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Sample records for iraqi awassi ewes

  1. Reproductive Fecundity of Iraqi Awassi Ewes Immunized against Synthetic Inhibin-α Subunit or Steroid-Free Bovine Follicular Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saaidi, Jabbar Abbas Ahmed; Khudair, Khalisa Khadim; Al-Kafaji, Sura Safe Aubaes

    2018-03-02

    The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, and used for immunization of male rabbits for obtaining steroid free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal MPA sponge (60 mg for 12 days). Ewes were treated at 0, 28, and 50 days with 4, 2 and 2 ml of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of ovalbumine (C+ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of inhibin (SI group), and 4 ml of normal saline at 0 day, and 4ml and 2ml of SFBFF antiserum, at 28, and 50 days (AI group). After mating with Awassi rams, pregnancy and embryo number were diagnosed using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of pregnancy, for assessment of estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels. After parturition, numbers of delivered lambs were recorded. The results revealed significant increase of P4 and significant decrease of E2 levels in SI and AI pregnant ewes than controls at 30, 60 and 90 day. Newborn number increased significantly in SI and AI treated than control ewes. Active or passive immunization against endogenous inhibin could augment reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.

  2. Study the ovarian function in Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1996-03-01

    An experiment was carried out on local Awassi ewes to study the reproductive performance, progesteron concentrations, accuracy of pregnacy diagnosis and other reproduction related criteria of Awassi ewes using radioimunoassay (RIA). A total of 18 nulliparous Awassi ewes, aged about 1 year and weighing on average 36.9 Kg was used. Live-weight changes were recorded weekly. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from the jugular vein for about 1 year at 10.00h. Sera were prepared and stored at - 20 deg until assyed. The FAO/IAEA progesterone RIA kits were used. Two ewes aborted after about three-and-a-half months of pregnancy due to mechanical reasons. The remaining ewes (16) lambed between 30th November 1994 and 22nd February 1995. Sex ratio was 1:1 (8 males: 8 females). Average birth weights for both sexes was 5210 ± 525 g. Average birth-weight was higher in males than females. Average male birth-weights was 5338 ± 515 g, (4600 - 6000 g) whereas was 5083 ± 538 g, (4180 - 5700 g) for female lambs. Average basal pre-mating progesterone concentration was 0.60 ± 0.42 n mol/l (0-1.7 n mol/l). Average maximum progesterone concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.1 ± 3.1 n mol/l (5.8 -18.00 n mol/l). Average maximum progesterone concentration during gestation was 58.4 ± 20.9 n mol/l (29.25 - 100.00 n mol/l). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days post mating using RIA was 100%. It is concluded that RIA could be used for progesterone determination in Awassi sheep successfully, and that more research work on other aspects of reproduction in Awassi sheep should be carried out. (Author). 29 refs., 47 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Oestrus synchronization in local Awassi ewes using a synthetic prostaglandin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-two local Awassi ewes, at different ages, and weighing on average 53.0 ± 9.7 kg were used to evaluate the effect of Prosolvin, a synthetic prostaglandin, on oestrus synchronization. The results indicate that 47.7 % of the treated animals showed oestrus behaviour and mated within 68 hours after the second injection of Prosolvin, with an average of 54.4 ± 12.8 hours. There was significant (P<0.05) difference within the treated animals to the treatment . Among the treated ewes that showed oestrus. 71.4 % conceived and lambed. Progesterone concentrations dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second injection of Prosolvin 60 % of the animals that conceived and lambed. It could be concluded that Prosolvin could be used in oestrus synchronization in the breeding season, and that Awassi ewes could be added to oestrus synchronization programmes to give 3 lambs in 2 years. (Author)

  4. Monitoring the reproductive performance in awassi ewes using progesterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Jugular serum progesterone (P-4) concentrations were assessed using radioimmunoassay (RIA) kits for about 1 year in 16 local Awassi ewes aged about 1 year and weighing on average 37.4 ±4.9 (range 29.5-44.0 kg). Average pre-mating live weight of animals was different (P 0.05) between animals in average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration, maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes and in the length of the gestation period average basal pre-mating P-4 concentration was 0.62±0.44 (range 0-1.7 nmol l -1 ). Average maximum P-4 concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.0±3.3 (range 5.8-18 nmol l -1 ). Length of gestation period varied from 149 to 155 days with an average of 152±2.3 days. Maximum P-4 concentration during gestation was different (P -1 ). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days pot-mating using RIA was 100%. It was concluded that Awassi sheep in Syria have a long breeding season that could start as early as April and last through September. Therefore, ewes might be included in oestrous synchronisation programmes to give three lambs in 2 years. It was also concluded that P-4 concentration under 3.18 nmol l -1 is indicative of either anoestrous or follicular and early luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in Awassi ewes kept in Syria and that RIA could be used for P-4 determination and successful early diagnosis of pregnancy in Awassi sheep. (author)

  5. Study of the ovarian function in Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on indigenous Awassi ewes to study some reproductive criteria by measuring the changes of progesterone concentrations in the blood sera for about one year using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Average basal pre-mating progesterone concentration was 0.60 ± 0.42 n mol/1 (0-107 n mol/1). Average maximum progesterone concentration during the luteal phase in non-pregnant ewes was 11.1 ± mol/1 (5.8-18.00 n mol/1). Average maximum progesterone concentration during gestation was 58.4 ± 20.9 n mol/1 (29.25-100.00 n mol/1). The accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis at around 21 days post mating using RIA was 100%. (author)

  6. The effect of breed type and lactation status on reproductive performance in Awassi ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Kridli, R.T.; Abdullah, A.Y.; Husein, M.Q.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of breed types and lactation status on reproductive performance of hormonally-treated Awassi ewes. A total of 282 ewes were treated with intravaginal progestagen sponges and equine chorionic gonadotropin. Ewes were mated with fertile rams following sponge removal. Lambing rate was similar between brown-and black-faced ewes, while the percentage of multiple births, fecundity and prolificacy were greater in black-faced ewes. Lambing rate and the p...

  7. Effects of Some Environmental Factors on Reproductive Characters of Awassi and Redkaraman Ewes

    OpenAIRE

    ESENBUĞA, Nurinisa

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the effects of some environmental factors on the reproductive characters of Awassi and Redkaraman ewes reared at the Research and Application Farm of Agricultural College at Atatürk University were investigated. Year, age of ewes, breed and the linear effect of body weight of ewes at the beginning of mating were studied. The year had no significant effect on any of the reproductive characters. Age of ewes, breed and body weight of ewes at the start of mating caused highly...

  8. Serum concentrations of progesterone and oestradiol during the ovarian cycle of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2005-01-01

    It was possible, for the first time, to characterise hormonally and precisely the oestrous cycle of the Syrian Awassi ewes, and to determine normal progesterone and oestradiol concentrations during the different phases of oestrous cycle. It is concluded that progesterone and oestradiol concentrations showed a cyclic pattern during the oestrous cycle, in addition, a negative and significant correlation between the concentrations of the two hormones was found. (author)

  9. Performance of Nursing Awassi Ewes Fed Different Levels of Bread By-product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Obeidat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of barley grain with bread by-product (BB on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs. Forty Awassi ewes rearing single lambs were randomly allotted into four experimental diets containing various levels of BB. The experimental diets contained 0 (BB0, 10 (BB10, 15 (BB15, and 20% (BB20 of BB on dietary dry matter (DM. The study lasted for eight weeks, in which the first week was used as an adaptation period and seven weeks of data collection. Ewes and their lambs were penned individually where they were fed their lactating diets ad libitum. Ewes and lambs body weights were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, milk production and composition were evaluated biweekly. Feeding BB had no effect (p>0.05 on dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and crude protein (CP intakes. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was the lowest (p0.05 on ewes body weight change and on lamb performance (i.e., weaning body weight and average daily gain. Similarly, no differences (p>0.05 were observed either in milk production or composition by the BB substitution. Inclusion of BB reduced feed cost by 9, 14, and 18% for the BB10, BB15, and BB20 diets, respectively. No differences were observed in milk efficiency (DM intake: milk production; p>0.05 among diets. However, cost of milk production ($US/kg milk was the lowest (p<0.05 in the diet containing BB20. Results of the present study indicate that feeding bread by-product up to 20% of the diet DM had no effect on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs and reduced feed cost.

  10. Performance of Nursing Awassi Ewes Fed Different Levels of Bread By-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, B. S.; Haddad, S. G.; Titi, H. H.; Abu Ishmais, M. A.; Telfah, B. T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of barley grain with bread by-product (BB) on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs. Forty Awassi ewes rearing single lambs were randomly allotted into four experimental diets containing various levels of BB. The experimental diets contained 0 (BB0), 10 (BB10), 15 (BB15), and 20% (BB20) of BB on dietary dry matter (DM). The study lasted for eight weeks, in which the first week was used as an adaptation period and seven weeks of data collection. Ewes and their lambs were penned individually where they were fed their lactating diets ad libitum. Ewes and lambs body weights were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. However, milk production and composition were evaluated biweekly. Feeding BB had no effect (p>0.05) on dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) intakes. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake was the lowest (pby-product had no effect (p>0.05) on ewes body weight change and on lamb performance (i.e., weaning body weight and average daily gain). Similarly, no differences (p>0.05) were observed either in milk production or composition by the BB substitution. Inclusion of BB reduced feed cost by 9, 14, and 18% for the BB10, BB15, and BB20 diets, respectively. No differences were observed in milk efficiency (DM intake: milk production; p>0.05) among diets. However, cost of milk production ($US/kg milk) was the lowest (pby-product up to 20% of the diet DM had no effect on performance of Awassi ewes and their lambs and reduced feed cost. PMID:25049672

  11. Induction of synchronized oestrous and early pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi ewes, outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Al-Merstani, M.R.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on indigenous awassi ewes to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progestogen sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) followed by treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) on inducing synchronized oestrous outside the normal breeding season, improving fecundity and on early diagnosis of pregnancy using progesterone profiles. 96 awassi ewes were divided into 2 groups. ewes in the Group T, were fitted with MAP for 14 days and injected with 600 IU PMSG at the sponge withdrawal, whereas ewes in the control Group C, received no treatment. The results indicated that oestrous was induced within 36-48 h post sponge withdrawal in 82% of the treated ewes. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between groups T and C in total oestrous response, lambing rate, and fecundity. The means being 96% and 32.6%; 80% and 32.6% and 137.5% and 106.7%, respectively. The accuracy of early diagnosis of pregnancy at 17-19 days post-mating was 100%. The mean birth weight of lambs was similar in both groups (4.3 and 4,4 Kg for groups T and C, respectively).However, single born lambs were significantly (p<0.05) heavier at birth than individual twins (5.0 versus 3.9 Kg). It was concluded that it is possible to induce synchronized and fertile oestrous, successful pregnancy and lambing, and that serum progesterone measurement determinations are useful tool for early pregnancy diagnosis in awassi ewes induced oestrous and bred out of season. (author)

  12. Effect of a synthetic prostaglandin (Prosolvin) on oestrus synchronization in local Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1997-04-01

    Two experiments have been carried out to evaluate the effect of Prosolvin, a synthetic prostaglandin, on oestrus synchronization in local Awassi ewes during the breeding season. In the first experiment, 8 Awassi ewes, aged about 3 years, and weighing on average 59.9 ± 4.4kg were used. In experiment 2, 22 local awassi ewes, at different ages, and weighing on average 53.0 ± 9.7 kg were used. The animals were divided into 2 groups in both experiments. Animals in group 1 (n= 15), received 2 i.m. injections of 1 ml of prosolvin at 11 day interval, whereas animals in group (n= 7) were considered as controls and received no treatment. Three fertile awassi rams were introduced to all animals 18 hours after the second injection of prosolvin for 5 days for oestrus detection and natural mating. Concentrations of progesterone hormone were measured in the blood using radioimmunoassay. The results from experiment 1 indicated that oestrus was induced in 1 animal in group 1, 44 hours after prosolvin injection, and was mated, conceived and lambed. Oestrus was induced in two animals in group 2 and mated, 44 hours after the second prosolvin injection, but only 1 animal conceived and lambed. The results obtained from experiment 2 showed that 47.7 % of the treated animals showed oestrus behaviour and mated within 68 hours after the second injection of Prosolvin, with an average of 54.3 ± 12.8 hours, which was significantly (p<0.05) to controls. None of the animals in the control group exhibited oestrus within 5 days of the introduction of the rams.There was significant (p<0.05) difference within the treated animals to the treatment. Among the treated ewes that showed oestrus, 71.4 % conceived and lambed. Progesterone concentrations dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second injection of prosolvin in 60 % of the animals that conceived and lambed. It could be concluded that synthetic prostaglandin could be used in oestrus synchronization of local Awassi ewes in the breeding

  13. Evaluation of an accelerated lambing system in Syrian Awassi ewes, using hormonal treatments inside and outside the breeding season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2010-04-01

    An experiment was carried out on Syrian Awassi ewes to assess the accelerated lambing system (three lambings in 2 years) by synchronising and induction of oestrus and increasing ovulation rate using hormonal treatments (intravaginal sponges: FGA + equine chorionic gonadotrophin: eCG). Fifty intact cyclic Syrian Awassi ewes aged 2- 4 years with an average live weight of 51.4 kg were used for 4 years (6 lambings). Ewes were divided into 2 groups: 40 ewes in the treated (T) and 10 in the control (C). Ewes in the T group were treated with FGA for 14 days and injected intramuscularly at sponge withdrawal with 500 IU eCG. Results indicated that, throughout the 6 breeding periods, oestrus induction rate was 100%, and all ewes in the T group were mated within 1-5 days post sponge removal as compared to 10-11 days for ewes in the C group. Treated ewes had higher rates of lambing, multiple birth and fecundity. Repeated administration of eCG (6 times at 8 months interval) had no negative effect on fertility of Syrian Awassi ewes. However, anti-eCG antibodies were produced following eCG injections. (author)

  14. Response of the Syrian awassi ewes to the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2000-01-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  15. Response of the Syrian awassi ewes to the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    1999-11-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  16. Reproductive characteristics of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Gül

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the reproductive responses of Awassi ewes under Cornell alternate month accelerated lambing (CAMAL system. Ewes were randomly allocated to two experimental groups. The first group (control group consists of 20 ewes exposed to rams in September under conventional management system while the second group (CAMAL were divided into four sub-flocks contain 20 head of ewes each one were exposed to rams to obtain three lambing in two years with different breeding and lambing months. In CAMAL ewes, oestrus was synchronized using intra-vaginal sponges with progesterone and PMSG administration. Results revealed that within CAMAL group, the percentage of animals in heat, onset of oestrus, litter size, birth weight and weaning weight were affected by mating months. September and November were the most appropriate months for oestrus ratio (97.5 % and litter size (1.18 and 0.98, respectively. Lambs of control group were heavier at birth and weaning than those of CAMAL group. On the other hand lamb yield was not affected statistically by the CAMAL administration.

  17. Growth and development in Syrian Awassi ewes during patterns of ovarian follicular different reproductive stages monitored by laparoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Soukouti, A.

    2009-06-01

    An in situ study was conducted on Syrian Awassi ewes, inside and outside the breeding season, untreated or treated with vaginal sponges together with or without equine chorionic gonadotropin aiming at monitoring the ovaries' diameters, number of different follicular categories, number, diameters and lifespan of corpora lutea in each ovary using a laparoscope and finding out the relationship among these parameters and progesterone concentration. For the first time, it has been possible to characterise the Syrian Awassi sheep at the ovarian follicles level during different reproductive stages using a laparoscope. (author)

  18. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  19. The evaluation of two doses of prostaglandin F2α analogue, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronisation of Syrian Awassi ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Thirty Awassi ewes were divided equally into 3 groups. Ewes in the first (T10) and second groups (T15) were injected intramuscularly twice with either 10 mg (T10) or 15 mg (T15) of prosolvin, with an interval of 11 days. Whereas, the third group (C) was used as a control group. Progesterone levels were measured in the sera of the ewes using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Oestrus behaviour appeared in the ewes in group T10 on average after 83.3 hours, while oestrus appeared in the ewes in group T15 on average after 136.5 hours, after the second injection of prosolvin. In the control group (C), oestrus behaviour appeared on average after 251.2 hours, post ram introduction. The differences between the treated and the control animals in the time of oestrus behaviour was significant (p < 0.05). Average concentration of progesterone at mating was 0.64, 0.48 and 0.32 nmol/l for T10, T15 and C groups, respectively. The treatment had a luteolytic effect on the active corpora lutea. Progesterone concentration dropped sharply within 24 hours after the second prosolvin injection. The concentration dropped from 8.48 n mol/l to 0.52 n mol/l in the sera of group T10, and from 7.95 n mol/l to 0.45 n mol/l for the group T15. The treatment had no effect on the duration of pregnancy or birth weight. It could be concluded that it is possible to use the synthetic prostaglandin, prosolvin, for oestrous synchronization in the local Awassi ewes inside the breeding season at the doses of 10 and 15 mg. (author)

  20. Awassi sheep reproduction and milk production: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Ababneh, Mohammed M

    2011-10-01

    Awassi is the local breed of sheep in Jordan and is the most important breed in the semi-arid regions of the near east countries. Awassi ram and ewe lambs reach puberty at around 8 and 9 months of age, respectively. The breeding season of Awassi ewes starts as early as April and lasts through September. After puberty, Awassi rams are sexually active throughout the year. The normal estrous cycle in Awassi ewes is 15-20 days (average 17 days). Estrus ranges from 16-59 h (average 29 h) during the breeding season. The reproductive performance of unimproved Awassi sheep has been low while improved Awassi has the highest fertility and milk production and are the heaviest among all Awassi populations. The gestation length varies from 149 to 155 days (average 152 days). Hormones that are commonly used for induction and synchronization of estrus in Awassi ewes include progestins, gonadotropins and PGF2α. An Awassi ewe produces 40-60 and 70-80 kg of milk per 150-day lactation period under traditional and improved production systems, respectively, in addition to the suckled milk left for lambs until weaning. The improved Awassi has the highest milk production among all Awassi populations and may reach 506 L over 214-day lactation period. The objective of this review is to summarize the reproductive pattern and milk production of Awassi sheep in the Middle East region.

  1. The effect of estrus synchronization treatments on somatic cell count of transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, A Q; Lafi, S Q; Ababneh, M M

    2009-02-01

    Fifty-three transitional-anestrus Awassi ewes, randomly assigned to three groups: fluorogestone acetate (FGA, n = 18), FGA-Prostaglandin (FGA-PGF, n = 18) and control (n = 17), were used to examine the effect of estrus synchronization protocols and steroid hormones concentrations on milk somatic cell count (SCC). Intravaginal FGA sponge was inserted for 13 days and 600 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered for ewes of FGA and FGA-PGF groups at the time of sponge removal (day 0). In addition, 10 mg was administered to ewes of FGA-PGF group on day 0. Blood and milk samples were collected from all ewes on days -13, -6, 0, 1, 2, 7 and 14. Estradiol had significant positive correlation with the SCC during the periods of sponge insertion (P = 0.015, r = 0.235) and within two days (P = 0.063 r = 0.23) after sponge removal with no correlation with SCC of both udder halves during the luteal phase. Progesterone concentrations, on the other hand, had a significant positive correlation (P progesterone on days 7 and 14 to pre-synchronization values. In conclusion, sheep milk SCC is affected significantly with induction of estrus and steroid hormones concentrations. However, peak SCC recorded during estrus was far below the upper limit of the current standard for normal milk. With the current standards for SCC of 1,000,000/ml as legal limit for abnormal milk control programs in sheep, estrus synchronization programs and the estrus status should not be considered when bulk-tank milk SCC is being investigated, but should be considered during the process of setting new standards.

  2. Evaluation of a Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and related ELISA for respective induction and assessment of acquired immunity to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea in Awassi Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Elie K; Assi, Chibli A Abou; Shaib, Houssam; Hamadeh, Shadi; Murtada, Muhammad; Mahmoud, Ghassan; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Iyer, Archana; Harakeh, Steve; Kumosani, Taha

    2015-05-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an experimental Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) bacterin and an indirect ELISA system to assess quantitatively the acquired immunity in Awassi ewes to the vaccine and/or Echinacea purpurea (EP) dried roots. Four treatments of the ewes were included in the experimental design, with 6 ewes/treatment. The first treatment (T1) had the controls that were non-vaccinated and non-treated with EP. The T2 ewes were only treated with EP. The T3 and T4 ewes were vaccinated at D1 (initiation of trial) and D10, while the T4 ewes were additionally administered the EP dried roots. Blood was collected from the jugular vein of all ewes at D1, D10, D21 and D45. The construction of the vaccine and the ELISA are detailed within the manuscript. The ELISA was able to detect quantitatively the significant acquired primary and secondary immunity to the vaccine in T3 and T4 ewes, compared to their low level of background immunities at initiation of the experiment (p0.05) in T1 control ewes, and in the T2 ewes that were given only the (EP) (p>0.05). Moreover, the ELISA was able to uncover the significant seroconversion of secondary immune response in T4 ewes at D21 compared to that at D10 (pewes. This is the first work in literature that reports the need to supplement the vaccination by the experimental SE bacterin with daily oral intake of 250mg of EP-dried roots, effective the first vaccination day and up to 21 days, for obtaining a statistically significant seroconversion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional Value And Yield of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa Fusca Linn) Hay and Its Effect on Reproductive Performance of Awassi Ewes Using Progesterone Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M R..; Zarkawi, M.; Khalifa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional value of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca Linn) hay (whole plant), a salt-tolerant plant, was estimated by determinning its composition (ash, crude protein CP, crude fibre CF, ether extract EE, neutral-detergent fiber NDF, acid-detergent fiber ADF, acid-detergent lignin ADL); and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy of lactation (NEL) and gross energy (GE). Moreover, dry matter, energy and protein yields per hectar were also estimated. The effects of feeding Kallar grass hay to pregnant Awassi ewes on reproductive performance, serum progesterone changes using radioimmunoassay, and on birth and weaning weights of lambs born were also determined. Experimental ewes received daily 300 g of Kallar grass hay in addition to lentil straw and concentrates to cover their nutritional requirements. The results indicated that the nutritive components of Kallar grass were (g kg -1 dry matter): ash 96, CP 93, CF 290, EE 21, NDF 755, ADF 416 and ADL 94. IVOMD was 49.3%, and energy values (MJ kg -1 dry matter) were: GE 26.88, ME 6.41 and NEL 3.02. Dry matter and crude protein yields of Kallar grass hay were 7875 and 732 kg ha -1 , respectively, and the energy produced (MJ ha -1 ) was: GE 211680, ME 50479 and NEL 23783. Kallar grass had no effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant Awassi ewes duration, of pregnancy (150.1 ± 2.2 days), progesterone patterns, birth (4.7±1.0 kg) or on weaning weights (22.7 ± ≤ 5.5 kg) of lambs.

  4. Surveillance and management of estrous cycle in Awassi and Lacaune ewes during out of season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Bogdan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to increase fertility in sheep by applying modern biotechnology: induction and synchronization of estrous in non- breeding season. The ewes were divided into 3 equal batches. In all batches intravaginal sponge (Veramix/Intervet containing 60 mg of MPA was left in the vagina for 14 days. Immediately after removal of the sponge an injections of prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5ml/animal was administered in batch II. Batch III received two injections: PMSG hormone (Folligon/Intervet at the dose of 500 IU/animal and prostaglandin (Dinolytic/Pfizer at the dose of 12.5 mg (2,5 ml/animal. The research focused on several directions: assessment of estrous manifestation; occurrence of estrous interval after completion of hormonal therapy; duration of estrous; appreciation of gestation after the first and second estrous clinically manifested; percentage of fecundity. From the results obtained it follows that induction and synchronization of estrous in non-breeding season showed economic advantages by shortening the time needed for the installation of gestation, the possibility of lambing distribution, preparation and organization of mating.

  5. Effects of Long and Short-Term Progestagen Treatments Combined with PMSG on Oestrus Synchronization and Fertility in Awassi Ewes during the Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ustuner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization of oestrus has been used to increase reproductive efficiency in most animals, including ewes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of the length of a progestagen treatment (12 d vs. 6 d on synchronization efficiency (oestrus response, time to onset of oestrus and duration of oestrus and fertility rate using fluorogestone acetate (FGA progestagen sponge treatment with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG administration applied at different times of sponge removal. Ewes (n = 68 were divided into two groups; long term (LT, n = 33 and short term (ST, n = 35 groups treated with FGA progestagen sponges. At the end of intravaginal sponge treatment period the animals of each group were divided into the 3 subgroups in relation to time of PMSG (300 IU treatment. PMSG treatment was applied 24 h before sponge removal, at sponge removal and 24 h after sponge removal for LT1 and ST1, LT2 and ST2, and LT3 and ST3, respectively. Each ewe was inseminated intra-cervically twice with skim cow milk-diluted semen (1000 × 106 motile cells/ml 40 h and 60 h after sponge removal. Non-return rates (NRR-30 were monitored from 12 day after sponge removal to 30 day with the aid of teaser rams. Onsets of oestrus response and oestrus cessation were significantly different (P P P >. The NRR-30 and lambing rate of the ST and LT after timed AI were 35.7% and 31.0% and 32.1% and 28.6%, respectively (P > 0.05.

  6. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Awassi sheep flocks in north-east of Jordan: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, S Q; Talafha, A Q; Giadinis, N; Kalaitzakis, E; Pourliotis, K; Panousis, N

    2009-12-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted using 32 randomly selected Awassi sheep flocks to identify factors hypothesized to be associated with the occurrence of pregnancy, twinning and fetal loss between August 2005 and May 2006 in the region of Al-Safawi (northeast of Jordan). Vitamins A and E and selenium concentrations were determined on 448 blood samples. Using the forward selection procedure of the logistic regression module, models with statistically significant risk factors (P loss. Serum vitamin A concentration levels were associated with pregnancy (OR = 2.26, 2.48), twinning (OR = 6.49, 17.74) and fetal loss (OR = 0.13, 0.19). Primiparous ewes were 48% less likely to become pregnant than fourth or higher parity ewes. The likelihood of twinning increased significantly in ewes up to the third parity. Ewes that were fed 700-900 g barley, 250-300 g wheat-bran per head per day and grazed on vegetables residues were 4.15 times more likely to have twins than ewes that were fed 600 g barley and 200 g wheat-bran per head per day. Fetal loss in first and second parity ewes was about 3 times more likely than that in third or higher-parity ewes. Ewes pregnant with twins were about 14 times more likely to have fetal loss than ewes carrying single fetus. Pregnant ewes of the stationary flocks were 37% less likely to have fetal loss than ewes of the semi-nomadic flocks. These results demonstrate that stationary Awassi sheep flocks had higher pregnancy and twinning rates and less pregnancy loss. Supplementation of vitamin A, providing sufficient quantity of dry feed and increasing ram: ewe ratio for primiparous ewes of semi-nomadic flocks is essential to improve Awassi sheep reproductive performance.

  7. Milk yield and quality of Cres sheep and their crosses with Awassi and East Friesian sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boro Mioč

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish the impact of crossing the indigenous Cres sheep with Awassi and, respectively, Awassi and East Friesian sheep on the milk yield and quality. For this purpose, through regular monthly milk yield recordings a total of 824individual milk samples from 139 sheep in the second lactation of the same flock were collected, of which: 46 purebred Cres sheep, CS; 33 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep and 50 % Awassi, CA; 60 crosses with 50 % Cres sheep, 25 % Awassi and 25 % East Friesian, CAEF. The obtained results show a significant (P<0.05; P<0.01 impact of the genotype and the lactation stage on the yield and chemical composition of milk, and the somatic cell count. The most milk was yielded by CAEF crosses (690 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 133.8 L per lactation and the least by CS (340 mL/ewe/day, i.e., 58.48 L per lactation. The content of total solids, fat and protein increased as lactation advanced, whereas the trend of the lactose content was opposite. The highest content of total solids, fat and protein were established in the milk of the indigenous Cres sheep. A positive correlation was established between the amount of yielded milk and the somatic cell count, whereas a negative correlation was established between the amount of milk and the content of solids, fat and proteins.

  8. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6±4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7±7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ±0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32±3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age of about

  9. Characterization of certain reproductive parameters in Syrian female awassi sheep during different stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2002-08-01

    Two experiment were conducted on Syria female Awassi sheep to characterize some reproductive parameters during different reproductive stages. In the first experiment, 18 ewe lambs at 5 months of age were tested for a period extending for 16 months. The overall average age at puberty, as indicated by the sharp increase in progesterone concentration followed by regular oestrous cycles, was 18.0 ± 1.1 months (15.7-19.9 months), occurring between May and August (during the normal breeding season). There were no significant differences in the time to attain puberty among the ewe lambs in terms of their months of lambing, type of birth (singles or twins) of weaning weight. The average live weight of ewe lambs at the age of 5 months was 24.6 ± 4.6 kg, and at the attainment of puberty 53.7 ± 7.2 kg, while the average serum progesterone concentration at the age of 5 months was 0.27 ± 0.26 nmol l -1 , and at the attainment of puberty 6.32 ± 3.69 nmol l -1 . In the second experiment, 16 of the ewe lambs utilised in the first experiment were used at an age of 21 months for a period lasting for an additional 8 months. Female animals were divided, during the breeding season, into 2 equal groups, experimental (P) and control (C). All animals in both groups were treated with intravaginal sponges containing 40 mg of flugestone acetate (FGA) for a period of 14 days. However, only females in the P group were injected intramuscularly, at the sponge withdrawal, with 500 I of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG). Three fertile Awassi rams were introduced into both groups after 24 hours of sponge withdrawal for oestrus detection and mating. All the females exhibited oestrus and were mated within 3 days after sponge withdrawal. The twinning percentage was 37.5% in the females that were injected with PMSG as compared to 12.5% in the females that were not injected. It was concluded that Syrian Awassi ewe lams attain puberty during the second breeding season of their life at an age

  10. Induction of oestrus and early pregnancy diagnosis in Awassi sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M.R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    1997-12-01

    An experiment on Syrian Awassi ewes and yearlings was conducted out-side the normal breeding season to study the possibility of inducing oestrus and increasing birth rate as an attempt to improve the reproductive efficiency, in addition to evaluating the possibility of early pregnancy diagnosis using progesterone radioimmunoassay kits. One-hundred-and fifty-five local female awassi sheep (96 ewes and 59 ewe lambs) were divided into 4 groups. Group T1 (n= 50 ewes) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP) for 14 days followd by 600 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C1 (n= 46 ewes) received no treatment. Group T2 (n= 41 yearlings) were fitted with itravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of MAP for 14 days followed by 400 IU PMSG at sponge withdrawal, whereas the control group C2 (n= 18 yearlings) received no treatment. The females in both T1 and T2 groups responded to the hormonal treatment, and showed oestrus behaviour within 36-48 h of sponge withdrawal. Total oestrus rate was 96% and 92.7% for groups T1 and T2, respectively. Lambing rates were 80%, 32.6%, 78.0% and 5.6% for groups T1, C1, T2 and C2, respectively. Twinning rates increased to 32.5% and 33.3% for groups T1 and T2, respectively, compared to 6.7% and 0% for groups C1 and C2, respectively. There were no significant differences in pregnancy duration between groups T1 (151.7 ± 1.7 days), and T2 (154.4 ± 1.5 days), and between single (154.4 ± 1.8 daus and 151.5 ± 1.6 days) and twin-born lambs (151.7 ± 1.5 days and 150.8 ± 1.3 days) for single and twin born lambs in groups T1 and T2, respectively. Hormonal treatment had no effect on the overall average lamb birth weight, which was 4.3 ± 1.0 Kg, 4.4 ± 0.7 Kg and 3.9 ± 1.0 Kg for groups T1, C1, and T2, respectively, and the birth weight for the only lamb born in group C2 was 4.0 kg. However, average birth weight for single born lambs was

  11. Ewing sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone cancer - Ewing sarcoma; Ewing family of tumors; Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET); Bone neoplasm - Ewing sarcoma ... to the lungs and other bones. At the time of diagnosis, spread is seen in about one- ...

  12. Ewing`s Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Budny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is a small round-cell tumor typically arising in the bones, rarely in soft tissues, of children and adolescents. Clinical presentation is usually dominated by local bone pain and a mass. Magnetic resonance best defines the extent of the lesion. Patients diagnosed with Ewing's sarcoma within  last years show a improving  survival rate . Rehabilitation seems to be a crucial part of multimodal therapy.

  13. Early breeding and pregnancy diagnosis in Syrian awassi sheep yearlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merestani, M. R.; Zarkawi, M.; Wardeh, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-nine female yearlings of local Awassi sheep were randomly divided into 2 groups. Animals in group T (treated) were fitted with intravaginal sponges containing 60 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days followed by 400 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) at sponge withdrawal, whereas group C (control) received no treatment. Oestrus rate was 92.7% and 11.2% for groups T and C, respectively. Lambing rate was 78% and 5.6% for groups T and C, respectively. Twinning rate was 31.3% in group T compared to zero in group C. Average birth weight for single born lams (4.7 ± 0.6 kg) was significantly (P > 0.05) higher than twin born lams (3.0 ± 0.5 kg) in group T. The average concentration of blood progesterone collected between days 17-19 after mating was 19.30 nmol/1 and the accuracy of early pregnancy diagnosis was 100%. It was concluded that, it is possible to induce synchronized oestrus, and to increase the twinning rate in Syrian Awassi sheep yearlings outside the breeding season, using intravaginal sponges and PMSG. In addition, early pregnancy diagnosis could be successfully determined in female Awassi sheep yearlings between days 17-19 after-mating. (author)

  14. Ewe Pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberg, Nan; Kpotufe, Prosper

    This volume consists of a guide to Ewe pronunciation and an Ewe textbook designed for students who are native speakers of English. Consonants, vowels and tones are introduced in the first section, and exercises that drill the contrasts between the segments are provided. The volume is divided into five units, each unit including a dialogue,…

  15. Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamanoue, Satoshi; Makimoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most frequent primary bone cancer affecting children or young adults. Advances in molecular biology have revealed common chromosomal translocations such as EWS-FLI1 among Ewing sarcoma and related diseases such as primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), so these are considered as Ewing sarcoma family tumor (ESFT). Although fewer than 10% of patients with ESFT survived before establishment of modern multiagent chemotherapy, the multimodal therapeutic regimens including combination chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery can cure 60% of patients with localized disease, due to the collaborative research in European-American or the international trials. The standard chemotherapy for localized ESFT now comprises vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin (VACD) in Europe or vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide and etoposide (VDC-IE) in North America. Meanwhile, those with metastatic disease have a much worse outcome with an approximately 10-30% 5-year event-free survival rate. New American-European collaborative trials such as EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99 are in progress for further improvement of the cure rate in localized and metastatic ESFT. In Japan, Japan Ewing Sarcoma Study Group (JESS) phase II clinical trial for localized ESFT, and some clinical trials including new drugs are ongoing and waiting for results. (author)

  16. Stages of Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the ... Ewing sarcoma are usually done at the same time. The following tests and procedures may be used ...

  17. sarcome d'ewing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mai 2012 ... Le sarcome d'Ewing est une tumeur osseuse rare corres- pondant à la ... Introduction : petrous Ewing sarcoma is exceptional. We report a ..... (15) Iriz A, Albayrak L, Eryilmaz A. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's sarcoma of the.

  18. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  19. IRAQI BUFFALO NOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kh. ALsaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006, such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time. This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.

  20. General Information about Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. Ewing sarcoma has also been called peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor, Askin tumor (Ewing sarcoma of the ... Ewing sarcoma are usually done at the same time. The following tests and procedures may be used ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  2. SISTEMAS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE OVEJA AWASSI Y RENDIMIENTO REPRODUCTIVO: UNA EXPERIENCIA DEL MEDIO ORIENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami T. Kridli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jordania es un país predominantemente semiárido. La mayor parte de la tierra es incultivable y sólo se puede utilizar para el pastoreo de rumiantes pequeños. La oveja Awassi de cola gruesa es la raza nativa de ovejas en Jordania. Esta raza es popular por varias razones, tales como su adaptabilidad a ecosistemas difíciles, su producción lechera y por tener una carne con buenas características y un buen sabor. La industria ovejera en Jordania enfrenta muchos retos, el más importante es la escases de agua, que conlleva a una baja disponibilidad de forrajes y a un alza en los precios de los alimentos. A pesar de las dificultades, se realizan esfuerzos para mejorar la productividad de las ovejas Awassi mediante la selección, el cuidado veterinario, la evaluación de fuentes alternativas de alimentación y tratamientos hormonales para mejorar su fertilidad y fecundidad. Este estudio enfatiza la investigación principal llevada a cabo en ovejas Awassi en Jordania en la última década con un énfasis especial en el rendimiento reproductivo.

  3. Bacteriological cure rate and changes in milk composition in mastitis vaccinated ewes affected with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Z Bani; Hammouri, H M; Daradka, M H; Taha, S Al; Olymat, I

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of using a commercially-available polyvalent mastitis vaccine on the bacteriological cure rate of existing subclinical mastitis in Awassi sheep. A total of 164 lactating ewes were divided into two main groups according to udder health and milk somatic cell count (SCC): Group 1=normal (N; n=80) and Group 2=subclinical mastitis (SC; n=84). Each group was then subdivided randomly into two treatment groups: N vaccinated (N vax ; n=38), N non-vaccinated (N nvax ; n=42), SC vaccinated (SC vax ; n=42), and SC non-vaccinated (SC nvax ; n=42). The vaccine was administered as per manufacturer's recommendations. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all ewes before vaccine administration (T0) and again on days 28 (T2) and 42 (T3) of the experiment. In the SC group, the bacteriological cure rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 76% and 69%, respectively. In N group, the new intramammary infection rates in vaccinated and non-vaccinated ewes were 48% and 50%, respectively. Vaccination of normal ewes resulted in a significant (pewes on days 28 and 42 was 19% and 20%, respectively. The prevalence of new intramammary infection rate in N nvax group on days 28 and 42 was 33% and 30%, respectively. In SC vax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 44% and 35%, respectively. In SC nvax group, the bacterial growth rate on days 28 and 42 was 27% and 32%, respectively. There was no statistically significant effect of vaccination on any of the studied milk composition parameters. This is a preliminary study that indicated a possible protective effect of vaccination against mastitis in sheep. Further, case-controlled studies are indicated to estimate the level of immunity this vaccine provides to vaccinated sheep.

  4. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  5. Effects of intramammary infusion of sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil on milk somatic cell count, milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in Awassi sheep with subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekish, Myassar O; Ismail, Zuhair B; Awawdeh, Mofleh S; Shatnawi, Shoroq

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of intramammary infusion of sage ( Salvia officinalis ) essential oil (EO) on milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk composition parameters and selected hematology and serum biochemical parameters in 20 Awassi ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. The dried leaves of sage were used to extract the EO by hydrodistillation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of sage EO against Staphylococcus aureus were determined by the broth dilution method. Ewes were divided randomly into three main groups and received one of the following treatments; Group 1 (n=5): Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (5 ml; 0.2 ml of DMSO in 4.8 ml of saline), Group 2 (n=5): Amoxicillin alone (3 ml), and Group 3 (n=10): Sage EO (5 ml of sage EO solution [0.2 ml DMSO+1 ml EO+3.8 ml sterile saline]). All treatments were administered by intramammary infusion into each teat twice per day for 3 consecutive days. Milk samples for SCC and milk components determination and whole blood samples for hematology and serum biochemical analyses were collected before treatment (T0) and at 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) h after the last treatment. The MIC and MBC of sage EO against S. aureus were 12.5% and 6.1%, respectively. SCC was decreased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated groups. Milk fat and lactose were increased significantly (psage EO and amoxicillin treated ewes while no significant changes were observed in the percentages of solids-not-fat, protein and total solids. No significant effects of sage EO treatment on any of the hematology or serum biochemical parameters were observed. There were no local or systemic side effects observed in any of the treated ewes. However, further clinical trials are warranted to determine safety and possible withdrawal times in milk before its recommendation for use in organic operations. In this study, the intramammary infusion of sage EO to ewes affected with

  6. Imaging Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, C.B.; Grampp, S.; Kainberger, F.; Breitenseher, M.; Imhof, H.; Mostbeck, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasm of the bone whose origin is still uncertain. A strong relationship exists between Ewing's sarcoma and tumors of neural origin (Ewing family of tumors). Ewing's sarcoma must be distinguished from other round-cell tumors like lymphoma and neuroblastoma and also must be differentiated from osteogenic sarcomas. On plain radiographs, Ewing's sarcoma appears as a lytic or mixed lytic-sclerotic, rarely as predominantly sclerotic lesion with margins Lodwick grade III. It is located primarily in the diaphyseal and metadiaphyseal regions of the long bones of the lower extremities. A large soft tissue tumor is usually present. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate the extent of the primary lesion, to monitor the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and to follow up non-resected Ewing's sarcomas. Bone scintigraphy is necessary to detect skeletal metastasis, and 201 thallium scanning has been shown to be sensitive in the monitoring of treatment response. Today, computed tomography is not longer used to image the tumor site; however, spiral CT of the lungs plays a central role as a staging and follow-up tool. (orig.) [de

  7. Genetic distances and phylogenetic trees of different Awassi sheep populations based on DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed to estimate evolutionary distances and to reconstruct phylogeny trees between different Awassi sheep populations. Thirty-two sheep individuals from three different geographical areas of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were randomly sampled. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and sequenced using the T7 promoter universal primer. Different phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from 0.64-kb DNA sequences using the MEGA software with the best general time reverse distance model. Three methods of distance estimation were then used. The maximum composite likelihood test was considered for reconstructing maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees. The maximum likelihood tree indicated three major clusters separated by cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The greatest distance was shown between the South sheep and North sheep. On the other hand, the KSA sheep as an outgroup showed shorter evolutionary distance to the North sheep population than to the others. The neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees showed quite reliable clusters of evolutionary differentiation of Jordan sheep populations from the Saudi population. The overall results support geographical information and ecological types of the sheep populations studied. Summing up, the resulting phylogeny trees may contribute to the limited information about the genetic relatedness and phylogeny of Awassi sheep in nearby Arab countries.

  8. Ewe Basic Course. Revised Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Irene; And Others

    The purpose of this beginning text in Ewe is to provide the student with an introduction to the structure of the Ewe language and "reasonable practice" in speaking. It is intended to be taught with the assistance of a native speaker of Ewe. Linguistic terminology is minimal. Suggested teaching time ranges from two semesters of class meetings of…

  9. Primary Intradural Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seok Won; Shin, Ho

    2009-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises from skeletal bone, but rarely may have an extraskeletal origin. However, Ewing's sarcoma that originates around the spinal column, especially, the intradural extramedullary type is extremely rare. We report a rare case of primary intraspinal extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

  10. The EU should help Iraqi refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Carlsson

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are strong humanitarian reasons and close ties that underpin a Swedish commitment to Iraq. More than 100,000 Iraqis are living in Sweden and the numbers are rising. Europe could do more to provide humanitarian assistance and assist Iraqi refugees.

  11. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...

  12. Chemokines in Ewing sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sand, L.G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive primary malignant bone tumor with high degree of tumor vascularization and is the second most common sarcoma of bone in children and young adults. Patients with disseminated disease at diagnosis or early relapse have a poor prognosis. To identify novel therapies and

  13. Determination of Testosterone Level During Different Reproductive Stages and Affecting Factors in Syrian Awassi Male Lambs Throughout the Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhab, S.; Zarkawi, M.; Al-Masri, M. R.; Wardeh, M. F.; Kassem, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six Awassi ram lambs, aged between 5.0-5.5 months, represented two types of birth (single and twin) and two production lines (milk and meat) were used. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein once a week for a period of 2 months and then twice a month for the following 10 months. Plasma was prepared and stored frozen at -20 deg. C until analysed for testosterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). The effect of weight and age of lambs, type of birth and production line on testosterone level were studied. Results showed that there was only a significant effect (P -1 . This level was higher in the lambs of the milk than those of meat line (5.6 ± 0.7 vs. 3.9 ± 0.7 nmol l -1 ), and in the single than in twin births (5.8 ± 0.9 vs. 4.2 ± 0.6 nmol l -1 ), and the first peak occurred at 9 months of age. It was concluded that the level of testosterone in Awassi ram lambs increased with age. It was also concluded that the attainment of puberty in Awassi ram lambs based on the level of testosterone in the blood was at the age of 9 months. (authors)

  14. Iraqi Refugees in Jordan: Legal Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    OLWAN, Mohamed Y.

    2009-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan has traditionally been one of the regions most welcoming countries toward Iraqis. The country received several flows of Iraqis during the last four decades, but most of Iraqis residing in Jordan fled the precarious situation prevailing in Iraq following the U.S. –led invasion of Iraq in March 2003. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges or the 1967 Protocol on Refugee...

  15. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 1 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M; Lacey, James

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  16. Occupation Iraqi Freedom: The Importance of Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caston, Christine J

    2007-01-01

    ... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.

  17. Stability Operations: Learning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clay, Troy A

    2007-01-01

    U.S. strategy in Iraq after the removal of Saddam Hussein was to promote a democratic style of government and to conduct reconstruction of essential Iraqi infrastructure for the political and economic redevelopment of Iraq...

  18. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  19. EXTRA-OSSEOUS EWING SARCOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Hendrik; Heinen, Richard C.; van der Pal, Heleen J.; Merks, Johannes H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinical data and data on outcome of extra-osseous Ewing tumors are scarce. Procedure: After a search for Ewing tumors in the database of a single institution over a period of 20 years, 16 out of 192 cases were found to have extra-osseous primary tumors. Results: Ages at initial

  20. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  1. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  2. Effect of adaptation and heat stress on reproductive performances of fat-tail Awassi rams in eastern mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abi Saab, S.; Darwish, W.Y.; Aad, P.; Sleiman, F.T.; Kallassy, N.; Aad, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Awassi fat-tail sheep is desired in the Middle East and Sahara for its hardiness and resistance. In this region, the adaptability of Awassi rams to elevated heat stress is controversial. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of ambient or testicular 43 deg C heat on semen characteristics. 12 Awassi rams of 1.2 to 2 years were allowed an initial adaptation period (P0), followed by two experimental phases (P1 and P2), each including a period of heat stress (HS1 and HS2) followed by a period of recovery from heat stress (R1and R2). Heat stress conditions were considered when ambient temperature (Group 2) or testicular environment (Group 3) reached 42 to 44 deg C. Control animals (Group 1) were exposed to ambient environmental conditions. Temperature-humidity index (THI) as a relationship of ambient temperature, wet and dry humidity effect along with respiration and pulse rate, body temperature and live body weight (BW) were measured weekly as adaptation parameters. Reproductive parameters assessed included scrotum circumference and testicular volume measured twice per heat stress period, whereas semen volume density,concentration and motility were measured twice weekly. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS under a time series analysis model, with treatment and time nested within period as main effects, and treatment by time within period as interaction terms. Treatment means were separated using Fisher protected LSD. Results showed a THI of 25.7 during therest periods (R1 and R2), 30 during HS1 and 28 during HS2. BW decreased with ambient stress, whereas respiration rate increased during heat stress periods (HS1 and HS2). Testes volume decreased with both ambient and testicular heat stress, whereas testicular circumference was not affected by these conditions. Semen concentration decreased whereas semen volume increased with ambient but not testicular heat stress. Spermatozoa abnormalities increased in R1 following heat stress (HS1

  3. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  4. Promiscuous partnerships in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Savita; Lessnick, Stephen L

    2011-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive bone and soft tissue tumor of children and young adults. At the molecular genetic level Ewing's sarcoma is characterized by a balanced reciprocal translocation, t(11;22)(q24;q12), which encodes an oncogenic fusion protein and transcription factor EWS/FLI. This tumor-specific chimeric fusion retains the amino terminus of EWS, a member of the TET (TLS/EWS/TAF15) family of RNA-binding proteins, and the carboxy terminus of FLI, a member of the ETS family of transcription factors. In addition to EWS/FLI, variant translocation fusions belonging to the TET/ETS family have been identified in Ewing's sarcoma. These studies solidified the importance of TET/ETS fusions in the pathogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma and have since been used as diagnostic markers for the disease. EWS fusions with non-ETS transcription factor family members have been described in sarcomas that are clearly distinct from Ewing's sarcoma. However, in recent years there have been reports of rare fusions in "Ewing's-like tumors" that harbor the amino-terminus of EWS fused to the carboxy-terminal DNA or chromatin-interacting domains contributed by non-ETS proteins. This review aims to summarize the growing list of fusion oncogenes that characterize Ewing's sarcoma and Ewing's-like tumors and highlights important questions that need to be answered to further support the existing concept that Ewing's sarcoma is strictly a "TET/ETS" fusion-driven malignancy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of action of the various different fusion oncogenes will provide better insights into the biology underlying this rare but important solid tumor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.) [de

  6. Ewing's sarcoma of the patella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, Natalia; Dickson, Brendan C; Wunder, Jay S; Bleakney, Robert

    2013-05-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a relatively rare malignancy, occurring mainly between 4 and 25 years of age. It usually arises from the pelvis, followed by the femur, tibia, and remainder of both the long bones of the extremities and flat bones of the axial skeleton. To the best of our knowledge, Ewing's sarcoma of the patella has never been reported previously. Patellar tumors occur infrequently and represent an uncommon etiology of anterior knee pain. We describe the rare case of a 41-year-old man who presented with a 3-4 month history of escalating right anterior knee pain and swelling. Imaging demonstrated an aggressive patellar tumor with an adjacent soft tissue mass. The diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma was confirmed by pathology. Physicians should be aware of atypical locations for Ewing's sarcoma and, conversely, of rare tumors arising in the patella and accounting for anterior knee pain. Early recognition of such malignancies allows prompt initiation of treatment, hence improving prognosis.

  7. Iraqi Refugee High School Students' Academic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…

  8. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds

  9. Iraqi Navy: Capability Requirements and Force Structure Recommendations for 2015 and Beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawlor, Alison C; Thompson, Eric V

    2008-01-01

    .... The goal of this study is two-fold: to provide Iraqi and Coalition personnel with a common assessment of capability requirements and force structure recommendations for the Iraqi Navy, and to provide the Iraqi Navy leadership...

  10. Radiological Findings of Primary Retroperitoneal Ewing Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulusan, S.; Koc, Z.; Tuba Canpolat, E.; Colakoglu, T. [Depts. of Radiology, Pathology, and General Surgery, Baskent Univ. Faculty of Medicine, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-09-15

    Ewing sarcomas are most commonly located in bone, while extra skeletal involvement of the retroperitoneum is extremely rare. We describe the radiologic and pathological findings in an adult patient with retroperitoneal extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma. Keywords: Color Doppler ultrasound; computed tomography; extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound.

  11. Radiological Findings of Primary Retroperitoneal Ewing Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulusan, S.; Koc, Z.; Tuba Canpolat, E.; Colakoglu, T.

    2007-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas are most commonly located in bone, while extra skeletal involvement of the retroperitoneum is extremely rare. We describe the radiologic and pathological findings in an adult patient with retroperitoneal extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma. Keywords: Color Doppler ultrasound; computed tomography; extra skeletal Ewing sarcoma; magnetic resonance imaging; ultrasound

  12. Dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Nsir, Atef; Boughamoura, Mohamed; Maatouk, Mezri; Kilani, Mohamed; Hattab, Nejib

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the central nervous system is an uncommon condition and debate concerning the true origin of its metastases is still up to date. To the best of our knowledge, only two cases of dural metastatic Ewing's sarcoma have been published in the English medical literature. We present an additional case in a 24-year-old female and discuss the pathogenesis of these unusual tumors with review of the relevant literature concerning their treatment and outcome. A 24-year-old female with previous history of pelvis Ewing's sarcoma and recently discovered lung metastases, presented with moderate headache for the past 2 weeks and weakness in her left leg for the past 2 days. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extra-axial right frontoparietal mass invading the superior sagittal sinus but with clear delineation with brain parenchyma. Imaging features were suggestive of a meningioma as no abnormalities in the skull abutting to the tumor were noted. The patient underwent surgical removal of her tumor. Near total resection was achieved and histological examination showed evidence of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. Postoperative adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy were administered. The patient improved well postoperatively with full recovery of her motor weakness. She is symptom free with no signs of progression, at most recent follow-up, 8 months after surgery. Despite its rarity, metastatic Ewing's sarcoma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses particularly meningiomas.

  13. 'Jail break' made by Iraqi oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of Iran's policy turn-about of allowing ships smuggling Iraqi crude oil to sail through its coastal waters, out of reach of UN and US ships patrolling the Persian Gulf, are discussed. It is suspected that the change in Iranian policy may be due to the fact that an infusion of Iraqi oil on the international markets would suit Iran's purposes by reducing the need for OPEC to raise production quotas. Iran is known to be opposed to an increase of production by OPEC members. At the same time, developments in US-Iranian relations and in the international oil market also have to be considered as factors influencing the Iranian position on this issue

  14. Skin Colour Analysis of Iraqi Kurdish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patient’s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...

  15. Extra osseous primary Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Muhammad, Agha Taj; Soomro, Abdul Ghani; Siddiqui, Akmal Jamal

    2010-01-01

    The case of 20 years old boy with an extra osseous Ewing's sarcoma is described. He was initially diagnosed as a case of infiltrative malignant tumour of left suprarenal gland on the basis of preoperative workup but postoperative biopsy of surgically excised specimen confirmed Extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma (EES) suprarenal gland with no evidence of malignancy on skeletal scintiscan, bone marrow aspirate and histopathology Suprarenal location of primary EES is unknown and probably has not been reported in literature. We report a unique case of EES.

  16. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 2 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  17. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 5 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  18. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 3 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  19. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woods, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...

  20. Concluding Remarks | Ewing | Rwanda Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Concluding Remarks. Helen Ewing. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  1. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  2. Ewing's sarcoma, a rare but dangerous tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus Maksha Dabkana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma or Ewing tumor is a rare primary bone tumor that affects mainly children and adolescents. It belongs to a group of cancers known collectively as Ewing sarcoma family tumors or Ewing family tumors. By the time, the patients present and diagnosis is made, the disease is usually advanced. We reviewed the case files of two patients managed in our hospital within one (2013. Fine-needle aspirations for cytology (FNAC and tissue biopsy were used for diagnosis in the two patients we had. The two patients, both males aged 20 years and 38 years presented late and FNAC and tissue biopsy revealed Ewing's sarcoma. They were referred for radio- and chemotherapy. However, due to poor socioeconomic status, they died of their primary disease. Unless diagnosed early, and in the absence of a multidisciplinary approach, Ewing's sarcoma is a fatal disease.

  3. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma is a rapidly growing mesenchymal tumor in young adults. Although it was shown previously to express the cholecystokinin (CCK) gene, it is unknown whether CCK gene expression is detectable at protein level in Ewing sarcoma tumor cell lines, in tumor tissue, and in plasma from...... Ewing sarcoma patients, and, if so, whether CCK peptides might play a role as tumor markers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CCK gene expression was evaluated with in situ hybridization or reverse transcription-PCR in tumor tissue. CCK precursors and bioactive CCK were measured with specific RIAs in tumor tissue......, in cell culture medium, and in plasma of Ewing sarcoma patients before and after chemotherapy as well as after tumor recurrence. RESULTS: CCK mRNA was identified in 12 Ewing sarcoma biopsies sampled in two series and in four Ewing sarcoma cell lines but not in unrelated neoplasia. Immunoreactive pro...

  4. Effect of supplementary feeding to ewes and suckling lambs on ewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial was conducted to determine the effects on the performance of creep feeding suckling lambs and supplementing ewes that were grazing wheat stubble. Eight experimental units of South African Mutton Merino (SAMM) ewes and lambs were used in a 2 (supplementing ewes or not) x 2 (creep feeding lambs or not) ...

  5. Iraqi oil industry slowly returning to normal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged

  6. Some wholesomeness studies on irradiated Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)

  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-14

    Managemen 15.6.6 Results Related t 15.6.7 NCOs and Multiple-Deployments 15.6.8 Validated Trainin 15.6.9 Theater Suicide Prevention Program and Suicide...include mental health providers who have deployed to the IT0 and are experienced using AHLTA- T . As noted above, as the operational theater matures in...Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08 14 February 2008 Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force-Iraq and Office

  8. Maintaining Discrimination in Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    influenced and do not draw as much scrutiny from coalition  forces. Children are primarily being used by Iraqi insurgents to  plant  roadside bombs or  as...conduct must also mean that there needs to be a group to which these standards are  assigned—the soldier class.    Though there are  warts  to the

  9. Ewing Sarcoma: An Eponym Window to History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P. Cripe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma was named after James R. Ewing, an eminent American pathologist at Cornell who described the first cases in 1921. Although he is best remembered for this singular achievement, Ewing's contributions to the study of cancer were far more profound and influential. He essentially launched oncology as a discipline with the publication of his seminal textbook and founded the major American cancer societies that exist today. His vision of comprehensive cancer centers still drives our research infrastructure. Since his initial report, these organizations have helped us achieve numerous milestones in understanding and treating patients with Ewing sarcoma.

  10. Adrenal Ewing's Sarcoma in an Elderly Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Kazuyoshi; Ishii, Sumiyasu; Yasuoka, Hidetoshi; Nishioka, Masaki; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Horiguchi, Kazuhiko; Tomaru, Takuya; Ozawa, Atsushi; Shibusawa, Nobuyuki; Satoh, Tetsurou; Koshi, Hiromi; Segawa, Atsuki; Shimizu, Shin-Ichi; Oyama, Tetsunari; Yamada, Masanobu

    2018-02-15

    Ewing's sarcoma usually arises in the bones of children and adolescents. We herein report a 74-year-old man with Ewing's sarcoma in the adrenal gland. The diagnosis was confirmed by a genetic test, pathological studies, and several imaging studies. He already had multiple liver metastases when he was transferred to our hospital and died on the 37th day. The diagnosis was further confirmed by autopsy studies. Adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare, and our patient was older than other reported cases. Ewing's sarcoma should be considered even in elderly patients with adrenal tumors.

  11. Iraqi violence, Saudi attack and further bombings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-03-15

    Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)

  12. Testing and Demonstrating Speaker Verification Technology in Iraqi-Arabic as Part of the Iraqi Enrollment Via Voice Authentication Project (IEVAP) in Support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Withee, Jeffrey W; Pena, Edwin D

    2007-01-01

    This thesis documents the findings of an Iraqi-Arabic language test and concept of operations for speaker verification technology as part of the Iraqi Banking System in support of the Iraqi Enrollment...

  13. Iraqi Perspectives Project. A View of Operation Iraqi Freedom from Saddam’s Senior Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Pokemon ” really represented a subterfuge by international Zionism to undermine Iraq’s security. Supposedly, “ Pokemon ” meant “I am Jewish” in Hebrew. They...found the fact that the Pokemon character was “widely beloved by Iraqi youth” particularly alarming.22 Once secure in power Saddam Hussein saw...Report on a Cartoon Character Called ‘ Pokemon ’ from Direc- torate of General Security.” This Directorate of General Security report states that the name of

  14. Lambing behaviour of Merino ewes from lines subjected to divergent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No line difference was observed in the period that ewes spent grooming. Ewes caring for viable multiples groomed their offspring for a longer period than those caring for singles. Mature ewes tended to groom their lambs for a longer period than primi-parous maidens. A higher proportion of High (H) line ewes groomed their ...

  15. Ewing's Sarcoma Localized in the Mandible: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Akbayram, S; Başaranoglu, M; Kaya, A; Açıkgöz, M; Üstyol, L; Taşkın, GA; Dogan, M

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the most aggressive primary bone tumours. Ewing's sarcoma arising from the bones of the head and neck region is extremely rare; only 4–9% of all Ewing's sarcoma originate in this region. We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma localized in the mandible because of its unusual presentation.

  16. Body weight and reproductive parameters in fast and weak growing Awassi ram lambs during different age stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkawi, Moutaz; Al-Daker, Al-Moutassem Billah

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out on 30 Syrian Awassi ram lambs around 3 months of age. Lambs were divided equally in 2 groups as fast growing (FG) and weak growing (WG) lambs to identify body weight and reproductive parameters in each group during different age stages. Blood samples were collected to determine testosterone and leptin concentrations using radioimmunoassay. At puberty, average body weight and age of FG and WG lambs was 52.4 and 43.1 kg, and 225.9 and 248.0 days, respectively, with a significant (P age (below 1.0 nmol L(-1)) and increased with advancing age with a sharp increase occurring at 7 months of age and at puberty, averages were 12.58 and 11.86 nmol L(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) differences. At puberty, average leptin concentration was 3.16 and 2.98 ng mL(-1) for FG and WG groups, respectively, with no significant (P > 0.05) difference.

  17. Imaging characteristics of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wai-Yung; Saunders, Dawn E.; Brock, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma accounts for 10-15% of all childhood malignant bone tumours and is second in prevalence to osteosarcoma. The skull bones are an unusual site of origin of primary Ewing sarcoma in children. Previous reports concentrate on the neurosurgical aspects and relatively good outcome compared to other bone tumours of the calvarium. Reported cases mainly describe the imaging characteristics on CT. To describe the MRI and CT features of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma. The neuroimaging of three cases of primary cranial Ewing sarcoma are reviewed. Our three cases show an extra-axial mass that is high attenuation on CT and low signal on T2-weighted MRI. Haemorrhagic components, dural extension and contrast enhancement are also characteristic features. CT attenuation and magnetic resonance signal characteristics reflect sheets of densely packed cells seen in Ewing sarcoma. (orig.)

  18. An Argument for Documenting Casualties: Violence Against Iraqi Civilians 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Katharine; Stahl, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The problem of measuring the number of civilian fatalities in Iraq gained widespread media coverage when the Lancet published a study in October 2004 claiming that more than 100,000 Iraqi civilians...

  19. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  20. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2008-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  1. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20, 2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...

  2. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20,2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...

  3. Development and Reform of the Iraqi Police Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...

  4. Development and Reform of the Iraqi Police Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pfaff, Tony

    2008-01-01

    .... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...

  5. Reporting Iraqi civilian fatalities in a time of war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olander William E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war.

  6. Grammar Errors in the Writing of Iraqi English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the grammatical errors of Iraqi postgraduates and undergraduates in their academic writing. However, few studies have focused on the writing challenges that Iraqi pre-university students face. This research aims at examining the written discourse of Iraqi high school students and the common grammatical errors they make in their writing. The study had a mixed methods design. Through convenience sampling method, 112 compositions were collected from Iraqi pre-university students. For purpose of triangulation, an interview was conducted. The data was analyzed using Corder’s (1967 error analysis model and James’ (1998 framework of grammatical errors. Furthermore, Brown’s (2000 taxonomy was adopted to classify the types of errors. The result showed that Iraqi high school students have serious problems with the usage of verb tenses, articles, and prepositions. Moreover, the most frequent types of errors were Omission and Addition. Furthermore, it was found that intralanguage was the dominant source of errors. These findings may enlighten Iraqi students on the importance of correct grammar use for writing efficacy.

  7. Ewing's Sarcoma and Second Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Schiffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is a rare tumor that is most common in children and young adults. Late effects of ES therapy include second cancers, a tragic outcome for survivors of such a young age. This paper will explore the frequencies and types of malignancies that occur after ES. Additionally, it will review how second malignancies have changed with the shift in treatment from high-dose radiation to chemotherapy regimens including alkylators and epipodophyllotoxins. The risk of additional cancers in ES survivors will also be compared to survivors of other childhood cancers. Finally, the possible genetic contribution to ES and second malignancies will be discussed.

  8. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilip Kumar; Chandra, Vipin; Ranjan, Kumar Rajiv; Chakrabortty, Debasis; Banerjee, Manju

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) or primitive neuro-ectodermal tumor (PNET) typically occurs in long or flat bones, the chest wall, extra-skeletal soft tissue, and rarely in solid organs. Incidence of adrenal Ewing's sarcoma is very rare. Here we report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the right adrenal gland in an 8-year-old girl who presented with an abdominal mass. The huge tumor was managed by preoperative neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical resection. She died due to metastasis after five months of surgery.

  9. Cell Cycle Deregulation in Ewing's Sarcoma Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Ashley A.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive pediatric tumor of bone that usually contains the characteristic chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12). This translocation encodes the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/FLI, which acts as an aberrant transcription factor to deregulate target genes necessary for oncogenesis. One key feature of oncogenic transformation is dysregulation of cell cycle control. It is therefore likely that EWS/FLI and other cooperating mutations in Ewing's sarcoma modulate the cell cycle to facilitate tumorigenesis. This paper will summarize current published data associated with deregulation of the cell cycle in Ewing's sarcoma and highlight important questions that remain to be answered. PMID:21052502

  10. Cell Cycle Deregulation in Ewing's Sarcoma Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Kowalewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive pediatric tumor of bone that usually contains the characteristic chromosomal translocation t(11;22(q24;q12. This translocation encodes the oncogenic fusion protein EWS/FLI, which acts as an aberrant transcription factor to deregulate target genes necessary for oncogenesis. One key feature of oncogenic transformation is dysregulation of cell cycle control. It is therefore likely that EWS/FLI and other cooperating mutations in Ewing's sarcoma modulate the cell cycle to facilitate tumorigenesis. This paper will summarize current published data associated with deregulation of the cell cycle in Ewing's sarcoma and highlight important questions that remain to be answered.

  11. 77 FR 7243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0728] Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs...

  12. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awawdeh, M S; Obeidat, B S

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (pcomparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  13. 76 FR 72243 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment... Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and...: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB...

  14. 76 FR 58565 - Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... solicits comments on information provided to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans... information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill...

  15. A Study of Apology Strategies Used by Iraqi EFL University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…

  16. plasma luteinizing horiione leveis in ewes failing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean plasrm LH bvels duing livc consecutive. &yr, in the various .... ewes in continuous contact with rams (least square ana- ... (Nankin & Troen, 1972; Root, De-Cherney, Russ, Duckett, ... Such fluctuations in hormone levels can have an.

  17. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  18. (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... decreased luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in fasted prepubertal ewes .... kisspeptin-10 injection could restore the baseline levels of. LH changed by ..... Terasawa E (2005). Role of GABA in the mechanism of the onset of.

  19. Analysing the Improper Pronunciation of Diphthongs by Iraqi EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhalad Malik Almutalabi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims at analysing the improper pronunciation of Iraqi EFL learners concerning the pronunciation of diphthongs in words of various syllables. It describes and identifies thoroughly the mispronunciations of such important sounds in English language. The study attempts at analysing such mispronunciations by clarifying and assigning the phonetic deviations of Iraqi EFL learners when they pronounce diphthongs. So the main objective of the study is to analyse the errors committed by Iraqi learners in the pronunciation of diphthongs grouping each error into its specific category. To verify the objective of the paper, 25 Iraqi EFL learners from the department of English at Cihan University/ Slemani are chosen to be the main participants of the study. The test which was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of English contained 10 words comprising various diphthongs. The results clearly revealed that mispronouncing English diphthongs by Iraqi EFL were mostly observed by replacing the required diphthong with another improper one and they also tended to use simple vowels instead of the correct required diphthongs.

  20. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the right ventricle

    OpenAIRE

    Datrice, Nicole; Milliken, Jeffrey; Kirsh, M.; Abolhoda, Amir; Saremi, Farhood; Sender, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a round cell neoplasm derived from neural crest cells that is part of the primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family. It is a rare, aggressive malignancy that affects young people, most commonly in the second decade of life. The treatment of localized disease has improved greatly over the past four decades, but the prognosis for metastatic disease remains poor. Cardiac metastases of Ewing's sarcoma are exceedingly rare, with only a few reported cases. This...

  1. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  2. Primary Disseminated Multifocal Ewing Sarcoma: Results of the Euro-EWING 99 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladenstein, Ruth; Pötschger, Ulrike; Le Deley, Marie Cécile; Whelan, Jeremy; Paulussen, Michael; Oberlin, Odile; van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Hjorth, Lars; Michon, Jean; Lewis, Ian; Craft, Alan; Jürgens, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To improve the poor prognosis of patients with primary disseminated multifocal Ewing sarcomas (PDMES) with a dose-intense treatment concept. Patients and Methods From 1999 to 2005, 281 patients with PDMES were enrolled onto the Euro-EWING 99 R3 study. Median age was 16.2 years (range, 0.4 to

  3. Comparison of energy rationing systems for late gestation ewes: Impacts on ewe and lamb performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, F P; McGovern, F M; Lott, S; Fahey, A G; Creighton, P; Boland, T M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the effects of a ME () or a NE () system for rationing ewes during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance and 2) to investigate incremental increases in NE allocation above 100% of recommendation during late gestation on ewe and progeny performance. Fifty-two twin-bearing ewes ( = 13 per treatment) were rationed to either 100% of recommended ME requirements (100% ME) or 100, 110, or 120% of recommended NE requirements (100% NE, 110% NE, and 120% NE) from d 112 of gestation to parturition. Mean energy intake, measured as ME and NE, from Day 112 of gestation to parturition was higher in all NE treatments compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.01). Ewes offered the 3 NE treatments had a higher live weight at parturition compared with 100% ME ewes ( = 0.02), with 100% NE and 120% NE ewes still being heavier than 100% ME ewes at 35 d postpartum ( = 0.02). Increasing NE allowance resulted in a linear decrease in the level of BCS loss prepartum ( = 0.01) and a linear increase in the level of BCS loss postpartum ( = 0.01). There was no difference observed between any of the treatments in total colostrum produced to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.29) or in total colostrum intake to 18 h postpartum ( = 0.27). Increasing maternal NE allowance led to a linear increase in lamb serum IgG concentration at 24 h postpartum ( = 0.03). The estimated milk production of 120% NE ewes tended to be higher than all other treatments at wk 6 of lactation ( = 0.08). Colostral SFA levels from 100% ME ewes was lower than that of all 3 NE treatments ( = 0.01), and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels in colostrum of the 100% ME ewes were lower than those of the 100% NE ewes ( = 0.01). Cumulative levels of milk SFA, UFA, and MUFA did not differ between treatments ( = 0.19). Lamb growth rates during the first 5 wk postpartum were unaffected by treatment ( = 0.18) as were days to slaughter ( = 0.34). It can be concluded that both ME and NE systems used in this

  4. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzger A. Abdula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bottom hole temperature (BHT data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area. The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and northeastern parts of the area. The average regional geothermal gradient for Iraqi Kurdistan is 21 °C/km.

  5. ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Dally

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la tasa de ovulación, parición, tamaño de la camada y supervivencia embrionaria, 225 borregas de siete genotipos se examinaron mediante endoscopio 7-8 días después de su cruza. Como resultado se encontró que un mayor número de ovulaciones unilaterales sencillas y dobles procedieron del ovario derecho (P0.05. Por otra parte, no se encontró diferencia en la supervivencia embrionaria (P>0.01 al comparar entre ovulaciones sencillas, dobles y triples (69.8%, 76.0% y 63.0%, respectivamente ni entre las ovulaciones unilaterales y bilaterales. La línea cuatera Targhee seleccionada (TW produjo las camadas más numerosas (media = 2.0±1.4 mientras que el rebaño Targhee comercial produjo las menos numerosas. La línea ½ Targhee, ¼ Barbados, ¼ Dorset mostró la tasa de parición mayor (94%, seguida de la Polypay (87%, sin encontrarse diferencia (P>0.05 entre estas dos líneas. Se concluye que: el ovario derecho es más activo que el izquierdo en cuanto a la producción de óvulos, de entre los genotipos estudiados; las ovulaciones dobles fueron más frecuentes que las sencillas y triples, y la línea cuatera Targhee seleccionada produjo las camadas más numerosas en comparación con el hato comercial Targhee o sus cruzas.

  6. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdula, Rzger A.

    2016-01-01

    Bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km) was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area). The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km) were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and...

  7. Impact of the ovarian cycle and pregnancy on plasma chemistry values in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywicki, Micaela E; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J

    2018-03-01

    Normative data for plasma chemistry values in pregnant and non-pregnant reproductive age ewes are scant. Availability of data would aid monitoring of ewe health for both research and veterinary medicine. We determined specific plasma chemistry 95% confidence reference intervals (RIs) in non-pregnant and pregnant ewes. Mixed Western-breed ewes were grouped based on phase of ovarian cycle: luteal ( n = 15), follicular ( n = 17), or late-gestation pregnant ( n = 102). Plasma samples were collected for analysis on a commercial biochemical analyzer. For RIs, chemistry panels for the 3 groups of ewes included nutrients and metabolites (glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and bilirubin), enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), and micronutrients (calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, potassium, and chloride). Sample chemistry values for glucose and total protein in pregnant ewes were lower than in follicular ewes; cholesterol was lower in pregnant and luteal ewes than in follicular ewes. In addition, total bilirubin in pregnant ewes differed from that in luteal ewes, and that in follicular ewes also differed from luteal ewes. ALP in pregnant ewes was higher than other groups; phosphorus in pregnant ewes was lower than in luteal ewes. Iron was higher in pregnant ewes than in luteal ewes, with iron in luteal ewes lower than in follicular ewes. These data provide clinical RIs comparing pregnant and non-pregnant ewes for use in monitoring ewe health in both human research and veterinary medicine.

  8. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  9. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour of breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, S M; Kenneth, V K T; Seoparjoo, A; Zin, A A M

    2013-06-21

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma belongs to the Ewing's family of tumours. Primary tumours arising from breast are very rare. There are only a few case reports published on primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma and PNET arising from breast. We present an extremely rare case of an inoperable primary Ewing's sarcoma arising from left breast with contralateral breast, lymphatic and lung metastasis.

  10. Conception rate and fecundity of Dohne Merino ewes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety-two 3-year-old Dohne Merino ewes were used in the trial and allocated to irrigated-lucerne equal-sized paddocks of 0.85 ha. Rotational grazing was applied at a stocking rate of 15 ewes per hectare, with rams left with the ewes continuously. A self-formulated creep feed and lick was provided to the lambs and ewes, ...

  11. Calm Merino ewes have a higher ovulation rate and more multiple pregnancies than nervous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lier, E; Hart, K W; Viñoles, C; Paganoni, B; Blache, D

    2017-07-01

    In 1990, two selection lines of Merino sheep were established for low and high behavioural reactivity (calm and nervous temperament) at the University of Western Australia. Breeding records consistently showed that calm ewes weaned 10% to 19% more lambs than the nervous ewes. We hypothesise that calm ewes could have a higher ovulation rate than nervous ewes and/or calm ewes could have a lower rate of embryo mortality than nervous ewes. We tested these hypotheses by comparing the ovulation rate and the rate of embryo mortality between the calm and nervous lines before and after synchronisation and artificial insemination. Merino ewes from the temperament selection lines (calm, n=100; nervous, n=100) were synchronised (early breeding season) for artificial insemination (day 0) (intravaginal sponges containing fluogestone acetate and eCG immediately after sponge withdrawal). On day-17 and 11 ovarian cyclicity and corpora lutea, and on days 30 and 74 pregnancies and embryos/foetuses were determined by ultrasound. Progesterone, insulin and leptin concentrations were determined in blood plasma samples from days 5, 12 and 17. Ovarian cyclicity before and after oestrus synchronisation did not differ between the lines, but ovulation rate did (day-17: calm 1.63; nervous 1.26; Pewes was higher than on day-17. Loss of embryos by day 30 was high (calm: 71/150; nervous: 68/130); but nervous ewes had a lower proportion (15/47) of multiple pregnancies compared with calm ewes (30/46; Pewes had higher insulin (32.0 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; P=0.013) and lower leptin (1.18 μg/l±0.04 SEM; P=0.002) concentrations than calm ewes (insulin: 27.8 pmol/l±1.17 SEM; leptin: 1.35 μg/l±0.04 SEM). The differences in reproductive outcomes between the calm and nervous ewes were mainly due to a higher ovulation rate in calm ewes. We suggest that reproduction in nervous ewes is compromised by factors leading up to ovulation and conception, or the uterine environment during early pregnancy, that reflect

  12. The Stalled Recovery of the Iraqi Marshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Becker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi (Mesopotamian Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, has been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. In the period leading up to the Second Gulf War in 2002, the marshlands were shrinking due to both a policy of draining and water diversion in Iraq and construction of dams upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Following the war through 2006, this trend was reversed as the diversions were removed and active draining stopped. A combination of MODIS and GRACE datasets were used to determine the change in surface water area (SWA in the marshes, marshland extent and change in mass both upriver in the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds and in the marshlands. Results suggest that the post war dam removal and decreased pumping in 2003 provided only temporary respite for the marshlands (2003–2006 SWA: 1,477 km2 increase (600%, water equivalent depth (WED: +2.0 cm/yr.; 2006–2009: −860 km2 (−41% WED: −3.9 cm/yr.. Unlike in the period 2003–2006, from 2006 forward the mass variations in the marshes are highly correlated with those in the upper and middle watershed (R = 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, suggesting that any recovery due to that removal is complete, and that all future changes are tied more strongly to any climate changes that will affect recharge in the upper Tigris-Euphrates system. Precipitation changes in the watershed show a reduction of an average of 15% below the 15 yr mean in 2007–2011 This corresponds with published ensemble predictions for the 2071–2099 time period, that suggested similar marshland shrinkage should be expected in that time period.

  13. Genetic and environmental parameters for ewe productivity in Merinos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of 3272 lambing records collected on 818 ewes born from 689 dams and sired by 371 rams were used in the evaluation of ewe lifetime productivity (total number born, number weaned and total weight weaned). These records were collected from ewes born from 1969 to 1994 and which gave birth during the period ...

  14. Taste preferences of west African dwarf ewes at different trimester ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taste preferences of pregnant West African dwarf (WAD) ewes were studied at different trimester periods using the multiple choice preference test method. A total of twelve WAD ewes of average body weight of 15.96 ± 4.17 kg, divided into two groups (A and B) were used for the study. Six pregnant ewes (in group A) served ...

  15. Ewe (for Togo): Grammar Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R.

    This handbook is composed of: (1) 20 grammar lessons; (2) an introduction to the handbook and to the Ewe language; (3) an appendix presenting the most important differences between Ewe and Mina, the lingua franca in the capital and in markets, offices, and work-sites throughout Togo; (4) answers to written summary exercises; (5) an Ewe-English…

  16. Mechanisms of Ewing sarcoma metastasis : biochemistry and biophysics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beletkaia, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a special type of bone cancer, first described by Dr. James Ewing in his paper ‘Diffusive endothelioma of bone’. Today Ewing sarcoma represents the second most common bone cancer among adolescents and young adults. Contrary to the positive achievement in treatment of localized

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2007-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a small round-cell tumor typically arising in the bones, rarely in soft tissues, of children and adolescents. Ewing's sarcoma has retained the most unfavorable prognosis of all primary musculoskeletal tumors. Prior to the use of multi-drug chemotherapy, long-term survival was less than 10%. The development of multi-disciplinary therapy with chemotherapy, irradiation, and surgery has increased current long-term survival rates in most clinical centers to greater than 50%. In addition, the preferred method of tumor resection has changed; limb salvage has nearly replaced amputation of the affected limb. Limb salvage procedures can be performed in place of amputation without compromising patient survival rates. Recent studies have revealed that the pathognomonic translocations involving the EWS gene on chromosome 22 and an ETS-type gene, which is most commonly the Fli1 gene on chromosome 11, are implicated in more than 95% of Ewing's sarcomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors and Askin's tumors. Therefore, these lesions have become regarded as a single entity, dubbed the Ewing's family of tumors. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect EWS-ETS gene arrangements is widely used to confirm the diagnosis of Ewing's family of tumors. Experimental results suggest that inhibition of the signaling pathway downstream of the EWS-ETS gene may lead to the development of molecularly targeted therapy in the future. (author)

  18. Investigating the Speech Act of Correction in Iraqi EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…

  19. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in an Iraqi population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Diez, Isabel E; Moncada, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    (ST) values were statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were performed between the 18 populations. The Iraqi population did not show significant difference from the population in Turkey and it grouped together with other Middle-Eastern populations when a multidimensional scaling plot was drawn...

  20. Women and Learning in the Iraqi War Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangana, Haifa

    2008-01-01

    Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…

  1. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Awawdeh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC or acid-treated SOC (ASOC olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05 SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment. Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05 faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03 hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid.

  2. Targeted Therapy of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Subbiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory and/or recurrent Ewing's sarcoma (EWS remains a clinical challenge because the disease's resistance to therapy makes it difficult to achieve durable results with standard treatments that include chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Recently, insulin-like-growth-factor-1-receptor (IGF1R antibodies have been shown to have a modest single-agent activity in EWS. Patient selection using biomarkers and understanding response and resistance mechanisms in relation to IGF1R and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways are areas of active research. Since EWS has a unique tumor-specific EWS-FLI1 t(11;22 translocation and oncogenic fusion protein, inhibition of EWS-FLI1 transcription, translation, and/or protein function may be key to eradicating EWS at the stem-cell level. Recently, a small molecule that blocks the protein-protein interaction of EWS-FLI1 with RNA helicase A has been shown in preclinical models to inhibit EWS growth. The successful application of this first-in-class protein-protein inhibitor in the clinic could become a model system for translocation-associated cancers such as EWS.

  3. Extraskeletal presentation of Ewing's Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangual, Danny; Bisbal-Matos, Luis A; Jiménez-Lee, Ricardo; Vélez, Román; Noy, Miguel

    2018-03-01

    The case of a 27-year-old Hispanic female who presented with an occipito-parietal tumor after suffering trauma to the area. A physical examination revealed no tenderness to palpation and with evidence of healing ulcerations. The biopsy was consistent with a synovial sarcoma. A wide excision of the mass (15cm x 14cm x 6cm) followed by a pericranial flap was performed. A follow-up CT showed recurrence involving the parietal sagittal sinus. After a second biopsy the mass was determined to be a small-cell sarcoma, consistent with Ewing's sarcoma. Chemotherapy included 8 cycles of doxorubicin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide, with alternating cycles of etoposide and ifosfamide. A year later, a second wide excision of the mass was performed, followed by bilaminate skin substitute and skin graft placement for reconstruction of the soft-tissue defect. After chemotherapy, a follow-up PET scan showed no signs of re-uptake in any soft tissue or skeletal structures. After 2 years, the patient remains in complete remission.

  4. Image of Iraqis in The Cinema of Sacred Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Givian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Regarding representational function of media, the current dissertation intends to examine the changes in the representation of the image of the Iraqis in the Sacred Defense Cinema. Iraqies have been pictured as the "Others" during last three decades. Due to the importance and role of sacred defense and its cinematic representations of "Self" and "Other" and thereby its contribution in the process of reconstruction of Iranian national identity this research is aimed at studying represented images of Iraqies and its changes during last three decades. To reach this objective I first examined the concept and theories of representation as stated by Richard Dyer and Stuart Hall. Then to complement Hall’s theories I referred to other thinkers in the field of identity theory, ‘self’ and ‘the other’ as stated. In the chapter on methodology I’ve benefited from a combination of the patterns presented by Kate Selbi, Ran Kallory and Rolan Bart to analyze the texts.The findings of this thesis demonstrates that in order to depict the Iraqis in the sixties verbal codes were primarily used whereas in the seventies and the eighties social and technical codes were most used respectively.In the first decade Iraqis were portrayed as those people who are imagined to be cruel, inhuman, in which the emphasis was laid on the impact of the Iraqi’s invasion. In the second decade we see Iraqi’s depicted as dumb and fat people having thick moustaches and rough voices and in the third we see this portrayal to be transformed where Iraqi’s are shown to be our Muslim brothers who have been forced to fight in the war. Having observed, examined and analyzed the films, we found out that when facing ‘the other’, i.e. the Iraqis, the metaphor of the boundary or border was used. This border is seen between ‘self’ and ‘the other’, i.e. the Iranians and the Iraqis in all the chosen movies on the Sacred Defense. In the first decade there was an objective

  5. Clinical activity of pazopanib in metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Attia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a response to pazopanib in a 69-year-old man with heavily pre-treated metastatic extraosseous Ewing sarcoma in addition to molecular profiling of his tumor. To our knowledge, this case is the earliest to demonstrate activity of an oral multi-targeted kinase inhibitor in Ewing sarcoma. This case provides rationale for adding a Ewing sarcoma arm to SARC024, a phase II study of regorafenib, another multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, in patients with liposarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing and Ewing-like sarcomas (NCT02048371. This national multi-institutional study is ongoing.

  6. Ewing's sarcoma of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Santana Fonseca

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Ewing's sarcoma is a rare neoplasm, which usually arises in long bones of the limbs and in flat bones of the pelvis, with the involvement of head and neck bones being very unusual. CASE REPORT: a case of Ewing's sarcoma occurring in the mandible of a 35-year-old female. Pain and swelling of the tumor were the main complaints. The early hypothesis was an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm, possibly a sarcoma. The CT scan depicted an expansive lesion, encapsulated, with septa and characteristics of soft tissue, involving the left side of the mandible and extending to the surrounding tissues. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesion, the definitive diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma was established, and the patient commenced on radiotherapy.

  7. Reforming Iraqi Journalism and Mass Communication Higher Education: Adapting the UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education to Iraqi Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.

    2012-01-01

    Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…

  8. Differential expression of CART in ewes with differing ovulation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Jennifer L; French, Michelle C; Quirke, Laurel D; Kauff, Alexia; Smith, George W; Johnstone, Peter D

    2017-04-01

    We hypothesised that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript ( CARTPT ) would be differentially expressed in ewes with differing ovulation rates. Expression of mRNA for CARTPT , as well as LHCGR , FSHR , CYP19A1 and CYP17A1 was determined in antral follicles ≥1 mm in diameter collected during the follicular phase in ewes heterozygous for the Booroola and Inverdale genes (I+B+; average ovulation rate 4) and ++ contemporaries (++; average ovulation rate 1.8). In ++ ewes ( n  = 6), CARTPT was expressed in small follicles (1 to ewes. In I+B+ ewes, 5/6 ewes did not have any follicles that expressed CARTPT , and no CART peptide was detected in any follicle examined. Expression pattern of CYP19A1 differed between I+B+ and ++ ewes with an increased percentage of small and medium follicles (3 to ewes. Many of the large follicles from the I+B+ ewes appeared non-functional and expression of LHCGR , FSHR , CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 was less than that observed in ++ ewes. Expression of FSHR and CYP17A1 was not different between groups in small and medium follicles, but LHCGR expression was approximately double in I+B+ ewes compared to that in ++ ewes. Thus, ewes with high ovulation rates had a distinct pattern of expression of CARTPT mRNA and protein compared to ewes with normal ovulation rates, providing evidence for CART being important in the regulation of ovulation rate. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Radiographic appearance of Ewing sarcoma of the hands and feet: report from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinus, W.R.; Gilula, L.A.; Shirley, S.K.; Askin, F.B.; Siegal, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Review of current data from the Intergroup Ewing Sarcoma Study (IESS) shows that Ewing sarcoma is rare in bones of the hands and feet. The 12 patients from the IESS protocols with hand or foot Ewing sarcoma are comparable to those already reported in the literature. With the exception of lesions in the calcaneus, the prognosis for disease-free survival is excellent. The radiographic features of hand and foot Ewing sarcoma are generally those of classic Ewing sarcoma: permeation, soft-tissue mass, and often, associated sclerotic reaction. However, with the exception of sclerosis, features suggesting bone reaction and slow tumor growth in these patients were distinctly uncommon compared with Ewing sarcoma in general. Apparently location of the lesion is important, since in the reported cases in the literature and in this series, lesions of the calcaneus fared poorly. The importance of this set of patients therefore relates to awareness and early recognition of an unusual appearance and location of Ewing sarcoma

  10. Reproductive performance of Karakul ewes following different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAFDARIAN

    breeding season), 180 Karakul ewes were stratified based on age and body weight ... on day 12; T2 - insertion of a controlled intravaginal drug releasing device .... Due to the presence of unbalanced data, the effect of replicate was analysed ...

  11. Hypocalcemia in ewes after a drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.A.; Constable, P.D.; Napthine, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    A marked increase in the incidence of hypocalcemia of ewes 2 to 6 weeks before lambing was observed in the Western District of Victoria, following the break of the severe 1982/3 drought. A similar observation was made after the 1968 drought. In western Victoria, hypocalcemia is usually seen annually as sporadic cases or in sporadic outbreaks associated with some predisposing stress. After the drought broke in 1983, many farms reported cases of hypocalcemia in ewes. The incidence of hypocalcemia on the 9 farms the authors studied varied from 1 to 8% of all ewes, with some mobs having an incidence of over 10%. Detailed investigation of 9 farms that affected sheep were grazing pasture of unusually low calcium (Ca) content. Near record rains fell after the drought broke in late March 1983 resulting in luxuriant pasture growth with subterranean clover Trifolium subterraneum and capeweed Arctotheca calendula the dominant species. Cases of hypocalcemia commenced in May 1983 reaching a peak in June-July corresponding with flocks' lambing times, and continued into August. Most occurred spontaneously in mature ewes. A few farms experienced many cases during prelambing crutching.

  12. Ewing's sarcoma presenting as a solitary cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoud, S.; Frassica, F.J.; McCarthy, E.F.

    2006-01-01

    This case describes a 10-year-old girl who developed a Ewing's sarcoma in her proximal fibula. The radiologic features mimicked those of a unicameral bone cyst. The presence of pain and the atypical location led to a prompt biopsy and the correct diagnosis. The mechanism of this unusual radiographic presentation is discussed. (orig.)

  13. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma: review of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo Moreno, P.; Hernandez Moreno, L.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lafuente Martinez, J.L.; Arozamena Laso, M.

    1994-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is an uncommon lesion included in the group of soft tissue tumors. We present a case in a 19-year-old woman in which the diagnosis was not initially suspected because of the absence of clinical and radiological evidence. (Author)

  14. Living with the Choice: A Grounded Theory of Iraqi Refugee Resettlement to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lisa A

    2017-04-01

    Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.

  15. Strategic Reflections: Operation Iraqi Freedom, July 2004-February 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    not pan out. We knew that our mission was ultimately to hand over security responsibility to the Iraqi government, but we had not yet developed a...were “ chicken -egg” discus- sions about whether the security situation had to improve before the political track could begin. I strongly argued that...2005 Lt Gen Nick Houghton (UK), October 2005–February 2006 Lt Gen Rob Fry (UK), March 2006–September 2006 Lt Gen Graham Lamb (UK), September 2006

  16. Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Strains, Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Herish M.; Coulter, J. Brian S.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Zaki, Jamal M.; Al-Rabaty, Abas A.; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2006-01-01

    Of 260 children with acute diarrhea in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, 96 (37%) were infected with rotavirus. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction identified G1, G4, G2, G9, P[8], P[6], and P[4] as the most common genotypes. Eight G/P combinations were found, but P[8]G1 and P[4]G2 accounted for >50% of the strains. PMID:16704845

  17. Iraqi children's rights: building a system under fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan

    2009-01-01

    War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.

  18. Radiotherapy and high-dose chemotherapy in advanced Ewing's tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, H.; Glag, M.; Gripp, S.; Wittkamp, M.; Schmitt, G.; Laws, H.J.; Kaik, B. van; Goebel, U.; Burdach, S.; Juergens, H.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Ewing's tumors are sensitive to radio- and chemotherapy. Patients with multifocal disease suffer a poor prognosis. Patients presenting primary bone marrow involvement or bone metastases at diagnosis herald a 3-year disease-free survival below 15%. The European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) has established the following indications for high-dose therapy in advanced Ewing's tumors: Patients with primary multifocal bone disease, patients with early ( [de

  19. Primary Adult Renal Ewing's Sarcoma: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Mukkunda; Ramachandran Venkitaraman; Khin Thway; Toon Min; Cyril Fisher; Alan Horwich; Ian Judson

    2009-01-01

    Background. Ewing's sarcoma of extraskeletal origin is uncommon and that is of primary renal origin in adults are rare. There is no consensus on the optimal management of Ewing's tumors of renal origin. Methods. A retrospective review of the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of adult patients with primary renal extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma who were treated at the Royal Marsden hospital from January 1993–December 2007 is reported. Results. Seven adult patien...

  20. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Primary Source Materials for Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 4 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    destroy the residence of the US Ambassador in Jakarta, Japanese Embassy and American Airlines in Philippines 2 CMPC-2003-000 17015 2 Production and...used to seek a number oftargets like (The Iraqi Communist Party Headquarters, assassinating some ofP.K.K members, blowing up Dilshad Cinema ) where...Sulaymaniyyah like Dilshad Cinema , a Casino in (Illegible) Subdivision and a media whole. 4- They issued the first declaration threatening the Secularism

  1. Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Sani; M. Moezifar

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring), August and October (401 samples in summer). California Mastitis Test (CMT), milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial cultur...

  2. 76 FR 73022 - Agency Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... No. 2900-0720.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom... used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation...

  3. Evaluation of therapeutic results in Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.; Pomeroy, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    The philosophy pervading the treatment approach to Ewing's sarcoma was to have therapy encompass all foci of disease, including sites of occult or potential involvement in addition to obvious clinical manifestations. The experience with integrated methods of treatment in 66 consecutive patients at the National Cancer Institute is reviewed. A median survival of 18 months (44 percent 2 year survival rate) for patients with recognizable metastases on admission bears impressive witness to the value of adjuvant therapy in Ewing's sarcoma. Even more encouraging, an uncorrected 5 year survival rate of 53 percent (42 percent continuously free of disease) for patients given ''pyrophylactic'', adjuvant therapy indicates the potential for permanent control of disease in a significant fraction of cases with clinically localized primary tumors. (U.S.)

  4. Ewe: a computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It has been applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues

  5. An Unusual Location of Extraosseous Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Geens

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma (ES is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. ES also occurs as a primary soft tissue neoplasm without involvement of bone. We report the second case of extraosseous (EO ES emerging from the omentum and a review of the relevant literature. EO ES should be included in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue neoplasms in the abdomen.

  6. Ewing's sarcoma of the tarsal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Yong Sun; Kim, Tae Hun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik; Sohn, Kyung Rak

    1985-01-01

    The Ewing's sarcoma comprises approximately less than 10 percent of malignant bone tumors and 5 percent of all bone tumors, occurs in almost all bones of the body, and presents a widely divergent roentgenographic manifestations. The tarsal bones are involved only 2 percent in the Ewing's sarcoma. Two cases experienced by authors and ten cases published in literatures of Ewing's sarcoma of the tarsal bone were analyzed retrospectively. The result were as follows: 1. Of the tarsal bones, the calcaneus was 7 cases, the talus 4 cases, cuneiform 1 case. 2. Female was affected more commonly than male, the ratio being 4 to 1 in the tarsal bones. 3. About sixty percent of total cases in the tarsal bones had evidence of diffuse sclerotic pattern. All the cases of the talus had evidence of diffuse sclerotic pattern. 4. The diseases to be considered in differential diagnosis are as follows: avascular necrosis, tuberculous osteomyelitis, osteosarcoma, and pyogenic osteomyelitis. 5. The diffuse sclerosis radiographically showed a close relation with dead bone resulting from avascular necrosis due to tumor infiltration histologically. Periosteal reactive new bone and osteoid deposition on the dead bone were also correlated with diffuse sclerosis. 6. Because it is difficult to differentiate sclerotic lesions in the tarsal bones by radiographic methods alone, all such lesions should be subject to biopsy as early as possible

  7. Ewing's sarcoma of the tarsal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Kim, Yong Sun; Kim, Tae Hun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duk Sik; Sohn, Kyung Rak [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-06-15

    The Ewing's sarcoma comprises approximately less than 10 percent of malignant bone tumors and 5 percent of all bone tumors, occurs in almost all bones of the body, and presents a widely divergent roentgenographic manifestations. The tarsal bones are involved only 2 percent in the Ewing's sarcoma. Two cases experienced by authors and ten cases published in literatures of Ewing's sarcoma of the tarsal bone were analyzed retrospectively. The result were as follows: 1. Of the tarsal bones, the calcaneus was 7 cases, the talus 4 cases, cuneiform 1 case. 2. Female was affected more commonly than male, the ratio being 4 to 1 in the tarsal bones. 3. About sixty percent of total cases in the tarsal bones had evidence of diffuse sclerotic pattern. All the cases of the talus had evidence of diffuse sclerotic pattern. 4. The diseases to be considered in differential diagnosis are as follows: avascular necrosis, tuberculous osteomyelitis, osteosarcoma, and pyogenic osteomyelitis. 5. The diffuse sclerosis radiographically showed a close relation with dead bone resulting from avascular necrosis due to tumor infiltration histologically. Periosteal reactive new bone and osteoid deposition on the dead bone were also correlated with diffuse sclerosis. 6. Because it is difficult to differentiate sclerotic lesions in the tarsal bones by radiographic methods alone, all such lesions should be subject to biopsy as early as possible.

  8. [Primitive cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma: a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplace, M; Mélard, P; Perrinaud, A; Goré, C; Vergier, B; Machet, L

    2011-05-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (or peripheral neuroectodermal tumour) is generally found in bone tissue, and a primary dermal site is extremely rare. We report a case of primary cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma in a 21-year-old woman. A 21-year-old woman presented with a scapular lesion that had been slowly developing for one year. The 1-cm lesion was removed and histological examination showed proliferation of small round cells in the dermis. Immunostaining revealed cytoplasmic membrane expression of CD99 and a negative immunoprofile for other small round-cell tumors. Ewing's sarcoma fusion gene transcripts were detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A staging examination revealed no other abnormalities. It was decided to treat the lesion as for osseous Ewing's sarcoma with wide resection followed by systemic adjuvant chemotherapy. Cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma raises concerns about diagnosis and treatment. Owing to the non-specificity of its clinical presentation, histology and immunoprofile, diagnosis of superficial Ewing's sarcoma is difficult and numerous differential diagnoses must be considered. When dealing with a surface tumour, the diagnosis of cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma must be considered. CD99 immunostaining and molecular testing for evidence of EWSR1 rearrangement are useful investigations to confirm the diagnosis. Furthermore, modalities of treatment must be carefully discussed. Cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma is currently treated in the same way as osseous Ewing's sarcoma (wide surgical excision, adjuvant radiotherapy when surgical margins are unsatisfactory, systemic adjuvant chemotherapy, and, in some cases, bone marrow transplant). However, some studies show a more favourable prognosis for cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma than for osseous Ewing's sarcoma. We may thus ask whether such aggressive multimodal treatment is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Second malignancies after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, Susanne; Dunst, Juergen; Ruebe, Christian; Paulussen, Michael; Hoffmann, Christine; Juergens, Herbert

    1997-01-01

    Background: Some former retrospective studies have suggested that patients with Ewing's sarcoma might have a very high risk for developing secondary sarcomas if treated with radiotherapy. We have evaluated the risk of second malignancies (SM) in patients treated in the German Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Studies CESS 81 and CESS 86. Materials and methods: From January 1981 through June 1991, a total number of 674 patients was registered in the two multicentric Ewing's sarcoma trials CESS 81 (1981 through 1985) and CESS 86 (1986 through June 1991). The systemic treatment consisted in both studies of a four-drug-chemotherapy (VACA= vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin; or VAIA= vincristine, actinomycin D, ifosfamide and adriamycin) and a total number of four courses, each lasting nine weeks, was recommended by the protocol. Local therapy was either complete surgery or surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy with 36-46Gy or definitive radiotherapy with 46 to 60Gy. The median follow-up at the time of this analysis was 7 years, the maximum follow-up 16 years. Results: Eight patients developed a SM, 4 were acute myelogenic leucemias, three sarcomas and one benign neurinoma. One of the sarcomas was considered as radiation-induced because of its location in the former radiation field. The interval between diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma and the diagnosis of the SM was 17 to 78 months for the four AMLs and 82 to 136 months for the three sarcomas. All solid second tumors occurred in irradiated patients. The cumulative risk of a SM is given in table 1. Three patients (all with AML) died of their SM, the other five were salvage by subsequent treatment and are in clinical remission with a median follow-up of 1 to 10 years. Conclusions: The risk of leukemia after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma is probably low in the range of 1-2% or less and accounts for about 1% of all deaths. There was no risk of solid tumors in surgically treated patients. Irradiated

  10. Second malignancies after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Susanne; Dunst, Juergen; Ruebe, Christian; Paulussen, Michael; Hoffmann, Christine; Juergens, Herbert

    1997-07-01

    Background: Some former retrospective studies have suggested that patients with Ewing's sarcoma might have a very high risk for developing secondary sarcomas if treated with radiotherapy. We have evaluated the risk of second malignancies (SM) in patients treated in the German Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Studies CESS 81 and CESS 86. Materials and methods: From January 1981 through June 1991, a total number of 674 patients was registered in the two multicentric Ewing's sarcoma trials CESS 81 (1981 through 1985) and CESS 86 (1986 through June 1991). The systemic treatment consisted in both studies of a four-drug-chemotherapy (VACA= vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin; or VAIA= vincristine, actinomycin D, ifosfamide and adriamycin) and a total number of four courses, each lasting nine weeks, was recommended by the protocol. Local therapy was either complete surgery or surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy with 36-46Gy or definitive radiotherapy with 46 to 60Gy. The median follow-up at the time of this analysis was 7 years, the maximum follow-up 16 years. Results: Eight patients developed a SM, 4 were acute myelogenic leucemias, three sarcomas and one benign neurinoma. One of the sarcomas was considered as radiation-induced because of its location in the former radiation field. The interval between diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma and the diagnosis of the SM was 17 to 78 months for the four AMLs and 82 to 136 months for the three sarcomas. All solid second tumors occurred in irradiated patients. The cumulative risk of a SM is given in table 1. Three patients (all with AML) died of their SM, the other five were salvage by subsequent treatment and are in clinical remission with a median follow-up of 1 to 10 years. Conclusions: The risk of leukemia after treatment for Ewing's sarcoma is probably low in the range of 1-2% or less and accounts for about 1% of all deaths. There was no risk of solid tumors in surgically treated patients. Irradiated

  11. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oat, barley or triticale grain, enriched by addition of nitrogen, minerals, and an ... g per head per day to SA Mutton Merino ewes during late pregnancy and lactation. ... Ewes receiving enriched barley tended to have smaller losses of live mass ...

  12. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-04-14

    Apr 14, 1988 ... The effects of energy and crude protein (CP) supplementation to lactating ewes on the performance of the ewes and their lambs ... contrast, provision of energy and CP supplements (1983), or incremental levels of energy (1984) during the ...... of starvation on bovine alimentary tract and its contents. Anim.

  13. Is There a Predisposition Gene for Ewing's Sarcoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Randall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant tumor of children and young adults. The molecular mechanisms that underlie Ewing's Sarcoma development are beginning to be understood. For example, most cases of this disease harbor somatic chromosomal translocations that fuse the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22 with members of the ETS family. While some cooperative genetic events have been identified, such as mutations in TP53 or deletions of the CDKN2A locus, these appear to be absent in the vast majority of cases. It is therefore uncertain whether EWS/ETS translocations are the only consistently present alteration in this tumor, or whether there are other recurrent abnormalities yet to be discovered. One method to discover such mutations is to identify familial cases of Ewing's sarcoma and to then map the susceptibility locus using traditional genetic mapping techniques. Although cases of sibling pairs with Ewing's sarcoma exist, familial cases of Ewing's sarcoma have not been reported. While Ewing's sarcoma has been reported as a 2nd malignancy after retinoblastoma, significant associations of Ewing's sarcoma with classic tumor susceptibility syndromes have not been identified. We will review the current evidence, or lack thereof, regarding the potential of a heritable condition predisposing to Ewing's sarcoma.

  14. Is There a Predisposition Gene for Ewing's Sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, R. L.; Lessnick, S. L.; Jones, K. B.; Gouw, L. G.; Cummings, J. E.; Cannon-Albright, L.; Schiffman, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant tumor of children and young adults. The molecular mechanisms that underlie Ewing's Sarcoma development are beginning to be understood. For example, most cases of this disease harbor somatic chromosomal translocations that fuse the EWSR1 gene on chromosome 22 with members of the ETS family. While some cooperative genetic events have been identified, such as mutations in TP53 or deletions of the CDKN2A locus, these appear to be absent in the vast majority of cases. It is therefore uncertain whether EWS/ETS translocations are the only consistently present alteration in this tumor, or whether there are other recurrent abnormalities yet to be discovered. One method to discover such mutations is to identify familial cases of Ewing's sarcoma and to then map the susceptibility locus using traditional genetic mapping techniques. Although cases of sibling pairs with Ewing's sarcoma exist, familial cases of Ewing's sarcoma have not been reported. While Ewing's sarcoma has been reported as a 2nd malignancy after retinoblastoma, significant associations of Ewing's sarcoma with classic tumor susceptibility syndromes have not been identified. We will review the current evidence, or lack thereof, regarding the potential of a heritable condition predisposing to Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:20300555

  15. Tumor - host immune interactions in Ewing sarcoma : implications for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on various aspects of tumor - host (immune) interactions in Ewing sarcoma patients with the aim to obtain leads for immunotherapeutic or targeted treatment strategies. We demonstrate a key role for interferon gamma (IFNg) in enhancing both Ewing sarcoma immunogenicity and

  16. Ewing's sarcoma: a neuroectodermal tumor of the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, M. J.; Lorente, M. L.; Martin, A. M.; Gonzalez, I.

    2000-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. It is most prevalent between the ages of 10 and 15 years. There are present two cases of Ewing's sarcoma of the chest wall. The clinical, radiological and pathological features are described and the therapeutic options are discussed. (Author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on sugars from Iraqi dates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.

  18. Intracranial Dural Metastasis of Ewing's Sarcoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung Yeop; Lee, Seung Koo; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Jin Na; Lee, Kyu Sung; Jung, Woo Hee; Kim, Dong Ik

    2008-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor that can occur anywhere in the body, but it is most commonly observed in the long bones of the arms and legs, the pelvis and in the chest. The predominant sites of metastasis include the lung (38%), bone (including the spine; 31%), and the bone marrow (11%). Metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to the central nervous system (CNS) is relatively rare, and most of the previous reports have demonstrated involvement of the bony calvarium or brain parenchyma. We describe here the imaging findings of dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma, and these imaging findings have not been previously reported on in the medical literature. In conclusion, dural metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma is very rare and its imaging characteristics are similar to those of a primary tumor, which mimic the findings of a schwannoma or meningioma. Despite its rarity, secondary Ewing's sarcoma may be included in the differential diagnosis of extra-axial dural masses

  19. Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a meningioma in radiological findings: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hee Jin; Choi, Sun Seob

    2007-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is an uncommon primary bone tumor. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is extremely rare and constitutes only 1% of all Ewing's sarcoma cases. Usually, primary Ewing's sarcoma of the carnium manifests as an expansile osteolytic malignant bone tumor with or without intracranial extension. We report here the radiological findings of a case of Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a meningioma in an 18-year-old man

  20. Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.

  1. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  2. Ewing sarcoma of the foot. Radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisinni, U.; Capanna, R.; Nigrisoli, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is the most frequent malignant bone tumor of the foot. The radiological picture is characterized, in 14 patients, by a pure osteolytic lesion (9 cases) or by a mixed one (5 cases); the interruption of the cortical bone and swelling of the soft tissues were always present; the periostal reaction was occasional. The radiological aspects cannot be considered typical of the ES and it is suggested that biopsies should always be performed in the presence of structural alteration of the bone

  3. The importance of prolactin for lactation in the ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooley, R.D.; Campbell, J.J.; Findlay, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of 2-bromo-α-ergocryptine (bromocriptine) on the induction and maintenance of milk secretion was studied in post-parturient ewes and in ovariectomized ewes artificially induced to lactate by treatment with oestrogen plus progesterone and then dexamethasone. Treatment with bromocriptine (about 0.4 mk/kg every 3 days) lowered and maintained the plasma concentration of prolactin at < 12 ng/ml. Ewes receiving bromocriptine concurrently with oestrogen plus progesterone during the priming phase had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) mean cumulative milk yield than control ewes, although the milk of the treated ewes contained normal amounts of fat, protein and lactose. Administration of bromocriptine during dexamethasone-induced lactogenesis had no significant effect on the mean cumulative milk yield but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the milk fat and protein content. In establishing lactation, bromocriptine markedly reduced the milk yield in both intact and ovariectomised ewes. The concentration of protein was not significantly affected although the milk fat content was higher in the bromocriptine-treated than in the control ewes. The effects of bromocriptine on milk yield and composition during galactopoiesis could be reversed by concurrent infusion of prolactin and the results suggest that prolactin is an important hormone during mammogenesis and galactopoiesis in sheep. (author)

  4. FOXM1 is an oncogenic mediator in Ewing Sarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christensen

    Full Text Available Ewing Family Tumors (Ewing Sarcoma and peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor are common bone and soft tissue malignancies of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Chromosomal translocation in these tumors produces fusion oncogenes of the EWS/ETS class, with EWS/FLI1 being by far the most common. EWS/ETS chimera are the only well established driver mutations in these tumors and they function as aberrant transcription factors. Understanding the downstream genes whose expression is modified has been a central approach to the study of these tumors. FOXM1 is a proliferation associated transcription factor which has increasingly been found to play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FOXM1 is expressed in Ewing primary tumors and cell lines. Reduction in FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines results in diminished potential for anchorage independent growth. FOXM1 expression is enhanced by EWS/FLI1, though, unlike other tumor systems, it is not driven by expression of the EWS/FLI1 target GLI1. Thiostrepton is a compound known to inhibit FOXM1 by direct binding. We show that Thiostrepton diminishes FOXM1 expression in Ewing cell lines and this reduction reduces cell viability through an apoptotic mechanism. FOXM1 is involved in Ewing tumor pathogenesis and may prove to be a useful therapeutic target in Ewing tumors.

  5. Importance of prolactin for lactation in the ewe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooley, R D; Campbell, J J; Findlay, J K [Reproduction Research Section, Melbourne Univ., C/- Animal Research Inst., Werribee (Australia)

    1978-12-01

    The effect of 2-bromo-..cap alpha..-ergocryptine (bromocriptine) on the induction and maintenance of milk secretion was studied in post-parturient ewes and in ovariectomized ewes artificially induced to lactate by treatment with oestrogen plus progesterone and then dexamethasone. Treatment with bromocriptine (about 0.4 mk/kg every 3 days) lowered and maintained the plasma concentration of prolactin at < 12 ng/ml. Ewes receiving bromocriptine concurrently with oestrogen plus progesterone during the priming phase had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) mean cumulative milk yield than control ewes, although the milk of the treated ewes contained normal amounts of fat, protein and lactose. Administration of bromocriptine during dexamethasone-induced lactogenesis had no significant effect on the mean cumulative milk yield but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the milk fat and protein content. In establishing lactation, bromocriptine markedly reduced the milk yield in both intact and ovariectomised ewes. The concentration of protein was not significantly affected although the milk fat content was higher in the bromocriptine-treated than in the control ewes. The effects of bromocriptine on milk yield and composition during galactopoiesis could be reversed by concurrent infusion of prolactin and the results suggest that prolactin is an important hormone during mammogenesis and galactopoiesis in sheep.

  6. Low pasture allowance until late gestation in ewes: behavioural and physiological changes in ewes and lambs from lambing to weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, A; Ungerfeld, R; Hötzel, M J; Orihuela, A; Pérez-Clariget, R

    2017-02-01

    Low pasture allowance during gestation affects ewes' BW at parturition, the bond with their lamb, lamb development, and thus also may affect their responses to weaning. The objectives were to determine if native pasture allowance from before conception until late pregnancy affects ewe-lamb behaviours at lambing, ewes' milk yield, lambs' BW, and the behavioural and physiological changes of ewes and lambs at weaning. From 23 days before conception until 122 days of pregnancy, 24 ewes grazed on two different native pasture allowances: high (10 to 12 kg of dry matter (DM)/100 kg of BW per day; HPA treatment; n=12) or low (5 to 8 kg of DM/100 kg of BW per day; LPA treatment; n=12). Thereafter, all ewes grazed on Festuca arundinacea and received rice bran and crude glycerine. Ewes' body condition score (BCS) and BW were recorded during pregnancy and postpartum periods. Milk yield was determined on days 32, 41 and 54 after lambing. Lambs' BW was recorded from birth until 72 days after lambing. Latency from parturition until the ewe licked her lamb, maternal behaviour score (a test that evaluates maternal attachment to the lamb) and latency for lamb to stand up and suckle were determined. The behaviour of the lambs and ewes was recorded before and after weaning (at 65 days). The ewes' serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were measured before and after weaning. The HPA ewes presented greater BW (Pewes during pregnancy and postpartum (Pewes (Pewes' behavioural and physiological changes at weaning. HPA lambs paced and vocalized more than LPA lambs (Pewes' BW, BCS and milk production were affected by pasture allowance until late pregnancy, this did not affect the behaviours that lead to the establishment of the mother-young bond, nor the ewes' behavioural responses at weaning. Lambs reared by ewes that grazed on low pasture allowance during pregnancy presented fewer behavioural changes and a lower decrease of albumin concentration after weaning. Lambs' BW

  7. Ewing sarcoma versus osteomyelitis: differential diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henninger, B.; Glodny, B.; Rudisch, A.; Trieb, T.; Loizides, A.; Judmaier, W.; Schocke, M.F.; Putzer, D.

    2013-01-01

    To find and evaluate characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns for the differentiation between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis. We identified 28 consecutive patients referred to our department for MRI (1.5 T) of an unclear bone lesion with clinical symptoms suggestive of Ewing sarcoma or osteomyelitis. MRI scans were re-evaluated by two experienced radiologists, typical MR imaging features were documented and a diagnostic decision between Ewing sarcoma and osteomyelitis was made. Statistical significance of the association between MRI features and the biopsy-based diagnosis was assessed using Fisher's exact test. The most clear-cut pattern for determining the correct diagnosis was the presence of a sharp and defined margin of the bone lesion, which was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, but in none of the patients with osteomyelitis (P < 0.0001). Contrast enhancing soft tissue was present in all cases with Ewing sarcoma and absent in 4 patients with osteomyelitis (P = 0.0103). Cortical destruction was found in all patients with Ewing sarcoma, 4 patients with osteomyelitis did not present any cortical reaction (P = 0.0103). Cystic or necrotic areas were identified in 13 patients with Ewing sarcoma and in 1 patient with osteomyelitis (P = 0.004). Interobserver reliability was very good (kappa = 1) in Ewing sarcoma and moderate (kappa = 0.6) in patients with osteomyelitis. A sharp and defined margin, optimally visualized on T1-weighted images in comparison to short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images, is the most significant feature of Ewing sarcoma in differentiating from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  8. Radiotherapy in complex management of Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruseva, Tz.; Marinova, L.; Hristozova, I.; Sokolov, T.

    1996-01-01

    Over the period 1981-1995, 32 patients with non-metastatic Ewing sarcoma, aged 2 to 22 years, underwent treatment and follow-up study. A locally advanced tumor is found in 85% of patients. Complex radio- and chemotherapy is carried out in all patients, and additional radical surgery - in eight. 60 Co-radiotherapy with gradual radiation field reduction is applied, applying a local dose of 60 - 64 Gy in the tumor area. Chemotherapy is performed according to the VACA protocol. Local tumor control is achieved in all patients with primary tumor located in long bones, and only in 1 of 5 patients with pelvic localization. The overall survival established is as follows: 1 year survival - 100 %, 2 years - 50 %, 3 years - 40 % and 5 years - 34 %. Local recurrence is recorded in 2 cases (6.2%). The distant metastases observed involve the lungs (13), bones (4), lung and bones (2) and soft tissues (3). The Ewing sarcoma is sensible to chemo- and radiotherapy, but the conventional methods do not improve survival. Based on the analysis of the clinical results, emphasis is laid on the necessity of complex treatment with a special reference to alternative therapeutic approaches. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Emdal, Kristina B.

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in survival for Ewing sarcoma pediatric and adolescent patients have been modest over the past 20 years. Combinations of anticancer agents endure as an option to overcome resistance to single treatments caused by compensatory pathways. Moreover, combinations are thought to lessen any...... including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong...

  10. Plasma levels of progesterone in cycling and pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, K.P.; Rao, P.N.; Reddy, B.B.; Murthy, A.S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma progesterone profile of six cycling and three pregnant Nellore ewes was estimated by radioimmunoassay. The progesterone level of cycling ewes started rising from undetectable level on the day of oestrus to a mean peak value of 0.41 ± 0.09ng/ml during post oestrus day 10 to 14 and then declined to undetectable levels 1 to 2 days before subsequent oestrus. But the progesterone levels of pregnant ewes exhibited further raise from the post oestrus day 14 to the day 40. However, no correlation between oestrous cycle length and the total progesterone produced during the oestrous cycle was observed. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  11. Sacral Ewing's Sarcoma and Challenges in it's Diagnosis on MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert D'Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-yr old boy presented with low backache for 4 months associated with weakness of left lower limb. MRI of lumbosacral spine showed a sacral lesion with intraspinal and presacral soft tissue extension with neural compression. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was considered in the view of high prevalence in this part of the world, however biopsy revealed Ewing's sarcoma. Ewing's tumor of sacrum is rare, but should be suspected in low backache in children. Differential diagnosis for a sacral lesion includes tuberculosis, pyogenic osteomyelitis, lymphoma, chordoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. MRI is sensitive in detecting these lesions but is nonspecific requiring histopathological examination for confirmation.

  12. Oncological outcomes of patients with Ewing's sarcoma: is there a difference between skeletal and extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, A; Grimer, R J; Spooner, D; Peake, D; Carter, S R; Tillman, R M; Abudu, A; Jeys, L

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify whether there was any difference in patient, tumour, treatment or outcome characteristics between patients with skeletal or extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. We identified 300 patients with new primary Ewing's sarcoma diagnosed between 1980 and 2005 from the centres' local database. There were 253 (84%) with skeletal and 47 (16%) with extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcomas. Although patients with skeletal Ewing's were younger (mean age 16.8 years) than those with extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (mean age 27.5 years), there was little difference between the groups in terms of tumour stage or treatment. Nearly all the patients were treated with chemotherapy and most had surgery. There was no difference in the overall survival of patients with skeletal (64%) and extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (61%) (p = 0.85), and this was also the case when both groups were split by whether they had metastases or not. This large series has shown that the oncological outcomes of Ewing's sarcoma are related to tumour characteristics and patient age, and not determined by whether they arise in bone or soft tissue.

  13. The Iraqi Security Forces: The Challenge of Sectarian and Ethnic Influences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2007-01-01

    .... According to the December 2006 Iraq Study Group Report, Significant questions remain about the ethnic composition and loyalties of some Iraqi units specifically, whether they will carry out missions...

  14. Iraqi nuclear weapons development program. Final report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is an abstract of the final report focusing on the collection, collation, analysis, and recording of information pertaining to Iraqi nuclear weapons development and on the long term monitoring of Iraq

  15. In Defense of the Iraqi Media: Between Fueling Conflict and Healthy Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Wollenberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the occupation and ensuing war, Iraq has experienced the emergence of a truly pluralistic media landscape after the fall of the Baath regime in 2003. Today, media coverage of domestic affairs is characterized not only by pluralism but also by bias and partiality reflecting strong ties between political actors and media outlets. Accordingly, the Iraqi media are often accused of fueling conflict and deepening the ethno-sectarian divide in society. Based on a qualitative frame analysis of Iraqi news bulletins, this study reveals that Iraqi media outlets provide indeed contesting frames on even the most divisive issues. Only the coverage of the armed war against IS is characterized by a non-pluralistic conformity among Iraqi channels that unequivocally focus on military successes against IS and jointly refrain from any criticism against the varied forces fighting IS in Iraq.

  16. Healthcare Access for Iraqi Refugee Children in Texas: Persistent Barriers, Potential Solutions, and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn

    2015-10-01

    To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.

  17. A Medical Logistics Officer Training Needs Assessment Utilizing Feedback from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waddick, James L

    2004-01-01

    ... their missions during the initial Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment (OIF 1). Additionally, the study sought to identify the potential benefit of additional training on key medical logistics tasks and training events...

  18. Why the Iraqi Resistance to the Coalition Invasion Was so Weak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosmer, Stephen T

    2007-01-01

    .... Drawing upon information derived primarily from interviews with former senior Iraqi civilian and military officials, this monograph focuses on two questions relating to the rapidity and ease of that victory: (1...

  19. Unwanted Guests: The Impact of Iraqi Refugees on Jordan’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    The International Crisis Group, a non-governmental organization, interviewed Iraqi refugees in 2007 and reported a number of instances of harassment ...process: Before they can be legally employed, Iraqi refugees must obtain a work permit from the Ministry of Labour . To be eligible for a work permit...Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Labour , respectively. Jordanian law also requires potential employers to provide a litany of documents and

  20. The stakes of iraqi petroleum: what is the role of France ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with some socio-economic and political aspects about the stakes of iraqi petroleum for France. After having described the history of iraqi petroleum, the author gives the estimation of the actual petroleum reserves, the production objective, the petroleum and gaseous projects and the exporting way. Then is given the economic and political role played by France: the increase of importation uses, the economic interests and the political responsibility. (O.L.). 10 tabs

  1. PNET Ewing's sarcoma: a case report of a 8-year-old child presenting with PNET Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauskar, Pratibha; Bhalavat, Rajendra; Chandra, Manish; Bauskar, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    PNET (Primitive Neuro-Ectodermal) mostly present in younger children. PNET Ewing sarcoma Ewing's sarcomas are rare, aggressive tumors, growth from undeveloped brain cells, with a tendency towards recurrence. We report the case of a 8-year-old girl who presented with a one year history of pain in her lower neck region with single episode of un-consciousness associate with left side upper and lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an abnormal marrow changes involving C5 vertebra and involvement of posterior elements showing expansive changes. Biopsy showed malignant small round cell tumor identifying as PNET Ewing sarcoma. Laminectomy and Decompression of cervical tumor. (author)

  2. Burden of typhoid fever in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A

    2014-10-01

    Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

  4. Regionalizing Immigration, Health and Inequality: Iraqi Refugees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenore Manderson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.

  5. History of the Iraqi Nuclear Center of Tuwaitha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, Silvio

    2009-01-01

    The Tuwaitha site, 20 km south of Baghdad, was chosen at the beginning of the sixties to be the Center for Research and Development of the Iraqi Nuclear Program. The israeli air attack to the Osirak reactor in 1981, the clandestine activities for nuclear weapons production and the inspections carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify such activities are parts of the history of that nuclear complex. Its installations were extensively damaged in 1991 during the so called Golf War and finally destroyed by air bombardment during the invasion by the Coalition Forces in 2003. The IAEA and other several countries have elaborated an international assistance program for the future activities of installations dismantling and site remediation. (author) [es

  6. Night-Time Light Dynamics during the Iraqi Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.

  7. Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Emdal, Kristina B.

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in survival for Ewing sarcoma pediatric and adolescent patients have been modest over the past 20 years. Combinations of anticancer agents endure as an option to overcome resistance to single treatments caused by compensatory pathways. Moreover, combinations are thought to lessen any...... associated adverse side effects through reduced dosing, which is particularly important in childhood tumors. Using a parallel phenotypic combinatorial screening approach of cells derived from three pediatric tumor types, we identified Ewing sarcoma-specific interactions of a diverse set of targeted agents...... including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong...

  8. Vaginoscopy in Ewes Utilizing a Laparoscopic Surgical Port Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Easley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginoscopy allows for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of the vaginal vault. A laparoscopic surgical port device and rigid telescope were utilized for serial vaginoscopy in 8 healthy anesthetized ewes. Vaginoscopy examinations were performed in each ewe at days 1, 14, and 28. This technique was well-tolerated and facilitated carbon dioxide vaginal inflation, complete vaginal examination, identification of the cervix, and targeted biopsy collection. No complications were encountered during or following the vaginoscopy procedures. The laparoscopic port device was well-suited to the ewe vulvar size. This technique could be applied to clinical evaluation in ewes for the purposes of examination, biopsy, culture, foreign body removal, and minor surgical procedures.

  9. Hormonal levels after ovarian X-irradiation of ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driancourt, M.A.; Blanc, M.R.; Mariana, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation on ovulation rate, cyclicity and progesterone and FSH levels in Ile-de-France ewes (4 control and 16 irradiated) after they were treated during the breeding season were reported. The doses used (800 and 2400 R) destroyed 50% of all size classes of the follicular population. Ovulation occurred in 87% of the treated ewes (ovulation rate = 1) when they were irradiated 24 h after luteolysis; 78% of the corpora lutea resulting from these ovulations were normal as to length and progesterone production. FSH in treated ewes started to increase 20 h after treatment and remained higher than in the controls until ovulation time. Later, while these levels were similar between groups on the day of ovulation, high ovulatory levels persisted in irradiated ewes. In the next cycles, the length of the follicular phases, ovulation rate and progesterone and FSH levels were similar between groups

  10. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma of the nasal fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, S; Ironside, J W

    1990-07-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is rarely found arising in the head and neck region. An unusual case arising in the nasal fossa in a young child is reported and the differential diagnosis, pathology and treatment discussed.

  11. Bilateral parietal extradural metastatic ewing's sarcoma simulating acute epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, E.; Imran, M.; Faridi, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Sarcomas usually metastasize to lugs. The following case report describes an unusual metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma to extradural parietal region bilaterally. The primary was found at lower end of ulna. (author)

  12. Supplementation of lactating Dorper and Merino ewes on Themeda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In summer, herbage intake of lactating Dorper ewes was not increased by supglementary CP (1983), but decreased by .... collection of samples on three successive days at three- ..... it was calculated that a feed intake of 250, 500 and 750 g.

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Origin of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Ewing's sarcoma is a subject of much debate. Once thought to be derived from primitive neuroectodermal cells, many now believe it to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC. Expression of the EWS-FLI1 fusion gene in MSCs changes cell morphology to resemble Ewing's sarcoma and induces expression of neuroectodermal markers. In murine cells, transformation to sarcomas can occur. In knockdown experiments, Ewing's sarcoma cells develop characteristics of MSCs and the ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. However, it cannot be concluded that MSCs are the cell of origin. The concept of an MSC still needs to be rigorously defined, and there may be different subpopulations of mesenchymal pluripotential cells. Furthermore, EWS-FLI1 by itself does not transform human cells, and cooperating mutations appear to be necessary. Therefore, while it is possible that Ewing's sarcoma may originate from a primitive mesenchymal cell, the idea needs to be refined further.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Origin of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Patrick P.; Wang, Yongxing; Lozano, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    The origin of Ewing's sarcoma is a subject of much debate. Once thought to be derived from primitive neuroectodermal cells, many now believe it to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Expression of the EWS-FLI1 fusion gene in MSCs changes cell morphology to resemble Ewing's sarcoma and induces expression of neuroectodermal markers. In murine cells, transformation to sarcomas can occur. In knockdown experiments, Ewing's sarcoma cells develop characteristics of MSCs and the ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. However, it cannot be concluded that MSCs are the cell of origin. The concept of an MSC still needs to be rigorously defined, and there may be different subpopulations of mesenchymal pluripotential cells. Furthermore, EWS-FLI1 by itself does not transform human cells, and cooperating mutations appear to be necessary. Therefore, while it is possible that Ewing's sarcoma may originate from a primitive mesenchymal cell, the idea needs to be refined further. PMID:20953407

  15. The Impacts of Liquidity on Profitability in Banking Sectors of Iraq: A Case of Iraqi Commercial Banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Sardar Shaker Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover,  annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were ide...

  16. Primary extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma mimicking a disc protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruelle, A; Boccardo, M

    1987-07-01

    One of the rarest cases of primary epidural neoplasm is a soft tissue sarcoma histologically similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. In the literature only eleven cases of such an extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma have been described. The authors report an additional case presenting as a disc protrusion in a young male. The authors include some diagnostic, prognostic and nosologic remarks about this condition.

  17. EXTRAOSSEOUS EWINGS/PNET-A CASE REPORT BY FNAC

    OpenAIRE

    Bharath; Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ewing sarcoma is one of the most common primary tumo r of the bone, but extra-skeletal type is rare. Ewing's sarcoma (ES) and primitive neuroectodermal t umor (PNET) are small round cell tumors showing varying (usuall y minimal) neuroectodermal differentiation [1] .These tumors occur predominately in adolescents and young adults,but rare below four years of age. The cytomorphologic feature s may be confused with other small round cell tu...

  18. Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Chronically Infected and Subsequently Challenged Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Faria, Gabriela da Silva Magalhães; Guerreiro, Bruna Martins; Dal Pietro, Nathalia Helena Pereira da Silva; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; da Silva, Helenara Machado; Garcia, João Luis; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-01-01

    This experiment studied congenital transmission in sheep experimentally infected with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and reinfected at one of three stages of pregnancy. Twenty ewes were experimentally infected with T. gondii strain ME49 (day 0). After the T. gondii infection became chronic (IFAT≤512), the ewes were allocated with rams for coverage. After the diagnosis of pregnancy, these ewes were allocated into four experimental groups (n = 5): I-reinfected with T. gondii on the 40th day of gestation (DG); II-reinfected on DG 80; III-reinfected on DG 120; and IV-saline solution on DG 120 (not reinfected). Five ewes (IFATewes produced lambs serologically positive for T. gondii. The results of the mouse bioassay, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays revealed the presence of T. gondii in all 20 sheep and their lambs. The congenital transmission of T. gondii was associated with fetal loss and abnormalities in persistently infected sheep and in ewes infected and subsequently reinfected by this protozoan. Therefore, congenital T. gondii infection was common when ewes were chronically infected prior to pregnancy, with or without reinfection during at various stages of gestation.

  19. Survivin, a target to modulate the radiosensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greve, B.; Sheikh-Mounessi, F.; Ernst, I.; Eich, H.T.; Kemper, B.; Goette, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Radiotherapy constitutes an essential element in the multimodal therapy of Ewing's sarcoma. Compared to other sarcomas, Ewing tumors normally show a good response to radiotherapy. However, there are consistently tumors with a radioresistant phenotype, and the underlying mechanisms are not known in detail. Here we investigated the association between survivin protein expression and the radiosensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma in vitro. Material and methods: An siRNA-based knockdown approach was used to investigate the influence of survivin expression on cell proliferation, double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair, apoptosis and colony-forming ability in four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines with and without irradiation. Results: Survivin protein and mRNA were upregulated in all cell lines tested in a dose-dependent manner. As a result of survivin knockdown, STA-ET-1 cells showed reduced cell proliferation, an increased number of radiation-induced DSBs, and reduced repair. Apoptosis was increased by knockdown alone and increased further in combination with irradiation. Colony formation was significantly reduced by survivin knockdown in combination with irradiation. Conclusion: Survivin is a radiation-inducible protein in Ewing's sarcoma and its down-regulation sensitizes cells toward irradiation. Survivin knockdown in combination with radiation inhibits cell proliferation, repair, and colony formation significantly and increases apoptosis more than each single treatment alone. This might open new perspectives in the radiation treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. (orig.)

  20. Multiparous Ewe as a Model for Teaching Vaginal Hysterectomy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbage, Yohan; Cosson, Michel; Hubert, Thomas; Giraudet, Géraldine

    2017-12-01

    Despite being linked to improving patient outcomes and limiting costs, the use of vaginal hysterectomy is on the wane. Although a combination of reasons might explain this trend, one cause is a lack of practical training. An appropriate teaching model must therefore be devised. Currently, only low-fidelity simulators exist. Ewes provide an appropriate model for pelvic anatomy and are well-suited for testing vaginal mesh properties. This article sets out a vaginal hysterectomy procedure for use as an education and training model. A multiparous ewe was the model. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The ewe was in a lithotomy position resembling that assumed by women on the operating table. Two vaginal hysterectomies were performed on two ewes, following every step precisely as if the model were human. Each surgical step of vaginal hysterectomy performed on the ewe and on a woman were compared side by side. We identified that all surgical steps were particularly similar. The main limitations of this model are costs ($500/procedure), logistic problems (housing large animals), and public opposition to animal training models. The ewe appears to be an appropriate model for teaching and training of vaginal hysterectomy.

  1. Combinatorial Drug Screening Identifies Ewing Sarcoma-specific Sensitivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P; Emdal, Kristina B; Papamarkou, Theodore; Huber, Kilian V M; Mutz, Cornelia; Toretsky, Jeffrey A; Bennett, Keiryn L; Olsen, Jesper V; Brunak, Søren; Kovar, Heinrich; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in survival for Ewing sarcoma pediatric and adolescent patients have been modest over the past 20 years. Combinations of anticancer agents endure as an option to overcome resistance to single treatments caused by compensatory pathways. Moreover, combinations are thought to lessen any associated adverse side effects through reduced dosing, which is particularly important in childhood tumors. Using a parallel phenotypic combinatorial screening approach of cells derived from three pediatric tumor types, we identified Ewing sarcoma-specific interactions of a diverse set of targeted agents including approved drugs. We were able to retrieve highly synergistic drug combinations specific for Ewing sarcoma and identified signaling processes important for Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation determined by EWS-FLI1 We generated a molecular target profile of PKC412, a multikinase inhibitor with strong synergistic propensity in Ewing sarcoma, revealing its targets in critical Ewing sarcoma signaling routes. Using a multilevel experimental approach including quantitative phosphoproteomics, we analyzed the molecular rationale behind the disease-specific synergistic effect of simultaneous application of PKC412 and IGF1R inhibitors. The mechanism of the drug synergy between these inhibitors is different from the sum of the mechanisms of the single agents. The combination effectively inhibited pathway crosstalk and averted feedback loop repression, in EWS-FLI1-dependent manner. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(1); 88-101. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Ewing's sarcoma precursors are highly enriched in embryonic osteochondrogenic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miwa; Yamazaki, Yukari; Kanno, Yohei; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Kanno, Jun; Nakamura, Takuro

    2014-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant bone tumor found in children and adolescents, and the origin of this malignancy is not well understood. Here, we introduced a Ewing's sarcoma-associated genetic fusion of the genes encoding the RNA-binding protein EWS and the transcription factor ETS (EWS-ETS) into a fraction of cells enriched for osteochondrogenic progenitors derived from the embryonic superficial zone (eSZ) of long bones collected from late gestational murine embryos. EWS-ETS fusions efficiently induced Ewing's sarcoma-like small round cell sarcoma formation by these cells. Analysis of the eSZ revealed a fraction of a precursor cells that express growth/differentiation factor 5 (Gdf5), the transcription factor Erg, and parathyroid hormone-like hormone (Pthlh), and selection of the Pthlh-positive fraction alone further enhanced EWS-ETS-dependent tumor induction. Genes downstream of the EWS-ETS fusion protein were quite transcriptionally active in eSZ cells, especially in regions in which the chromatin structure of the ETS-responsive locus was open. Inhibition of β-catenin, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), or enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) suppressed cell growth in a murine model of Ewing's sarcoma, suggesting the utility of the current system as a preclinical model. These results indicate that eSZ cells are highly enriched in precursors to Ewing's sarcoma and provide clues to the histogenesis of Ewing's sarcoma in bone.

  3. Survivin, a target to modulate the radiosensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, B; Sheikh-Mounessi, F; Kemper, B; Ernst, I; Götte, M; Eich, H T

    2012-11-01

    Radiotherapy constitutes an essential element in the multimodal therapy of Ewing's sarcoma. Compared to other sarcomas, Ewing tumors normally show a good response to radiotherapy. However, there are consistently tumors with a radioresistant phenotype, and the underlying mechanisms are not known in detail. Here we investigated the association between survivin protein expression and the radiosensitivity of Ewing's sarcoma in vitro. An siRNA-based knockdown approach was used to investigate the influence of survivin expression on cell proliferation, double-strand break (DSB) induction and repair, apoptosis and colony-forming ability in four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines with and without irradiation. Survivin protein and mRNA were upregulated in all cell lines tested in a dose-dependent manner. As a result of survivin knockdown, STA-ET-1 cells showed reduced cell proliferation, an increased number of radiation-induced DSBs, and reduced repair. Apoptosis was increased by knockdown alone and increased further in combination with irradiation. Colony formation was significantly reduced by survivin knockdown in combination with irradiation. Survivin is a radiation-inducible protein in Ewing's sarcoma and its down-regulation sensitizes cells toward irradiation. Survivin knockdown in combination with radiation inhibits cell proliferation, repair, and colony formation significantly and increases apoptosis more than each single treatment alone. This might open new perspectives in the radiation treatment of Ewing's sarcoma.

  4. Morel Receives 2005 Maurice Ewing Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Daniel P.; Morel, François M. M.

    2006-02-01

    François M. M. Morel received the Ewing Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December 2005, in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for significant original contributions to the scientific understanding of the processes in the ocean; for the advancement of oceanographic engineering, technology, and instrumentation; and for outstanding service to marine sciences. François Morel has led the search to understand the role of metals in the ocean, starting with a focus on inorganic processes and aquatic chemistry, and leading to a blend of geochemistry, microbiology, biochemistry, and genetics. His influence comes from his research and from the way he has educated an entire community of scientists with his textbooks, with his teaching, and through his former students and postdocs who hold faculty positions at universities throughout the world.

  5. Congenital extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma of chest wall--a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atla, Bhagyalakshmi; Prasad, B Satya Vara; Sri, K Satya; Vandana, Geeta

    2011-01-01

    Congenital extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma or peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor is an extremely uncommon and invariably fatal tumor. We report a case of extraskeletal congenital Ewing's sarcoma in a female fetus delivered at 34 weeks of gestation who died immediately after birth. In English literature, majority of cases of Ewing's sarcoma in neonates reported were skeletal. To the best of our knowledge, very few cases of extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma in neonates are reported in the literature.

  6. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  7. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)

    2007-07-01

    Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)

  8. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  9. Protein metabolism of prolific ewes during late gestation and early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebek, L.B.J.

    2001-01-01

    Subject headings: protein / metabolism / ewes

    Introduction of prolific crossbred ewes and a new protein evaluation system for ruminants, the DVE/OEB system, necessitate a reconsideration of ewe feeding strategies. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the amount

  10. Safety and efficacy of low-dose, subacute exposure of mature ewes to sodium chlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine the safety and efficacy of low-dose, subacute exposure of mature ewes to NaClO3 in the drinking water. Twenty-five ewes (BW = 62.5 ± 7.3 kg) were placed indoors in individual pens with ad libitum access to water and feed. After 7 d of adaptation, ewes were assigned ran...

  11. Effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response on early embryo survival in ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early pregnant ewes were used to determine the effects of endogenous (through LPS activation) and exogenous TNF-alpha tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on embryonic loss. Thirty-eight Dorset x Texel ewes were synchronized for estrus and bred to fertile rams (d0). On d5/6, ewes were assigned t...

  12. Sarcome d'ewing du rocher | Kaffel | Journal Tunisien d'ORL et de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction : Primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma is rare. This tumor was first described in 1921, since then, only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Aim: the aim of this study is to report the clinical and therapeutic aspects of primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma. Method: We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the ...

  13. The role of imaging in the evaluation of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary bone tumours account for 5% of all adolescent and child cancers. When Ewing's sarcoma arises in soft tissue rather than bone, it is referred to as extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (ESS). Computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of Ewing's sarcoma are non-specific, and a ...

  14. depicting the effects of gender, birth type, ewe line and ram breed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    The initial pH of meat from progeny of FW+ Merino ewes was lower than that from progeny of dual-purpose ewes, and Rep+ Merino ewes. .... Maximum shear force values (N) required to shear a cylindrical core of 1.27 cm ... Back pedigrees were not included for sires and dams, since all sires and dams were derived from ...

  15. Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2014-06-01

    Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Like or Dislike? Impact of Facebook on Ewing Sarcoma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckenstuhl, Paul; Schippinger, Michael; Liebmann, Paul; Leithner, Andreas; Bernhardt, Gerwin

    2016-08-25

    An increasing number of patients are raising their voices in online forums to exchange health-related information. Facebook is the leading social media platform with more than 1 billion international daily users recorded in the summer of 2015. Facebook has a dynamic audience and is utilized in a number of ways, discussing medical issues being one of them. Ewing sarcoma mainly affects teenagers and young adults. Additionally, many individuals within this age group are regular users of Facebook. However, little is known about the impact of this modern way of communication via Web-based platforms on patients with Ewing sarcoma and their social environment. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare Ewing sarcoma patients' and relatives' behavior on Facebook to draw conclusions regarding the impact of Facebook on Ewing sarcoma treatment. We examined a Facebook group named "Ewing Sarcoma Awareness" that is used to exchange information for both patients and relatives regarding Ewing sarcoma. A self-designed questionnaire was used to compare patients' and relatives' answers. Additionally, we analyzed all processes (posts, likes, threads, links) in the group for 6 consecutive months. A total of 65 members of the Facebook group (26 patients, 39 relatives) out of 2227 international group members participated in our study. More than 70% (46/65) of all participants reported that they use the group Ewing Sarcoma Awareness as a source of information about Ewing sarcoma. Of the participants, 89% (58/65) agreed on our scale from a little to a lot that being in contact with other affected people through the group makes it easier to handle the diagnosis. In this study, 20% (13/65) of all participants reported that the group affected their choice of treatment and 15% (10/65) of participants were influenced in the selection of their specialist. Regarding the recommendation of the Facebook group toward other people, significant differences (P=.003) were found comparing patients

  17. Primary Adult Renal Ewing's Sarcoma: A Rare Entity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkunda, Ravindra; Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Thway, Khin; Min, Toon; Fisher, Cyril; Horwich, Alan; Judson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Background. Ewing's sarcoma of extraskeletal origin is uncommon and that is of primary renal origin in adults are rare. There is no consensus on the optimal management of Ewing's tumors of renal origin. Methods. A retrospective review of the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of adult patients with primary renal extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma who were treated at the Royal Marsden hospital from January 1993–December 2007 is reported. Results. Seven adult patients with primary renal Ewing's sarcoma were identified. All four patients with nonmetastatic disease had radical nephrectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy +/− radiotherapy. Two developed metastatic disease while on adjuvant chemotherapy, and one patient relapsed after 55 months. The three patients with metastatic disease at presentation did not have nephrectomy and were treated with chemotherapy. All three patients had disease progression with a dismal outcome. Only one patient in the whole group is alive and disease free. The median overall survival was 62.8 months, and the median disease-free survival in patients with nonmetastatic disease after combined modality treatment was 30.3 months. Conclusion. Primary adult renal Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive tumor with a propensity for early metastasis. Radical nephrectomy with adjuvant combination chemotherapy produced the best results but the outlook remained poor with only one patient experiencing long disease-free survival. PMID:19478963

  18. Primary Adult Renal Ewing's Sarcoma: A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Mukkunda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ewing's sarcoma of extraskeletal origin is uncommon and that is of primary renal origin in adults are rare. There is no consensus on the optimal management of Ewing's tumors of renal origin. Methods. A retrospective review of the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of adult patients with primary renal extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma who were treated at the Royal Marsden hospital from January 1993–December 2007 is reported. Results. Seven adult patients with primary renal Ewing's sarcoma were identified. All four patients with nonmetastatic disease had radical nephrectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy +/− radiotherapy. Two developed metastatic disease while on adjuvant chemotherapy, and one patient relapsed after 55 months. The three patients with metastatic disease at presentation did not have nephrectomy and were treated with chemotherapy. All three patients had disease progression with a dismal outcome. Only one patient in the whole group is alive and disease free. The median overall survival was 62.8 months, and the median disease-free survival in patients with nonmetastatic disease after combined modality treatment was 30.3 months. Conclusion. Primary adult renal Ewing's sarcoma is an aggressive tumor with a propensity for early metastasis. Radical nephrectomy with adjuvant combination chemotherapy produced the best results but the outlook remained poor with only one patient experiencing long disease-free survival.

  19. Primary Occipital Ewing's Sarcoma with Subsequent Spinal Seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ali; Amer, Roaa; Bakhsh, Eman

    2017-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a primary bone cancer that mainly affects the long bones. This malignancy is particularly common in pediatric patients. Primary cranial involvement accounts for 1% of cases, with occipital involvement considered extremely rare. In this case study, primary occipital Ewing's sarcoma with a posterior fossa mass and subsequent relapse resulting in spinal seeding is reported. A 3-year-old patient presented with a 1-year history of left-sided headaches, localized over the occipital bone with progressive torticollis. Computed tomography (CT) imaging showed a mass in the left posterior fossa compressing the brainstem. The patient then underwent surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy. Two years later, the patient presented with severe lower back pain and urinary incontinence. Whole-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) seeding from the L5 to the S4 vertebrae. Primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma is considered in the differential diagnosis of children with extra-axial posterior fossa mass associated with destructive permeative bone lesions. Although primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma typically has good prognosis, our patient developed metastasis in the lower spine. Therefore, with CNS Ewing's sarcoma, screening of the entire neural axis should be taken into consideration for early detection of CSF seeding metastasis in order to decrease the associated morbidity and mortality.

  20. Protective, elective lung irradiation in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, L; Hristozova, I; Mihaylova, I; Perenovska, P

    2015-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma in childhood is a disease from family of the peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumours. For a period of 16 y (1984-2000), 34 children with Ewing's sarcoma were treated and followed in our department. Twenty-seven of these patients were without distant metastases. Complex treatment was applied to all these patients-chemotherapy VACA (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin), local radiotherapy to a total dose of 50-56 Gy +/- surgery. After, a local tumour control was achieved in 11 children with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, elective whole lung irradiation to a total dose of 12-15 Gy was applied. Our experience in these 11 patients with non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, in whom elective lung irradiation was applied, showed significant reduction in the lung metastases, improved free of disease survival and overall survival. The achieved good treatment results necessitate extending this treatment approach through defining the risk groups of patients, suitable for elective lung radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in non-metastatic Ewing's sarcoma. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Mona S.; Jones, Kevin B.; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs) and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease. PMID:21437220

  2. Copy Number Alterations and Methylation in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common bone malignancy affecting children and young adults. The prognosis is especially poor in metastatic or relapsed disease. The cell of origin remains elusive, but the EWS-FLI1 fusion oncoprotein is present in the majority of cases. The understanding of the molecular basis of Ewing's sarcoma continues to progress slowly. EWS-FLI1 affects gene expression, but other factors must also be at work such as mutations, gene copy number alterations, and promoter methylation. This paper explores in depth two molecular aspects of Ewing's sarcoma: copy number alterations (CNAs and methylation. While CNAs consistently have been reported in Ewing's sarcoma, their clinical significance has been variable, most likely due to small sample size and tumor heterogeneity. Methylation is thought to be important in oncogenesis and balanced karyotype cancers such as Ewing's, yet it has received only minimal attention in prior studies. Future CNA and methylation studies will help to understand the molecular basis of this disease.

  3. Analysis and Assessment for Iraqi Communication Technology Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Al-Khalidy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The communications in Iraq has been fluctuated for decades. In fact, this fluctuation constitutes a reality that the country has been facing such as the security issues, the economic blockade imposed on the previous regime, and all the exceptional circumstances. This paper illustrates the nature and reality of communication in Iraq after 2003. While the sophisticated technology works very well all around the world, Iraq still does not keep the work up to improve its communications. This paper tackles the most importantcommunication problems in Iraq after 2003, and the possibility to process good services to customers, either by developing the governmental combinations, or/and by enforcing telecommunication companies to provide their best services to their customers. This paper answers the following the questions: Are the telecom/communication companies serve good qualities to the customers? If not, why? Who is the responsible? Are these companies at least doing their best to serve good qualities? Or are they just profitable companies? Why have these companies not started using the optical fiber cables instead of the copper one? Is the government seeking to compel such companies to serve good services? Whether the Iraqi government plans to develop the landlines services so it would compete with the telecom companies? What is the role of the Communication and Media Commission (CMC?

  4. Greening Existing Buildings in Contemporary Iraqi Urban Reality/ Virtual Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jabar Neama Al-Khafaji

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.

  5. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  6. Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants\\' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سید عدنان اشکوری

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar    Jafar Delshad *  Seyyed Adnan Eshkewaree **    Abstract  The word ‘eghterab’ in human sciences has different concepts which could be classified into three groups: 1 Westernization and tending to western culture or being alien with eastern authenticity 2 nostalgia and homesickness caused by being away from his/her motherhood land and hometown. Most of this group of poets are emigrants or are in exile and 3 having the sense of nostalgia but being in home country. It means that this group of poets have very high ideals which no one in their homeland can take and bare these ideals. The poet perceives that ideals which are essential for him/her are higher than the society in which he/she lives can grasp. This essay makes an attempt to study the various concepts of ‘eghterab’ by focusing on Ahmad Matar as a prominent poet with regard to the third concept and deal with the third concept of Eghterab from three points of view: political, social and spiritual. This article examines some samples of these three parts in Ahmad Matar's poetry.    Key words: nostalgia, poetry, emigration, Ahmad Matar, Iraq   * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of IsfahanE-mail: delshad@fgn.ui.ir  ** Assistant Professor, University for Teacher Training, E-mail: eshkewaree@yahoo.com.

  7. Mobile recommender application for promoting electricity saving among Iraqis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Manhal Isam; Hussain, Azham

    2017-10-01

    Mobile utilization has rapidly expanded due to its feasibility in executing different applications that can be used in solving everyday problems. Common issues in daily life include electricity saving. In Iraq, the Ministry of Power seriously faces such issue. This is because most households have lack access to information regarding to sufficient power consumption, as well as applications that educate about such saving. Therefore, this study aims at developing a mobile application for Iraqi to help them understand the basis for reducing electricity consumption based on the meter data supplied by the users for square meter along with the active devices and period of usage. The proposed mobile application was evaluated by 50 households from the perspective of ease of use, usefulness, ease of learning, and satisfaction. The obtained result showed that majority of the participants found the application to be ease to use, useful, easy to learn, and were satisfied with its functionalities. The study findings provide some insights about the importance of using mobile application for promoting households in Iraq to manage their power consumption behavior.

  8. Maurice Ewing Medalist: Xavier Le Pichon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, John I.; Le Pichon, Xavier

    1984-04-01

    Mr. President, fellow members of the American Geophysical Union, and members of the U.S. Navy, it gives me great pleasure to present the citation for the 1984 AGU/USN Maurice Ewing Medal, to be awarded to Dr. Xavier Le Pichon.After receiving diplomas in several disciplines of geology, physics, and geophysics from the University of Strasbourg during the 1950s, Xavier came to the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory as a visiting scientist where he put his knowledge to practice until 1968. In 1966 he received the Doctor of Sciences degree from the University of Strasbourg. Returning to France in 1968, Xavier spent the next five years at the Centre Océanologique de Bretagne in Brest where he founded the Research Group. From Brest he moved to the headquarters of CNEXO in Paris for 5 years and then to the University of Paris to found the new Laboratoire de Géodynamique. From his present position of professor at the university he will move next year to become director of the Geology Laboratory in the Ecole Normale Supérieure, one of the French Grandes Ecoles.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid in ewe milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Pilar; Fontecha, Javier; Juárez, Manuela; de la Fuente, Miguel Angel

    2005-11-01

    Ewe milk fat from five different herds was studied to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Research was carried out by combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and 4,4-dimethyloxazolyne derivatives (DMOX) with silver ion-high performance liquid chromatography (Ag+-HPLC). Reconstructed mass spectral profiles of CLA characteristic ions from DMOX were used to identify positional isomers and Ag+-HPLC to quantify them. Total CLA content varied from 0.57 to 0.97 g/100 g of total fatty acids. FAME and DMOX were separated into a complex mixture of minor isomers and major rumenic acid (9-cis 11-trans C18:2) by GC-MS using a 100-m polar capillary column. Rumenic acid would represent more than 75% of total CLA. 11-trans 13-trans, 11-13 cis/trans plus trans/cis and 7-9 cis/trans plus trans/cis were the main CLA isomers after rumenic acid. Minor amounts of 8-10 and 10-12 C18:2 isomers were also found. Although most of the isomers were present in each herd's milk, differences in content were observed for some CLA species.

  10. Rhodotorula minuta fungemia in a ewe lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitko-McKown, C G; Leymaster, K A; Heaton, M P; Griffin, D D; Veatch, J K; Jones, S A; Clawson, M L

    2014-12-01

    An 8-month-old crossbred ewe, normal upon physical examination, was humanely euthanized for tissue collection. After approximately 3 weeks in tissue culture, fungi began budding out of cells obtained from the choroid plexus. After an additional 3 weeks, budding was observed in kidney cell cultures and eventually in monocyte cultures as well. Serum from the lamb was submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Colorado State University for fungal diagnosis and was found negative for Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioidomycosis and Histoplasmosis. DNA was isolated from fungi collected from tissue culture supernatants and used in a set of pan-fungal PCR assays with DNA from Candida acting as a positive control. PCR products were sequenced and BLAST analysis performed. The unknown fungal sequence aligned with 100% identity to Rhodotorula minuta an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Samples were submitted to The Fungal Testing Laboratory at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio for additional validation. We believe this to be the first report of Rhodotorula fungemia in a sheep in the United States. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The Iraqi civil registration system and the test of political upheaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Bah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An in-depth situation analysis was carried out on the Iraqi civil registration system in 2011, years after the end of the military operation of 2003. The study was done using a combination of methods, including interviews with key role players in the Iraqi civil registration system, observation, study of documents, triangulation, and gap analysis. The study found the civil registration system in Iraq to be largely intact and functional, in spite of the wars experienced in Iraq over the past three decades. Given that civil registration systems generally get destroyed through wars, the paper discusses the reasons for the resilience in the Iraqi civil registration system and draws lessons from them.

  12. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Transarticular spread of Ewing sarcoma mimicking septic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordanov, Martin I.; Block, John J. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Gonzalez, Adriana L. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Nashville, TN (United States); Green, Neil E. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Transarticular spread of tumor is rare; it has only been reported in the sacroiliac joint, intervertebral disk spaces, and facet joints. The anatomic and kinetic characteristics of the sacroiliac joint, as well as the changes the joint undergoes during a lifetime, make it particularly vulnerable to transarticular tumor invasion. Although extremely rare, Ewing sarcoma can extend through the sacroiliac joint and be virtually indistinguishable radiologically from septic arthritis. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of a child with Ewing sarcoma can be similar to that of a child with osteomyelitis. Laboratory values are quite nonspecific and are not always helpful in differentiating between the entities. Therefore, the possibility of sacroiliac joint transarticular Ewing sarcoma should be considered in a child presenting with hip pain, despite clinical, radiological and laboratory findings suggesting an infectious process. (orig.)

  14. Extraskeletal ewing sarcoma of cervical epidural region: cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Jun; Jung, Hyun Seouk; Lee, Jae Hee; Sohn, Kyung Myung; Lee, Sung Yong [Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-01-01

    Extraskeletal ewing sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor found in children and young adults. It commonly occurs in deep soft tissue of the trunk, especially in the paravertebral region and extremities. We report two cases of extraskeletal ewing sarcoma occurring as a cervical epidural tumor in elderly patients. The MRI and CT findings showed that paravertebral epidural tumors had invaded the spinal canal through the intervertebral foramen. At T1-weighted MR imaging, the masses were isointense to muscle, and at T2* and T2-weighted images were hyperintense, and heterogeneous contrast enhancement was observed. Extraskeletal ewing sarcoma, though quite rare, should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of paraspinal epidural tumors.

  15. [Ewing sarcoma located in the mandible: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M; Droz, D; Mansuy, L; Simon, E; Chastagner, P

    2015-06-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation is usually dominated by local pain and a palpable mass. These symptoms justify imaging investigations: the first one, when an osseous lesion is suspected, is usually a conventional radiograph in two planes. Ewing sarcoma appears as a poorly defined osteolytic lesion that may frequently be associated with cortical erosion or laminar periosteal response ("onion skin"). However, this aspect is not pathognomonic and the definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Absence of pain or an unusual localization can lead to misdiagnosis. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with Ewing sarcoma located in the mandible with a clinical picture including progressive mandibular swelling but no pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Extraskeletal ewing sarcoma of cervical epidural region: cases report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jun; Jung, Hyun Seouk; Lee, Jae Hee; Sohn, Kyung Myung; Lee, Sung Yong

    2003-01-01

    Extraskeletal ewing sarcoma is a rare malignant tumor found in children and young adults. It commonly occurs in deep soft tissue of the trunk, especially in the paravertebral region and extremities. We report two cases of extraskeletal ewing sarcoma occurring as a cervical epidural tumor in elderly patients. The MRI and CT findings showed that paravertebral epidural tumors had invaded the spinal canal through the intervertebral foramen. At T1-weighted MR imaging, the masses were isointense to muscle, and at T2* and T2-weighted images were hyperintense, and heterogeneous contrast enhancement was observed. Extraskeletal ewing sarcoma, though quite rare, should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of paraspinal epidural tumors

  17. Transarticular spread of Ewing sarcoma mimicking septic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, Martin I.; Block, John J.; Gonzalez, Adriana L.; Green, Neil E.

    2009-01-01

    Transarticular spread of tumor is rare; it has only been reported in the sacroiliac joint, intervertebral disk spaces, and facet joints. The anatomic and kinetic characteristics of the sacroiliac joint, as well as the changes the joint undergoes during a lifetime, make it particularly vulnerable to transarticular tumor invasion. Although extremely rare, Ewing sarcoma can extend through the sacroiliac joint and be virtually indistinguishable radiologically from septic arthritis. Furthermore, the clinical presentation of a child with Ewing sarcoma can be similar to that of a child with osteomyelitis. Laboratory values are quite nonspecific and are not always helpful in differentiating between the entities. Therefore, the possibility of sacroiliac joint transarticular Ewing sarcoma should be considered in a child presenting with hip pain, despite clinical, radiological and laboratory findings suggesting an infectious process. (orig.)

  18. Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitle Bjørg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86% pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.

  19. Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone Tumor Cells Produce MCSF that Stimulates Monocyte Proliferation in a Novel Mouse Model of Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Margulies, BS; DeBoyace, SD; Damron, TA; Allen, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, cr...

  20. Dietary -carbamylglutamate and rumen-protected -arginine supplementation ameliorate fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Sun, L W; Wang, Z Y; Deng, M T; Zhang, G M; Guo, R H; Ma, T W; Wang, F

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted with an ovine intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) model to test the hypothesis that dietary -carbamylglutamate (NCG) and rumen-protected -Arg (RP-Arg) supplementation are effective in ameliorating fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes. Beginning on d 35 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements, 50% of NRC recommendations (50% NRC), 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 20 g/d RP-Arg (providing 10 g/d of Arg), and 50% of NRC recommendations supplemented with 5 g/d NCG product (providing 2.5 g/d of NCG). On d 110, maternal, fetal, and placental tissues and fluids were collected and weighed. Ewe weights were lower ( ewes compared with adequately fed ewes. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation did not alter ( = 0.26) maternal BW in nutrient-restricted ewes. Weights of most fetal organs were increased ( ewes compared with 50% NRC-fed ewes. Supplementation of RP-Arg or NCG reduced ( ewes but had no effect on concentrations of lactate and GH. Maternal RP-Arg or NCG supplementation markedly improved ( ewes. These novel results indicate that dietary NCG and RP-Arg supplementation to underfed ewes ameliorated fetal growth restriction, at least in part, by increasing the availability of AA in the conceptus and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans and sheep industry production.

  1. Corpora lutea in superovulated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraisoon, A; Redmer, D A; Bass, C S; Navanukraw, C; Dorsam, S T; Valkov, V; Reyaz, A; Grazul-Bilska, A T

    2018-01-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian structure which is critical for the maintenance of reproductive cyclicity and pregnancy support. Diet and/or diet components may affect some luteal functions. FSH is widely used to induce multiple follicle development and superovulation. We hypothesized that FSH would affect luteal function in ewes fed different nutritional planes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if FSH-treatment affects (1) ovulation rate; (2) CL weight; (3) cell proliferation; (4) vascularity; (5) expression of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) proteins; and (6) luteal and serum progesterone (P4) concentration in control (C), overfed (O), and underfed (U) ewes at the early- and mid-luteal phases. In addition, data generated from this study were compared to data obtained from nonsuperovulated sheep and described by Bass et al. Ewes were categorized by weight and randomly assigned into nutrition groups: C (2.14 Mcal/kg; n = 11), O (2xC; n = 12), and U (0.6xC; n = 11). Nutritional treatment was initiated 60 d prior to day 0 of the estrous cycle. Ewes were injected with FSH on day 13-15 of the first estrous cycle, and blood samples and ovaries were collected at early- and mid-luteal phases of the second estrous cycle. The number of CL/ewe was determined, and CL was dissected and weighed. CL was fixed for evaluation of expression of Ki67 (a proliferating cell marker), CD31 (an endothelial cell marker), and eNOS and sGC proteins using immunohistochemistry and image analysis. From day 0 until tissue collection, C maintained, O gained, and U lost body weight. The CL number was greater (P ewes; however, concentration of P4 in luteal tissues was similar in both groups. Thus, in superovulated ewes, luteal cell proliferation and vascularity, expression of eNOS, and serum P4 concentration depend on the stage of luteal development, but not diet. Comparison to control ewes demonstrated several differences and some

  2. An Unusual Cause of Urinary Incontinence: Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Kupeli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence in children can be originated mostly from urinary tract infections, but constipation, neurologic disorders, obstruction and tumors can also be considered among other causes. Pelvic tumors may present with back pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction. Ewing's sarcoma is among the small round-cell tumors of the childhood and potentially can arise from any part of the body. Here, we report an 11-year-old male presented with urinary incontinence and diagnosed as Ewing's sarcoma after 6 weeks' delay. Clinicians should suspect from pelvic tumors in the presence of urinary incontinence especially associated with low back pain. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 94-96

  3. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto-Soler, Maria; Morgado-Palacin, Isabel; Lafarga, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source...... efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas....

  4. Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor cells produces MCSF that stimulates monocyte proliferation in a novel mouse model of Ewing's sarcoma of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, B S; DeBoyace, S D; Damron, T A; Allen, M J

    2015-10-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone Tumor Cells Produce MCSF that Stimulates Monocyte Proliferation in a Novel Mouse Model of Ewing's Sarcoma of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, BS; DeBoyace, SD; Damron, TA; Allen, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma of bone is a primary childhood malignancy of bone that is treated with X-radiation therapy in combination with surgical excision and chemotherapy. To better study Ewing's sarcoma of bone we developed a novel model of primary Ewing's sarcoma of bone and then treated animals with X-radiation therapy. We identified that uncontrolled tumor resulted in lytic bone destruction while X-radiation therapy decreased lytic bone destruction and increased limb-length asymmetry, a common, crippling complication of X-radiation therapy. Osteoclasts were indentified adjacent to the tumor, however, we were unable to detect RANK-ligand in the Ewing's tumor cells in vitro, which lead us to investigate alternate mechanisms for osteoclast formation. Ewing's sarcoma tumor cells and archival Ewing's sarcoma of bone tumor biopsy samples were shown to express MCSF, which could promote osteoclast formation. Increased monocyte numbers were detected in peripheral blood and spleen in animals with untreated Ewing's sarcoma tumor while monocyte number in animals treated with x-radiation had normal numbers of monocytes. Our data suggest that our Ewing's sarcoma of bone model will be useful in the study Ewing's sarcoma tumor progression in parallel with the effects of chemotherapy and X-radiation therapy. PMID:26051470

  6. Evaluation of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper x Rambouillet ewes mated to terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: Lamb production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewe productivity (i.e., total numbers or weight of lamb weaned ÷ number of breeding ewes) is a key indicator of lamb production efficiency. This second-generation study compared various measures of ewe productivity and ewe and lamb performance in an extensive rangeland production system of ewes of 3...

  7. The Response of Iraqi buffaloes to standardized diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Khlef

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.

  8. Induction New Suitable Soybean Genotypes for Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs

  9. 18F-FLT Positron Emission Tomography and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Planning Surgery and Radiation Therapy and Measuring Response in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Ewing Sarcoma of Bone; Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma; Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Untreated Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  10. Ewing's Sarcoma of the Peritoneum: a Rare Location for Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Muzaffer; Ozdemir, Yavuz; Yigit, Taner; Kucukodaci, Zafer; Sonmez, Guner

    2016-11-01

    A 38-year-old male presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and bulge. He had a history of irritable bowel syndrome for 1 year with complaint of dyspepsia. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen with a huge palpable mass located in the paraumblical region. Laboratory findings revealed a high white blood cell count with neutrophil predominance. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a 23-cm, oval-shaped, grossly necrotic, low-attenuation mass with peripherally located dominant vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) suggested a highly malignant tumor with prominent diffusion restriction especially at the periphery of the mass. On surgery, macroscopic examination showed a macrolobulated, hypervascular, reddish brown mass attached to the parietal peritoneum with a stalk. Ewing's sarcoma (ES) was diagnosed on histopathological examination with small round cells.

  11. Sarcoma de Ewing en paciente masculino Ewing's sarcoma in a male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Millán Escalona

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El sarcoma de Ewing es un tumor óseo maligno de células redondas pequeñas. Es el segundo tumor óseo maligno más frecuente en la infancia, y se puede presentar en cualquier momento durante la niñez y comienzos de la edad adulta. El tumor puede originarse en cualquier parte del cuerpo, generalmente en los huesos largos de las extremidades, la pelvis o el tórax, al igual que en el cráneo o en los huesos planos del tronco. Se trata de un paciente masculino, mestizo, de 38 años de edad, que acude a consulta externa en el hospital de Nickerie, Suriname, por presentar aumento de volumen en la región lateral derecha del abdomen. Refiere que ha presentado pérdida de peso, decaimiento marcado y anorexia. Estos síntomas se iniciaron 3 meses antes, y se han incrementado paulatina y progresivamente. Tiene también dificultad para deambular y dolor en la pierna derecha.The Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor of round cells. The second malignant bone tumor more frequent in childhood and may to appear in any moment during this life stage and at onset of adulthood. Tumor may to originate in any place of body, generally in limbs long bones, pelvis or thorax as well as in skull or in trunk flat bones. This case is a black male patient aged 38 seen in external consultation in the hospital of Nickerie, Surinam presenting with a volume increase in the right lateral region of abdomen. He refers a weight loss, a marked weakness and anorexia. These symptoms appeared three months before increasing in a gradual and progressively way. He has difficulty to walk and pain in the right leg.

  12. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerkvenik, V.; Perko, B.; Rogelj, I.; Doganoc, D.Z.; Skubic, V.; Beek, W.M.J.; Keukens, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0·2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day

  13. Localisation inhabituelle du sarcome d'Ewing des parties molles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ewing's sarcoma of soft parts is a rare mesenchymal tumor of poor prognosis. Receiving an early diagnosis increases the chance of survival. In the absence of clinical and radiological features, it seems necessary to include it in the differential diagnosis which includes all the primitive tumour of soft parts and to hypothesize ...

  14. Recurrence of Ewing Sarcomas of the Chest Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meys, Karlijn M. E.; Heinen, Richard C.; van den Berg, Henk; Aronson, Daniel C.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Ewing sarcomas (ES) of the chest wall are rare. Local recurrences occur in approximately 20% of these patients; however literature on this topic is scarce. Our aim was to analyze the influence of the extent of surgical resection on outcome, and to find positive prognostic factors for

  15. Ewing's sarcoma presenting as a solitary cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammoud, S. [Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Frassica, F.J. [Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Johns Hopkins Outpatient Center, School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Pathology, Division of Surgical Pathology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This case describes a 10-year-old girl who developed a Ewing's sarcoma in her proximal fibula. The radiologic features mimicked those of a unicameral bone cyst. The presence of pain and the atypical location led to a prompt biopsy and the correct diagnosis. The mechanism of this unusual radiographic presentation is discussed. (orig.)

  16. Production response of lambing ewes receiving supplementary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Introduction. In the past, several experiments were conducted at the Langgewens Experimental Farm in the Swartland area of the Western Cape to evaluate different types of supplementary feed for producing ewes while grazing low quality crop residues during the dry summer and early autumn months (Brand, et al, 2000).

  17. The evaluation of kikuyu foggage for maintaining dry ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DeVilliersJ

    flow programme to maintain dry ewes during the winter in a system where their lambs were weaned onto .... IVDOM of the combined values of the January and February oesophageal and hand-cut foggage samples and ... The ability of the grazing animal to select material of higher quality than hand-cut samples of the.

  18. Microsatellites with Macro-Influence in Ewing Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L. Lessnick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous molecular abnormalities contribute to the genetic derangements involved in tumorigenesis. Chromosomal translocations are a frequent source of these derangements, producing unique fusion proteins with novel oncogenic properties. EWS/ETS fusions in Ewing sarcoma are a prime example of this, resulting in potent chimeric oncoproteins with novel biological properties and a unique transcriptional signature essential for oncogenesis. Recent evidence demonstrates that EWS/FLI, the most common EWS/ETS fusion in Ewing sarcoma, upregulates gene expression using a GGAA microsatellite response element dispersed throughout the human genome. These GGAA microsatellites function as enhancer elements, are sites of epigenetic regulation and are necessary for EWS/FLI DNA binding and upregulation of principal oncogenic targets. An increasing number of GGAA motifs appear to substantially enhance EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression, which has compelling biological implications as these GGAA microsatellites are highly polymorphic within and between ethnically distinct populations. Historically regarded as junk DNA, this emerging evidence clearly demonstrates that microsatellite DNA plays an instrumental role in EWS/FLI-mediated transcriptional regulation and oncogenesis in Ewing sarcoma. This unprecedented role of GGAA microsatellite DNA in Ewing sarcoma provides a unique opportunity to expand our mechanistic understanding of how EWS/ETS fusions influence cancer susceptibility, prognosis and transcriptional regulation.

  19. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African. Journal of Animal Science. .... mix (lick) supplied to producing SA. Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period.

  20. Response of SA Mutton Merino ewes and their lambs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minerale en 'n ionofoor verryk, en vir 90 dae teen 500 g per ooi per dag aan SA Vleismerino-ooie tydens laatdragtigheid en laktasie as ... nutritional deprivation. To counter the problems of keto- sis and poor milk yield in ewes, .... as a means of assessing adequacy of nutrition during that period. Prior to lambing, no differ-.

  1. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the temporal bone in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzipour, Kourosh; Shamsian, Shahin; Alavi, Samin; Nourbakhsh, Kazem; Aghakhani, Roxana; Eydian, Zahra; Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-04-01

    Introduction : Ewing's sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of bone found in children after Osteosarcoma. It accounts for 4-9% of primary malignant bone tumors and it affects bones of the skull or face in only 1-4% of cases. Hence it rarely affects the head and neck. Subject and Method : In this case report, we describe a case of primary Ewing's sarcoma occurring in the temporal bone. The tumor was surgically excised, and the patient underwent chemotherapy for ten months. Results : Neither recurrence nor distant metastasis was noted in these 10 months after surgery but about 18 months after surgery our patient was expired. Conclusion : Although the prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma is generally poor because of early metastasis to the lungs and to other bones, a review of the article suggested that Ewing's sarcoma occurring in the skull can often be successfully managed by intensive therapy with radical excision and chemotherapy. This result was supported by the case reported here.

  2. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

  3. Cytogenetically confirmed primary Ewing's sarcoma of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golhar, Ankush; Ray, Samrat; Haugk, Beate; Singhvi, Suresh Kumar

    2017-05-04

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly aggressive malignant tumour most commonly affecting long bones in children and adolescents. It is part of the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFTs) that also include peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumour and Askin's tumours. ESFTs share common cytogenetic aberrations, antigenic profiles and proto-oncogene expression with an overall similar clinical course. In 99% of ESFTs, genetic translocation with molecular fusion involves the EWSR1 gene on 22q12. Approximately 30% of ESFTs are extraosseous, most commonly occurring in the soft tissues of extremities, pelvis, retroperitoneum and chest wall. Primary presentation in solid organs is very rare but has been described in multiple sites including the pancreas. Accurate diagnosis of a Ewing's sarcoma in a solid organ is critical in facilitating correct treatment. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl with cytogenetically confirmed primary pancreatic Ewing's sarcoma and provide a brief review of the published literature. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Herrero-Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease.

  5. Primary extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES is a rare soft tissue tumor that is morphologically indistinguishable from skeletal ES. We report a case of a 25-year-old female with recurrent EES/primitive neuroectodermal tumor of right breast with imaging findings on mammogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging breast, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography.

  6. Ewing Sarcoma: Current Management and Future Approaches Through Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Dirksen, Uta; Lewis, Ian J.; Ferrari, Stefano; Le Deley, Marie-Cecile; Kovar, Heinrich; Grimer, Robert; Whelan, Jeremy; Claude, Line; Delattre, Olivier; Paulussen, Michael; Picci, Piero; Sundby Hall, Kirsten; van den Berg, Hendrik; Ladenstein, Ruth; Michon, Jean; Hjorth, Lars; Judson, Ian; Luksch, Roberto; Bernstein, Mark L.; Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Brennan, Bernadette; Craft, Alan W.; Womer, Richard B.; Juergens, Heribert; Oberlin, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an aggressive sarcoma of bone and soft tissue occurring at any age with a peak incidence in adolescents and young adults. The treatment of ES relies on a multidisciplinary approach, coupling risk-adapted intensive neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapies with surgery and/or

  7. Survival of patients with Ewing's sarcoma in Yazd-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Shamshiri, Hadi; Ghanadi, Fazllolah

    2014-01-01

    The Ewing's sarcoma family is a group of small round cell tumors which accounts for 10-15% of all primary bone neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Ewing's sarcoma patients in our province and to determine of influencing factors. All patients with documented Ewing's sarcoma/ primitive neuroectodermal tumor(PNET) family pathology were enrolled in this study during a period of eight years. For all of them local and systemic therapy were carried out. Overall and event free survival and prognostic factors were evaluated. Thirty two patients were enrolled in the study. The median age was 17.5 years. Twenty (65.2%) were male and 9 (28.1%) were aged 14 years or less. Mean disease free survival was 26.8 (95%CI; 13.8-39.9) months and five year disease free survival was 26%. Mean overall survival was 38.7 months (95%CI; 25.9-50.6) and median overall survival was 24 months. Five year overall survival was 25%. From the variables evaluated , only presence of metastatic disease at presentation (p value=0. 028) and complete response (p value =0. 006) had significant relations to overall survival. Survival of Ewing's sarcoma in our province is disappointing. It seems to be mostly due to less effective treatment. Administration of adequate chemotherapy dosage, resection of tumor with negative margins and precise assessment of irradiation volume may prove helpful.

  8. The Socioemotional Development of Orphans in Orphanages and Traditional Foster Care in Iraqi Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj

    1996-01-01

    A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)

  9. History Education in Schools in Iraqi Kurdistan: Representing Values of Peace and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darweish, Marwan; Mohammed, Maamoon Abdulsamad

    2018-01-01

    The Kurdistan Regional Government has implemented a wide range of reforms in Iraqi Kurdistan's education system since its establishment in 2003. This qualitative study utilises critical discourse analysis to investigate the content of History Education (HE) textbooks (grades five to eight) and to assess how far peace education values and…

  10. Three Secondary School Teachers Implementing Student-Centred Learning in Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, Tony; Madsen, Janne; Zako, Nadia; Ismail, Adham

    2017-01-01

    In Iraqi Kurdistan, the educational system is going through significant changes. The educational system influences the students' attitudes, and one wants the educational system to support the young democracy. In this study, student-centred learning (SCL) is seen as a first step to learning, but also to participation and engagement as a citizen.…

  11. National E-Learning Strategy to Enhance and Enrich the Iraqi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…

  12. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and

  13. Jesuit Contributions to the Iraqi Education System in the 1930s and Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girling, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    This article will consider the significant role which the Society of Jesus had played in the Iraqi secondary and higher education systems in the period 1932-1968. The Jesuits' Baghdad-based school and university formed a part of the substantial Jesuit educational network established across the Middle East from the nineteenth century and this…

  14. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…

  15. Awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in the Iraqi community in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Dana A; Abdelmalek, Suzanne; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Hamadi, Salim

    2014-05-14

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global health concern. It has considerable implications on societies' health and resources. In Jordan, there is a large Iraqi community due to the ongoing turmoil in Iraq. Unfortunately, health awareness and practices of this community are under-investigated due to scarcity of research. This paper assesses the awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in the Iraqi community residing in Amman, Jordan. Their level of interaction with health care professionals regarding antibiotics and differences in their antibiotic use between Iraq and Jordan are also discussed. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey involving randomly selected Iraqis residing in Amman, Jordan was conducted. The study involved 508 participants. Sixty-two percent of participants agreed with buying antibiotics without a prescription, 29% agreed with obtaining antibiotics from friends or relatives, and 46% agreed with keeping leftover antibiotics for future use. Furthermore, 60% disagreed with not completing an antibiotic course and almost 90% of the sample listed viral diseases as an indication for antibiotics. Forty-four percent of participants abided by physicians' instructions on antibiotic use. Half of the participants believed that pharmacists provided instructions on antibiotics all the time, whereas physicians were perceived to do so by 29% of participants. Gaps exist in knowledge of antibiotic use and reasons for antimicrobial resistance among Iraqis residing in Jordan. These gaps should serve in planning educational campaigns to raise the community's awareness of responsible antibiotic use. Law enforcement to restrict access to antibiotics is also pivotal to tackle their misuse.

  16. Out of Crisis: Reflections of an Iraqi and an American on Advocacy for Andragogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.

    2010-01-01

    Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7022 - Trade agreements certificate-inclusion of Iraqi end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7022 Trade agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements...

  18. Estrus resynchronization in ewes with unknown pregnancy status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Vladinis O; Oliveira, Fernando C; Dias, Jenniffer H; Vargas Júnior, Sergio F; Goularte, Karina L; Sá Filho, Manoel F; Sá Filho, Ocilon G de; Baldassarre, Hernan; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Lucia, Thomaz; Gasperin, Bernardo G

    2018-01-15

    Although fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) protocols are available for sheep, estrus resynchronization has not been previously reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of estrus resynchronization with exogenous progestogen on endogenous progesterone levels and to compare pregnancy rates after two consecutive estrus synchronizations in ewes. In Experiment 1, ewes (n = 20) received an intravaginal device (IVD) containing 60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for 10 days. At the IVD withdrawal (D0), ewes received 250 IU eCG and were allocated into two treatments: either no further treatment (Control; n = 10) or estrus resynchronization (Resynch; n = 10) from D12 to D19. Serum progesterone (P4) levels did not differ at D12 and D19 (P > 0.05), but were greater at D15 for the Control compared with the Resynch group (P ewes (n = 250) were submitted to a first synchronization protocol followed by estrus detection and either artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating (NM). Subsequently, ewes were divided into two groups: Control (n = 104): which received no further treatment and were bred by NM; and Resynch (n = 146): which were submitted to a second synchronization starting on D14 (first IVD withdrawal = D0) and to NM after second IVD withdrawal (D20). Cumulative pregnancy rates did not differ between the Control (67.3%, 70/104) and Resynch (62.3%, 91/146) groups. In a third experiment, ewes (n = 83) were bred by two consecutive FTAI within a 20-day interval. Pregnancy rates after the first (30.1%, 25/83) and the second FTAI (36.2%, 21/58) did not differ (P > 0.05). In conclusion, although exogenous progestogen supplementation reduced circulating levels of P4, pregnancy maintenance was unaffected. Estrus resynchronization in ewes is feasible, resulting in similar fertility after the first and the second services. The use of resynchronization coupled with artificial insemination using semen from genetically

  19. Induction of cervical dilation for transcervical embryo transfer in ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A major limitation in the application of assisted reproductive technologies in sheep arises from the inability to easily traverse the uterine cervix. The cervix of the non-pregnant ewe is a narrow and rigid structure, with 5–7 spiral folds and crypts that block its lumen. The first two folds closest to the vagina appear to be the greatest obstacle for the instrument insertion into the sheep cervix. Therefore, the dilation of the distal part of the cervix could provide the conformational change necessary to perform non-invasive transcervical procedures. The present study set out to assess the efficacy of Cervidil®, a patented dinoprostone (PgE2)-containing vaginal insert with a controlled-release mechanism, to safely induce sufficient cervical dilation for the purpose of transcervical embryo transfer (TCET) in cyclic ewes. Methods The transfer of frozen-thawed ovine embryos was attempted in 22 cross-bred Rideau Arcott x Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pre-treatment with Cervidil® for 12 or 24 h prior to TCET. Results Cervical penetration rate was significantly improved after Cervidil® pre-treatment, with 55% (6/11) of treated versus 9% (1/11) of control animals successfully penetrated (χ2-test, p ewes that were penetrated, 67% (4/6) had been exposed to Cervidil(R) for 24 h and 33% (2/6) had had a 12-h exposure (p > 0.05). Variations in the age, weight, genotype, parity, lifetime lamb production (LLP) and post-partum interval (PPI) between penetrated and non-penetrated ewes were not significant (p > 0.05). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (p ewes, but no fetuses were detected ultrasonographically 55 days post-TCET. Conclusions The present results indicate a significant benefit of using Cervidil® for inducing cervical dilation during the mid-luteal phase in ewes but the reason(s) for impaired fertility after the transfer of frozen-thawed ovine embryos remains to be elucidated. PMID:24467737

  20. Heart rate patterns during courtship and mating in rams and in estrous and nonestrous ewes ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, A; Omaña, J C; Ungerfeld, R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the heart rate (HR) patterns in rams mated with estrous or nonestrous ewes and in mated estrous and nonestrous ewes () during courtship and mating. For this purpose, HR and behavior were recorded using a radio telemetry recording system and a closed-circuit television system with video recording, respectively. Rams were joined with either an estrous ( = 10) or a nonestrous ( = 10) ewe that was restrained in a stanchion by the neck. Data were continuously recorded until each ram performed 3 ejaculations. Eight days later, the HR of the 10 estrous and 10 nonestrous ewes was recorded during mating. Although the time between entrance into the yard and the first ejaculation was similar across rams, rams that mounted estrous ewes were faster at attaining their second (3min5s ± 17 s vs. 5min28s ± 18 s) and third (7min58s ± 45 s vs. 12 min ± 1min14s) ejaculations (all ewes. In all cases, HR reached maximum values immediately after each ejaculation and the HR pattern was similar across ejaculations (first, second, and third). Although HR was similar between estrous and nonestrous ewes before mating, nonestrous ewes had higher HR ( ewes displayed shorter interejaculation periods but HR did not differ between groups of rams during any ejaculation (first, second, or third), 2) HR for both groups of rams peaked shortly after each ejaculation, and 3) HR increased more in nonestrous than in estrous ewes while mating.

  1. Effect of space allowance and flooring on the behavior of pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, S G; Øyrehagen, O; Bøe, K E

    2017-05-01

    Space allowance recommendations for pregnant ewes vary considerably. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on activity, lying position, displacements, and aggressive interactions in pregnant ewes. A 3 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with space allowance (0.75, 1.50, and 2.25 m/ewe) and type of flooring (straw bedding and expanded metal flooring) as the main factors. A total of 48 pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 8 ewes in each group. All groups were exposed to each treatment for 7 d. The ewes were video recorded for 24 h at the end of each treatment period and general activity, lying position in the pen, and social lying position were scored every 15 min. Displacements and aggressive interactions were scored continuously from 1030 to 1430 h. Mean lying time ( flooring had no significant effect on general activity. Ewes in the straw bedding treatment spent more time lying in the middle of the pen than ewes on expanded metal ( flooring. Hence, recommended space allowance for pregnant ewes should not be lower than 1.50 m/ewe.

  2. Factors affecting fecal egg counts in periparturient Katahdin ewes and their lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, D R; Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Morgan, J L M

    2017-01-01

    Selection for low fecal egg counts (FEC) can be used to genetically enhance resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in growing lambs, thereby reducing the frequency of use of anthelmintics, facilitating marketing of organic lamb, and reducing the risk of development of anthelmintic resistance by the parasite. Recording of FEC in lambs has, therefore, been incorporated into several national sheep genetic evaluation programs. Ewes in late gestation and early lactation are also vulnerable to parasite infection and commonly experience a periparturient rise in FEC. This study was designed to assess factors associated with the periparturient rise in FEC in Katahdin ewes and associated changes in FEC in their lambs. Data came from 1,487 lambings by 931 Katahdin ewes from 11 farms in the Eastern United States. Fecal egg counts were measured in ewes at approximately 0, 30, and 60 d postpartum and in their lambs at approximately 60, 90, and 120 d of age. Approximately 1,400 lambs were evaluated at each measurement age. Data were analyzed separately for ewes and lambs and also initially analyzed separately for each measurement time. Repeated-measures analyses were then used to evaluate responses across measurement times. In ewes, FEC peaked at approximately 28 d postpartum, and we concluded that informative periparturient FEC could be obtained from 1 wk before until approximately 5 wk after lambing. Yearling ewes had higher FEC than adult ewes ( ewes that nursed twin or triplet lambs had higher FEC than ewes that nursed single lambs ( ewes and lambs nursed in larger litters were, like their dams, at greater risk of parasitism ( Ewes and lambs in these groups would benefit from enhanced monitoring of parasite loads at lambing and in early lactation. Correlations () between FEC in lambs at 90 d of age and FEC in ewes at 0, 30, and 60 d postpartum of 0.05 to 0.09 ( ≤ 0.05) support the presence of a genetic relationship between these 2 indicators of parasite

  3. Effects of experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy in Yankasa ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyeye, A A; Ate, I U; Lawal, A I; Adamu, S

    2016-03-15

    Twenty pregnant Yankasa ewes were assigned to three groups to determine the effect of Trypanosoma evansi infection on pregnancy. Groups A and B comprising seven ewes each were infected with approximately 1.0 × 10(6) cells of T evansi per ewe through venepuncture at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, respectively. Group C comprising six ewes served as uninfected control. There was slight pyrexia in the infected groups (groups A and B) but was absent in group C. The mean body weight, glucose concentration, and packed cell volume of ewes in group A were not significantly different from those in group C throughout the study. There was also no significant difference in mean glucose concentration between groups B and C. However, in group B, mean body weight was significantly (P ewes in group A was significantly (P ewes in group B decreased significantly (P ewes in the infected groups (groups A and B) compared with those in group C. However, there were significant (P ewes in group B compared with ewes in groups A and C. Mice inoculation with blood from infected ewes postpartum was parasitemic 18 to 25 days pi, for ewes in group B, whereas none of the mice in groups A and C were parasitemic. Lambs born from the infected groups (groups A and B) were also aparasitemic for 40 days postpartum. It was therefore concluded that the T evansi isolate used caused mild trypanosomosis when infected at third trimester, whereas ewes infected at second trimester were resistant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemithorax irradiation for Ewing tumors of the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Andreas; Ahrens, Susanne; Konarzewska, Agnieszka; Paulussen, Michael; Froehlich, Birgit; Koenemann, Stefan; Ruebe, Christian; Ruebe, Claudia E.; Dunst, Juergen; Willich, Normann; Juergens, Heribert

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: In the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study 86 and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study 92, hemithorax irradiation (RT) was performed in patients with Ewing tumors of the chest wall involving the pleura or contaminating the pleural cavity. In a retrospective analysis, the outcomes of these patients were evaluated and compared with those of patients with chest wall tumors who did not receive hemithorax RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1985 and 1996, 138 patients presented with nonmetastatic Ewing tumors of the chest wall. They were treated in a multimodal treatment regimen that included polychemotherapy and local therapy depending on the tumor characteristics. Hemithorax RT was performed at a dose of 15 Gy for patients <14 years old and 20 Gy for patients ≥14 years old. Forty-two patients received hemithorax RT (Group 1) and 86 patients did not (Group 2). The data were insufficient for the other 10 patients. Results: Comparing both groups, the initial pleural effusion, pleural infiltration, and intraoperative contamination of the pleural space were significantly more frequent in Group 1. The event-free survival rate after 7 years was 63% for patients in Group 1 and 46% for patients in Group 2 (not statistically significant). The 7-year local relapse rate (including combined local-systemic relapses) was 12% in Group 1 and 10% in Group 2; the corresponding systemic relapse rates were 22% and 39%. Conclusion: Patients with chest wall tumors who received hemithorax RT were negatively selected; yet the rate of event-free survival was better for patients who received hemithorax RT than for those who did not (although the difference was not statistically significant). This result was due to a reduction of metastases, mainly lung metastases. Local control was equivalent between the two groups. These favorable results have caused us to continue using hemithorax RT to treat high-risk patients with Ewing tumors of the chest wall

  5. Histomorphological changes in follicular apparatus of ewe ovaries following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halagan, J.; Arendarcik, J.; Molnarova, M.; Stanikova, A.

    1985-01-01

    Histological changes in primary follicles of ewes after a five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays were studied by qualitative and micrometric methods. The experiment was carried out in the anoestrous period with 21 ewes of the Slovak Merino breed, divided into three groups. The first control group (five ewes) was not irradiated. The second and third groups (each included eight ewes) were irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays for a period of five days to the total dose of 4.8 Gy. All ewes including the control ones were given Ampicillin Spofa 250 mg per head/day during the period of ten days after irradiation. The third group was administered apart from this a mixture of vitamins, Roboran H, at the dose of 10 g per head/day. The animals were slaughtered on the fifth day of irradiation and on the tenth day after the end of irradiation. The ovaries processed by a routine histological method were cut in 7 μm slices in a series of 70 μm and stained with hematoxylin-eosine. By qualitative histomorphological analysis of the oocytes of primary follicles, chromatin aggregation, pycnosis of nuclei, pronounced acidophilia of oocyte cytoplasm, their shrinking and disintegration were determined. In intact primary follicles, mitotic division of follicular cells stopped and the proportion of follicular cells with pycnotic nuclei increased after irradiation. The results show that the five-day protracted exposure to gamma rays to the total dose of 4.8 Gy caused pronounced degenerative changes in the anoestrous period. Administration of antibiotics or vitamins had no significant effect on the stated histomorphological changes. (author)

  6. Changes in ovaries of X-irradiated ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokos, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Maracek, I.; Stanikova, A.; Balun, J.; Praslicka, M.

    1980-01-01

    The qualitative histological alterations of ovaries and caryometric changes in the corpora lutea (CL) were studied in the ewes of the Slovak Merino breed after irradiation with X-rays. The experiments were conducted on 12 ewes divided into three groups of four animals. The first group included the control ewes, the second, experimental group was exposed to X-rays applied directly to the ovaries after laparotomy at a rate of 64.4 mC per kg (250 R), and the ewes in the third group were locally irradiated in the hypothalamo-hypophysial region at a rate of 516.5 mC per kg (2000 R). On the 10th day following the irradiation, the animals were killed, ovarian excisions were taken from the carcasses and processed. Changes in the blood vessels of the ovaries of the ewes in the second group were revealed by qualitative microscopic analysis. Pronounced subintimal changes, reminding of foamy cells described in available literature as a consequence of radiation damage to the blood vessels, were observed in the arteries and veins of the marrow and porta of the ovaries. A pronounced alteration of follicular structures was induced by single local irradiation of the ovaries which, at the same time, stimulated CL production. The irradiation of the hypothalamo-hypophysial region resulted in a multiplication of normal tertiary follicles and in an increase of the total number of follicles. No other histological changes were observed in the tissues of ovaries after irradiation of the hypothalamo-hypophysial region

  7. Identification of Genetic on Blood Serum Protein of Prolific Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiyono; Ondho, Y. S.; Setiatin, E. T.; Sutopo; Laily, A. N.; Prasetyowati, D. E.; Noviani, F.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to identify the genetic specification of blood plasma protein in ewes that are prolific. The material of study of local sheep in Bawen and Jambu Sub-district of Semarang Regency is 132 which is determined by purposive sampling that have been give lambing three times. Ewes were divided into three groups that always has a single child (L1), ever had twins (L2) and twins more than two (LM2). Blood sampling was performed using dispossible syringe in jugular vein as much as 5 ml per ewe. Blood plasma was analyzed by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis-Thin Layer (PAGETLE) method in Biochemistry Laboratory of Veterinary Faculty of Gadjah Mada University. Data analysis is using descriptive statistics and the laws of equilibrium Hardy-Weberg. The research parameters were comparison type of ewes and frequency genetic of protein of blood serum. The results showed that the parent comparisons of L1, L2 and LM2 were 66 (50.00%), 49 (37.12%) and 17 (12.88%), respectively. The frequency genes haven a high propensity to relationship of prolificacy nature parent are Pal2, AlbB, CPF, TFB, PTFS and AmlB on pointes, 67.65, 55.88, 91.17, 70.59, 79.41 and 91.18%. Conclusion the mostly LM2 ewes have genotypes Pal1Pal2, AlbBAlbC, CpFCpF, TfATfB, PtfSPtfS and AmlBAmlB whit frequency are 52.94%, 52.94%, 88.24, 47.06, 64.71 and 88.24% respectively.

  8. Neurological disorders in Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert

    2012-04-01

    The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.

  9. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Latifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.

  10. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico

    2017-10-13

    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of Scales from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory in a Sample of Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogt, D. S; Proctor, S. P; King, D. W; King, L. A; Vasterling, J. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more contemporary cohort of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF...

  12. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...

  13. The Inspection Process of the Army Reset Program for Equipment for Units Returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...

  14. Interim Analysis of Iraqi Security Force Information Provided by the Department of Defense Report, "Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nguyen, Tinh; Thompson, Charles; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    .... One indicator being reported is information on the number of Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) authorized (required), assigned (on-the-payroll), and trained. The Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction...

  15. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, L M; Kenyon, P R; Corner-Thomas, R A; Morris, S T

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS) (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning). The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM)/ha (Moderate) and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted). There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (pewes had greater body condition and back-fat depth at weaning than Moderate treatment ewes (pEwes of BCS 2.0 group reared lighter lambs to weaning (pewes. This study suggests farmers should aim to have all ewes with a BCS of 2.5 or 3 in late pregnancy for optimal lamb weaning performance. Furthermore, there is no benefit to lamb production of offering ewes pasture masses >1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  16. Progesterone Blood Level For Pregnancy Diagnosis And Prediction Of Twinning In Egyptian Ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NESSIM, M.Z.; KOTTB, M.K.I.; MUSTAFA, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty adult ewes were exposed to natural mating by fertile ram labelled on the chest, and marked ewes were separated from the crew. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein at the intervals 1, 10, 20,112,119,126,133,140 and 147 days after mating. Pregnancy test had been made through determination of progesterone (P4) level by radioimmunoassay. Plasma glucose, cholesterol and total lipids were determined during the last five weeks of pregnancy. Ewes were weighed on mating day and monthly until parturition and the lambs were weighed at birth. Significant difference (P<0.01) in P4 concentration was observed between day of mating and each of 10 and 20 days post-mating. Plasma P4 levels were increased with significant differences between pregnant ewes with single lamb and those with twin lambs at days 10 (P<0.05) and 20 (P<0.01) of pregnancy. The higher P4 level was detected in ewes carrying twins. Plasma P4 levels were increased during late pregnancy followed by a significant decrease (P<0.01) during the last two weeks of pregnancy, in both single and twin bearing ewes. Plasma glucose levels were found to be higher in twin pregnant ewes than single pregnant ewes at week 4 (P<0.05) and week 2 (P<0.01) before parturition. Non-significant differences were observed in plasma cholesterol and total lipids levels between pregnant ewes carrying single and twin lambs during late pregnancy. Monthly body weights were higher in twin than single pregnant ewes. Correlation between ewe and lamb body weights was observed in twin ewes only.

  17. Association of lameness with milk yield and lactation curves in Chios dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, Athanasios I; Arsenos, Georgios; Valergakis, Georgios E; Banos, Georgios

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was twofold: (i) to quantify the differences in daily milk yield (DMY) and total milk yield (TMY) between lame and non-lame dairy ewes and (ii) to determine the shape of lactation curves around the lameness incident. The overall study was a prospective study of lameness for the surveyed sheep population, with a nested study including the selection of matching controls for each lame ewe separately. Two intensively reared flocks of purebred Chios ewes and a total of 283 ewes were used. Data, including gait assessment and DMY records, were collected on a weekly basis during on-farm visits across the milking period. A general linear model was developed for the calculation of lactation curves of lame and non-lame ewes, whereas one-way ANOVA was used for the comparisons between lame ewes and their controls. Lameness incidence was 12.4 and 16.8% on Farms A and B, respectively. Average DMY in lame ewes was significantly lower (213.8 g, P ewes was observed during the week 16 of the milking period (P ewes, remained significant at P ewes (about 32.5%), which was maximised 1 week later (35.8%, P ≤ 0.001) and continued for several weeks after recovery, resulting in 19.3% lower TMY for lame ewes for the first 210 d of the milking period (P ewes, as calculated by the general linear model, was 318.9 and 268.0 kg, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate evidence of significant financial losses in dairy sheep due to lameness which, however, need to be accurately estimated in further, more detailed, analyses.

  18. Effects of breed and ram exposure on Spring estrous behavior and Summer fertility in domestic ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Russell A., III

    1987-01-01

    The present studies were conducted to check the effects of acute ram introduction into a flock of anestrus ewes in Virginia. Ewes were bled via jugular venipuncture twice weekly and serum samples were radioimmunoassayed for progesterone (P4) content as an indicator of estrous activity. All rams were fitted with crayon equipped marking harnesses for use as an indicator of mating behavior in ewes. The first study tested the effects of introduction of vasectomized rams in...

  19. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja

    2013-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  20. Periosteal Ewing's Sarcoma: Report of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Kollender, Yehuda; Shabat, Shay; Nirkin, Alexander; Issakov, Josephine; Flusser, Gideon; Merimsky, Ofer; Meller, Isaac

    1999-01-01

    Background. The origin of Ewing's sarcoma in a periosteal location is rare and not clearly documented. Other malignant bone tumors appear to have a somewhat better prognosis when confined between periosteum and bone. Is it the same for periosteal Ewing's sarcoma? Methods. We describe two new cases and comprehensively review the literature consisting of 18 documented cases since the condition was first described in 1986 (S.M. Bator.Cancer 58:1781– 4). Results. Periosteal Ewing's sarcoma differ...

  1. Diurnal thermoregulatory responses in pregnant Yankasa ewes to the dry season in a tropical Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Kawu, Muhammad Umar; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim

    2017-08-01

    The study investigated concomitant effect of gestation and high ambient temperature under a tropical environment on rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and heart rate (HR) responses in Yankasa ewes. Twenty Yankasa ewes, consisting of ten pregnant and ten non-pregnant ewes, were used for the study. Ewes were synchronised and bred, such that each gestation phase coincided with different periods of the dry-seasons, early-gestation (cold/harmattan), mid-gestation (peak hot-dry) and late-gestation (late hot-dry). The RT, RR and HR were recorded thrice, 2 days apart at middle of each gestation period at 06:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h, concurrently with dry- (DBT) and wet-bulb temperatures of the experimental pen. The DBT was positively correlated with RT, RR during the different gestation stages. The RT significantly (P ewes, with peak at 14:00 h. Values of RT and RR were higher (P ewes at mid- and late-gestation, respectively. Mean RT was lower (P ewes at early-gestation (cold-dry). The HR was (P ewes during the different gestation phases. In conclusion, ambient temperature and gestation concomitantly modulate diurnal thermoregulatory responses of the ewes to hot-dry season. Adequate measures should be adopted to mitigate adverse impact of prolonged high RR on the dam and the foetus during the peak of ambient temperature prevailing in the tropical Savannah environment.

  2. Dystocia due to schistosomus reflexus (cojoined twins in a Yankassa ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambali Hauwa Motunrayo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A two years' old, white and brown Yankassa ewe, weighing 20 kg was presented with dystocia of about 48 h duration at Mabs Veterinary Centre Ltd, Lagos. On thorough physical and vaginal examination, there were evidences of feotal parts and foul smelling discharges per vagina. A systematic and calculated traction and retropulsion revealed schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins. There was a complete recovery of the ewe 3 days post operative management. Finally, this case reported a true schistosomus reflexus cojoined twins in Yankassa ewe which was successfully relieved through traction and retropulsion despite the supposedly small birth canal which precluded the procedure in ewes except for caesarian section or fetotomy

  3. Primary Pulmonary Ewing's Sarcoma: Rare Cause of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Shibani; Atwal, Swapndeep Singh; Garga, Umesh Chandra

    2014-08-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a common malignant bone tumour presenting in children and young adults. Rarely extra- skeletal soft tissues and visceral organs can also be the site of origin of Ewing's sarcoma. Primary pulmonary Ewing's sarcoma is an extremely rare malignancy which occurs in the paediatric population. We report an unusual case of primary pulmonary Ewing's sarcoma in a nine year old girl who presented with features of superior vena cava syndrome in the emergency department. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically both by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The patient was put on chemotherapy and surgery was planned but the patient expired within three days of starting chemotherapy.

  4. Statistical Study to Check the Conformity of Aggregate in Kirkuk City to Requirement of Iraqi Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Saleem Khazaal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 4.75 mm, and 2.36 mm, respectively, which were less than the minimum limit allowed by the Iraqi specifications for each sieve. The percentages passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, 600micrometers, and 300micrometers were more than the upper limit of specification by 5%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The samples were passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, and 600micrometers less than the minimum limit of specification by 17%, and 4%, respectively. The results showed that the deviation in a sieve size of 150 micrometers for the upper limit of the specification performs 2% of the total number of samples. For Coarse aggregate, the samples passing sieves size 37.5mm and 20mm were comforting the Iraqi specifications by 100% and 83% respectively, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm was 5% was more than the higher limit of Iraqi specifications, and 27% of these samples were less than the minimum limit, whereas sample passing sieve size 5mm was 1% which is more than the upper limit of the Iraqi specification. As a result of statistical analysis of data for fine aggregate, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm and 150micrometers conforming from statistical point of view the Iraqi specifications, whereas the samples were passing sieve sizes 4.75 mm, 600micrometers and 300 micrometers didn’t conform. Statistical analysis of the results of the coarse aggregates also showed that conforming to sieve sizes of 37.5 mm and 20 mm and

  5. Ovarian Follicular Atresia of Ewes during Spring Puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Vlčková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of healthy and atretic follicles on the ovarian surface of improved Valachian ewes 17, 24, and 32 days postpartum is reported in this study. The number of healthy follicles was higher on day 24 postpartum and their mean diameter tended to increase to day 32 (P<0.05 with the greatest diameter of 5 mm. 78–81% of atretic follicles ≥3 mm in diameter was observed where apoptosis began in the follicular cells situated at the follicular cavity. The early atretic follicles are characterized by the presence of mitotic pictures. In one ewe 24 days postpartum, small regressive follicular cysts were observed. Contracting atresia is characterized by thickening of the theca interna even to 190 μm. Progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations were maintained at relatively low levels, but with no significant difference between the days postpartum.

  6. Intracardiac Low-grade Sarcoma Following Treatment for Ewing Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Michael V; Magnan, Heather; Slotkin, Emily K; Ambati, Srikanth R; Chou, Alexander J; Wexler, Leonard H; Meyers, Paul A; Walsh, Michael F; Heaton, Todd; Girardi, Leonard N; Wolden, Suzanne L; Price, Anita P; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Zehir, Ahmet; Hameed, Meera; Berger, Michael F; Kentsis, Alex; Shukla, Neerav

    2017-11-01

    A 16-year-old male was diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma of the ribcage with pulmonary metastases. Six months after completion of scheduled therapy, he was found to have a new intracardiac mass, presumed recurrent Ewing sarcoma. EWSR1 fusion was not detected by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction from blood plasma. After no improvement with salvage chemotherapy, he underwent surgical resection that identified a low-grade spindle cell sarcoma. Despite the near-synchronous presentation of 2 unrelated sarcomas, extensive genomic analyses did not reveal any unifying somatic or germline mutations nor any apparent cancer predisposition. This case also highlights the potential role of utilizing plasma cell-free DNA for diagnosing tumors in locations where biopsy confers high morbidity.

  7. Rare extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma mimicking as adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Michelle; Haenen, Filip W N; Siozopoulou, Vasiliki; Van Cleemput, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare finding in comparison with Ewing's sarcoma of bone and usually manifests in young patients. However, even in older patients, one must consider the diagnosis. In this case, we describe a 52-year-old woman diagnosed with EES, mimicking as adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid. The tumor was not visualized by a multi-slice spiral computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous contrast, and eventually the diagnosis was made by positive immunohistochemical staining for CD99 and by molecular testing for EWSR1 translocation. This combination of the patient's age and the localization of the tumor mimicking an adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid has never been described before.

  8. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Features of Renal Ewing Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekram, T.; Elsayes, K.M.; Cohan, R.H.; Francis, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a rare malignant tumor that primarily involves long and flat bones but can develop in almost any bone or soft tissue. ES accounts for 2.3-3.5% of tumors in patients under the age of 19, and is rarely found in the adult population. Sarcomas, in general, account for less than 1% of tumors in adults. Several reports of renal ES have been described in the pediatric population, but only a few cases have been described in the adult population. To the best of our knowledge, fewer than 10 cases of renal Ewing sarcoma in adults have been described in the English literature. None of these cases described the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. We report a case of a 46-year-old woman, including CT and MRI characteristics

  9. Hyperfractionated radiotherapy with simultaneous chemotherapy in Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.; Burgers, J.M.V.; Hawlicek, R.; Trott, K.R.; Juergens, H.

    1988-01-01

    In 1981, the German Society of Pediatric Oncology initiated a multi-institutional study for the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. The protocol (Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study, CESS 81) consisted of four courses of a four-drug-regimen (VACA), each course taking nine weeks. Local therapy (radical surgery or resection plus irradiation or radiotherapy alone) was performed after the second course. The results of CESS 81 can be summarized as follows: VACA-chemotherapy is effective in controlling systemic disease. Initial tumor mass and response to initial chemotherapy are of major prognostic value for local control and survival. Permanent local control is a problem, especially in irradiated patients. The high local failure rate in irradiated patients in CESS 81 could be attributable to the following reasons: Late start of local therapy (after 18 weeks of chemotherapy), uneven distribution of prognostic parameters: Large tumors were more often irradiated than operated, protocol deviations in irradiated patients. (orig.)

  10. The effects of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... progesterone analogues are used vastly to control fertility in cyclic and anestrous ewes, and to synchronize estrus for fixed-time artificial insemination (Buckrell et al., 1994). ... birth rate of synchronized Awassi ewes during breeding ... brief, during the ultrasonographic evaluations, ewes were kept in a.

  11. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  12. Combinatorial drug screening identifies Ewing sarcoma-specific sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Radic-Sarikas, Branka; Tsafou, Kalliopi P.; Emdal, Kristina B.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Huber, Kilian V.M.; Mutz, Cornelia; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Olsen, Jesper V.; Brunak, Søren; Kovar, Heinrich; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Improvements in survival for Ewing sarcoma pediatric and adolescent patients have been modest over the past 20 years. Combinations of anticancer agents endure as an option to overcome resistance to single treatments caused by compensatory pathways. Moreover, combinations are thought to lessen any associated adverse side effects through reduced dosing, which is particularly important in childhood tumors. Using a parallel phenotypic combinatorial screening approach of cells derived from three p...

  13. BONE TUMOR ENVIRONMENT AS POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC TARGET IN EWING SARCOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise eREDINI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, ES is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops in osseous sites (85%, but also in extraskeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due to osteolysis. Osteoclast activation and subsequent bone resorption is responsible for the clinical features of bone tumors including pain, vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression. Based on the vicious cycle concept of tumor cells and bone resorbing cells, drugs which target osteoclasts may be promising agents as adjuvant setting for treating bone tumors, including Ewing sarcoma. There is also increasing evidence that cellular and molecular protagonists present in the bone microenvironment play a part in establishing a favorable niche for tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this review is to discuss the potential therapeutic value of drugs targeting the bone tumor microenvironment in Ewing Sarcoma. The first part of the review will focus on targeting the bone resorbing function of osteoclasts by means of bisphosphonates (BPs or drugs blocking the pro-resorbing cytokine Receptor Activator of NF-kappa B Ligand (RANKL. Second, the role of this peculiar hypoxic microenvironment will be discussed in the context of resistance to chemotherapy, escape from the immune system, or neo-angiogenesis. Therapeutic interventions based on these specificities could be then proposed in the context of Ewing sarcoma.

  14. Case report 360: Multifocal Ewing tumor of the skeletal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, R.J.; Zeiss, J.; McCann, K.; Phillips, E.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case of Ewing tumor, involving the left scapula with a grossly destructive pattern of multiple, lytic, permeating skeletal disease involving both femoral heads, multiple sites within the skull and the lumbar and thoracic spines at the time of the initial diagnosis, is presented. This extensive skeletal metastasis, consonant with the initial diagnosis, without obvious metastases to lungs or other parenchymal areas (before death and autopsy) has not been described previously in the literature available to the authors. (orig./SHA).

  15. Blue Cell Tumour at Unusual Site: Retropritoneal Ewings Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Javalgi, Anita P; Karigoudar, Mahesh H; Palur, Katyayani

    2016-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a highly malignant tumour of osseous or non-osseous origin, tremed as extra-skeletal Ewings sarcoma if arising from soft tissue. It is rare occurrence tumor most commonly occurring in paravertebral area, chest wall, head & neck and retroperitoneum. Reporting an interesting case of retroperitoneal Ewing’s sarcoma in 39 years old female. Patient had complains of abdominal discomfort & vague pain since 2 months, following weakness in lower limb and loss of weight. On detail hi...

  16. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A C; Pedersen, H; Morishima, H O; Finster, M; Arthur, G R; Covino, B G

    1988-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lidocaine were studied in nonpregnant and pregnant ewes. The maternal femoral vessels were cannulated and, on the day of study, the urinary bladder was catheterized. Lidocaine HCl, 4-5 mg/kg, was administered by IV injection over 60 seconds. Serial samples of arterial blood and urine were collected over 4 hours, and drug concentrations were determined using a gas chromatographic technique. The volume of the central compartment was greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant ewes (1.51 +/- 0.20 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.16 L/kg) as was the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss): 3.24 +/- 0.40 vs. 1.88 +/- 0.32 L/kg. The volume of distribution during the terminal exponential phase of drug elimination (Vd beta) and total clearance of lidocaine (Cl) were also higher in pregnant animals: 4.17 +/- 0.50 L/kg and 99.6 +/- 8.5 ml.min-1.kg-1, respectively; compared to 2.46 +/- 0.48 L/kg and 44.1 +/- 6.5 ml.min-1.kg-1, in nonpregnant ewes. However, the balance between these changes in Vd beta and Cl did not result in a significant difference in the elimination half-life of lidocaine (38.1 +/- 2.1 minutes in nonpregnant and 31.9 +/- 3.0 minutes in pregnant ewes). If these data are applicable to humans, the risk of drug accumulation after repeated administration of lidocaine is no greater in pregnant than in nonpregnant patients.

  17. [Clinical, pathological and imaging features of primary pelvic Ewing's sarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Chen, Y; Ling, X L; Gong, Y; Ding, J P; Zhang, Z K; Wang, Y J

    2016-07-19

    To explore the clinical, pathological and imaging features of Ewing's sarcoma in pelvis and to improve knowledge and diagnosis of the disease. A retrospective analysis of the clinical, pathological and imaging data of pathologically confirmed 13 cases of Ewing's sarcoma in pelvis was carried out between May 2008 and March 2016 in the Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University and the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. The median age 13 cases of pelvic primary Ewing's sarcoma was 17 years old.The X-ray and CT imagings showed osteolytic and mixed bone destruction, CT showed mixed type in 10 cases, 8 cases of bone tumors as a flocculent, 10 cases of bone expansion failure, 10 cases of periosteal reaction, the layered 5 cases, radial in 5 cases.Thirteen cases showed soft tissue mass, soft tissue mass was equal or slightly lower density.Four cases showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement.The lesions showed low signal in T1WI and mixed high signal in T2WI of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). The boundary of the lesions were obscure, and 5 cases had patchy necrosis area, and 9 cases had incomplete false capsule, surrounding soft tissue was violated.Four cases showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement after MRI enhancement scan. The age of onset of Ewing's sarcoma of the pelvis is more concentrated in about 15 years.The imaging feaures are mixed bone destruction and more bone is swelling and permeability damage, soft tissue mass is larger, bone tumor is cloudy or acicular, periosteal reaction in a layered and radial, most cases show that the false envelope is not complete.Combined with clinical and imaging examination, the diagnosis of the disease can be made.

  18. Vitamin E supplementation of undernourished ewes pre- and post-lambing reduces weight loss of ewes and increases weight of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, César Augusto; Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Moron Cedillo, Felipe de Jesús; Flores Najera, Manuel de Jesús; Gámez Vázquez, Hector Guillermo; Ventura Pérez, Felipe de Jesús; Liu, Shimin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test if vitamin E supplementation during late gestation and early lactation would affect the weight of ewes under nutritional restriction and the performance of their lambs. Mature Rambouillet ewes (n = 37) were fed a diet that supplied 70 % of the energy and 80 % of recommended protein requirements and randomly assigned to either vitamin E (vit E, n = 20, 4 IU of α-tocopherol kg(-1) of live weight) or control (n = 17, without vitamin E supplementation). During the experimental period, the mean weight of ewes decreased from 74.6 ± 2.4 to 58.1 ± 2.2 kg. Weight loss of ewes was slightly less for the vit E than the control (-65 vs -124 g day(-1), SEM = 46; P = 0.07). Lambs born from vit E-supplemented ewes were heavier than lambs from the control and grew significantly faster (239 vs 195 g day(-1), SEM = 29.3, P ewes are not met, supplementation of vitamin E during late gestation and early lactation might be an effective strategy to minimise ewe weight loss as well as to increase lamb growth.

  19. Control of oestrus and ovulation rates in Yankasa ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedipe, E.O.; Pathiraja, N.; Gyang, E.O.; Bawa, E.K.; Eduvie, L.O.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in Yankasa sheep to study the efficacy of progesterone for oestrous synchronization and the effect of various gonadotrophin treatments (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG), human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH)) on ovulation rates and litter size, and to elucidate responses by monitoring progesterone concentration. Preliminary studies showed normal progesterone profiles during the cycle, and a mean ovulation rate and litter size of 1.36 ± 0.34 and 1.23 respectively. Following synchronization with progesterone pessaries, PMSG dosage influenced ovulation rates. When 500 IU PMSG was given to ewes, HCG injection had an additive effect of increasing ovulation rate. Plasma progesterone concentrations showed significant treatment effects, being increased in relation to an increase in ovulation rates. Ovulation in Yankasa ewes occurred between 30-32 hours from onset of oestrus. In a fertility trial, mean ovulation rates and corresponding litter size were 2.1 versus 1.8 and 1.5 versus 1.2 for PMSG treated and untreated ewes respectively. 24 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  20. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma resembling acute abdomen. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia Gómez, Gilberto Guzmán; Soto Guerrero, María Teresa; Cedillo de la Cruz, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor of neuroectodermal origin. It presents mainly in the soft tissue of the extremities and thorax. Histologically, it is similar to Ewing's sarcoma of the bone. We present the case of a male who arrived at the emergency room with acute abdomen, leucocytosis and imaging techniques (abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography) suggestive of complicated diverticular disease. He was treated with emergency surgery. Intraoperative findings were an unsuspected tumor (20 x 15 x 15 cm). Treatment consisted of extirpation of the tumor, separating it from the adjacent viscera and followed by chemotherapy based on epirubicin, cyclophosphamide and vincristine for six cycles. Because the control abdominal CT demonstrated tumor activity in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the ascending colon and cecum, further resection was decided upon. In a review of the literature, no previous reports of extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma were found presenting as acute abdomen. Due to the rarity of this tumor, only case reports or series have been found in the literature without randomized or comparative studies. Surgery was the cornerstone of treatment, without reports of preoperative chemotherapy. If the patient's condition permits, percutaneous needle biopsy is mandatory to obtain optimum treatment as well as to improve prognosis.

  1. Targeting the p53 Pathway in Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Paul M.; Pishas, Kathleen I.; Callen, David F.; Thomas, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor plays a pivotal role in the prevention of oncogenic transformation. Cancers frequently evade the potent antitumour surveillance mechanisms of p53 through mutation of the TP53 gene, with approximately 50% of all human malignancies expressing dysfunctional, mutated p53 proteins. Interestingly, genetic lesions in the TP53 gene are only observed in 10% of Ewing Sarcomas, with the majority of these sarcomas expressing a functional wild-type p53. In addition, the p53 downstream signaling pathways and DNA-damage cell cycle checkpoints remain functionally intact in these sarcomas. This paper summarizes recent insights into the functional capabilities and regulation of p53 in Ewing Sarcoma, with a particular focus on the cross-talk between p53 and the EWS-FLI1 gene rearrangement frequently associated with this disease. The development of several activators of p53 is discussed, with recent evidence demonstrating the potential of small molecule p53 activators as a promising systemic therapeutic approach for the treatment of Ewing Sarcomas with wild-type p53. PMID:21197471

  2. The effect of nutrition and body condition of triplet-bearing ewes during late pregnancy on the behaviour of ewes and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella V; Corner-Thomas, Rene A; Kenyon, Paul R; Stafford, Kevin J; Morris, Stephen T; Hickson, Rebecca Edith

    2018-04-12

    Triplet-born lambs are less likely to survive to weaning than twin-born or single-born lambs. Appropriate ewe-lamb bonding behaviours and lamb vigour behaviours are necessary for survival of lambs. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether maternal nutrition during late pregnancy influenced behaviour of the ewe and her lambs soon after birth, and to determine whether mid-pregnancy body condition score (BCS) influenced any behavioural response. The experiments included ewes that were in BCS 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0 in mid-pregnancy and were fed either ad libitum or to pregnancy-maintenance requirements in late-pregnancy (day 115 until 136 in experiment one, and day 128 until 141 in experiment two). The time taken for lambs to stand, contact dam, suck from dam and follow dam was recorded three to 18 hours after birth. The number of high- and low-pitched bleats emitted by the ewe and lambs was recorded, along with maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewe. Lambs in experiment two underwent a maternal-recognition test at 12 or 24 h. There were significant effects of feeding treatment on bleating behaviour of ewes and lambs, but these were inconsistent among BCS groups and between experiments. Lamb vigour behaviours were not affected by feeding treatment. In experiment one, there was no effect of feeding treatment or BCS on MBS, but in experiment two, ewes in BCS3 in mid-pregnancy had greater MBS than ewes in BCS2 in mid-pregnancy (MBS 3.1/5 vs MBS 2.1/5; Pewes and lambs, ad libitum feeding rather than feeding for pregnancy-maintenance requirements can not be used to improve behaviours soon after birth of triplet-bearing ewes in BCS 2 - 3 and their lambs in extensive pastoral conditions.

  3. Neurosurgery in Iraqi Kurdistan: An Example of International Neurosurgery Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2016-08-01

    The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet

    2015-10-01

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

  5. The Description of Health Among Iraqi Refugee Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Khlood F; Resick, Lenore K

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the description of health among Iraqi women refugees, their health status, and health experiences during resettlement in the United States. Twelve women, ages 21-67 years old, who resettled in the United States during or after 2003 where interviewed. The women described health as a gift determined by God, the ability to function, the absence of physical symptoms, and the need to feel safe and secure in the context of resettlement. Although the Iraqi women valued health, during the resettlement process, seeking safety and feeling secure were the foremost priorities. Findings revealed that this is a vulnerable population which has experienced the violence of war and, as a result, have unique physical, mental, economic, and social concerns related to health. Implications are for a multidisciplinary approach to best meet the unique individual health needs of this vulnerable population.

  6. Iraqi adolescents: self-regard, self-derogation, and perceived threat in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo

    2008-02-01

    A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.

  7. Effects of the level of early productivity on the lifespan of ewes in contrasting flock environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, F; Jopson, N B; Friggens, N C; Amer, P R

    2016-12-01

    Selection for high levels of prolificacy has allowed substantial improvements in the production efficiency of New Zealand (NZ) sheep farms, but the consequences on ewe lifetime performance are mostly unknown. In this study, the relationship between the level of prolificacy early in ewes' productive lives and their probability to survive later (i.e. stayability) was evaluated in two contrasting NZ flock environments. Records were obtained from 6605 ewes from four ram breeder flocks representing either a moderate (n=2) or a highly variable (n=2) nutritional environment. All ewes lambed for the first time at 2 years of age and were mated the following year. The number of lambs born during the first 2 years of productive life (NLB2-3) was used as a measure of early prolificacy. Effects of NLB2-3 on stayability to 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 years old were analysed using logistic regression. Curvilinear effects (logit-transformed) were detected (Pewe stayability was reduced when the proportion of the litter that survived from birth to weaning (i.e. ewe rearing ability) was submaximal during the early productive life. High prolific ewes had a low rearing ability whatever the environment whereas the rearing ability of lowly prolific ewes was apparently more sensitive to the nutritional environment. The poor maternal performance of ewes with low levels of NLB2-3 led to a premature culling by breeders whereas the high early reproductive effort associated with high levels of NLB2-3 seemed to be at the cost of ewes' survival, even in the moderate flock environment. In conclusion, the flock environment influenced the level of early prolificacy beyond which ewe longevity was reduced. It is suggested that further selection for high and early prolificacy in NZ flocks is likely to impair ewes' lifetime productivity.

  8. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (Pewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  10. Vaginal mucus from ewes treated with progestogen sponges affects quality of ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Jorgelina; Ríos, Glenda; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-03-15

    The use of intravaginal sponges (IS) to synchronize estrous onset in ewes provokes vaginitis, an increase in the vaginal bacterial load, and growth of bacterial species that are not present during spontaneous estrous behavior. The objective of the study was to compare the functional sperm parameters after incubating it with mucus collected from the vagina of ewes during spontaneous estrus or estrous synchronized with IS. Pooled spermatozoa were co-incubated with: (1) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in spontaneous estrus; (2) vaginal mucus collected from ewes in estrus pretreated with progestogen-impregnated IS; (3) synthetic mucus; and (4) medium without mucus as a control group. Sperm samples were evaluated after incubating it for 30 and 90 minutes. The number of colony-forming units (CFUs/mL), pH, and osmolality were greater in the mucus collected from ewes treated with IS than from those untreated (P = 0.046; P ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments both, 30 and 90 minutes after incubation (P = 0.0009 and P ewes treated with IS had a lower percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than all the other treatments (P ewes treated with IS than in the other three treatments (P ewes during their spontaneous estrus (P = 0.0005). The lowest percentages of sperm with acrosome damage were observed in sperm incubated with mucus collected from sheep in spontaneous estrus for 30 and 90 minutes (P ewes treated with IS than in the other three groups (P = 0.0005). The functionality and the viability of ram sperm is negatively affected by the cervical mucus of ewes pretreated with progestagen-impregnated IS used in estrous synchronization treatments. This may partially explain the decrease in conception rate obtained with treatments with IS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L.) by using RAPD Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi ‎; Hassan Fadhil Naji

    2018-01-01

    In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...

  12. Genetic Diversity of Iraqi Date Palm (Phoenix ‎dactylifera L.) by using RAPD Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Muhanned Abdul Hasan; Ali ‎ Hmood Al-Saadi; Hassan Fadhil Naji

    2017-01-01

    In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...

  13. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Contract formation in cyberspace: a comparative study of Australian, American and Iraqi laws

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, Iman Majeed

    2017-01-01

    Electronic commerce is an increasingly vital part of national economies and the global economy. The promotion of electronic commerce requires clear and effective laws. As electronic contracts are the building blocks for electronic commerce, it is essential for national laws, especially in developing countries, to be sufficiently certain and appropriately adapted to promote electronic commerce. This thesis formulates recommendations for reforming Iraqi contract law in order to promote the a...

  15. Neuropsychiatric disorders among Syrian and Iraqi refugees in Jordan: a retrospective cohort study 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-01-01

    The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and

  16. Pragmatic Difficulties in the Production of the Speech Act of Apology by Iraqi EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Falih Al-Ghazalli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The problem can be attributed to two factors: pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic knowledge. The aim of this study is(1to evaluate the socio-pragmatic level of interpreting apologies as understood and used by Iraqi EFL university learners, (2 find out the level of difficulty they experience in producing apologies and(3 detect the reasons behind such misinterpretations and misuses. It is hypothesized that the socio-pragmatic interpretation of apology tends to play a crucial role in comprehending what is intended by the speaker. However, cultural gaps can be the main reason behind the EFL learners' inaccurate production of the act of apology. To verify the aforementioned hypotheses, a test has been constructed and administered to a sample of 70 fourth-year Iraqi EFL university learners, morning classes. The subjects' responses have been collected and linguistically analyzed in the light of an eclectic model based on Deutschmann (2003 and Lazare (2004. It has been concluded that the misinterpretation or difficulty Iraqi EFL students have faced is mainly attributed to their lack of socio-pragmatic knowledge. The interference of the learnersʹ first language culture has led to non-native productions of speech act of apology.

  17. Statistical Study to Check the Conformity of Aggregate in Kirkuk City to Requirement of Iraqi Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar Saleem Khazaal; Nizar N Ismeel; Abdel fattah K. Hussein

    2018-01-01

    This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine) was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples) of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm,...

  18. Negotiations of believing and belonging among Iraqi and Egyptian Christians in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....

  19. A cross-cultural study of request speech act: Iraqi and Malay students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.

  20. Important considerations when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees in Australia: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Santalucia, Yvonne; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2016-01-01

    Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in Australian society, presenting high levels of exposure to traumatic events and consequently high levels of severe psychological distress. While there is a need for professional help, only a small percentage will receive appropriate care for their mental health concerns. This study aimed to determine cultural considerations required when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises. Using a Delphi method, 16 experts were presented with statements about possible culturally-appropriate first aid actions via questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the questionnaire content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥90 % of panellists as 'Essential' or 'Important'. From a total of 65 statements, 38 were endorsed (17 for cultural awareness, 12 for cross-cultural communication, 7 for stigma associated with mental health problems, and 2 for barriers to seeking professional help). Experts were able to reach consensus about how to provide culturally-appropriate first aid for mental health problems to Iraqi refugees, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology in developing cultural considerations guidelines. This specific refugee study provided potentially valuable cultural knowledge required to better equip members of the Australian public on how to respond to and assist Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises.

  1. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034

  2. Medical conditions among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: data from the United Nations Refugee Assistance Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E

    2012-06-01

    To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus and breast cancer: Epidemiological and Molecular study on Egyptian and Iraqi women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.N.; Mohamed, W.S.; Hafez, M.M.; Hassan, Z.K.; Bahnassy, A.A.; El-Kassem, F.A.; El-Khalidi, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast carcinogenesis is still controversial. Unraveling this relationship is potentially important for better understanding of breast cancer etiology, early detection and possibly prevention of breast cancer. The aim of the current study is to unravel the association between EBV and primary invasive breast cancer (PIBC) in two different Arab populations (Egyptian and Iraqi women). Patients and Methods: The study was done on paraffin-embedded tissues of 40 Egyptian and 50 Iraqi patients with PIBC in addition to 20 normal breast tissues as controls for each group. Both controls and neoplastic tissues were assessed for the expression of EBV genes and proteins (EBNA-1, LMP-1, and EBER) as well as CD21 marker by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR techniques. Results: Our gold standard for EBV reactivity in breast cancer cases was positivity of both EBNA1 by PCR and EBER by in situ hybridization. EBV was detected in 18/40 (45%) and 14/50 (28%) of Egyptian and Iraqi women; respectively where p = 0.073, compared to 0/20 (0%) of their control groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the association between EBV positivity and tumor grade, there was not any statistical significant difference between EBV presence and tumor grade in both populations

  4. Developing Accounting Information System Course Content for Iraqi Higher Education Institution: An Instrument Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.

  5. Effect of protein degradability on milk production of dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolayunas-Sandrock, C; Armentano, L E; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of protein degradability of dairy sheep diets on milk yield and protein utilization across 2 levels of milk production. Three diets were formulated to provide similar energy concentrations and varying concentrations of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP): 12% RDP and 4% RUP (12-4) included basal levels of RDP and RUP, 12% RDP and 6% RUP (12-6) included additional RUP, and 14% RDP and 4% RUP (14-4) included additional RDP. Diets were composed of alfalfa-timothy cubes, whole and ground corn, whole oats, dehulled soybean meal, and expeller soybean meal (SoyPlus, West Central, Ralston, IA). Estimates of RDP and RUP were based on the Small Ruminant Nutrition System model (2008) and feed and orts were analyzed for Cornell N fractions. Eighteen multiparous dairy ewes in midlactation were divided by milk yield (low and high) into 2 blocks of 9 ewes each and were randomly assigned within block (low and high) to 3 pens of 3 ewes each. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 Latin square within each block and applied to pens for 14-d periods. We hypothesized that pens consuming high-RUP diets (12-6) would produce more milk and milk protein than the basal diet (12-4) and pens consuming high-RDP diets (14-4) would not produce more milk than the basal diet (12-4). Ewes in the high-milk-yield square consumed more dry matter and produced more milk, milk fat, and milk protein than ewes in the low-milk-yield square. There was no effect of dietary treatment on dry matter intake. Across both levels of milk production, the 12-6 diet increased milk yield by 14%, increased milk fat yield by 14%, and increased milk protein yield by 13% compared with the 14-4 and 12-4 diets. Gross N efficiency (milk protein N/intake protein N) was 11 and 15% greater in the 12-6 and 12-4 diets, respectively, compared with the 14-4 diet. Milk urea N concentration was greater in the 12-6 diet and tended to be

  6. Ewe (for Togo). Special Skills Handbook. Peace Corps Language Handbook Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozelka, Paul R., Comp.; Agbovi, Yao Ete, Comp.

    A book of language and cultural material for teachers and students of Ewe presents vocabulary lists and samples of Ewe language in various contexts, including letters, essays, and newspaper articles. Although not presented in lesson format, the material can be adapted by teachers or used by students for independent study. It is divided into two…

  7. Time-to-event analysis of mastitis at first-lactation in Valle del Belice ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portolano, B.; Firlocchiaro, R.; Kaam, van J.B.C.H.M.; Riggio, V.; Maizon, D.O.

    2007-01-01

    A time-to-event study for mastitis at first-lactation in Valle del Belice ewes was conducted, using survival analysis with an animal model. The goals were to evaluate the effect of lambing season and level of milk production on the time from lambing to the day when a ewe experienced a test-day with

  8. Protection of ewes against Teladorsagia circumcincta infection in the periparturient period by vaccination with recombinant antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Alasdair J; McNeilly, Tom N; Greer, Andrew W; Bartley, Yvonne; Oliver, E Margaret; Smith, Stephen; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2016-09-15

    Teladorsagiosis is a major production-limiting disease in ruminants in temperate regions throughout the world and one of the key interventions in the management of the disease is the prevention of pasture contamination with Teladorsagia circumcincta eggs by ewes during the periparturient relaxation in immunity which occurs in the period around lambing. Here, we describe the immunisation of twin-bearing ewes with a T. circumcincta recombinant subunit vaccine and the impact that vaccination has on their immune responses and shedding of parasite eggs during a continuous T. circumcincta challenge period spanning late gestation and lactation. In ewes which displayed a clear periparturient relaxation in immunity, vaccination resulted in a 45% reduction in mean cumulative faecal egg count (cFEC, p=0.027) compared to control (immunised with adjuvant only) ewes. Recombinant antigen-specific IgG and IgA, which bound each of the vaccine antigens, were detected in the serum of vaccinated ewes following each immunisation and in colostrum taken from vaccinated ewes post-partum whereas low levels of antigen-specific IgG were detected in serum and colostrum from control ewes. Antigen-specific IgG and IgA levels in blood collected within 48h of birth from lambs largely reflected those in the colostrum of their ewes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of vitamin E on the immune system of ewes during late pregnancy and lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present experiment was designed to determine the effects of a regimen of repeated, intramuscular (i.m.) injections of vitamin E (VE) on innate and humoral components of the immune response of pregnant and lactating ewes. Pregnant ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of i.m. i...

  10. (q24: q12) translocation is common in Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Ewing's sarcoma family can present diagnostic difficulties. In the past the basis of diagnosis has been a exclusion. Identification of a specific translocation especially t(11; 22) (EWS-FLI 1 fusion gene), which is seen in nearly 85% of Ewing's sarcoma cases can help in precise diagnosis. We have carried out a study on ...

  11. Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma, a case report on a rare diagnosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraosseous or extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a very rare mesenchymal soft tissue malignancy. We report on a case of abdominal swelling in an 80-year-old woman caused by a large intra-abdominal EES. This case report illustrates that Ewing's sarcoma can occur in adults and elderly, and highlights the importance of ...

  12. Effect of Using Melatonin Implants on Reproductive Performances in Turcana Ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Pădeanu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated by some authors that the administration of subcutaneous melatonin implants during a period of 30 days, in lactating or dry ewes, would improve the reproductive performance in some sheep breeds. This study was conducted in Giarmata Mare, Timis County, on 78 lactating ewes and 75 dry ewes, which were individually inserted with implants containing 18 mg melatonin on 31 August 2009. Control group consisted of 100 lactating and dry ewes in equal proportions. The results shown that the main reproduction indices as prolificacy, birth rate and the lamb number productivity index are significantly (p < 0.05 higher in ewes from the experimental group, compared with ewes from the control group, and that treated ewes shortened the period of mating and lambing to half-time comparing to the control group. There is a suggestion that the use of melatonin implants Melovin ® type near the normal breeding season increases the reproductive performance of ewes from Turcana breed.

  13. Blood profile of ewes during third trimester of pregnancy and lactation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The packed cell volume, haemoglobin, red blood cell and leukocyte count of ewes in group A were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those in group B. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in the potassium, bicarbonate and urea concentrations between ewes in groups A and B. The glucose, sodium and ...

  14. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma in adults: presentation of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, Samuel M; Cermak, Katia; Shumelinsky, Felix; Gil, Thierry; Gebhart, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma represents about 5% of the Ewing family of tumours. Two cases in adult patients are presented, emphasizing the complexity of a multi-modality treatment approach of this tumour. Clinical presentation, chemotherapeutical, surgical and radiotherapeutical approaches are discussed. A thorough literature search was done to correlate our therapeutic attitude with current knowledge of this very rare disease.

  15. Uterine Torsion in a West African Dwarf Ewe in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Uterine torsion, West African Dwarf Ewe, Ibadan A case of uterine torsion in a 21/2 year old pluriparous West Africa Dwarf (WAD) ewe raised semi intensively with adequate veterinary care before the death of the dam and the lamb is presented. The dam had been off feed for 3 days and was found straining a night ...

  16. Ultilization of nitrogen from feed protein and NPN for milk protein synthesis in the ewe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, M.; Boldt, E.; Geissler, C.

    1989-01-01

    Two lactating Merino ewes with a rumen fistula were housed in metabolic boxes for N balance studies and fed a diet composed of oats, sugar beet pulp and hay. After adaptation on dietary ammonium sulfate suplementation the ewes received 21 g 15 N-ammonium sulfate daily lasting for 10 days. Uptake and utilization of nitrogen especially for protein syntheses were determined. (author)

  17. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  18. Genetic evaluation of the probability of lambing in yearling Targhee ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the additive genetic control of lambing percentage in yearling Targhee ewes. The records of 3,103 ewe lambs born from 1989 to 2011 and mated at approximately 7.5 mo of age were analyzed. Records included sire, dam, weaning weight, breeding pen, age of dam...

  19. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Shi, Huijuan; Zhen, Tiantian; Dai, Sujuan; Kang, Lili; Liang, Yingjie; Wang, Jin; Han, Anjia

    2013-11-01

    We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma in the thoracic spine - problems in differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaub, T.; Dittrich, H.M.; Gutjahr, P.; Antoniadis, A.; Wolff, P.

    1986-01-01

    Spinal Ewing's sarcomas are rare and cause problems in differential diagnosis. The radiologic, nuclear medicine and CT findings in two children with histologically proven Ewing's sarcoma are presented and problems in differential diagnosis discussed. Biopsy should be done early. (orig.) [de

  1. RNAi phenotype profiling of kinases identifies potential therapeutic targets in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shilpi; Gonzales, Irma M; Hagelstrom, R Tanner; Beaudry, Christian; Choudhary, Ashish; Sima, Chao; Tibes, Raoul; Mousses, Spyro; Azorsa, David O

    2010-08-18

    Ewing's sarcomas are aggressive musculoskeletal tumors occurring most frequently in the long and flat bones as a solitary lesion mostly during the teen-age years of life. With current treatments, significant number of patients relapse and survival is poor for those with metastatic disease. As part of novel target discovery in Ewing's sarcoma, we applied RNAi mediated phenotypic profiling to identify kinase targets involved in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines TC-32, TC-71, SK-ES-1 and RD-ES were tested in high throughput-RNAi screens using a siRNA library targeting 572 kinases. Knockdown of 25 siRNAs reduced the growth of all four Ewing's sarcoma cell lines in replicate screens. Of these, 16 siRNA were specific and reduced proliferation of Ewing's sarcoma cells as compared to normal fibroblasts. Secondary validation and preliminary mechanistic studies highlighted the kinases STK10 and TNK2 as having important roles in growth and survival of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Furthermore, knockdown of STK10 and TNK2 by siRNA showed increased apoptosis. In summary, RNAi-based phenotypic profiling proved to be a powerful gene target discovery strategy, leading to successful identification and validation of STK10 and TNK2 as two novel potential therapeutic targets for Ewing's sarcoma.

  2. Recurrence of Ewing sarcoma: Is detection by imaging follow-up protocol associated with survival advantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Melina; Ranft, Andreas; Langer, Thorsten; Jürgens, Herbert; Kreyer, Justus; Vieth, Volker; Schäfers, Michael; Weckesser, Matthias; Simon, Thorsten; Hassenpflug, Wolf; Corbacioglu, Selim; Bielack, Stefan; Mayer-Steinacker, Regina; Kühne, Thomas; van den Berg, Henk; Gelderblom, Hans; Bauer, Sebastian; Stegger, Lars; Dirksen, Uta

    2018-01-01

    The Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study and the Late Effects Surveillance System of the Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology recommend a structured follow-up imaging protocol (FUIP) for patients with Ewing sarcoma (EwS) with decreasing frequency of imaging over the first 5 years. The present

  3. Primary ewing sarcoma of the anterior mandible localized to the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, E.; Brouns, E.R.E.A.; Korones, D.N.; Pochal, W.F.; Philipone, E.M.; Zegarelli, D.J.; Yoon, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant, small, round blue-cell tumor of the bone that is usually located in the long bones and the pelvis. Fewer than 3% of all Ewing sarcomas originate in the head and neck region and these are mostly located in the posterior mandible. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl

  4. Tumor cell plasticity in Ewing sarcoma, an alternative circulatory system stimulated by hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, van der D.W.J.; Hillen, F.; Pauwels, P.; Kirschmann, D.A.; Castermans, Karolien; Oude Egbrink, M.G.A.; Tran, M.G.; Sciot, R.; Hauben, E.; Hogendoorn, P.C.W.; Delattre, O.; Maxwell, P.H.; Hendrix, M.J.C.; Griffioen, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    A striking feature of Ewing sarcoma is the presence of blood lakes lined by tumor cells. The significance of these structures, if any, is unknown. Here, we report that the extent of blood lakes correlates with poor clinical outcomes, whereas variables of angiogenesis do not. We also show that Ewing

  5. The value of local treatment in patients with primary, disseminated, multifocal Ewing sarcoma (PDMES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haeusler, Julia; Ranft, Andreas; Boelling, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg; Braun-Munzinger, Gabriele; Vieth, Volker; Burdach, Stefan; van den Berg, Henk; Juergens, Heribert; Dirksen, Uta

    2010-01-01

    The value of local treatment in patients with primary, disseminated, multifocal Ewing sarcoma (PDMES) was investigated. We analyzed 120 patients registered into the European Ewing Tumor Working Initiative of National Groups (EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99) trial at the trial center of Muenster from 1998 to

  6. Bone scintigraphy in Ewing's sarcoma during and after treatment - prognostic information from the primary tumor site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piers, D.A.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Kamps, W.A.; Woldring, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    A bone scan can be negative in Ewing's sarcoma. The bone scan during and after treatment can give prognostic information on the primary tumor site: A persisting hot spot strongly suggests the presence of local malignancy, while a hot spot becomming negative points to local cure of Ewing's sarcoma. (orig.)

  7. Periosteal Ewing's Sarcoma: Report of Two New Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Kollender

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The origin of Ewing's sarcoma in a periosteal location is rare and not clearly documented. Other malignant bone tumors appear to have a somewhat better prognosis when confined between periosteum and bone. Is it the same for periosteal Ewing's sarcoma?

  8. Genetic correlations between body weight change and reproduction traits in Merino ewes depend on age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; van der Werf, J H J; Thompson, A N; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-08-01

    Merino sheep in Australia experience periods of variable feed supply. Merino sheep can be bred to be more resilient to this variation by losing less BW when grazing poor quality pasture and gaining more BW when grazing good quality pasture. Therefore, selection on BW change might be economically attractive but correlations with other traits in the breeding objective need to be known. The genetic correlations (rg) between BW, BW change, and reproduction were estimated using records from approximately 7,350 fully pedigreed Merino ewes managed at Katanning in Western Australia. Number of lambs and total weight of lambs born and weaned were measured on approximately 5,300 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 4,900 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 3,600 4-yr-old ewes. On a proportion of these ewes BW change was measured: approximately 1,950 2-yr-old ewes, approximately 1,500 3-yr-old ewes, and approximately 1,100 4-yr-old ewes. The BW measurements were for 3 periods. The first period was during mating period over 42 d on poor pasture. The second period was during pregnancy over 90 d for ewes that got pregnant on poor and medium quality pasture. The third period was during lactation over 130 d for ewes that weaned a lamb on good quality pasture. Genetic correlations between weight change and reproduction were estimated within age classes. Genetic correlations were tested to be significantly greater magnitude than 0 using likelihood ratio tests. Nearly all BW had significant positive genetic correlations with all reproduction traits. In 2-yr-old ewes, BW change during the mating period had a positive genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = 0.58); BW change during pregnancy had a positive genetic correlation with total weight of lambs born (rg = 0.33) and a negative genetic correlation with number of lambs weaned (rg = -0.49). All other genetic correlations were not significantly greater magnitude than 0 but estimates of genetic correlations for 3-yr-old ewes were

  9. Effect of available space and previous contact in the social integration of Saint Croix and Suffolk ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihuela, A; Averós, X; Solano, J; Clemente, N; Estevez, I

    2016-03-01

    Reproduction in tropical sheep is not affected by season, whereas the reproductive cycle of temperate-climate breeds such as Suffolk depends on the photoperiod. Close contact with tropical ewes during the anestrous period might induce Suffolk ewes to cycle, making the use of artificial light or hormonal treatments unnecessary. However, the integration of both breeds within the social group would be necessary to trigger this effect, and so the aim of the experiment was to determine the speed of integration of 2 groups of Saint Croix and Suffolk ewes into a single flock, according to space allowance and previous experience. For this, 6 groups of 10 ewes (half from each breed) from both breeds, housed at 2 or 4 m/ewe (3 groups/treatment) and with or without previous contact with the other breed, were monitored for 3 d. Each observation day, the behavior, movement, and use of space of ewes were collected during 10 min at 1-h intervals between 0900 and 1400 h. Generalized linear mixed models were used to test the effects of breed, space allowance, and previous experience on behavior, movement, and use of space. Net distances, interbreed farthest neighbor distance, mean interbreed distance, and walking frequencies were greater at 4 m/ewe ( ewe were greatest for Saint Croix ewes, whereas the opposite was found for lying down ( ewes showed larger intrabreed nearest neighbor distances, minimum convex polygons, and home range overlapping ( ewes at 4 m/ewe showed longest total distances and step lengths and greatest movement activity ( ewes walked longer total distances during Day 1 and 2 ( ewes kept longer interindividual distances during Day 1 ( ewes did not fully integrate into a cohesive flock, with each breed displaying specific behavioral patterns. Decreasing space allowance and previous experience resulted in limited benefits for the successful group cohesion. Longer cohabitation periods might result in complete integration, although practical implementation might be

  10. Use of tritiated water for estimating body composition in grazing ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.J.F.; Foot, J.Z.; McFarlane, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated water was used to estimate total body water, body composition and water turnover of non-pregnant, pregnant, non-lactating and lactating grazing sheep. Body composition was estimated from equilibrated and extrapolated values of tritiated water space. These methods both overestimated the total body water measured directly. Body fat could be predicted satisfactorily from tritiated water space within the physiological states of ewes, i.e. lactating, pregnant, etc., although for lactating ewes the error of prediction is greater. It appears inadvisable at this stage to use equations derived from all classes of ewes to estimate body fat in ewes of any one physiological state. Water turnover varied, with the physiological state being highest for lactating ewes. (author)

  11. Vaginal wall weakness in parous ewes: a potential preclinical model of pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Natharnia; Rosamilia, Anna; Arkwright, John; Lee, Joseph; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Melendez, Joan; Werkmeister, Jerome; Gargett, Caroline E

    2017-07-01

    Ewes develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and may be a suitable model for preclinical studies evaluating cell-based therapies for POP. The aim of this study was to establish a clinical score of vaginal weakness and to compare POP Quantification System (POP-Q) values in conscious nulliparous and parous ewes and determine whether ewes are a suitable POP model. Ewes (n = 114) were examined while conscious, without sedation, and standing in a V conveyer by adapting the human POP-Q measurement. Ovine POP was defined as descent to the introitus from POP-Q points Aa 3 cm above the introitus on the anterior wall, Ap 3 cm above the introitus on the posterior wall, or increased Ba anterior wall descent above the urethra (≥0). A test-retest showed good inter- and intrarater reliability. There was no evidence of tissue mobility at Aa, Ap, Ba (all -3 cm) in nulliparous ewes (n = 14). In contrast, multiparous ewes had a median of -1 and interquartile range (IQR) (-2 to 0) for Aa, [0 (-1 to 0)] for Ap and [0 (-2.75 to 0)] for Ba (n = 33; P ewes. Ovine vaginal displacement was seen in 50.9 % of parous ewes and was strongly associated with parity (P = 0.003). A modified POP-Q in conscious ewes was established showing that the vaginal wall of parous animals has similar regions of weakness as do women and may be similarly related to parity. Ewes appear to be a representative preclinical model of human vaginal prolapse.

  12. Gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis can predispose ewes to clinical mastitis after experimental mammary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogianni, V S; Papadopoulos, E; Gougoulis, D A; Gallidis, E; Ptochos, S; Fragkou, I A; Orfanou, D C; Fthenakis, G C

    2017-10-15

    Objective was to study, in an experimental model, the possible role of gastrointestinal nematode infection in predisposing ewes to mastitis during the lactation period. Twenty-four ewes (A or B [n=12]), free from nematode and trematode helminths, were used. Group A animals received 5000 third-stage larvae of a trichostrongylid helminth cocktail and group B ewes were unparasitised controls. Animals in group A developed gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis confirmed by >500epg in faecal samples; mean epg of group B ewes were Ewes were challenged by deposition of Mannheimia haemolytica into the teat duct. In group A, 7 ewes developed clinical and 5 subclinical mastitis; no ewe in group B developed clinical mastitis, but only subclinical (12 ewes) (P=0.002). M. haemolytica was isolated from 132/132 and 121/132 udder samples from group A or B, respectively (Pewes that developed clinical mastitis than in others which did not (0.709 and 0.162 versus 0.662 and 0.136, respectively; Pewes with subclinical mastitis (in group A or B), inducible-lymphoid-follicles were observed in the teat, which were not observed in ewes with clinical disease. Total pathology scores summed over all days were 127 and 73 for group A or B ewes, respectively (maximum possible 192; Pewes that developed clinical mastitis. It is concluded that, in view of bacterial challenge, gastrointestinal trichostrongylosis and particularly Teladorsagia infection, might lead to clinical mastitis, through various pathogenetic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

    2014-10-01

    The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ∼1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  14. Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix, a diagnostic dilemma: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashriqi, Nazia; Gujjarlapudi, Jaya Kranthi; Sidhu, Jagmohan; Zur, Michael; Yalamanchili, Madhuri

    2015-11-09

    Ewing's sarcoma belongs to a spectrum of neoplastic diseases known as Ewing's family of tumors. This family of tumors is usually seen in osseous sites. Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix is extremely rare, with only 18 cases reported in the English literature. The immunohistochemical profile of Ewing's sarcoma overlaps with other malignancies like small cell carcinoma. The rarity and complex pathologic picture of Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix creates the potential for misdiagnosis. Hence, we believe this case needs to be reported to add to the available literature. A 49-year-old white Caucasian woman presented with vaginal bleeding. A pelvic examination revealed a cystic lesion arising from her cervix. Examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasm, with sheets of small hyperchromatic cells, staining weakly for neuroendocrine markers. She was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma and started on concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. However, additional positive immunostaining for CD99 was strongly suggestive of Ewing's sarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ESWR1 gene rearrangement, confirming Ewing's sarcoma. Our patient underwent surgery, which confirmed stage IIB Ewing's sarcoma. She received adjuvant chemotherapy but died from progressive metastatic disease after four cycles. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix can be a potentially curable disease. However, owing to overlapping clinical and histopathological features, the diagnosis poses a challenge to oncologists and pathologists. This article guides pathologists to consider Ewing's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of small cell carcinoma with weak staining for neuroendocrine markers. This literature review will benefit oncologists encountering this rare entity.

  15. Circannual changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes, luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized estradiol-implanted ewes, and prolactin secretion in three sheep breeds anticipated to differ in seasonality of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Katherine J; Knight, James W; Pelzer, Kevin D; Akers, R Michael; Notter, David R

    2013-05-01

    Changes in progesterone secretion in intact ewes (7 or 9 per breed) and luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized, estradiol-implanted ewes (9 or 10 per breed) were monitored for 12 mo in Suffolk, tropically adapted St. Croix, and OOS ewes. The OOS line is a composite population of 50% Dorset, 25% Rambouillet, and 25% Finnish Landrace breeding that was selected for 10 yr for ability to lamb in October and early November. Ewes were isolated from rams, and blood samples were collected twice weekly. Circulating prolactin concentrations were also determined from blood samples collected near the summer and winter solstice and vernal and autumnal equinox. Intact OOS ewes entered anestrus later, began the subsequent breeding season sooner, and had a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk and St. Croix ewes (P ≤ 0.005). St. Croix ewes did not differ from Suffolk ewes in date of onset or cessation of breeding or duration of anestrus (P ≥ 0.06). Breed differences in duration of luteinizing hormone inhibition in ovariectomized ewes were essentially identical to those observed for duration of anestrous. Prolactin concentrations varied during the year: annual changes were larger in relatively seasonal Suffolk ewes than in tropically-derived St. Croix ewes (Psheep did not have a shorter seasonal anestrus than Suffolk sheep under temperate conditions and ram isolation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mental health literacy among refugee communities: differences between the Australian lay public and the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.

  17. Message from Mr. R.A. Al-Kital, Commissioner of the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, received by the Director General on 23 October 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    The document reproduces the message from Mr. R.A. Al-Kital, Commissioner of the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission received by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 October 1985 related to the Israeli attack against the Iraqi nuclear installations

  18. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Cranston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0 and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a “Moderate’ or ‘Unrestricted’ nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning. The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM/ha (Moderate and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted. Results There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05 on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  19. Evaluation of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper × Rambouillet ewes mated to terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: Lamb production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, D R; Mousel, M R; Lewis, G S; Leymaster, K A; Taylor, J B

    2017-09-01

    Ewe productivity (i.e., total number or weight of lambs weaned per breeding ewe) is a key indicator of lamb production efficiency. This study compared various measures of ewe productivity and ewe and lamb performance among ewes of 3 breed types mated to rams of 4 terminal-sire breed types in an extensive rangeland production system. Purebred Rambouillet ( = 212), purebred Polypay ( = 236), and crossbred Romanov-White Dorper × Rambouillet (RW-RA; = 231) ewes were produced from locally adapted Polypay and Rambouillet ewes and then annually mated to Columbia, Suffolk, Columbia × Suffolk, or Suffolk × Columbia sires for up to 4 yr, beginning at 1 yr of age. The cumulative number and weight of lambs weaned through 4 yr were greater for RW-RA (5.9 lambs and 153 kg, respectively) and Polypay ewes (4.9 lambs and 123 kg, respectively) than for Rambouillet ewes (2.9 lambs and 99 kg, respectively) and also were greater for RW-RA ewes than for Polypay ewes (all ewes, compared with Rambouillet ewes, was driven by greater lambing rates (ewes lambing per ewe exposed) as ewe lambs (87 and 77 vs. 31%, respectively; ewe lambs (1.3, 1.3, and 1.0, respectively) and adult ewes (2.1, 2.0, and 1.6, respectively). The RW-RA ewes also had greater longevity ( ewes. Lamb BW at birth and weaning in adult ewes favored less-prolific Rambouillet ewes ( ewe breed types were small and not significant ( = 0.08). Effects of sire breed type on measures of cumulative ewe productivity were not significant ( > 0.74), but Suffolk-sired lambs had the heaviest adjusted birth weights ( = 0.01) and Columbia-sired lambs tended to have the lightest adjusted weaning weights ( = 0.12). Combined effects of heterosis and additive breed effects were associated with greater lambing rates in ewe lambs, larger litters at all ages, and substantially greater number and weight of lambs weaned for Polypay and RW-RA ewes than for Rambouillet ewes.

  20. Estrus synchronization and artificial insemination of hair sheep ewes in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, R W; Collins, J R; Hensley, E L; Wheaton, J E

    1999-04-01

    Hair sheep ewes (St. Croix White and Barbados Blackbelly) were used to evaluate 3 methods of estrus synchronization for use with transcervical artificial insemination (TAI). To synchronize estrus, ewes (n = 18) were treated with PGF2alpha (15 mg, im) 10 d apart, with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) devices containing 300 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18), or with intravaginal sponges containing 500 mg progesterone for 12 d (n = 18). On the day of the second PGF2alpha injection or at CIDR or sponge removal, sterile rams were placed with the ewes. Jugular blood samples were collected from the ewes at 6-h intervals until the time of ovulation, and daily for 16 d after estrus (Day 0). Plasma was harvested and stored at -20 degrees C until LH, and progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA. There was no difference (P>0.10) in time to estrus among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. All of the ewes in the CIDR group and 94.4% of the sponge treated ewes exhibited estrus by 36 h after ram introduction, while only 72.2% of PGF2alpha-treated ewes showed signs of estrus by this time (P0.10) among the CIDR-, PGF2alpha- or sponge-treated ewes. The time to the preovulatory LH surge was similar (P>0.10) among CIDR, PGF2alpha and sponge treated ewes. Progesterone levels through Day 16 after the synchronized estrus were not different (P>0.10) among treatment groups. Hair sheep ewes (n = 23) were synchronized using PGF2alpha and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after the second injection. The conception rate to TAI was 2/23 (8.7%) and produced 3 ram lambs. In a subsequent trial, 17 ewes were synchronized with CIDR devices and bred by TAI using frozen-thawed semen 48 h after CIDR removal, resulting in a conception rate of 52.9% (9/17). It is possible to synchronize estrus in hair sheep using either CIDRs, sponges or PGF2alpha. Even though there were no significant differences in the timing of ovulation or the LH surge among the treatment groups, a

  1. Fate of ivermectin residues in ewes' milk and derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerkvenik, Vesna; Perko, Bogdan; Rogelj, Irena; Doganoc, Darinka Z; Skubic, Valentin; Beek, Wim M J; Keukens, Henk J

    2004-02-01

    The fate of ivermectin (IVM) residues was studied throughout the processing of daily bulk milk from 30 ewes (taken up to 33 d following subcutaneous administration of 0.2 mg IVM/kg b.w.) in the following milk products: yoghurt made from raw and pasteurized milk; cheese after pressing; 30- and 60-day ripened cheese; and whey, secondary whey and whey proteins obtained after cheese-making (albumin cheese). The concentration of the H2B1a component of IVM was analysed in these dairy products using an HPLC method with fluorescence detection. The mean recovery of the method was, depending on the matrix, between 87 and 100%. Limits of detection in the order of only 0.1 microg H2B1a/kg of product were achieved. Maximum concentrations of IVM were detected mostly at 2 d after drug administration to the ewes. The highest concentration of IVM was found on day 2 in 60-day ripened cheese (96 microg H2B1a/kg cheese). Secondary whey was the matrix with the lowest concentration of IVM (milk fat and solid content were evident. During yoghurt production, fermentation and thermal stability of IVM was observed. During cheese production, approximately 35% of the IVM, present in the raw (bulk) milk samples, was lost. From the results it was concluded that the processing of ewes' milk did not eliminate the drug residues under investigation. The consequences of IVM in the human diet were discussed. Milk from treated animals should be excluded from production of fat products like cheese for longer after treatment with IVM than for lower fat products.

  2. Impact of treatment protocol on outcome of localized Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasaka, Srividya; Gundeti, Sadashivudu; Ganta, Ranga Raman; Arigela, Ravi Sankar; Linga, Vijay Gandhi; Maddali, Lakshmi Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of localized Ewing's sarcoma has improved with multi-disciplinary approach. Survivals of Ewing's sarcoma from the Asian countries differed between centers. We retrospectively analyzed the records of newly diagnosed localized Ewing's sarcoma patients from 2002 to 2012. The patients were analyzed in three groups; Group 1(2002-2004) who received non-ifosfomide based regimens, Group 2(2005-2008) who received VDC/IE for 12 cycles, and Group 3(2009-2012), who received VDC/IE for 17 cycles. The groups were compared for their baseline characteristics, treatment protocol and outcome. Seventy three patients were included in the study. The median age of presentation was 15 years, with slight male predominance. Axial primary was seen in 62%. The median RFS of the three groups was 26.4, 31.4 and 36.8 months respectively ( P = 0.0018). The median OS was 27.9, 35 and 43 months respectively ( P = 0.0007). At a median follow-up of 35 months, the 3 year RFS and OS for the three treatment groups were 17%, 31%, 60% and 35%, 45% and 70% respectively. Larger tumor size, axial primary, high LDH were associated with poorer survival. Radiotherapy was associated with inferior local control and survival. We found that the survival of our ESFT patients improved over time with intensified multiagent chemotherapy and with lesser time to local therapy. But the results were still inferior to those reported in literature. We had majority of patients presenting in axial site and radiotherapy as the predominant mode of local control. The outcome may further improve with surgery as local control procedure.

  3. Metastatic extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma treated with trabectedin: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Cubero, Jorge; Sanz-Moncasi, Pilar; Hernández-García, Alba; Pajares-Bernard, Isabel; Martínez-Trufero, Javier

    2016-10-01

    The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) comprises a number of rare malignant tumors. Standard first-line treatment for patients with these tumors includes chemotherapy with a five-drug regimen of vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin ® ) and cyclophosphamide, alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide (VAC/IE). In cases of inadequate response, there are a number of second-line regimens available. However, further treatment options are required for those patients with disease unresponsive to standard treatment. Trabectedin is a novel treatment option for patients with ESFT. The present study reports the case of a Caucasian 69-year-old female patient who presented with a soft tissue mass on the chest wall that had developed 7 months earlier. A computed tomography scan revealed a 9×8×7-cm mass on the anterior chest wall above the pectoral muscle. Histopathological evaluations and molecular analysis indicated that it was consistent with a metastatic extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was treated with an alternating VAC/IE regimen; however, an inadequate response was observed. The patient received second-line treatment with a gemcitabine and dacarbazine combination regimen, but the disease progressed. Subsequently, treatment with trabectedin (1.5 mg/m 2 as a 24-h continuous infusion every 3 weeks) was initiated. Trabectedin treatment resulted in long-lasting (18 months) progression-free survival. It is vital that novel drugs continue to being developed for patients with ESFT following progression subsequent to standard chemotherapy. The current report presents a case of a patient with metastatic, pre-treated Ewing's sarcoma achieving disease stabilization with trabectedin. Based on these results and the observed tolerability profile, trabectedin represents an alternative treatment for patients with ESFT. Further studies are required in order to determine the efficacy of trabectedin as monotherapy or in combination with other drugs. It is also important to

  4. Effectiveness of controlled internal drug release device treatment to alleviate reproductive seasonality in anestrus lactating or dry Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mokadem, M Y; Nour El-Din, Anm; Ramadan, T A; Rashad, A M; Taha, T A; Samak, M A; Salem, M H

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of hormonal treatments on ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Barki and Rahmani ewes during non-breeding season. Forty-eight multiparous ewes, 24 Barki and 24 Rahmani ewes were divided into two groups, 12 lactating and 12 dry ewes for each breed. Controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device was inserted in all ewes for 14 days in conjunction with intramuscular 500 IU equine chronic gonadotrophin (eCG) at day of CIDR removal. Data were analysed using PROC MIXED of SAS for repeated measures. Breed, physiological status and days were used as fixed effects and individual ewes as random effects. Barki ewes recorded higher (p ewes. Lactating ewes recorded higher (p ewes. Number and diameter of large follicles recorded the highest (p ewes recorded longer (p ewes. In conclusion, CIDR-eCG protocol was more potent in improving ovarian activity in Barki compared to Rahmani ewes, but this protocol seems to induce hormonal imbalance in Barki ewes that resulted in increasing conception failure compared to Rahmani ewes. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Synchronization of ovulation and fixed time intrauterine insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, C; Valasi, I; Rekkas, C A; Goulas, P; Theodosiadou, E; Lainas, T; Amiridis, G S

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for oestrus-ovulation synchronization in sheep followed by fixed time insemination is presented herewith. Mature dry ewes (n = 28) of Karagouniko breed being at an unknown stage of the oestrous cycle, were used during the middle of breeding season. The treatment protocol consisted of an initial administration of a GnRH analogue followed 5 days later by a prostaglandin F2alpha injection. Thirty-six hours later a second GnRH injection was administered to synchronize ovulation, and laparoscopic intrauterine insemination was performed 12-14 h later. Three days after insemination, fertile rams were introduced into the flock twice daily and oestrus-mating detection was carried out. For progesterone (P(4)) determination, blood samples were collected on alternate days, starting 2 days before the first GnRH injection and continuing for 17 days after insemination. An additional sample was taken on the day of insemination. Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out by trans-abdominal ultrasonography. Fourteen ewes (50%) conceived at insemination and maintained pregnancy; from the remainder 14 ewes 10 became pregnant at natural service, while four, although they mated at least two to three times, failed to conceive. In response to the first GnRH, P(4) concentration increased at higher levels in ewes that conceived at AI compared with those that failed to conceive (47.54 and 22.44%, respectively; p < 0.05). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean P(4) concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant animals were detected 1 day before AI (0.17 +/- 0.06 and 0.26 +/- 0.14 ng/ml, respectively) on the day of AI (0.15 +/- 0.04 and 0.24 +/- 0.08 ng/ml, respectively) as well as 9 and 11 days thereafter (0.48 +/- 0.12 and 0.38 +/- 0.12 ng/ml; 0.68 +/- 0.14 and 0.50 +/- 0.18 ng/ml, respectively). These results indicate that using the proposed protocol, an acceptable conception rate can be achieved which could be further improved by modifying the time intervals between

  6. Radio-induced sarcomas in survivors of Ewing sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriani, S.; Sudanese, A.; Toni, A.; Monesi, M.; Ciaroni, D.; Mancini, A.; Frezza, G.; Barbieri, E.; Picci, P.; Bacci, G.

    1988-01-01

    Of 255 cases of Ewing's sarcoma recorded at the Bone Tumor Center of the Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, 78 patients (irradiated and with a follow-up of longer than3 years) were considered ''at risk'' for the development of a second radio-induced sarcoma (RIS). Three of the 78 patients developed an RIS in the irradiated field. Theoretical and statistical analyses were carried out considering different modalities of local treatment. Statistically, the only significant factor was related to the irradiation dose. Surgical resection seems to prevent RIS

  7. Progesterone pretreatment increases the stress response to social isolation in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-de-Melo, Aline; Damián, Juan Pablo; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, progesterone (P4) pretreatment increases anxiety and response to stressors. Social isolation is a stressor that generates physiological and behavioural stress responses in sheep. The aim of the study was to compare the stress response of anoestrous ewes previously treated or not with P4 to the social isolation test. Ten ewes received P4 treatment during 13 d (group P4-W) and another 10 remained untreated as controls (group Con). The ewes were individually isolated in a novel place during 10 min, 24 h after the end of P4 pretreatment and their behaviours were recorded. Cortisol and P4 concentrations as well as body surface temperature were recorded before and after the test. Ewes of the P4-W group presented higher cortisol levels 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after the social isolation and had greater area under the curve of cortisol compared to Con ewes (41,785%±4,156% vs. 25,682%±4,565% during 75 min). Progesterone and body surface temperature increased after social isolation, with no differences between P4-W and Con ewes. There were no differences in behavioural responses to social isolation. P4 pretreatment appears to augment the stress response to social isolation in anoestrous ewes.

  8. Identification of factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes assessed with the Brix refractometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rovira, Laura; Pesantez-Pacheco, Jose-Luis; Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira-Partida, Laura; Perez-Solana, Maria-Luz; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana

    2017-11-01

    In this Research Communication we assessed factors affecting colostrum quality of dairy Lacaune ewes using the Brix-refractometer. Colostrum from 536 lambings from one commercial intensive dairy Lacaune farm were analysed for the following factors with potential influence in colostrum quality: (1) ewe parity (n = 84-132), (2) length of previous dry period (PDP) (n = 23-214), (3) age at first lambing (AFL) of primiparous ewes (n = 9-88), (4) lambing season (n = 192 or 344), and (5) year (2011-2013, n = 142-203). Parity significantly affected colostrum quality, with primiparous ewes showing the highest Brix refractometer values (22·6 ± 5·6%, P ewes. PDP length also significantly affected colostrum quality: ewes with the shortest PDP showed the worst quality (16·8 ± 4·2%, P ewes under intensive management conditions and they further show the usefulness of the Brix refractometer for providing a rough estimation of colostrum quality on-farm. However, further studies are needed to determine a validated cut-off Brix value for identifying good-quality colostra in ovine species.

  9. Transfer of radiocesium from different environmental sources to ewes and suckling lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Mayes, R.W.; Beresford, N.A.; Lamb, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor experiments are described that compare the transfer of radiocesium to ewe and lamb tissues from different sources. Lactating ewes were fed either perennial ryegrass contaminated by Chernobyl fallout, or saltmarsh vegetation contaminated by marine discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. The transfer to ewe tissues and milk was greater from the Chernobyl contaminated herbage than from saltmarsh vegetation. Lambs receiving a mixture of vegetation and milk were given radiocesium from one of the two vegetation sources or from milk obtained from the experimental ewes. Transfer to lamb tissues declined in the order milk greater than Chernobyl fallout greater than Sellafield discharge. The radiocesium transfer to lamb tissues exceeded that to ewe tissues. Transfer coefficients for 137Cs in the Chernobyl fallout were higher than most previously published figures at 0.12 d kg-1 for ewe muscle and 0.50 d kg-1 for lamb muscle. The transfer coefficient for 137Cs from ewe milk to lamb muscle was 1.20 d kg-1

  10. Productive response of hair ewes crossed with Damara and Dorper and growth of their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salinas-Rios

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Profitability of sheep production depends on the reproductive response of ewes and growth of their lambs, which can be improved through the ram genotype. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive response of Blackbelly (Bb, Pelibuey (Pb, Katahdin (Kat and Dorper (Dor ewes crossed with Damara (Dam and Dor rams and the growth of their offspring. To measure percentage of single and multiple lambings (MLP, 234 Bb, Pb, Kat and Dor ewes were used. To measure lamb growth, the offspring of 86 Bb x Pb (BbPb ewes and 73 Kat x Dor (KatDOR ewes were used. Four Dor x BbPb, six Dam x BbPb and six Dam x KatDor lambs were slaughtered for carcass assessment. MLP was analyzed with the CATMOD procedure considering the factors age and breed. Lamb growth data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure, and those of carcass characteristics with the GLM procedure of SAS, using weight at slaughter as covariable. MLP was higher (P0.05 by effect of ram breed. It is concluded that Bb ewes are more prolific than Dor ewes; male lambs of Dam rams had post-weaning growth response and carcass yield similar to those of Dor rams, although the female lambs of Dor rams were heavier than those of Dam rams.

  11. Overcoming cetuximab resistance in Ewing's sarcoma by inhibiting lactate dehydrogenase-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiaxin; Jiang, Han; Wu, Chenxuan; Jiang, Yi; Xiao, Lianping; Tian, Yonggang

    2016-07-01

    Ewing's sarcoma, the second most common type of malignant bone tumor, generally occurs in children and young adults. The current treatment of Ewing's sarcoma comprises systemic anti‑cancer chemotherapy with complete surgical resection. However, the majority of patients with Ewing's sarcoma develop resistance to chemotherapy. The present study revealed an oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase‑A (LDHA) in the resistance of Ewing's sarcoma to cetuximab. LDHA was shown to be upregulated at the protein and mRNA level in cetuximab‑resistant Ewing's sarcoma tissues and a cell line. In addition, a link between LDHA‑induced glycolysis and cetuximab resistance in Ewing's sarcoma cells was revealed. Of note, inhibition of LDHA by either small interfering RNA or LDHA inhibitor oxamate significantly re‑sensitized cetuximab‑resistant cells to cetuximab. Combined treatment with LDHA inhibitor and cetuximab synergistically reduced the viability of cetuximab-resistant cells through the suppression of LDHA. The present study revealed a novel mechanism of cetuximab resistance from the perspective of cancer‑cell metabolism and provided a sensitization approach, which may aid in the development of anti-chemoresistance strategies for the treatment of cetuximab-resistant Ewing's sarcoma.

  12. Circalunar Rhythms Induced Changes in the Body Functions and Reproductive Performance in Pregnant Ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Darawany, A.A.; El-Tarabany, A.A.; Teama, F.E.I.

    2014-01-01

    A total number of 136 pregnant ewes with the same age and parity were used in the present study. The experimental ewes reared during Arabic months or lunar months, from the 1st Gomady to Zol-hega, 1432 AH. The available data for each animal were obtained from the records of Sheep Farm, Project of Experimental Farms. Lambing season started at months, Shawal to Zol-hega. After lambing, the ewes were divided into three groups according to moon phases. Ewes in the 1st group laboured in new moon phase period. The ewes in the 2nd and the 3rd groups laboured in full and old moon phases, respectively. The study was conducted to determine the changes in the body functions and reproductive of pregnant ewes due to the effect of lunar cycle which causes the increase of births by up to 72% in the full moon phase. The results showed that, a significant increase in feed and water consumption, the activity of liver enzymes, concentration of cholesterol, triglyceride, kidney functions and also the hormone thyroxine and triiodothyronine was recorded during full moon, on the contrary, there was a significant decrease in the concentration of total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, phosphorus and cortisol in the blood of pregnant ewes was recorded during full moon phases followed by new and old moon. On the other hand, reproductive traits including litter size at birth and weaning and mortality rate were recorded during different moon phases.

  13. [Manpower migrations and Arab unity: the challenges of the Iraqi model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussillon, A

    1985-01-01

    Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by

  14. Reproductive performance in ewes fed varying levels of cut lucerne pasture around conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Morgan, B; Friend, M A

    2015-07-01

    Elevated intakes of protein and energy may increase embryo mortality, but it is not clear whether fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa) pasture poses a risk. A two-year pen study using oestrous synchronised and artificially inseminated Merino ewes (n=175 in 2013 and 215 in 2014) evaluated whether feeding freshly cut lucerne pasture (mean crude protein 19.7%, metabolisable energy 9.4MJ/kg DM) at maintenance or ad libitum during different periods around insemination altered reproductive performance in comparison with ewes fed a Control diet (mean crude protein 7.8%, metabolisable energy 9.0MJ/kg DM) of pelleted faba bean hulls and oat grain hulls at maintenance. The proportion of pregnant ewes carrying multiple fetuses was reduced (P=0.026) when ewes were fed lucerne ad libitum between days 0 and 17 after insemination compared with the Control diet (0.18 and 0.34, respectively), but not when ewes were fed lucerne ad libitum between days 0 and 7 after insemination (0.22). Reproductive performance, including the proportion of ewes pregnant and the proportion with multiple fetuses, was not different (P>0.05) when ewes were fed lucerne at maintenance between days 0 and 7 compared with the Control diet. While reproductive performance was similar when ewes were fed lucerne at maintenance between 0 and 17 days after artificial insemination compared with pellets at maintenance, fetal numbers per pregnant ewe were reduced by feeding lucerne ad libitum after insemination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Puberty and Fertility of Ewe Lambs Fed on By-products of Palm and Olive Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-T arabany, A.A.; Mostafa, M.M.M.; Mohamed, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the effect of palm and olive oil by-products adding to rations on production and reproductive performance of Rahmani and Osimi female sheep. After weaning, Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs (24 for each) of similar birth type were identified to compare between two rations containing hard fatty acids (HFA) or olive cake (OC) on sexual puberty and fertility of two breeds. The lambs of both breed were randomly divided into three groups: the first group is considered control and received ration which contained concentrate feed mixture (CFM). The second group nourished (OC) consisted of CFM +HFA and the third group nourished (HFA) composed of CFM +OC. The CFM was offered as basal ration to all experimental lambs. Body weight, functions of the liver, kidney, thyroid and progesterone hormones at puberty, and the fertility traits were assayed in the two breeds of ewes. The average body weight of female lambs was higher (P<0.05) with OC than HFA. Female lambs supplied OC reached puberty faster and their thyroid and sexual hormones (progesterone) have been developed earlier than ewe lambs given HFA and those in the control group. Age at puberty and progesterone level in both Rahmani and Osimi ewe lambs were better in ewes fed on OC , than other two groups. The fertility (%) from total ewe lambs and birth weight in ewe lambs fed on OC were higher than ewes fed on HFA and the control. It may be concluded that feeding ewe lambs on diet containing HFA from weaning had positive effects on age at puberty, reproductive fertility and prolificacy

  16. Physiological Changes in Ewes Conceived Single or Twins Fetuses Related with Survivability of Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The number of 239 (137 in year 2009 and 102 in 2010) pregnant ewes with the same age and average live body weight were used in the present study. The experimental does reared under same conditions during May to September in 2009 and August to December in 2010, respectively. The available data for each animal were obtained from the recodes. The classified of breeds and total numbers used in this study were (Ossimi =49, Barki =47, Rahmani =60 and crossbred =83). Season of lambing started in October to November in 2009 and January and February in 2010. After parturition, the does were classified according to litter size into two groups. The ewes in the 1st and 2nd groups were labor single or twins lamb, respectively. The results showed that progressed pregnancy stages related with decreases in concentrations of immunity function (total proteins, albumin and globulin), cholesterol, glucose and calcium in serum of pregnant ewes. On the other hand, enzymes activities of liver functions (GOT, GPT and γGT), creatinine, triglycerides and phosphorus increased in serum of pregnant ewes with progressed pregnancy stages. Progesterone and parathormone concentrations showed opposite trends to those obtained levels with progressed pregnancy stages. Comparison between ewes conceived single or twins fetuses showed that most blood components values are related with survivability of lambs. In ewes conceived single fetus recorded higher values of total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose and calcium than ewes conceived twins fetuses. On the other hand, GOT, GPT and γGT, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea and phosphorus concentrations were lower in ewes conceived single fetus than in ewes conceived twins fetuses. On the opposite, progesterone and parathormone concentrations were lower in single than in twins fetuses

  17. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Successful induction of oestrus, ovulation and pregnancy in adult ewes and ewe lambs out of the breeding season using a GnRH+progesterone oestrus synchronisation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M F; McLeod, B; Tattersfield, G; Smaill, B; Quirke, L D; Juengel, J L

    2015-04-01

    A series of experiments was designed to assess the effect of a treatment protocol (U-synch) for inducing oestrus and ovulation out of the breeding season in adult ewes and ewe lambs. The protocol consisted of a 7-day treatment with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IPRD), administration of GnRH at IPRD insertion on Day 0, and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and prostaglandin F2α at IPRD removal on Day 7. In Experiment 1, 50 or 100 μg GnRH were sufficient to induce ovulation at the beginning of the protocol in 3/9 and 4/9 ewes, respectively; while the resulting proportion of sheep ovulating after the treatment protocol was 88.9% and 77.8% in ewes initially treated with 50 or 100 μg GnRH, respectively. In Experiment 2, the proportion of Romney-cross ewe lambs ovulating was greater (P<0.0001) in the U-synch group (95.4%) than in the untreated Control group (3.2%). In Experiment 3, pregnancy rates of Dorset-cross sheep in the U-synch (60.7%) and Standard (12-day IPRD and eCG treatment; 56.5%) groups were greater (P=0.01) than in the untreated Control group (43.4%). The incidence of twin pregnancies was greater (P=0.005) in the U-synch group than in the Control group. A 7-day IPRD treatment including GnRH treatment at device insertion and eCG treatment at device removal induced oestrus and ovulation during the non-breeding season in a high proportion of mature ewes and ewe lambs. High pregnancy rates to natural mating, with a low rate of triplet pregnancies, were also observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of antioxidant capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz-Ersan, Lutfiye; Ozcan, Tulay; Akpinar-Bayizit, Arzu; Sahin, Saliha

    2018-05-01

    This research aimed to evaluate the effects of using either grain or commercial starter culture on the antioxidative capacity of cow and ewe milk kefirs. The antioxidant capacity of kefir samples during fermentation and 21 d of storage was assessed by using 3 assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization; 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH • ) radical scavenging activity assay; and Fe +3 -reducing power (ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, FRAP). Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were also quantified. All kefir samples exhibited varying values for DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays depending on the starter culture and milk type. Vitamin E and β-carotene contents were similar in all kefir samples during storage. The results of this study suggest that milk type (cow or ewe) and culture type (kefir grains or commercial starter) were the significant parameters for the antioxidative activity of kefir. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neurotensin receptors in human neoplasms: high incidence in Ewing's sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, J C; Waser, B; Schaer, J C; Laissue, J A

    1999-07-19

    Receptors for regulatory peptides, such as somatostatin or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), expressed at high density by neoplastic cells, can be instrumental for tumor diagnosis and therapy. Little is known about the expression of neurotensin receptors in human tumors. In the present study, 464 human neoplasms of various types were investigated for their neurotensin receptor content by in vitro receptor autoradiography on tissue sections using 125I-[Tyr3]-neurotensin as radioligand. Neurotensin receptors were identified and localized in tumor cells of 11/17 Ewing's sarcomas, 21/40 meningiomas, 10/23 astrocytomas, 5/13 medulloblastomas, 7/24 medullary thyroid cancers and 2/8 small cell lung cancers. They were rarely found in non-small cell lung cancers and breast carcinomas; they were absent in prostate, ovarian, renal cell and hepatocellular carcinomas, neuroendocrine gut tumors, pituitary adenomas, schwannomas, neuroblastomas and lymphomas. When present, the receptors bound with nanomolar affinity neurotensin and acetyl-neurotensin-(8-13), with lower affinity neuromedin N, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acidneurotensin-(8-13) and SR 48692, but not neurotensin-(1-11). They were all of the NT1 type, without high affinity for levocabastine. Further, in 2 receptor-positive Ewing's sarcomas, neurotensin mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization techniques. Since neurotensin is known to stimulate cell proliferation, the presence of neurotensin receptors in human neoplasia may be of biological relevance, possibly as an integrative part of an autocrine feedback mechanism of tumor growth stimulation.

  1. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  2. Potential approaches to the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongjiu; Ge, Yonggui; Guo, Lianying; Huang, Lin

    2017-01-17

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a highly aggressive and metastatic tumor in children and young adults caused by a chromosomal fusion between the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene and the transcription factor FLI1 gene. ES is managed with standard treatments, including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation. Although the 5-year survival rate for primary ES has improved, the survival rate for ES patients with metastases or recurrence remains low. Several novel molecular targets in ES have recently been identified and investigated in preclinical and clinical settings, and targeting the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the fusion protein EWS-FLI1 and mTOR has shown promise. There has also been increasing interest in the immune responses of ES patients. Immunotherapies using T cells, NK cells, cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies have been considered for ES, especially for recurrent patients. Because understanding the pathogenesis of ES is extremely important for the development of novel treatments, this review focuses on the mechanisms and functions of targeted therapies and immunotherapies in ES. It is anticipated that integrating the knowledge obtained from basic research and translational and clinical studies will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ES.

  3. Structure-Function Based Molecular Relationships in Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma Oncogene (ews) on chromosome 22q12 is encoding a ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein (EWS) with unknown function that is target of tumor-specific chromosomal translocations in Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors. A model of transcription complex was proposed in which the heterodimer Rpb4/7 binds to EAD, connecting it to Core RNA Pol II. The DNA-binding domain, provided by EFP, is bound to the promoter. Rpb4/7 binds RNA, stabilizing the transcription complex. The complex Rpb4/7 can stabilize the preinitiation complexes by converting the conformation of RNA Pol II. EWS may change its conformation, so that NTD becomes accessible. Two different mechanisms of interaction between EWS and RNA Pol II are proposed: (I) an intermolecular EWS-EWS interaction between two molecules, pushing conformation from “closed” to “open” state, or (II) an intramolecular interaction inside the molecule of EWS, pushing conformation of the molecule from “closed” to “open” state. The modified forms of EWS may interact with Pol II subunits hsRpb5 and hsRpb7. The EWS and EFPs binding partners are described schematically in a model, an attempt to link the transcription with the splicing. The proposed model helps to understand the functional molecular interactions in cancer, to find new partners and ways to treat cancer. PMID:25688366

  4. Relationship between energy intake and chewing index of diets fed to pregnant ewes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Vestergaard; Nadeau, E.; Markussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether a linear relationship exists between the metabolizable energy (ME) intake of pregnant ewes and a dietary chewing index (CI). The relationship was studied using five feeding trials with intake data from 108 pregnant ewes, 4 to 1 weeks before lambing, giving...... includes random variation of week within experiment on the intercept and linear fixed effect of week before lambing on parameter k. The maximum daily chewing time, CTmax, for the pregnant ewes was predicted to be 1/(4 × k). The MEI declined linearly with increasing dietary CI (P

  5. A typical case of hydrallantois accompanied by fetal monstrosity in a local ewe of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiranya Kumar Bhattacharyya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A full termed local ewe with the history of continuous straining with labored breathing for last 24 hours was presented. The animal was disinclined to move with tense and round abdomen which developed rapidly during last two weeks. Caesarean section revealed hydrallantois accompanied by multiple fetal congenital abnormalities. The ewe was under observation for four weeks. Metritis developed 12 days post-operation and was treated successfully. The ewe was found active on 25 days post-surgery with gain of extra 3 kg bodyweight.

  6. Primary Vaginal Extraosseous Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor with Cranial Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Man Yip

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraosseous Ewing sarcoma is now regarded as a member of the Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET family. It typically involves the soft tissues of the chest wall, pelvis, paravertebral region, abdominal wall, retroperitoneal region and extremities of children, adolescents and young adults, but it seldom occurs in the female genital tract. We report an extremely rare case of retrospective diagnosis of vaginal extraosseous Ewing sarcoma/PNET which metastasized to the right frontoparietal scalp, skull, and dura. Surgical resection, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. Both the vaginal and head tumors had similar light microscopic features supporting the diagnosis.

  7. Extraskeletal primary Ewing's scrcoma in the nasal cavity: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bo Young; Park, Seok Won; Km, Eo Jin; Choi, Jong Sun; Lee, Eun Ja [Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Ewing's sarcoma presents a rare tumor of the head and neck, and even rarer in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal sinuses. We report the case of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity, as presented with nasal obstruction and epistaxis. The CT and MRI examination reveals a mass in the left nasal cavity with extension to contralateral side, ethmoidal sinus, and nasopharynx. We provide an overview of Ewing's sarcoma in the nasal cavity and discuss radiologic findings of this unusual case.

  8. Retrotracheal Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma: Case Report and Discussion on Airway Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Meer, Graeme; Linkhorn, Hannah; Gruber, Maayan; Mahadevan, Murali; Barber, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor, and the management of airway compromise in case of cervical Ewing's sarcoma has not been established. This report describes the case of a patient with retrotracheal Ewing's sarcoma and discusses a successful approach to airway management. A 12-year-old male presented with a 2-week history of sore throat and sleep-disordered breathing and 48 hours of stridor. Imaging confirmed a retrotracheal soft tissue mass with airway compromise. A planned and controlled approach to his airway management resulted in a secure airway prior to definitive treatment.

  9. Primary soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma of the maxillary sinus in elderly patients: presentation, management and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, M; Ghatak, S; Biswas, G; Sen, A

    2014-06-01

    Nonosseous or soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma is a rare form of Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumour that seldom affects the head and neck region. Involvement of the nose and paranasal sinuses is extremely uncommon, with only eight of such patients being reported to date, mostly affecting adolescents and young adults. To our knowledge, this study is the first comprehensive report of primary soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma involving the paranasal sinuses in an elderly patient who successfully completed treatment. We herein discuss the pathogenesis, management and factors affecting the prognosis of this rare group of tumours involving the nose and paranasal sinuses, in relation to the available literature.

  10. Neutrality of miniSTR D22S1045 marker by Ewing's sarcoma phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Raimann, Paulo E; Moro, Tatiane; Picanço, Juliane B; Abujamra, Ana L; de Farias, Caroline B; Roesler, Rafael; Brunetto, Algemir L; Alho, Clarice S

    2013-11-01

    Neutrality investigations of markers with forensic use are important to see if a phenotypic trait is being expressed in relation to the alleles of the marker. MiniSTR marker D22S1045 (locus 22q12.3) is localized near the breakpoint region of the EWS gene (22q12.2), which leads to the development of Ewing's Sarcoma. Analyzing allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium in Ewing's sarcoma patients and non-affected populations, we found that the marker mD22S1045 was neutral when related to Ewing's Sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Iraqi health system in kurdistan region: medical professionals' perspectives on challenges and priorities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Tahir, Rebaz; Shwani, Falah H; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2010-11-30

    The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%), the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%), and the quality of offered services (65.3%). Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively). The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%), enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%), adopting health insurance system (76.1%) and periodic scientific

  12. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  13. Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus from the Tigris drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir

    2017-03-02

    Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.

  14. Job satisfaction and turnover intention among Iraqi doctors--a descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2015-04-19

    During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented turnover of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on turnover intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors affecting turnover intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with turnover intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-turnover intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.

  15. Establishment of a Ewing's sarcoma mouse model: JAK/STAT signalling in Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sax, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT) comprises paediatric cancers of bone and soft tissue which presumably originate from mesenchymal progenitor cells(MPC). One hallmark of ESFT is the presence of a chromosomal translocation. In 90% of the cases chromosome 11 fuses with chromosome 22. This translocation generates the EWS/FLI-1 fusion which acts as an aberrant transcription factor deregulating many genes involved in tumour development. Surgery and/or radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy are the usual forms of treatment for ESFT. But since there is only little progress in the field of chemotherapy the need for an animal model for pre-clinical drug testing is evident. Thus, the main focus of this thesis was to establish a mouse model that develops sarcomas resembling the phenotype of ESFT. We used a conditional EWS/FLI-1 mouse model, which upon Cre activity (controlled by a tissue specific promotor) expressed EWS/FLI-1 in the targeted cells. Since ESFT arises in bone and surrounding soft tissue we decided to direct expression of EWS/FLI-1 to the mesenchymal lineage by using different Cre lines. Only when using the Prx1Cre, double transgenic mice tolerated EWS/FLI-1 expression. We observed developmental abnormalities with severe skeletal deformations. Bone formation was impaired due to the absence of mature chondrocytes and osteoblasts and hence a lack of calcified bone. The lack of mature bone cells in EWS/FLI-1 expressing Prx1Cre mice supports in vitro data showing that EWS/FLI-1 impedes differentiation of murine mesenchymal progenitor cells. Currently, the project is extended to analysis of an inducible Prx1Cre system which circumvents the early lethality of Prx1Cre EF mice. This should provide the basis for tumour formation in these mice and hence the development of an appropriate mouse model for pre-clinical research. In the second project of my PhD thesis, the role of the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK

  16. Serum profile of cytokines interferon gamma and interleukin-10 in ewes subjected to artificial insemination by cervical retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, C T G; Cruz, J F; Romano, C C; Brandão, F Z

    2016-04-15

    This study evaluated the influence of artificial insemination (AI) by cervical retraction (CRI) on serum levels of interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in ewes. Synchronized pluriparous Santa Inês ewes were subjected to natural mating (NM, n = 8) and AI, which was performed for a fixed time (55 ± 1 hour) by CRI (n = 8) or laparoscopy (n = 8). Ewes were classified as pregnant, with return to estrus (RE) or with embryonic loss (EL). Blood samples were collected on Day 0, Day 3, Day 5, Day 12, and Day 17 (Day 0 = AI/NM) for progesterone dosage and cytokines were quantified from Day 0 to Day 12. Progesterone levels were constant, except for a decrease in ewes with RE at Day 17 (P ewes with EL had lower serum levels of IFNγ and IL-10 than pregnant ewes and ewes with RE, regardless of the reproductive method used, with averages of 769.1, 714.9, and 555.7 pg/mL for IFNγ and 713.8, 699.3, and 578.7 pg/mL for IL-10 in pregnant ewes, ewes with RE and EL, respectively (P ewes does not alter the profile of serum cytokines IFNγ and IL-10 and does not induce an inflammatory reaction that can compromise pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The importance of PET/CT in the evaluation of patients with Ewing tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Brandão Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effective evaluation for the treatment of patients with Ewing tumors depends on the accuracy in the determination of the primary tumor extent and the presence of metastatic disease. Currently, no universally accepted staging system is available to assess Ewing tumors. The present study aimed at discussing the use of PET/CT as a tool for staging, restaging and assessment of therapeutic response in patients with Ewing tumors. In spite of some limitations of PET/CT as compared with anatomical imaging methods, its relevance in the assessment of these patients is related to the capacity of the method to provide further physiological information, which often generates important clinical implications. Currently, the assessment of patients with Ewing tumor should comprise a study with PET/CT combined with other anatomical imaging modalities, such as radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  18. HEALTH AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS OF EWE'S MILK PROCESSING FROM THE ASPECT OF FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pukáčová

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum.   doi:10.5219/24

  19. [Extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. Report of two cases. Ultrastructural study of one case (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulik, M; Brechot, J M; de Saint-Maur, P; Lecomte, D; Mougeot-Martin, M; Audebert, A A; Zylberait, D; Debray, J

    The authors report two cases of extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. The first case concerns a 26 years old woman presenting a tumor at the level of the sacrum area, locally recurrent, metastazing to the lungs and the lumbar column, despite of radiotherapy and chemotherapy and leading to death after a course of 18 months. The second one is that of a 30 years old man bearing a tumor of the shoulder area probably already metastazed to bones, rapidly recurrent and metastazing to the lungs and cause of death after 9 months in spite of intensive therapy. About these 2 observations a review of the literature of the cases of extra skeletal Ewing's sarcoma is done. Whatever nosologic discussion it seems that Ewing's sarcoma may present essentially as a tumor of soft tissues. An ultrastructural study has been performed in the second case. The findings are similar to those reported in Ewing's sarcoma.

  20. A Novel Role for Keratin 17 in Coordinating Oncogenic Transformation and Cellular Adhesion in Ewing Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Savita; Tanner, Jason M.; Bell, Russell; Chaturvedi, Aashi; Randall, R. Lor; Beckerle, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma is caused by EWS/FLI, an aberrant transcription factor fusion oncogene. Glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (GLI1) is a critical target gene activated by EWS/FLI, but the mechanism by which GLI1 contributes to the transformed phenotype of Ewing sarcoma was unknown. In this work, we identify keratin 17 (KRT17) as a direct downstream target gene upregulated by GLI1. We demonstrate that KRT17 regulates cellular adhesion by activating AKT/PKB (protein kinase B) signaling. In addition, KRT17 is necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma and accounts for much of the GLI1-mediated transformation function but via a mechanism independent of AKT signaling. Taken together, our data reveal previously unknown molecular functions for a cytoplasmic intermediate filament protein, KRT17, in coordinating EWS/FLI- and GLI1-mediated oncogenic transformation and cellular adhesion in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:24043308

  1. reducing the partum.to-mating period in autumn lactating ewes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and/or synchronization of oestrus in farm animals (La- mond, 1964: Hunter, 1968; ... In the lactating ewe progesterone therapy soon ..... by oestrus after a relatively short delay (Table l). Con- sequently, more time was available for oestrus to be.

  2. Effect of selenium-vitamin E injection in ewes on reproduction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    selenium (Se) and Se plus vitamin E on oestrus, fertility, prolificacy, number of lambs ... deficiency plays a role in numerous economically important livestock diseases, ... Fecundity rate = number of lambs born/number of ewes lambing x 100.

  3. Radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraga, J.J.; Amrami, K.K.; Swee, R.G. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Wold, L. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States).. Dept. of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology; Unni, K.K. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States). Dept. of Surgical Pathology

    2001-03-01

    The radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet are reviewed utilizing cases obtained from the Mayo Clinic patient files and the consultation files of Drs. D.C. Dahlin and K.K. Unni. This series consists of a total of 43 cases of pathologically proven Ewing's sarcoma involving the small bones of the hands and feet. The classic radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma in the long bones, including lytic, permeative destruction, aggressive periosteal reaction, cortical violation, and a soft tissue mass, are also seen in the bones of the hands and feet, with similar frequency. These classic features are most commonly present in lesions affecting the short tubular bones. Lesions affecting the tarsal bones more often demonstrate atypical radiographic features. These atypical radiographic appearances may play a role in the reported delay in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma within the tarsal bones. (orig.)

  4. Histopathologic and Radiologic Assessment of Chemotherapeutic Response in Ewing's Sarcoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castellano, José M; Atallah Yordi, Nagib; Reyes, Carolina; Healey, John H

    2012-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant tumor that metastasizes rapidly and is thus associated with a low survival rate. The intensification of chemotherapy has been shown to improve the overall survival of patients with Ewing's sarcoma. However, intensified chemotherapy can lead to increased toxicity or even the development of secondary malignancies. The stratification of patients with Ewing's sarcoma into "good" and "poor" responders may help guide the administration of progressively more intensified chemotherapy. Thus, an accurate assessment of the chemotherapeutic response, as well as the extent of chemotherapy-induced tumor necrosis, is critical for avoiding potential treatment-related complications in these patients. This paper reviews the methods currently used to evaluate chemotherapeutic response in Ewing's sarcoma, focusing specifically on histopathologic and imaging analyses, and discusses novel therapies and imaging methods that may help improve the overall survival of these patients.

  5. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull: radical resection and immediate cranioplasty after chemotherapy. A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Maria; Rivero, Mónica; Marquez, Javier

    2013-02-01

    The current standard treatment of Ewing's sarcoma is chemotherapy followed by surgery, making an immediate cranial reconstruction in a one-step surgical procedure possible. We describe the technique used to repair a cranial defect after the resection of a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull in a one-step surgical procedure. Bone repair with a custom-made cranioplasty immediately after resection of a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull avoids deformities and late complications associated with reconstructive surgery after radiotherapy and not interfere with radiotherapy and neither with follow-up. A one-step surgical procedure after chemotherapy for primary Ewing's sarcoma of the skull could be safer, less aggressive and more radical; avoiding deformities and late complications.

  6. Actuarial risk of isolated CNS involvement in Ewing's sarcoma following prophylactic cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trigg, M.E.; Makuch, R.; Glaubiger, D.

    1985-01-01

    Records of 154 patients with Ewing's sarcoma treated at the National Cancer Institute were reviewed to assess the incidence and risk of developing isolated central nervous system (CNS) Ewing's sarcoma. Sixty-two of the 154 patients had received CNS irradiation and intrathecal (i.t.) methotrexate as part of their initial therapy to prevent the occurrence of isolated CNS Ewing's sarcoma. The risk of developing isolate CNS Ewing's sarcoma was greatest within the first two years after diagnosis and was approximately 10%. The overall risk of CNS recurrence in the group of patients receiving DNS treatment was similar to the group receiving no therapy directed to the CNS. The occurrence of isolated CNS involvement was not prevented by the use of CNS irradiation and i.t. methotrexate. Because of a lack of efficacy to the CNS irradiation regimen, current treatment regimens do not include therapy directed to CNS

  7. Radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraga, J.J.; Amrami, K.K.; Swee, R.G.; Wold, L.; Unni, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma of the bones of the hands and feet are reviewed utilizing cases obtained from the Mayo Clinic patient files and the consultation files of Drs. D.C. Dahlin and K.K. Unni. This series consists of a total of 43 cases of pathologically proven Ewing's sarcoma involving the small bones of the hands and feet. The classic radiographic features of Ewing's sarcoma in the long bones, including lytic, permeative destruction, aggressive periosteal reaction, cortical violation, and a soft tissue mass, are also seen in the bones of the hands and feet, with similar frequency. These classic features are most commonly present in lesions affecting the short tubular bones. Lesions affecting the tarsal bones more often demonstrate atypical radiographic features. These atypical radiographic appearances may play a role in the reported delay in diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma within the tarsal bones. (orig.)

  8. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Temporal Bone: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Gulati, Achal; Purnima

    2017-09-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant, round cell tumor arising from the bones and primarily affecting children and adolescent, accounting for 3 % of all childhood malignancies. Although the long bones and the trunk are typically affected, rare cases of it involving isolated bones throughout the body have been reported. Involvement of the skull bones is rare, constituting 1-6 % of the total Ewing's sarcoma cases but those affecting the cranial bones are rarer still, constituting only 1 %. We describe an 8 months old infant having Ewing sarcoma, of the petrous and mastoid parts of temporal bone along with the occipital bone, whose clinical presentation mimicked mastoiditis with facial nerve palsy. We discuss the clinical and therapeutic course of an extensive primary Ewing sarcoma of the temporal bone, which was treated without performing surgery and review this entity's literature in detail.

  9. Ten-Year Follow-Up of a Patient with Metastatic Ewing's Sarcoma of the Pelvis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert U. Ashford

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient: We report a 32-year-old women with a pelvic Ewing's sarcoma, who developed skeletal metastases within 20 months of diagnosis but following treatment remains disease-free at 10 years.

  10. Extraskeletal Ewing's Sarcoma: insight into a ten years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitelli, A; Manfredelli, S; Brunotti, G; Marcantonio, M; Pontone, S; Angelici, A

    2013-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma is a rare malignant soft tissue tumor, classified within the Ewing's Sarcoma Family Tumors. While the classical Ewing's Sarcoma affects mainly the bone during youth, the Extraskeletal histotype differs for age incidence, primary location and prognosis. Peak incidence and typical location are during adolescence and in the extremities respectively. We report a 30 year old woman case with a positive outcome after ten years from first diagnosis of Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma. Treatment was achieved through surgical resection plus adjuvant chemoradiotherapy derived from EW93 and IRS III trials. Conclusion. Our report represents an unusual case due to age of presentation, neoplasm location and long survival reached. In last decades several trials results demonstrated that long survival could be achieved by combined surgery and adjuvant multi-drug treatment.

  11. Ewing's Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Fabian; Grotzer, Michael A; Niggli, Felix; Zimmermann, Dieter; Rushing, Elisabeth; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing's sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing's sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing's sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed.

  12. Perception of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) by Iraqi dental academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise

    2011-07-01

    The understanding and detection of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is linked to its recognition by clinicians. No study has investigated dental clinicians' level of perception regarding MIH in the Middle East region including Iraq. To determine the perception of Iraqi academic clinicians about MIH prevalence, severity and aetiological factors. A questionnaire, based on previous European and Australian/New Zealand studies was administered to the academic dental staff of Mosul University. A response rate of 77.7% was reported. General dental practitioners represented 30.8% of the total respondents, whilst 65.1% were dentists with post-graduate qualification. The majority of the respondents (81.2%) encountered MIH in their clinical activities and 37.3% of them identified that the prevalence appeared to have increased in recent years. Fewer than half of the respondents observed MIH affected teeth on a monthly basis. The condition was less commonly seen in primary second molars than the first permanent molars. A variation in views was recorded about MIH specific aetiological factor/s. Respondents advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation is a condition commonly diagnosed by Iraqi dental academics. No apparent consensus existed between the general and specialist dentists regarding the anticipated prevalence, severity and aetiology of this condition. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Characterization of Some Iraqi Archaeological Samples Using IBA, Analytical X-ray and Other Complementary Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sarraj, Ziyad Shihab; Damboos, Hassan I; Roumie, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?

  14. Dentoskeletal Overjet Measurements of Iraqi Adult Sample with Different Skeletal Jaw Relationship

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    Shahbaa A Mohammed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many attempts were done to develop a method that actually reflects the sagittal jaw discrepancies without depending on cranial landmarks or dental occlusion. This study aimed to use one of these methods (dentoskeletal overjet for assessing the sagittal jaw relationships of Iraqi adult sample with different skeletal jaw relationship. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 90 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi individuals with no previous orthodontic treatment. Cephalometric analysis of skeletal sagittal jaw relationship -ANB angle, beta angle and Wits appraisal- will perform for everyone to divide the sample into three groups (skeletal class I, II, III for which the dentoskeletal overjet will be measured. All cephalometric measurements will be done using AutoCAD. Results: Descriptive statistics of all variables with different skeletal jaw relationship showed that mean values of dentoskeletal overjet were (1.15, 3.91 and –2.01 mm for skeletal class I, class II and class III jaw relationship respectively. Accurate reproducibility of dentoskeletal overjet in assessment of jaw skeletal relationship showed that the lowest value was for assessment of skeletal class III jaw relationship (73% and the value for assessment of both skeletal class I and class II was higher (93%. Conclusions: Dentoskeletal overjet could be utilized in accurate representation of skeletal jaw relationship.

  15. The Usefulness of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR Eyespeak Software in Improving Iraqi EFL Students’ Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Fathi Sidig Sidgi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not found in their native language (Arabic. This study is concerned with ASR and its effectiveness in overcoming this difficulty. The data were obtained from twenty participants randomly selected from first-year college students at Al-Turath University College from the Department of English in Baghdad-Iraq. The students had participated in a two month pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software. At the end of the pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software, the students completed a questionnaire to get their opinions about the usefulness of the ASR Eyespeak in improving their pronunciation. The findings of the study revealed that the students found ASR Eyespeak software very useful in improving their pronunciation and helping them realise their pronunciation mistakes. They also reported that learning pronunciation with ASR Eyespeak enjoyable.

  16. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Thanoon Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

  17. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  18. Continuous exposure to sexually active rams extends estrous activity in ewes in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J A; Chemineau, P; Flores, J A; Keller, M; Duarte, G; Forcada, F; Delgadillo, J A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual activity in sheep is under photoperiodic control, which is the main environmental factor responsible for the seasonality of reproduction. However, other natural environmental factors such as presence of conspecifics can slightly influence the timing of onset and offset of the breeding season. In goats, we have found that the continuous presence of bucks that were rendered sexually active out of season by previous exposure to long days, prevented goats from displaying seasonal anestrus, which suggests that the relative contribution of photoperiod in controlling seasonal anestrus should be reevaluated in small ruminant species. The aim of this study was to assess whether the presence of sexually active rams that had been stimulated by artificial photoperiod and melatonin implants, reduces seasonal anestrus in sheep, by prolonging ovulatory activity in spring. Ewes were assigned to one of two groups (n = 16 and 15), which were housed in two separate barns, and kept in contact, either with the treated or the control rams between March and July. Vasectomized rams were either exposed to 2 months of long days followed by the insertion of three subcutaneous melatonin implants (treated rams, n = 8), or exposed to natural light conditions (control rams, n = 2). Estrus was monitored daily, and weekly plasma progesterone analyses indicated ovulatory activity. Ewes that were exposed to treated rams exhibited a higher proportion of monthly estrus than ewes exposed to the control rams (P ewes (one ewe was not considered because of the presence of persistent CL) exposed to stimulated rams exhibited estrous behavior in a cyclic manner. In contrast, all ewes exposed to control rams stopped estrous activity for a period of time during the study, such that this group exhibited a significantly longer anestrous season (mean ± standard error of the mean 89 ± 9 days) than did the ewes housed with treated rams (26 ± 10 days; P ewes housed with treated rams, 13 of

  19. Crude glycerin decreases nonesterified fatty acid concentration in ewes during late gestation and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizel, D M; Susin, I; Gentil, R S; Ferreira, E M; de Souza, R A; Freire, A P A; Pires, A V; Ferraz, M V C; Rodrigues, P H M; Eastridge, M L

    2017-02-01

    Crude glycerin is a gluconeogenic substrate in ruminants and may help to decrease the occurrence of pregnancy toxemia. The objective in this trial was to determine the effects of feeding a diet containing crude glycerin on DMI, milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolites in periparturient ewes and lamb performance. One hundred eighteen 90 (±1.1)-d pregnant Santa Inês ewes were used. After lambing, 32 ewes (62.8 ± 1.3 kg BW) were allotted in a randomized complete block design defined by prelambing diet, BW, BCS, lambing date, type of birth (single or twin), and sex of offspring. Diets were isonitrogenous (13.0 ± 0.3% CP, DM basis), composed of concentrate and raw sugarcane bagasse (70:30 ratio, DM basis), and fed ad libitum daily. Crude glycerin (83.6% glycerol) levels were 0 or 10% (DM basis), corresponding to the experimental diets G0 and G10, respectively. From 8 until 56 d of lactation, DMI was determined. In the same period, once a week at 1000 h, the ewes were separated from the lambs and mechanically milked after intravenous administration of 10 IU of synthetic oxytocin. Three hours after the first milking, ewes were milked again and milk yield and composition were determined. Glucose, NEFA, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were determined at -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d relative to lambing and insulin was determined at -14, -7, 0, and 7 d. Crude glycerin did not affect DMI (2.2 kg/d for G0 vs. 2.2 kg/d for G10; = 0.93) or milk production (171 g/3 h for G0 vs. 164 g/3 h for G10; = 0.66). However, there was a decrease ( = 0.01) in milk fat percentage (8.1% for G0 vs. 7.0% for G10) for ewes fed glycerin. Ewes fed the G10 diet had decreased ( ewes fed the G10 diet (0.46 mmol/L for G0 vs. 0.61 mmol/L for G10). There was no effect of diets fed to ewes on lamb growth from birth to weaning. Crude glycerin improved energy balance of periparturient ewes, suggesting a reduced risk of developing clinical metabolic-related disorders. Crude glycerin can be

  20. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the vertebral column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Ch2-290 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, 55905, MN (United States); Unni, K.Krishnan [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States); Dekutoski, Mark B. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, 55905, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2004-09-01

    To determine the demographics, imaging findings, clinical symptoms, and prognosis of primary vertebral Ewing's sarcoma (PVES). A retrospective review of medical records and radiological studies of patients diagnosed with PVES from 1936 through 2001 in our institution and Department of Pathology consultation files was undertaken. Metastatic and soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma cases were excluded. From a total of 1,277 cases of Ewing's sarcoma, 125 (9.8%) had a primary vertebral origin. There were 48 females and 76 males. Patient ages ranged from 4 to 54 (mean 19.3, standard deviation 10.7, median 16) years. Vertebral column distribution was four cervical (3.2%), 13 thoracic (10.5%), 31 lumbar (25%), and 67 sacrum (53.2%). More than one vertebral segment was involved in ten cases (8%). Satisfactory imaging studies were available in 51 patients: 49 radiographs, 27 computerized tomography (CT), and 23 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. The majority of tumors were lytic (93%). Three cases were mixed lytic and sclerotic (6%) and one sclerotic. In the nonsacral spine, the majority of lesions (12/20) involved the posterior elements with extension into the vertebral body. Five cases were centered in the vertebral body with extension into the posterior elements. Two cases were limited to the posterior elements, and one case solely involved the vertebral body. Ala was the most frequently affected site in the sacrum (18/26). Spinal canal invasion was frequent (91%). Detailed clinical information was available in 53 patients. Duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 30 (mean 7) months. Local pain was the first symptom and seen in all cases. Neurological deficits were present in 21 (40%) cases. All patients received radiation in various dosages; 70% additionally received chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients had surgery, and two patients received bone marrow transplantation. Forty-five patients had follow-up; the five-year disease-free survival probability is 0

  1. Between Home and Exile: A Reading of the Exilic Experience of the Iraqi Poet Adnan Al-Sayegh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghena, Hana Khlaif

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…

  2. In the long term, the United States will have a relatively little influence on the Iraqi petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author examines the US policy in the petroleum domain, the US intentions concerning the Iraqi petroleum, the Opec coherence facing the come back of the Iraq and the increase power of Russian and the demand increase (77 mb/d today for 115 mb/d in 2030). (A.L.B.)

  3. Challenges and Opportunities of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with Disabilities Transitioning into Learning and Workplace Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet

    2011-01-01

    This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…

  4. Self-rated health and social capital in Iraqi immigrants to Sweden: The MEDIM population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.

  5. The expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in ovaries and uterus cells of Iraqi and Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa kamil Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue

  6. The Impacts of Liquidity on Profitability in Banking Sectors of Iraq: A Case of Iraqi Commercial Banks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar Shaker Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover,  annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were identified as independent for liquidity were, loan deposit ratio, deposit asset ratio and cash deposit ratio, while return on assets as dependent variable for profitability. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS model used to examine the impact of liquidity on profitability. The study observes that any increase in liquidity ratios as above mentioned will lead return on asset to increase as well. Depending on this study it could be better for Iraqi banks to keep a balance between liquidity and profitability.

  7. Characterization of seasonal reproduction in Virginia Tech Selection Line, St. Croix, and Suffolk ewes

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Katherine Mead

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation research contained three studies. The first two studies were conducted to investigate the ability of ewes to rebreed while lactating during seasonal anestrus. Breeds studied included the Virginia Tech Out-of-season (OOS) Line, which is a wool line genetically selected to lamb in the fall, and the St. Croix, a hair breed of tropical origin thought to be lowly seasonal. When January-lambing ewes were exposed to rams while lactating in April, significantly more OOS than St. ...

  8. [Seasonal variations in estrus behavior and ovulatory activity in Chios and Serres ewes in Greece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, M; Driancourt, M A; Chemineau, P

    1993-01-01

    Sheep are seasonal breeders, but a lower seasonality has been reported for sheep breeds from the Mediterranean countries enabling spring matings. To further substantiate this, the present study compared seasonal variation in oestrus behaviour and ovulation in two Greek breeds (Chios and Serres) maintained in the same environment. In 27 adult ewes of each breed, oestrus behaviour, the occurrence of ovulation and ovulation rate were monitored during 2 successive years by daily inspection by rams, weekly progesterone assay in circulating blood plasma and monthly ovarian laparoscopy. The periods of anoestrus (109 +/- 8 (wk) vs 178 +/- 5 d) and anovulation (63 +/- 8 vs 149 +/- 6 d) were significantly shorter (P duration of oestrus was also longer in Chios ewes (1.8 +/- 0.05 vs 1.5 +/- 0.06 d; P = 0.002). There were significant correlations between the duration of anovulatory periods of the 2 successive years in Chios (r = 0.43) but not Serres ewes. Ovulation rate was positively related to the onset of the sexual season in Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of Serres but not in Chios ewes. The present data suggest that: i) the efficiency of spring mating in these breeds is suboptimal since it is a period when the percentage of ewes exhibiting oestrus and ovulation as well as ovulation rate are limited, ii) owing to the large variation in seasonality within Chios ewes and to the good between year correlation in features of seasonality, selection against seasonality in Chios ewes could be worthwhile.

  9. [Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. A case report with detailed review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auge, B; Pusel, J

    1990-01-01

    Extra-skeletal Ewing's Sarcoma (EES): a clinico-pathological entity described in 1975 by L. Angervall and F.M. Enzinger. This article reports a new case in which the primary was localized in the right forearm and metastasized to the left lung fourteen years later. A detailed review of the literature emphasized similarities and differences between osseous and extra-osseous Ewing's Sarcoma.

  10. Bone Tumor Environment as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Ewing Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Redini, Fran?oise; Heymann, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric bone tumor, with three cases per million worldwide. In clinical terms, Ewing sarcoma is an aggressive, rapidly fatal malignancy that mainly develops not only in osseous sites (85%) but also in extra-skeletal soft tissue. It spreads naturally to the lungs, bones, and bone marrow with poor prognosis in the two latter cases. Bone lesions from primary or secondary (metastases) tumors are characterized by extensive bone remodeling, more often due t...

  11. The effect of ewes relocation on milk composition and milk flow kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Jackuliaková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of an influence of ewes relocation and milking in other parlour (treatment on milk flow kinetics, milkability and milk composition was the aim of this study. In total 34 ewes of two breeds and crosbreeds Tsigai (14 heads and Improved Valachian (20 heads with Lacaune were tested. Two weeks after lamb weaning the ewes were milked in parallel milking parlour (1x16 stalls under shelter. On the last evening milking (first experimental milking, EB before relocation of flock to another parlour, and during next three continuous evening milkings (E0 - second, E1 - third and E2 - fourth milking of exp. after relocation the milk flow kinetics were measured using electronic collection jar. On day E0 after morning milking the flock was moved on a pasture and milked in other parlour (1x24-stalls. During E0 we recorded a significant decrease of total milk yield in comparison with EB (0.527 ±0.04 and 0.647 ±0.04 L. Significant differences were also recorded in machine milk yield, machine stripping, milking time and in maximum milk flow rate. During E0 there was a higher number of nonbimodal and lower numbers of bimodal flow types. The response of ewe to E0 depended on its response to EB. Ewes with bimodal flow at EB responded more negatively to E0 than ewes with nonbimodal or plateau flow. During E2 there were significantly increased protein content and solids not fat in milk. Thus the treatment significantly influenced the milkability of ewes in a negative way, but more clear response was found out in ewes with bimodal flow response to machine milking before treatment. We could assume that relocation to other milking conditions caused only short-term changes in milk flow kinetic and milk yield. Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Non-genetic factors of udder morphology traits in Istrian ewes

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    Valentino Držaić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the facts that Istrian sheep is Croatian indigenous breed with the highest milk production, and increasing interest of local farmers for machine milking implementation, the aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting udder morphology traits of Istrian ewes. Ninetythree purebred Istrian ewes with symmetrical udders and no signs of clinical mastitis, from second to fourth lactation, were used for this study. Average udder depth of Istrian ewes was 15.85 cm, udder width 13.05 cm, udder circumference 39.66 cm, cistern height 1.44 cm, teat position 2.85 (scored from 1 to 5, teat angle 47.32°, teat length 3.43 cm and teat width 2.03 cm. The traits related to udder size (depth, width, and circumference were significantly (P<0.01 affected by lactation milk yield. These traits were also in high and positive correlations (P<0.01 with daily milk yield. With the increase of parity, the morphological aptitude of udder to mechanical milking become worse, with an increase (P<0.01 of cistern height, teat angle and position. As lactation of Istrian ewes continued morphological traits defining udder aptitude for machine milking improved (decrease of cistern height, teat angle and position. Ewes with two and more lambs had larger udder (P<0.05 than ewes with a single lamb.

  13. EFFECT OF FLUOROGESTONE ACETATE ON THE VAGINAL MICROBIOTA FROM EWES PELIBUEY IN THE PAPALOAPAN REGION

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    Nohemí Gabriela Cortés-López

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ewes are polyoestrous seasonal animals, however in order to increase their fertility, progesterone derivatives are used by means of impregnated sponges with 20 mg of fluorogestone acetate (FGA. Nevertheless, the use of sponges with FGA generates vaginitis, erythema and interferes with fertility. This paper studies the effect of FGA and sponge over the microbiota vaginal in ewes anestrous. To obtain experimental samples, fifteen ewes anestrous were used. Five ewes were used as control group. Ten ewes anestrous were used and data were collected before, withdrawal and 56 h after withdrawal of sponges with and without FGA, in order to quantify, identify and evaluate changes in the vaginal bacterial microbiota. In the normal microbiota were found Escherichia and Klebsiella strains; however, after removal of the devices, were found enteropathogenic coliform bacterias and some opportunistic as Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, E. coli, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. Also found that the device without FGA, induces a change in the vaginal microbiota, thus, causes vaginitis. In vitro sensitivity tests were performed on the strains identified using twelve different antibiotics; the results showed a higher sensibility to enoxacin, then to the trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and ampicillin. Antibiotics use is necessary to prevent the vaginitis in ewes with dispositive. In conclusion, the intravaginal sponges promote of the vagina inflammation and produce coliform bacteria in vagina.

  14. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  15. Aggressive Ewing's sarcoma appearing as a cold lesion on bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatti, K.; Guezguez, M.; Maha Ben Fredj, M.; Sfar, R.; Essabbah, H.; Mtaoumi, M.; Chatti, K.

    2009-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma classically presents as a hot spot on bone scan as a result of increased vascularity of the tumor and new bone formation. Purpose We report and analyze an uncommon pattern of a 'cold' lesion in Ewing's sarcoma on bone scan and its pathophysiologic significance. Case report A 15-year-old boy complaining of thigh pain. CT scan evoked Ewing's sarcoma or osteitis. MRI evoked chronic osteitis. Scintigraphy showed a fairly intense and heterogeneous uptake on the femoral lesion and no abnormal uptake elsewhere. Biopsy showed none pathologic pattern. Three months later, a second biopsy concluded to Ewing's sarcoma. Bone scan showed a larger lesion with peripheral intense uptake centered by enlarged 'cold' area in the left femoral diaphysis and no evident bone metastasis. The patient underwent chemotherapy and surgery. Three months later, bone scan showed extensive skeletal metastasis. Conclusion Ewing's sarcoma appears usually as an intense lesion on bone scan. Nevertheless, decreased radiopharmaceutical uptake or 'cold' lesion may be seen in aggressive Ewing's sarcoma with lytic tumor, growth of which is very rapid and bony reaction is minimal. (authors)

  16. Unusual Presentation of a Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Spine with Paraplegia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Karthik Kailash; Sundarapandian, Rajkumar Jayachandran; Surulivel, Vignesh Jayabalan

    2015-03-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a primary malignancy of the bone affecting individuals in the second decade of life. Primary sarcomas of the spine are rare and the occurrence of Primary Ewing's sarcoma in the spine is very rare. Ewing's sarcoma occurring in the spine is divided into two types, Ewing's sarcoma of sacral spine which are very aggressive with poor prognosis and Ewing's sarcoma of the non sacral spine which is an extremely rare occurrence. Patient may present with neurological deficit when the tumour extends into the spinal canal causing spinal cord compression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is very sensitive in diagnosing the tumour and defining the extent of the tumour. Here we report an 18-year-old boy who presented with back pain and complete paraplegia of two months duration. The MRI gave a differential diagnosis of infective pathology due to the fluid collection in the paraspinal region, followed by primary malignancy as the second diagnosis. Patient underwent posterior spinal decompression and stabilization, and intaoperatively there was significant collection of pus whose culture showed no growth. The histopathology and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma and patient was started on combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  17. Interactomic approach for evaluating nucleophosmin-binding proteins as biomarkers for Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Ayako; Ogawara, Yoko; Kubota, Daisuke; Kitabayashi, Issay; Murakami, Yasufumi; Kondo, Tadashi

    2013-06-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a novel prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma. To evaluate the prognostic utility of NPM, we conducted an interactomic approach to characterize the NPM protein complex in Ewing's sarcoma cells. A gene suppression assay revealed that NPM promoted cell proliferation and the invasive properties of Ewing's sarcoma cells. FLAG-tag-based affinity purification coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 106 proteins in the NPM protein complex. The functional classification suggested that the NPM complex participates in critical biological events, including ribosome biogenesis, regulation of transcription and translation, and protein folding, that are mediated by these proteins. In addition to JAK1, a candidate prognostic biomarker for Ewing's sarcoma, the NPM complex, includes 11 proteins known as prognostic biomarkers for other malignancies. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of 32 patients with Ewing's sarcoma revealed that 6 of 106 were significantly and independently associated with survival period. These observations suggest a functional role as well as prognostic value of these NPM complex proteins in Ewing's sarcoma. Further, our study suggests the potential applications of interactomics in conjunction with meta-analysis for biomarker discovery. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ewing sarcoma of the rib with normal blood flow and blood pool imagings on a 3-phase bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfeeli, Mahmoud A; Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Syed, Ghulam M S

    2005-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric malignant bone tumor. It usually presents as a hot spot on a 3-phase bone scan as a result of increased vascularity of the tumor and new bone formation. However, aggressive Ewing sarcoma can also appear as a cold lesion. We present the features of a Ewing sarcoma of the rib on a 3-phase bone scan in a child who was being investigated for rib fracture after trauma.

  19. Local control of Ewing's sarcoma: an analysis of 67 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.P.; Fixsen, J.A.; Plowman, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    Local control of Ewing's sarcoma was analysed in a series of 67 patients treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy as well as combination chemotherapy. Radiotherapy was employed with or without surgery in 60 patients and produced an overall local control rate of 55%; complete excision of the primary lesion seemed to be beneficial. There was a marked variation in control rates depending on the site of the primary lesion: limb 85%, rib 53%, pelvis 31% and other sites 33%.Primary tumours greater than 10 cm in diameter were significantly less likely to be controlled. Using daily fractions of approximately 180 cGy, total doses in excess of 6000 cGy seem more likely to produce serious late morbidity amd may not increase the local control rate. No cases of second malignancy arising in irradiated tissue have been observed to date, but one patient developed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. (author)

  20. [Ewing's tumor in children: report of 31 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudeuille, A

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective study, from January 1985 to January 1997 has been realised on 31 children with Ewing's tumor. These children have been treated by conservative way. We haxe pick out different aspects - epidemiologic: about sex, we found 15 boys for 16 girls for the age, the axerage age was 10. - Clinic: the main discovery circumstances were pain and tumor, and initial or eventually second localizations during the extension research was mainly thighhone and fibula then pelvis. - surgical way choosen and results. Then we compared our results with others and conclued that the pronostic of this disease can become better, using a multidisciplinar staff and very important technical means which we can reach with a lot of difficulties in Africa.

  1. Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma of the submandibular gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agir, Hakan; Brasch, Helen D; Tan, Swee T

    2007-01-01

    Extra-skeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is an uncommon malignancy, especially in the head and neck region that may arise in various extra-osseous tissues. We report a 22-year-old male with an EES of the submandibular gland, which to the best of our knowledge, has not been described previously. The patient who underwent combined treatment with surgical resection and chemo-irradiation was disease free for 22 months but succumbed to multi-organ metastases 14 months later. This case highlights the combined diagnostic role of immunohistochemical, cytogenetic and radiological evaluation of EES. EES is an aggressive cancer that requires multidisciplinary management with wide surgical excision and adjunctive chemo-irradiation for the best outcome.

  2. Endoscopic Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma of the Sinonasal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepera, Davide; Volpi, Luca; Facco, Carla; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Bernasconi, Barbara; Piski, Zalán; Freguia, Stefania; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Bignami, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    The extra-skeletal form is an unusual type of Ewing sarcoma (ES) arising from soft tissue and in the literature there are reports of less than 50 patients describing the tumor in the paranasal sinuses and skull base. The histological diagnosis is crucial to plan the correct treatment and the molecular confirmation is mandatory in equivocal patients. A multimodality treatment with chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy improved the outcomes of these diseases during the last decades and a free-margin resection with the endoscopic transnasal technique is one of the most recent ways to manage these pathologies in selected patients, reducing the morbidities of the external approaches and preserving the quality of life of the patient.Here, the authors present the first patient of primary sinonasal ES free from disease after 5 years of follow-up and treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach and a second patient of sinonasal metastases of ES treated with and endoscopic transnasal approach.

  3. Intravenous lignocaine infusion for intractable pain in Ewing's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Page

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female presented to our palliative care center with Ewing's sarcoma of the humerus with lung metastases. Pain in her arm was unrelieved by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neuropathic medication as well as morphine. She could not tolerate any further increase in opioid dose but was so distraught due to the pain that she wanted to die. An intravenous lignocaine infusion in a dose of 2 mg/kg was given over an hour for three successive days. This successfully relieved her pain after which she was settled with her original medication. We feel that in palliative care settings, where intractable pain and tolerance to morphine are so common, intravenous lignocaine infusions could provide a safe and effective tool for pain relief.

  4. Post-relapse survival in patients with Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stefano; Luksch, Roberto; Hall, Kirsten Sundby; Fagioli, Franca; Prete, Arcangelo; Tamburini, Angela; Tienghi, Amelia; DiGirolamo, Stefania; Paioli, Anna; Abate, Massimo Eraldo; Podda, Marta; Cammelli, Silvia; Eriksson, Mikael; Brach del Prever, Adalberto

    2015-06-01

    Post-relapse survival (PRS) was evaluated in patients with Ewing sarcoma (EWS) enrolled in chemotherapy protocols based on the use of high-dose chemotherapy with busulfan and melfalan (HDT) as a first-line consolidation treatment in high-risk patients. EWS patients enrolled in ISG/SSG III and IV trials who relapsed after complete remission were included in the analysis. At recurrence, chemotherapy based on high-dose ifosfamide was foreseen, and patients who responded but had not received HDT underwent consolidation therapy with HDT. Data from 107 EWS patients were included in the analysis. Median time to recurrence (RFI) was 18 months, and 45 (42%) patients had multiple sites of recurrence. Patients who had previously been treated with HDT had a significantly (P = 0.02) shorter RFI and were less likely to achieve a second complete remission (CR2). CR2 status was achieved by 42 (39%) patients. Fifty patients received high-dose IFO (20 went to consolidation HDT). The 5-year PRS was 19% (95% CI 11 to 27%). With CR2, the 5-year PRS was 48% (95% CI 31 to 64%). Without CR2, median time to death was six months (range 1-45 months). According to the multivariate analysis, patients younger than 15 years, recurrence to the lung only, and RFI longer than 24 months significantly influenced the probability of PRS. Age, pattern of recurrence, RFI, and response to second-line chemotherapy influence post-relapse survival in patients with recurrent Ewing sarcoma. No survival advantage was observed from chemotherapy consolidation with HDT. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of superovulation prior to mating on fetal growth in Iambs from Javanese thin-tail ewes

    OpenAIRE

    W Manalu

    1999-01-01

    Twenty-nine fetuses (11 fetuses from 9 non-superovulated ewes and 18 fetuses from 8 superovulated ewes) were used to study the effect of superovulation of ewes prior to mating on fetal weight, fetal length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, weights of the body, head, neck, limb, and viscera. Superovulated ewes, though with a higher litter size, had a greater fetal growth as was indicated by the greater fetal weight and length, the length and weight of the body and limb on...

  6. The effect of superovulation prior to mating on fetal growth in Iambs from Javanese thin-tail ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Manalu

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine fetuses (11 fetuses from 9 non-superovulated ewes and 18 fetuses from 8 superovulated ewes were used to study the effect of superovulation of ewes prior to mating on fetal weight, fetal length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, weights of the body, head, neck, limb, and viscera. Superovulated ewes, though with a higher litter size, had a greater fetal growth as was indicated by the greater fetal weight and length, the length and weight of the body and limb on day 49 of pregnancy. On day 105 of pregnancy, superovulated ewes with multiple fetuses (≥3 had similar fetal growth than nonsuperovulated ewes with single and twin fetuses. However, superovulated ewes with a single fetus had greater fetal growth as was shown by the greater fetal weight and length, the length of the body and limbs, chest circumference, and weight of the body, limb, and viscera when compared to those non-superovulated ewes with a single or twin fetuses. The results of the experiment suggested that superovulation of ewes prior to mating could be used to improve fetal prenatal growth during pregnancy

  7. Assessing the usefulness of prostaglandin E2 (Cervidil) for transcervical artificial insemination in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Candappa, Ivanka B R

    2015-12-01

    The underlying theme of this study involved the evaluation of the dilatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on the ovine cervix and thus the assessment of its potential applicability to transcervical artificial insemination (TCAI) in ewes. A novel method of prostaglandin E2 administration (controlled slow-release vaginal inserts) was examined, and the practical implications of this approach including cervical penetrability and posttreatment pregnancy rates were evaluated. The Guelph method of TCAI was performed during the seasonal anestrus (n = 40) and the breeding season (n = 40) on multiparous Rideau Arcott × Polled Dorset ewes, with or without the pretreatment with Cervidil (for a duration of 12 hours or 24 hours before TCAI). Cervical penetration rates averaged 82.5% (66 of 80), and they varied neither (P > 0.05) between the two seasons nor between Cervidil-treated ewes and their respective controls. Cervidil priming significantly reduced the total time required for TCAI during the breeding season in comparison with controls (54 vs. 98 seconds), especially after the 24-hour exposure (38 vs. 108 seconds). The time taken to traverse the uterine cervix was negatively correlated (P ewes. Four out of 36 (11%) successfully penetrated ewes in the breeding season (three ewes allocated to the 12-hour control group and one ewe that had received Cervidil for 12 hours) became pregnant and carried the lambs to term. Vaginal mucus impedance at TCAI was significantly and positively correlated with the total time required to complete the procedure in cyclic ewes, and the negative correlation between vaginal mucus impedance and total time values at the time of controlled intravaginal drug release device removal approached to significance in anestrous ewes. The present results indicate a moderate benefit of using Cervidil for inducing cervical dilation before TCAI in ewes, mainly in the breeding season. The specific reason(s) for impaired fertility after the TCAI using

  8. Changes in the metabolic profile of pregnant ewes to an acute feed restriction in late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal-Pereyra, L; Benech, A; González-Montaña, J R; Acosta-Dibarrat, J; Da Silva, S; Martín, A

    2015-05-01

    To detect early changes in the metabolic profile of pregnant ewes subject to acute feed restriction at 130 days of gestation, and to establish indicators of risk for ovine pregnancy toxaemia (OPT) for diagnostic purposes. Twenty Corriedale ewes with known mating dates, carrying a single fetus, were used. Ewes were maintained on meadow grasslands and at 130 days of gestation were randomly divided in two groups of 10 ewes. The control group had ad libitum access to pasture. Ewes in the restricted group were subjected to an acute feed restriction for a maximum of 144 hours (6 days), with free access to water. From the start (0 hours) until the end of feed restriction, blood samples were collected from all ewes to monitor concentrations of cortisol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) daily, and glucose in plasma every 6 hours; urinary pH was also measured. Every 6 hours the food restricted ewes were observed to detect clinical signs of OPT e.g. apathy, grinding teeth, empty chewing movements, head leaning against the wall, tachypnea and not drinking water. In food-restricted ewes, concentrations of glucose decreased and differed from control ewes from 54 to 90 hours (pewes after 48 to 144 hours (pewes showed clinical signs of OPT after 102-132 hours. Mean concentrations of glucose, BOHB and cortisol differed between control and restricted ewes prior to the onset of clinical signs of OPT, after 48-96 hours of feed restriction (p<0.01). Mean gestational length, and time from birth to placental expulsion was not affected by the feed restriction. Our results suggest that concentrations of glucose, BOHB and cortisol in plasma may provide a precocious diagnosis of subclinical OPT, using values of 1.59 (SD 0.24) mmol/L, 2.26 (SD 1.03) mmol/L and 15.09 (SD 7.75) nmol/L, respectively. The identification of a potentially harmful metabolic imbalance could lead to the improvement of treatment success.

  9. Role of radiation therapy in the management of nonmetastatic Ewing's sarcoma of bone. Report of the intergroup Ewing's sarcoma study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.A.; Tefft, M.; Nesbit, M.; Burgert, E.O. Jr.; Vietti, T.; Kissane, J.; Pritchard, D.J.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The role of radiation therapy in local tumor control and decreased incidence of pulmonary metastasis is reported in 271 patients who were entered into the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study with more than one year follow-up and on whom all radiotherapy records were reviewed. The majority of the patients were irradiated to the primary tumor with doses of 4500 to 6500 rad in five to six weeks in combination with systemic administration of three drugs (vincristine, actinomycin-D and cyclophosphamide) or four drugs (vincristine, actinomycin-D, cyclophosphamide and adriamycin). One of the groups of patients was treated with three drugs and bilateral pulmonary irradiation (1500 rad, uncorrected dose, in two weeks). Preliminary analysis shows an overall local primary tumor control of 89%. Patients with lesions in the pelvis had a local failure rate of 17% (9 of 52) and in the humerus 23% (7 of 31). Factors affecting local recurrences are analyzed in detail. Distant metastases have been noted in 40% of all patients; the highest proportion was noted in the pelvis (49%). There was a significant difference in the appearance of pulmonary metastases in the patients who were treated with four drugs (9.7%) and in the group who received three drugs and pulmonary irradiation (23.5%) when compared with the patients treated with three drugs only (37%). Intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy significantly improve local tumor control and survival of patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma. However, the high incidence of metastasis suggests the need for more effective systemic chemotherapy to further improve treatment results. It is very important to determine the optimal dose of irradiation and minimal volume to be treated in order to achieve optimal survival and primary tumor control with the least sequela

  10. Radiation therapy in the multimodal management of Ewing's sarcoma of bone: report of the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.A.; Tefft, M.; Nesbit, M.E. Jr.; Burgert, E.O. Jr.; Vietti, T.J.; Kissane, J.; Pritchard, D.J.; Gehan, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a progress report on the role of radiation therapy (RT) in local tumor control and the decreased incidence of pulmonary metastasis in 251 patients entered in the Intergroup Ewing's Sarcoma Study. All were followed for more that 1 year, and their RT records were reviewed. Doses to the primary tumor in the range of 4,500--6,500 rad were administered over approximately 5 to 6 weeks in combination with 4 drugs, i.e., vincristine (VCR), dactinomycin (DAC), cyclophosphamide (CY), and adriamycin, or only the first 3. One group of patients received the 3 drugs and bilateral pulmonary irradiation (approximately 1,500 rad in 2 wk). Preliminary analysis showed a local primary tumor control of approximately 90%. Patients with lesions in the pelvis and humerus had local failure rates of 13% (7 of 54) and 21.4% (6 of 28), respectively. The treatment groups differed significantly in the incidence of pulmonary metastasis. Patients treated with the 4 drugs (regimen 1) had a 14% incidence, whereas 42% of those treated with only 3 drugs (regimen 2) developed pulmonary metastases. Of all patients treated with 3 drugs and pulmonary irradiation (regimen 3), 18% showed lung metastases. The study indicated that intensive chemotherapy and RT significantly improved the local control and survival of patients with localized Ewing's sarcoma. However, the high incidence of metastasis indicated the need for more effective systemic chemotherapy for further improvement of treatment results. More studies are needed so we can define the volume to be treated and the optimal dose of irradiation to determine a therapeutic strategy that will yield optimal survival and tumor control with the fewest sequelae

  11. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  12. The Impact of Group Size on Welfare Indicators of Ewes during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averós, Xavier; Beltrán de Heredia, Ignacia; Ruiz, Roberto; Estevez, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Group size (GS) and space allowance have major implications for the welfare of production species, however their effects are often confounded. In a previous study we investigated the impact of varying space allowance at constant GS. In the present work we report the consequences of varying GS on pregnant ewes while controlling space allowance. We housed ewes at 6 (GS6) or 12 ewes/enclosure (GS12), while controlling space allowance to 1.5 m2/ewe (3 enclosures/treatment), and necessarily varying enclosure size. Therefore, when indicating GS effects we implicitly reflect a confounding effect with that of enclosure size. Movement, use of space, behaviour, serum cortisol concentration and body condition score (BCS) were collected during the last 12 gestation weeks. Movement, use of space, and behaviour were collected every other week, during 2 days/week, using 10 minute continuous scan samplings. Blood was collected during weeks 10, 13, 17, and 21 of gestation, and BCS during weeks 15 and 21. Data were analysed using repeated measures, generalized linear mixed models, with GS, week, and their interaction as fixed effects, and enclosure as random effect. GS mainly affected movement and use of space. GS12 ewes walked longer distances using longer steps (Pewe is given during gestation, larger GS will result in larger effective space, and no major implications for the welfare of ewes should be expected as GS increases. Ewes will adapt their movement patterns and use of space to enclosure size, and no further behavioural, physiological and physical consequences should be expected. PMID:27893817

  13. Application of different models to the lactation curves of unimproved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of four different mathematical functions (Wood, Inverse Polynomial, Quadratic and Cubic models) for describing the lactation curve of unimproved Awassi ewes. Data were collected from 136 ewes from the same flock raised on the State Farm of Gözlü in the Konya ...

  14. Effects of diet and arginine treatment during the luteal phase on ovarian NO/PGC-1α signaling in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Xuan; Nie, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ling-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Min; Deng, Kai-Ping; Fan, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether arginine (Arg) supplementation of malnourished ewes affects the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary. On Day 6-15 of the estrous cycle, 24 multiparous Hu sheep (BW = 43.56 ± 1.53 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (CG; n = 6), restriction group (RG; n = 9) and l-arginine group (AG; n = 9), and administered Arg treatment (or vehicle) three times per day. The ewes were slaughtered at the end of treatment, and blood samples and ovaries were collected for analysis. The results of our analyses showed that both short-term feed-restriction and/or supplementation with L-Arg-HCl affected the number of different size follicles observed in the ovary, and the relative day of estrus behavior initiation of ewes. Specifically, the relative day of estrus behavior initiation was significantly advanced in AG compared with that in RG ewes (P ewes. RG ewes exhibited a higher proportion of ≤2 mm (P 5 mm follicles than did CG ewes (P ewes. Furthermore, the expression of eNOS, nNOS, iNOS, PDE5A, PDE9A, PRKG2, and PPARGC1A varied significantly among the treatment groups (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that feed-restriction negatively affects follicular development, and that Arg-supplementation may modulate the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary and thereby accelerate ovulatory processes and the estrous rate. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying these effects of Arg on gene expression in the ewe ovary requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of supplementing a diet with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces Cerevisiae on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Ali; Daghigh Kia, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Effect of supplementing a diet, in an attempt to enhance reproduction, with monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on reproductive performance was investigated during the breeding season using 44 Ghezel ewes (body weight 56.97±7.47kg, age 2-5 years and body condition score (BCS) 2.5) which were allocated randomly in equal numbers to the four dietary treatments as follows: 1) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) plus monensin sodium (30mg/ewe/d) (MS); 2) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450 g/ewe/d) plus Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (4×10 9 CFU/ewe/d) (SC); 3) Basal diet plus supplemental feed (450g/ewe/d) (FG); 4) Basal diet (only grazing on pasture, Control; G). Estrous synchronization of all ewes was done using controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and all ewes were mated with purebred Ghezel rams after CIDR removal. The results indicated that MS and SC treatments with 15 lambs had greater number of lambs than ewes of the other two treatment groups. Ewes in MS group with 50% twining rate had the greatest value followed by the FG, SC and G treatment groups (Pewes in MS and SC groups were heavier in weight than those in FG and G treatments (Pewes in MS and SC groups had greater concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4), blood urea nitrogen (Pewes of the other groups. These results indicated that using a diet for enhancing reproduction, including monensin sodium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast in the breeding season could have beneficial effects on reproductive performance of Ghezel ewes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Inhibitors Blends Used in Iraqi Markets for Automobile Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watheq Naser Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection the behavior of some metals ( carbon steel and copper that are widely used in automobiles cooling system in tap water and a cooling mixture for radiators was held. The purpose of this work is to check the performance of two types of mixtures that available in Iraqi markets, viz the Kuwait mixture and the Germany one and what are known as blue water by an electrochemical technique. The experiments were held at two values of temperatures of 17 and 80 ˚C-where these values of temperature almost represent the cases of idle and operating engine. The obtained results showed that the two types of mixtures have given good inhibition efficiency for the case of steel especially in presence of Germany mixture.

  17. Iraqi, Syrian, and Palestinian Refugee Adolescents' Beliefs About Parental Authority Legitimacy and Its Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Problems with veteran-family communication during operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom military deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S

    2012-02-01

    Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.

  19. Medical Logistics Lessons Observed During Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.

  20. Willingness to Adopt Telemedicine in Major Iraqi Hospitals: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khanapi Abd Ghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach’s alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard.