochemical model to accurately predict these rates as well as semi-passive treatment system sizing parameters. Both net-alkaline discharges were suboxic with a pH of ∼5.7, Fe(II) concentration of ∼16 mg L -1 , and low Mn and Al concentrations. Flow rates were ∼4000 L min -1 at Site 21 and 15,000 L min -1 at Packer 5. Three-h aeration experiments with flow rates scaled to a 14-L reactor resulted in pH increases from 5.7 to greater than 7, temperature increases from 12 to 22 deg. C, dissolved O 2 increases to saturation with respect to the atmosphere, and Fe(II) concentration decreases from 16 to -1 . A 17,000-L pilot-scale reactor at Site 21 produced similar results although aeration was not as complete as in the smaller reactor. Two non-aerated experiments at Site 21 with 13 and 25-h run times resulted in pH changes of ≤0.2 and Fe(II) concentration decreases of less than 3 mg L -1 . An Fe(II) oxidation model written in a differential equation solver matched the field experiments very well using field-measured pH, temperature, dissolved O 2

  20. Use of Microthemes to Increase Writing Content for Introductory Science Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Writing is a learning activity, as well as a communication skill. Many instructors recognize the value of writing as a learning tool but struggle to develop effective writing assignments. Instructors are generally pressed for time during lecture due to the necessity to deliver content and, therefore, cannot dedicate time necessary to teach science writing skills effectively. Traditional term papers assigned to a class with varying writing skills may not accomplish the desired goal of teaching both technical writing skills and critical thinking skills. Students that are already struggling with content may be at a disadvantage in terms of conveying complex ideas. An answer to this problem is the microtheme paper which we employ in an Introductory Botany laboratory setting.

  1. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  2. Iron deficiency or anemia of inflammation? : Differential diagnosis and mechanisms of anemia of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairz, Manfred; Theurl, Igor; Wolf, Dominik; Weiss, Günter

    2016-10-01

    Iron deficiency and immune activation are the two most frequent causes of anemia, both of which are based on disturbances of iron homeostasis. Iron deficiency anemia results from a reduction of the body's iron content due to blood loss, inadequate dietary iron intake, its malabsorption, or increased iron demand. Immune activation drives a diversion of iron fluxes from the erythropoietic bone marrow, where hemoglobinization takes place, to storage sites, particularly the mononuclear phagocytes system in liver and spleen. This results in iron-limited erythropoiesis and anemia. This review summarizes current diagnostic and pathophysiological concepts of iron deficiency anemia and anemia of inflammation, as well as combined conditions, and provides a brief outlook on novel therapeutic options.

  3. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  4. Change in iron metabolism in rats after renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Liang Xie

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that hepcidin, which can regulate iron efflux by binding to ferroportin-1 (FPN1 and inducing its internalization and degradation, acts as the critical factor in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, it is unknown whether hepcidin is involved in acute renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI. In this study, an IRI rat model was established via right renal excision and blood interruption for 45 min in the left kidney, and iron metabolism indexes were examined to investigate the change in iron metabolism and to analyze the role of hepcidin during IRI. From 1 to 24 h after renal reperfusion, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were found to be time-dependently increased with different degrees of kidney injury. Regular variations in iron metabolism indexes in the blood and kidneys were observed in renal IRI. Renal iron content, serum iron and serum ferritin increased early after reperfusion and then declined. Hepcidin expression in the liver significantly increased early after reperfusion, and its serum concentration increased beginning at 8 h after reperfusion. The splenic iron content decreased significantly in the early stage after reperfusion and then increased time-dependently with increasing reperfusion time, and the hepatic iron content showed a decrease in the early stage after reperfusion. The early decrease of the splenic iron content and hepatic iron content might indicate their contribution to the increase in serum iron in renal IRI. In addition, the duodenal iron content showed time-dependently decreased since 12 h after reperfusion in the IRI groups compared to the control group. Along with the spleen, the duodenum might contribute to the decrease in serum iron in the later stage after reperfusion. The changes in iron metabolism indexes observed in our study demonstrate an iron metabolism disorder in renal IRI, and hepcidin might be involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in renal IRI. These

  5. Factors Affecting Ballability of Mixture Iron Ore Concentrates and Iron Oxide Bearing Wastes in Metallurgical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mfon Udo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS are produced at every segment of processing stage of sinter, molten iron and steel production. They are hard to handle and in many cases are stockpiled only to be a source of environmental pollution but can be balled into pellets. Pellet of good ballability values are transportable and recyclable as they can withstand stress they will encounter without disintegrating back to dust. But ballability is affected by some factors like the grain sizes of the materials, the moisture and binder contents of the ball mix, wettability of the balled materials and the processing perimeters of the granulator. The objective of this research work is to investigate the factors affecting ballability of mixture of iron ore concentrates and iron oxide bearing wastes (IROBEWAS in metallurgical processing. The parameters under consideration were grain size of materials, the moisture contents, the speed of balling disc, IROBEWAS and Bentonite (Binder contents of the balled mix. This was carried out by balling different volume fractions of mix containing iron oxide concentrate and IROBEWAS using a balling disc and testing the resulting balls for green compressive strength using universal testing machine. It was found that the ballability of the mixture of iron ore concentrate and IROBEWAS increases as grain sizes of the materials reduce but increases as the moisture contents and IROBEWAS content increase up to an optimum value of moisture content in the mix before it starts to reduce. The ballability also increases as the speed of the granulator (Balling disc increases within the limit of this work. It was also observed that there was an increase in ballability with slight increase in bentonite content in the mix.

  6. VDAC2 and aldolase A identified as membrane proteins of K562 cells with increased expression under iron deprivation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vališ, Karel; Neubauerová, J.; Man, Petr; Pompach, Petr; Vohradský, Jiří; Kovář, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 311, 1-2 (2008), 225-231 ISSN 0300-8177 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Iron deprivation * aldolase A * VDAC2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.764, year: 2008

  7. Hepcidin levels are low during pregnancy and increase around delivery in women without iron deficiency - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Katrine K; Nelson, Dick; Andersen, Malene R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate hepcidin during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum in women with sufficient iron supplementation. METHODS: Hepcidin was measured using LC-MS spectroscopy in 37 women during pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period in this longitudinal study. RESULTS: Hepcidin was low du...

  8. Iron nanoparticles increase 7-ketocholesterol-induced cell death, inflammation, and oxidation on murine cardiac HL1-NB cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond Kahn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Edmond Kahn1, Mauhamad Baarine2, Sophie Pelloux3, Jean-Marc Riedinger4, Frédérique Frouin1, Yves Tourneur3, Gérard Lizard21INSE RM U678/UMR – S UPMC, IFR 14, CH U Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75634 Paris Cedex 13, France; 2Centre de Recherche INSE RM U866, Equipe Biochimie Métabolique et Nutritionnelle – Université de Bourgogne, Faculté des Sciences Gabriel, 6 Bd Gabriel, 21000 Dijon, France; 3Centre Commun de Quantimétrie, Université Lyon 1; Université de Lyon, Lyon, France; 4Département de Biologie et de Pathologie des Tumeurs, Centre Georges François-Leclerc, 21000 Dijon, FranceObjective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of iron nanoparticles on cardiac cells and to determine whether they can modulate the biological activity of 7-ketocholesterol (7KC involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Nanoparticles of iron labeled with Texas Red are introduced in cultures of nonbeating mouse cardiac cells (HL1-NB with or without 7-ketocholesterol 7KC, and their ability to induce cell death, pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects are analyzed simultaneously.Study design: Flow cytometry (FCM, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, and subsequent factor analysis image processing (FAMIS are used to characterize the action of iron nanoparticles and to define their cytotoxicity which is evaluated by enhanced permeability to SYTOX Green, and release of lactate deshydrogenase (LDH. Pro-inflammatory effects are estimated by ELISA in order to quantify IL-8 and MCP-1 secretions. Pro-oxidative effects are measured with hydroethydine (HE.Results: Iron Texas Red nanoparticles accumulate at the cytoplasmic membrane level. They induce a slight LDH release, and have no inflammatory or oxidative effects. However, they enhance the cytotoxic, pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects of 7KC. The accumulation dynamics of SYTOX Green in cells is measured by CLSM to characterize the toxicity of nanoparticles. The emission spectra of SYTOX Green and

  9. Iron deficiency alters megakaryopoiesis and platelet phenotype independent of thrombopoietin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Determination of silicon and chromium content in gray cast iron by the Van der Pauw method; Determinacion del contenido de silicio y cromo en fundiciones grises mediante el metodo de Van der Pauw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremps, E.; Enrique, J. L.; Moron, C.; Garcia, A.; Gomez, A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we show a system based on the resistivity measurement of samples of gray cast iron by the Van der Pauw method to calculate the silicon content in the samples. Twenty five trials have been carried out, studying resistive and metallographic characteristics of the samples. This has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain, by this method, the silicon content in molten flat with low content of alloying elements, also the content of chromium in series smelters where the rate of silicon remains constant. (Author)

  11. Increased brain iron deposition is a risk factor for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis: a combined study of quantitative susceptibility mapping and whole brain volume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Zhang, Mengjie; Long, Miaomiao; Chu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Tong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Yu; Yan, Shuo; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    To explore the correlation between increased brain iron deposition and brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis and their correlation with clinical biomarkers and neuropsychological test. Forty two patients with haemodialysis and forty one age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited in this prospective study. 3D whole brain high resolution T1WI and susceptibility weighted imaging were scanned on a 3 T MRI system. The brain volume was analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients and to compare with that of healthy controls. Quantitative susceptibility mapping was used to measure and compare the susceptibility of different structures between patients and healthy controls. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the brain volume, iron deposition and neuropsychological scores. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to explore the effect of clinical biomarkers on the brain volumes in patients. Compared with healthy controls, patients with haemodialysis showed decreased volume of bilateral putamen and left insular lobe (All P brain iron deposition is negatively correlated with the decreased volume of bilateral putamen (P brain iron deposition and dialysis duration was risk factors for brain atrophy in patients with haemodialysis. The decreased gray matter volume of the left insular lobe was correlated with neurocognitive impairment.

  12. MFehi adipose tissue macrophages compensate for tissue iron pertubations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubler, Merla J; Erikson, Keith M; Kennedy, Arion J; Hasty, Alyssa H

    2018-05-16

    Resident adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) play multiple roles to maintain tissue homeostasis, such as removing excess FFAs and regulation of extracellular matrix. The phagocytic nature and oxidative resiliency of macrophages not only allows them to function as innate immune cells but also to respond to specific tissue needs, such as iron homeostasis. MFe hi ATMs are a subtype of resident ATMs that we recently identified to have twice the intracellular iron content as other ATMs and elevated expression of iron handling genes. While studies have demonstrated iron homeostasis is important for adipocyte health, little is known about how MFe hi ATMs may respond to and influence AT iron availability. Two methodologies were used to address this question - dietary iron supplementation and intraperitoneal iron injection. Upon exposure to high dietary iron, MFe hi ATMs accumulated excess iron, while the iron content of MFe lo ATMs and adipocytes remained unchanged. In this model of chronic iron excess, MFe hi ATMs exhibited increased expression of genes involved in iron storage. In the injection model, MFe hi ATMs incorporated high levels of iron and adipocytes were spared iron overload. This acute model of iron overload was associated with increased numbers of MFe hi ATMs; 17% could be attributed to monocyte recruitment and 83% to MFe lo ATM incorporation into the MFe hi pool. The MFe hi ATM population maintained its low inflammatory profile and iron cycling expression profile. These studies expand the field's understanding of ATMs and confirm that they can respond as a tissue iron sink in models of iron overload.

  13. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Risk Factors You may have an increased risk for iron-deficiency anemia because of your age, ... or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron deficiency at certain ages: Infants between ...

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart failure . Increased risk of infections Motor or cognitive development delays in children Pregnancy complications, such as ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Learn about exciting research areas that NHLBI is exploring about iron-deficiency anemia. ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron- ... factors , such as if you are following a vegetarian eating pattern, your doctor may recommend changes to ...

  16. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as most of a newborn’s iron stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ... This makes it harder to stop bleeding and can increase the risk of iron-deficiency anemia from ...

  17. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... family history and genetics , lifestyle habits, or sex. Age You may be at increased risk for iron ... Signs, Symptoms, and Complications Iron-deficiency anemia can range from mild to severe. People with mild or ...

  18. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERN OF SOIL pH AND Eh AND THEIR IMPACT ON SOLUTE IRON CONTENT IN A WETLAND (TRANSDANUBIA, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZALAI ZOLTÁN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Land mosaics have direct and indirect influence on chemical reaction and redox condition of soils. The present paper deals with the relationship between some environmental factors (such as soil andvegetation patterns, micro-relief, water regime, temperature and incident solar radiation and the pH, Eh of soils and solute iron in a headwater wetland in Transdanubia, Hungary. Measurements have been taken in four different patches and along their boundaries: sedge (Carex vulpina, Carex riparia, three patches and two species, horsetail (Equisetum arvense, common nettle (Urtica dioica. Thespatial pattern of the studied parameters are influenced by the water regime, micro-topography, climatic conditions and by direct and indirect effects of vegetation. The indirect effect can be the shading, which has influence on soil temperature and on the incident solar radiation (PAR. Root respiration and excretion of organic acids appear as direct effects.. There have been measured individual pH and Eh characteristic in the studied patches. Soil Eh, pH and solute iron have shown seasonal dynamics. Higher redox potentials (increasingly oxidative conditions and higher pH values were measured between late autumn and early spring. The increasing physiological activity of plants causes lower pH and Eh and it leads to higher spatial differences. Although temperature is an essential determining factor for Eh and pH, but our results suggest it rather has indirect effectsthrough plants on wetlands.

  19. Decreasing the NO3 and increasing the vitamin C contents in spinach by a nitrogen deprivation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafar, A

    1996-02-01

    Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers is known to increase the NO3 and reduce the vitamin C contents in fruits and vegetables. We investigated the concentration of these compounds in spinach leaves when plants were transferred to nitrogen-free media prior to their harvest. It was noted that a pre-harvest transfer of spinach to N-free media reduces the NO3 and increases the vitamin C content of the leaves by a substantial amount in a 2-3 day period. It is suggested that this technique may be suited to produce spinach or other leafy vegetables with low NO3 and high vitamin C contents under commercial hydroponic conditions.

  20. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Teske, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2009 Apr 1;134(7):272-8. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Prins M, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E.

  1. Increased aerosol content in the atmosphere over Ukraine during summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galytska, Evgenia; Danylevsky, Vassyl; Hommel, René; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we assessed the influence of biomass burning during forest fires throughout summer (1 June-31 August) 2010 on aerosol abundance, dynamics, and its properties over Ukraine. We also considered influences and effects over neighboring countries: European Russia, Estonia, Belarus, Poland, Moldova, and Romania. We used MODIS satellite instrument data to study fire distribution. We also used ground-based remote measurements from the international sun photometer network AERONET plus MODIS and CALIOP satellite instrument data to determine the aerosol content and optical properties in the atmosphere over Eastern Europe. We applied the HYSPLIT model to investigate atmospheric dynamics and model pathways of particle transport. As with previous studies, we found that the highest aerosol content was observed over Moscow in the first half of August 2010 due to the proximity of the most active fires. Large temporal variability of the aerosol content with pronounced pollution peaks during 7-17 August was observed at the Ukrainian (Kyiv and Sevastopol), Belarusian (Minsk), Estonian (Toravere), and Romanian (Bucharest) AERONET sites. We analyzed aerosol spatiotemporal distribution over Ukraine using MODIS AOD 550 nm and further compared with the Kyiv AERONET site sun photometer measurements; we also compared CALIOP AOD 532 nm with MODIS AOD data. We analyzed vertical distribution of aerosol extinction at 532 nm, retrieved from CALIOP measurements, for the territory of Ukraine at locations where high AOD values were observed during intense fires. We estimated the influence of fires on the spectral single scattering albedo, size distribution, and complex refractive indices using Kyiv AERONET measurements performed during summer 2010. In this study we showed that the maximum AOD in the atmosphere over Ukraine recorded in summer 2010 was caused by particle transport from the forest fires in Russia. Those fires caused the highest AOD 500 nm over the Kyiv site, which in

  2. Increased profitability in cellulose production through more accurate measurement of the moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A general report on the project 'Dry Wood' is presented. In this project Noratom-Norcontrol A/S cooperate with the wood-pulp and paper factory Petersen and Soen in the application of Noratom's radiometric moisture gauge and their continuous weighing machine (densimeter) in the continuous measurement of the moisture content of wood chips in cellulose production. Conventional methods give an accuracy of π+ 2% and the objective of this method is an accuracy of π+ 1%. This would have a considerable economic significance. A test unit has been operating in the production line for a year and has attained the objective for short periods. Improved long term stability is the present problem. The system has process outputs which will facilitate future on-line computer process control. (JIW)

  3. Can Social Media Content Increase Financial Market Returns? Survey Results from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cwynar Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In recent years classic financial market theory based on decision makers’ rationality has been challenged by repeated anomalies that became a ‘new normal’. As a result, what we witness today is a considerable turn to behavioral concepts that can shed a new light on choices made by market participants. The astonishing development of social media accelerated scientific validation of such concepts, since the media opened new and capacious ‘laboratory space’ for testing behavioral hypotheses. The main purpose of the article is to examine whether financial market professionals believe that social media content can be useful in achieving additional financial market returns and to investigate the factors behind this belief.

  4. Instruments and techniques of undispersion X-ray spectral analysis for nickel in case of high iron contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betin, Yu.P.; Zhabin, E.G.; Komov, A.P.; Krampit, I.A.; Novikov, A.M.; Serkin, V.P.; Smirnov, V.N.; Chernov, A.I.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is one of the most complicated problems of dispersionless X-ray spectral analysis (DXRSA) for low concentrations of the element with Z+2 atomic number in presence of large contents of element with Z atomic number (from manganese to zinc) in conformity with the DXRSA. The problem is solved with the help of instruments with two-channel registration system including a selection filter, target-converter and proportional counter at excitation of secondary radiation with X-ray tube. At the developed methodics an absolute mean square error of reproduction does not exceed 0.01%, the deviation of DXRSA results on results of control analysis for slags of nickel production - not more than 0.02-0.03%. The introduction of instruments and technique has given the economic effect of 32 thousand rubles

  5. Membrane leakage and increased content of Na+ -K+ pumps and Ca2+ in human muscle after a 100-km run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Kristian; Lindstrøm, Tue; Ingemann-Hansen, Thorsten

    2002-01-01

    content, and plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). After completion of a 100-km run, significant increases were found in plasma K+ (from 4.0 +/- 0.1 to 5.5 +/- 0.2 mM, P

  6. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension...

  7. Influence of digestion methods on the recovery of Iron, Zinc, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium and Lead contents in 11 organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Fernanda Abbruzzini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are currently many devices and techniques to quantify trace elements (TEs in various matrices, but their efficacy is dependent on the digestion methods (DMs employed in the opening of such matrices which, although "organic", present inorganic components which are difficult to solubilize. This study was carried out to evaluate the recovery of Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb contents in samples of composts and cattle, horse, chicken, quail, and swine manures, as well as in sewage sludges and peat. The DMs employed were acid digestion in microwaves with HNO3 (EPA 3051A; nitric-perchloric digestion with HNO3 + HClO4 in a digestion block (NP; dry ashing in a muffle furnace and solubilization of residual ash in nitric acid (MDA; digestion by using aqua regia solution (HCl:HNO3 in the digestion block (AR; and acid digestion with HCl and HNO3 + H2O2 (EPA 3050. The dry ashing method led to the greatest recovery of Cd in organic residues, but the EPA 3050 protocol can be an alternative method for the same purpose. The dry ashing should not be employed to determine the concentration of Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the residues. Higher Cr and Fe contents are recovered when NP and EPA 3050 are employed in the opening of organic matrices. For most of the residues analyzed, AR is the most effective method for recovering Ni. Microwave-assisted digestion methods (EPA3051 and 3050 led to the highest recovery of Pb. The choice of the DM that provides maximum recovery of Zn depends on the organic residue and trace element analyzed.

  8. Iron isotope biogeochemistry of Neoproterozoic marine shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Marcus; Gibson, Timothy M.; Halverson, Galen P.; Hodgskiss, Malcolm S. W.; Bui, Thi Hao; Carozza, David A.; Sperling, Erik A.; Poirier, André; Cox, Grant M.; Wing, Boswell A.

    2017-07-01

    Iron isotopes have been widely applied to investigate the redox evolution of Earth's surface environments. However, it is still unclear whether iron cycling in the water column or during diagenesis represents the major control on the iron isotope composition of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Interpretation of isotopic data in terms of oceanic redox conditions is only possible if water column processes dominate the isotopic composition, whereas redox interpretations are less straightforward if diagenetic iron cycling controls the isotopic composition. In the latter scenario, iron isotope data is more directly related to microbial processes such as dissimilatory iron reduction. Here we present bulk rock iron isotope data from late Proterozoic marine shales from Svalbard, northwestern Canada, and Siberia, to better understand the controls on iron isotope fractionation in late Proterozoic marine environments. Bulk shales span a δ 56Fe range from -0.45 ‰ to +1.04 ‰ . Although δ 56Fe values show significant variation within individual stratigraphic units, their mean value is closer to that of bulk crust and hydrothermal iron in samples post-dating the ca. 717-660 Ma Sturtian glaciation compared to older samples. After correcting for the highly reactive iron content in our samples based on iron speciation data, more than 90% of the calculated δ 56Fe compositions of highly reactive iron falls in the range from ca. -0.8 ‰ to +3 ‰ . An isotope mass-balance model indicates that diagenetic iron cycling can only change the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron by control the isotopic composition of highly reactive iron. Considering a long-term decrease in the isotopic composition of the iron source to the dissolved seawater Fe(II) reservoir to be unlikely, we offer two possible explanations for the Neoproterozoic δ 56Fe trend. First, a decreasing supply of Fe(II) to the ferrous seawater iron reservoir could have caused the reservoir to decrease in size

  9. Ingestive behavior of grazing steers fed increasing levels of concentrate supplementation with different crude protein contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fabrício Bacelar Lima; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Fabiano Ferreira; Lins, Túlio Otávio Jardim D Almeida; da Silva, Anderson Luiz Nascimento; Macedo, Venício; Abreu Filho, George; de Souza, Sinvaldo Oliveira; Guimarães, Joanderson Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the ingestive behavior of steers on Brachiaria brizantha pasture fed diets with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Thirty-two crossbred steers in the finishing phase with average weight of 420 ± 8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment. Their behavior was assessed every 5 min for 24 h, in the middle of the experimental period. Variance and regression analyses at 0.05 % probability were adopted. The times spent grazing and ruminating reduced linearly (P <0.05), whereas the times spent at the trough (eating) and on other activities increased linearly (P <0.05) as the supplementation levels were elevated. The total feeding and chewing times decreased linearly (P <0.05) as the concentrate levels in the diet were elevated. By increasing the supplementation levels, the number of bites per day decreased linearly (P <0.05), and the feed efficiency of dry matter increased quadratically. Rumination efficiency of dry matter increased linearly (P <0.05) with increasing levels of concentrate supplementation. Grazing and rumination activities are reduced when the time devoted to other activities and at the trough are increased, as a result of the substitution effect.

  10. Transfer and transformation of soil iron and implications for hydrogeomorpholocial changes in Naoli River catchment, sanjiang plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, J.; Xianguo, L.; Hongqing, W.; Yuanchun, Z.; Haitao, W.

    2011-01-01

    Wetland soils are characterized by alternating redox process due to the fluctuation of waterlogged conditions. Iron is an important redox substance, and its transfer and transformation in the wetland ecosystem could be an effective indicator for the environment changes. In this paper, we selected the Naoli River catchment in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China as the study area to analyze the dynamics of transfer and transformation of soil iron, and the relationship between iron content change and environmental factors. The results show that the total and crystalline iron contents reach the peak in the depth of 60 cm in soil profile, while the amorphous iron content is higher in the topsoil. In the upper reaches, from the low to high landscape positions, the total and crystalline iron contents decrease from 62.98 g/kg to 41.61 g/kg, 22.82 g/kg to 10.53 g/kg respectively, while the amorphous iron content increases from 2.42 g/kg to 8.88 g/kg. Amorphous iron content has positive correlation with organic matter and soil water contents, while negative correlation with pH. Moreover, both the crystalline and amorphous iron contents present no correlation with total iron content, indicating that environmental factors play a more important role in the transfer and transformation of iron other than the content of the total iron. Different redoximorphic features were found along the soil profile due to the transfer and transformation of iron. E and B horizons of wetland soil in the study area have a matrix Chroma 2 or less, and all the soil types can meet the criteria of American hydric soil indicators except albic soil. ?? Science Press, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  11. Aerobic Exercise Training Increases Muscle Water Content in Obese Middle-Age Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Sanchez-Roncero, Alicia; Fernández-Elías, Valentin Emilio

    2016-01-01

    . Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and cardiometabolic fitness was measured during an incremental cycling test. RESULTS: Body weight and fat mass were reduced -1.9% and -5.4%, respectively (P mass increased with training (1.8%, P = 0.......011), whereas muscle protein concentration decreased 11% (145 ± 15 to 129 ± 13 g·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.007). Citrate synthase activity (proxy for mitochondrial density) increased by 31% (17 ± 5 to 22 ± 5 mmol·min⁻¹·kg⁻¹ ww, P = 0.024). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 14% (22 ± 7 to 25 ± 7 g·kg⁻¹ ww......) although without reaching statistical significance when expressed as per kilogram of wet weight (P = 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that aerobic cycling training increases quadriceps muscle water although reduces muscle protein concentration in obese metabolic syndrome men. Reduced protein...

  12. Electron transport chain dysfunction by H(2)O (2) is linked to increased reactive oxygen species production and iron mobilization by lipoperoxidation: studies using Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Estrada-Villagómez, Mirella; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Clemente-Guerrero, Mónica; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Boldogh, Istvan; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) contains thiol groups (-SH) which are reversibly oxidized to modulate ETC function during H(2)O(2) overproduction. Since deleterious effects of H(2)O(2) are not limited to -SH oxidation, due to the formation of other H(2)O(2)-derived species, some processes like lipoperoxidation could enhance the effects of H(2)O(2) over ETC enzymes, disrupt their modulation by -SH oxidation and increase superoxide production. To verify this hypothesis, we tested the effects of H(2)O(2) on ETC activities, superoxide production and iron mobilization in mitochondria from lipoperoxidation-resistant native yeast and lipoperoxidation-sensitized yeast. Only complex III activity from lipoperoxidation-sensitive mitochondria exhibited a higher susceptibility to H(2)O(2) and increased superoxide production. The recovery of ETC activity by the thiol reductanct β-mercaptoethanol (BME) was also altered at complex III, and a role was attributed to lipoperoxidation, the latter being also responsible for iron release. A hypothetical model linking lipoperoxidation, increased complex III damage, superoxide production and iron release is given.

  13. Increasing magnetite contents of polymeric magnetic particles dramatically improves labeling of neural stem cell transplant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Christopher F; Rai, Ahmad; Sneddon, Gregor; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Polyak, Boris; Chari, Divya M

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic cells to sites of injury/disease in the central nervous system is a key goal for the translation of clinical cell transplantation therapies. Recently, 'magnetic cell localization strategies' have emerged as a promising and safe approach for targeted delivery of magnetic particle (MP) labeled stem cells to pathology sites. For neuroregenerative applications, this approach is limited by the lack of available neurocompatible MPs, and low cell labeling achieved in neural stem/precursor populations. We demonstrate that high magnetite content, self-sedimenting polymeric MPs [unfunctionalized poly(lactic acid) coated, without a transfecting component] achieve efficient labeling (≥90%) of primary neural stem cells (NSCs)-a 'hard-to-label' transplant population of major clinical relevance. Our protocols showed high safety with respect to key stem cell regenerative parameters. Critically, labeled cells were effectively localized in an in vitro flow system by magnetic force highlighting the translational potential of the methods used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increasing the Carotenoid Content of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by a Neutron-Ultraviolet Combination Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pewlong, Wachiraporn; Bangwirunruk, Jittima

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Improvement of carotenoid production in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous TISTR 5730 by induced mutation with neutron rays combining with ultraviolet light was studied. Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous was treated with neutron rays (10 1 0 neutrons/cm 2 /sec) for 1 minute and incubated on yeast malt extract agar at 22 o C for 3 days. The colonies were re-treated with ultraviolet radiation (470 μ w/cm 2 ) at the distance of 10 inches, for 3 minutes. 941 isolates were obtained following growth on selective medium supplemented with β -ionone, and their stability was tested for 5 generations. There were only 5 highly-producing mutants, namely NU-195, NU- 252, NU-525, NU-534 and NU-742. These mutants were tested for carotenoids production in yeast malt extract broth at 22 O C for 5 days. The cultures were extracted with acetone and petroleum ether. Total carotenoid contents in the petroleum ether extracts were determined by absorbance measurement at 474 nm. Analyses of five generations indicated that NU-252 produced the highest amount of total carotenoid, 106.49 μ g/g of yeast, which was 1.65 times that of the wild type

  15. Reduced intracellular c-di-GMP content increases expression of quorum sensing-regulated genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular secondary messenger which controls the biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. High intracellular c-di-GMP content enhances biofilm formation via the reduction of motility and production of biofilm matrix, while low c-di-GMP content in biofilm...... cells leads to increased motility and biofilm dispersal. While the effect of high c-di-GMP levels on bacterial lifestyles is well studied, the physiology of cells at low c-di-GMP levels remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with high and low intracellular c-di-GMP contents...... possessed distinct transcriptome profiles. There were 535 genes being upregulated and 432 genes downregulated in cells with low c-di-GMP, as compared to cells with high c-di-GMP. Interestingly, both rhl and pqs quorum-sensing (QS) operons were expressed at higher levels in cells with low intracellular c-di-GMP...

  16. Fitness cost of resistance to Bt cotton linked with increased gossypol content in pink bollworm larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Williams

    Full Text Available Fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops occur in the absence of Bt toxins, when individuals with resistance alleles are less fit than individuals without resistance alleles. As costs of Bt resistance are common, refuges of non-Bt host plants can delay resistance not only by providing susceptible individuals to mate with resistant individuals, but also by selecting against resistance. Because costs typically vary across host plants, refuges with host plants that magnify costs or make them less recessive could enhance resistance management. Limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms causing fitness costs, however, hampers attempts to increase costs. In several major cotton pests including pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, resistance to Cry1Ac cotton is associated with mutations altering cadherin proteins that bind this toxin in susceptible larvae. Here we report that the concentration of gossypol, a cotton defensive chemical, was higher in pink bollworm larvae with cadherin resistance alleles than in larvae lacking such alleles. Adding gossypol to the larval diet decreased larval weight and survival, and increased the fitness cost affecting larval growth, but not survival. Across cadherin genotypes, the cost affecting larval growth increased as the gossypol concentration of larvae increased. These results suggest that increased accumulation of plant defensive chemicals may contribute to fitness costs associated with resistance to Bt toxins.

  17. Whole Grain Consumption Increases Gastrointestinal Content of Sulfate-Conjugated Oxylipins in Pigs − A Multicompartmental Metabolomics Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Anne Krog; Karaman, İbrahim; Bağcıoğlu, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The effects of increased intake of dietary fiber as either arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) compared to a typical low dietary fiber Western-style diet (WSD) on the metabolomics responses was studied in gastrointestinal content and tissue, peripheral plasma and urine using a multicompart...... of multicompartmental metabolomics offers information about the correlations between the compartments of the digestive system, providing additional insight into effects of increased whole grain intake.......The effects of increased intake of dietary fiber as either arabinoxylan (AX) or resistant starch (RS) compared to a typical low dietary fiber Western-style diet (WSD) on the metabolomics responses was studied in gastrointestinal content and tissue, peripheral plasma and urine using......, and a low dietary fiber intake were detected using multi block analysis. This study provides insight into microbial fermentation products in the gastrointestinal tract, and suggests a potential role in sulfate conjugation of metabolites on the bioavailability of ingested nutrients. In addition, the use...

  18. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Phototrophs in high-iron-concentration microbial mats: physiological ecology of phototrophs in an iron-depositing hot spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, B. K.; Parenteau, M. N.; Griffin, B. M.

    1999-01-01

    At Chocolate Pots Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park the source waters have a pH near neutral, contain high concentrations of reduced iron, and lack sulfide. An iron formation that is associated with cyanobacterial mats is actively deposited. The uptake of [(14)C]bicarbonate was used to assess the impact of ferrous iron on photosynthesis in this environment. Photoautotrophy in some of the mats was stimulated by ferrous iron (1.0 mM). Microelectrodes were used to determine the impact of photosynthetic activity on the oxygen content and the pH in the mat and sediment microenvironments. Photosynthesis increased the oxygen concentration to 200% of air saturation levels in the top millimeter of the mats. The oxygen concentration decreased with depth and in the dark. Light-dependent increases in pH were observed. The penetration of light in the mats and in the sediments was determined. Visible radiation was rapidly attenuated in the top 2 mm of the iron-rich mats. Near-infrared radiation penetrated deeper. Iron was totally oxidized in the top few millimeters, but reduced iron was detected at greater depths. By increasing the pH and the oxygen concentration in the surface sediments, the cyanobacteria could potentially increase the rate of iron oxidation in situ. This high-iron-content hot spring provides a suitable model for studying the interactions of microbial photosynthesis and iron deposition and the role of photosynthesis in microbial iron cycling. This model may help clarify the potential role of photosynthesis in the deposition of Precambrian banded iron formations.

  20. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008–2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 μg/L), low normal (15.0–30.0 μg/L for women and 15.0–50.0 for men), and normal (≥30.0 μg/L for women and ≥50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  1. Increasing the calcium content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) to improve their nutritional value for bone mineralization of growing chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasing, K C; Thacker, P; Lopez, M A; Calvert, C C

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the husbandry variables that optimize the Ca content of mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and to determine the bioavailability of this Ca for bone mineralization in chicks that consume the mealworms. To determine the optimal level of Ca in the substrates used in short-term (mealworms and to determine the length of time that mealworms should be exposed to high-Ca substrates, mealworms were placed in either a wheat bran or a chicken starter substrate supplemented with 0, 4, 8, or 12% Ca from CaCO3. The mealworms were harvested after 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, or 14 days. The Ca content of the mealworms was greatest with the use of chicken starter and increased linearly with the Ca content of the substrate. In general, the Ca content of the mealworms increased during the first 24 hr and decreased after > or = 1 wk, especially at the higher levels of Ca supplementation. The chicken starter also resulted in higher levels of vitamin D in mealworms. Mealworms held in wheat bran with 8% Ca were fed to growing chicks. Ca bioavailability was calculated from the chicks' bone ash. The Ca in these mealworms was 76% as bioavailable as the Ca in oyster shell.

  2. Pre-fermentation addition of grape tannin increases the varietal thiols content in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Roberto; Tonidandel, Loris; Román Villegas, Tomás; Nardin, Tiziana; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Nicolini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The recent finding that grape tannin may contain significant amount of S-glutathionylated (GSH-3MH) and S-cysteinylated (Cys-3MH) precursors of the varietal thiols 3-mercapto-1-hexanol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, characteristic of Sauvignon blanc wines, offers new opportunities for enhancing the tropical aroma in fermented beverages. In this study this new hypothesis was investigated: Müller Thurgau (17 samples) and Sauvignon blanc (15 samples) grapes were fermented with and without addition of a selected grape tannin. As expected, the tannin-added juices were higher in precursors, and they produced wines with increased free thiols. Preliminary informal sensory tests confirmed that in particular the Sauvignon wines produced with the tannin addition were often richer with increased "fruity/green" notes than the corresponding reference wines. This outcome confirms that grape tannin addition prior to fermentation can fortify the level of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  4. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Jamil; Garcia, Andrés; Ceacero, Francisco; Gomez, Santiago; Luna, Salvador; Gallego, Laureano; Gambin, Pablo; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings) red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10) that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 15). Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler) showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced), and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  5. Mineralogy and Iron Content of the Lunar Polar Regions Using the Kaguya Spectral Profiler and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Trang, D.; Jha, K.

    2016-12-01

    The lunar polar regions are of high scientific interest, but the extreme lighting conditions have made quantitative analyses using reflectance spectra difficult; some regions are in permanent shadow, and flat surfaces are difficult to correct photometrically due to the extreme grazing incidence and low signal available. Thus, most mineral maps derived from visible and near infrared reflectance spectra have been constrained to within 50° in latitude. The mineralogy of the polar regions, or 44% of the lunar surface, is almost entirely unknown. A few studies have provided compositional analysis based on the spectral shape (where strong absorption bands were present) of lithologies dominated by one or two minerals. In this study, we take a novel approach and use strong signal and well-calibrated reflectance acquired by two different instruments, the Kaguya Spectra Profiler (SP) and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), in order to derive the first FeO and mineral maps of the polar regions at a spatial resolution of 1 km per pixel. We use reflectance ratios from SP and calibrated reflectance data from LOLA to derive the first polar maps of FeO, which are within 2 wt.% of the FeO measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray spectrometer up to 85° in latitude. We then use the reflectance data from SP and Hapke radiative transfer model to compute the abundance of olivine, low-calcium pyroxene, high-calcium pyroxene and plagioclase, using FeO as a constraint. The radiative transfer model yields an error in mineral abundances of 9 wt.%. We use the mineral maps to study the composition of 27 central peaks and 5 basin rings in the polar regions, and relate their composition to their depth of origin in the lunar crust. We find that the central peaks and basin rings in Feldspathic Highlands Terrane are mostly anorthositic in composition, with modal plagioclase content ranging between 66 and 92 wt.%. The central peaks and basin rings in the South Pole-Aitken basin are noritic

  6. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... because your body’s intake of iron is too low. Low intake of iron can happen because of blood ... a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for ...

  7. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This is sometimes used to deliver iron through a blood vessel to increase iron levels in the blood. One benefit of IV iron ... over 65 years of age had low hemoglobin levels. This was associated with a greater risk of death even with mild anemia. ...

  8. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

    2017-12-01

    During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, including: Vegetarian or vegan eating patterns. Not eating enough iron-rich foods, such as meat and fish, may result in ...

  10. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... severity of the condition. Your doctor may recommend healthy eating changes, iron supplements, intravenous iron therapy for mild ... you: Adopt healthy lifestyle changes such as heart-healthy eating patterns. Increase your daily intake of iron-rich ...

  11. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... normally stores but has used up. Increase your intake of vitamin C to help your body absorb iron. Avoid drinking black tea, which reduces iron absorption. Other treatments If you have chronic kidney disease and iron-deficiency anemia, your doctor may recommend ...

  12. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... different ages and stages of life. Until the teen years, the recommended amount of iron is the ... cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  13. Increased mannoprotein content in wines produced by Saccharomyces kudriavzevii×Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Través, Laura; Querol, Amparo; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto

    2016-11-21

    Several wine quality aspects are influenced by yeast mannoproteins on account of aroma compounds retention, lactic-acid bacterial growth stimulation, protection against protein haze and astringency reduction. Thus selecting a yeast strain that produces high levels of mannoproteins is important for the winemaking industry. In this work, we observed increased levels of mannoproteins in S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrids, compared to the S. cerevisiae strain, in wine fermentations. Furthermore, the expression of a key gene related to mannoproteins biosynthesis, PMT1, increased in the S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrid. We showed that artificially constructed S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrids also increased the levels of mannoproteins. This work demonstrates that either natural or artificial S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrids present mannoprotein overproducing capacity under winemaking conditions, a desirable physiological feature for this industry. These results suggest that genome interaction in hybrids generates a physiological environment that enhances the release of mannoproteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Overexpression of amyloid precursor protein increases copper content in HEK293 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suazo, Miriam; Hodar, Christian; Morgan, Carlos; Cerpa, Waldo; Cambiazo, Veronica; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.; Gonzalez, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane glycoprotein widely expressed in mammalian tissues and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. However, its physiological function remains elusive. Cu 2+ binding and reduction activities have been described in the extracellular APP135-156 region, which might be relevant for cellular copper uptake and homeostasis. Here, we assessed Cu 2+ reduction and 64 Cu uptake in two human HEK293 cell lines overexpressing APP. Our results indicate that Cu 2+ reduction increased and cells accumulated larger levels of copper, maintaining cell viability at supra-physiological levels of Cu 2+ ions. Moreover, wild-type cells exposed to both Cu 2+ ions and APP135-155 synthetic peptides increased copper reduction and uptake. Complementation of function studies in human APP751 transformed Fre1 defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells rescued low Cu 2+ reductase activity and increased 64 Cu uptake. We conclude that Cu 2+ reduction activity of APP facilitates copper uptake and may represent an early step in cellular copper homeostasis.

  15. Increased transverse relaxivity in ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles used as MRI contrast agent for biomedical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Kumar, B S Hemanth; Khushu, Subash; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta

    2016-09-01

    Synthesis of a contrast agent for biomedical imaging is of great interest where magnetic nanoparticles are concerned, because of the strong influence of particle size on transverse relaxivity. In the present study, biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ salts, followed by surface adsorption with reduced dextran. The synthesized nanoparticles were spherical in shape, and 12 ± 2 nm in size as measured using transmission electron microscopy; this was corroborated with results from X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering studies. The nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic behavior, superior T 2 relaxation rate and high relaxivities (r 1  = 18.4 ± 0.3, r 2  = 90.5 ± 0.8 s -1 mM -1 , at 7 T). MR image analysis of animals before and after magnetic nanoparticle administration revealed that the signal intensity of tumor imaging, specific organ imaging and whole body imaging can be clearly distinguished, due to the strong relaxation properties of these nanoparticles. Very low concentrations (3.0 mg Fe/kg body weight) of iron oxides are sufficient for early detection of tumors, and also have a clear distinction in pre- and post-enhancement of contrast in organs and body imaging. Many investigators have demonstrated high relaxivities of magnetic nanoparticles at superparamagnetic iron oxide level above 50 nm, but this investigation presents a satisfactory, ultrasmall, superparamagnetic and high transverse relaxivity negative contrast agent for diagnosis in pre-clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Increased birth weight associated with regular pre-pregnancy deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation for Vietnamese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are significant public health issues in South-East Asia. In women of reproductive age, chronic hookworm infections cause iron deficiency anaemia, which, upon pregnancy, can lead to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Low birth weight is an important risk factor for neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. METHODOLOGY: We investigated the association between neonatal birth weight and a 4-monthly deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplementation program given to women of reproductive age in north-west Vietnam. The program was made available to all women of reproductive age (estimated 51,623 in two districts in Yen Bai Province for 20 months prior to commencement of birth weight data collection. Data were obtained for births at the district hospitals of the two intervention districts as well as from two control districts where women did not have access to the intervention, but had similar maternal and child health indicators and socio-economic backgrounds. The primary outcome was low birth weight. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The birth weights of 463 infants born in district hospitals in the intervention (168 and control districts (295 were recorded. Twenty-six months after the program was started, the prevalence of low birth weight was 3% in intervention districts compared to 7.4% in control districts (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.81, p = 0.017. The mean birth weight was 124 g (CI 68 - 255 g, p<0.001 greater in the intervention districts compared to control districts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings of this study suggest that providing women with regular deworming and weekly iron-folic acid supplements before pregnancy is associated with a reduced prevalence of low birth weight in rural Vietnam. The impact of this health system-integrated intervention on birth outcomes should be further evaluated through a more extensive randomised-controlled trial.

  17. TOL Plasmid Carriage Enhances Biofilm Formation and Increases Extracellular DNA Content in Pseudomonas Putida KT2440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smets, Barth F.; D'Alvise, Paul; Yankelovich, T.

    laser scanning microscopy. The TOL-carrying strains formed pellicles and thick biofilms, whereas the same strains without the plasmid displayed little adherent growth. Microscopy using fluorescent nucleic acid- specific stains (cytox orange, propidium iodide) revealed differences in production...... combined with specific cytostains; release of cytoplasmic material was assayed by a β-glucosidase assay. Enhanced cell lysis due to plasmid carriage was ruled out as the mechanism for eDNA release. We report, for the first time, that carriage of a conjugative plasmid leads to increased biofilm formation...

  18. The application of biotic elicitor on Artemisia annua L. to increase artemisinin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, I.; Manohara, D.; Rohimatun; Nurhayati, H.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) has been recommended by WHO as an alternative to treat malaria overcoming drug resistance. The secondary metabolic products in plants, including artemisinin, can be increased by utilizing biotic elicitor from fungi. The research was conducted in Gunung Putri Research Installation, Cipanas, West Java from 2010 to 2011. Phytophthora sp. from eggplant and Colletotrichum sp. from Artemisia annua were applied as biotic elicitor. The types of biotic elicitor applied to the plants were 1) the medium of potato dextrose broth were inoculated with fungi and harvested after 10 days (filtrate), 2) powdery mycelium of both fungi. There were 16 treatments: control negative, control positive (uninoculated medium) 1%, 2%, 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Colletotrichum sp. filtrate [1, 2% and 3% (v/v)], Phytophthora sp. mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)], Colletotrichum sp mycelium [1%, 2% and 3% (w/v)]. The elicitor application increased plant production by 26.21% and artemisinin yield by 72% compared to control. Furthermore, the artemisinin production of the plants treated with medium inoculated with 2% filtrate of Phytophthora sp (FP2) (25.19 kg/ha) and 1% powdery mycelium of Colletotrichum sp (MC1) (26.42 kg/ha) were higher than control (K) (11.17 kg/ha).

  19. Biofortification (Se: Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D'Amato

    Full Text Available Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014. Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1 and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1. This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile.

  20. Biofortification (Se): Does it increase the content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amato, Roberto; Proietti, Primo; Onofri, Andrea; Regni, Luca; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Businelli, Daniela; Selvaggini, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Extra-Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) is a fundamental component of the Mediterranean diet and it may contain several anti-oxidant substances, such as phenols. Previous research has shown that this food may be enriched in phenols by spraying a sodium-selenate solution (100 mg L-1 Se) onto the crop canopy before flowering. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of this Se-fertilization before flowering (cv. Leccino) on the phenolic profile of EVOOs, and test to what extent such effects depend on the weather pattern, as observed in two contrasting experimental seasons (2013 and 2014). Results showed that Se-fertilisation enriched EVOOs both in selenium (up to 120 μg kg-1) and in phenols (up to 401 mg kg-1). This latter enrichment was related to an increase in PAL (L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase) activities and it was largely independent on the climatic pattern. Considering the phenolic profile, oleacein, ligustroside, aglycone and oleocanthal were the most affected compounds and were increased by 57, 50 and 32%, respectively. All these compounds, especially oleacein, have been shown to exert a relevant anti-oxidant activity, contributing both to the shelf-life of EVOOs and to positive effects on human health. It is suggested that Se-fertilisation of olive trees before flowering may be an interesting practice, particularly with poor cultivars and cold and rainy weather patterns, which would normally lead to the production of EVOOs with unfavourable phenolic profile. PMID:28448631

  1. [Evaluation of the needs and possibilities of increasing the vitamin B12 content in diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Cholewa, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B12 belongs to the biologically active compounds related to cyanocobalamin group. The bioavailability of B12 from different food products varies considerably, for example from the chicken meat it ranges from 61 to 66%, from fish meat is 42%, and from eggs below 9% only. The deficiency of vitamin B12 could easily be overcame by the appropriate diet or food supplements. The aim of this study was to characterize the fortified with vitamin B12 food products available on the market and to assess the possibilities of increasing the intake of this vitamin by including such products into the daily diet. The study was carried out in winter 2011, at eleven Warsaw supermarkets. Information about food products was based on label declarations. There were 220 products fortified with vitamin B12 from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, fruit juice, non-alcoholic beverages, cereals bars, candies, instant cocoa and tea, margarine, as well as soya products. Breakfast cereals (40%) and juice, non-alcoholic beverages (30%) were the largest groups. RESULTS. The highest amount of vitamin B12 was found in some candies (max. 4,5 microg/100 g) and instant tea (max. 3,75 microg/100g). The lowest amount was found in some fruit beverages (min. 0,12 microg/100 g). There is possibility of increasing the vitamin B12 intake by consuming various fortified products: for instance a glass of soya drink (20,8% RDA), a cup of soya pudding (15%), a glass of instant tea (14%), apple juice (12,5%), a cereal bar (10%), a bowl of corn flakes (9,8%) or a slice of bread with margarine (7,5%). The intake of one average portion of chosen food products fortified with vitamin B12 provides about 0,18-0,5 microg (7,5-20,8% Polish RDA for adults). The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition, it is especially recommendable to vegetarian and elderly people.

  2. 137Cs content in the ration of rural population of regions with increased nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    Considered is the ration of rural population of arctic regions and Byelorussian-Ukrainian woodlands. The peculiarity of the nitrition structure of the population in the North is a relatively large contribution of deer meat in the ration. The main amount of 137 Cs contribution with other food stuffs and drinking water in the ration of population of this area does not exceed 10 %. The main supplier of 137 Cs in the ration of population of woodlands is milk which constitutes 70 %. The second place is taken by potatoes. The role and significance of separate food stuffs as 137 Cs suppliers in the ration in the zones with increased migration can be different; the leading role in this process is played by natural factors

  3. Vacuolar iron transporter BnMEB2 is involved in enhancing iron tolerance of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron toxicity is a major nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D was identified. BnMEB2 is a homolog to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290 and acts as a detoxifier in vacuolar sequestration of divalent metal. Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Q-PCR detection showed a high expression of BnMEB2 in mature (60-day-old leaves and could be obviously induced by exogenous iron stress in both roots and leaves. Over-expressed BnMEB2 in both Arabidopsis wild type and meb2 mutant seedlings resulted in greatly improved iron tolerability with no significant changes in the expression level of other vacuolar iron transporter genes. The mutant meb2 grew slowly and its root hair elongation was inhibited under high iron concentration condition while BnMEB2 over-expressed transgenic plants of the mutant restored the phenotypes with apparently higher iron storage in roots and dramatically increased iron content in the whole plant. Taken together, these results suggested that BnMEB2 was a VIT gene in rapeseed which was necessary for safe storage and vacuole detoxification function of excess iron to enhance the tolerance of iron toxicity. This research sheds light on a potentially new strategy for attenuating hazardous metal stress from environment and improving iron biofortification in Brassicaceae crops.

  4. Effect of increased natural radiation background on glycogen content of peripheral blood leukocytes of microtus oeconomus Pall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materij, L.D.; Maslova, K.I.

    1984-01-01

    In experiments on Microtus oeconomus Pall, living in natural conditions with normal (0.72-1.08 pA/kg) and increased (3.6-1440 pA/kg) levels of external gamma-radiation and affected by numerous incorporated radionuclides, the differences were detected, by the cytochemical method, both in the total glycogen content of eucocytes and in the type of grouping of cells depending on the cegre of their saturation with polysaccharide

  5. Current understanding of iron homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory J; Frazer, David M

    2017-12-01

    Iron is an essential trace element, but it is also toxic in excess, and thus mammals have developed elegant mechanisms for keeping both cellular and whole-body iron concentrations within the optimal physiologic range. In the diet, iron is either sequestered within heme or in various nonheme forms. Although the absorption of heme iron is poorly understood, nonheme iron is transported across the apical membrane of the intestinal enterocyte by divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and is exported into the circulation via ferroportin 1 (FPN1). Newly absorbed iron binds to plasma transferrin and is distributed around the body to sites of utilization with the erythroid marrow having particularly high iron requirements. Iron-loaded transferrin binds to transferrin receptor 1 on the surface of most body cells, and after endocytosis of the complex, iron enters the cytoplasm via DMT1 in the endosomal membrane. This iron can be used for metabolic functions, stored within cytosolic ferritin, or exported from the cell via FPN1. Cellular iron concentrations are modulated by the iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) IRP1 and IRP2. At the whole-body level, dietary iron absorption and iron export from the tissues into the plasma are regulated by the liver-derived peptide hepcidin. When tissue iron demands are high, hepcidin concentrations are low and vice versa. Too little or too much iron can have important clinical consequences. Most iron deficiency reflects an inadequate supply of iron in the diet, whereas iron excess is usually associated with hereditary disorders. These disorders include various forms of hemochromatosis, which are characterized by inadequate hepcidin production and, thus, increased dietary iron intake, and iron-loading anemias whereby both increased iron absorption and transfusion therapy contribute to the iron overload. Despite major recent advances, much remains to be learned about iron physiology and pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) synthesis in a Mg-aminoclay solution exhibits increased stability and reactivity for reductive decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, Yuhoon; Lee, Young-Chul; Mines, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has often been explored as a reductant for detoxification of pollutants in environmental clean-ups. Despite the large surface area and superior reactivity of nZVI, its limited stability is a major obstacle in applying nZVI for in situ subsurface remediation, e......ZVI particles with higher crystallinity were produced. Stability of nZVI particles were evaluated using a sedimentation test and a dynamic light scattering technique. The characteristic time increased from 6.71 to 83.8 min, and particle (aggregate diameter) size decreased from 5132 to 186 nm with increasing...

  7. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  8. Non-Alcoholic Beverages from Fermented Cereals with Increased Oligosaccharide Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazina Juodeikiene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a new technology for making traditional Lithuanian non-alcoholic beverage kvass from fermented cereals by extending the spectrum of raw materials (extruded rye and applying new biotechnological resources (xylanolytic enzymes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB to improve its functional properties. Arabinoxylans in extruded rye were very efficiently hydrolysed into oligosaccharides by xylanolytic complex Ceremix Plus MG. Using Ceremix Plus MG and LAB fermentation, the yield of arabinoxylooligosaccharides and xylooligosaccharides in beverage was increased to 300 and 1100 mg/L, respectively. Beverages fermented by LAB had lower pH values and ethanol volume fraction compared to the yeast-fermented beverage. The acceptability of the beverage fermented by Lactobacillus sakei was higher than of Pediococcus pentosaceus- or yeast-fermented beverages and similar to the acceptability of commercial kvass made from malt extract. The results showed that extruded rye, xylanolytic enzymes and LAB can be used for production of novel and safe high-value non-alcoholic beverages.

  9. Effect of iron content on the catalytic activity of Fe-MnOx electrodeposited films in water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Elizabeth; Ryczko, Kevin; Lopinski, Gregory; Armandi, Marco; Bonelli, Barbara; Tamblyn, Isaac

    We report on the experimental and computational optimization and characterization of an MnOx structure containing a small amount of Fe, used as a catalyst for the water oxidation reaction (WOR), the key limiting reaction in water splitting. MnOx materials are earth-abundant and known to be efficient for WOR, and the method of cathodically electrodepositing catalysts allows for quick synthesis and a homogeneous coverage of the substrate. We present an increase in WOR activity due to the presence of Fe in this MnOx catalyst structure. First, we explored the optimal range for Fe(NO3)3 concentration in an KMnO4 solution for electrodeposition and tested for WOR activity. The catalyst structure was then analyzed using FESEM, XPS, and a Kelvin probe. We then developed a computational model of this structure, using density functional theory to obtain adsorption energies, work functions, projected density of states, and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. In this theoretical framework, we explore how these observables change with respect to concentration of Fe, and compare the theoretical model with experiment. special acknowledgement to the Italian Cultural Centre of Durham scholarship program.

  10. The relative dietary importance of haem and non-haem iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezwoda, W.R.; Bothwell, T.H.; Charlton, R.W.; Torrance, J.D.; MacPhail, A.P.; Derman, D.P.; Mayet, F.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the relative amounts of haem and non-haem iron absorbed from meals in which varying amounts of these substances were present. Four meals, each containing 6 mg of iron but with varying ratios of haem and non-haem iron, were fed to two groups of subjects, each group receiving two meals. The geometric mean percentage absorption of non-haem iron decreased from 18,0% (SD range 14,6-22,3%) to 6,4% (SD range 3,4-11,8%) as the non-haem iron content of the meal increased from 1,52 mg to 5,72 mg - there was therefore little variation in the actual amounts of non-haem iron absorbed from the different meals. In contrast, the geometric mean absorption of haem iron was approximately 20% from all four meals, although the haem iron content varied between 0,28 mg and 4,48 mg. The amount of haem iron absorbed was thus a linear function of the amount of haem iron in the meal. Two points emerged from the study. Firstly, the relative importance of haem iron in overall iron nutrition was confirmed. Secondly, the fact that the pattern of absorption in relation to dosage was so different from haem iron and non-haem iron suggested that a controlling mechanism for non-haem iron absorption may be located at the mucosal surface. This conclusion is based on the fact that haem iron, the percentage absorption of which was found to be independent of the size of the dose, is absorped into the mucosal cell when still contained within the porphyrin ring and the iron thus bypasses some controlling mechanism at the mucosal border

  11. Radioisotope investigation of iron absorption in humans. Part of a WHO/IAEA coordinated programme on iron nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bothwell, T.H.

    1975-08-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption of iron was investigated in a number of multiparous women living under low socio-economic conditions which are known to lead commonly to iron deficiency. The percentage absorption was deduced by comparing the concentration of 55 Fe and/or 59 Fe in blood with the activity of the corresponding isotope(s) administered orally about two weeks earlier. It was confirmed or established that: (1) food or supplemental iron, if available at all, tends to be absorbed from the intestines as if present there in one of two alternative pools: heme and non-heme, (2) vitamin C substantially increases absorption of food or supplemental non-heme iron, (3) it is technically possible to use common salt or sugar as a carrier for supplemental iron and vitamin C, but practical difficulties of using such systems in a public health prophylactic programme are severe, and (4) tea, presumably because of its tannin content, inhibits absorption of accompanying iron

  12. TGF-β1-mediated differentiation of fibroblasts is associated with increased mitochondrial content and cellular respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulugbek Negmadjanov

    Full Text Available Cytokine-dependent activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, a key event in fibrosis, is accompanied by phenotypic changes with increased secretory and contractile properties dependent on increased energy utilization, yet changes in the energetic profile of these cells are not fully described. We hypothesize that the TGF-β1-mediated transformation of myofibroblasts is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and function when compared to naive fibroblasts.Cultured NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1, a profibrotic cytokine, or vehicle were assessed for transformation to myofibroblasts (appearance of α-smooth muscle actin [α-SMA] stress fibers and associated changes in mitochondrial content and functions using laser confocal microscopy, Seahorse respirometry, multi-well plate reader and biochemical protocols. Expression of mitochondrial-specific proteins was determined using western blotting, and the mitochondrial DNA quantified using Mitochondrial DNA isolation kit.Treatment with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL induced transformation of naive fibroblasts into myofibroblasts with a threefold increase in the expression of α-SMA (6.85 ± 0.27 RU compared to cells not treated with TGF-β1 (2.52 ± 0.11 RU. TGF-β1 exposure increased the number of mitochondria in the cells, as monitored by membrane potential sensitive dye tetramethylrhodamine, and expression of mitochondria-specific proteins; voltage-dependent anion channels (0.54 ± 0.05 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05 RU and adenine nucleotide transporter (0.61 ± 0.11 vs. 0.22 ± 0.05 RU, as well as mitochondrial DNA content (530 ± 12 μg DNA/106 cells vs. 307 ± 9 μg DNA/106 cells in control. TGF-β1 treatment was associated with an increase in mitochondrial function with a twofold increase in baseline oxygen consumption rate (2.25 ± 0.03 vs. 1.13 ± 0.1 nmol O2/min/106 cells and FCCP-induced mitochondrial respiration (2.87 ± 0.03 vs. 1.46 ± 0.15 nmol O2/min/106 cells.TGF-β1 induced

  13. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) heavy water fabrication plants. Control of iron content at the final stage of passivation. Pt. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is part of a series which corresponds to the carbon steel behaviour as construction material for Girlder sulfide (G.S.) heavy water plants. The present work analyses the iron concentration study during passivation in the passivating fluid. At the beginning, during the formation of the most soluble sulfide -that is the mackinawite-, the iron concentration reaches more than 10 ppm. After some days, this iron concentration begins to decrease up to its stabilization under 0.1 ppm. This process, which occurs in the 9th. and 11th days, indicates that passivation is over, and that a pyrite and pyrrhotite-pyrite layer exists on the iron. Some differences exist between the results obtained and those previsible for the iron sulfides solubilities. In spite of these difficulties, the procedure is perfectly adequate to judge the passivation final stage. (Author) [es

  14. Improvement of bioavailability for iron from vegetarian meals by ascorbic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sritongkul, N.; Tuntawiroon, M.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.

    1996-01-01

    There are two kinds of iron in the diet with respect to the mechanism of absorption, heme-iron which is present as haemoglobin or myoglobin in meat and blood products, and, non-heme iron which is the main source of dietary iron. The bioavailability of the non-heme food iron is much lower than heme-iron. Vegetarian diets contain only non-heme iron. Iron intake from vegetarian meals are generally satisfied with the requirements, however, the bioavailabilities for non-heme iron is determined not only by iron content byt also the balance between different dietary factors enhancing and inhibiting iron absorption. The main enhancing factor in vegetarian meals is ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetables, inhibitors are phytate in cereals and grains, and tannins in some spices and vegetables. It has been reported that iron deficiency is one of the common micronutrient problems associated with unplanned vegetarian diets. In the present study the absorption of non-heme iron was measured from 2 vegetarian meals containing considerable amounts of phytate and tannin. The extrinsic tay method ( 59 Fe/ 55 Fe) was used to labelled the non-heme iron. The mean percentage absorption of non-heme iron from both meals was slightly different due to differences in their dietary contents. Their initial percentages iron absorption were apparent low (3.5% and 4.1%), however, the absorption progressively increased with increase in the level of ascorbic acid, 2-3 times with 100 mg and 4-5 times with 200 mg of ascorbic acid. The average amount of iron absorbed per 2000 kcal increased from 0.37 mg to 0.86 mg and 1.45 mg with the addition of 100 mg and 200 mg ascorbic acid respectively (p < 0.001). Considering the limited caloric intakes and the iron content in the meals, the amount of iron absorbed from vegetarian meals without ascorbic acid was not able to meet certain requirements for children, adolescents and menstruating women. The minimal requirement for dietary iron needed to be absorbed is

  15. Personalised iron supply for prophylaxis and treatment of pregnant women as a way to ensure normal iron levels in their breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, G H; Mestorino, N; Errecalde, J; Huber, B; Uriarte, A; Orchuela, J

    2012-02-22

    Because the characteristics of all body fluids depends on patient's health status, is it possible that disadvantaged and socially vulnerable mothers may have lower amounts of iron in their breast milk, and that their babies receive lower content of the mineral for their normal growth and development. Assuring a preventive treatment of the mother might solve this problem. To demonstrate breast milk iron content from disadvantaged mothers and impact of personalized iron supplementation program. cross-sectional study. Breast milk samples were obtained for ferritin analysis. Health's services usually provides free folic acid and iron treatment however, treatment compliance is low. Patients were random in two groups: "A: Controls" that had free iron tablets available from Health Centre; and "B: Intervention" group where patients accepted to be periodically contacted at home by health's team for personalized iron dispensation. 360 patients were included. Profilaxis and treatment compliance were 100% and 97,6% for B group while for "Control" one was 63% and 34%(p0.0001). Higher breast milk iron levels were detected in Intervention's mothers compared with control's patients (p0.007). Personalized iron prophylaxis and treatment increased breast milk iron levels. Public health policy must ensure iron dispensation for each underserved mother in order to reduce children problems associate to iron deficiency during the first year of their life.

  16. Inorganic/organic nanocomposites: Reaching a high filler content without increasing viscosity using core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhadjala, W., E-mail: warda.benhadjala@cea.fr [IMS Laboratory - UMR CNRS 5218, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); CEA, LETI, Minatec Campus, 38000 Grenoble (France); Gravoueille, M.; Weiss, M. [EDF, Centre d' Expertise et d' Inspection dans les Domaines de la Réalisation et de l' Exploitation (CEIDRE), Chinon, BP 80, 37420 Avoine (France); Bord-Majek, I.; Béchou, L.; Ousten, Y. [IMS Laboratory - UMR CNRS 5218, University of Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Suhir, E. [Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Oregon 97201 (United States); Buet, M.; Louarn, M.; Rougé, F.; Gaud, V. [Polyrise SAS, 16 Avenue Pey Berland, 33607 Pessac (France)

    2015-11-23

    Extensive research is being conducted on the development of inorganic/organic nanocomposites for a wide variety of applications in microelectronics, biotechnologies, photonics, adhesives, or optical coatings. High filler contents are usually required to fully optimize the nanocomposites properties. However, numerous studies demonstrated that traditional composite viscosity increases with increasing the filler concentration reducing therefore significantly the material processability. In this work, we synthesized inorganic/organic core-shell nanocomposites with different shell thicknesses. By reducing the shell thickness while maintaining a constant core size, the nanoparticle molecular mass decreases but the nanocomposite filler fraction is correlatively increased. We performed viscosity measurements, which clearly highlighted that intrinsic viscosity of hybrid nanoparticles decreases as the molecular mass decreases, and thus, as the filler fraction increases, as opposed to Einstein predictions about the viscosity of traditional inorganic/polymer two-phase mixtures. This exceptional behavior, modeled by Mark-Houwink-Sakurada equation, proves to be a significant breakthrough for the development of industrializable nanocomposites with high filler contents.

  17. Effect of irradiation and storage in the iron availability in lamb meat treated with different diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Adriana Regia Marques de; Arthur, Valter

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation is an efficient method to increase the microbiological safety and to maintain the nutrients such as iron in the meat. The best absorption form, heme iron, should be preserved in order to increase the nutritional quality of stored meat. The diet can alter the nutrients contents and form in the meat. The iron is provided from the diet and it is an essential element for the metabolic processes such as oxygen transport, oxidative metabolism, and cellular growth. Meat lamb samples treated with different diets (it controls, TAC1, TAC2 and sorghum) were wrapped to vacuous, and irradiated in the doses 0, 2 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 deg C during 15 days. The values of total iron and heme iron were measured at 0 and 15 days of storage. The storage reduced the content of total iron (18.36 for 14.28 mg.100 g -1 ) and heme iron (13.78 for 10.52 mg.100 g -1 ). The diets affected the levels of total and heme iron of the meat, and the sorghum diet was the one that presented the larger content. The dose of 2 kGy was the one that affected the iron the most independently of the storage time. It was verified that the amounts of total and heme iron varied according to the storage time, irradiation doses, and lamb diets. (author)

  18. Extracting phosphoric iron under laboratorial conditions smelting bog iron ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Török, B; Thiele, A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years it has been indicated by archaeometric investigations that phosphoric-iron (P-iron, low carbon steel with 0,5-1,5wt% P), which is an unknown and unused kind of steel in the modern industry, was widely used in different parts of the world in medieval times. In this study we try to explore the role of phosphorus in the arhaeometallurgy of iron and answer some questions regarding the smelting bog iron ores with high P-content. XRF analyses were performed on bog iron ores collected in Somogy county. Smelting experiments were carried out on bog iron ores using a laboratory model built on the basis of previously conducted reconstructed smelting experiments in copies of excavated furnaces. The effect of technological parameters on P-content of the resulted iron bloom was studied. OM and SEM-EDS analyses were carried out on the extracted iron and slag samples. On the basis of the material analyses it can be stated that P-iron is usually extracted but the P-content is highly affected by technological parameters. Typical microstructures of P-iron and of slag could also be identified. It could also be established that arsenic usually solved in high content in iron as well

  19. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  20. Retrospective comparison of gradient recalled echo R2* and spin-echo R2 magnetic resonance analysis methods for estimating liver iron content in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Quinn, Charles T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Hematology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Health System Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Serial surveillance of liver iron concentration (LIC) provides guidance for chelation therapy in patients with iron overload. The diagnosis of iron overload traditionally relies on core liver biopsy, which is limited by invasiveness, sampling error, cost and general poor acceptance by pediatric patients and parents. Thus noninvasive diagnostic methods such as MRI are highly attractive for quantification of liver iron concentration. To compare two MRI-based methods for liver iron quantification in children. 64 studies on 48 children and young adults (age range 4-21 years) were examined by gradient recalled echo (GRE) R2* and spin-echo R2 MRI at 1.5T to evaluate liver iron concentration. Scatter plots and Bland-Altman difference plots were generated to display and assess the relationship between the methods. With the protocols used in this investigation, Bland-Altman agreement between the methods is best when LIC is <20 mg/g dry tissue. Scatter plots show that all values with LIC <20 mg/g dry tissue fall within the 95% prediction limits. Liver iron concentration as determined by the R2* and R2 MR methods is statistically comparable, with no statistical difference between these methods for LIC <20 mg/g. (orig.)

  1. Improved Yield of High Molecular Weight DNA Coincides with Increased Microbial Diversity Access from Iron Oxide Cemented Sub-Surface Clay Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard A.; Robeson, Michael S.; Shakya, Migun; Moberly, James G.; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Gu, Baohua; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite over three decades of progress, extraction of high molecular weight (HMW) DNA from high clay soils or iron oxide cemented clay has remained challenging. HMW DNA is desirable for next generation sequencing as it yields the most comprehensive coverage. Several DNA extraction procedures were compared from samples that exhibit strong nucleic acid adsorption. pH manipulation or use of alternative ion solutions offered no improvement in nucleic acid recovery. Lysis by liquid N2 grinding in concentrated guanidine followed by concentrated sodium phosphate extraction supported HMW DNA recovery from clays high in iron oxides. DNA recovered using 1 M sodium phosphate buffer (PB) as a competitive desorptive wash was 15.22±2.33 µg DNA/g clay, with most DNA consisting of >20 Kb fragments, compared to 2.46±0.25 µg DNA/g clay with the Powerlyzer system (MoBio). Increasing PB concentration in the lysis reagent coincided with increasing DNA fragment length during initial extraction. Rarefaction plots of 16S rRNA (V1–V3 region) pyrosequencing from A-horizon and clay soils showed an ∼80% and ∼400% larger accessed diversity compared to the Powerlyzer soil DNA system, respectively. The observed diversity from the Firmicutes showed the strongest increase with >3-fold more operational taxonomic units (OTU) recovered. PMID:25033199

  2. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.; Stock, W.D.; Hedderson, T.

    2009-01-01

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar δ 15 N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha -1 a -1 since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa

  3. Increase in nitrite content and functionality of ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens following treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Lee, Chul Woo; Lee, Juri; Yong, Hae In; Yum, Su Jin; Jeong, Hee Gon; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-12-15

    This study investigated the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on nitrite content and functionality of plant extracts. Ethanolic extracts of Perilla frutescens (EEP) were prepared and treated with APP for 60min. Nitrite content increased from 0 to 45.8mg/l in EEP after APP treatment for 60min. Antimicrobial activity of EEP against Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella Typhimurium was increased by APP with no influence on antioxidative activity (p<0.05). Lyophilized EEP (LEEP) treated with APP for 60min contained 3.74mg/g nitrite. The control (LEEP without APP) contained no nitrite. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEEP for C. perfringens was 200µg/ml. The control did not inhibit C. perfringens growth between 25 and 1000µg/ml. MICs of LEEP and the control against S. Typhimurium were 25 and 50µg/ml, respectively. New nitrite sources with increased antimicrobial activity can be produced from natural plants by APP treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  5. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMANDA C. NOGUEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey’s test (p<0.05 was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers’ health and for the agricultural business.

  6. Yellow sweet potato flour: use in sweet bread processing to increase β-carotene content and improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Amanda C; Sehn, Georgia A R; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Coutinho, Janclei P; Godoy, Helena T; Chang, Yoon K; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S

    2018-01-01

    Yellow sweet potato is mostly produced by small farmers, and may be a source of energy and carotenoids in the human diet, but it is a highly perishable crop. To increase its industrial application, yellow sweet potato flour has been produced for use in bakery products. This study aimed to evaluate the technological quality and the carotenoids content in sweet breads produced with the replacement of wheat flour by 0, 3, 6, and 9% yellow sweet potato flour. Breads were characterized by technological parameters and β-carotene levels during nine days of storage. Tukey's test (p<0.05) was used for comparison between means. The increase in yellow sweet potato flour concentrations in bread led to a decrease of specific volume and firmness, and an increase in water activity, moisture, orange coloring, and carotenoids. During storage, the most significant changes were observed after the fifth day, with a decrease in intensity of the orange color. The β-carotene content was 0.1656 to 0.4715 µg/g in breads with yellow sweet potato flour. This work showed a novel use of yellow sweet potato in breads, which brings benefits to consumers' health and for the agricultural business.

  7. Pot experiments on the influence of increasing substrate humus content on N utilization of 15N- urea by forage plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdoerster, U.; Markgraf, G.

    1984-01-01

    The soils used for graded soil-quartz mixtures were taken from the A/sub p/ horizon both of loess-chernozem and deep-loam fallow soil. The plants used in the experiments included annual rye grass, feed oats/oil radish, and green maize/mustard. The yields extended with increasing soil content, mainly by growing utilization of soil N. Because of the special effect of the organic soil substrate the returns with chernozem admixture surpassed those with fallow soil admixture. Under these experimental conditions no significant relation was found between both the fertilizer N absorption and N utilization of urea and humus quality and quantity. (author)

  8. Intermittent Fasting Promotes Fat Loss With Lean Mass Retention, Increased Hypothalamic Norepinephrine Content, and Increased Neuropeptide Y Gene Expression in Diet-Induced Obese Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Verpeut, Jessica L; Yeomans, Bryn L; Yang, Jennifer A; Yasrebi, Ali; Roepke, Troy A; Bello, Nicholas T

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate alternate-day, intermittent fasting (IMF) protocols result in meaningful weight loss in obese individuals. To further understand the mechanisms sustaining weight loss by IMF, we investigated the metabolic and neural alterations of IMF in obese mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD; 45% fat) ad libitum for 8 weeks to promote an obese phenotype. Mice were divided into four groups and either maintained on ad libitum HFD, received alternate-day access to HFD (IMF-HFD), and switched to ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD; 10% fat) or received IMF of LFD (IMF-LFD). After 4 weeks, IMF-HFD (∼13%) and IMF-LFD (∼18%) had significantly lower body weights than the HFD. Body fat was also lower (∼40%-52%) in all diet interventions. Lean mass was increased in the IMF-LFD (∼12%-13%) compared with the HFD and IMF-HFD groups. Oral glucose tolerance area under the curve was lower in the IMF-HFD (∼50%), whereas the insulin tolerance area under the curve was reduced in all diet interventions (∼22%-42%). HPLC measurements of hypothalamic tissue homogenates indicated higher (∼55%-60%) norepinephrine (NE) content in the anterior regions of the medial hypothalamus of IMF compared with the ad libitum-fed groups, whereas NE content was higher (∼19%-32%) in posterior regions in the IMF-LFD group only. Relative gene expression of Npy in the arcuate nucleus was increased (∼65%-75%) in IMF groups. Our novel findings indicate that intermittent fasting produces alterations in hypothalamic NE and neuropeptide Y, suggesting the counterregulatory processes of short-term weight loss are associated with an IMF dietary strategy.

  9. Analysis of the global ocean sampling (GOS) project for trends in iron uptake by surface ocean microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulza, Eve; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Blain, Stéphane; Piganeau, Gwenael

    2012-01-01

    Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. The study of microbial communities via their DNA content has revolutionized our understanding of microbial ecology and evolution. Iron availability is a critical resource that limits microbial communities' growth in many oceanic areas. Here, we built a database of 2319 sequences, corresponding to 140 gene families of iron metabolism with a large phylogenetic spread, to explore the microbial strategies of iron acquisition in the ocean's bacterial community. We estimate iron metabolism strategies from metagenome gene content and investigate whether their prevalence varies with dissolved iron concentrations obtained from a biogeochemical model. We show significant quantitative and qualitative variations in iron metabolism pathways, with a higher proportion of iron metabolism genes in low iron environments. We found a striking difference between coastal and open ocean sites regarding Fe(2+) versus Fe(3+) uptake gene prevalence. We also show that non-specific siderophore uptake increases in low iron open ocean environments, suggesting bacteria may acquire iron from natural siderophore-like organic complexes. Despite the lack of knowledge of iron uptake mechanisms in most marine microorganisms, our approach provides insights into how the iron metabolic pathways of microbial communities may vary with seawater iron concentrations.

  10. Soybean meal fermented by Aspergillus awamori increases the cytochrome P-450 content of the liver microsomes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T; Ataki, H; Takebe, M; Ebihara, K

    2000-04-01

    The effect of soybean meal fermented by Aspergillus awamori on the acute lethality of acetaldehyde, pentobarbital sleeping time, and cytochrome P-450 content of the hepatic microsomes was studied in mice. Most of the daidzin and genistin in soybean meal (SBM) were converted into the respective aglycones, daidzein and genistein, by fermentation. In experiment 1, mice were fed isonitrogenic test diets with one of the following five protein sources for 28 d: casein, SBM, fermented and hot-air-dried SBM (FSBM-HD), fermented and freeze-dried SBM (FSBM-FD), or methanol-extracted FSBM-FD (FSMB-FD-R). The acute lethality of acetaldehyde in mice fed the FSBM-FD diet was significantly lower than that in mice fed the SBM, FSBM-HD, or FSBM-FD-R diet. In experiments 2 and 3, mice were fed isonitrogenic test diets with one of the following four protein sources for 28 d: casein, SBM, FSBM-FD, and FSBM-FD-R. The pentobarbital sleeping time was significantly shorter and the cytochrome P-450 content was significantly higher in the mice fed the FSBM-FD diet than the respective value in mice fed the other test diets. In experiment 4, mice were fed one of eight diets which contained different levels of aglycone obtained by varying the proportion of FSBM-FD and FSBM-FD-R, for 28 d. The cytochrome P-450 content in hepatic microsomes increased as the dietary level of isoflavonoid aglycones increased, but there was a saturation phenomenon. These results suggest that soy isoflavonoid aglycones are more potent inducers of cytochrome P-450 than isoflavonoid glycosides.

  11. Use of a standard meal to study iron absorption in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M.B.; Cook, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Iron absorption varies widely between subjects and groups of subjects because of differences in iron status which markedly influence iron assimilation from the gastrointestinal tract. A small dose of isotopically labelled inorganic iron termed the reference dose (3 mg iron as FeSO 4 ) has been used extensively during the past two decades to standardize food iron absorption in human subjects and thereby eliminate the effect of differences in iron status. Recent studies from this laboratory have shown that because of the high variability of absorption from the reference dose, nonheme iron absorption from a standardized meal provides a more reliable means of standardizing absorption from regional diets. We therefore performed initial studies with a rice based meal but we found a relatively high variation in absorption from 2.0 to 4.7% that presumably reflects differences in the phytate content of rice fours. We then undertook the evaluation of meals prepared with farina, a wheat product that is available in most regions of the world. In six different studies from a farina based meal, iron absorption ranged from 3.4 to 6.5%. Nonheme iron absorption from the farina meal when evaluated in separate laboratories extensively engaged in human studies of iron absorption, ranged from 5.1 to 10.8% but when related to the FeSO 4 dose, a more consistent ratio between 0.21 to 0.26 was observed with the exception of one laboratory where a very low absorption of 1.1.% was observed. Percentage absorption from the farina based meal decreased when the iron content of the meal was increased and showed the expected facilitation of absorption when increasing amounts of ascorbic acid were added. By reducing variability and measuring iron absorption from food rather than inorganic iron, we believe that the use of this standard meal will facilitate comparison of iron absorption data obtained in laboratories throughout the world. 4 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  13. Application of Bokashi Botom Ash for Increasing Upland Rice Yield and Decreasing Grain Pb Content in Vitric Hapludans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Sondari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment was conducted at Agricultural Faculty of Winaya Mukti University Tanjungsari SumedangRegency, from May to October 2009. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of bokashi bottom ashon the growth, yield, and Pb content of upland rice. The experiment used a Randomized completely Block Design(RBD which consisted of five treatments and five replications. The treatments were level of bokashi bottom ash i.e.0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Mg ha-1. The results showed that the application of bokashi bottom ash increased the growth andyield of upland rice of Situbagendit variety except plant height at age of 21 days after seedling (DAS. Application15 Mg ha -1 of bokashi bottom ash gave the best effect to the plant height, number of leaves, number of tillers andshoot/root ratio, while applications of 10, 15 and 20 Mg ha -1 increased number of productive tillers, amount of filledgrains, and weight of grains. Bokashi bottom ash did not affect the heavy metal content of upland rice grain ofSitubagendit variety.

  14. Study on wear resistance of vanadium alloying compacted/vermicular graphite cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yoon Woo

    1987-01-01

    Wear resistance of the Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast irons was studied by changing the vanadium content in the cast irons. The results obtained in this work are summarized as follows. 1. When the same amount of vanadium was added to the flake graphite cast iron, spheroidal graphitecast iron and Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron, spheroidal graphite cast iron and Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron wear resistance decreased in following sequence, that is, flake graphite cast iron> spheroidal graphite cast iron>Compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron. 2. Addition of vanadium to the Compacted/Vermicular cast iron leaded to a remarkable increase in hardness because it made the amount of pearlite in matrix increase. 3. Addition of vanadium to the compacted/Vermicular graphite cast iron significantly enhanced wear resistance and the maximum resistance was achieved at about 0.36% vanadium. 4. The maximum amount of wear apppeared at sliding speed of about 1.4m/sec and wear mode was considered to be oxidation abrasion from the observation of wear tracks. (Author)

  15. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  16. Effect of dietary iron loading on recognition memory in growing rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murui Han

    Full Text Available While nutritional and neurobehavioral problems are associated with both iron deficiency during growth and overload in the elderly, the effect of iron loading in growing ages on neurobehavioral performance has not been fully explored. To characterize the role of dietary iron loading in memory function in the young, weanling rats were fed iron-loading diet (10,000 mg iron/kg diet or iron-adequate control diet (50 mg/kg for one month, during which a battery of behavioral tests were conducted. Iron-loaded rats displayed elevated non-heme iron levels in serum and liver, indicating a condition of systemic iron overload. In the brain, non-heme iron was elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats compared with controls, whereas there was no difference in iron content in other brain regions between the two diet groups. While iron loading did not alter motor coordination or anxiety-like behavior, iron-loaded rats exhibited a better recognition memory, as represented by an increased novel object recognition index (22% increase from the reference value than control rats (12% increase; P=0.047. Western blot analysis showed an up-regulation of dopamine receptor 1 in the prefrontal cortex from iron-loaded rats (142% increase; P=0.002. Furthermore, levels of glutamate receptors (both NMDA and AMPA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR were significantly elevated in the prefrontal cortex of iron-loaded rats (62% increase in NR1; 70% increase in Glu1A; 115% increase in nAChR. Dietary iron loading also increased the expression of NMDA receptors and nAChR in the hippocampus. These results support the idea that iron is essential for learning and memory and further reveal that iron supplementation during developmental and rapidly growing periods of life improves memory performance. Our investigation also demonstrates that both cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission pathways are regulated by dietary iron and provides a molecular basis for the

  17. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Fang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T2 and T3Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium (CP4. For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV, and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  18. Overexpressing Exogenous 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS) Genes Increases Fecundity and Auxin Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Nan, Peng; Gu, Zongying; Ge, Xiaochun; Feng, Yu-Qi; Lu, Bao-Rong

    2018-01-01

    Transgenic glyphosate-tolerant plants overproducing EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) may exhibit enhanced fitness in glyphosate-free environments. If so, introgression of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS into wild relative species may lead to increased competitiveness of crop-wild hybrids, resulting in unpredicted environmental impact. Assessing fitness effects of transgenes overexpressing EPSPS in a model plant species can help address this question, while elucidating how overproducing EPSPS affects the fitness-related traits of plants. We produced segregating T 2 and T 3 Arabidopsis thaliana lineages with or without a transgene overexpressing EPSPS isolated from rice or Agrobacterium ( CP4 ). For each of the three transgenes, we compared glyphosate tolerance, some fitness-related traits, and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) content in transgene-present, transgene-absent, empty vector (EV), and parental lineages in a common-garden experiment. We detected substantially increased glyphosate tolerance in T 2 plants of transgene-present lineages that overproduced EPSPS. We also documented significant increases in fecundity, which was associated with increased auxin content in T 3 transgene-present lineages containing rice EPSPS genes, compared with their segregating transgene-absent lineages, EV, and parental controls. Our results from Arabidopsis with nine transgenic events provide a strong support to the hypothesis that transgenic plants overproducing EPSPS can benefit from a fecundity advantage in glyphosate-free environments. Stimulated biosynthesis of auxin, an important plant growth hormone, by overproducing EPSPS may play a role in enhanced fecundity of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. The obtained knowledge is useful for assessing environmental impact caused by introgression of transgenes overproducing EPSPS from any GE crop into populations of its wild relatives.

  19. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  20. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD): relationship to plasma lipoprotein (LP) cholesterol content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, D.M.; Ziboh, V.A.; Schneeman, B.O.

    1986-01-01

    EFAD in the rat is associated with hepatic accumulation of esterified cholesterol and altered distribution of cholesterol between plasma and hepatic tissue. Little is known regarding the impact of EFAD on LP composition. To determine the relationship between hepatic cholesterol esterification and plasma lP composition in control (C) and EFAD male Wistar rats, the authors induced EFAD with continuous intragastric (IG) infusion of EFA-free solutions containing 3.5% of calories as triolein for 7 and 14 days. C animals received IG infusion of solutions containing 3.5% of calories as linoleic acid. Data in the EFAD groups reveal: (i) marked decreases in hepatic EFAs and increases in monoenoic acids; (ii) progressive increases in hepatic content of triglyceride and esterified cholesterol with 7 and 14 days of feeding; (iii) assay of acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in hepatic tissue using 14 C-cholesterol demonstrates an increase in hepatic cholesterol esterification when compared to C animals. Increased hepatic cholesterol esterification correlates with elevated levels of esterified cholesterol in plasma VLDL and HDL particles. These data indicate that the elevated levels of cholesterol esters in LP particles is due, at least in part, to increased hepatic cholesterol esterification with EFAD

  2. Effect of antimony substitution in iron pnictide compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, D.; Braun, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we have examined the effect of negative chemical pressure in iron pnictides. We have synthesized substitution series replacing arsenic by antimony in a number of 1111- and 122-iron arsenides and present their crystallographic and physical properties. The SDW transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O decreases with increasing antimony content, while the superconducting transition temperature in LaFeAs$_{\\mathrm{1-x}}$Sb$_{\\mathrm{x}}$O$_{\\mathrm{0...

  3. Influence of beryllium ceramics nano-structuring by iron atoms on increase of their stability to ionizing radiations effect; Vliyanie nanostrukturirovaniya berillievykh keramik atomami zheleza na povyshenie ikh ustojchivosti k vozdejstviyu ioniziruyushchikh izluchenij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, A I; Bitenbaev, M I [Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-07-01

    In the work a new results on beryllium ceramics nano-structuring effect by iron oxide atoms on radiation defects quantum yield value G in these materials and defects depth constants in ionizing radiation fields k are presented. Experimental data under dependence of G and k values from concentration of iron atoms in beryllium ceramic matrix are presented. It is shown, that structure modification of beryllium ceramics by feedings on the iron base leads to sharp decrease (almost in 30 times) of radiation defects quantum yield value, i.e. to increase of these ceramics stability enhancement to ionizing radiation effect.

  4. Characterization of ancient Indian iron and entrapped slag ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    year old Indian iron using microprobe techniques (EDS, XRD and PIXE). Several different local locations in the iron matrix and in the entrapped slag inclusions were analyzed. The P content of the metallic iron matrix was very heterogeneous.

  5. Experimental fertilization increases amino acid content in floral nectar, fruit set and degree of selfing in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijbels, Pieter; Ceulemans, Tobias; Van den Ende, Wim; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    Floral traits have evolved to maximize reproductive success by attracting pollinators and facilitating pollination. Highly attractive floral traits may, however, also increase the degree of self-pollination, which could become detrimental for plant fitness through inbreeding depression. Floral nectar is a trait that is known to strongly mediate pollinator attraction and plant reproductive success, but the particular role of the nectar amino acid (AA) composition is poorly understood. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated the nectar AA composition and abundance of the Lepidoptera-pollinated orchid Gymnadenia conopsea through soil fertilization, and we quantified AA content and AA composition through high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Mixed models were then used to evaluate differences in pollinia removal, fruit set, seed set and degree of selfing between fertilized and control individuals. Selfing rates were estimated using microsatellite markers. We found that fertilized individuals had a significantly higher nectar AA content and an altered AA composition, whereas plant height, number of flowers, nectar volume and sugar concentration remained unchanged. Fertilized individuals also had significantly more pollinia removed and a higher fruit set, whereas control plants that did not receive the fertilization treatment had significantly fewer selfed seeds, and more viable seeds. Although we cannot exclude a role of changes in floral scent following the fertilization treatment, our results strongly suggest a relation among nectar AA composition, fruiting success and selfing rates. Our results also indicate potential consequences of nutrient pollution for plant reproductive success, through the induced changes in nectar AA composition.

  6. MRI in haemochromatosis: pituitary versus testicular iron deposition in five patients with hypogonadism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miaux, Y.; Daurelle, P.; Zagdanski, A.M.; Passa, P.; Bourrier, P.; Frija, J.

    1995-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is a disease characterised by iron deposition in the liver and other organs. Hypogonadism is a commonly associated condition and may be either primary due to testicular lesions or secondary due to pituitary dysfunction. Hypogonadism secondary to pituitary dysfunction is more frequent and is thought to be related to iron deposition in the anterior pituitary. Increased iron content decreases signal intensity of spin-echo MRI images because T2 values are significantly shortened. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate by MRI iron deposition in the liver, testis and pituitary of 6 patients with haemochromatosis and severe hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. Six subjects served as controls. There was a significant T2 shortening of the liver and pituitary in patients with haemochromatosis compared with control patients. Therefore MRI detected iron overload in the pituitary and no iron in the testis, supporting the hypothesis of hypogonadotrophic pituitary insufficiency due to cellular damage induced by iron overload in the anterior pituitary gland. (orig.)

  7. Iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum and millets from five locations in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet from five different locations in Zimbabwe. Iron and zinc contents ranged between 3.22 and 49.7 and 1.25-4.39mg/100gdm, respectively. Fermentation caused a reduction of between 20 and 88% of phytic acid (PA) while a general increase in soluble phenolic compounds (PC) and a decrease of the bound (PC) was observed. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc ranged between 2.77 and 26.1% and 0.45-12.8%, respectively. The contribution of the fermented cereals towards iron and zinc absolute requirements ranged between 25 and 411% and 0.5-23% with higher contribution of iron coming from cereals that were contaminated with extrinsic iron. Populations subsisting on cereals could be more at risk of zinc rather than iron deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elimination of Iron Based Particles in Al-Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with influence on segregation of iron based phases on the secondary alloy AlSi7Mg0.3 microstructure by chrome. Iron is the most common and harmful impurity in aluminum casting alloys and has long been associated with an increase of casting defects. In generally, iron is associated with the formation of Fe-rich phases. It is impossible to remove iron from melt by standard operations, but it is possible to eliminate its negative influence by addition some other elements that affect the segregation of intermetallics in less harmful type. Realization of experiments and results of analysis show new view on solubility of iron based phases during melt preparation with higher iron content and influence of chrome as iron corrector of iron based phases. By experimental work were used three different amounts of AlCr20 master alloy a three different temperature of chill mold. Our experimental work confirmed that chrome can be used as an iron corrector in Al-Si alloy, due to the change of intermetallic phases and shortening their length.

  9. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  10. The effect of iron-ore particles on the metal content of the brown alga Padina gymnospora (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, C.A.G.; Salgado, L.T.; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Y.; Amado Filho, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Iron ore deposits mat be the source of metals found in the brown alga Padina gymnospora. - The iron-ore particles discharged by a pellet processing plant (Espirito Santo Bay, Brazil) cover the seabed of Camburi Beach and consequently, the epibenthic community. In order to determine the importance of the contribution of the iron-ore deposits to the metal concentration in macroalgae of Espirito Santo Bay, four methods of cleaning particulate material adhered to the surface of thalli were tested prior to metal tissue analysis (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) of Padina gymnospora. In addition, heavy metal concentrations were determined in individuals of P. gymnospora from a site (Frade Island) not affected by the iron-ore particles. The most efficient cleaning treatment, a combination of scraping and washing with an ethanol-seawater solution (NA+SC+ET) removed a number of particles on the surface of thalli 10 times higher than that observed in the control (C). Using this treatment, the total-metal concentrations were reduced by 78% for Fe and 50% for Al respect to the control. However, Fe, Al and Cu concentrations after treatment NA+SC+ET were significantly higher than those found at Frade Island. It is suggested that the iron-ore deposit might be a source for metal availability to macroalgae exposed to the dumped material at Espirito Santo Bay

  11. Jerusalem artichoke decreased salt content and increased diversity of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere soil in the coastal saline zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Niu; Cheng, Yongwen; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Zed, Rengel

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is one of the main environmental constraints that restrict plant growth and agricultural productivity; however, utilization of salt-affected land can bring substantial benefits. This study used an in-situ remediation method by planting Jerusalem artichoke in naturally occurring saline alkali soils with different salinity (high salinity (H, >4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil), moderate salinity (M, 2.0-4.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) and low salinity (L, 1.0-2.0 g•salt kg-1 soil) in the coastal saline zone in southeast China in comparison with the respective controls without Jerusalem artichoke planting (undisturbed soil). Soil pH and salinity increased sequentially from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil and the unplanted controls. The activity of neutral phosphatase and invertase decreased in the order L > M > H, whereas that of catalase was reverse. The minimum content of calcite, muscovite and quartz, and maximum content of chlorite and albite, were found in the control soils. Planting of Jerusalem artichoke enhanced bacterial microflora in saline alkali soil. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in all samples, accounting for more than 80% of the reads. The number of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in the rhizosphere soil was, respectively, 1.27, 1.02 and 1.25 times higher compared with the bulk soil, suggesting that Jerusalem artichoke played a significant role in increasing abundance and diversity of soil microbial populations. The study showed that Jerusalem artichoke could be used to improve saline alkali soil by enriching bacterial communities, enhancing the activity of phosphatase and invertase, and decreasing soil salinity.

  12. Ethanol stimulates ROS generation by mitochondria through Ca2+ mobilization and increases GFAP content in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Antonio; Pariente, José A; Salido, Ginés M

    2007-10-31

    We have employed rat hippocampal astrocytes in culture to investigate the effect of ethanol on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as its effect on [Ca2+]c and GFAP expression. Cells were loaded with the fluorescent probes fura-2 and H2DCFDA for the determination of changes in [Ca2+]c and ROS production respectively, employing spectrofluorimetry. GFAP content was determined by immunocytochemistry and confocal scanning microscopy. Our results show ROS production in response to 50 mM ethanol, that was reduced in Ca2+-free medium (containing 0.5 mM EGTA) and in the presence of the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (10 microM). The effect of ethanol on ROS production was significantly reduced in the presence of the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (1 mM), and the antioxidants resveratrol (100 microM) or catalase (300 U/ml). Preincubation of astrocytes in the presence of 10 microM antimycin plus 10 microM oligomycin to inhibit mitochondria completely blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. In addition, ethanol led to a sustained increase in [Ca2+]c that reached a constant level over the prestimulation values. Finally, incubation of astrocytes in the presence of ethanol increased the content of GFAP that was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and by resveratrol and catalase pretreatment. The data obtained in the present study suggest that astrocytes are able to metabolize ethanol, which induces two effects on intracellular homeostasis: an immediate response (Ca2+ release and ROS generation) and later changes involving GFAP expression. Both effects may underline various signaling pathways which are important for cell proliferation, differentiation and function.

  13. Effect of iron, taurine and arginine on rat hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Liangwen; Wang Dewen; Cui Xuemei

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The promotion role of iron on pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis and the protective role of taurine and L-arginine against hepatic fibrosis were studied. Method: The model of rat radiation hepatic fibrosis was used. Experimental rats were divided into 0 Gy, 30 Gy, 30 Gy + iron, 30 Gy + taurine and 30 Gy + L-arginine groups. Serum iron, liver tissue hydroxyproline (Hyp) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured one and three months respectively after irradiation of hepatic tissue, production and distribution characteristics of hepatic tissue type I and III collagen were observed with a polarizing microscope. Results: Administration of iron agent could significantly increase hepatic tissue MDA content and serum iron concentration, one month after irradiation, hepatic tissue Hyp in 30 Gy + iron group began to increase, and collagen in hepatic tissue obviously increased. Taurine and L-arginine could reduce serum iron concentration and decrease production of hepatic fissure Hyp. Conclusion: Exogenous iron agent could promote early development of radiation hepatic fibrosis; taurine and arginine could diminish pathologic alteration of hepatic fibrosis to a certain extent

  14. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect blood donors. Cardiovascular Health Study identifies predictors ...

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or oral iron, by mouth once or several times a day to increase the iron in your body. This is the most common treatment ... and newer recommendations to increase the length of time between donations to protect ... in older adults. The NHLBI-sponsored Cardiovascular Health Study ...

  16. Ursolic acid and luteolin-7-glucoside improve lipid profiles and increase liver glycogen content through glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marisa F; Camsari, Cagri; Sá, Carla M; Lima, Cristovao F; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, two phytochemicals - ursolic acid (UA) and luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) - were assessed in vivo in healthy rats regarding effects on plasma glucose and lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL and LDL), as well as liver glycogen content, in view of their importance in the aetiology of diabetes and associated complications. Both UA and L7G significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration. UA also significantly increased liver glycogen levels accompanied by phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). The increase in glycogen deposition induced by UA (mediated by GSK3) could have contributed to the lower plasma glucose levels observed. Both compounds significantly lowered total plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels, and, in addition, UA increased plasma high-density lipoprotein levels. Our results show that UA particularly may be useful in preventable strategies for people at risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications by improving plasma glucose levels and lipid profile, as well as by promoting liver glycogen deposition.

  17. Antioxidant capacity of parsley cells (Petroselinum crispum L.) in relation to iron-induced ferritin levels and static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabbeigi, Elham; Ghanati, Faezeh; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Payez, Atefeh

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant response of parsley cells to 21 ppm iron and static magnetic field (SMF; 30 mT). The activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and the contents of malonyldialdehyde, iron and ferritin were measured at 6 and 12 h after treatments. Exposure to SMF increased the activity of CAT in treated cells, while combination of iron and SMF treatments as well as iron supply alone decreased CAT activity, compared to that of control cells. Combination of SMF with iron treatment reduced iron content of the cells and ameliorated mal effect of iron on CAT activity. All treatments reduced APX activity; however, the content of total ascorbate increased in response to iron and SMF+iron. The results showed that among the components of antioxidant system of parsley cells, enhanced activity of CAT in SMF-treated cells and increase of ascorbate in SMF+Fe-treated ones were responsible for the maintenance of membranes integrity. Ferritin contents of SMF- and SMF+Fe-treated cells also decreased significantly 12 h after treatments, compared to those of the control cells. These results cast doubt on the proposed functions of ferritin as a putative reactive oxygen species detoxifying molecule.

  18. Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

    2009-12-01

    milk fat content and tended to increase fat:protein ratio in the milk. In conclusion, results demonstrated that treatment of barley grain with LA lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis and maintained high milk fat content in late-lactating Holstein cows fed diets based on barley grain.

  19. Exercise increases the plasma membrane content of the Na+ -K+ pump and its mRNA in rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiridis, T; Wong, P P; Liu, Z; Rodgers, C D; Vranic, M; Klip, A

    1996-02-01

    Muscle fibers adapt to ionic challenges of exercise by increasing the plasma membrane Na+-K+ pump activity. Chronic exercise training has been shown to increase the total amount of Na+-K+ pumps present in skeletal muscle. However, the mechanism of adaptation of the Na+-K+ pump to an acute bout of exercise has not been determined, and it is not known whether it involves alterations in the content of plasma membrane pump subunits. Here we examine the effect of 1 h of treadmill running (20 m/min, 10% grade) on the subcellular distribution and expression of Na+-K+ pump subunits in rat skeletal muscles. Red type I and IIa (red-I/IIa) and white type IIa and IIb (white-IIa/IIb) hindlimb muscles from resting and exercised female Sprague-Dawley rats were removed for subcellular fractionation. By homogenization and gradient centrifugation, crude membranes and purified plasma membranes were isolated and subjected to gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting by using pump subunit-specific antibodies. Furthermore, mRNA was isolated from specific red type I (red-I) and white type IIb (white-IIb) muscles and subjected to Northern blotting by using subunit-specific probes. In both red-I/IIa and white-IIa/IIb muscles, exercise significantly raised the plasma membrane content of the alpha1-subunit of the pump by 64 +/- 24 and 55 +/- 22%, respectively (P < 0.05), and elevated the alpha2-polypeptide by 43 +/- 22 and 94 +/- 39%, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant effect of exercise could be detected on the amount of these subunits in an internal membrane fraction or in total membranes. In addition, exercise significantly increased the alpha1-subunit mRNA in red-I muscle (by 50 +/- 7%; P < 0.05) and the beta2-subunit mRNA in white-IIb muscles (by 64 +/- 19%; P < 0.01), but the alpha2- and beta1-mRNA levels were unaffected in this time period. We conclude that increased presence of alpha1- and alpha2-polypeptides at the plasma membrane and subsequent elevation of the alpha1- and beta2

  20. The Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Gene AhLPAT2 Increases the Lipid Content of Transgenic Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silong Chen

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAT, which converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA to phosphatidic acid (PA, catalyzes the addition of fatty acyl moieties to the sn-2 position of the LPA glycerol backbone in triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis. We recently reported the cloning and temporal-spatial expression of a peanut (Arachis hypogaea AhLPAT2gene, showing that an increase in AhLPAT2 transcript levels was closely correlated with an increase in seed oil levels. However, the function of the enzyme encoded by the AhLPAT2 gene remains unclear. Here, we report that AhLPAT2 transcript levels were consistently higher in the seeds of a high-oil cultivar than in those of a low-oil cultivar across different seed developmental stages. Seed-specific overexpression of AhLPAT2 in Arabidopsis results in a higher percentage of oil in the seeds and greater-than-average seed weight in the transgenic plants compared with the wild-type plants, leading to a significant increase in total oil yield per plant. The total fatty acid (FA content and the proportion of unsaturated FAs also increased. In the developing siliques of AhLPAT2-overexpressing plants, the expression levels of genes encoding crucial enzymes involved in de novo FA synthesis, acetyl-CoA subunit (AtBCCP2 and acyl carrier protein 1 (AtACP1 were elevated. AhLPAT2 overexpression also promoted the expression of several key genes related to TAG assembly, sucrose metabolism, and glycolysis. These results demonstrate that the expression of AhLPAT2 plays an important role in glycerolipid production in peanuts.

  1. Increases in Phenolic, Fatty Acid, and Phytosterol Contents and Anticancer Activities of Sweet Potato after Fermentation by Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yixiao; Sun, Haiyan; Zeng, Haiying; Prinyawiwatukul, Witoon; Xu, Wenqing; Xu, Zhimin

    2018-03-21

    Phenolic, fatty acid, and phytosterol contents in sweet potato (SP) fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated and compared with those of raw and boiled SPs. The differences in the profiles and levels of phenolics between the raw and boiled SPs were not as significant as the differences between those and the fermented SP. The levels of caffeic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in fermented SP were more than 4 times higher than those in raw and boiled SPs. Two phenolics, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, which were not detected in either raw or boiled SP, were found in fermented SP. The level of each fatty acid or phytosterol increased in fermented SP and decreased in boiled SP. Among the hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts obtained from raw and fermented SPs, the hydrophilic extract of fermented SP exhibited the highest capability of inhibiting cancer-cell PC-12 proliferation. However, each of the extracts had very low cytotoxicities to normal-monkey-kidney-cell growth. The results indicated that SP fermented by L. acidophilus significantly increased free antioxidant-rich phenolics and inhibited cancer-cell-proliferation activity without cytotoxicity to normal cells.

  2. Increased needle nitrogen contents did not improve shoot photosynthetic performance of mature nitrogen-poor Scots pine trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Tarvainen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modelling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar P deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute towards lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises

  3. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  4. Study on the cause of iron-deficiency anemia in adolescent athletes by INAA with enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Q.F.; Wu, S.Q.; Tian, J.B.; Huo, Z.P.; Chen, J.D.; Li, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is still one of the most common nutritional deficiency diseases throughout the world. The incidence of iron deficiency is high especially in children, adolescent, and endurance athletes. The authors studied the iron absorption rate and iron balance in six child football players during training and non-training periods. The neutron activation method with enriched stable isotope 58Fe has been adopted. The results show that the rate of iron absorption in athletes during the training period (9.1 + 2.9%) was significantly lower than that during the non-training period (11.9 + 4.7%); the iron balance was negative and the sweat iron loss increased during training. Hair is one of the metabolism excretory organs. The physiological changes of body would influence the trace element contents in hair. The hairs collected from four athletes were measured by Synchrotron-induced X-ray Fluorescence analysis, so as to get the trace element contents. Preliminary results show that the changes of iron content in the hairs are in accordance with the athlete's physical activity. There are no perceptible changes for Zn and Ca. It is verified that exercise is one of the causes of iron deficiency in athletes. It is necessary to increase iron supply in an athletes' nutritional intake to ensure optimal performance ability

  5. Iron supplementation decreases severity of allergic inflammation in murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P Hale

    Full Text Available The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans.

  6. Physics of coal methane: decisive role of iron compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavriljuk, V. G., E-mail: gavr@imp.kiev.ua; Skoblik, A. P. [G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics (Ukraine); Shanina, B. D.; Konchits, A. A. [V. Ye. Lashkarev Institute for Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-12-15

    The role of iron in formation of the coal methane is clarified based on the studies performed on the coal samples taken from different mines in Donetsk coal basin. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy, a correlation is found between the iron content and methane capacity of coal seams. By means of electron paramagnetic resonance, it is found that iron increases the concentration of non-compensated electron spins, i.e. dangled bonds at the carbon atoms. These bonds can be occupied by hydrogen atoms as a prerequisite of methane formation. The two-valence iron is shown to be the most effective in the increase of spin concentration. By using the ion mass spectrometry, the modelling of methane formation is carried out on the mechanical mixture of the iron-free reactor graphite, iron compounds and diluted sulphuric acid as a source of hydrogen atoms. The proposed mechanism is also confirmed by methane formation in the mixture of iron compounds and the coal from the mine where the iron and methane are practically absent.

  7. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatrik M. Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.

  8. Decreased arterial PO2, not O2 content, increases blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joseph W; Davis, James T; Ryan, Benjamin J; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Hawn, Jerold A; Byrnes, William C; Lovering, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism(s) that regulate hypoxia-induced blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) are currently unknown. Our previous work has demonstrated that the mechanism of hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is not simply increased cardiac output, pulmonary artery systolic pressure or sympathetic nervous system activity and, instead, it may be a result of hypoxaemia directly. To determine whether it is reduced arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2) that causes hypoxia-induced QIPAVA , individuals were instructed to breathe room air and three levels of hypoxic gas at rest before (control) and after CaO2 was reduced by 10% by lowering the haemoglobin concentration (isovolaemic haemodilution; Low [Hb]). QIPAVA , assessed by transthoracic saline contrast echocardiography, significantly increased as PaO2 decreased and, despite reduced CaO2 (via isovolaemic haemodilution), was similar at iso-PaO2. These data suggest that, with alveolar hypoxia, low PaO2 causes the hypoxia-induced increase in QIPAVA , although where and how this is detected remains unknown. Alveolar hypoxia causes increased blood flow through intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (QIPAVA ) in healthy humans at rest. However, it is unknown whether the stimulus regulating hypoxia-induced QIPAVA is decreased arterial PO2 (PaO2) or O2 content (CaO2). CaO2 is known to regulate blood flow in the systemic circulation and it is suggested that IPAVA may be regulated similar to the systemic vasculature. Thus, we hypothesized that reduced CaO2 would be the stimulus for hypoxia-induced QIPAVA . Blood volume (BV) was measured using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method in 10 individuals. Less than 5 days later, subjects breathed room air, as well as 18%, 14% and 12.5% O2 , for 30 min each, in a randomized order, before (CON) and after isovolaemic haemodilution (10% of BV withdrawn and replaced with an equal volume of 5% human serum albumin-saline mixture) to reduce [Hb] (Low [Hb]). PaO2

  9. Overfeeding reduces insulin sensitivity and increases oxidative stress, without altering markers of mitochondrial content and function in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Samocha-Bonet

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress are associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. High fat feeding induces insulin resistance and increases skeletal muscle oxidative stress in rodents, but there is controversy as to whether skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and function is altered.Forty (37 ± 2 y non-obese (25.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2 sedentary men (n = 20 and women (n = 20 were overfed (+1040 ± 100 kcal/day, 46 ± 1% of energy from fat for 28 days. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed at baseline and day 28 of overfeeding and skeletal muscle biopsies taken at baseline, day 3 and day 28 of overfeeding in a sub cohort of 26 individuals (13 men and 13 women that consented to having all 3 biopsies performed. Weight increased on average in the whole cohort by 0.6 ± 0.1 and 2.7 ± 0.3 kg at days 3 and 28, respectively (P<0.0001, without a significant difference in the response between men and women (P = 0.4. Glucose infusion rate during the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp decreased from 54.8 ± 2.8 at baseline to 50.3 ± 2.5 µmol/min/kg FFM at day 28 of overfeeding (P = 0.03 without a significant difference between men and women (P = 0.4. Skeletal muscle protein carbonyls and urinary F2-isoprostanes increased with overfeeding (P<0.05. Protein levels of muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α and subunits from complex I, II and V of the electron transport chain were increased at day 3 (all P<0.05 and returned to basal levels at day 28. No changes were detected in muscle citrate synthase activity or ex vivo CO(2 production at either time point.Peripheral insulin resistance was induced by overfeeding, without reducing any of the markers of mitochondrial content that were examined. Oxidative stress was however increased, and may have contributed to the reduction in insulin sensitivity observed.

  10. Iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and glutathione depletion after accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by oligodendroglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C.; Dringen, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) are currently used for various neurobiological applications. To investigate the consequences of a treatment of brain cells with such particles, we have applied dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated IONP that had an average hydrodynamic diameter of 60 nm to oligodendroglial OLN-93 cells. After exposure to 4 mM iron applied as DMSA–IONP, these cells increased their total specific iron content within 8 h 600-fold from 7 to 4,200 nmol/mg cellular protein. The strong iron accumulation was accompanied by a change in cell morphology, although the cell viability was not compromized. DMSA–IONP treatment caused a concentration-dependent increase in the iron-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in the specific content of the cellular antioxidative tripeptide glutathione. During a 16 h recovery phase in IONP-free culture medium following exposure to DMSA–IONP, OLN-93 cells maintained their high iron content and replenished their cellular glutathione content. These data demonstrate that viable OLN-93 cells have a remarkable potential to deal successfully with the consequences of an accumulation of large amounts of iron after exposure to DMSA–IONP.

  11. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Lao, Jeemeng [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Catena, Michela [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Verhertbruggen, Yves [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Herter, Thomas [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Yang, Fan [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Harholt, Jesper [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Ebert, Berit [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Ronald, Pamela C. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant Pathology and the Genome Center, University of California, Davis CA USA

    2015-01-14

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  12. Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosan Supplementation Increases the Population of Prevotella in the Cecal Contents of Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC promoted growth in weaned piglets as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics. To investigate the influence of LC supplementation on piglets' gut microbiome and compare the differences in community composition between LC and antibiotics with ZnO addition, we assessed the cecal microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with three treatments consisting of basal diet (CTR group, basal diet with low-molecular-weight chitosan (LC group, and basal diet with antibiotic and ZnO (AZ group. LC decreased pH more than AZ did in the cecum (both compared to CTR. Beta diversity analysis showed that community structure was distinctly different among the CTR, LC, and AZ treatments, indicating that either LC or AZ treatment modulated the piglet microbiota. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria dominated the community [>98% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs] in piglet cecal contents. Compared to CTR, both LC, and AZ increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes while they decreased the count of Firmicutes and AZ decreased the population of Proteobacteria. In CTR the top four abundant genera were Prevotella (~10.4%, Succinivibrio (~6.2%, Lactobacillus (~5.6%, and Anaerovibrio (5.4%. Both LC and AZ increased the relative abundance of Prevotella but decreased the ratio of Lactobacillus when they compared with CTR. Moreover, LC increased the relative abundance of Succinivibrio and Anaerovibrio while AZ decreased them. The microbial function prediction showed LC enriched more pathways in the metabolism of cofactors and vitamins than CTR or AZ did. LC may potentially function as an alternative to feed-grade antibiotics in weaned piglets due to its beneficial regulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  13. Understanding irony: an ERP analysis on the elaboration of acoustic ironic statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenta Simona

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Irony is part of our daily experience, that is probably the reason why a lot of studies have been trying to define its nature and the way we are able to understand the pragmatic intentions lying behind ironic communication. This study addresses the issue of pragmatic comprehension of language by analysing the differences or similarities in processing ironical and non-ironical language. The aim of the study is specifically to explore neuropsychological correlates (ERPs of irony decoding. 10 subjects listened to 240 sentences presenting a counterfactual vs. non-counterfactual content (counterfactual modality and spoken with ironical vs. neutral prosody (prosody modality. ERPs analysis showed a negative deflection peaking at about 460ms post stimulus onset (N400 for all the conditions. Statistical analyses (repeated measures ANOVA applied to peak amplitudes showed no statistically significant differences between the conditions as a functions of the type of sentence (ironical vs. non ironical and the content of ironical sentences (counterfactual vs. non counterfactual. An increase of N400 related to ironical sentences was observed although no statistical significant differences between ironical and non ironical sentences were found. The absence of an N400 effect may indicate that irony is not treated as a semantic anomaly, thus rejecting the standard pragmatic hypothesis. The observed differences in amplitude could be probably attributed to a higher requirement for the cognitive resources in order to integrate contrasting and complex lexical, prosodic and contextual cues.

  14. Quantitating Iron in Serum Ferritin by Use of ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gillman, Patricia L.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory method has been devised to enable measurement of the concentration of iron bound in ferritin from small samples of blood (serum). Derived partly from a prior method that depends on large samples of blood, this method involves the use of an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Ferritin is a complex of iron with the protein apoferritin. Heretofore, measurements of the concentration of serum ferritin (as distinguished from direct measurements of the concentration of iron in serum ferritin) have been used to assess iron stores in humans. Low levels of serum ferritin could indicate the first stage of iron depletion. High levels of serum ferritin could indicate high levels of iron (for example, in connection with hereditary hemochromatosis an iron-overload illness that is characterized by progressive organ damage and can be fatal). However, the picture is complicated: A high level of serum ferritin could also indicate stress and/or inflammation instead of (or in addition to) iron overload, and low serum iron concentration could indicate inflammation rather than iron deficiency. Only when concentrations of both serum iron and serum ferritin increase and decrease together can the patient s iron status be assessed accurately. Hence, in enabling accurate measurement of the iron content of serum ferritin, the present method can improve the diagnosis of the patient s iron status. The prior method of measuring the concentration of iron involves the use of an atomic-absorption spectrophotometer with a graphite furnace. The present method incorporates a modified version of the sample- preparation process of the prior method. First, ferritin is isolated; more specifically, it is immobilized by immunoprecipitation with rabbit antihuman polyclonal antibody bound to agarose beads. The ferritin is then separated from other iron-containing proteins and free iron by a series of centrifugation and wash steps. Next, the ferritin is digested with nitric acid

  15. Epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and intravenous iron supply in solid tumor patients: early increase of hemoglobin level during chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalle, M.; Antimi, M.; Pistillucci, G.; D'Aprile, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this observational study was the early evaluation of the impact, a week after the first administration of epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and i.v. dose of 62.5 mg sodium ferric gluconate for seven days in improving hemoglobin levels in cancer patients affected by mild/moderate or severe anemia during chemotherapy. Twenty patients affected by solid tumors who received epoetin alfa 40000 U once weekly and daily i.v. sodium ferric gluconate for one week were evaluated: 90% of the patients showed hemoglobin increase, with a median level of hemoglobin increase of 0.73 g/L from baseline, and 50% of them showing a hemoglobin increase > 1 gr/L. The treatment was well tolerated and no adverse event was observed. The early increase of hemoglobin level from baseline is interesting and suggestive for the possibility of achieving an adequate hemoglobin level with a short-term treatment. It is still necessary to further explore the real need of iron supplementation to maintain adequate erythropoiesis prior and during epoetin therapy

  16. Iron, Zinc, Folate, and Vitamin B-12 Status Increased among Women and Children in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon, 1 Year after Introducing Fortified Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle-Stone, Reina; Nankap, Martin; Ndjebayi, Alex O; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Killilea, David W; Gimou, Marie-Madeleine; Houghton, Lisa A; Friedman, Avital; Tarini, Ann; Stamm, Rosemary A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2017-07-01

    Background: Few data are available on the effectiveness of large-scale food fortification programs. Objective: We assessed the impact of mandatory wheat flour fortification on micronutrient status in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Methods: We conducted representative surveys 2 y before and 1 y after the introduction of fortified wheat flour. In each survey, 10 households were selected within each of the same 30 clusters ( n = ∼300 households). Indicators of inflammation, malaria, anemia, and micronutrient status [plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12] were assessed among women aged 15-49 y and children 12-59 mo of age. Results: Wheat flour was consumed in the past 7 d by ≥90% of participants. Postfortification, mean total iron and zinc concentrations of flour samples were 46.2 and 73.6 mg/kg (target added amounts were 60 and 95 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal anemia prevalence was significantly lower postfortification (46.7% compared with 39.1%; adjusted P = 0.01), but mean hemoglobin concentrations and child anemia prevalence did not differ. For both women and children postfortification, mean plasma concentrations were greater for ferritin and lower for sTfR after adjustments for potential confounders. Mean plasma zinc concentrations were greater postfortification and the prevalence of low plasma zinc concentration in women after fortification (21%) was lower than before fortification (39%, P 50% greater postfortification. Conclusion: Although the pre-post survey design limits causal inference, iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B-12 status increased among women and children in urban Cameroon after mandatory wheat flour fortification.

  17. Effect of Nano Iron and Solupotasse Fertilizers on Accumulation of Nutrient Elements and Quality of Two Onion (Allium cepa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Joghatay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of nano iron and solupotass on agronomic and physiological traits of two onion cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted in complete randomized block design with 32 treatments and three replications in Joghatai of Khorasan-e- Razavi province, Iran. Treatments consisted of two onion cultivars (red, yellow and four levels (0, 1, 2, 3 kg per hectare of nano iron chelat and four levels of solupotass (0, 5, 10, 15 kg per hectare. Results showed that the effect of nano iron and solupotasse on fresh weight, dry weight, pyrovic acid and macro element (N, P, S contents were significant at %1 levels. Application nano iron, solupotasse to red onion cultivar increased dry weight significantly at the %5 level. Highest onion weight was obtained by using 2 kg nano iron and 15 kg solupotasse (17.3 g. Use of nano iron and solupotasse highly increased the pyruvic acid percentage (1.07 mM. Highest rate of pyruvic acid obtained by application of 3 and 15 kg nano iron and solupotasse respectively. Application of nano iron on the sulfur and nitrogen contents of onion were significant. Use of 2 kg/ha of nano iron exhibited highest increase in these elements. Thus, soil application of 10 kg/ha solupotasse, 3 kg/ha nano iron would highly increase red onion traits mentioned above.

  18. Hemorrhage-adjusted iron requirements, hematinics and hepcidin define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia as a model of hemorrhagic iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Finnamore

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT.The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided. In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86% met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20% met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p = 0.009, lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001, lower log-transformed serum iron (p = 0.009, and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001. There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin(2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001, and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped.HAIR values, providing an indication of

  19. Nonheme-iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal is increased by the addition of small amounts of pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    of small amounts of meat on nonheme-iron absorption from a meal presumed to have low iron bioavailability. Design: Forty-five healthy women with a mean (+/-SD) age of 24 +/- 3 y were randomly assigned to I of 3 groups, each of which was served (A) a basic meal (rice, tomato sauce, pea puree, and a wheat...

  20. Increased iron supplied through Fet3p results in replicative life span extension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions requiring respiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Gabriela; Turn, Christina S; Quintyne, Nicholas J; Kirchman, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that copper supplementation extends the replicative life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when grown under conditions forcing cells to respire. We now show that copper's effect on life span is through Fet3p, a copper containing enzyme responsible for high affinity transport of iron into yeast cells. Life span extensions can also be obtained by supplementing the growth medium with 1mM ferric chloride. Extension by high iron levels is still dependent on the presence of Fet3p. Life span extension by iron or copper requires growth on media containing glycerol as the sole carbon source, which forces yeast to respire. Yeast grown on glucose containing media supplemented with iron show no extension of life span. The iron associated with cells grown in media supplemented with copper or iron is 1.4-1.8 times that of cells grown without copper or iron supplementation. As with copper supplementation, iron supplementation partially rescues the life span of superoxide dismutase mutants. Cells grown with copper supplementation display decreased production of superoxide as measured by dihydroethidium staining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  2. Effect of Increase in Plant Density on Stem Yield and Sucrose Content in Two Sweet Sorghum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Soleymani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the effect of increase plant density on stalk yield and sucrose content in two sweet sorghum cultivars, an experiment was conducted at Research Farm of Isfahan University located at Zaghmar village. A split plot layout within a randomized complete block design with tree replication was used. Main plots were plant densities (100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 thousand plant/ha and subplots were cultivars (Rio and Keller. The effect of plant density at hard dough harvest stage on plant height, stem diameter, number of tillers, stem fresh weight and juice yield were significant but had no significant effect on brix, sucrose percentage and purity. The highest juice yield and purity were produced by 400 thousand plants/ha. Keller was significantly superior for plant height, stem diameter, stem fresh weight, juice yield and brix at hard dough harvest stage as compared to Rio. Number of tiller per plant of Rio was significantly more than Keller. There were no significant difference between two cultivars for sucrose percentage and purity but sucrose percentage in Keller had highest as compared to Rio. Maximum stem fresh weight, juice yield, sucrose percentage and purity were obtained at hard dough harvest stag. On the basis of the results obtained, 400 thousand plant/ha plant density, Keller cultivar and hard dough harvest stage might be suitable for sweet sorghum production under the condition similar to the present study. Keywords: Sweet sorghum, Stem yield, Sucrose percentage, Harvesting stages

  3. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth spurts. Older adults, especially those ... environments Children who have lead in ...

  4. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stores are developed during the third trimester of pregnancy. Children between ages 1 and 2, especially if they drink a lot of cow’s milk. Cow’s milk is low in iron. Teens, who have increased need for iron during growth ...

  5. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be at risk for iron-deficiency anemia. Lifestyle habits Certain lifestyle habits may increase your risk for iron-deficiency anemia, ... you are experiencing side effects such as a bad metallic taste, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or upset stomach. ...

  6. Effects of iron and light stress on the biochemical composition of Antarctic Phaeocystis sp. (Prymnesiophyceae). II. Pigment composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwe, MA; Stefels, J

    A strain of Phaeocystis sp., isolated in the Southern Ocean, was cultured under iron- and light-limited conditions. The cellular content of chlorophyll a and accessory light-harvesting (LH) pigments increased under low light intensities. Iron limitation resulted in a decrease of all light-harvesting

  7. The effect of gold kiwifruit consumed with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal on iron status in women with low iron stores: A 16 week randomised controlled intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coad Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary treatment is often recommended as the first line of treatment for women with mild iron deficiency. Although it is well established that ascorbic acid enhances iron absorption, it is less clear whether the consumption of ascorbic acid rich foods (such as kiwifruit with meals fortified with iron improves iron status. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the consumption of ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit (a fruit high in ascorbic acid and carotenoids with an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal increases iron status in women with low iron stores. Methods/Design Eighty nine healthy women aged 18-44 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin (SF ≤ 25 μg/L, haemoglobin (Hb ≥ 115 g/L living in Auckland, New Zealand were randomised to receive an iron fortified breakfast cereal (16 mg iron per serve and either two ZESPRI® GOLD kiwifruit or a banana (low ascorbic acid and carotenoid content to eat at breakfast time every day for 16 weeks. Iron status (SF, Hb, C-reactive protein (CRP and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, ascorbic acid and carotenoid status were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks. Anthropometric measures, dietary intake, physical activity and blood loss were measured before and after the 16 week intervention. Discussion This randomised controlled intervention study will be the first study to investigate the effect of a dietary based intervention of an iron fortified breakfast cereal meal combined with an ascorbic acid and carotenoid rich fruit on improving iron status in women with low iron stores. Trial registration ACTRN12608000360314

  8. Biochemistry of the normal dura mater of the human brain determination of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur and nitrogen contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio M. Canelas

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of water, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, sulfur, and nitrogen were determined in samples of apparently normal dura mater removed from 18 subjects recently dead by craniocerebral trauma. The average concentrations expressed in dry weight were: water 79.55 g/100 g ± 2.52; sodium 1.63 mequiv/100 g ±0.27; potassium 3.68 mequiv/100 g ± 0.66; calcium 119.84 mg/100 g ± 107.40; phosphorus 68.2 mg/100 g ± 34.5; magnesium 0.61 mequiv/100 g ± 0.37; copper 249.8 /xg/100 g ± 109.4; iron 0.82 mg/100 g ± 0.28; sulfur 490.7 mg/100 g ± 22.5; nitrogen 3.33 g/100 g ± 0.17.

  9. Preparation of iron-impregnated granular activated carbon for arsenic removal from drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Qigang; Lin Wei; Ying Weichi

    2010-01-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) was impregnated with iron through a new multi-step procedure using ferrous chloride as the precursor for removing arsenic from drinking water. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that the impregnated iron was distributed evenly on the internal surface of the GAC. Impregnated iron formed nano-size particles, and existed in both crystalline (akaganeite) and amorphous iron forms. Iron-impregnated GACs (Fe-GACs) were treated with sodium hydroxide to stabilize iron in GAC and impregnated iron was found very stable at the common pH range in water treatments. Synthetic arsenate-contaminated drinking water was used in isotherm tests to evaluate arsenic adsorption capacities and iron use efficiencies of Fe-GACs with iron contents ranging from 1.64% to 12.13% (by weight). Nonlinear regression was used to obtain unbiased estimates of Langmuir model parameters. The arsenic adsorption capacity of Fe-GAC increased significantly with impregnated iron up to 4.22% and then decreased with more impregnated iron. Fe-GACs synthesized in this study exhibited higher affinity for arsenate as compared with references in literature and shows great potential for real implementations.

  10. Iron Deposition and Ferritin Heavy Chain (Fth Localization in Rodent Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An iron rich layer on the labial surface is characteristic of the enamel of rodent incisors. In order to address a role for iron content in continuously growing incisors during odontogenesis, we studied iron deposition patterns in enamel and dentine using Perls’ blue staining and ferritin heavy chain (Fth immunolocalization. Fth expression is regulated by iron level; therefore its localization can be used as a sensitive indicator for iron deposition. Results Sagittal sections of 4-week old rat incisors showed a gradual increase in iron level in the enamel organ from secretory to maturation stages. In addition, iron was detected in ameloblasts of erupting third molars of 4-week old rats, suggesting iron plays a role in both incisor and molar development. In odontoblasts, the presence of iron</