Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All
Richey, Lisa Ann
humanitarian practices can now take place in many different realms: in consumption, entertainment, or across social media. These are all areas that are traditionally considered outside of the humanitarian scope, not least because of their association with market-driven and celebrity-oriented activity rather......, humanitarianism has expanded in reach to include an assortment of nebulous interventions on behalf of an assumed shared humanity. “Humanitarianism” now signifies the effort to ‘do-good’, to express sympathy in response to distant suffering, whether this distance is actually geographical or social. Everyday...
Full Text Available There are strong humanitarian reasons and close ties that underpin a Swedish commitment to Iraq. More than 100,000 Iraqis are living in Sweden and the numbers are rising. Europe could do more to provide humanitarian assistance and assist Iraqi refugees.
Richey, Lisa Ann
showing themselves in some “do-gooding” relationship that appears to take place in the South. Through the posting of a new photograph every day, the “Humanitarians of Tinder” Tumblr blog and Facebook page have generated a public discussion on the politics of representing suffering strangers in attempts...... to enhance the appeal of western image producers. This article will investigate the phenomenon of the Humanitarians of Tinder in order to understand its representations of North–South relations from the photographs themselves and from the debates held around them in new media and old. Critical development...... studies, media studies and sociology will provide an interdisciplinary theoretical framework to understand the moral panic that these Tinder humanitarians have created through posting private photographs of humanitarian performances to increase their personal desirability....
This study looks at the humanitarian space in Myanmar which includes not just the humanitarian operations in the country, the access to volatile zones by the humanitarian organisations, the humanitarian principles, but also a space which permits a complementary arrangement of diverse actors holding different positions and skill sets and deliver to those in need. The study is based on the practical experiences and reflections of these different actors on field and their operations in different...
Nodar Z. Mossaki
Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.
Full Text Available Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.
Jean-François Durieux; Sivanka Dhanapala
Agencies working inside Myanmar to assist forcibly displacedpeople work within an extremely constricted operationalenvironment. Despite occasional glimmers of hope, carvingout sufficient humanitarian space to meet urgent needsremains an uphill struggle.
Rianne ten Veen
Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.
Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.
J. Kh. ALsaedy
Full Text Available Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006, such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time. This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.
Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov
Amid good intentions, such as providing humanitarian assistance to refugees, the use of biometric technology in humanitarian refugee management may entail various risks for the implicated refugee populations. Drawing on insights from science and technology studies, this article introduces...... a distinction between risks stemming from technology failure and risks stemming from successful uses of biometric technology. The article thus departs from the literature in which technology failure has been in focus by showing that analysing the effect of technology success adds an important dimension to our...
Pat Garcia-Gonzalez of the Max Foundation accepted the first annual NCI Global Cancer Medicine Humanitarian Award for her work in chronic myeloid leukemia at the NCI, Center for Global Health Symposium for Global Cancer Research, held in Boston on March 25, 2015.
Passino, Kevin M
The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.
Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.
Leeuw, Sander; Regattieri, Alberto; Souza, Robert
This contributed volume combines conceptual and strategic research articles dealing with the "why" and "to what end" of sustainable operations in humanitarian logistics, as well as operational research contributions regarding the "how" from the United Nations as well as from researchers and organizations from different countries (Germany, Australia, Singapore, Italy, Denmark, Jordan). The target audience primarily comprises research experts, decision makers and practitioners in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) Fair use determination or copyright permission has been obtained for the inclusion of...Coordinators); representative and inclusive Humanitarian Country Teams.”16 To increase the effectiveness of these responses, OCHA has developed...2016, http://www.eird.org/esp/ revista /No1_2001/pagina27.htm. 24 “International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR),” accessed February 20, 2016
The International Humanitarian Award recognizes extraordinary humanitarian services and activism by psychologists, including professional and volunteer work conducted primarily in the field with underserved populations. Award recipients are psychologists who, by their extraordinary service at a difficult time, improve the lives and contribute to the well-being of people in a large or small geographic area anywhere in the world. The 2017 recipient of the APA International Humanitarian Award was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The main subject of this paper are the ethical aspects of humanitarian military intervention. Author shows the weaknesses and difficulties of consequentialistic and deontological justification of humanitarian intervention. He points to the impossibility of a coherent moral theory of humanitarian intervention and argues that the humanitarian interventions of the nineties of the 20th century do not compliance just war. In his opinion, they represent an attempt of the quasi moral masking the real politics which lead the most powerful states in order to protect their national interests. .
van de Walle, B.A.; van den Eede, G.G.P.; Muhren, W.J.; Loffler, J.; Klann, M.
In times of major disasters such as hurricane Katrina or the Sichuan earthquake, the need for accurate and timely information is as crucial as is rapid and coherent coordination among the responding humanitarian community. Effective humanitarian information systems that provide timely access to
Full Text Available but was described as fairly routine for a company of Walmart’s size with 117 distribution centres spread around the country. The nonchalant response by Rollin Ford, (Walmart’s executive vice president of logistics and supply chain) says it all, “that’s what we do...%20and%20challenges%22  Boorstin, J. 2005. New lessons to learn. Fortune. 3 October.  Davidson, A.L. 2006. Key Performance Indicators in Humanitarian Logistics. MLOG Thesis, 2006. Viewed 24 October 2006.  http...
Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.
Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention in Kosovo did not happen by any geopolitical interest, but simply by an entirely humanitarian character which is closely connected with democratic principles, human rights, and the lack of moral order. Except for damages, massacres and destruction by fire of very sophisticated military artillery, Serbian army and police have forced with violence more than thousands of Kosovo Albanians to leave their home (Pllana, 2010, 241. With humanitarian intervention, NATO had shown it was ready to defend universal human values as the fundamental principle of humanity (free life. Main purpose of this article is an analysis of the international human intervention in Kosovo
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...
This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
are becoming increasingly commercialized. This paper explores the use of media discourse for the communication of ethical messages by humanitarian organizations, caught, as they are, in a tension between, on the one hand, the commercial strategies of visibility and still greater dependence on the media, and......The development of corporate communication in recent years has brought about a fading of the division of labor between commercial and non-commercial organizations. While the practices of commercial organizations are becoming increasingly ethicalized, so the practices of non-profit organizations......'s branding strategies testify to a high degree of reflexivity about the conditions of what Luc Boltanski calls a Crisis of Pity. The analysis illustrates how, in the face of compassion fatigue, the organization manages to carve out a new space for itself in the marketized ethical discourse, and leads...
Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.
Full Text Available From refugee flows to earthquake relief, it is invariably local groups which are on the humanitarian frontline. Should international agencies reinvent themselves as solidarity and advocacy networks and start letting Southern NGOs take the lead?
Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan
This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273
Full Text Available SUMMARY: Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles. Keywords: Humanitarian aid, human rights
OLWAN, Mohamed Y.
Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan has traditionally been one of the regions most welcoming countries toward Iraqis. The country received several flows of Iraqis during the last four decades, but most of Iraqis residing in Jordan fled the precarious situation prevailing in Iraq following the U.S. –led invasion of Iraq in March 2003. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges or the 1967 Protocol on Refugee...
Woods, Kevin M; Lacey, James
Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...
Caston, Christine J
... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.
Clay, Troy A
U.S. strategy in Iraq after the removal of Saddam Hussein was to promote a democratic style of government and to conduct reconstruction of essential Iraqi infrastructure for the political and economic redevelopment of Iraq...
H. de Vries (Harwin)
markdownabstractHumanitarian crises like the Syrian war, Ebola, the earthquake in Haiti, the Indian Ocean tsunami, and the ongoing HIV epidemic prompt substantial demands for humanitarian aid. Logistics plays a key role in aid delivery and represents a major cost category for humanitarian
Humanitarian aid has been present in some form throughout human history, yet the modern concept of humanitarian aid has only truly emerged since the later half of the 20th century. Through a complex progression of world events and largely brought about in response to armed conflict, modern humanitarian aid is provided by a multitude of organizations and actors. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the history of humanitarian action, a review of the principles of humanitarian aid and an overview of the major documents which delineate those principles.
I. V. Patlashynska
Therefore, the author stresses that despite the difference in approach, understanding the role and place of humanitarian operations in world politics, аnd their impact on the promotion of human rights and freedoms as essential moral guidance is extremely large.
Full Text Available Until recently, the humanitarian community had largely ignored the problem of climate change, thinking that mitigation – the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions – would minimise the need for adaptation to the effects of climate change. Events appear to be proving us wrong.
Information and Communication Technology and the Humanitarian Field, ... of complex emergencies, defined by internal conflicts and political .... response tool, is an area where innovative ideas can have a huge impact. ...... example of an IVR is the systems used by banks where a caller can access accounting information ...
Heyse, Liesbet; Zwitter, Andrej; Wittek, Rafael; Herman, Joost
This book presents a new framework of analysis to assess natural and man-made disasters and humanitarian crises, and the feasibility of interventions in these complex emergencies. The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic increase in such crises – such as in Haiti, Iraq and Sudan – and this
May George Kassir
Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are
Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Training within volunteer humanitarian organisations is one of the most important areas of adult education nowadays. It comprises informal types of education and independent learning (workshops, study circles, activities within small groups, project work, discussions, exchanging opinions and · experiences, visits, presentations, consulting for members. Its goal is primarily encouraging members to act more appropriately, to develop and change fixed habits, viewpoints and behaviour patterns, as well as developing the organisation they belong to.
This paper explores the challenges facing humanitarian NGOs that work in authoritarian settings. Drawing on examples from North Korea, Myanmar, Darfur, and Sri Lanka, the paper examines some of the central dilemmas facing humanitarian actors in these contexts and the strategies they have deployed to address these. The paper then examines the oft-repeated recommendation that humanitarian agencies need to engage in more rigorous and more strategic analysis of their work in order to improve prac...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...
Relief organizations continue to provide humanitarian aid in sub-Saharan Africa, often with tough problems arising from inhospitable environment, insecurity, and political or ethnic generated conflicts...
Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…
Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.
With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds
Lawlor, Alison C; Thompson, Eric V
.... The goal of this study is two-fold: to provide Iraqi and Coalition personnel with a common assessment of capability requirements and force structure recommendations for the Iraqi Navy, and to provide the Iraqi Navy leadership...
R. Samii (Ramina)
textabstractThis thesis explores an under-researched field: humanitarian organizations and their supply chains. Humanitarian organizations respond to the basic needs of populations that experience a tragic disruption in their lives. Given the challenging contexts they operate in, this thesis first
In armed conflicts, death is not an exceptional occurrence, but becomes the rule and occurs on a daily basis. Dead bodies are sometimes despoiled, mutilated, abandoned without any funeral rite and without a decent burial. Unidentified remains may be counted by hundreds or thousands. As a result, families look for years for missing relatives, ignorant of the fate of their loved ones. International Humanitarian Law, also called the laws of war or the law of armed conflict, is an international law branch, which has been developed to regulate and, as far as possible, to humanize armed conflicts. It contains a number of clear and concrete obligations incumbent to belligerent parties on the management of dead bodies, which provide the legal framework for humanitarian forensic action. The purpose of this article is to present, in a simple and concise manner, these rules with a view to extrapolate some key legal principles, such as the obligation to respect the dignity of the dead or the right to know the fate of relatives, which shall guide anyone dealing with human remains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kaplan, Aaron V; Harvey, Elisa D; Kuntz, Richard E; Shiran, Hadas; Robb, John F; Fitzgerald, Peter
The Second Dartmouth Device Development Symposium held in October 2004 brought together leaders from the medical device community, including clinical investigators, senior representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, large and small device manufacturers, and representatives from the financial community to examine difficult issues confronting device development. The role of the Humanitarian Use Device/Humanitarian Device Exemption (HUD/HDE) pathway in the development of new cardiovascular devices was discussed in this forum. The HUD/HDE pathway was created by Congress to facilitate the availability of medical devices for "orphan" indications, ie, those affecting HDEs have been granted (23 devices, 6 diagnostic tests). As the costs to gain regulatory approval for commonly used devices increase, companies often seek alternative ways to gain market access, including the HUD/HDE pathway. For a given device, there may be multiple legitimate and distinct indications, including indications that meet the HUD criteria. Companies must choose how and when to pursue each of these indications. The consensus of symposium participants was for the HUD/HDE pathway to be reserved for true orphan indications and not be viewed strategically as part of the clinical development plan to access a large market.
Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull
trends, it can, in a local national setting, develop in ways that are contrary to the political correctness characteristic of global celebrity humanitarianism. In the Danish cultural context we found that anti-elitist cultural norms and social codes, rooted in local understandings of democratic inclusion...... and equality, must be inscribed into celebrity performances. This form of performativity is often achieved through ostensibly politically incorrect, unassuming and underplayed, irony. It is, however, an unenlightened democracy, unaware of those it excludes - i.e. the Other who is kept invisible through...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Chouliaraki, Lillie
Our starting point in this special issue is in opening up traditional understandings and practices of humanitarianism to bring multi-faceted approaches to a classical area of political inquiry. As the rhetoric and practice of humanitarian good-doing becomes increasingly widespread in our public...... life—from celebrity culture to Twitter messaging and from Christmas shopping to concert-going—key questions arise. What does humanitarianism look like in the age of market-driven, digital media-based action? What happens to traditional humanitarian ideals, at the time of increasing bureaucratization...... and celebrification of humanitarian practice? What are the implications of such practices for the ethics and politics of contemporary benevolence? Do we live in an age of “post-humanitarianism” where doing good for others is intrinsically linked with feelings of gratification for the self? Universal questions...
The implications of Iran's policy turn-about of allowing ships smuggling Iraqi crude oil to sail through its coastal waters, out of reach of UN and US ships patrolling the Persian Gulf, are discussed. It is suspected that the change in Iranian policy may be due to the fact that an infusion of Iraqi oil on the international markets would suit Iran's purposes by reducing the need for OPEC to raise production quotas. Iran is known to be opposed to an increase of production by OPEC members. At the same time, developments in US-Iranian relations and in the international oil market also have to be considered as factors influencing the Iranian position on this issue
Fabiana santos Lima
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to identify and classify regions by the type and frequency of disasters. The data on the clusters allow you to extract information that can be used in the preparedness phase as well as to identify the relief items needed to meet each cluster. Using this approach, the clusters are formed by using a computing tool that uses as the input the history data of the disasters in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina, with a specific focus on: windstorms, hail, floods, droughts, landslides, and flash floods. The results show that the knowledge provided by the clustering analysis contributes to the decision making process in the response phase of Humanitarian Logistics (HL.
Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M
Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patientâ€™s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...
Woods, Kevin M
Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...
Woods, Kevin M
Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...
Woods, Kevin M
Woods, Kevin M
Full Text Available Although the legality of approved humanitarian intervention is undisputable in the positive international law, this legal institute should be further regulated in order to remove certain legal ambiguity and difficulties in its application. The future regulation of humanitarian intervention may be carried out in one of the three ways: by adopting a special international treaty, by entering amendments in the UN Charter, or by embarking on the factual revision of the UN Charter. Due to the limiting effects of Article 103 of the UN Charter as well as the problematic status of UN member states which would not ratify the international agreements on humanitarian intervention, the regulation of future humanitarian intervention seems to be the least likely option. Formal revision of the UN Charter is not a viable option either because, thus far, the major world powers have been against introducing any substantial changes to this treaty. For this reason, the factual revision of the UN Charter is currently the most appropriate way of regulating future humanitarian interventions. When it comes to substantive rules governing humanitarian intervention, it is necessary to focus on the problem of humanitarian intervention decision-making as well as on the conditions and criteria for the approval and carrying out a humanitarian intervention. The UN Security Council must retain the right to decide on approving such an intervention but it is also necessary to establish an independent expert body whose task would be to determine the presence of serious and mass violations of human rights in a specific country and notify the Security Council about such occurrences. The specification of conditions and criteria for undertaking a humanitarian intervention should strengthen its legitimacy and prevent unreasonable disruption of states' territorial integrity and political independence.
Vestergaard Jørgensen, Anne
politicization. Some say that humanitarianism is in crisis. This article examines the development of humanitarian advertising through analysis of 124 newspaper ads published in the period from 1970 to 2005. Using a discourse analytical approach which combines institution analysis with multimodal text analysis...... organizations to external demands, in terms of their choice of beneficiaries for public attention and in terms of the symbolic relations they set up between donors and beneficiaries. It is argued that this development is associated with a paradox of power and results in humanitarian organizations surrendering...
Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr I Support food distribution with U.S. ARMY / WFP - 03 to 18Fev2010 15 Dias 637,5 Ton de alimentos ...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 – 21 a 28Mar2010 1.723 Ton de Alimentos em 30 Dias Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr II Supporting food...distribution by WFP – 10 a 18Mar2010 8 Dias 420 Ton de alimentos Humanitarian Assistance Operations Op Food DSTr III Supporting food distribution by
Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations...
Persons who international humanitarian law applies have .... problems in applying the principle of distinction and seeks to find a standard for distinguishing what may appear ..... The advantage of employing drones in armed operatin is that no.
Kenneth V. Iserson
Full Text Available “Humanitarian catastrophes,” conflicts and calamities generating both widespread human suffering and destructive events, require a wide range of emergency resources. This paper answers a number of questions that humanitarian catastrophes generate: Why and how do the most-developed countries—those with the resources, capabilities, and willingness to help—intervene in specific types of disasters? What ethical and legal guidelines shape our interventions? How well do we achieve our goals? It then suggests a number of changes to improve humanitarian responses, including better NGO-government cooperation, increased research on the best disaster response methods, clarification of the criteria and roles for humanitarian (military interventions, and development of post-2015 Millennium Development Goals with more accurate progress measures. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:231–240.
Vladimir Korolev; Nikolay Loktev; Irina Slastikhina
International humanitarian cooperation is one of the ways for Russia to propagate its interests abroad and maintain its image of a modern democratic state in front of the world community. The article discloses the multichannel implementation of Russias soft power potential, shows the necessity of a systemic organization of international humanitarian links, proposes the grouping of the implementation mechanisms of Russias potential soft powerinto program and extracurricular blocs.The object of...
Each year, millions of people worldwide are affected by disasters, underscoring the importance of effective relief efforts. Many highly visible disaster responses have been inefficient and ineffective. Humanitarian agencies typically play a key role in disaster response (eg, procuring and distributing relief items to an affected population, assisting with evacuation, providing healthcare, assisting in the development of long-term shelter), and thus their efficiency is critical for a successful disaster response. The field of disaster and emergency response modeling is well established, but the application of such techniques to humanitarian logistics is relatively recent. This article surveys models of humanitarian response logistics and identifies promising opportunities for future work. Existing models analyze a variety of preparation and response decisions (eg, warehouse location and the distribution of relief supplies), consider both natural and manmade disasters, and typically seek to minimize cost or unmet demand. Opportunities to enhance the logistics of humanitarian response include the adaptation of models developed for general disaster response; the use of existing models, techniques, and insights from the literature on commercial supply chain management; the development of working partnerships between humanitarian aid organizations and private companies with expertise in logistics; and the consideration of behavioral factors relevant to a response. Implementable, realistic models that support the logistics of humanitarian relief can improve the preparation for and the response to disasters, which in turn can save lives.
Aardema, Bastiaan; Churruca Muguruza, Cristina
The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA) Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the
This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged
Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.
Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)
Managemen 15.6.6 Results Related t 15.6.7 NCOs and Multiple-Deployments 15.6.8 Validated Trainin 15.6.9 Theater Suicide Prevention Program and Suicide...include mental health providers who have deployed to the IT0 and are experienced using AHLTA- T . As noted above, as the operational theater matures in...Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08 14 February 2008 Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force-Iraq and Office
influenced and do not draw as much scrutiny from coalition forces. Children are primarily being used by Iraqi insurgents to plant roadside bombs or as...conduct must also mean that there needs to be a group to which these standards are assigned—the soldier class. Though there are warts to the
Coipuram, Jr, Tom
The war with Iraq, which began on March 19, 2003, has now moved into a new phase as a result of coalition forces controlling all of the major cites in Iraq and the demise of the Iraqi political and military leadership...
At last year's THE Port hackathon, the Better Body Bags team emerged with a new approach to body-bag technology that catered to the needs of humanitarian organisations. What started as a weekend hack has developed into a full-scale R& D project, as the team joins forces with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to put their body bags into production. Ricardo Páramo Peláez, the team's product designer, presented the first prototype at THE Port Hackathon 2014. The "body" is his fellow team mate, João Cordovil Bárcia. A typical body bag is essentially a long plastic bag with handles: it breaks, leaks, smells and isn't cheap. “Little thought had gone into using new technology to improve the bags,” says Tim Head, an LHCb physicist who is leading the Better Body Bags team. “Simple improvements can keep bodies in better condition, thus improving the identification ...
Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)
The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Muhren, W.J.; van den Eede, G.G.P.; van de Walle, B.A.
This paper reintroduces concepts from sensemaking in media synchronicity theory (MST). It focuses on how media should support synchronicity to fit communication needs when making sense of a humanitarian crisis situation. Findings from interviews with senior management of humanitarian aid
Withee, Jeffrey W; Pena, Edwin D
This thesis documents the findings of an Iraqi-Arabic language test and concept of operations for speaker verification technology as part of the Iraqi Banking System in support of the Iraqi Enrollment...
Bastiaan L. Aardema
Full Text Available The article presents the European Universities on Professionalisation on Humanitarian Action (EUPRHA Project as an initiative that seeks to contribute to the professionalisation and quality assurance of the humanitarian sector. Its purpose is to explain the approach and the process leading to the development of the Humanitarian Action Qualifications Framework as an example of good practice for other sectors aiming at improving the recognition of qualifications as a precondition of academic and professional mobility. With this aim, it introduces the educational and humanitarian trends that led to this project: the move from transnational qualifications frameworks of which the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF is the best example to sectoral qualifications frameworks and the increasing demand from the sector seeking to determine the competencies and required skills of a professional humanitarian aid worker. Based on the EQF and the Tuning methodology the framework will act as a translating device to make national and sectoral qualifications more readable and promote humanitarian workers’ and learners’ mobility between countries and organisations. It will facilitate inter-system transparency and recognition of (non-formal and informal learning by linking occupations, skills, competences, and qualifications, thus benefiting the Humanitarian Sector as a whole.
The work is aimed at identifying the main social-humanitarian aspects and giving grounds for the imperative of humanitarian reflection of nuclear energy, development of the concept of 'human dimension' in this sphere. Historical-philosophical and futurological as well as rational-irrational approaches are used. There are suggested several possible chains to consider the interrelation between some global phenomena with the nuclear one, as well as their impact on the fate of humankind. There is shown the meaning of cultural, historical and religious perspectives as tools for reaching better understanding on the issue of possession of nuclear energy and improving the contemporary communication nuclear technosphere - society. There is determined the humanitarian task of the nearest future and designated the cultural-historical potential of Germany, Japan and Russia to increase international cooperation on the issue. (author)
Pokemon ” really represented a subterfuge by international Zionism to undermine Iraq’s security. Supposedly, “ Pokemon ” meant “I am Jewish” in Hebrew. They...found the fact that the Pokemon character was “widely beloved by Iraqi youth” particularly alarming.22 Once secure in power Saddam Hussein saw...Report on a Cartoon Character Called ‘ Pokemon ’ from Direc- torate of General Security.” This Directorate of General Security report states that the name of
Gardien, S.; Kirsch, R.
The permanent education of the IPN-Lyon inscribes itself completely in the priorities of the tri-annual plan of education of CNRS. These priorities contribute to evolution of research, evaluation of the professions, integration during the professional carriers of the personnel and form the frame for new management practice implementation
as a place where celebrities intervene into existing politics and social processes, or as the generator of Southern celebrities engaged in ‘do-gooding’. This book examines what the diverse roster of celebrity humanitarians are actually doing in and across North and South contexts. Celebrity humanitarianism......Discussion over celebrity engagement is often limited to theoretical critique or normative name-calling, without much grounded research into what it is that celebrities are doing, the same or differently throughout the world. Crucially, little attention has been paid to the Global South, either...
Walker, Peter; Hein, Karen; Russ, Catherine; Bertleff, Greg; Caspersz, Dan
International humanitarian response to crises employs 210,000 people and accounts for nearly $15 billion in spending globally each year. Most action is carried out by not-for-profit organizations working with United Nations (UN) agencies, military organizations, and commercial entities. UN agencies employ many technical experts, often retaining them for five or more years. As yet there is no international professional apparatus to promote the quality and integrity of this workforce. This paper reports on research exploring the case for professionalizing humanitarian action through an international professional association, the development of core competencies, and the creation of a universal certification system for aid workers.
Hall, Katharine; Stahl, Dale
The problem of measuring the number of civilian fatalities in Iraq gained widespread media coverage when the Lancet published a study in October 2004 claiming that more than 100,000 Iraqi civilians...
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20, 2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20,2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...
This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...
.... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...
Olander William E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war.
Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise
The understanding and detection of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is linked to its recognition by clinicians. No study has investigated dental clinicians' level of perception regarding MIH in the Middle East region including Iraq. To determine the perception of Iraqi academic clinicians about MIH prevalence, severity and aetiological factors. A questionnaire, based on previous European and Australian/New Zealand studies was administered to the academic dental staff of Mosul University. A response rate of 77.7% was reported. General dental practitioners represented 30.8% of the total respondents, whilst 65.1% were dentists with post-graduate qualification. The majority of the respondents (81.2%) encountered MIH in their clinical activities and 37.3% of them identified that the prevalence appeared to have increased in recent years. Fewer than half of the respondents observed MIH affected teeth on a monthly basis. The condition was less commonly seen in primary second molars than the first permanent molars. A variation in views was recorded about MIH specific aetiological factor/s. Respondents advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation is a condition commonly diagnosed by Iraqi dental academics. No apparent consensus existed between the general and specialist dentists regarding the anticipated prevalence, severity and aetiology of this condition. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi
Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the grammatical errors of Iraqi postgraduates and undergraduates in their academic writing. However, few studies have focused on the writing challenges that Iraqi pre-university students face. This research aims at examining the written discourse of Iraqi high school students and the common grammatical errors they make in their writing. The study had a mixed methods design. Through convenience sampling method, 112 compositions were collected from Iraqi pre-university students. For purpose of triangulation, an interview was conducted. The data was analyzed using Corder’s (1967 error analysis model and James’ (1998 framework of grammatical errors. Furthermore, Brown’s (2000 taxonomy was adopted to classify the types of errors. The result showed that Iraqi high school students have serious problems with the usage of verb tenses, articles, and prepositions. Moreover, the most frequent types of errors were Omission and Addition. Furthermore, it was found that intralanguage was the dominant source of errors. These findings may enlighten Iraqi students on the importance of correct grammar use for writing efficacy.
Full Text Available Almost a million people from Middle East and North Africa have passed through the territory of Serbia on their way to Western Europe during 2015 and 2016. Although Serbia has predominantly been a transit country for migrants, this recent passage of a large number of people, as well as a longer retention of some migrants, opened up a number of questions on capacities for emergent acceptance but also on long term integration of this population. The paper examines the characteristics of citizens’ attitudes towards the migrant population with the intention of determining which perspective - security, humanitarian or integrative - is being distinguished as a dominant one? Under the security perspective, it is understood that migrants pose a potential risk for the security of domestic population. The humanitarian perspective refers to a belief that migrants need to be provided with necessary assistance on their way to destination countries. The third, integrative perspective represents the “most open” attitude towards migrants and implies that it is necessary to provide the opportunity for more permanent integration of the migrant population. In addition to that, the paper examines the existence of statistically significant variations in the degree of acceptance of the attitudes measuring mentioned perspectives in terms of socio-demographic and socio-cultural factors. The analysis is based on the data collected through the survey conducted in the spring of 2016 on a representative sample of Serbian citizens (without Kosovo that numbered 998 respondents. Findings show that the humanitarian perspective is the most prevalent in the population, which is in line with the transitional character of migration. Ethnic distance is the most influential factor in shaping attitudes towards migrants. This finding indicates that attitudes toward migrants are more the result of the socio-psychological factors than the micro-structural factors or the demographic
Jacobs, Gerard A.
Humanitarian psychological support as an organized field is relatively young. Pioneers in the field were involved primarily in providing psychological support to refugees and internally displaced persons in conflict and nonconflict situations. This article describes basic principles for the design of psychological support programs and…
humanitarian workers have observed a sharp rise in gender -based crimes, including rape and sexual violence, as well as exploitation and discrimination ...threatening conditions; gender -based violence prevention and response; emergency support to refugee women and girls; mental health care; protection...immediate surrounding region, including Turkey, Lebanon , Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and other parts of North Africa. The situation is fluid and continues to
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects. 515.575 Section 515.575 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... meet basic human needs. Specific licenses may be issued authorizing transactions for multiple visits...
Full Text Available The paper explores the status of unilateral humanitarian interventions in international law. The United Nations Charter prohibits the use of force, except in case of self-defense and the collective action authorized by the Security Council. The question is whether the non-existence of unilateral humanitarian intervention among these exceptions means that they are not in conformity with the Charter and if so, whether the right to such interventions exists as the part of customary law. The issue has become even more controversial after the adoption of the “responsibility to protect” principle. Findings of legal scholars on this issue differ significantly. This paper analyzes and interprets the Charter provisions in order to answer the question of compatibility of humanitarian interventions with the Charter and examines the state practice in order to conclude whether the customary law rule allowing the humanitarian intervention exists. The conclusion of the paper is that there is no evidence to support the contentions that interventions without the Security Council authorization are permissible, although there are elements which point to the possibility of the creation of customary law allowing them.
non-military development, such as the spreading of disease and movement of refugees. A shift in defence policy had to accommodate a broader, more inclusive mandate and roles for humanitarian peacekeeping operations in African countries such as Eritrea, Ethiopia, the DRC, Burundi and Sudan. Missions were to be.
Full Text Available In recent years, our increasingly connected world has provided us with a greater understanding of the needs of our fellow global citizens. The devastating worldwide impact of natural disasters, disease, and poverty has been raised in our collective awareness and our ability to collectively alleviate this suffering has been brought to the fore. While many of us are familiar with donating our funds to better the lives of those less fortunate than ourselves, it is often easy to overlook a core component of facing these global challenges: information technology. The humanitarian open source movement seeks to ameliorate these sufferings through the creation of IT infrastructure to support a wide array of goals for the public good, such as providing effective healthcare or microloans to the poorest of the poor. Achieving these goals requires a sophisticated set of software and hardware tools, all of which work to save and improve lives in some of the most difficult of situations where the availability of electricity, data, IT knowledge, etc. may be low or lacking altogether. It should come as no surprise that the humanitarian open source domain attracts a great deal of attention from software developers, engineers, and others who find that they are able to both solve intense technical challenges while helping to improve the lives of others. However, to support ongoing humanitarian needs, the communities who produce humanitarian free and open source software (HFOSS and hardware have increasingly identified the need for business models to support their efforts. While the lower cost of using open source software and hardware solutions means that more funds can be directed to aid and comfort those in need, the goodwill of developer communities and the funds of grantees alone cannot grow the ecosystem sufficiently to meet ever-growing global needs. To face these challenges - poverty, global health crises, disaster relief, etc. - humanitarian open source
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0728] Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs...
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment... Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and...: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB...
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... solicits comments on information provided to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans... information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill...
Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol
This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…
Mukhalad Malik Almutalabi
Full Text Available The current study aims at analysing the improper pronunciation of Iraqi EFL learners concerning the pronunciation of diphthongs in words of various syllables. It describes and identifies thoroughly the mispronunciations of such important sounds in English language. The study attempts at analysing such mispronunciations by clarifying and assigning the phonetic deviations of Iraqi EFL learners when they pronounce diphthongs. So the main objective of the study is to analyse the errors committed by Iraqi learners in the pronunciation of diphthongs grouping each error into its specific category. To verify the objective of the paper, 25 Iraqi EFL learners from the department of English at Cihan University/ Slemani are chosen to be the main participants of the study. The test which was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of English contained 10 words comprising various diphthongs. The results clearly revealed that mispronouncing English diphthongs by Iraqi EFL were mostly observed by replacing the required diphthong with another improper one and they also tended to use simple vowels instead of the correct required diphthongs.
Bernad, Daniel Maxwell
The US FDA established the Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) and Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) program to encourage medical device firms to address rare diseases. Despite being in existence for over a decade, there has only been one peer-reviewed publication examining this field. The objective of this report is to investigate how the HUD/HDE program differs from the standard regulatory system, discuss its potential advantages and disadvantages, and to speculate which humanitarian devices will be brought to market within the next 5 years. A total of 40 semistructured interviews with stakeholders, representing approximately half (n = 20, 49%) of the firms that have successfully obtained HDE-approved products, were performed in order to acquire the primary data for this paper. There appear to be short-term gains and long-term drains associated with launching humanitarian devices to market. This report aims to provide sponsors with information that may allow them to make better decisions during their product development of humanitarian devices and may, hopefully, also play a role in encouraging other sponsors to take the necessary steps forward in helping to find treatments for patients with rare diseases.
VanderSteen, J. D. J.; Hall, K. R.; Baillie, C. A.
There is an increasing interest in the humanitarian engineering curriculum, and a service-learning placement could be an important component of such a curriculum. International placements offer some important pedagogical advantages, but also have some practical and ethical limitations. Local community-based placements have the potential to be transformative for both the student and the community, although this potential is not always seen. In order to investigate the role of local placements, qualitative research interviews were conducted. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted and analysed, resulting in a distinct outcome space. It is concluded that local humanitarian engineering placements greatly complement international placements and are strongly recommended if international placements are conducted. More importantly it is seen that we are better suited to address the marginalised in our own community, although it is often easier to see the needs of an outside populace.
Christiansen, Lene Bull
and proposes to look beyond the mainstream US/UK contexts in order to make this point. The paper takes point of departure in the annual Danish aid telethon Danmarks Indsamling (Denmark’s Collection). Against the backdrop of the local identity politics in Denmark revolving around immigration policies...... of a collective identity narrative are seen to draw on the above-mentioned gendered and colonialist discourses while simultaneously engaging in local politics around diversity and national identity......., 2009; Jefferess, 2002; Repo and Yrjölä, 2011). While these studies provide important insights, another side remains – that of collective identity narratives associated with humanitarian appeals. This paper posits that collective identity narratives have a vital importance in many humanitarian appeals...
Maxwell, Daniel; Bailey, Sarah; Harvey, Paul; Walker, Peter; Sharbatke-Church, Cheyanne; Savage, Kevin
Corruption is a threat to the purpose of humanitarian assistance. Until fairly recently, humanitarian assistance has not been considered an important arena in broader efforts aimed at curbing corruption, and corruption has not always been considered a particularly important concern for humanitarian assistance despite the obviously challenging nature of the context of humanitarian emergencies. Corruption, though, is a threat to humanitarian action because it can prevent assistance from getting to the people who most need it, and because it can potentially undermine public support for such assistance. This paper examines perceptions of corruption and its affects, documents best practices, and outlines gaps in understanding. It suggests recommendations for improving the capacity of humanitarian agencies to prevent and manage the risk of corruption. Agencies have taken steps to combat corruption and improve accountability--downwards and upwards--but scope remains for improvement and for greater sharing of learning and good practice. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Humanitarian organisations operate in increasingly hostile environments. Although authoritative statistics are scarce, anecdotal evidence suggests that aid workers face life-threatening risks that are exacerbated by the growing number of humanitarian organisations operating in the field, the diversity of their mandates, the lack of common professional security standards, and limited success in inter-agency security coordination. Despite broad acceptance of the need for better security management and coordination, many humanitarian organisations remain ambivalent about devoting increased resources to security management and security coordination. A critical lack of basic empirical knowledge of the field security environment hampers efforts to enhance security management practices. The absence of a systematic means of sharing incident data undermines the capacity of the humanitarian community to address proactively security threats. In discussions about humanitarian staff safety and security, the least common denominator remains cumulative anecdotal evidence provided by the many security personnel working for humanitarian organisations in the feld.
Wilna L. Bean
Full Text Available Disasters are becoming an unavoidable part of everyday life throughout the world, including South Africa. Even though South Africa is not a country affected by large-scale disasters such as earthquakes, the impact of disasters in South Africa is aggravated significantly by the vulnerability of people living in informal settlements. Humanitarian logistics, as a ‘new’ sub-field in the supply chain management context, has developed significantly recently to assist in disaster situations. This paper provides an overview of the South African humanitarian logistics context. Even though humanitarian logistics plays a critical role in the aftermath of disasters, it extends far beyond events that can typically be classified as ‘disasters’. Therefore the implication of the South African humanitarian logistics context on future research and collaboration opportunities in South African humanitarian logistics is also discussed. Finally, two recent case studies in the South African humanitarian logistics environment are discussed.
Colon, E.; Cubber, G. De; Ping, H.; Habumuremyi, J-C; Sahli, H.; Baudoin, Y.
This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typica...
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Rzger A. Abdula
Full Text Available Bottom hole temperature (BHT data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area. The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and northeastern parts of the area. The average regional geothermal gradient for Iraqi Kurdistan is 21 °C/km.
Russell, Roberta S.; Hiller, Janine S.
With the growth in length and breadth of extended supply chains, more companies are employing risk management techniques and resilience planning to deal with burgeoning and costly supply chain disruptions. As companies can learn from humanitarian groups, so can humanitarian groups learn from industry how to respond, recover, and prepare for these disruptive events. This paper looks at industry leaders in supply chain risk management and explores how humanitarian supply chains can learn from i...
Mohd, S.; Fathi, M. S.; Harun, A. N.
Humanitarian aid distribution is associated with many activities, numerous disaster management stakeholders, enormous effort and different processes. For effective communication, humanitarian aid distribution activities require appropriate and up-to-date information to enhance collaboration, and improve integration. The purpose of this paper is to develop a humanitarian aid distribution framework for disaster management in Malaysia. The findings of this paper are based on a review of the huma...
The Rise of Digital HumanitariansMapping Haiti LiveSupporting Search And Rescue EffortsPreparing For The Long Haul Launching An SMS Life Line Sending In The Choppers Openstreetmap To The Rescue Post-Disaster Phase The Human Story Doing Battle With Big Data Rise Of Digital Humanitarians This Book And YouThe Rise of Big (Crisis) DataBig (Size) Data Finding Needles In Big (Size) Data Policy, Not Simply Technology Big (False) Data Unpacking Big (False) Data Calling 991 And 999 Big (
Abdula, Rzger A.
Bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km) was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area). The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km) were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and...
Richard H. Becker
Full Text Available The Iraqi (Mesopotamian Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, has been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. In the period leading up to the Second Gulf War in 2002, the marshlands were shrinking due to both a policy of draining and water diversion in Iraq and construction of dams upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Following the war through 2006, this trend was reversed as the diversions were removed and active draining stopped. A combination of MODIS and GRACE datasets were used to determine the change in surface water area (SWA in the marshes, marshland extent and change in mass both upriver in the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds and in the marshlands. Results suggest that the post war dam removal and decreased pumping in 2003 provided only temporary respite for the marshlands (2003–2006 SWA: 1,477 km2 increase (600%, water equivalent depth (WED: +2.0 cm/yr.; 2006–2009: −860 km2 (−41% WED: −3.9 cm/yr.. Unlike in the period 2003–2006, from 2006 forward the mass variations in the marshes are highly correlated with those in the upper and middle watershed (R = 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, suggesting that any recovery due to that removal is complete, and that all future changes are tied more strongly to any climate changes that will affect recharge in the upper Tigris-Euphrates system. Precipitation changes in the watershed show a reduction of an average of 15% below the 15 yr mean in 2007–2011 This corresponds with published ensemble predictions for the 2071–2099 time period, that suggested similar marshland shrinkage should be expected in that time period.
Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib
The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…
Tomas Mas, Carmen; Diez, Isabel E; Moncada, Enrique
(ST) values were statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were performed between the 18 populations. The Iraqi population did not show significant difference from the population in Turkey and it grouped together with other Middle-Eastern populations when a multidimensional scaling plot was drawn...
Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…
Dijkzeul, D.; Hilhorst, D.; Walker, P.
This introductory paper sets the stage for this special issue of Disasters on evidence-based action in humanitarian crises. It reviews definition(s) of evidence and it examines the different disciplinary and methodological approaches to collecting and analysing evidence. In humanitarian action, the
Rodrigues Santos, A.L.
Humanitarian emergencies like the natural disasters in Nepal, Haiti or Pakistan or the thousands of refugees and internally displaced people fleeing from long-term conflict in Syria or South Sudan are likely to increase. To provide healthcare assistance, international humanitarian organizations
Full Text Available Refugee-led humanitarian initiatives by ‘established’ Palestinian refugees in response to the arrival of ‘new’ displaced Syrians to Shatila camp raise key questions about the limitations of the humanitarian system and representations of refugees as passive victims.
Murphy, Richard A; Chua, Arlene C
Humanitarian medical organizations focus on vulnerable patients with increased risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and are obligated to minimize them in inpatient departments (IPDs). However, in doing so humanitarian groups face considerable obstacles. This report will focus on approaches to reducing common HAIs that the authors have found to be helpful in humanitarian settings. HAIs are common in humanitarian contexts but there are few interventions or guidelines adapted for use in poor and conflict-affected settings to improve prevention and guide surveillance. Based on existing recommendations and studies, it appears prudent that all humanitarian IPDs introduce a basic infection prevention infrastructure, assure high adherence to hand hygiene with wide accessibility to alcohol-based hand rub, and develop pragmatic surveillance based on clinically evident nosocomial infection. Although microbiology remains out of reach for most humanitarian hospitals, rapid tests offer the possibility of improving the diagnosis of HAIs in humanitarian hospitals in the decade ahead. There is a dearth of new studies that can direct efforts to prevent HAIs in IPDs in poor and conflict-affected areas and there is a need for practical, field-adapted guidelines from professional societies, and international bodies to guide infection prevention efforts in humanitarian environments.
The increasing importance of services in SCM leads to a stronger focus on the customer perspective. Donors and beneficiaries are two distinct customer groups of humanitarian supply chains. This paper will analyse how this impacts performance measurement for example in the commonly used balanced scorecard, which includes a customer perspective. Keywords: Performance measurement, Humanitarian logistics, Customer perspective
Sangiamkul, Esther; van Hillegersberg, Jos
This article systematically reviews the literature on using IT (Information Technology) in humanitarian logistics focusing on disaster relief operations. We first discuss problems in humanitarian relief logistics. We then identify the stage and disaster type for each article as well as the article’s
Full Text Available Regarding representational function of media, the current dissertation intends to examine the changes in the representation of the image of the Iraqis in the Sacred Defense Cinema. Iraqies have been pictured as the "Others" during last three decades. Due to the importance and role of sacred defense and its cinematic representations of "Self" and "Other" and thereby its contribution in the process of reconstruction of Iranian national identity this research is aimed at studying represented images of Iraqies and its changes during last three decades. To reach this objective I first examined the concept and theories of representation as stated by Richard Dyer and Stuart Hall. Then to complement Hall’s theories I referred to other thinkers in the field of identity theory, ‘self’ and ‘the other’ as stated. In the chapter on methodology I’ve benefited from a combination of the patterns presented by Kate Selbi, Ran Kallory and Rolan Bart to analyze the texts.The findings of this thesis demonstrates that in order to depict the Iraqis in the sixties verbal codes were primarily used whereas in the seventies and the eighties social and technical codes were most used respectively.In the first decade Iraqis were portrayed as those people who are imagined to be cruel, inhuman, in which the emphasis was laid on the impact of the Iraqi’s invasion. In the second decade we see Iraqi’s depicted as dumb and fat people having thick moustaches and rough voices and in the third we see this portrayal to be transformed where Iraqi’s are shown to be our Muslim brothers who have been forced to fight in the war. Having observed, examined and analyzed the films, we found out that when facing ‘the other’, i.e. the Iraqis, the metaphor of the boundary or border was used. This border is seen between ‘self’ and ‘the other’, i.e. the Iranians and the Iraqis in all the chosen movies on the Sacred Defense. In the first decade there was an objective
Full Text Available Justice, sovereignty and self-determination for all human beings are fundamental foundations for healthcare and human rights. In any civilised society, the balance between medical ethics and human rights is critical for the delivery of healthcare. War is a deeply ethical issue. Combatants, whose violations of international conventions, laws and codes of ethics during war and political conflict are detrimental to civilian non-combatants, including healthcare workers, commit crimes against humanity. The war in Gaza is a humanitarian crisis.
Full Text Available This paper summarises the main results of 10 years of research and development in Humanitarian Demining. The Hudem project focuses on mine detection systems and aims at provided different solutions to support the mine detection operations. Robots using different kind of locomotion systems have been designed and tested on dummy minefields. In order to control these robots, software interfaces, control algorithms, visual positioning and terrain following systems have also been developed. Typical data acquisition results obtained during trial campaigns with robots and data acquisition systems are reported. Lessons learned during the project and future work conclude this paper.
Since 2001, there has been a growing consensus that sexual exploitation and abuse of intended beneficiaries by humanitarian workers is a real and widespread problem that requires governance. Codes of conduct have been promoted as a key mechanism for governing the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers and, ultimately, preventing sexual exploitation and abuse (PSEA). This article presents a systematic study of PSEA codes of conduct adopted by humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and how they govern the sexual behaviour of humanitarian workers. It draws on Foucault's analytics of governance and speech act theory to examine the findings of a survey of references to codes of conduct made on the websites of 100 humanitarian NGOs, and to analyse some features of the organisation-specific PSEA codes identified. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
... Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of Essure ...
Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.
Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…
This paper critically analyses from a political sociology standpoint the international conceptualization of war-affected populations as traumatized and in need of therapeutic interventions. It argues for the importance of looking beyond the epidemiological literature to understand trauma responses globally. The paper explores how the imperative for international psychosocial programmes lies in developments within donor countries and debates in their humanitarian sectors over the efficacy of traditional aid responses. The aim of the paper is threefold. First, it discusses the emotional norms of donor states, highlighting the psychologizing of social issues and the cultural expectations of individual vulnerability. Second it examines the demoralization of humanitarianism in the 1990s and how this facilitated the rise of international psychosocial work and the psychologizing of war. Third, it draws attention to the limitations of a mental health model in Croatia, a country which has been receptive to international psychosocial programmes. Finally it concludes that the prevalent trauma approaches may inhibit recovery and argues for the need to re-moralize resilience.
O'Dempsey, T J D; Munslow, B
A new political economy of conflict has emerged in the aftermath of colonialism and the Cold War. Complex political emergencies have been simmering in the post-colonial world for more than three decades. Intra-country armed conflict, often combined with natural disasters, at present contributes to the displacement of over 20 million people world-wide. The international community remains profoundly uncomfortable with the complex political emergencies of the new era, torn between the respect for national sovereignty upon which the international political system of the United Nations and other agencies is built, and the growth of concern with human rights and a burgeoning International Humanitarian Law. Globalisation may have brought many benefits to some but there are also many losers. The Word Bank and the International Monetary Fund imposed structural adjustment policies to ensure debt repayment and economic restructuring that have resulted in a net reduction in expenditure on health, education and development. A downward spiral has been created of debt, disease, malnutrition, missed education, economic entrapment, poverty, powerlessness, marginalization, migration and instability. Africa's complex political emergencies are particularly virulent and tenacious. Three examples that are among the most serious humanitarian emergencies to have faced the world in recent times--those in Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan--are reviewed here in detail. The political evolution of these emergencies and their impact on the health of the affected populations are also explored.
Collinson, Sarah; Elhawary, Samir; Muggah, Robert
This paper explores the evolution of international stabilisation agendas and their significance for humanitarian action. Stabilisation includes a combination of military, humanitarian, political and economic activities to control, contain and manage areas affected by armed conflict and complex emergencies. Encompassing narrow security objectives and broader peace-building efforts, stabilisation is both a conservative and potentially transformative, comprehensive and long-term agenda. The open-ended approach allows for widely varying interpretations and applications in different circumstances and by different actors with an assortment of implications for humanitarian action. The relationship between the two is highly uncertain and contentious, due not only to the controversies surrounding stabilisation policies, but also to deep-seated ambiguities at the heart of humanitarianism. While humanitarian actors are preoccupied with the growing involvement of the military in the humanitarian sphere, the paper argues that it is trends in the humanitarian-political interface that represent the more fundamental dilemma. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James
There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development
Davenport, Lisa A
Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.
The Back Pack Health Worker Team (BPHWT), a community- based health organization, provides primary health care to ethnic people in conflict, remote, and internally displaced areas, in Burma (aka Myanmar), controlled by ethnic armed organizations fighting against the Burma government. Its services include both curative and preventative health care through a network of 1,425 health personnel including community health workers and village-embedded traditional birth attendants and village health workers. The BPHWT organizational and program model may prove useful to Special Operations medical actions in support of insurgent movements and conversely with a host nation's counterinsurgency strategies, which include the extension of its health services into areas that may be remote and/or inhabited by indigenous people and have insurgency potential. In the former respect, special attention is directed toward "humanitarian struggle" that uses health care as a weapon against the counterinsurgency strategies of a country's oppressive military. 2017.
Full Text Available SUMMARY: The right to water and sanitation is an inextricable human right. Water and sanitation are critical determinants for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. An adequate amount of safe water is necessary to prevent death from dehydration, to reduce the risk of water-related disease and to provide for consumption, cooking and personal and domestic hygienic requirements. The main objective of WASH – (Water supply, Sanitation and Hygenie promotion programmes in disasters is to reduce the transmission of faeco-oral diseases and exposure to disease-bearing vectors through the promotion of: good hygiene practices, the provision of safe drinking water, the reduction of environmental health risks, the conditions that allow people to a healthy life with dignity, comfort and security. Keywords: Water, sanitation, disasters, humanitarian response, hygenie promotion, drainage, vector control, waste disposition
Recently and for first time, an organism of the orbit of the human rights put the finger in the wound of the problem that represents for Colombia the pipelines explosion and the social and environmental impact that those actions in this case the Defense of the People office, the institution that published a document related this denounces, in the one that sustains that the country it cannot continue of back with a serious and evident reality as the related with the explosions of pipelines. We are the only country of the world where happen these facts and enormous losses are not only causing to the Colombian economy, but rather our environmental wealth is affecting, the document, denounced the ignorance of the humanitarian international right on the part of those who apply to that class of attacks
not pan out. We knew that our mission was ultimately to hand over security responsibility to the Iraqi government, but we had not yet developed a...were “ chicken -egg” discus- sions about whether the security situation had to improve before the political track could begin. I strongly argued that...2005 Lt Gen Nick Houghton (UK), October 2005–February 2006 Lt Gen Rob Fry (UK), March 2006–September 2006 Lt Gen Graham Lamb (UK), September 2006
Ahmed, Herish M.; Coulter, J. Brian S.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Zaki, Jamal M.; Al-Rabaty, Abas A.; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel A.
Of 260 children with acute diarrhea in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, 96 (37%) were infected with rotavirus. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction identified G1, G4, G2, G9, P, P, and P as the most common genotypes. Eight G/P combinations were found, but PG1 and PG2 accounted for >50% of the strains. PMID:16704845
AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan
War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.
This is a review of Patrick Meier's 2015 book, Digital Humanitarians: How Big Data Is Changing the Face of Humanitarian Response. The book explores the role of technologies such as high-resolution satellite imagery, online social media, drones, and artificial intelligence in humanitarian responses during disasters such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In this analysis, the book is examined using a humanitarian health ethics perspective.
Fox, John G
The U.S.-led military intervention in Somalia, which began in 1992, had profound consequences for how the United States would view later humanitarian operations overseas and the use of military force, in general...
Do you fancy donating your brain to a good cause for 60 hours? Would you like to apply your knowledge and skills to solving humanitarian challenges? Are you motivated to demonstrate the value of science to society? Apply for our humanitarian hackathon taking place in IdeaSquare at CERN, from the 14 to the 16 October. You will work in an interdisciplinary team on challenges proposed by international organisations, humanitarian NGOs and academic institutions, e.g. ICRC, Handicap International, Global Humanitarian Lab, University of Geneva and Anglia Ruskin University. Example topics: Better emergency shelters Reducing risks posed by counterfeit drugs Sound for health Safe & clean field disposal of medical waste Sixty hand-picked innovators will be assembled into teams six weeks ahead of the event to give time for a “virtual preparation”, where you can dive into the problem, assisted by field experts, and start to conceptualise a possible solution. The applicatio...
Humanitarian intervention is a controversial concept in international law. It is not .... See Corten, O. and Klein, P. 'Droit d' ingerence ou obligation de reaction? ... but should be preceded by a formal public declaration of the political objectives.
John M Quinn
Full Text Available Humanitarian crises are politically and socially charged, and as actors, donors and organizations move in to help, duplication of services can ensue. Despite the influx of humanitarian actors into the war zone of eastern Ukraine, more are still needed to address immediate threat to the health of more than 5 million at-risk people in the area. The humanitarian disaster in Ukraine requires fast support and stakeholder involvement to mitigate preventable death among at-risk populations. As the crisis unfolds and many more people are caught in the crossfire with no health security, WHO is leading the charge to organize healthcare and humanitarian action to relive human suffering and engender health security for all.
Daly, A. L
.... States could conduct acts of genocide against their own population with impunity. After the intervention in Kosovo and the genocide in Rwanda, international law evolved to allow humanitarian intervention...
Sullivan, Donna Marie.
Due to the increasing demand on the military to conduct humanitarian operations, the need for logistics planning factors that are applicable to these operations has arisen. This thesis develops a model for humanitarian operations and employs the model to develop logistics planning factors for material consumption and a computer-assisted planning aid relating to the support of the victim population. U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.
organization consisted of military and civilian leadership, which managed the Pacification Programs throughout Vietnam. This program was a historic example...assistance efforts. The directorate that manages humanitarian assistance operations varies from theater to theater. The J9 Directorate labeled as either...2012) 12 (JP) 3-07.3, I-6. 13 A. Cooper Drury et al, The Politics of Humanitarian Aid: U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance, 1964-1995, (Cambridge
Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of
destroy the residence of the US Ambassador in Jakarta, Japanese Embassy and American Airlines in Philippines 2 CMPC-2003-000 17015 2 Production and...used to seek a number oftargets like (The Iraqi Communist Party Headquarters, assassinating some ofP.K.K members, blowing up Dilshad Cinema ) where...Sulaymaniyyah like Dilshad Cinema , a Casino in (Illegible) Subdivision and a media whole. 4- They issued the first declaration threatening the Secularism
E I Ganshina
Full Text Available The article is devoted to Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation in the 90-ies of XX century. The author emphasizes the special importance of humanitarian cooperation between Russia and China for the promotion of national interests and the expansion of Russia's presence in China after the collapse of the USSR, as well as creating a positive image of the Russian state in China by applying the mechanism of “soft power”. The author notes that the 90-ies of XX century were the starting point of cooperation between Russia and China in the humanitarian sphere, it laid the legal foundation of Russian-Chinese humanitarian cooperation, moreover, the main directions and priorities of cooperation between the two countries in the humanitarian field have been identified. However, the author stresses that the practical realization of the objectives of the signed intergovernmental documents was carried out in an insufficiently wide format. And the main reason is the deep socio-economic crisis, which Russia had faced after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and, as a consequence, the lack of funding for joint Russian-Chinese projects in the humanitarian field.
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... No. 2900-0720.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom... used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation...
van Ree, E.
This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not
Sales de Gauzy, J; Trinchero, J-F; Jouve, J-L
Pediatric orthopedic surgery in humanitarian aid is conducted mainly in cooperation with emerging countries. Each mission is different, and depends on numerous parameters such as the country, the frequency of such missions, the pathologies encountered, the local structure and team, and the non-governmental organization (NGO) involved. Pathologies vary in etiology (tuberculosis, poliomyelitis) and severity. Each mission requires the presence of an experienced surgeon. Working conditions are often rudimentary. Surgical indications should be restricted to procedures that are going to be effective, with minimal postoperative complications, without any surgical "acrobatics". Teaching should be in association with the local university, and adapted to local needs. Mission objectives need to be realistic. Surgical indications should be adapted to local conditions, and the surgeon needs to be able to say "no" to procedures involving undue risk. The surgeon on mission should cooperate with local teams and be able to adapt to unusual situations. Assessment of results is essential to improving efficacy and evaluating the success of the mission. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739
Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.
Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.
The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.
Evans, Dabney P; Anderson, Mark; Shahpar, Cyrus; Del Rio, Carlos; Curran, James W
The objective of this report was to show how the Center for Humanitarian Emergencies (the Center) at Emory University (Atlanta, Georgia USA) has trained graduate students to respond to complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs) through innovative educational programs, with the goal of increasing the number of trained humanitarian workers. Natural disasters are on the rise with more than twice as many occurring from 2000-2009 as there were from 1980-1989. In 2012 alone, 144 million people were affected by a natural disaster or displaced by conflict worldwide. This has created an immense need for trained humanitarian workers to respond effectively to such disasters. The Center has developed a model for educational programming that targets learners along an educational continuum ranging from the undergraduate level through continuing professional education. These programs, based in the Rollins School of Public Health (RSPH) of Emory University, include: a competency-based graduate certificate program (the Certificate) in humanitarian emergencies; a fellowship program for mid-career professionals; and funded field practica. The competency-based Certificate program began in 2010 with a cohort of 14 students. Since then, 101 students have received the Certificate with 50 more due for completion in 2016 and 2017 combined. The fellowship program for mid-career professionals has hosted four fellows from conflict-affected or resource-poor countries, who have then gone on to assume leadership positions with humanitarian organizations. From 2009-2015, the field practicum program supported 34 students in international summer practicum experiences related to emergency response or preparedness. Students have participated in summer field experiences on every continent but Australia. Together the Certificate, funded field practicum opportunities, and the fellowship comprise current efforts in providing innovative education and training for graduate and post-graduate students of public
Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.
Full Text Available This article explores prospects of using Ubuntu and Capabilities Approach to expand the scope of humanitarian action, to design one which serves humanity better even in the absence of disaster to essentially fulfil human development needs. It is considerate of the fact that humanitarian works contributes immensely in determining the extent to which humanity thrives. The traditional view on humanitarianism presupposes action-driven initiatives geared towards devising interventions to restore or reinforce human social order, improve livelihoods and quality of life. In sociological terms, human development is dependent on realizing and safeguarding, amongst others, human well-being, civil liberties and social security. The article utilizes core values enshrined in Ubuntu, Africa’s historic philosophy of life, and Amartya Sen’s Capabilities Approach as tools of analysis, with the view to expressing how to operationalize what should be considered stable humanitarian conditions and human well-being. Owing to persistent socio-economic challenges, especially the poverty problem, it is asserted that humanitarian action ought to depart from being a post-disaster intervention strategy, to being a pro-active and preventative pre-disaster orientated action, intended to nurture well-being and resultantly enable human development.
Korff, Valeska P.; Balbo, Nicoletta; Mills, Melinda; Heyse, Liesbet; Wittek, Rafael
High employee turnover rates constitute a major challenge to effective aid provision. This study examines how features of humanitarian work and aid workers' individual characteristics affect retention within one humanitarian organisation, Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) Holland. The study extends
Caroline Abu Sa’Da
Full Text Available The massive and continuing flows of Syrian and Palestinian refugees to Syria’s neighbours have shown the limitations of humanitarian practice and present new challenges for medical and humanitarian interventions.
... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace, Announcement of Request for..., Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian...
vice a large-scale international effort like the 2004 tsunami. Myanmar also did not make it easier for humanitarian workers to get expedited visas or...Affected Areas of Myanmar : A Review,” Humanitarian Exchange, no. 41 (December 2008), 2–4, http://www.odihpn.org/ humanitarian -exchange-magazine/issue-41...negotiating- humanitarian -access-to-cyclone-affected-areas-of- myanmar -a-review. 21 Ibid. 6 Management and Emergency Response,” and on May 9 the
The tendency today to privatise many activities hitherto considered the exclusive preserve of the state has given rise to sharp debate. The specific nature of humanitarian emergencies elucidates in particularly stark contrast some of the main challenges connected to the privatisation and outsourcing of essential public services, such as the provision of drinking water and health care. Privatising the realms of defence and security, which are at the very core of state prerogative, raises several legal and humanitarian concerns. This article focuses on the roles and responsibilities of the various parties involved in armed conflicts, especially those of private companies engaged in security, intelligence and interrogation work, and in the provision of water supply and health services. It highlights the need for humanitarian and development actors to grasp better the potential risks and opportunities related to privatisation and outsourcing with a view to supplying effective protection and assistance to communities affected by war.
Although the war in Liberia in July 2003 claimed hundreds of lives, the international community was reluctant to intervene. In this article, the author debates the question: does international military intervention equal protection of populations? The role of humanitarian organisations in military intervention is considered. Aid organisations cannot call for deployment of a protection force without renouncing their autonomy or appealing to references outside their own practices. Such organisations provide victims with vital assistance and contribute to ensuring that their fate becomes a stake in political debate by exposing the violence that engulfs them, without substituting their own voices for those of the victims. The political content of humanitarian action is also outlined and military intervention in the context of genocide is discussed. The author concludes that the latter is one of the rare situations in which humanitarian actors can consider calling for an armed intervention without renouncing their own logic.
Kynes, J Matthew; Zeigler, Laura; McQueen, Kelly
Low- and middle-income countries carry a disproportionate share of the global burden of pediatric surgical disease and have limited local healthcare infrastructure and human resources to address this burden. Humanitarian efforts that have improved or provided access to necessary basic or emergency surgery for children in these settings have included humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, short-term surgical missions, and long-term projects such as building pediatric specialty hospitals and provider networks. Each of these efforts may also include educational initiatives designed to increase local capacity. This article will provide an overview of pediatric humanitarian surgical outreach including reference to available evidence-based analyses of these platforms and make recommendations for surgical outreach initiatives for children.
...] Extension of the Application Deadline for Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program AGENCY: United States Patent and... Trademark Office (USPTO) announced the Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program, which recognizes patent holders... extending the deadline for applications to the Humanitarian Awards Pilot Program by two months until October...
JUAN FRANCISCO LOBO FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available After analyzing war as an institutional fact, and particularly humanitarian intervention as a way of Just War, this article studies the current humanitarian crisis in Syria to determine if an eventual humanitarian intervention would be considered as a Just War.
Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan
The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries
Møller, Jesper; McCullagh, Peter
We extend the boson process first to a large class of Cox processes and second an even larger class of infinitely divisible point processes. Density and moment results are studied in detail. These results are obtained in closed form as weighted permanents, so the extension is called a permanent...... process. Temporal extensions and a particularly tractable case of the permanent process are also studied. Extensions of the ferminon process along similar lines, leading to so-called determinant processes, are discussed at the end. While the permanent process is attractive, the determinant process...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred
Full Text Available Based on a short field research conducted at the refugee transit center in Slavonski Brod, the paper analyzes contemporary asylum policies in Croatia. The author is suggesting that the structure and function of a centre plays a crucial role in the securitization and humanitarization of the asylum policy. The analysis has shown that the asylum policy in Croatia has the same structure as the dominant asylum policies in Europe. Both of them oscillate between two poles: compassion and repression. Humanitarian policy in Croatia is more restrictive and is based on radical inequality, nationalism, racism, the suspension of rights and the normalization of structural violence. Due to its exclusive national focus, it will not provide any long term solutions for dealing with refugees in the future.
Sharp, Jeremy M
.... According to the December 2006 Iraq Study Group Report, Significant questions remain about the ethnic composition and loyalties of some Iraqi units specifically, whether they will carry out missions...
This is an abstract of the final report focusing on the collection, collation, analysis, and recording of information pertaining to Iraqi nuclear weapons development and on the long term monitoring of Iraq
Full Text Available Despite the occupation and ensuing war, Iraq has experienced the emergence of a truly pluralistic media landscape after the fall of the Baath regime in 2003. Today, media coverage of domestic affairs is characterized not only by pluralism but also by bias and partiality reflecting strong ties between political actors and media outlets. Accordingly, the Iraqi media are often accused of fueling conflict and deepening the ethno-sectarian divide in society. Based on a qualitative frame analysis of Iraqi news bulletins, this study reveals that Iraqi media outlets provide indeed contesting frames on even the most divisive issues. Only the coverage of the armed war against IS is characterized by a non-pluralistic conformity among Iraqi channels that unequivocally focus on military successes against IS and jointly refrain from any criticism against the varied forces fighting IS in Iraq.
Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn
To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.
Waddick, James L
... their missions during the initial Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment (OIF 1). Additionally, the study sought to identify the potential benefit of additional training on key medical logistics tasks and training events...
Hosmer, Stephen T
.... Drawing upon information derived primarily from interviews with former senior Iraqi civilian and military officials, this monograph focuses on two questions relating to the rapidity and ease of that victory: (1...
M. M. Lebedeva
Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, with the increasing role of the human factor in the world, the importance of the social and humanitarian component in world politics has also increased. This manifested itself not only in humanitarian and social issues, but also in the fact that the human factor has become an important component of other issues, including military and economic ones. The analysis of the Russian international studies on social and humanitarian issues in the article has been carried out in two main areas related to each other: 1 soft power and public diplomacy; 2 human capital. Various approaches to understanding soft power and public diplomacy in Russia are analyzed under the framework of the first area. It is shown that rather often both these terms are understood as informational and propagandistic influence on the societies of other countries. In this regard, in recent years, Russian authors have paid special attention to the issues of information and hybrid wars. Russian researches on human capital in quantitative terms is much inferior to the research of the first area. At the same time Russian works on the issues of the role of higher education, its use as a soft power were to a great extend a pioneer ones. The main conclusion of the article is that humanitarian issues do not occupy the some prominaut place in the international studies they do in real life world politics.
Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Appel-Hansen, Jørgen
to 1 bandwidth with a return loss better than 10 dB from 0.4 to 3.8 GHz is presented. A wideband balun covering the frequency range of the antenna was developed. The constructed spiral antenna is very useful in a stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for humanitarian demining due to the very...
Scarnecchia, Daniel P; Raymond, Nathaniel A; Greenwood, Faine; Howarth, Caitlin; Poole, Danielle N
Crisis-affected populations and humanitarian aid providers are both becoming increasingly reliant on information and communications technology (ICTs) for finding and provisioning aid. This is exposing critical, unaddressed gaps in the legal and ethical frameworks that traditionally defined and governed the professional conduct of humanitarian action. The most acute of these gaps is a lack of clarity about what human rights people have regarding information in disaster, and the corresponding obligations incumbent upon governments and aid providers. This need is lent urgency by emerging evidence demonstrating that the use of these technologies in crisis response may be, in some cases, causing harm to the very populations they intend to serve. Preventing and mitigating these harms, while also working to responsibly ensure access to the benefits of information during crises, requires a rights-based framework to guide humanitarian operations. In this brief report, we provide a commentary that accompanies our report, the Signal Code: A Human Rights Approach to Information During Crisis, where we have identified five rights pertaining to the use of information and data during crisis which are grounded in current international human rights and customary law. It is our belief that the continued relevance of the humanitarian project, as it grows increasingly dependent on the use of data and ICTs, urgently requires a discussion of these rights and corresponding obligations.
Wijnmaalen, Julia; Heyse, Liesbet; Voordijk, Johannes T.
Unwanted staff turnover is a prominent HRM problem in humanitarian organisations. In the profit sector, HRM tools such as pay, benefits, socialisation and training have proven to be effective in increasing organisational commitment and decreasing staff turnover. This study explores whether such
Full Text Available The Fleet Forum, a group of more than 40 aid agencies, is working to slash by 25% the annual $800 million cost of running some 60,000 vehicles. Darfur has shown the need to work together to achieve more cost-efficient and safe humanitarian transport.
Full Text Available Approximately 60,000 Syrians are trapped in ‘the Berm’, a desolate area on the Syria-Jordan border. When security concerns are prioritised over humanitarian needs, and aid agencies turn to militant groups to deliver aid, the consequences can be deplorable.
May 5, 2016 ... Young women ask for help in the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan's destruction in the Philippines ... decades have pushed the global humanitarian system to the limits. ... even years, resources are quickly exhausted and the lines between ... in harder to access areas, and that are cost-efficient, accountable, ...
... behaviour and ability to cooperate with other actors in a complex emergency. Humanitarian actors may act in concert or in contention with one another, or somewhere in between. Conflict of interest, competition for resources, incompatible organisational structures and cultures and overlapping functions are the challenges ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Humanitarian projects authorized. 500.572 Section 500.572 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... from private sources, including but not limited to accredited degree-granting institutes of education...
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Design/methodology/approach - A literature review has been conducted using a structured method based on Denyer and Tranfield (2009) and Rousseau et al. (2008). The state of the art on humanitarian supply chain performance management with a focus on measurement frameworks and indicators and their
Full Text Available The article analyses the humanitarian education as a representative sphere of cultural creativity in the Crimean polyethnic space. Under conditions of contact zone of dominant macroethnoses, the Crimean Turkic people and Crimean Slavs, the system of education should be orientated not only to harmonisation of inter-ethnic relations but mainly to consolidation of nation, creation of integral polyethnic cultural space.
L'Hermitte, Cécile; Brooks, Benjamin; Bowles, Marcus; Tatham, Peter H
This study investigates the strategic antecedents of operational agility in humanitarian logistics. It began by identifying the particular actions to be taken at the strategic level of a humanitarian organisation to support field-level agility. Next, quantitative data (n=59) were collected on four strategic-level capabilities (being purposeful, action-focused, collaborative, and learning-oriented) and on operational agility (field responsiveness and flexibility). Using a quantitative analysis, the study tested the relationship between organisational capacity building and operational agility and found that the four strategic-level capabilities are fundamental building blocks of agility. Collectively they account for 52 per cent of the ability of humanitarian logisticians to deal with ongoing changes and disruptions in the field. This study emphasises the need for researchers and practitioners to embrace a broader perspective of agility in humanitarian logistics. In addition, it highlights the inherently strategic nature of agility, the development of which involves focusing simultaneously on multiple drivers. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Full Text Available With the frequency and magnitude of disasters on the rise, millions of people suffer huge losses every year. Scholars have recently proposed various frameworks in disaster relief management in order to guide the research in this field. Although successful disaster relief requires the entire humanitarian supply chain to respond in harmony, it is surprising that there exists no humanitarian relief framework drawn from the perspective of supply chain management. In this article, we create a new research framework for Humanitarian Supply Chain Management (HSCM that is complimentary but distinct from commercial supply chain management (CSCM frameworks. The framework we developed offers a new lens for humanitarian researchers. We also conduct a systematic literature review in this field and identify some opportunities for future research. The results strongly suggest the need for additional empirical research to test the existing concepts and models. Second, there is evidence that research focusing on “upstream” relief chain has been neglected relative to “downstream”. Additionally, due to its rapid advancement, information technology related research opportunities in this field would always be there. Keyword
... culturally sensitive to the needs of the victims of the humanitarian crisis. In emergency situations, the roles of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) may have to be modified without compromising the ethical standards that health researchers have globally attempted to achieve. Malawi Medical Journal Vol. 20 (2) 2008: pp.
... lay at the bar of international justice to call the international community to account for failures of performance on humanitarian obligations. It is their case that I take up here, as a problem of ethics in international affairs, as the minimum of a philosopher's recompense owed this people today. African Studies Monograph Vol.
Al-Mendalawi, Mahmood Dhahir; Karam, Nadia Taha
Tooth decay (TD) is common in children with significant consequences on systemic well-being, growth and quality of life, as well as increasing the risk of decay in the permanent teeth. The aim of the present study is to define risk factors associated with deciduous TD (DTD) in Iraqi preschool children. From the 1(st) June to 31(st) December 2012, a case-control study was carried out on 684 children under the age of 6 years who attended Al-Aulwyiah pediatric teaching hospital in Baghdad. Clinical examination and World Health Organization caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were applied. Data including gender, residence, socio-economic status (SES), parental education level, parental smoking, tooth brushing frequency, type of feeding during infancy and the presence of any systemic disease in the child were sought. The mean DMFT score in the case group was 2.03 ± 1.39, of which decayed teeth formed 1.93. Males had a higher mean DMFT (2.10 ± 1.08) than females (1.96 ± 1.70) but with no statistically significant difference. The study revealed that residence, SES, parental education level and tooth brushing frequency were dependent risk factors significantly associated with DTD. However, gender, parental smoking and pattern of feeding during infancy were not significantly associated with DTD. Only four children with systemic disorders (1.2%), namely asthma and congenital heart diseases, were noticed to have DTD. Pediatricians and dentists could provide dental preventive and screening measures. Confronting relevant risk factors associated with DTD and improving access to oral care services are suggested. In addition, promotion of oral health programs through school curricula is needed.
Gry Høngsmark Knudsen
Full Text Available In this paper we address the interplay between networked media and humanitarian communication through the lens of meditization theory in order to forward a more balanced understanding of networked humanitarianism. We analyze a case of humanitarian communication that travelled Facebook in unpredictable ways and demonstrate the breakdown between sender and receiver positions. The case shows how communicative practices are challenged and how humanitarian organizations are destabilized in a new and unpredictable communication environment. We argue that in order to deepen the critical perspective on networked humanitarian communication, it is important to better understand how the institutional logic of humanitarianism changes when mediatized through networked media. Further, we suggest that a broader consideration of media amalgamation enables a critical discussion of networked media influence humanitarianism.
The International Crisis Group, a non-governmental organization, interviewed Iraqi refugees in 2007 and reported a number of instances of harassment ...process: Before they can be legally employed, Iraqi refugees must obtain a work permit from the Ministry of Labour . To be eligible for a work permit...Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Labour , respectively. Jordanian law also requires potential employers to provide a litany of documents and
This work deals with some socio-economic and political aspects about the stakes of iraqi petroleum for France. After having described the history of iraqi petroleum, the author gives the estimation of the actual petroleum reserves, the production objective, the petroleum and gaseous projects and the exporting way. Then is given the economic and political role played by France: the increase of importation uses, the economic interests and the political responsibility. (O.L.). 10 tabs
Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A
Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul
The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.
The Tuwaitha site, 20 km south of Baghdad, was chosen at the beginning of the sixties to be the Center for Research and Development of the Iraqi Nuclear Program. The israeli air attack to the Osirak reactor in 1981, the clandestine activities for nuclear weapons production and the inspections carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify such activities are parts of the history of that nuclear complex. Its installations were extensively damaged in 1991 during the so called Golf War and finally destroyed by air bombardment during the invasion by the Coalition Forces in 2003. The IAEA and other several countries have elaborated an international assistance program for the future activities of installations dismantling and site remediation. (author) [es
Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…
Sardar Shaker Ibrahim
This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover, annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were ide...
Le GAC organise chaque mois des permanences avec entretiens individuels. La prochaine permanence se tiendra le : Mardi 5 mai de 13 h 30 à 16 h 00 Salle de réunion de l’Association du personnel Les permanences suivantes auront lieu les mardis 2 juin, 1er septembre, 6 octobre, 3 novembre et 1er décembre 2015. Les permanences du Groupement des Anciens sont ouvertes aux bénéficiaires de la Caisse de pensions (y compris les conjoints survivants) et à tous ceux qui approchent de la retraite. Nous invitons vivement ces derniers à s’associer à notre groupement en se procurant, auprès de l’Association du personnel, les documents nécessaires.
Bush, E.D. Jr.
A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. Based on preliminary tests, it was seen that permanent quadrupole magnets can offer a low cost, reliable solution in applications requiring small, fixed-field focusing devices for use in ion or electron-beam transport systems. Permanent magnets do require special considerations in design, fabrication, handling, and service that are different than encountered in conventional quadrupole magnets. If these basic conditions are satisfied, the resulting beam-focusing device would be stable, maintenance free, with virtually an indefinite lifetime
Bush, E.D. Jr.
A family of quadrupole magnets using a soft iron return yoke and circular cross-section permanent magnet poles were fabricated to investigate the feasibility for use in ion or electron beam focusing applications in accelerators and transport lines. Magnetic field measurements yielded promising results. In fixed-field applications, permanent magnets with sufficient gradients would be a low cost substitute for conventional electromagnets, eliminating the need for power supplies, associated wiring, and cooling. (author)
van Ree, E.
This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not represent a historical shortcut under exceptional circumstances, but the course revolutions in the modern era would normally take. Marx and Engels traced back the pattern to the sixteenth century. It is ...
Ager, A; Burnham, G; Checchi, F; Gayer, M; Grais, R F; Henkens, M; Massaquoi, M B F; Nandy, R; Navarro-Colorado, C; Spiegel, P
Given the growing scale and complexity of responses to humanitarian crises, it is important to develop a stronger evidence base for health interventions in such contexts. Humanitarian crises present unique challenges to rigorous and effective research, but there are substantial opportunities for scientific advance. Studies need to focus where the translation of evidence from noncrisis scenarios is not viable and on ethical ways of determining what happens in the absence of an intervention. Robust methodologies suited to crisis settings have to be developed and used to assess interventions with potential for delivery at scale. Strengthening research capacity in the low- to middle-income countries that are vulnerable to crises is also crucial. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Full Text Available This article explores how I teach about human rights and so-called humanitarian interventions to MA and Ph.D. students. The course has three main themes or foci. First, what are human rights and why have the social and economic human rights laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been so neglected or rejected, especially by the U.S. Second, how has American foreign policy used and abused human rights. Third, why have liberal or humanitarian interventions of a militarized sort become so prevalent since the end of the Cold War and why are they so damaging. The goal is to get students to look critically at the meaning and uses of human rights, about which many display a naive enthusiasm.
Ana Laura Santos
Full Text Available This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.
This article argues that international and national humanitarian NGOs have a far more fundamental bearing on the social reconstitution of Sri Lankan society as a political, cultural, and moral entity than is usually acknowledged. Through their interventions, humanitarian agencies affect the power...... relationship between state and non-state actors and between local organizations and the war-affected populations that make up their constituencies. But NGOs also affect the political order by introducing new understandings of the citizen and providing alternative moral arguments to legitimize power...... and authority. What is taking place, the author contends, is best conceived of as mediations, since the global and the local, the modern and the traditional are coexistent as sources to be strategically drawn upon by the actors....
Full Text Available Preparedness addresses the strategy in disaster management that allows the implementation of successful operational response immediately after a disaster. With speed as the main driver, product design for humanitarian aid purposes is a key factor of success in situations of high uncertainty and urgency. Within this context, a telecommunications container (TC has been designed that belongs to a group of containers that serve the purpose of immediate response to global disasters. The TC includes all the necessary equipment to establish a telecommunication centre in the destroyed area within the first 72 hours of humanitarian operations. The design focuses on defining the topology of the various parts of equipment by taking into consideration factors of serviceability, functionality, human-product interaction, universal design language, energy consumption, sustainability and the interrelationship with the other containers. The concept parametric design has been implemented with SolidWorks® CAD system.
Full Text Available With several rising powers emerging as new actors on the humanitarian scene, viewing all ‘emerging donors’ as a homogenous group inevitably undermines efforts to constructively engage with them. With Turkey’s widely recognized engagement in Somalia and Syria, the country merits a nuanced analysis. How does it conceptualize humanitarian assistance? What norms and interests shape its humanitarian engagement? How is such an engagement financed and organized? Thoroughly evaluating how foreign and domestic agendas shape Turkey’s humanitarian engagement, the paper details how Ankara designs and implements its humanitarian assistance. The collaborative relationship between the government, faith-based businesses, and the religious segment of a generally deeply divided civil society emerges as a unique feature of Turkey’s humanitarian assistance. This set-up calls for an informed approach towards working with specific Turkish actors. It also questions the sustainability and scalability of current aid levels.
The paper seeks to link contemporary thinking on urban shelter in the humanitarian sector to debates in the field of 'critical urban theory'. It argues that current humanitarian thinking on urban shelter shares many common concerns with critical urban theory, but that these concerns are rarely translated effectively into humanitarian practice. It attributes this disconnect not only to weaknesses in implementation capacity, but also to the need to reorient humanitarian action to address more definitively questions of power and justice. Humanitarian actors need to step back from product-delivery approaches and find ways of integrating into their analytical, planning, implementation and monitoring tools questions about access, exclusion and the historically specific ways in which these aspects converge in particular urban spaces. By doing so, the humanitarian community would benefit from a more explicit, systematic and sustained engagement with the catalytic theoretical resources that critical urban theory has to offer. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.
Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree
New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Somalia today is the site of three major threats: the world's worst humanitarian crisis; the longest-running instance of complete state collapse; and a robust jihadist movement with links to Al-Qa'ida. External state-building, counter-terrorism and humanitarian policies responding to these threats have worked at cross-purposes. State-building efforts that insist humanitarian relief be channelled through the nascent state in order to build its legitimacy and capacity undermine humanitarian neutrality when the state is a party to a civil war. Counter-terrorism policies that seek to ensure that no aid benefits terrorist groups have the net effect of criminalising relief operations in countries where poor security precludes effective accountability. This paper argues that tensions between stabilisation and humanitarian goals in contemporary Somalia reflect a long history of politicisation of humanitarian operations in the country. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
response to the flood in Pakistan: "According to the [National Disaster Management Authority] NDMA , unusually heavy rainfall and flooding in late July...Widespread flooding affected 82 ofPakistan’s 122 districts, according to the NDMA . As a result, more than 12 million people required humanitarian...MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MEDCAPS Medical Civic Assistance Programs MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit NDMA National Disaster Management
civil war . Africa’s worst drought hit the country in 1992, driving up food prices and causing extreme malnutrition . People began to leave their...affect the region’s overall leveragement to conduct humanitarian aid. Buchanan (2008) mentions the ethnic civil war and genocide occurring in the...Darfur region that began in February 2003. The war started because nomadic herders traveled farther south than normal into Sudan due to 29 drought and
Vitoriano, Begoña; Ortuño, M. Teresa; Tirado, Gregorio; Montero, Javier
Natural disasters are phenomenons which strike countries all around the world. Sometimes, either by the intensity of the phenomenon or the vulnerability of the country, help is requested from the rest of the world and relief organizations respond by delivering basic aid to those in need. Humanitarian logistics is a critical factor in managing relief operations and, in general, there is a lack of attention on the development of mathematical models and solution algorithms for strategic and tact...
Abdi, H; De Leeuw, S; Klumpp, M
Purpose - The main purposes of this study are 1) to identify the state of the art of performance measurement and management in humanitarian supply chains, 2) to categorize performance measurement indicators in the five supply chain phases of Gunasekaran and Kobu (2007) and evaluate them based on the evaluation criteria of Caplice and Sheffi (1995), 3) to define gaps as well as challenges in this field and give insights for future research in this domain. Design/methodology/approach - A litera...
Throughout Africa today Christian missionaries from the United States and Europe are providing more medical assistance than ever before and yet they remain, in much recent scholarship, more often associated with the colonial past than the humanitarian present. In many rural areas of Africa these missionaries provide much of the day-to-day healthcare that is available, treating commonplace afflictions, such as malaria, broken limbs or complications associated with childbirth. This dissertation...
Grayman, Jesse Hession
After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kunz, Nathan; Gold, Stefan
Disaster response operations aim at helping as many victims as possible in the shortest time, with limited consideration of the socio-economic context. During the disaster rehabilitation phase, the perspective needs to broaden and comprehensively take into account the local environment. We propose a framework of sustainable humanitarian supply chain management (SCM) that facilitates such comprehensive performance. We conceptualize the framework by combining literature from the fields of susta...
necessities of life. In these situations, individuals, groups and nations join together to provide food, water , clothing, shelter, and medical supplies ...Humanitarian Daily Rations (HDR), bottled water and other supplies between 501-2,200-lb in mass quantities. It utilizes an A-22 cargo container and a 64-ft...A C-17 can carry a total of 40 CDS bundles equating to nearly 6,000-gal of water . With a conservative 25% loss rate (unfound and damaged packages
Full Text Available This text gives a brief account of the norms and perceptions regarding IHL (international humanitarian law and Human Rights have been applied in Colombia, and on moving the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, FARC-EP, ELN National Liberation and the Army, in which requires the exclusion of civilians from direct attacks in the context of the conduct of hostilities by armed forces in war, these settings are accompanied Martells Clause and Article 3 common.
PRISM 2, no. 1 leSSoNS leaRNed | 131 On Christmas morning 2005, at Saint Patrick’s Catholic Church in Auckland , New Zealand, a priest stepped up to... economically difficult to sustain. However, the HA/DR cam- paign in Pakistan, Operation Lifeline, provides a useful model of how humanitarian...35 The two field hospitals became symbols of the American-Pakistani military partnership and an asymmetric advantage for the United States as
Qasim Mohammed Doos
Full Text Available Impact of buildings in Iraq and other countries on the environment is obvious; this problem began to take scientific and humanitarian dimensions in order to reduce and eliminate this problem. This impact can be seen through the energy, water and raw materials consumed for the establishment, operation and maintenance of these buildings, as well as the emissions of hazardous gases and generations of solid wastes. This work was conducted to assess the current maintenance managerial practice for the governmental buildings to stand on the main obstacle and extrapolation of measures by means of interviews with experts to determine the effective factors and closed questionnaire to state the features and the need for new building maintenance management system which may assist for modeling new building maintenance management system which may help to reduce the deterioration levels of governmental buildings and the emission of hazardous gases and solid waste with cost efficient approach.
Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.
Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)
Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)
Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)
Pedraza-Martinez, Alfonso J; Stapleton, Orla; Van Wassenhove, Luk N
This paper presents the reflections of the authors on the differences between the language and the approach of practitioners and academics to humanitarian logistics problems. Based on a long-term project on fleet management in the humanitarian sector, involving both large international humanitarian organisations and academics, it discusses how differences in language and approach to such problems may create a lacuna that impedes trust. In addition, the paper provides insights into how academic research evidence adapted to practitioner language can be used to bridge the gap. When it is communicated appropriately, evidence strengthens trust between practitioners and academics, which is critical for long-term projects. Once practitioners understand the main trade-offs included in academic research, they can supply valuable feedback to motivate new academic research. Novel research problems promote innovation in the use of traditional academic methods, which should result in a win-win situation: relevant solutions for practice and advances in academic knowledge. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Bitelli, Gabriele; Eleias, Magdalena; Franci, Francesca; Mandanici, Emanuele
During the last years, remote sensing data along with GIS have been largely employed for supporting emergency management activities. In this context, the use of satellite images and derived map products has become more common also in the different phases of humanitarian crisis response. In this work very high resolution satellite imagery was processed to assess the evolution of Za'atari Refugee Camp, built in Jordan in 2012 by the UN Refugee Agency to host Syrian refugees. Multispectral satellite scenes of the Za'atari area were processed by means of object-based classifications. The main aim of the present work is the development of a semiautomated procedure for multi-temporal camp monitoring with particular reference to the dwellings detection. Whilst in the emergency mapping domain automation of feature extraction is widely investigated, in the field of humanitarian missions the information is often extracted by means of photointerpretation of the satellite data. This approach requires time for the interpretation; moreover, it is not reliable enough in complex situations, where features of interest are often small, heterogeneous and inconsistent. Therefore, the present paper discusses a methodology to obtain information for assisting humanitarian crisis management, using a semi-automatic classification approach applied to satellite imagery.
THE Port is ready for the third edition of its hackathon with eight new challenges. Join us to discover how science can make a huge difference in people's life. Humanitarian hackathons organised by THE Port and hosted by CERN IdeaSquare have already confirmed that fundamental science can provide tech-enabled responses to humanitarian issues affecting the lives of millions of people around the globe. A great example of the success that technology and collaboration can bring is the substantial improvement of the food airdrop bags, requested by the ICRC to deliver assistance in South Sudan and other critical regions. Watch a 360° video or check out the pictures using the QR code. This year, eight teams will innovate the way humanitarian organisations handle the most critical aspects of field work during a 60-hour event. Groups of experts from all over the world will provide out-of-the-box proposals to tackle challenges set up by the ICRC, Handicap International, the United Natio...
Hardie, Kate; Selgelid, Michael J; Waldman, Ronald J; Strebel, Peter; Rees, Helen; Durrheim, David N
Abstract Humanitarian emergencies result in a breakdown of critical health-care services and often make vulnerable communities dependent on external agencies for care. In resource-constrained settings, this may occur against a backdrop of extreme poverty, malnutrition, insecurity, low literacy and poor infrastructure. Under these circumstances, providing food, water and shelter and limiting communicable disease outbreaks become primary concerns. Where effective and safe vaccines are available to mitigate the risk of disease outbreaks, their potential deployment is a key consideration in meeting emergency health needs. Ethical considerations are crucial when deciding on vaccine deployment. Allocation of vaccines in short supply, target groups, delivery strategies, surveillance and research during acute humanitarian emergencies all involve ethical considerations that often arise from the tension between individual and common good. The authors lay out the ethical issues that policy-makers need to bear in mind when considering the deployment of mass vaccination during humanitarian emergencies, including beneficence (duty of care and the rule of rescue), non-maleficence, autonomy and consent, and distributive and procedural justice. PMID:23599553
Full Text Available At 9 November 2010, the European Court of Justice, in a preliminary ruling, decided to depart from the interpretation promoted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, in the matter of the application of the exclusion clauses. The European Court considered that no proportionality test between human rights protection and gravity of a crime is to be applied in the case of a person suspected of having committed an act contrary to the principles and purposes of the United Nations. By eliminating this test, the Court is sending a signal on rethinking the asylum institution, from a humanitarian tool that it became, to a political instrument. This decision could not be read alone; corroborated to the concerns already raised on the suitable use of the asylum instrument to address massive humanitarian needs, it would indicate a reorientation in the interpretation of international norms governing the refugee law. Still, the human rights organs and the European Court of Human Rights continue to refer to the asylum as a situation where a humanitarian perspective, reflected in the proportionality test, or for those mechanisms the risk of human rights violation probability test, is still valid. The two apparently divergent directions will need to converge in the implementation of the European Union regulations on asylum. This paper is exploring the possible reinterpretation of the European norms, trying to identify the new trends in the political perspective of asylum and the limitations to these trends that the respect for human rights is establishing.
Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu
With the deployment of lethal autonomous weapons, there is the requirement that any such platform complies with the precepts of International Humanitarian Law. Humanitarian Algorithms[9: p. 9] ensure that lethal autonomous weapon systems perform military/security operations, within the confines of International Humanitarian Law. Unlike other existing techniques of regulating lethal autonomy this scheme advocates for an approach that enables Machine Learning. Lethal autonomous weapons must be ...
Humanitarian intervention is a contraversial concept of international law doctrine because of its compatibility with the principles of state’s sovereignty and non - use of force in the contemporary international law. The Dissertation is intended for a systematic analysis of the concept of humanitarian intervention and its legality problem in order to provide coherent concept of humanitarian intervention in contemporary international law. This is one of the first efforts in the international l...
Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B
Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Some general considerations concerning the application of permanent magnets are developed. The relevant magnet properties are discussed, with particular reference to Nd-Fe-B alloy. The author comes to the following conclusions; the air gap field B should be high, for high electrical efficiency; the magnet should face the air gap, for efficient use of the magnet material; the magnet material should therefore have a high remanence; and the new Nd-Fe-B magnet fits in nicely, having (potentially) the highest remanence ever reported in permanent magnets, combined with sufficient coercivity to sustain it
Bajde, Domen; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark
Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying an unpreced......Social media have been argued to have transformed humanitarian communication and those involved in it. Networked humanitarian organizations are supposedly more open and transparent (Kanter and Fine 2010) and their “audiences” too are networked and "cause-wired" (Watson 2009), implying...
Greenough, P Gregg; Nazerali, Rahim; Fink, Sheri; VanRooyen, Michael J
As the humanitarian health response industry grows, there is a need for technical health expertise that can build an evidence base around outcome measures and raise the quality and accountability of the health relief response. We propose the formation of technical support units (TSUs), entities of health expertise institutionalized within humanitarian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), which will bridge the gap between the demand for evidence-based, humanitarian programming and the field capacity to accomplish it. With the input of major humanitarian NGOs and donors, this paper discusses the attributes and capacities ofTSUs; and the mechanisms for creating and enhancing TSUs within the NGO management structure.
Full Text Available Humanitarian intervention is an attempt to prevent or stop the gross human rights violations with particular strengths (diplomatic and military in a State, either with or without the consent of the State (countries with internal conflict. The problems in this journal are: first, how the arrangement of international law on humanitarian intervention. Secondly, the role of the UN in humanitarian intervention in armed conflicts. The method used is a normative legal research methods with the main source of data collection procedures is a legal substance that contains of normative law. The results showed that the rules of international law on humanitarian intervention by the United Nations stipulated in the UN Charter and general principles of international law. Humanitarian intervention legally justified by following provisions in applicable international law, namely Articles 39-51 of UN Charter. While the role of the UN in humanitarian intervention in armed conflicts carried out by the Security Council as the organ of the United Nations in maintaining peace with the decision issued in the form of a resolution for areas experiencing conflict. Therefore, it takes an international treaty that regulates clearly about humanitarian intervention, so that in practice, remain consistent with the objectives and executive organs of humanitarian intervention. Keywords: Humanitarian Intervention, Security Council of UN, Armed Conflict.
Full Text Available The communications in Iraq has been fluctuated for decades. In fact, this fluctuation constitutes a reality that the country has been facing such as the security issues, the economic blockade imposed on the previous regime, and all the exceptional circumstances. This paper illustrates the nature and reality of communication in Iraq after 2003. While the sophisticated technology works very well all around the world, Iraq still does not keep the work up to improve its communications. This paper tackles the most importantcommunication problems in Iraq after 2003, and the possibility to process good services to customers, either by developing the governmental combinations, or/and by enforcing telecommunication companies to provide their best services to their customers. This paper answers the following the questions: Are the telecom/communication companies serve good qualities to the customers? If not, why? Who is the responsible? Are these companies at least doing their best to serve good qualities? Or are they just profitable companies? Why have these companies not started using the optical fiber cables instead of the copper one? Is the government seeking to compel such companies to serve good services? Whether the Iraqi government plans to develop the landlines services so it would compete with the telecom companies? What is the role of the Communication and Media Commission (CMC?
Saba Jabar Neama Al-Khafaji
Full Text Available The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.
Qais M. Alias
Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.
سید عدنان اشکوری
Full Text Available ‘Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar Jafar Delshad * Seyyed Adnan Eshkewaree ** Abstract The word ‘eghterab’ in human sciences has different concepts which could be classified into three groups: 1 Westernization and tending to western culture or being alien with eastern authenticity 2 nostalgia and homesickness caused by being away from his/her motherhood land and hometown. Most of this group of poets are emigrants or are in exile and 3 having the sense of nostalgia but being in home country. It means that this group of poets have very high ideals which no one in their homeland can take and bare these ideals. The poet perceives that ideals which are essential for him/her are higher than the society in which he/she lives can grasp. This essay makes an attempt to study the various concepts of ‘eghterab’ by focusing on Ahmad Matar as a prominent poet with regard to the third concept and deal with the third concept of Eghterab from three points of view: political, social and spiritual. This article examines some samples of these three parts in Ahmad Matar's poetry. Key words: nostalgia, poetry, emigration, Ahmad Matar, Iraq * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of IsfahanE-mail: email@example.com ** Assistant Professor, University for Teacher Training, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sabri, Manhal Isam; Hussain, Azham
Mobile utilization has rapidly expanded due to its feasibility in executing different applications that can be used in solving everyday problems. Common issues in daily life include electricity saving. In Iraq, the Ministry of Power seriously faces such issue. This is because most households have lack access to information regarding to sufficient power consumption, as well as applications that educate about such saving. Therefore, this study aims at developing a mobile application for Iraqi to help them understand the basis for reducing electricity consumption based on the meter data supplied by the users for square meter along with the active devices and period of usage. The proposed mobile application was evaluated by 50 households from the perspective of ease of use, usefulness, ease of learning, and satisfaction. The obtained result showed that majority of the participants found the application to be ease to use, useful, easy to learn, and were satisfied with its functionalities. The study findings provide some insights about the importance of using mobile application for promoting households in Iraq to manage their power consumption behavior.
Deppe, Anja M; Wright, Patricia C; Szelistowski, William A
Object permanence, the ability to mentally represent objects that have disappeared from view, should be advantageous to animals in their interaction with the natural world. The objective of this study was to examine whether lemurs possess object permanence. Thirteen adult subjects representing four species of diurnal lemur (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Hapalemur griseus) were presented with seven standard Piagetian visible and invisible object displacement tests, plus one single visible test where the subject had to wait predetermined times before allowed to search, and two invisible tests where each hiding place was made visually unique. In all visible tests lemurs were able to find an object that had been in clear view before being hidden. However, when lemurs were not allowed to search for up to 25-s, performance declined with increasing time-delay. Subjects did not outperform chance on any invisible displacements regardless of whether hiding places were visually uniform or unique, therefore the upper limit of object permanence observed was Stage 5b. Lemur species in this study eat stationary foods and are not subject to stalking predators, thus Stage 5 object permanence is probably sufficient to solve most problems encountered in the wild.
Full Text Available An in-depth situation analysis was carried out on the Iraqi civil registration system in 2011, years after the end of the military operation of 2003. The study was done using a combination of methods, including interviews with key role players in the Iraqi civil registration system, observation, study of documents, triangulation, and gap analysis. The study found the civil registration system in Iraq to be largely intact and functional, in spite of the wars experienced in Iraq over the past three decades. Given that civil registration systems generally get destroyed through wars, the paper discusses the reasons for the resilience in the Iraqi civil registration system and draws lessons from them.
Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed
This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
And Others; Jackson, Elaine
Presents a study of decalage between object permanence and person permanence. Decalage was influenced by environmental as well as stimulus factors with infants tested between 6- and 81/4-months/of-age. (BD)
Mihara, T.; Iwashita, Y.; Kyoto U.; Kumada, M.; NIRS, Chiba; Spencer, C.M.; SLAC
A permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) is one of the candidates for the final focus lens in a linear collider. An over 120 T/m strong variable permanent magnet quadrupole is achieved by the introduction of saturated iron and a 'double ring structure'. A fabricated PMQ achieved 24 T integrated gradient with 20 mm bore diameter, 100 mm magnet diameter and 20 cm pole length. The strength of the PMQ is adjustable in 1.4 T steps, due to its 'double ring structure': the PMQ is split into two nested rings; the outer ring is sliced along the beam line into four parts and is rotated to change the strength. This paper describes the variable PMQ from fabrication to recent adjustments
Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.
Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.
Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs
Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to
... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0847] Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Humanitarian Use Device (HUD) Designations... public comment ``Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff on Humanitarian Use...
Anatoly V. Zavrazhin
Full Text Available In the article the author emphasizes the role and importance of humanitarian knowledge not only in education, training future professionals, but in an objective, true evaluation of the events which occur today in the modern world. Reveals the methodological foundations, purpose, main directions and methods of humanitarian knowledge. Highlighted the special role in the Humanities.
Sahli, H.; Bruschini, C.; Kempen, L. van; Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Breejen, E. den
The EC DELVE Support Action project has analyzed the bottlenecks in the transfer of Humanitarian Demining (HD) technology from technology development to the use in the field, and drawn some lessons learned, basing itself on the assessment of the European Humanitarian Demining Research and Technology
Turhan, Muhammed; Akgül, Tülin
This study investigates the relationship between students' perception of school climate and their adherence to humanitarian values. To this end, the study group consisted of 1094 students in 21 secondary schools in Elazig province of Turkey. The "School Climate Scale," developed by Çalik and Kurt, and the "Humanitarian Values…
Abidi, H.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.; Klumpp, M.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the value of fourth-party logistics (4PL) services in a humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, it shows a framework for a fourth-party humanitarian logistics concept. Design/methodology/approach – The research paper presents a framework of
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance Office of Food for Peace Announcement of Draft Request for Applications for Title II Non-Emergency Food... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-20874 Filed 8-20-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE P ...
... AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace; Announcement of FFP Response to Zimbabwe Country Specific Guidance Comments..., Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance. [FR Doc. 2010-1777 Filed 1-27-10; 8:45 am...
S A Bokeriya
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the ground aspects of NATO’s humanitarian activities after the termination of the Cold War. Main principles of NATO’s concept of humanitarian intervention and its application in the territory of former Yugoslavia, in Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan are under analysis.
Humanitarian aid workers are faced with many challenges, from possible terrorist attacks to dealing with difficult stakeholders and securing operational space free from violence. To do their work properly and safely, they need effective intelligence. Humanitarian intelligence refers to the use of
van den Boogaard, J.C.; Matthee, M.; Toebes, B.; Brus, M.
The rules of international humanitarian law of armed conflict are codified in a rather extensive body of treaty law. In addition, extensive research has been conducted into the rules of customary international humanitarian law. The author of this contribution will argue that there is another
Ngamassi Tchouakeu, Louis-Marie
Massive international response to humanitarian crises such as the South Asian Tsunami in 2004, the Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Haiti earthquake in 2010 highlights the importance of humanitarian inter-organizational collaboration networks, especially in information management and exchange. Despite more than a decade old call for more research…
Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov
Full Text Available Active growth of trade volume between India and Africa which has increased in twenty times since the beginning of the twenty-first century or in seventy times since 1991, certainly actualized a question of features of the modern Indo-African relations. In this regard the purpose of article is consideration of features of policy of India to the African countries. The author does the short historical review of the Indo-African relations, and considers key spheres of realization of modern regional strategy of India on the African continent - humanitarian projects, foreign trade and investments. The main methods of research are the comparative-historical approach and the statistical analysis, being used for identification of positive or negative dynamics of development of the Indo-African cooperation. Now the African region takes strategic significance for India. Rapid economic development of the African countries and increase in a standard of living of the population turn the continent into a perspective sales market of the Indian goods and services. Besides, India actively develops humanitarian projects and renders the financial help to many African countries. However, India faces set of problems and factors - geographical remoteness, the discrimination and racism, instability of political systems of many African countries and the African policy of China. The active economic policy of China on the African continent has compelled India to develop cooperation with the countries of Africa more actively. In recent years India also as well as China tries to make active and modernize the economic and humanitarian policy in Africa. Struggle for commodity markets of the goods and services in Africa makes Africa by strategic region not only in the Indo-Chinese relations, but in foreign policy of India as a whole.
Wipf, S.L.; Laquer, H.L.
The concept of superconducting permanent magnets with fields trapped in shells or cylinders of Type II superconductors is an old one. Unfortunately, the low values of 0.5 to 1T for the first flux jump field, which is independent of the actual current density, have frustrated its implementation with classical Type II superconductors. The fact that the flux jump fields for high temperature superconductors should be an order of magnitude larger at liquid nitrogen temperatures allows us to reconsider these options. Analysis of the hysteresis patterns, based on the critical state model, shows that, if the dimensions are chosen so that the sample is penetrated at a field B/sub p/, which is equal to or just less than the first flux jump field, B/sub fj/, a temporarily applied field of 2B/sub fj/ will trap 0.5 B/sub fj/. Thus for a 90 K superconductor with a B/sub fj/ of 6T, a permanent field of 3 T should be trapped, with an energy product of 1.8 MJ/m/sup 3/ (225 MG . Oe). This is five times as large as for the best permanent magnet materials. The authors discuss means to verify the analysis and the limitations imposed by the low critical current densities in presently available high temperature superconductors
Full Text Available In recent years, armed conflicts have changed in nature (civil war, ‘terrorism’ and the means used are increasingly technological (robotisation, cyberwar. Faced with these developments, some would claim International Humanitarian Law (IHL is outdated. While these technological innovations present new challenges in the application of IHL, it still constitutes a relevant legal framework for armed conflicts and the conduct of hostilities. Indeed, the flexibility of IHL allows it to adapt to contemporary conflicts. Therefore, this shows that the statements about its obsolescence are primarily political in nature.
Thomsen, Jørgen L.
Humanitarian Forensic Action is aimed at relieving suffering by comforting and informing the relatives of disaster victims. It is not a priority to report human rights abuses to the authorities. It is thereby different from forensic human rights work with an inquisitive way of demonstrating culpa...... culpability. The following tasks are relevant. The forensic scientist as an interviewer of the next of kin and witnesses. Emphasizing independency in armed conflicts. Assisting in man-made and natural disasters Assisting in the prevention and of the spread of epidemics....
Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...
Büscher, Karen; Vlassenroot, Koen
This paper examines the impact of the presence of international humanitarian organisations on local urban transformation processes in the city of Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Rather than evaluating the direct effects of humanitarian interventions and strategies, it focuses on the indirect but profound effects of the presence of this 'humanitarian sector'. It argues that the international humanitarian presence became a significant factor in the recent shaping and reshaping of the city's profile and has reinforced competition over the urban political and socioeconomic space. The paper evaluates the direct and indirect impact of the international humanitarian presence on the local urban economy and the larger political economy of war in eastern DRC. It analyses how this presence has reinforced processes of spatial reconfiguration, how it has influenced urban planning, and how it has affected dynamics of gentrification and marginalisation on the urban spatial level.
Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj
A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)
Darweish, Marwan; Mohammed, Maamoon Abdulsamad
The Kurdistan Regional Government has implemented a wide range of reforms in Iraqi Kurdistan's education system since its establishment in 2003. This qualitative study utilises critical discourse analysis to investigate the content of History Education (HE) textbooks (grades five to eight) and to assess how far peace education values and…
Burner, Tony; Madsen, Janne; Zako, Nadia; Ismail, Adham
In Iraqi Kurdistan, the educational system is going through significant changes. The educational system influences the students' attitudes, and one wants the educational system to support the young democracy. In this study, student-centred learning (SCL) is seen as a first step to learning, but also to participation and engagement as a citizen.…
Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.
Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…
This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and
This article will consider the significant role which the Society of Jesus had played in the Iraqi secondary and higher education systems in the period 1932-1968. The Jesuits' Baghdad-based school and university formed a part of the substantial Jesuit educational network established across the Middle East from the nineteenth century and this…
Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…
Darwish, Dana A; Abdelmalek, Suzanne; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Hamadi, Salim
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global health concern. It has considerable implications on societies' health and resources. In Jordan, there is a large Iraqi community due to the ongoing turmoil in Iraq. Unfortunately, health awareness and practices of this community are under-investigated due to scarcity of research. This paper assesses the awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in the Iraqi community residing in Amman, Jordan. Their level of interaction with health care professionals regarding antibiotics and differences in their antibiotic use between Iraq and Jordan are also discussed. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey involving randomly selected Iraqis residing in Amman, Jordan was conducted. The study involved 508 participants. Sixty-two percent of participants agreed with buying antibiotics without a prescription, 29% agreed with obtaining antibiotics from friends or relatives, and 46% agreed with keeping leftover antibiotics for future use. Furthermore, 60% disagreed with not completing an antibiotic course and almost 90% of the sample listed viral diseases as an indication for antibiotics. Forty-four percent of participants abided by physicians' instructions on antibiotic use. Half of the participants believed that pharmacists provided instructions on antibiotics all the time, whereas physicians were perceived to do so by 29% of participants. Gaps exist in knowledge of antibiotic use and reasons for antimicrobial resistance among Iraqis residing in Jordan. These gaps should serve in planning educational campaigns to raise the community's awareness of responsible antibiotic use. Law enforcement to restrict access to antibiotics is also pivotal to tackle their misuse.
Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.
Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7022 Trade agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements...
Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs. PMID:22110413
Tharcisio Cotta Fontainha
Full Text Available The role of private stakeholders in disaster operations goes far beyond the delivery of profits to its shareholders. Disasters and humanitarian operations literature acknowledges the importance of private sector in disaster lifecycle; however, it lacks an analysis of the risks and benefits of each different form of their engagement in such operations (contractual relationships, one-off relationships and CSR - Corporate Social Responsibility partnerships. To address this research gap, a literature review was conducted on papers covering the perspective of private stakeholders when engaging in disaster and humanitarian operations with stakeholders from public and social groups. The results revealed that some challenges are specific from one approach and others are common for all of them. Moreover, despite the increasing of reputation capital and organizational learning being used to motivate CSR approach, they are mentioned as benefits in approaches with lower engagement - contractual and one-off relationship approaches. Thus, the benefits and risks of each approach need to be carefully addressed by scholars and field professionals in order to seek better results from the engagement of private organizations.
Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin
Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.
Aid agencies (AAs) provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a) Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly), principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b) Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work), and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.
Full Text Available Aid agencies (AAs provide a range of humanitarian and health related assistance globally. However, the trust placed on them is eroding. Evidence for this includes accusations of a decline in their humanitarianism, and the increasing number of conflicts with host states. An analysis of the concerns expressed yields two possible reasons: a relative lack of transparency of their work and weak accountability mechanisms. This is further supported by the existing milieu: an absence of internationally accepted instrument or mechanism to check the credentials of INGOs and an opaque system of close links between some of the INGOs and their donors. The article suggests two global strategies to tackle these issues: (a Increase transparency by establishing a global register of aid agencies. This should have basic information: their main goals and activities, countries they are active in, number of employees, annual turnover of funds (updated regularly, principal financing sources and nature of links with donors. This could also be available as printed manual that should be freely available to client countries. (b Ensure accountability by developing templates of fair legal instruments (to facilitate and regulate work, and a set of generic rules and procedures of engagement for the interactions between agencies and client states. These should be institutionalized within the regulatory frameworks of countries and included in the Codes of Conduct of NGOs.
Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos
Full Text Available Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a “force multiplier”, or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make “war by proxy”, as in Afghanistan or Nicaragua in the 1980s. The second pattern is “embedment”, like the Red Cross during the two world wars. The third is “self-defense”, as with the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (now Malta in the 12th Century. The fourth, finally, is the model of “International Brigades” alongside the Spanish Republicans in 1936 or various liberation movements in the 1970s. In comparison, humanitarian aid today appears to be much less militarized. However, this perception also depends on the various definitions of the word “humanitarian”.
Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn
The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities.
Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.
Müller, K.-H.; Krabbes, G.; Fink, J.; Gruß, S.; Kirchner, A.; Fuchs, G.; Schultz, L.
Permanent magnets play an important role and are widely spread in daily-life applications. Due to their very low costs, large availability of the row materials and their high chemical stability, hard ferrites are still dominant in the permanent magnet market although their relatively poor magnetic properties are a distinct disadvantage. Today's high-performance magnets are mostly made from Nd 2Fe 14B. The aim of research is to combine the large spontaneous magnetization of 3d metals with strong anisotropy fields known from rare-earth transition-metal compounds and, at the same time, to maintain a high value of the Curie temperature. However, the number of iron-rich rare-earth intermetallics is very limited and, consequently, not much success can be noted in this field for the last 10 years. One alternative concept is to use magnetic fields trapped in type II superconductors where much higher fields can be achieved compared to conventional rare-earth magnets. Very recently, we obtained a trapped field as high as 14.4 T in a melt-textured YBCO bulk sample of a few centimeters in diameter. This is the highest value ever achieved in a bulk superconductor. The trapped field of a superconductor is not governed by the Laplace equation and, therefore, levitation works without any additional (active) stabilization. The disadvantage of these magnets is their low working temperature (of liquid nitrogen and below).
Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.
For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm 2 Co 17 or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.
Vogt, D. S; Proctor, S. P; King, D. W; King, L. A; Vasterling, J. J
.... Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more contemporary cohort of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF...
Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B
Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...
The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...
Nguyen, Tinh; Thompson, Charles; Williams, Roger M
.... One indicator being reported is information on the number of Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) authorized (required), assigned (on-the-payroll), and trained. The Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction...
The work challenges faced by doctors, nurses and other health professionals in the humanitarian field are overwhelming. This article highlights the psychological effects on humanitarian workers and the support available, both while on a 'mission' and on return home. It is impossible not to be psychologically affected by witnessing gross acts of violence, starvation, epidemics, displacement and despair, or hearing tales of slaughter, rape and killing. Just as those populations who are subjected to traumatic experiences develop post-traumatic psychological problems, so too can those humanitarian workers who assist them.
Full Text Available Book review: Chomsky N. A New Generation Draws the Line: Humanitarian Intervention and the “Responsibility to Protect” Today.Boulder: Paradigm Publishers, 2012. 176 p. The book under review examines controversial norm of “humanitarian intervention”. It clearly demonstrates that the norm was used selectively and with different argumentations in various situations. Noam Chomsky has managed to present a fair and balanced account of positive and negative aspects of humanitarian interventions as well as provide thought-provoking policy recommendations for improving human rights protection.
Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov
This article traces a development from UNHCR's initial use of biometrics in a few pilot projects (early/mid-2000s), to the emergence of a UNHCR policy where biometric registration is considered a "strategic decision". Next it engages key insights from current debates about 'materiality' and agentic...... capacity in combination with current debates about new forms of intervention. Finally, these insights are combined into a framework through which the last part of the article engages critically with this development of humanitarian refugee biometrics by posing the following question: how does an approach...... biometric refugee data, has affected the relationship between UNHCR, donor states, host states and refugees, the article shows how UNHCR's trialling of new biometric technologies, combined with actual and potential data-sharing practices, has advanced the technology's performance as well as its...
Discourses and practices surrounding humanitarian organisations have changed over time. This is certainly the case for Palestinian non-governmental organisations, which have followed the structural and ideological transformations observed in local, regional and international contexts. There have been three successive but interlocking generations of groups active in health in Palestine: charitable societies, popular committees, and donor-based entities. Against this background, a village clinic in the West Bank is seen to have gone through various incarnations in the context of an emerging neo-liberal economic, administrative and political environment. Despite the critiques justifiably addressed towards them, non-governmental organisations may in some cases be functionally fluid. Communities and people continue to use them strategically in their relations with states, political groups, individuals and receivers of aid, making them potential networking sites in the context of an ongoing occupation.
Rafael Ajangiz Sánchez
Full Text Available Since the end of the Cold War, foreign and defence policies of the NATO member states have been focussed on missions intervening in third countries, a circumstance that has led to far-reaching reforms in military structures and a new discourse of legitimacy. Public opinion has played a decisive role in the push toward humanitarian and peacemaking interventions and, has backed a new line of action. The scant resolution and effectiveness shown by the governments in these missions and their interest in carrying out others most motivated by interests of state, however, have discouraged that mighthave been a way to a real democratization of foreign policy and produces disillusionment. Evidence is for an end to this cycle and a return to the traditional divorce between governments and societies in this area.
Full Text Available Manual prodding is still one of the most utilized procedures for identifying buried landmines during humanitarian demining activities. However, due to the high number of accidents reported during its practice, it is considered an outmoded and risky procedure and there is a general consensus about the need of introducing upgrades for enhancing the safety of human operators. With the aim of contributing to reduce the number of demining accidents, this paper presents an intelligent multisensory system for training operators in the use of prodders. The proposed tool is able to provide to deminers useful information in two critical issues: (a the amount of force exerted on the target and if it is greater than the safe limit and, (b to alert them when the angle of insertion of the prodder is approaching or exceeding a certain dangerous limit. Results of preliminary tests show the feasibility and reliability of the proposed design and highlight the potential benefits of the tool.
Ammar Saleem Khazaal
Full Text Available This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 4.75 mm, and 2.36 mm, respectively, which were less than the minimum limit allowed by the Iraqi specifications for each sieve. The percentages passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, 600micrometers, and 300micrometers were more than the upper limit of specification by 5%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The samples were passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, and 600micrometers less than the minimum limit of specification by 17%, and 4%, respectively. The results showed that the deviation in a sieve size of 150 micrometers for the upper limit of the specification performs 2% of the total number of samples. For Coarse aggregate, the samples passing sieves size 37.5mm and 20mm were comforting the Iraqi specifications by 100% and 83% respectively, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm was 5% was more than the higher limit of Iraqi specifications, and 27% of these samples were less than the minimum limit, whereas sample passing sieve size 5mm was 1% which is more than the upper limit of the Iraqi specification. As a result of statistical analysis of data for fine aggregate, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm and 150micrometers conforming from statistical point of view the Iraqi specifications, whereas the samples were passing sieve sizes 4.75 mm, 600micrometers and 300 micrometers didn’t conform. Statistical analysis of the results of the coarse aggregates also showed that conforming to sieve sizes of 37.5 mm and 20 mm and
Moslehi, Shandiz; Fatemi, Farin; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Mozafarsaadati, Hossein; Karami, Shirzad
Access to affected people pays an important role in United Nation Organization for Coordination and Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA). The aim of this article is to identify the main obstacles of humanitarian access and the humanitarian organization responses to these obstacles and finally suggest some recommendations and strategies. In this narrative study the researchers searched in different databases. This study focused on the data from five countries in the following areas: access challenges and constraints to affected population and response strategies selected for operations in the affected countries by humanitarian organizations. Three main issues were studied: security threats, bureaucratic restrictions and indirect constraint, which each of them divided to three subcategories. Finally, nine related subcategories emerged from this analysis. Most of these constraints relate to political issues. Changes in policy structures, negotiations and advocacy can be recommended to solve most of the problems in access issues.
Witzig Davidson, Lisa; Daly Hayes, Margaret; Landon, James J
The workshop on "Humanitarian and Peace Operations: The NGO/Interagency Interface" was held at the National Defense University on 18-19 April 1996, the seventh in a series that explores advanced command relationships...
Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Gotway Crawford, Carol; Eriksson, Cynthia; Zhu, Julia; Sabin, Miriam; Ager, Alastair; Foy, David; Snider, Leslie; Scholte, Willem; Kaiser, Reinhard; Olff, Miranda; Rijnen, Bas; Simon, Winnifred
Background: International humanitarian aid workers providing care in emergencies are subjected to numerous chronic and traumatic stressors. Objectives: To examine consequences of such experiences on aid workers' mental health and how the impact is influenced by moderating variables. Methodology: We
... Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance; Office of Food for Peace Announcement of Request for... Majernik, Grants Manager, Policy and Technical Division, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy...
... inspection, information that is not desired to be made public, such as an address or phone number, should not... or researchers) on the effectiveness or actual use of an invention to address humanitarian needs...
Anjomshoae, Ali; Hassan, Adnan; Kunz, Nathan; Wong, Kuan Yew; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.
Purpose – In recent years, the balanced scorecard (BSC) has received considerable interest among practitioners for managing their organization’s performance. Unfortunately existing BSC frameworks, particularly for humanitarian supply chains, lack causal relationships among performance indicators,
The humanitarian sector has grown enormously over the past two decades. Some fear that professionalisation comes at the expense of altruistic volunteering. This may be a valid concern if altruism is the product of organisational culture and individual experiences rather than an innate trait. This paper examines advances in evolutionary biology and neurology that provide evidence in support of both the nature and nurture arguments, echoing earlier insights from social sciences. It then questions to what extent humanitarian principles build on altruistic impulses or instead seek to constrain them, and reviews recruitment profiles of selected humanitarian organisations and applicants' letters accordingly. This initial investigation warrants further research to identify how altruism as a personal trait and an organisational principle has influenced diverse humanitarian actors and traditions. This paper outlines how training curricula and organisational reward systems can build on-rather than stifle-natural altruism to nurture critical, reflexive practitioners. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Mahmood, Maysaa; Riley, Kevin; Bennett, David; Anderson, Warner
In this article, we provide an overview of key international guidelines governing the supply of pharmaceuticals during disasters and complex emergencies. We review the World Health Organization's guidelines on pharmaceutical supply chain management and highlight their relevance for military humanitarian assistance missions. Given the important role of pharmaceuticals in addressing population health needs during humanitarian emergencies, a good understanding of how pharmaceuticals are supplied at the local level in different countries can help military health personnel identify the most appropriate supply options. Familiarity with international guidelines involved in cross-border movement of pharmaceuticals can improve the ability of military personnel to communicate more effectively with other actors involved in humanitarian and development spheres. Enhancing the knowledge base available to military personnel in terms of existing supply models and funding procedures can improve the effectiveness of humanitarian military operations and invite policy changes necessary to establish more flexible acquisition and funding regulations.
Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten
The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of
Albuquerque, Sara; Eriksson, Anneli; Alvesson, Helle M
Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden. Interviews explored factors influencing the decision to go on missions, how nurses were supported and how they looked back on those experiences. Transcripts were analysed through content analysis informed by van Gennep's concept of 'Rite of Passage', combined with elements of the self-determination theory. The findings indicate that their motivations and how nurses thought of themselves, as individuals and professionals, changed over time. For initiation and continued engagement in humanitarian work, participants were motivated by several personal and professional ambitions, as well as altruistic principles of helping others. When starting their first humanitarian missions, nurses felt vulnerable and had low self-esteem. However, through experiencing feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness during missions, they underwent a process of change and gradually adjusted to new roles as humanitarian health workers. Reintegration in their home community, while maintaining the new roles and skills from the missions, proved very challenging. They individually found their own ways of overcoming the lack of social support they experienced after missions in order to sustain their continuation in the sector. The findings highlight the importance of social environments that facilitate and support the adjustment of individuals during and after field missions. Learning from positive examples, such as nurses with several years of
Asgary, Ramin; Lawrence, Katharine
To explore the characteristics, motivations, ideologies, experience and perspectives of experienced medical humanitarian workers. We applied a qualitative descriptive approach and conducted in-depth semistructured interviews, containing open-ended questions with directing probes, with 44 experienced international medical aid workers from a wide range of humanitarian organisations. Interviews were coded and analysed, and themes were developed. International non-governmental organisations (INGOs) and United Nations (UN). 61% of participants were female; mean age was 41.8 years with an average of 11.8 years of humanitarian work experience with diverse major INGOs. Significant core themes included: population's rights to assistance, altruism and solidarity as motives; self-identification with the mission and directives of INGOs; shared personal and professional morals fostering collegiality; accountability towards beneficiaries in areas of programme planning and funding; burnout and emotional burdens; uncertainties in job safety and security; and uneasiness over changing humanitarian principles with increasing professionalisation of aid and shrinking humanitarian access. While dissatisfied with overall aid operations, participants were generally satisfied with their work and believed that they were well-received by, and had strong relationships with, intended beneficiaries. Despite regular use of language and ideology of rights, solidarity and concepts of accountability, tension exists between the philosophy and practical incorporation of accountability into operations. To maintain a humanitarian corps and improve aid worker retention, strategies are needed regarding management of psychosocial stresses, proactively addressing militarisation and neo-humanitarianism, and nurturing individuals' and organisations' growth with emphasis on humanitarian principles and ethical practices, and a culture of internal debate, reflection and reform. Published by the BMJ Publishing
The media are important actors in humanitarian crisis management and resolution, both in the countries facing the crises and in the rest of the world. Based on an inductive approach to a news sample from four Spanish newspapers, this study analyses the news frames used in the coverage of countries facing humanitarian crises. Results show that, with certain differences between countries, the Spanish press frames these countries as being theatres of war and violence, Islamic terrorism, and crim...
Howard, N; Clements-Hunt, A
This second edition represents a thorough updating and revision of the first edition. The structure remains similar, but includes an additional chapter on humanitarian coordination. All chapters have been revised to reflect changes in best practices, improvements in technologies, availability of new tools, and changes in WHO recommendations. The interagency handbook was developed to set out effective malaria control responses in humanitarian emergencies, particularly during the acute phase wh...
Buchanan, Elizabeth; Berg, Devin; Lee, Tina; Buchanan, Elizabeth; Lacksonen, Tom
Exploring, Documenting, and Improving Humanitarian Service Learning through Engineers without Borders-USA is a four-year project exploring a variety of challenges and opportunities in university-based service learning programs. Specifically, this project looks holistically at the inception and evolution of a new Engineers Without Borders USA chapter, while analyzing characteristics, values, and demographics of individuals involved in EWB community-based humanitarian projects in multiple chapt...
Roh, Saeyeon; Pettit, Stephen John; Harris, Irina; Beresford, Anthony Kenneth Charles
Using pre-positioned warehouses at strategic locations around the world is an approach commonly taken by some humanitarian relief organisations to improve their capacities to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short time frame, and to provide shelter and assistance to disaster victims. Although research into the facility location problem is extensive in both theory and application, such approaches have received little attention from the humanitarian relief perspective. In this ...
Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick
Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between
Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat
The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet
Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.
Salman, Khlood F; Resick, Lenore K
The purpose of this study was to understand the description of health among Iraqi women refugees, their health status, and health experiences during resettlement in the United States. Twelve women, ages 21-67 years old, who resettled in the United States during or after 2003 where interviewed. The women described health as a gift determined by God, the ability to function, the absence of physical symptoms, and the need to feel safe and secure in the context of resettlement. Although the Iraqi women valued health, during the resettlement process, seeking safety and feeling secure were the foremost priorities. Findings revealed that this is a vulnerable population which has experienced the violence of war and, as a result, have unique physical, mental, economic, and social concerns related to health. Implications are for a multidisciplinary approach to best meet the unique individual health needs of this vulnerable population.
Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo
A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.
Bradley, Ben S.
Suggests that Greenberg's challenge to the centrality of object permanence in developmental thinking reveals that developmentalists' theories about childhood speak about their own self-images. Notes that developmentalists have been guilty of not only the object permanence fallacy but also the genetic fallacy, or the mistaken belief that describing…
Pre-migration and post-migration factors associated with mental health in humanitarian migrants in Australia and the moderation effect of post-migration stressors: findings from the first wave data of the BNLA cohort study.
Chen, Wen; Hall, Brian J; Ling, Li; Renzaho, Andre Mn
The process of becoming a humanitarian migrant is potentially damaging to mental health. We examined the association between pre-migration and post-migration potentially traumatic events and stressors and mental health, and assessed the moderating effect of post-migration stressors in humanitarian migrants in Australia. In this study, we used the first wave of data between 2013 and 2014 from the Building a New Life in Australia survey. The survey included 2399 migrants who had arrived in Australia holding a permanent humanitarian visa 3-6 months preceding the survey, with 77% and 23% of participants being granted visas through offshore and onshore humanitarian programmes, respectively. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was measured with the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder 8 items (PTSD-8) and severe mental illness was measured with the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6). Pre-migration potentially traumatic events and post-migration stressors related to asylum process and resettlement were measured with a self-reported questionnaire. Of the 2399 participants, 762 (31%; 95% CI 29·4-33·2) had PTSD and 394 (16%; 95% CI 14·2-17·2) had severe mental illness. The mean number of pre-migration potentially traumatic events was 2·1 (SD 1·4). 64%, 59%, 49%, and 18% of participants reported poor social integration, economic problems, worrying about family or friends overseas, and loneliness as post-migration stressors. Pre-migration potentially traumatic events and post-migration stressors were positively associated with PTSD and severe mental illness. Factors significantly modifying the association between pre-migration potentially traumatic events and mental health after controlling for confounding factors were resettlement related stressors, including loneliness (odds ratio 1·17, 95% CI 1·05-1·28 for PTSD and 1·28, 1·16-1·41 for severe mental illness) and the number of social integration stressors (1·10, 1·05-1·16 for PTSD). Our data
Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi ; Hassan Fadhil Naji
In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...
Muhanned Abdul Hasan; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi; Hassan Fadhil Naji
In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...
Hadi, Iman Majeed
Electronic commerce is an increasingly vital part of national economies and the global economy. The promotion of electronic commerce requires clear and effective laws. As electronic contracts are the building blocks for electronic commerce, it is essential for national laws, especially in developing countries, to be sufficiently certain and appropriately adapted to promote electronic commerce. This thesis formulates recommendations for reforming Iraqi contract law in order to promote the a...
McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J
The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and
Mehdi Falih Al-Ghazalli
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The problem can be attributed to two factors: pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic knowledge. The aim of this study is(1to evaluate the socio-pragmatic level of interpreting apologies as understood and used by Iraqi EFL university learners, (2 find out the level of difficulty they experience in producing apologies and(3 detect the reasons behind such misinterpretations and misuses. It is hypothesized that the socio-pragmatic interpretation of apology tends to play a crucial role in comprehending what is intended by the speaker. However, cultural gaps can be the main reason behind the EFL learners' inaccurate production of the act of apology. To verify the aforementioned hypotheses, a test has been constructed and administered to a sample of 70 fourth-year Iraqi EFL university learners, morning classes. The subjects' responses have been collected and linguistically analyzed in the light of an eclectic model based on Deutschmann (2003 and Lazare (2004. It has been concluded that the misinterpretation or difficulty Iraqi EFL students have faced is mainly attributed to their lack of socio-pragmatic knowledge. The interference of the learnersʹ first language culture has led to non-native productions of speech act of apology.
Ammar Saleem Khazaal; Nizar N Ismeel; Abdel fattah K. Hussein
This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine) was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples) of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm,...
Galal, Lise Paulsen
This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.
Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Santalucia, Yvonne; Jorm, Anthony Francis
Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in Australian society, presenting high levels of exposure to traumatic events and consequently high levels of severe psychological distress. While there is a need for professional help, only a small percentage will receive appropriate care for their mental health concerns. This study aimed to determine cultural considerations required when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises. Using a Delphi method, 16 experts were presented with statements about possible culturally-appropriate first aid actions via questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the questionnaire content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥90 % of panellists as 'Essential' or 'Important'. From a total of 65 statements, 38 were endorsed (17 for cultural awareness, 12 for cross-cultural communication, 7 for stigma associated with mental health problems, and 2 for barriers to seeking professional help). Experts were able to reach consensus about how to provide culturally-appropriate first aid for mental health problems to Iraqi refugees, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology in developing cultural considerations guidelines. This specific refugee study provided potentially valuable cultural knowledge required to better equip members of the Australian public on how to respond to and assist Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises.
Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E
Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034
Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E
To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases.
Zekri, A.N.; Mohamed, W.S.; Hafez, M.M.; Hassan, Z.K.; Bahnassy, A.A.; El-Kassem, F.A.; El-Khalidi, S.J.
Background and purpose: The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast carcinogenesis is still controversial. Unraveling this relationship is potentially important for better understanding of breast cancer etiology, early detection and possibly prevention of breast cancer. The aim of the current study is to unravel the association between EBV and primary invasive breast cancer (PIBC) in two different Arab populations (Egyptian and Iraqi women). Patients and Methods: The study was done on paraffin-embedded tissues of 40 Egyptian and 50 Iraqi patients with PIBC in addition to 20 normal breast tissues as controls for each group. Both controls and neoplastic tissues were assessed for the expression of EBV genes and proteins (EBNA-1, LMP-1, and EBER) as well as CD21 marker by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR techniques. Results: Our gold standard for EBV reactivity in breast cancer cases was positivity of both EBNA1 by PCR and EBER by in situ hybridization. EBV was detected in 18/40 (45%) and 14/50 (28%) of Egyptian and Iraqi women; respectively where p = 0.073, compared to 0/20 (0%) of their control groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the association between EBV positivity and tumor grade, there was not any statistical significant difference between EBV presence and tumor grade in both populations
Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo
Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.
Verma, Amol A
This paper draws on official records of international and British organizations, newspaper reports, and volunteer memoirs to study the failure to protect humanitarian workers in the Second World War. The Second World War saw a significant expansion in the use of air warfare and flying missiles and these technological advances posed a grave threat to civilians and humanitarian workers. In this context, the International Committee of the Red Cross advocated unsuccessfully to restrict air warfare and create safe hospital zones. The British Government grappled with the tension between military and humanitarian objectives in setting its bombardment policy. Ultimately, humanitarian principles were neglected in pursuit of strategic aims, which endangered civilians and left humanitarian workers particularly vulnerable. British Voluntary Aid Detachment nurses experienced more than six-fold greater fatality rates than civil defence workers and the general population. The lessons from failures to protect humanitarian workers in the face of evolutions in warfare remain profoundly relevant.
Arkhipova Ekaterina Vladimirovna
Full Text Available EU Humanitarian Programs in the Southern Caucasus States are considered in the article. The increasing number and importance of the programs developing person-toperson contacts for the conflicting areas are noted. The influence of TRACECA and INOGATE programs was very significant in developing the local economies. Humanitarian aspects became important since 1992 when the first peace-building conferences of the Minsk group on Nagorno-Karabakh conflict took place. The political cooperation was institutionalized in 2004 with the implementing the European Neighborhood program. According to the “Eastern Partnership” a number of grants was offered to develop so called “new democracies”. A lot of educational programs provided the space for the personal cooperation in the area now are implementing. Mobility Partnerships program provides the regional cooperation in the migration policy. Consequently all the EU programs make the European volumes popular for the Caucasian inhabitants. That’s why the author puts the question about possible transformations in the regional identity. The states elites declare the importance for developing close contacts with EU institutes. Still there are some arguable issues. The status of sexual minorities in Azerbaijan provides the base for the mutual discontent in their relations with EU. Yet Azerbaijan has enough financial resources (based on the petrol supplies to reduce the EU influence in some objectionable fields. Georgia under M. Saakashvili ruling showed a strong trend towards EU and “Western” values on the whole. But this trend was mainly based on the strategies of the state financial surviving. There are some evidences proving that the main target of this police was to make a distance from the Russian policy. Armenia may be introduces as the state with strong interests in European cooperation for developing its economy. But there are also some important projects connecting Armenia with Russia, still
Bjørk, R.; Bahl, C. R. H.; Insinga, A. R.
Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a Λcool figure of merit of 0.472 is reached, which is an increase of 100% compared to a previous optimized design.
Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian; Insinga, Andrea Roberto
Topology optimization of permanent magnet systems consisting of permanent magnets, high permeability iron and air is presented. An implementation of topology optimization for magnetostatics is discussed and three examples are considered. The Halbach cylinder is topology optimized with iron...... and an increase of 15% in magnetic efficiency is shown. A topology optimized structure to concentrate a homogeneous field is shown to increase the magnitude of the field by 111%. Finally, a permanent magnet with alternating high and low field regions is topology optimized and a ΛcoolΛcool figure of merit of 0...
Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence
A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.
Crotty, Yvonne; Kilboy, Laura
This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO) charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with…
Gill, T.D.; Tsagourias, N.; Buchan, R.
This chapter examines the application of international humanitarian law to cyber warfare in the sense of rising to the level of an armed conflict. Building upon the work of the Tallinn Manual on the Application of International Law to Cyber Warfare, it places particular emphasis on the application
Williams, Holly; Downes, Elizabeth
The effects of climate change are far-reaching and multifactorial, with potential impacts on food security and conflict. Large population movements, whether from the aftermath of natural disasters or resulting from conflict, can precipitate the need for humanitarian response in what can become complex humanitarian emergencies (CHEs). Nurses need to be prepared to respond to affected communities in need, whether the emergency is domestic or global. The purpose of the article is to describe a novel course for nursing students interested in practice within the confines of CHEs and natural disasters. The authors used the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards as a practical framework to inform the course development. They completed a review of the literature on the interaction on climate change, conflict and health, and competencies related to working CHEs. Resettled refugees, as well as experts in the area of humanitarian response, recovery, and mitigation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and nongovernmental organizations further informed the development of the course. This course prepares the nursing workforce to respond appropriately to large population movements that may arise from the aftermath of natural disasters or conflict, both of which can comprise a complex humanitarian disaster. Using The Sphere Project e-learning course, students learn about the Sphere Project, which works to ensure accountability and quality in humanitarian response and offers core minimal standards for technical assistance. These guidelines are seen globally as the gold standard for humanitarian response and address many of the competencies for disaster nursing (http://www.sphereproject.org/learning/e-learning-course/). © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge
This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.
A A Onosov
Full Text Available Within the framework of the existing scientific approaches, the authors consider the process of ethnization of the Russians’ mass consciousness under the expanding internal and external labor migration in Russia. The article presents the results of the situational analysis and humanitarian expertise of the set of key challenges determined by the migration. Based on the statistics, opinion polls data and expert assessments the article describes the empirical model of the identity of ethnic Russian population of Moscow and the Moscow region as the major centers of attraction for international migrants. The comprehensive analysis of the issues and controversies of the labor migration in the region and relationships of ethnic groups living in the region is preceded by the description of the identity of native inhabitants of the region as perceived by the ethnic Russian population. To measure the identity for the axiological ranking the authors use a number of relatively independent variables besides ethnic (national identity: religious involvement, civilizational orientation, cultural, professional, territorial and other important features. Thus, the authors present a multi-dimensional space of identity, in which each dimension has its specific meaning for personal self-identification and its own scale for assessing particular attributes.
Buck, Holly Jean
Climate engineering, or geoengineering, refers to large-scale climate interventions to lower the earth's temperature, either by blocking incoming sunlight or removing carbon dioxide from the biosphere. Regarded as ‘technofixes’ by critics, these strategies have evoked concern that they would extend the shelf life of fossil-fuel driven socio-ecological systems for far longer than they otherwise would, or should, endure. A critical reading views geoengineering as a class project that is designed to keep the climate system stable enough for existing production systems to continue operating. This article first examines these concerns, and then goes on to envision a regime driven by humanitarian agendas and concern for vulnerable populations, implemented through international development and aid institutions. The motivations of those who fund research and implement geoengineering techniques are important, as the rationale for developing geoengineering strategies will determine which techniques are pursued, and hence which ecologies are produced. The logic that shapes the geoengineering research process could potentially influence social ecologies centuries from now.
Full Text Available A comprehensive online learning programme with more than 200 courses was built by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies between starting with 2009 and 2015, offering development opportunities to the Red Cross and Red Crescent (RCRC volunteers and staff to broaden their understanding, to strengthen their organisations, and to be better prepared in providing humanitarian aid. While it is difficult to say to what extent factors such as training, job mentoring, and induction programmes contribute to job performance and to an organisation’s efficiency, it is certain that staff and volunteers willing to undertake courses are more open to transformative and creative approaches, more prepared to tackle with new challenges, more likely to have a stock of knowledge and competencies broader than their own specialisation. Learning and “knowing to learn” are conditions for competitiveness and high performance. Over time, generally speaking, implementation of training as a priority personnel policy proved to have the most significant effects on productivity growth, therefore, efforts towards building a learning culture and delivering quality (online learning are key for developing organisations, their staff, and the quality of services provided. An online training would make a significant difference in learners’ behaviour if it follows several practical guidelines in development, accompanied by thorough checklists to ensure relevance, consistency, alignment and to assist training programmes’ lifecycle.
del Valle, Hernan; Healy, Sean
The relationship between humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states is of growing concern to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), given the recurring difficulties experienced in negotiating access and implementing operations in such contexts. The effort to negotiate and gain approval from states to operate on their territory prompts reflection on the sources of legitimacy for action. Drawing on direct field examples in two countries only very rarely examined--Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan--this paper explores MSF's attempts to offer live-saving medical care there. It shows that successful access negotiations hinged heavily on demonstrating added value (medical relevance) while simultaneously building relationships with authorities, identifying possible allies within health ministries, and hoping that such measures could promote a level of acceptance or trust needed to operate. It is clear that the operational space achieved is bound to remain limited and fragile, and that many compromises have to be considered and judged against ethical principles and the overall impact of the intervention. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Angela R. Bielefeldt
Full Text Available This study explored the aspirations of undergraduate engineering students in regard to helping others, examining potential differences between disciplines and institutions. Over 1900 undergraduate students from 17 U.S. universities responded to a survey in spring 2014. In open-ended responses, 15.5% of the students included some form of helping people and/or the world as one of the factors that motivated them to select their engineering major; for 6.7% of the students this was the primary or only motivating factor listed. Helping as a motivation was not equally prevalent among different engineering disciplines, being much more common among students majoring in biomedical, environmental, materials, and civil and less common in computer and aerospace. Different disciplines also varied in the priority for helping people relative to other future job factors - highest in chemical/biological, moderate in civil and related majors, and lowest among electrical/computer and mechanical. Institutional differences were found in the extent to which students indicated an importance that their career would help people and the extent to which an ability to help others was a central message in their major. The results indicate the percentages of engineering students who are most likely to embrace humanitarian engineering; fostering these aspirations in students could help with attraction and retention.
Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.
The document reproduces the message from Mr. R.A. Al-Kital, Commissioner of the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission received by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 October 1985 related to the Israeli attack against the Iraqi nuclear installations
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanent residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been granted the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
Bealt, Jennifer; Mansouri, S Afshin
A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations. This study proposes that CANs, as a result of their unique characteristics, present alternatives to established humanitarian approaches to logistics, while also mitigating the challenges commonly faced by traditional humanitarian organisations. Furthermore, CANs offer a more holistic, long-term approach to disaster management, owing to their impact on development through their involvement in humanitarian logistics. This research provides the foundation for further theoretical analysis of effective and efficient disaster management, and details opportunities for policy and practice. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
For too long international humanitarian aid has neglected the primary responsibility of the state to assist and protect its citizens in times of disaster. A focus on the role of the state in contexts where governments are active parties to a conflict and are failing to live up to these responsibilities is difficult and underpins many of the recurring dilemmas of humanitarian action. The fundamental principles of humanitarian action should offer a framework for principled engagement with governments in situations of conflict but too often they are still interpreted as shorthand for ignoring governments. Using principles to inform engagement with both states and other international actors engaged in crises could provide a way forward. However, this would need to be a humanitarian agenda that engages with developing country governments, with non-OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) donors, and with the stabilisation and security agendas of Western governments, and not one that attempts to ring-fence an ever-shrinking isolationist humanitarian space. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Brown, Molly E.
Humanitarian assistance to developing countries has long focused on countries that have political, economic and strategic interest to the United States. Recent changes in global security concerns have heightened the perception that humanitarian action is becoming increasingly politicized. This is seen to be largely driven by the 'global war on terror' along with a push by donors and the United Nations for closer integration between humanitarian action and diplomatic, military and other spheres of engagement in conflict and crisis-affected states (HPG 2010). As we enter an era of rising commodity prices and increasing uncertainty in global food production due to a changing climate, scientific data and analysis will be increasingly important to improve the targeting of humanitarian assistance. Earth science data enables appropriate humanitarian response to complex food emergencies that arise in regions outside the areas of current strategic and security focus. As the climate changes, new places will become vulnerable to food insecurity and will need emergency assistance. Earth science data and multidisciplinary models will enable an information-based comparison of need that goes beyond strategic and political considerations to identify new hotspots of food insecurity as they emerge. These analyses will improve aid targeting and timeliness while reducing strategic risk by highlighting new regions at risk of crisis in a rapidly changing world. Improved targeting with respect to timing and location could reduce cost while increasing the likelihood that those who need aid get it.
Baughan, Emily; Fiori, Juliano
This paper reflects on the foundational years of Save the Children, one of the oldest and largest Western humanitarian agencies and a mainstay of the humanitarian project. In doing so, it considers how and why, at an early stage, the organisation depoliticised its activities, centring its narrative on the innocent, pre-political child-the image of unsullied humanity. In addition, it seeks to recover the internationalist vision of Save the Children's 'forgotten founder', Dorothy Buxton. Save the Children's turn to non-politics is indicative of the broader depoliticisation of Western humanitarian action. Given the intensely contested spaces in which Western humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) operate, these entities cannot escape politics. This paper argues that Buxton's efforts to build an international solidarity network through humanitarian action after the end of the First World War in 1918 provide an instructive basis on which these NGOs can pursue a politics of solidarity in the present day. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter
This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.
Jachens, Liza; Houdmont, Jonathan; Thomas, Roslyn
There is a paucity of research on the subjective stress-related experiences of humanitarian aid workers. Most evaluations of stress among these individuals focus on trauma and related conditions or adopt a quantitative approach. This interview-based study explored how 58 humanitarian aid workers employed by a United Nations-aligned organisation perceived the transactional stress process. The thematic analysis revealed eight main topics of interest: an emergency culture was found where most employees felt compelled to offer an immediate response to humanitarian needs; employees identified strongly with humanitarian goals and reported a high level of engagement; the rewards of humanitarian work were perceived as motivating and meaningful; constant change and urgent demands resulted in work overload; and managing work-life boundaries and receiving positive support from colleagues and managers helped to buffer perceived stress, work overload, and negative health outcomes. The practical implications of the results are discussed and suggestions made in the light of current research and stress theory. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
A new era of wars and instability have left the world shaken with the civil wars in Syria and Libya. Although there are many similarities with Syria and Libya, the two states did not have the same end due to actions by the United Nations Security Council. Libya resulted in a military humanitarian intervention, while Syria did not. Studies about the Security Council usually focuses on the actions of the Permanent Five members who holds institutional power and influence over the council, mostly...
Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by
Schopper, Doris; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross; Ahmad, Aasim; Jesani, Amar; Ravinetto, Raffaella; Segelid, Michael J; Sheel, Sunita; Singh, Jerome
Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is one of the world's leading humanitarian medical organizations. The increased emphasis in MSF on research led to the creation of an ethics review board (ERB) in 2001. The ERB has encouraged innovation in the review of proposals and the interaction between the ERB and the organization. This has led to some of the advances in ethics governance described in this paper. We first update our previous work from 2009 describing ERB performance and then highlight five innovative practices: • A new framework to guide ethics review • The introduction of a policy exempting a posteriori analysis of routinely collected data • The preapproval of "emergency" protocols • General ethical approval of "routine surveys" • Evaluating the impact of approved studies. The new framework encourages a conversation about ethical issues, rather than imposing quasi-legalistic rules, is more engaged with the specific MSF research context and gives greater prominence to certain values and principles. Some of the innovations implemented by the ERB, such as review exemption or approval of generic protocols, may run counter to many standard operating procedures. We argue that much standard practice in research ethics review ought to be open to challenge and revision. Continued interaction between MSF researchers and independent ERB members has allowed for progressive innovations based on a trustful and respectful partnership between the ERB and the researchers. In the future, three areas merit particular attention. First, the impact of the new framework should be assessed. Second, the impact of research needs to be defined more precisely as a first step towards being meaningfully assessed, including changes of impact over time. Finally, the dialogue between the MSF ERB and the ethics committees in the study countries should be enhanced. We hope that the innovations in research ethics governance described may be relevant for other organisations carrying out
Dearani, Joseph A; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Bolman, R Morton; Swain, JaBaris D; Vricella, Luca A; Weinstein, Samuel; Farkas, Emily A; Calhoon, John H
Noncommunicable diseases account for 38 million deaths each year, and approximately 75% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The most common causes include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Many adults with acquired cardiothoracic disease around the world have limited access to health care. In addition, congenital heart disease is present in approximately 1% of live births and is therefore the most common congenital abnormality. More than one million children in the world are born with congenital heart disease each year, and approximately 90% of these children receive suboptimal care or have no access to care. Furthermore, many children affected by noncongenital cardiac conditions also require prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Medical and surgical volunteerism can help facilitate improvement in cardiothoracic health care in developing countries. As we move into the future, it is essential for physicians and surgeons to be actively involved in political, economic, and social aspects of society to serve health care interests of the underprivileged around the world. Consequently, in developing countries, a critical need exists to establish an increased number of reputable cardiothoracic programs and to enhance many of the programs that already exist. The optimal strategy is usually based on a long-term educational and technical model of support so that as case volumes increase, quality improves and mortality and morbidity decrease. Humanitarian outreach activities should focus on education and sustainability, and surgical tourism should be limited to those countries that will never have the capability to have free-standing cardiothoracic programs. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
action to support humanitarian relief and democratic movements " (Towell, 1992, p. 3761). The U.S. 2 led coalition, from December 1992 through May...similar to planning and executing the movement phase of wartime contingencies. Therefore, these activities in humanitarian relief missions also serve...DISASTZR _ CATUGORIZS ORIGINS ZXARPLUS NATURAL METEOROLOGICAL STORMS, DROUGHTS TOPOLOGICAL FLOODS, LANDSLIDES TELLURIC /TECTONIC EARTHQUAKES BIOLOGICAL
... of Overflight Fees for Humanitarian Flights Related to the January 12, 2010, Earthquake in Haiti... the assessment of Overflight Fees for humanitarian flights in response to the earthquake in Haiti... populated part of the country, its capital, Port-au-Prince. Within hours, there was a significant increase...
De Vos, Jan
Humanitarian aid's psycho-therapeutic turn in the 1990s was mirrored by the increasing emotionalization and subjectivation of fund-raising campaigns. In order to grasp the depth of this interconnectedness, this article argues that in both cases what we see is the post-Fordist production paradigm at work; namely, as Hardt and Negri put it, the direct production of subjectivity and social relations. To explore this, the therapeutic and mental health approach in humanitarian aid is juxtaposed with the more general phenomenon of psychologization. This allows us to see that the psychologized production of subjectivity has a problematic waste-product as it reduces the human to 'Homo sacer', to use Giorgi Agamben's term. Drawing out a double matrix of a de-psychologizing psychologization connected to a politicizing de-politicization, it will further become possible to understand psycho-therapeutic humanitarianism as a case of how, in these times of globalization, psychology, subjectivity and money are all interrelated.
While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.
Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.
Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen
The challenges of achieving successful inter-agency logistic coordination in preparing for and responding to natural disasters and complex emergencies are both well understood and well documented. However, although many of these challenges remain unresolved, the literature reveals that the organisations that form the urban search and rescue (USAR) community have attained a high level of coherence and interoperability that results in a highly efficient and effective response. Therefore, this paper uses the idea of 'borrowing' from other fields as it explores how the processes and procedures used by the USAR community might be applied to improve humanitarian logistic operations. The paper analyses the USAR model and explores how the resultant challenges might be addressed in a humanitarian logistic context. The paper recommends that further research be undertaken in order to develop a modified USAR model that could be operationalised by the international community of humanitarian logisticians. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.
Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which refugees and humanitarianism appear in European film productions. It argues that European films often present images of innocent and victimized refugees in order to raise compassion of their liberal spectators. In the meanwhile their directors are praised for their humanitarian activism as they are considered to save refugees and their suffering from anonymity and placing their stories and humanity on the screen. Examining a number of European productions of the 2000s (Children of Men, Dheepan, In This World, Terraferma, and Welcome this study suggests that politics of humanitarianism and of filmmaking on refugees share a similar problematic approach: in order to prove refugee eligibility for asylum and to raise compassion, they seek to establish the precarity and innocence of refugees, especially through showing their bodily pain.
Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Tahir, Rebaz; Shwani, Falah H; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S
The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%), the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%), and the quality of offered services (65.3%). Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively). The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%), enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%), adopting health insurance system (76.1%) and periodic scientific
Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.
Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir
Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.
Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman
During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented turnover of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on turnover intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors affecting turnover intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with turnover intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-turnover intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.
This article explores the history of modern British humanitarianism. Specifically, it charts the rise of an extensive humanitarian aid 'industry' in Britain, between 1963 and 1985. It does so through a focus on the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC), an umbrella body for joint emergency fundraising established in 1963. The DEC is an enduring and important presence in the British humanitarian landscape, as it brings together leading aid agencies to make fundraising campaigns on television after major disasters. This article represents the first systematic historical analysis of the DEC, which it uses to illuminate larger questions about the politics of non-state humanitarianism, state-voluntary sector relations, the political impact of television, and the end of empire. It is shown that while DEC appeals fuelled the growth of its members, this was also a problematic process. Many principal aid agencies wished to shift their focus away from short-term disaster relief work to tackling the long-term structural causes of global poverty instead. It is argued that, despite an increasing political focus, humanitarian organizations were constrained from doing so by the power of television; a perceived lack of public support; the interventions of the British government; and competition between aid agencies in a crowded marketplace. Consequently, continued involvement in short-term, apolitical emergency assistance remained a requirement even for agencies sceptical about its value and impact. This analysis complicates linear narratives of a transition from emergency relief to development aid in post-war British humanitarianism, instead presenting the period as characterized by competing and even contradictory trajectories.
Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper
Transient use of information visualization may support specific tasks without permanently changing the user interface. Transient visualizations provide immediate and transient use of information visualization close to and in the context of the user’s focus of attention. Little is known, however......, about the benefits and limitations of transient visualizations. We describe an experiment that compares the usability of a fisheye view that participants could call up temporarily, a permanent fisheye view, and a linear view: all interfaces gave access to source code in the editor of a widespread...... programming environment. Fourteen participants performed varied tasks involving navigation and understanding of source code. Participants used the three interfaces for between four and six hours in all. Time and accuracy measures were inconclusive, but subjective data showed a preference for the permanent...
Full Text Available Stories of humanitarian actions represent a specific media, and oral storytelling discourse and an instrument for the shaping of social, political and economic mirror both in the private and the public sphere. Heartbreaking stories and sensational news items about poor, ill and endangered people, translated into appeals and philanthropic actions, from their dramatic everyday lives come out into the markets of interests, competition/campaigns, performative- spectacular events and propagandas. The examples and analysis indicate the ways in which the deconstruction of narratives about humanitarian actions within the framework of multiplying communications can be approached.
Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova
This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the value of embracing digital technology in order to effect positive change in a non-governmental (NGO charity organisation, in this case the Irish Charity Crosscause. The outcome of the research was the creation of a charity video, Crosscause: Making a Difference, to showcase humanitarian work in Ireland and Romania with a view to inspiring others to contribute in some capacity to this cause. Video is an important medium to provide connections with a wider audience, as it gives humanitarian workers and marginalised communities an opportunity to tell their story by making a compelling and evocative case to others. Visual media not only makes connections with an audience, but can also positively challenge people to consider what is happening in the world around them.
Al-Sarraj, Ziyad Shihab; Damboos, Hassan I; Roumie, Mohamad
The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?
Shahbaa A Mohammed
Full Text Available Background: Many attempts were done to develop a method that actually reflects the sagittal jaw discrepancies without depending on cranial landmarks or dental occlusion. This study aimed to use one of these methods (dentoskeletal overjet for assessing the sagittal jaw relationships of Iraqi adult sample with different skeletal jaw relationship. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 90 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi individuals with no previous orthodontic treatment. Cephalometric analysis of skeletal sagittal jaw relationship -ANB angle, beta angle and Wits appraisal- will perform for everyone to divide the sample into three groups (skeletal class I, II, III for which the dentoskeletal overjet will be measured. All cephalometric measurements will be done using AutoCAD. Results: Descriptive statistics of all variables with different skeletal jaw relationship showed that mean values of dentoskeletal overjet were (1.15, 3.91 and –2.01 mm for skeletal class I, class II and class III jaw relationship respectively. Accurate reproducibility of dentoskeletal overjet in assessment of jaw skeletal relationship showed that the lowest value was for assessment of skeletal class III jaw relationship (73% and the value for assessment of both skeletal class I and class II was higher (93%. Conclusions: Dentoskeletal overjet could be utilized in accurate representation of skeletal jaw relationship.
Lina Fathi Sidig Sidgi
Full Text Available The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not found in their native language (Arabic. This study is concerned with ASR and its effectiveness in overcoming this difficulty. The data were obtained from twenty participants randomly selected from first-year college students at Al-Turath University College from the Department of English in Baghdad-Iraq. The students had participated in a two month pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software. At the end of the pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software, the students completed a questionnaire to get their opinions about the usefulness of the ASR Eyespeak in improving their pronunciation. The findings of the study revealed that the students found ASR Eyespeak software very useful in improving their pronunciation and helping them realise their pronunciation mistakes. They also reported that learning pronunciation with ASR Eyespeak enjoyable.
Omar Thanoon Dawood
Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.
Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.
Sankar, S.G.; Herbst, J.F.; Koon, N.C.
This book contains 25 selections. Some of the titles are: Initial magnetization behavior of rapidly quenched neodymium-iron-boron magnets; Optimization of liquid dynamic compaction for Fe-Nd-B magnet alloys; Misch-metal and/or aluminum substitutions in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets; and NdFeB magnets with improved temperature characteristics
Rights Actions against Corruption C Children Civil Registry Civil Society Contact Us Culture Cyber Barbados Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba 1 Dominica (Commonwealth of) Dominican Gutierez Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Belize Diego Pary RodrÃguez Bolivia Diego Pary RodrÃguez
Ghena, Hana Khlaif
This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…
The author examines the US policy in the petroleum domain, the US intentions concerning the Iraqi petroleum, the Opec coherence facing the come back of the Iraq and the increase power of Russian and the demand increase (77 mb/d today for 115 mb/d in 2030). (A.L.B.)
Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet
This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…
Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin
Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.
Alaa kamil Abdulla
Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue
Sardar Shaker Ibrahim
Full Text Available This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover, annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were identified as independent for liquidity were, loan deposit ratio, deposit asset ratio and cash deposit ratio, while return on assets as dependent variable for profitability. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS model used to examine the impact of liquidity on profitability. The study observes that any increase in liquidity ratios as above mentioned will lead return on asset to increase as well. Depending on this study it could be better for Iraqi banks to keep a balance between liquidity and profitability.
Rodriguez-Espanola, O.; Albores, P.; Brewster, C.A.W.
Floods are one of the most dangerous and common disasters worldwide, and these disasters are closely linked to the geography of the affected area. As a result, several papers in the academic field of humanitarian logistics have incorporated the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for
Shukor, Ali R.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Kringos, Dionne S.
Background: This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and
Baharmand, Hossein; Comes, M.; Lauras, Matthieu
Purpose This paper proposes a research design for effective use of qualitative data from field research in a quantitative analysis of humanitarian logistics. Design/methodology/approach Our research design is composed of qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative part has four steps:
Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman
In times of a crisis, disasters or extreme events, affected people use social media solutions to share information about the situation. Hence, the use of this information for supporting humanitarian operations is becoming a valuable source to develop a real time understanding about the situation ...
Comes, M.; Bergtora Sandvik, Kristin; van de Walle, B.A.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze how far technology and information enable, facilitate or support the planning and implementation decisions in humanitarian vaccine cold chains for vaccination campaigns. The authors specifically focus on three emerging technologies that have the
‘Resilience’ occupies a prominent place in contemporary discussions around the governance of humanitarian emergencies, protracted crises and insecurity more broadly. The aim of this study was to further our understanding of resilience as a governance rationality and a policy discourse, in particular
van Kempen, E.; Spiliotopoulou, E.; Stojanovski, G.; de Leeuw, S.L.J.M.
Purpose: While interest in supply chain sustainability has risen over the past few years in academic and business worlds, very little research has been conducted on sustainability in humanitarian supply chains, specifically. This study aims to contribute to the development of the field by conducting
Benjamin L. Savonen
Full Text Available Rapid manufacturing using 3-D printing is a potential solution to some of the most pressing issues for humanitarian logistics. In this paper, findings are reported from a study that involved development of a new type of 3-D printer. In particular, a novel 3-D printer that is designed specifically for reliable rapid manufacturing at the sites of humanitarian crises. First, required capabilities are developed with design elements of a humanitarian 3-D printer, which include, (1 fused filament fabrication, (2 open source self-replicating rapid prototyper design, (3 modular, (4 separate frame, (5 protected electronics, (6 on-board computing, (7 flexible power supply, and (8 climate control mechanisms. The technology is then disclosed with an open source license for the Kijenzi 3-D Printer. A swarm of five Kijenzi 3-D printers are evaluated for rapid part manufacturing for two months at health facilities and other community locations in both rural and urban areas throughout Kisumu County, Kenya. They were successful for their ability to function independently of infrastructure, transportability, ease of use, ability to withstand harsh environments and costs. The results are presented and conclusions are drawn about future work necessary for the Kijenzi 3-D Printer to meet the needs of rapid manufacturing in a humanitarian context.
Ager, Alastair; Blake, Courtney; Stark, Lindsay; Daniel, Tsufit
Objectives: The paper reviews the experiences of conducting child protection assessments across four humanitarian emergencies where violence and insecurity, directly or indirectly, posed a major threat to children. We seek to identify common themes emerging from these experiences and propose ways to guide the planning and implementation of…
The development of the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) has often revealed the tight interrelation between refugee law, humanitarian law and international criminal law. It has been argued that the latter bodies of law have, in fact, played a major role in the development of most key concept of
Müller, Tanja R
In many ways the Ethiopian famine of 1983-85 has served as a watershed with respect to humanitarian action. One of its lasting legacies has been the emergence of Band Aid and the subsequent increase in celebrity humanitarianism. A revisiting of the events of 1983-85 occurred in 2010 during a dispute in which it was alleged that a portion of the donations of Band Aid were spent on arms purchases. This paper takes this controversy as its starting point. It goes on to use the theoretical reflections of Giorgio Agamben to consider the dynamics that unfolded during the Ethiopian famine of 1983-85 and to analyse the underlying conceptualisation behind the emergence of Band Aid-type celebrity humanitarianism. The paper concludes with some wider thoughts on how the in essence antipolitical agenda of celebrity humanitarian action is transported into the everyday understanding of 'African disaster', resulting ultimately in the perpetuation of hegemonic control by the global North. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Six physicians from Maryland, California, and Utah participated in a 10-day humanitarian mission to Croatia. They spent long hours in antiquated operating rooms performing maxillofacial and extremity reconstructive procedures; most patients were young or war-injured males. Though not a third world country, Croatia urgently needs finances to acquire drugs, supplies, textbooks, and equipment.
Bjerneld, Magdalena; Lindmark, Gunilla; McSpadden, Lucia Ann; Garrett, Martha J
International nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) involved in humanitarian assistance employ millions of volunteers. One of the major challenges for the organizations is the high turnover rate among their personnel. Another is recruiting the right persons. As part of a series of studies investigating factors that affect the recruitment process and the success of assignment, this qualitative study examined health professionals' motivations for volunteering, their various concerns, and their expectations about themselves and the organizations for which they would work. The findings from focus group interviews with potential humanitarian volunteers were considered within the framework of Hertzberg's theory of motivations and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study has significant implications for personnel policy and practice in the humanitarian sector. Recruitment officers should have the self-actualized person, as described by Maslow, in mind when interviewing candidates. This perspective would make it easier for them to understand the candidates' thoughts and concerns and would lead to more effective interventions. Program officers should have satisfiers and dissatisfiers, as identified by Herzberg, in mind when planning programs. The probability that personnel will leave humanitarian work is lower if they perceive working conditions as good.
Brooks, Julia; Erickson, Timothy B; Kayden, Stephanie; Ruiz, Raul; Wilkinson, Stephen; Burkle, Frederick M
The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms. Based on health, humanitarian, and legal findings, this article calls for concrete action to: 1) reduce the risk of chemical weapons being used in current and future conflicts; 2) review and support the preparedness equipment and antidote supplies of first responders, humanitarian organizations, and military forces operating in Syria; 3) support international mechanisms for monitoring and enforcing the prohibition on chemical weapons, including through criminal accountability; 4) support civilian victims of chemical weapons attacks, including refugees; and 5) re-commit to the complete elimination of chemical weapons in compliance with the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993), a comprehensive treaty that bans chemical weapons and requires their complete destruction. All involved states and organizations should take urgent steps to ensure the protection of the most vulnerable victims of conflict, including victims of chemical weapons attacks in Syria, and to reinforce international law in the face of such serious violations.
This article focuses on the use of Personal Protective Equipment in humanitarianism. It takes the recent Ebola outbreak as a case through which to explore the role of objects in saving individual lives and protecting populations. The argument underlines the importance of PPE in mediating between
Conclusion: The needs of children with disabilities and their carers in Turkana are not being met by either community social support systems or humanitarian aid programmes. There is an urgent need to mainstream disability into Turkana services and programmes.
Since 2010, a debate on the 'humanitarian dimension' of disarmament has been initiated by several governments and non-governmental organisations. It is not unreasonable to measure the potential impact of a major nuclear event on populations and on the biosphere. Yet the grounds for this debate are questionable, and its political conclusions even more so. (author)
Tatham, Peter; Spens, Karen; Kovács, Gyöngyi
Although significant progress has been made in developing the practice of humanitarian logistics, further improvements in efficiency and effectiveness have the potential to save lives and reduce suffering. This paper explores how the military/emergency services' concept of a common operating picture (COP) can be adapted to the humanitarian logistics context, and analyses a practical and proven approach to addressing the key challenge of inter-agency coordination and decision-making. Successful adaptation could provide the mechanism through which predicted and actual demands, together with the location and status of material in transit, are captured, evaluated, and presented in real time as the basis for enhanced decision-making between actors in the humanitarian supply network. Through the introduction of a humanitarian logistics COP and its linkages to national disaster management systems, local communities and countries affected by disasters and emergencies will be better placed to oversee and manage their response activities. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.
Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben
Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning/commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information--and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information--or none--is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.
Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter
Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Meesters, Kenny; van de Walle, B.A.; Comes, T.; Fiedrich, F.; Fortier, S.; Geldermann, J.; Müller, T.
Emerging technologies provide opportunities for the humanitarian responders’ community to enhance the effectiveness of their response to crisis situations. A part of this development can be contributed to a new type of information supply chains -driven by collaboration with digital, online
Martin-Simpson, S; Parkinson, J; Katsou, E
The use of cash transfers and market based programming (CT/MBP) to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of emergency responses is gaining prominence in the humanitarian sector. However, there is a lack of existing indicators and methodologies to monitor activities designed to strengthen water and sanitation (WaSH) markets. Gender and vulnerability markers to measure the impact of such activities on different stakeholders is also missing. This study identifies parameters to monitor, evaluate and determine the added value of utilising CT/MBP to achieve WaSH objectives in humanitarian response. The results of the work revealed that CT/MBP can be used to support household, community and market level interventions to effectively reduce transmission of faeco-oral diseases. Efficiency, effectiveness, sustainability, appropriateness and equity were identified as useful parameters which correlated to widely accepted frameworks against which to evaluate humanitarian action. The parameters were found to be directly applicable to the case of increasing demand and supply of point of use water treatment technology for a) disaster resilience activities, and b) post-crisis response. The need for peer review of the parameters and indicators and pilot measurement in humanitarian contexts was recognised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Özpolat, Koray; Chen, Yuwen; Hales, Doug; Yu, Degan; Yalcin, Mehmet G.
Business students appreciate working on classroom projects that are both enjoyable and useful in preparing them for future careers. Promoting competition among project teams is also used as a method to motivate students. The Humanitarian Logistics Project (HLP) teaches undergraduate students the logistical implications of unsolicited material…
Gottlieb, Nora; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav
In the context of neo-liberal retrenchments humanitarian NGOs have become alternative healthcare providers that partially fill the vacuum left by the welfare state's withdrawal from the provision of services to migrants and other marginalized populations. In many cases they thus help to build legitimacy for the state's retreat from social responsibilities. Human rights organizations play an important role in advocating for migrants' rights, but in many cases they represent a legalistic and individualized conceptualization of the right to health that limits their claims for social justice. This paper analyzes the interactions and tensions between the discourses of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy using the example of an "Open Clinic" run by an Israeli human rights organization as a case-study: In 2007 dramatically increasing patient numbers provoked an intense internal debate concerning the proposal to temporarily close the "Open Clinic" in order to press the government to take action. Based on protocols from internal meetings and parliamentary hearings and in-depth interviews, we have analyzed divergent contextualizations of the Clinic's closure. These reflect conflicting notions regarding the Clinic's variegated spectrum of roles--humanitarian, political, legitimizing, symbolic, empowering and organizational--and underlying conceptualizations of migrants' "deservingness". Our case-study thus helps to illuminate NGOs' role in the realm of migrant healthcare and points out options for a possible fruitful relationship between the divergent paradigms of medical humanitarianism, human rights and political advocacy. Copyright Â© 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Imran, Muhammad
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 130 million people are in constant need of humanitarian assistance due to natural disasters, disease outbreaks, and conflicts, among other factors. These health crises can compromise the resilience of healthcare systems, which are essential for achieving the health objectives of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). During a humanitarian health crisis, rapid and informed decision making is required. This is often challenging due to information scarcity, limited resources, and strict time constraints. Moreover, the traditional approach to digital health development, which involves a substantial requirement analysis, a feasibility study, and deployment of technology, is ill-suited for many crisis contexts. The emergence of Web 2.0 technologies and social media platforms in the past decade, such as Twitter, has created a new paradigm of massive information and misinformation, in which new technologies need to be developed to aid rapid decision making during humanitarian health crises. Humanitarian health crises increasingly require the analysis of massive amounts of information produced by different sources, such as social media content, and, hence, they are a prime case for the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to help identify relevant information and make it actionable. To identify challenges and opportunities for using AI in humanitarian health crises, we reviewed the literature on the use of AI techniques to process social media. We performed a narrative literature review aimed at identifying examples of the use of AI in humanitarian health crises. Our search strategy was designed to get a broad overview of the different applications of AI in a humanitarian health crisis and their challenges. A total of 1459 articles were screened, and 24 articles were included in the final analysis. Successful case studies of AI applications in a humanitarian health crisis have
Smadi, Leena; Sumadi, Aiman Al
The study aimed to review oral and dental health aspects in female patients presented to Jordanian Royal Medical Services (RMS) international humanitarian missions over a 3-year period. Analysis of humanitarian missions of RMS data and records over a 3-year period (2011-2013) in regard to women's oral and dental health issues was done. The data were analyzed in regard to the number of women seen, the presenting conditions, and the prevalence of oral and dental diseases and procedures in these cases. During the 3-year period, 72 missions were deployed in four locations (Gaza, Ram Allah-West Bank, Jeneen-West Bank, and Iraq). The total number of females seen in this period was 86,436 women, accounting for 56 percent of adult patients seen by RMS humanitarian missions. Dental Clinics were deployed to only two missions (Iraq and Gaza), during which they received 13,629 visits; of these, 41 percent were females (5,588 patients), 29 percent were males, and 30 percent were in the pediatric age group. Trauma accounts for only 7 percent of the cases, while nonacute dental problems (caries and gingivitis) were responsible for the majority of cases (31.6 and 28.7 percent, respectively). RMS dental services during humanitarian mission deployment are a vital part of comprehensive healthcare. Women usually seek more dental care than men, with the majority of treatments for nonacute conditions. RMS experiences demonstrate the tremendous need for a well-defined preparedness plan for deployment of humanitarian missions that considers the contributions of all types of health professionals, the appropriate mobile technology to respond to emergent health risks, and a competent workforce ready and able to respond. Such preparation will require our dental education programs to develop disaster preparedness competencies to achieve the desired level of understanding.
Spiegel Paul B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards
McPeek, K. Thomas; Steddom, Karl; Zamudio, Joseph; Pant, Paras; Mullenbach, Tyler
AGERpoint is defining a new technology space for the growers' industry by introducing novel applications for sensor technology and data analysis to growers of permanent crops. Serving data to a state-of-the-art analytics engine from a cutting edge sensor platform, a new paradigm in precision agriculture is being developed that allows growers to understand the unique needs of each tree, bush or vine in their operation. Autonomous aerial and terrestrial vehicles equipped with multiple varieties of remote sensing technologies give AGERpoint the ability to measure key morphological and spectral features of permanent crops. This work demonstrates how such phenotypic measurements combined with machine learning algorithms can be used to determine the variety of crops (e.g., almond and pecan trees). This phenotypic and varietal information represents the first step in enabling growers with the ability to tailor their management practices to individual plants and maximize their economic productivity.
Jachna, Z; Szplet, R; Kwiatkowski, P; Różyc, K
We propose a new architecture of an integrated time interval counter that provides its permanent calibration in the background. Time interval measurement and the calibration procedure are based on the use of a two-stage interpolation method and parallel processing of measurement and calibration data. The parallel processing is achieved by a doubling of two-stage interpolators in measurement channels of the counter, and by an appropriate extension of control logic. Such modification allows the updating of transfer characteristics of interpolators without the need to break a theoretically infinite measurement session. We describe the principle of permanent calibration, its implementation and influence on the quality of the counter. The precision of the presented counter is kept at a constant level (below 20 ps) despite significant changes in the ambient temperature (from −10 to 60 °C), which can cause a sevenfold decrease in the precision of the counter with a traditional calibration procedure. (paper)
Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole; Jørgensen, Frank T.
This paper presents a new permanent-magnet gear based on the cycloid gearing principle. which normally is characterized by an extreme torque density and a very high gearing ratio. An initial design of the proposed magnetic gear was designed, analyzed, and optimized with an analytical model...... regarding torque density. The results were promising as compared to other high-performance magnetic-gear designs. A test model was constructed to verify the analytical model....
Department of Homeland Security — Lawful permanet residents (LPRs) are foreign nationals who have been gratned the right to reside permanently in the United States. LPRs are also known as 'permanent...
The Oil-For-Food program was established by United Nations Security Council Resolution 986 in 1995 as a means of providing humanitarian relief to Iraq, which had been under U.N. economic sanctions since the Persian Gulf War in 1991. After the invasion of Iraq, considerable evidence emerged suggesting that Saddam Hussein was able to subvert the Oil-For-Food program to obtain hard currency as well as items on the United Nation's prohibited transfer list. In this paper, I use recently available ...
Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia
"Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permanent magnet. 886.4445 Section 886.4445 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4445 Permanent magnet. (a) Identification. A permanent magnet is a nonelectric device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove metallic...
Watheq Naser Hussein
Full Text Available Detection the behavior of some metals ( carbon steel and copper that are widely used in automobiles cooling system in tap water and a cooling mixture for radiators was held. The purpose of this work is to check the performance of two types of mixtures that available in Iraqi markets, viz the Kuwait mixture and the Germany one and what are known as blue water by an electrochemical technique. The experiments were held at two values of temperatures of 17 and 80 ˚C-where these values of temperature almost represent the cases of idle and operating engine. The obtained results showed that the two types of mixtures have given good inhibition efficiency for the case of steel especially in presence of Germany mixture.
Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura
This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S
Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.
Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M
Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.
Mohd Khanapi Abd Ghani
Full Text Available The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach’s alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard.
Harrington Lamorie, Jill
Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.
Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.; Mirjan, J.
Completely ripened date fruits of several Iraqi varieties were irradiated with 30, 70, 100, 270 and 500krad of gamma irradiation and stored at a temperature of 25-35 0 C in wooden boxes or in plastic bags. At various intervals samples were taken and analysed by paper-chromatography, gas-chromatography and spectrophotometry for quantitative and qualitative changes in carbohydrates. The results showed no effect of gamma irradiation on reducing sugar and major carbohydrate components. The formation of malonaldehyde under gamma irradiation of dates and solid standard sugars was also studied up to 500krad. The results showed no formation of malonaldehyde in irradiated date samples as well as standard sugars. Gamma irradiation showed no effect on the protein content of dates. However, storage showed some reduction in the protein content of both unirradiated and irradiated samples. (author)
Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E
Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.
Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.
The technique of nuclear fission track analysis with solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has been applied to determine concentrations of uranium in cancerous samples of human tissues that excised from patients in the three key southern Iraqi governorates namely, Basrah, Dhi-Qar, and Muthanna. These provinces were the sites of intensive military events during the Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003. The investigation was based on the study of 24 abnormal samples and 12 normal samples for comparing the results. These samples include four types of soft tissues (kidney, breast, stomach and uterus). The results show that uranium concentrations in the normal tissues ranged between (1.42-4.76 μg kg -1 ), whereas in the cancerous tissues ranged between (3.37-7.22 μg kg -1 ). The uranium concentrations in the normal tissues were significantly lower than in the abnormal tissues (P < 0.001). (author)
Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E
Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.
Yanni, Emad A; Naoum, Marwan; Odeh, Nedal; Han, Pauline; Coleman, Margaret; Burke, Heather
More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007-September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥ 15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.
Karadakhy, Kamaran; Othman, Nasih; Ibrahimm, Faredun; Saeed, Akam Ali; Amin, Ari Abdul-Adheem Hama
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries. The current study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of the disease and describe its epidemiological characteristics in Iraqi Kurdistan. A retrospective study was carried out on cases registered in the directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS) centers in Sulaimaniyah province. Information was collected from the summary reports of all cases registered in 2010 and detailed information was obtained from 307 cases in the main center. During 2010, a total of 530 new and relapsed cases were registered in the DOTS centers amounting to an annual incidence of 31 per 100,000. Over 73% of cases were pulmonary TB and 45% of all cases had positive smear. Most common symptoms were cough (58%), sweating (49%) and fever (48). Almost 43% of patients were diagnosed by direct swab examination, 30% by biopsy and 23% through clinical and radiologic examination. In relation to outcome, 89% of patients were treated successfully, 7% died and 3% defaulted. Mortality rate was 8% in pulmonary infection and 4% in extrapulmonary infection. Old age (65 years and over) was significantly associated with higher odds of death compared to people aged 34 years and younger (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-36.1, P=0.03). The incidence of TB is still high in the Iraqi Kurdistan. The DOTS has been successful in treating the majority of cases but there are areas needing improvement especially record-keeping and patient follow-up during and after treatment.
Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed Dakhil; Sorofman, Bernard
Low health literacy is associated with lack of medical information, less use of preventive measures, low medication adherence rates, high health care costs and high risk of hospitalization. The aims were to compare the results of the three health literacy tests, to measure for the first time the health literacy level of Iraqis, to describe the use of standardized health literacy tests, to evaluate reliability and validity of the Arabic versions of these tests, and to investigate whether there is relationship between the participant characteristics and the health literacy level. A convenience sample of 95 subjects was studied in five community pharmacies in Al-Najaf and Babylon governorates, Iraq. Three health literacy tests, the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS), the New Vital Sign (NVS) and the Short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), were translated in the Arabic language and administered to the pharmacy customers. There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, education and current education status and NVS score, but there were significant positive associations between the level of education and each one of SILS, New SILS, and S-TOFHLA scores. SILS has one subjective, possibly culturally biased question. Since Iraqis are generally not exposed to reading product labels, the NVS test might be not an accurate measure for them. S-TOFHLA was the most comprehensive test and gave equitable results. The Arabic version of S-TOFHLA can be used to measure health literacy in 22 Arabic speaking countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
"The humanitarian policy that the Canadian government implemented in response to the 1989 Tiananmen Square crackdown changed a migration system primarily based on personal networks into a brain drain. Post-Tiananmen mainland Chinese immigrants (MCIs) were better educated than those arriving in Canada previously. Among the post-Tiananmen MCIs, those who landed under the policy were better educated than those landing in other categories. The analysis suggests that post-Tiananmen MCIs represented a brain-drain rather than a refugee flow, that the humanitarian policy implicitly contained ideological and human capital concerns in addition to humanitarian concerns, and that Canada benefited from the policy by obtaining human capital as well as satisfying its humanitarian obligations and ideological aspirations." excerpt
Olsen, Gorm Rye; Carstensen, Nils; Høyen, Kristian
This paper proposes a basic hypothesis that the volume of emergency assistance any humanitarian crisis attracts is determined by three main factors working either in conjunction or individually. First, it depends on the intensity of media coverage. Second, it depends on the degree of political interest, particularly related to security, that donor governments have in a particular region. Third, the volume of emergency aid depends on strength of humanitarian NGOs and international organisations present in a specific country experiencing a humanitarian emergency. The empirical analysis of a number of emergency situations is carried out based on material that has never been published before. The paper concludes that only occasionally do the media play a decisive role in influencing donors. Rather, the security interests of Western donors are important together with the presence and strength of humanitarian stakeholders, such as NGOs and international organisations lobbying donor governments.
components include facilities and services (e.g., classroom conditions and food and beverage ), instructor quality (e.g., presenters set a positive...Stephanie Pezard, David E. Thaler, Beth Grill, Ariel Klein, Sean Robson The Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian...has to play in humanitarian assis- tance and disaster relief, congressional legislation established the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management
Dauenhauer-Pendley, Lizza Marie
Conceived on both an epistemic/post-colonial theory level and legal/ethical/pragmatic level, I will propose a theory of data colonialism in humanitarian information communications technologies (ICTs). Through two case studies, the first case study by lawyer and humanitarian ICT practitioner Sean Martin McDonald concerning the use of Call Detail Records (CDRs) as a response to the Ebola epidemic in Western Africa in 2014 and the second case study by the associate director of the International ...
Situations of humanitarian crisis are often caused by armed conflicts. Given the prevalence of non-international armed conflicts today, ways of ameliorating these situations are at the forefront of concerns. The international humanitarian law rules governing non-international armed conflict remain much less developed than those for international armed conflicts. This is exacerbated by the lack of direct human rights obligations for non-state armed groups, which makes governing the behaviour o...
Eriksson, Lina Elisabeth
This research aims to explore how women and men view and perceive potential barriers to women achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector. Female leadership is so far an under-researched area within the humanitarian sector, so it is unknown whether females encounter any barriers in accessing and attaining leadership positions. Three categories were identified; identity, perception and challenges through which the views and barriers are explored. Semi-structured interviews were c...
Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina
Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a
After a few historic remarks on magnetic materials we introduce the basic definitions related to permanent magnets. The magnetic properties of the most common materials are reviewed and the production processes are described. Measurement techniques for the characterization of macroscopic and microscopic properties of permanent magnets are presented. Field simulation techniques for permanent magnet devices are discussed. Today, permanent magnets are used in many fields. This article concentrates on the applications of permanent magnets in accelerators starting from dipoles and quadrupoles on to wigglers and undulators.
Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders
We present an optimization approach which can be employed to calculate the globally optimal segmentation of a two-dimensional magnetic system into uniformly magnetized pieces. For each segment the algorithm calculates the optimal shape and the optimal direction of the remanent flux density vector......, with respect to a linear objective functional. We illustrate the approach with results for magnet design problems from different areas, such as a permanent magnet electric motor, a beam focusing quadrupole magnet for particle accelerators and a rotary device for magnetic refrigeration....
State authorities invested in developing official expert discourses and practices to deny torture in post-1980 coup d'état Turkey. Documentation of torture was therefore crucial for the incipient human rights movement there in the 1980s. Human rights physicians used their expertise not only to treat torture victims but also to document torture and eventually found the Human Rights Foundation of Turkey (HRFT) in 1990. Drawing on an ethnographic and archival research at the HRFT, this article examines the genealogy of anti-torture struggles in Turkey and argues that locally mediated intimacies and/or hostilities between victims of state violence, human rights physicians, and official forensics reveal the limitations of certain universal humanitarian and human rights principles. It also shows that locally mediated long-term humanitarian encounters around the question of political violence challenge forensic denial of violence and remake the legitimate levels of state violence. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.
Abstract: UNOSAT is part of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and has been hosted at CERN since 2001. This partnership allows UNOSAT to benefit from CERN's IT infrastructure whenever the situation requires, allowing the UN to be at the forefront of satellite-analysis technology. Specialists in geographic information systems (GIS) and in the analysis of satellite data, supported by IT engineers and policy experts, ensure a dedicated service to the international humanitarian and development communities 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The presentation will give an overview of the variety of activities carried out by UNOSAT over the last 15 years including support to humanitarian assistance and protection of cultural heritage, sustainable water management in Chad and training & capacity development in East Africa and Asia. The talk will be followed at 12:00 by the inauguration of the UNOSAT exhibition, in front of the Users' office. Speaker: Einar Bjor...
transfers has traditionally been treated as a question of arms control law, but in the recent debate about legal restrictions on states' liberty to transfer arms, norms of international humanitarian and human rights law have frequently been invoked. This article surveys the existing international legal......The unregulated international trade in conventional arms, especially in small arms and light weapons, has come to be viewed as an exacerbating factor in armed conflict, violent crime and internal repression. Concern about the negative humanitarian, development and security impact of this trade has...... been growing over the last decade. Against this backdrop, the UN General Assembly invited states in December 2006 to consider the feasibility of an instrument establishing common international standards for conventional arms transfers-also known as the ‘Arms Trade Treaty' (ATT). The legality of arms...
Full Text Available The media are important actors in humanitarian crisis management and resolution, both in the countries facing the crises and in the rest of the world. Based on an inductive approach to a news sample from four Spanish newspapers, this study analyses the news frames used in the coverage of countries facing humanitarian crises. Results show that, with certain differences between countries, the Spanish press frames these countries as being theatres of war and violence, Islamic terrorism, and crime. From a theoretical perspective, results also suggest that news frames should not be classified either as "generic" or "specific", but that they should instead be placed on a continuous scale ranging from "generic" through to "specific".
The author first recalls the general principles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and outlines its main gaps (application of the notion of protected person, classification between own territory and occupied territory). Then and in this respect, he comments the various characteristics of nuclear weapons considered as explosive devices, and notably as they are thus addressed by the International Court of Justice (ICJ). He comments the legal status of the ICJ advisory opinions, and more particularly the relationship between the ICJ advisory opinion on nuclear weapons and the IHL. Different aspects are addressed and discussed: the principle of distinction, the prohibition of the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury. The author then comments NATO's nuclear policy in the international environment, and discusses the status and condition of nuclear deterrence. In order to address prospects for nuclear disarmament, the author notably compares differences between the arms control and non-proliferation approach, and the humanitarian disarmament approach
Full Text Available Evidence Aid is an international initiative to improve access to reliable evidence that will help people and organisations make well-informed decisions about interventions, actions and strategies in the disaster setting. It focuses on systematic reviews as the most reliable source of research evidence, maximising the power of existing research, avoiding undue emphasis on single studies and reducing the waste associated with research that is ignored or not accessible to decision makers. Evidence Aid is knowledge champion for influencers of the humanitarian sector, including funders, policy makers, NGOs, and humanitarian professionals. Evidence Aid was established by members of the Cochrane Collaboration after the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004. It provides access to information relevant to disaster risk reduction, planning, response, recovery, resilience and rehabilitation. This presentation will discuss the need for Evidence Aid, and describes its activities.Find out more about Mike.
This paper focuses on the 'Sri Lankan model' of counter-insurgency and stabilisation and its implications for humanitarian and development actors. The Sri Lanka case shows that discourses, policies and practices associated with 'stabilisation' are not confined to 'fragile state' contexts in which there is heavy (and often militarised) international engagement--even though exemplars such as Afghanistan and Iraq have tended to dominate debates on this issue. Rather than being a single template, the 'stabilisation agenda' takes on very different guises in different contexts, presenting quite specific challenges to humanitarian and development actors. This is particularly true in settings like Sri Lanka, where there is a strong state, which seeks to make aid 'coherent' with its own vision of a militarily imposed political settlement. Working in such environments involves navigating a highly-charged domestic political arena, shaped by concerns about sovereignty, nationalism and struggles for legitimacy. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
Cole, David Mitchell
The principal goal of this project is to design and build a low-cost, imaging quality permanent magnet, together with the requisite shim, gradient, and radiofrequency coils, and to integrate the magnet with an existing imaging station. There are commercial products presently available that are very similar to this imager, but information about these products is proprietary. We present here all of the details concerning the design and the manufacturing process for constructing the permanent magnet, and include suggestions for improvement. Specifically, the prototype has a mass of about 150 kilograms and is therefore portable. It's C-type geometry allows maximum access to the imaging region, which is an oblate sphere about 0.5 inches in diameter centered in a 4.7 inch air gap between two seven-inch diameter polefaces. It is hoped that this imaging magnet will serve as the prototype for a series of larger versions that will be clinically useful and affordable to physicians in developing nations. To this end, scientists in the United States and Mexico have begun to collaborate with the intention to create an MRI institute in Mexico that will train new students in this discipline, and fabricate improved imagers. The prototype resulting from this work will seed the creation of this institute, and is intended to entice students into the study of MRI by enabling hands-on interaction with an otherwise prohibitively expensive instrument.
Sakai, Goro; Sakata, Noboru; Hironaka, Yoshikazu; Shigematsu, Kazuo; Yurugi, Masahiro; Minami, Masayoshi; Yoshisaki, Masato.
In a method of permanently burying an object by filling and solidifying a cement mortar in gaps between each of objects to be buried underground, cement mortar is filled into gaps, which comprises water at a unit amount determined as from 200 to 250kg/m 3 , a cement at low water/cement ratio (%) of from 70 to 400%, and contains fine powder having an average grain size of not greater than 100μm (not containing cement) of 50 to 800kg/m 3 , fine aggregates of 800 to 1200kg/m 3 , UERAN gum (a bio-gum powder produced by aerobic fermentation of alcaligenes-bacteria) of 20g/m 3 to 1.3kg/m 3 , a dispersing agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 , a swelling agent of 0 to 40kg/m 3 . Then if the mortar blended with the UERAN gum is injected, any gaps can be filled tightly, no breeding is caused and since the amount of cement is small, it does not suffer from temperature cracking. Therefore, the state of filling is kept permanently, and environmental pollution caused by radioactive wastes can be prevented. (N.H.)
Stories of humanitarian actions represent a specific media, and oral storytelling discourse and an instrument for the shaping of social, political and economic mirror both in the private and the public sphere. Heartbreaking stories and sensational news items about poor, ill and endangered people, translated into appeals and philanthropic actions, from their dramatic everyday lives come out into the markets of interests, competition/campaigns, performative- spectacular events and propagandas. ...
CHIEF EDITOR: Ershov Bogdan Anatolievich, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
Journal "BULLETIN SOCIAL-ECONOMIC AND HUMANITARIAN RESEARCH" publishes articles about the relationship between different state institutions and society. The editorial Board determines the procedure for publication of articles. The articles are reviewed and accepted only after at least two positive reviews of three reviewers. The author retains the copyrights to his articles. Journal is published four times a year, 1 time per quarter (№ 1 - January, February, March, № 2 - April,...
Full Text Available centres End-users $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Retail outlets What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Logistics What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Supply chain... Create a platform where consultants can donate ?services? What will it take: Time for legwork, humility, sacrificing your agenda Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors CSIR 4th Biennial Conference...
Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S
This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further
Habib, Muhammad Salman; Lee, Young Hae; Memon, Muhammad Saad
In the past decade the humanitarian supply chain (HSC) has attracted the attention of researchers due to the increasing frequency of disasters. The uncertainty in time, location, and severity of disaster during predisaster phase and poor conditions of available infrastructure during postdisaster phase make HSC operations difficult to handle. In order to overcome the difficulties during these phases, we need to assure that HSC operations are designed in an efficient manner to minimize human an...
Tamara M. ELKANOVA
The interactional-gnostic component of author's conceptual and theoretical model of general humanitarian basis of education provides integration at the level of development of different in the ontologic ways of knowledge of the world, training in associative and figurative thinking, translation from objective external language into internal language of figurative and conceptual models of reality, strengthening of attention to axiological notional content of the received knowledge, formation o...
attacking bridges, highways, airports, telecommunications facilities, electrical production, factories, and oil refineries. 13 Many of these targets...22, no. 3 (September 2008): 285. 29 MAJ Helene E. Caras , ―Humanitarian Intervention in Kosovo: The Importance of Legal and Moral Issues‖ (monograph...Libya resolution to crusades.‖ reuters.com. 21 March 2011. http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/21/us-libya-russia-idUSTRE72K3JR20110321. Caras
Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Beck, Roman
In times of a crisis, disasters or extreme events, affected people use social media solutions to share information about the situation. Hence, the use of this information for supporting humanitarian operations is becoming a valuable source to develop a real time understanding about the situation even before they arrive at the ground. From a scholarly perspective, the use of social media management during and after a disaster has hit has been researched, but no special focus has been given to ...
Dencik, Lina; Allan, Stuart
This article examines the diverse factors shaping NGO involvement with humanitarian\\ud photography, paying particular attention to co-operative relationships with\\ud photojournalists intended to facilitate the generation of visual coverage of crises\\ud otherwise marginalised, or ignored altogether, in mainstream news media. The\\ud analysis is primarily based on a case study drawing upon 26 semi-structured interviews\\ud with NGO personnel (International Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement, Oxfam a...
enforcement of human rights could prevent authoritarian governments from hurting their own populations. On the other hand, the violent protests in Syria...humanitarian intervention in its current form because it "reinforces authoritarianism , hard sovereignty, [and] militarization.൩ Furthermore, he asks...December 2011), p. 48. 78 Philip Cunliffe, Dangerous duties: power, paternalism and the ’responsibility to protect’, Review of International Studies (2010
point 16 repeatedly to the Baathist regime’s de-Kurdification of Kirkuk as prima facie justification for returning control of the city to the Kurds...Americans had a quid pro quo obligation to help them get their land back from the 10,000 squatting Arabs.23 Patrick Clawson of the Middle East Quarterly...beginning of the campaign, US Soldiers were gradu- ally passing these obligations to Iraqi government officials to manage their own internal and external
with some of the Arab Spring militaries and has a particu- larly strong relationship with the Egyptian military. These bonds of trust, cooperation...suitable tomb for the co-founder of Ba’athism. Saddam was not a military man, and as a youth was rejected for entry into the Iraqi military academy due...Egypt. While parallels between Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and 64 these countries exist, differences vastly outnumber similarities. The Tunisian and Egyptian
Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation. Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01, pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05 and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01 were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05 calving rate (+14.7%, daily milk yield (+44.8% and calf birth weight (+25.6% were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo from the sale of meat and milk.
oxygenmask held in proximity to the dog’s face or taped to a basket-style muzzle ) during evacuation to the VTF. None of the WIA dogs received IV crystalloid...military working dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003–2009) Janice L. Baker, DVM; Karyn A. Havas, DVM; Laura A...received on the battlefield, and ultimate outcome of U.S. military working dogs that incurred gunshot wound (GSW) injury in Operation Enduring Freedom
assistance with editing and for supporting this endeavor, and to our two wonderful children , Olivia and Theodore. Our time here at Fort Leavenworth has been...Baathist regime. 7 Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 3d ed...II, 165. 33 television several hours later, denouncing the strike as a “criminal act” and calling on the Iraqi people to draw their swords
Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily
To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38.1% of people in need. Displaced and female-headed households were more vulnerable than nondisplaced and male-headed households in numerous sectors. Despite approximately half of surveyed households reporting receipt of humanitarian assistance in the preceding month and apparently effective targeting of assistance by vulnerability, unmet needs were nearly ubiquitous. The humanitarian situation in inaccessible areas of Syria is likely to be considerably worse; thus, findings presented here likely underestimate humanitarian needs. Efforts to expand support to Syria's most vulnerable households are desperately needed as are innovative targeting and modalities that enable more efficient and effective assistance.
Garfield, Richard; Polonsky, Jonny
The Darfur region of Sudan has been an intense focus of humanitarian concern since rebellions began there early in 2003. In 2004, the US Secretary of State declared that conflict in Darfur represented genocide. Since 2003, many sample surveys and various mortality estimates for Darfur have been made. Nonetheless, confusion and controversy surrounding mortality levels and trends have continued. For this project, results were reviewed from the highest quality field surveys on mortality in Darfur conducted between 2003 and 2008. Trend analysis demonstrated a dramatic decline in mortality over time in Darfur. By 2005, mortality levels had fallen below emergency levels and have continued to decline. Deaths directly due violence have declined as a proportion of all of the deaths in Darfur. Declining mortality in Darfur was not associated with other proximate improvements in well-being, such as improved nutrition. Without large-scale, humanitarian intervention, continuing high rates of mortality due to violence likely would have occurred. If mortality had continued at the high rate documented in 2004, by January 2009, there would have been 330,000 additional deaths. With the humanitarian assistance provided through the United Nations and non-governmental organizations, these people are alive today. A focus on excess deaths among noncombatants may draw attention away from other needs, such as establishing better security, improving service delivery to the displaced, and advocating for internally displaced persons to be reached today and to re-establish their lives and livelihoods tomorrow.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to critically explore whether crowdsourced Big Data enables an inclusive humanitarian response at times of crisis. We argue that all data, including Big Data, are socially constructed artefacts that reflect the contexts and processes of their creation. To support our argument, we qualitatively analysed the process of ‘Big Data making’ that occurred by way of crowdsourcing through open data platforms, in the context of two specific humanitarian crises, namely the 2010 earthquake in Haiti and the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. We show that the process of creating Big Data from local and global sources of knowledge entails the transformation of information as it moves from one distinct group of contributors to the next. The implication of this transformation is that locally based, affected people and often the original ‘crowd’ are excluded from the information flow, and from the interpretation process of crowdsourced crisis knowledge, as used by formal responding organizations, and are marginalized in their ability to benefit from Big Data in support of their own means. Our paper contributes a critical perspective to the debate on participatory Big Data, by explaining the process of in and exclusion during data making, towards more responsive humanitarian relief.
Roddy, Sarah; Strange, Julie-Marie; Taithe, Bertrand
This paper contains a systematic exploration of local and national archives and sources relevant to charities and humanitarian fund appeals of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras (1870-1912) in Great Britain. It shows that the charitable world and humanitarian work share the same matrix and originate from the same roots, with considerable overlap between fundraising for domestic charity and overseas relief. These campaigns engaged in crucial self-regulatory processes very early on that involved concepts such as formal accountability and the close monitoring of delivery. Far from lagging behind in terms of formal practices of auditing and accounts, charities and humanitarian funds often were in the pioneering group as compared with mainstream businesses of the period. The charitable sector, notably through the Charity Organisation Society in cooperation with the press, developed and delivered accountability and monitoring, while the state and the Charity Commission played a negligible role in this process. © 2015 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2015.
Full Text Available Stories of trafficking into the sex industry in Cambodia are a popular feature in local and international media, academic and development literature, policy and humanitarian debates, social and political discourse, and NGO interventions. These stories are powerful for their ability to evoke deep emotions and outrage from their intended audiences. However, they are equally powerful for the ways in which they can cause harm—namely to already marginalised populations of migrants and people involved in the sex trade either by choice, circumstance or coercion. One of the most contentious contemporary trafficking stories is that of the controversial case of Somaly Mam—the self-declared ‘sex slave’ turned ‘modern-day hero’. This paper outlines Mam’s prolific trajectory of self-representation according to the tropes of sexual humanitarianism and argues that these narratives helped to set in motion one of the most lucrative, and in many ways, most exploitative and problematic anti-trafficking endeavours in Cambodia, to date. The paper concludes with offering suggestions for how the anti-trafficking industry might better address real cases of trafficking and exploitation by focusing on structural violence and systemic injustice rather than on sensationalised humanitarian rhetoric, which can perpetuate harms.
Full Text Available Abstract Measuring rates and circumstances of population mortality (in particular crude and under-5 year mortality rates is essential to evidence-based humanitarian relief interventions. Because prospective vital event registration is absent or deteriorates in nearly all crisis-affected populations, retrospective household surveys are often used to estimate and describe patterns of mortality. Originally designed for measuring vaccination coverage, the two-stage cluster survey methodology is frequently employed to measure mortality retrospectively due to limited time and resources during humanitarian emergencies. The method tends to be followed without considering alternatives, and there is a need for expert advice to guide health workers measuring mortality in the field. In a workshop in France in June 2006, we deliberated the problems inherent in this method when applied to measure outcomes other than vaccine coverage and acute malnutrition (specifically, mortality, and considered recommendations for improvement. Here we describe these recommendations and outline outstanding issues in three main problem areas in emergency mortality assessment discussed during the workshop: sampling, household data collection issues, and cause of death ascertainment. We urge greater research on these issues. As humanitarian emergencies become ever more complex, all agencies should benefit from the most recently tried and tested survey tools.
Aciksoz, Salih Can
During the 2013 Gezi protests in Turkey, volunteering health professionals provided on-site medical assistance to protesters faced with police violence characterized by the extensive use of riot control agents. This led to a government crackdown on the medical community and the criminalization of "unauthorized" first aid amidst international criticisms over violations of medical neutrality. Drawing from ethnographic observations, in-depth interviews with health care professionals, and archival research, this article ethnographically analyzes the polarized encounter between the Turkish government and medical professionals aligned with social protest. I demonstrate how the context of "atmospheric violence"-the extensive use of riot control agents like tear gas-brings about new politico-ethical spaces and dilemmas for healthcare professionals. I then analyze how Turkish health professionals framed their provision of health services to protestors in the language of medical humanitarianism, and how the state dismissed their claims to humanitarian neutrality by criminalizing emergency care. Exploring the vexed role that health workers and medical organizations played in the Gezi protests and the consequent political contestations over doctors' ethical, professional, and political responsibilities, this article examines challenges to medical humanitarianism and neutrality at times of social protest in and beyond the Middle East.
Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fisher, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Stal, Marc; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi
Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition.
Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.
Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.