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Sample records for iran iraq syria

  1. Iran's Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Iran is building substantial influence in post-Saddam Iraq, in large part because the dominant parties in Iraq have long-standing ideological, political, and religious sectarian ties to Tehran. A key U.S...

  2. Iran's Activities and Influences in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S...

  3. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  4. The insurgency business: the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, 2010-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot, Beau L.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Islamic State (IS)--also known as Islamic State of Iraq and the Syria (ISIS)--managed to seize large swaths of territory within the sovereign countries of Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2016. Even though its caliphate has been reduced in size and scope in 2017, the IS's entrepreneurial capability to effectively manage money, manpower, and materiel has enabled it to develop its brand as the deadliest and most widely known terrorist org...

  5. Civil society in Syria and Iran: activism in authoritarian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, P.; Cavatorta, F.

    2013-01-01

    What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore

  6. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Darric M

    2007-01-01

    .... Using the Iran-Iraq War as a lens through which to examine Iran during a stressful conventional conflict, the research illustrates a number of characteristics and trends still representative of the regime today...

  7. The Resurgence of Al-Qaeda in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    56 According to Chris Looney, writing for Syria Comment: Its hostility towards minority groups, draconian legal system, and brutal repression of...Council on Foreign Relations, Washington, DC. Higgins , Eliot. Brown Moses blog, brown-moses.blogspot.com/. Institute for the Study of War, Washington...syrian-war/. 57. See www.joshualandis.com/blog/al-qaedas-governance-strate- gy-raqqa- chris -looney/. 58. Norman Benotman and Roisin Blake, Jabat al-Nusra

  8. Differences in resource management affects drought vulnerability across the borders between Iraq, Syria, and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Eklund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much discussion has taken place exploring a potential connection between the 2007-2009 Fertile Crescent drought and Syria's uprising-turned civil war beginning in 2011. This study takes an integrated perspective on the 2007-2009 drought in the border region of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey by looking at the meteorological, agricultural, and socioeconomic aspects of drought vulnerability. Satellite-based precipitation and vegetation data help outline the drought's spatial and temporal properties. In order to understand the context in which this drought happened, we also look at the trends in vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015, as well as each country's different politico-economic factors affecting land and water resource management leading up to the drought. The findings show that, although the drought was severe in Syria, it was not the only country affected, nor necessarily the worst hit meteorologically. The agricultural drought lasted 2 yr in most affected areas on the Iraqi and Syrian sides, however, only 1 yr in the affected areas on the Turkish side. The vegetation trend analysis shows a striking difference between the Syrian and Turkish sides of the border. Turkey experienced a general improvement in land productivity between 2001 and 2015, whereas Iraq and Syria show a generally negative productivity trend. The fact that the decline in rainfall had different effects on crops in each of the three countries highlights the role government and private sector resource management and infrastructure play in reducing drought vulnerability. The findings of this study highlight the need for an integrated approach to research that investigates the interconnection between climate and conflict.

  9. Striking at their Core: De-funding the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Shostak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fundraising efforts of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS have impressed academics, journalists, and government officials alike. The literature has thus far explored the methods via which ISIS acquire funds and transfer their proceeds across international borders. This article aims to expand upon these entries by analysing the failures of EU and US policy to counter terrorist financing since the 9/11 attacks, particularly with regards to the inability of both entities to adjust to digital transfer methods. The value of military operations will also be discussed within the context of halting the Islamic State’s fundraising capabilities.

  10. Syria and Iran: what next? Three potential scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2013-10-01

    Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a deal to avoid

  11. Situation Report--Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  12. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: the Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Melki, Jad; Jabado, May

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that reson...

  13. Syria and Iran: what next? Three potential scenarios; Syrie, Iran: et maintenant? Trois scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno [Fondation pour la recherche strategique, 4 bis rue des Patures 75016 Paris (France)

    2013-10-15

    Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a deal to avoid

  14. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... In part to direct regional attention to that view but also to engage Iran on an Iraq solution, the Administration attended regional conferences on Iraq on March 10, 2007, and May 3-4, 2007, both attended by Iran (and Syria...

  15. Mediated Public Diplomacy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria: The Synergistic Use of Terrorism, Social Media and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jad Melki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an initial theoretical model for understanding and analyzing the mediated public diplomacy strategy of virtual states. It examines the mediated public diplomacy strategy of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS and its ability to synchronize terrorism tactics with communication strategies to gain media access and exposure, push news frames that serve its interests, and target stakeholders with a dual message using sophisticated branding strategies that resonate with cultural values and help it ultimately recruit supporters and deter foes.

  16. The antibiotic resistome and microbiota landscape of refugees from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, Robert; Kautz, Christian; Rehman, Ateequr; Podschun, Rainer; Gassling, Volker; Brzoska, Pius; Sherlock, Jon; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Hoppenstedt, Gesine; Schubert, Sabine; Ferlinz, Astrid; Lieb, Wolfgang; Laudes, Matthias; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Scholz, Jens; Harmsen, Dag; Franke, Andre; Eisend, Swantje; Kunze, Thomas; Fickenscher, Helmut; Ott, Stephan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan

    2018-02-20

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria represent a substantial global burden for human health, potentially fuelled by migration waves: in 2015, 476,649 refugees applied for asylum in Germany mostly as a result of the Syrian crisis. In Arabic countries, multiresistant bacteria cause significant problems for healthcare systems. Currently, no data exist describing antibiotic resistances in healthy refugees. Here, we assess the microbial landscape and presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in refugees and German controls. To achieve this, a systematic study was conducted in 500 consecutive refugees, mainly from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan and 100 German controls. Stool samples were subjected to PCR-based quantification of 42 most relevant ARGs, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing-based microbiota analysis, and culture-based validation of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. The fecal microbiota of refugees is substantially different from that of resident Germans. Three categories of resistance profiles were found: (i) ARGs independent of geographic origin of individuals comprising BIL/LAT/CMA, ErmB, and mefE; (ii) vanB with a high prevalence in Germany; and (iii) ARGs showing substantially increased prevalences in refugees comprising CTX-M group 1, SHV, vanC1, OXA-1, and QnrB. The majority of refugees carried five or more ARGs while the majority of German controls carried three or less ARGs, although the observed ARGs occurred independent of signatures of potential pathogens. Our results, for the first time, assess antibiotic resistance genes in refugees and demonstrate a substantially increased prevalence for most resistances compared to German controls. The antibiotic resistome in refugees may thus require particular attention in the healthcare system of host countries.

  17. Brothers or Rivals? Iran and the Shi'a of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the loyalty of the Shi a of Iraq. While some Sunni Arab leaders have recently accused the Shi a of Iraq of pledging loyalty to Iran, in fact the Iraqi Shi a are loyal to their own nation...

  18. Il viaggio religioso come strumento geopolitico. Il pellegrinaggio sciita e l’emergere dell’alleanza regionale tra Iran e Siria - Religious travelling as geopolitical instrument. The Shia pilgrimage and the rise of the regional alliance between Iran and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Scaini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Religious pilgrimage is almost as old as the history of men. This phenomenon has often been instrumentalized for political ends, creating the premises for new colonization processes, exerting local hegemonies or reinforcing strategic alliances. This article examines the recent re-discovery, in Shia perspective, of the holy sites in Syria. This “re-discovery” which initially was intended as anti-Iraq and pro-Iran has developed social implications and regional significance which cannot be thoroughly assessed for the moment. Among these there is an interesting gender issue. Women offer themselves as cultural mediators and therefore manage to increase their autonomy and obtain an economic independence which they propagate at home. Pilgrimage thus reveals itself as a kind of travel with strong political connotations.

  19. Current Readings on the Iran-Iraq Conflict and Its Effects on U.S. Foreign Relations and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    1989-01-01

    Provides background on the Iran-Iraq conflict and suggests readings dating from 1980 to 1988 in both English and Arabic which are classified under seven broad categories: the roots of the conflict; Iran-United States relations; the American hostage crisis; the Iran-Contra affair; periodicals and indexes; online databases; and bibliographies. (105…

  20. Following a Military Defeat of ISIS in Syria and Iraq: What Happens Next after the Military Victory and the Return of Foreign Fighters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Speckhard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the struggle against ISIS and the so-called Islamic State, the United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories, as evidenced by the ongoing efforts to liberate the city of Mosul in Iraq. What happens next with the returning or migrating foreign fighters and with whatever remains of ISIS’ influence in the digital battle space where up to this point it has been winning? Evidence of the group inspiring, remotely recruiting and directing attacks in Europe and elsewhere, and its continued ability to attract foreign fighters to the actual battlefield makes it clear that ISIS may be losing the ground war in Syria and Iraq but winning in the other areas, especially in the digital battle space. The authors highlight the importance of creating compelling counter-narratives and products that compete with the prolific ISIS online campaigns.

  1. Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y

    2003-07-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  2. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  3. An adaptive-critic look to contemporary poetry in Iran and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rreza Kiani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Radical innovations in imagery and trying to create new images and combination in nowadays poetry, lead the language out of the monotony and revitalize it. Contemporary poets with personalizing sentiments in two axes companion and succession, rejected arbitrarily the principles and highlighted their words. In this way, poets of Iran and Iraq due to the proximity of certain intellectual and cultural issues, and influencing by various factors of life today, seeking to create fresh images, violating the rules of the meaning of language have created hesitations deliberately in the audiences’ understanding. Most of criticisms in this area are relevant and thought-provoking and can be used in the field of contemporary criticism as a topic worth discussing. In other words, poets have used language not as an opportunity to manifest their poetry, but as a tool to destroy the norms of the past, have taken advantage. In general, the use of frequent and dead images, the lack of illustrations, the use of compounds abandoned, oldness, orientation to the stereotypes and outdated themes, scare senses, due to the role of transformational language, regardless of other applications... are among the issues related to pathology in "beauty-removing" in contemporary poetry of Iran and Iraq which in continue the effects of the three aspects_ langue, mental form and imagination_ have been reviewed. In other words, the findings of this research show that "extremism in tabular arrangement of words and disruption of family practice words", "Rely on the use of stereotypical language," "intellectual solidity on archaic situations" and some of the factors considered in the scope of the meaning of language, contemporary aesthetic realm make poetry of Iran and Iraq vulnerable; This means that poets carry out in the realm of semantic, have not always been associated with success and beauty, and whenever it was lower in the creative process, it is  criticized. It should be

  4. Atomic prospects in five countries [Afghanistan, Iran Iraq, Turkey and Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The fourth preliminary assistance mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Afghanistan, Iran Iraq, Turkey and Yugoslavia during October-November last year to study at firsthand the possible lines of atomic energy development in these five countries. It collected and examined all relevant data, held extensive discussions, particularly in the context of current plans and projects, and indicated to the national authorities as well as to the Agency the best means and forms of Agency assistance in this development. The mission's findings are contained in detailed reports which will serve as a broad guide to the Agency's programme of assistance to these countries

  5. Tactical Evolution in the Iraqi Army: The Abadan Island and Fish Lake Campaigns of the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    Khorramshahr lies about ton kilometers up-river from Abadan, nestled in the "V" formed at the confluence of the Shatt-al-Arab and the Karun River. Most...A27. _ "Iran Claims It Advances 1.2 Milos Toward Basra." Washinoton o 28 January 1987, A15 and A16. " _ "Iraq Stops Iran; War of Attrition Seen Likely

  6. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from Iraq and those from Iran: potential importance of regional differences in H. pylori-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P; Muhammad, Merdan K; Argent, Richard H; Atherton, John C

    2008-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population.

  7. Syria: Reassessing U.S. Approach and Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meeks, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    Syria's support to the Iraq insurgency and Washington's inability to ameliorate the regime's behavior, or to achieve its other national interests with regard to Syria, threaten America's Middle East objectives...

  8. Differences in Virulence Markers between Helicobacter pylori Strains from Iraq and Those from Iran: Potential Importance of Regional Differences in H. pylori-Associated Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R.; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P.; Muhammad, Merdan K.; Argent, Richard H.; Atherton, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P ≤ 0.01) but not in Iran. cagA alleles encoding four or more tyrosine phosphorylation motifs were found in 12% of the Iranian strains but none of the Iraqi strains (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in the vacA signal-, middle-, or intermediate-region types between Iranian and Iraqi strains. Among the strains from Iran, vacA genotypes showed no specific peptic ulcer associations, but among the strains from Iraq, vacA i1 strains were associated with gastric ulcer (P ≤ 0.02), mimicking their previously demonstrated association with gastric cancer in Iran. dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P ≤ 0.01) but not Iranian patients. H. pylori strains from Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population. PMID:18353934

  9. Speaking Laterally: Transnational Poetics and the Rise of Modern Arabic and Persian Poetry in Iraq and Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Thomas Levi

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation critically investigates the transnational movements that shaped the making of modernist poetry in Iraq and Iran. Following a brief introduction to the project’s historical and critical framework, the first chapter provides the dissertation’s theoretical foundation. It thus engages conversations about literary commitment, the transnational dimension of literary development, and world literature to situate these two poetries as integral to the broader modernist movement. Chapt...

  10. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  11. Mortality and injuries among Iranians in Iraq-Iran war: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Payman; Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Shokraneh, Farhad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Laal, Marjan; Hadjati, Gholamreza; Khaji, Ali; Rahimi Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-09-01

    The Iraq-Iran war was one of the longest conflicts in the twentieth century. The aim of our research was to review the incidence of mortality and injuries of the war. A search strategy was designed and run in Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, and Magiran. Also, searching grey literature, checking references, tracking citations, hand-searching of focused journals, and websites were utilized for retrieval of related studies. All of articles which studied epidemiology of mortality or injuries of the war were included. The excluding criteria were case reports, case series, laboratory researches, and nonoriginal studies. Fourteen articles out of 1751 primary results were selected to be included in the study. During the war (1980 - 1988), 188,015 to 217,489 Iranians were killed (about 70 people per day). The mean age of mortality was 23 years. Six thousand four hundred twenty-seven (2.9%) of those who died during the war were females. One thousand five chemical warfare victims died between 1983 and 1994. From 1985 through 1998, 82 veterans had successful suicides too. At the end of war, we had 398, 587 veterans who needed follow- up. Among them, there were 52,000 chemical warfare victims. Between 1988 and 2003, 1400 people died and 2313 injured due to landmines and unexploded ordnances in five border provinces. The war caused a lot of mortalities and morbidities in our country. Now, 24 years after the war, many physically, mentally, and chemically injured victims have remained. We suggest other studies about indirect impacts of the war on societies, families, friends, and affiliates of the victims.

  12. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  13. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-02-01

    Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Study participants' experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including 'the congruence of education and educational needs' and 'managers' engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses.

  14. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  15. Differences in biomechanical and EMG variables among Iraq,Iran,Turkey and Syria weightlifters during Olympic lifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ?���� Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accuracy considering the individual differences in performance.

  16. Differences in biomechanical and EMG variables among Iraq,Iran,Turkey and Syria weightlifters during Olympic lifts.

    OpenAIRE

    Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel; Ali Shaboot Alsoodani

    2012-01-01

    ?���� Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accura...

  17. Differences in biomechanical and EMG variables among Iraq,Iran,Turkey and Syria weightlifters during Olympic lifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accuracy considering the individual differences in performance.

  18. Syria’s Salafi Networks: More Local Than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    first, a brief background of Salafism in Syria; then a look at the range of Salafists within the Syrian opposition; next, Salafi lessons from Iraq...government is proposed. Salafism in Syria Salafism has deep roots in Syria. Most modern Salafists look to the writings of four- teenth-century Syrian...approach to Salafism that is both academic and practical: willing to accommodate Muslim leaders even if they are aligned with Western and secular

  19. Pre-Emption and Precedent: The Significance of Iraq (1981) and Syria (2007) for an Israeli Response to an Iranian Nuclear Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    served as a liaison with the French to ensure only U235, enriched uranium, was sent to Iraq. While Meshad was unwilling to work with undercover Mossad...supported Hossein Mousavi, Ahmadinejad‘s primary opposition candidate in the June 2010 presidential election.167 According to The Economist , Ali Mohammadi...hoflr20&div=16&id=&page= (accessed 14 May 2011). Economist . ―Who killed the professor? New light is being cast on the strange death of an Iranian

  20. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  1. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  2. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, imports, demand, taxes. The Southern Oil Company has restored a production capacity of 1.8 Mb per day in the South of Iraq. In Iran, a joint venture between France and Iran (Iranian French Gas Co.) has been created and precedes the establishment of an european consortium for iranian gas import. In Jordan, in the natural gas field of Risha, a new discovery can give 633000 m 3 per day. Informations on petroleum exploration or production in Tunisia (Rhemoura oil field), in Syria (Dez ez Zor Petroleum Company), in Angola are also offered

  3. Nuclear proliferation in the Near East. What is the reaction of the regional neighbors on Iran's nuclear program? An analysis based on the proliferation debate; Nukleare Proliferation im Nahen Osten. Wie reagieren die regionalen Nachbarn auf Irans Nuklearprogramm? Eine Analyse anhand der Proliferationsdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erny, Matthias [Zuericher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften (ZHAW), Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on the reactions of the neighbor states on Iran's nuclear program covers the following topics: Iran's position in the Near East: historical aspects, Iran's nuclear program. The nuclear proliferation and the theory debate: the role of nuclear weapons in the international policy, proliferation optimism, proliferation pessimism. Analysis of the players and theory criticism: nuclear states (Israel, Pakistan), emerging nuclear states (Saudi Arab, Egypt, Turkey, Syria), states without nuclear weapons (Iraq, Jordan, GCC states); analysis, theory criticism.

  4. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  5. Syria: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharp, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    ... (Lebanon, Israel-Palestine, Iraq, and Iran). In the Levant, Syrian leaders aim to dominate the internal politics of Lebanon, and have been accused of involvement in the assassination of four parliamentarians and former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri...

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Related Disorders among Female Yazidi Refugees following Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Attacks—A Case Series and Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gerdau

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the severe attacks by the so-called “Islamic State of Iraq and Syria” on the Yazidi population, which started in summer 2014, the state government of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, funded a Special-Quota Project to bring 1,000 very ill or left-behind women and children who were being held hostage to 22 cities and towns in Baden-Württemberg to receive integrated care. Here, we report for the first time on the cases of four Yazidi women living in Ulm, Germany, focusing on the clinically observed and psychometrically assessed mental phenomena or disorders. Our primary aim was to explore what International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnoses are present in this population. Although highly traumatized, these women were suffering primarily from adjustment disorder rather than posttraumatic stress disorder according to official classification systems. Despite their symptoms of depression and anxiety, the women’s responses to self-assessment questionnaires provided no evidence of compulsion, somatization, or eating disorders. The results suggest that further investigation of the individual-level effects of rape and torture, as well the historic, systemic, and collective effects, e.g., on families and societies, is required.

  7. Synoptic characteristics of dust over the southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiraie-Boroujerdy, P.; Ghahri, F.; Ranjbar Saadatabadi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Iran is frequently affected by dust events because it is located in arid and semiarid belt of the world. As Khozestan province is in the vicinity of large deserts and also due to especial atmospheric conditions the frequency of dust in this area is increased in the recent years. Therefore it has the destructive affect on the healthcare, economy, social and etc. The study is based on the, sea level, 850 mb and 500 mb weather charts, surface wind field and observations weather data during the period of 1968-2008. By numerical simulation with WRF modeling it has tried to high light provide an answer to how this event produced and reached to Ahwaz. It has been shown in this 40 years, dust events by high strength and frequency occur in July in Ahwaz. Synoptic patterns revealed that for making sever dust event Persian Gulf thermal trough extends to the north west of Iraq and European ridge extends over the Black sea and large part of the Turkey by passing waves of middle level Mediterranean trough from northwest of Iraq and east of Syria. Numerical simulation shows strong surface flow over source regions in northwest of Iraq and east of Syria, creation westerly low level jet in low-lying areas and the increase in friction velocity in the source regions. In the deserts of Iraq and north east of Syria increase in friction velocity to its highest value (approx 0.6 m/s) causes reduction in visibility and by decrease to lowest value (approx 0.4 m/s) visibility reaches up to 600 meters in Ahwaz.

  8. Gene migration for re-emerging amebiasis in Iran's northwest-Iraq borders: a microevolutionary scale for reflecting epidemiological drift of Entamoeba histolytica metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Asad; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Haghighi, Ali; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kohansal, Kobra

    2017-01-01

    In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp., a multiplex PCR was conducted. Amplicons were sequenced to reconfirm their heterogeneity traits and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, Entamoeba histolytica sequences of Iraq were retrieved from GenBank database. The suspected isolates were diagnosed as E. histolytica (2.2 %), Entamoeba moshkovskii (1 %), and Entamoeba dispar (0.4 %). Mixed Entamoeba infections did not detect among isolates. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes displayed star-like features in the overall isolates containing E.h1, E.d2, and E.m3 as the most common haplotypes. According to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test, high partial value of haplotype diversity (0.700 to 0.800) of E. histolytica was shown the total genetic variability within populations while nucleotide diversity was low among Iranian and Iraqi metapopulations. Neutrality indices of the 18S rRNA were shown negative values in E. histolytica populations which indicating significant deviations from neutrality. A pairwise fixation index (F-statistics [Fst]) as a degree of gene flow had a low value for all populations (0.001) while the number of migrants was 2.48. The statistically Fst value indicates that E. histolytica isolates are not genetically differentiated among shared isolates of Iran and Iraq. Occurrence of E.h1 between two regional populations indicates that there is dawn of Entamoeba flow due to transfer of alleles from one population to another population through

  9. Determination of Acetylcholinesrase and Butrylcholinestrase Activities in Whole Blood and Plasma from Different Communities of Khosestan Province (Iran-Iraq War Area) Exposed to Organophosphate Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heybatullah, K.; Jahangiri, A.; Mohebbi, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Organophosphate Compounds are widely used as pesticides. Therefore while handling, applying or using these compounds care and safe use should be considered. The main mechanism of toxicity action of Organophosphate Compounds is the inhibition of Actylcholinestrase and Butrylcholinesrase enzymes. It is well known that the activity measurement of Acetylcholinestrase in whole blood and Butrylcholinestrase in plasma samples are potential biomarker of exposure to Organophosphates compounds.In this study AchE and BchE activities were determined in whole blood and plasma samples of farmers from two different area of Khosestan province of Iran Gotvand and Dashte Azadegan (Iran-Iraq war zone).Determination of enzymes activities were based on the Ellman colorimetric method which was modified byWorek et al. The results obtained in this study showed that Gotvand area showed lower than normal value and Dashte Azadegan (war area) were significantly lower than the mean of activities in reference group (P less than 0.05). Also results of this study showed Acetylcholinestrase and Butrylcholinestrase inhibition can provide a good biomarker of exposure to OP pesticides in field studies in human population with consideration of other different parameters and factors which will be discussed. (author)

  10. Syria and Iraq: Relations and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Asad TABLE 1 HAFIZ AL-ASAD’S KINSHIP GROUP Position Kinship Adnan Makhluf Muhammad al-Khuli Ali Dubah Ali Arslan Ali Salih Ali Haydar Shafiq...predecessor, General Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr, to neutralize the military’s tendency to overthrow the Party, as it did in 1963 under General Abd al-Salam Arif...SADDAM HUSAYN’S KINSHIP GROUP POSITION KINSHIP General Adnan Khay- rallah (Talfah) Ali Hasan al-Majid Fadhil al-Barrak Izzat Ibrahim al-Duri Kamil

  11. German Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    depressed and less integrated into their new societies.29 Germany’s Turkish population exemplifies this integration deficit. Of Germany’s 4.3 million...the German Chancellor in a YouTube video, for example), the German press tends to abandon their earlier self-restraint and freely publishes the...Germany’s most well-known Salafist preachers. In addition to being mentored by Pierre Vogel, Cuspert appeared in YouTube recordings at Islam

  12. ISIL's Hybrid Warfare in Syria & Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heine

    2016-01-01

    of and ability to synchronize various instruments of power with a view to achieving their end-state. With regards to the second part of the problem statement, the analysis demonstrates how ISIL employed horizontal escalation and ambiguity initially, but later on turned to vertical escalation, within the military......The case study specifically seeks to answer the following problem statement: Does ISIL qualify as an actor using hybrid warfare and if so what characterizes their particular use of this type of warfare? Based on an analysis of ISIL’s warfare from August 2012 to August 2016 the chapter argues......, that it is possible to answer the first part of the problem statement in an affirmative way. Hence, ISIL is not only theoretically prone to hybridity by organizational setup, and by the people comprising the organization, but has in fact continuously acted according to a hybrid logic in its prioritization...

  13. IAEA Board of Governors recommends landmark budget increase. ElBaradei updates Board on IAEA work in Iraq and Iran; expresses concern about North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA's Board of Governors today agreed on the first IAEA significant budget increase in more than a decade and a half. The increase of $15 million over the $245 million 2003 regular budget is envisioned to grow to $25 million by 2007. The budget is subject to approval by the IAEA's General Conference in September. 'This represents a real vote of confidence in the IAEA and a recognition of the importance of our work,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. 'It is a long overdue but very welcome first step in tackling the chronic under-funding of the IAEA.' Dr. ElBaradei, in a statement to the Board, said 'The budget that has been agreed responds in a balanced manner to the priorities of the Agency in both the regulatory and developmental fields. The bulk of the increase goes to the verification programme, because that programme has been experiencing the greatest demand for additional resources and has for years been the most chronically under-funded.' In his statement, Dr. ElBaradei also addressed some recent developments of particular importance in Iraq, Iran and North Korea. On Iraq, Dr. ElBaradei referred to the report of his recent verification mission to Iraq, which, he noted, was confined to verification of material subject to safeguards at Location C Nuclear Storage Facility near Tuwaitha. The report notes that at least 10 kg of uranium compounds could have been dispersed. 'While fortunately neither the quantity nor the type of material involved would be sensitive from a proliferation point of view,' Dr. ElBaradei said, 'I have called upon the Authority to ensure the physical protection of the entire nuclear inventory in Iraq and to make every effort to recover, where possible, the looted material and place it under Agency safeguards.' Dr. ElBaradei noted that the Authority has informed the IAEA that it would assume responsibility for nuclear safety. The Agency mission therefore did not look into possible safety and health effects of the

  14. Iran's Sea Power Strategy: Goals and Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the intent of Iran's sea power strategy using a multipart analysis including a historical review of the transition of Iran's naval power through the Iranian Revolution, Iran-Iraq...

  15. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Iran has a robust program to exert influence in Iraq to limit American power projection capability in the Middle East, ensure the Iraqi government does not pose a threat to Iran, and build a reliable...

  16. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  17. Impacts of oil disturbances: lessons from experience. [1973-1974 Oil Crisis; 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution; 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the impacts of previous oil distrubances can be used to suggest the impacts of future oil disturbances. This paper reviews how the 1973-1974 Oil Crisis, the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution, and the 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War impacted the US and world oil markets. Various measures of impacts are considered, such as impacts on physical flows of crude and products, crude and product price changes on the US and world markets, impacts on stocks of crude and products, and impacts on refiners' inputs and outputs. Various macroeconomic indicators, such as gross national product, inflation rates, and unemployment, are also considered. Of particular interest in this study are the impacts that oil disturbances have had (and could have) on the availabilities of particular crude types and the abilities of US refiners to process crudes of various types in the short run. In addition, this paper reviews how the actions of the consuming countries and the major oil companies affected the impacts of past disturbances. The paper briefly discusses the likely causes and impacts of future oil distrubances and summarizes the lessons to be learned from past reactions to oil disturbances.

  18. What can Iran gain by having a nuclear weapons program that threatens to destabilize security in the Middle East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    and a lot of neigh- bouring countries fear such a development for security reasons. But why is Iran following a nuclear path that may further destabilise the fragile security situation in the Middle East? It is to do with Iran’s own perception of security risks, its desire for greatness in the region......- bination with its important strategic location by the Strait of Hormuz, and supports various political groupings in and around Syria and Iraq to attract the attention of the United States of American in an attempt to become recognised as the most important player in the Middle East. Should Iran succeed...... in its brinkmanship and the outcome could be the lifting of the UN sanctions, international recognition, improved security, and even a possible end to internal political power struggles due to likely economic reforms post-sanctions. Much is at stake for Iran, but, if it succeeds, it could shift...

  19. National Security And Institutional Pathologies: A Path Dependent Analysis Of U.S. Interventions In Iran, Guatemala, Cuba, And Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of social forces” within Iran, and that the company was involved in “activities in intelligence, bribery , and political intrigue,” often acting as a...upswing.”213 Perkins’ arguments won President Eisenhower’s endorsement. Christopher Baughn and Attila Yaprak found linkage between nationalistic...indicator being the level of perceived threat felt within the state.215 Baughn and Yaprak felt that these indicators may be useful in tracking the “ebb and

  20. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  1. Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Trend of Suicide in Kermanshah during 11 years (2004 to 2014), Iran ... Suicide is one of the most important health problems which has dedicated a significant part ... interaction with different risk factors (Oliver and ... physical and mental diseases, the researchers used .... Due to the lack of professional ability, illiterates are.

  2. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan

    After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine sh......After more than a century of neglect, a profound revolution is occurring in the way archaeology addresses and interprets developments in the social history of early Islamic Syria-Palestine. This concise book offers an innovative assessment of social and economic developments in Syria......-Palestine shortly before, and in the two centuries after, the Islamic expansion (the later sixth to the early ninth century AD), drawing on a wide range of new evidence from recent archaeological work. Alan Walmsley challenges conventional explanations for social change with the arrival of Islam, arguing...

  3. IDRC in Syria

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICARDA has improved barley, lentil, and faba beans; enhanced the nutrition and productivity of goats and sheep; rehabil- ... farm water management. ... been a long-time advocate of research ... management in Syria, and on new areas.

  4. Marriage crisis in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, B A

    1980-01-01

    The author examines some of the changing characteristics of marriage in Syria, including the deferment of age at first marriage and abstinence from marriage. Data are from the 1970 census and other official sources. Factors affecting these trends are discussed

  5. Country profile: Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-06-01

    A relatively minor oil exporter on Middle Eastern terms, Syria is a member of OPEC and one of the first Arab states to take control of its hydrocarbon resources from foreign domination. After a period of decline, a major discovery is opening new perspectives of Syria's future. The author describes Syria's history since it emerged from the Ottoman Empire and a period of French domination into a period of industrialization and economic development. Oil is the largest single item in the balance of payments and the leading provider of revenues for investment by the government. Since the first discoveries in the 1950s, a number of fields have become productive. The configuration of refineries makes it necessary to export crude oil and import light crude from the new discoveries, making crude oil and petroleum products the largest negative items on the balance of payments. 1 figure.

  6. Mission Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This video summarizes the activities of the IAEA inspection teams, assisted by the UN Special Commission on Iraq, to uncover, neutralize and prevent the restart of Iraq's military nuclear programme. It documents the destruction or rendering harmless of various sites and equipment used for nuclear weapon development, sometimes under very difficult conditions, and points out the necessity of establishing a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring system for the future

  7. Early Islamic Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    This book presents a new interpretation of social and economic developments in Syria-Palestine in the decades before and during the two centuries after the Islamic expansion into the region (roughly the later 6th to the early 9th century AD). Drawing on a wide range of evidence from recent...

  8. Area Handbook for Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyrop, Richard; And Others

    This volume on Syria is one of a series of handbooks prepared by the Foreign Area Studies (FAS) of the American University, designed to be useful to military and other personnel who need a convenient compilation of basic facts about the social, economic, political, and military institutions and practices of various countries. The emphasis is on…

  9. Educated women in Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    2008-01-01

    in the work force and thus indirectly questioning the gender ideals of secular Arab nationalism. In Syria too, Islamization has occurred, as is evident from the increased numbers of young muhajabat women, the construction of new mosques and the significant growth in Islamic charity organizations. However...

  10. The Kurds of Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Anne Sofie

    For years the Syrian Kurds were referred to as the ‘forgotten Kurds’ since they attracted very little attention from researchers and public media. The civil war in Syria, which broke out in 2011, changed all this. Thus, the Syrian Kurds proved to be the most effective tactical allies to the Ameri......For years the Syrian Kurds were referred to as the ‘forgotten Kurds’ since they attracted very little attention from researchers and public media. The civil war in Syria, which broke out in 2011, changed all this. Thus, the Syrian Kurds proved to be the most effective tactical allies...... are divided along political lines. Some Kurds are fighting for the so-called ‘Rojava revolution’ in the autonomous Kurdish regions, others participate in the Geneva peace talks as part of the Syrian opposition, yet others act as independent actors advocating liberal democracy and human rights....

  11. IAEA Clarification on Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Director General Amano has been quoted in a news story as saying today that a site in Syria allegedly destroyed by Israel was a nuclear reactor under construction. The Director General did not say that the IAEA has reached the conclusion that the site was definitely a nuclear reactor. The IAEA continues to seek further information on the nature of the Dair Alzour site. (IAEA)

  12. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  13. Stratigraphy and structure of eastern Syria across the Euphrates depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaf, Tarif; Al-Saad, Damen; Gebran, Ali; Barazangi, Muawia; Best, John A.; Chaimov, Thomas A.

    1993-04-01

    A N-S crustal-scale geotransect across the northern Arabian platform in eastern Syria reveals an alternating series of basement uplifts and basins separated by predominantly transpressional fault zones above an effectively uniform crust. Four major tectonic provinces are crossed along a 325 × 100 km corridor that extends from the Iraqi border in the south to the Turkish border in the north: the Rutbah uplift, the Euphrates depression, the Abd el Aziz structural zone, and the Qamichli uplift. These features are the manifestations of reactivated pre-Cenozoic structures that responded to forces acting along nearby Arabian plate boundaries, particularly Cenozoic convergence and collision along the margins of the northern Arabian platform i.e., the Bitlis suture and the East Anatolian fault in southern Turkey and the Zagros suture in Iran and Iraq. The database for this study consists of 3000 km of industry seismic reflection data, 28 exploratory wells, and geologic and Bouguer gravity maps. The deep crustal structure and, in part, the basement geometry along this transect are inferred from two-dimensional modeling of Bouguer gravity, whereas the shallow (about 8 km) structure is constrained primarily by well and seismic data. Features of the geotransect reveal: (1) A relatively uniform crustal column approximately 37 km thick with only minor crustal thinning beneath the Euphrates. Crustal thinning may be slightly more pronounced beneath the Euphrates (about 35 km) to the southeast of the transect where the Bouguer gravity anomaly is slightly higher. (2) Along the Euphrates depression, ongoing subsidence, which began during the Late Cretaceous, resulted in the deposition of at least 3 km of Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic rocks. The structural complexity of the Paleozoic and most of the Mesozoic sedimentary sections along the transect contrasts markedly with a relatively simple, flat-lying Cenozoic section along most of the transect. A notable exception is the Abd el Aziz

  14. Two Independent Pillars of Policy -- The Saudi and American Approaches to Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macalintal, Jr, Romeo R

    2008-01-01

    With the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent instability in Iraq, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran find themselves at the center of a struggle for power in the Middle East...

  15. Food security and humanitarian assistance among displaced Iraqi populations in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  17. Carnivores of Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masseti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to outline the local occurrence and recent distribution of carnivores in Syria (Syrian Arab Republic in order to offer a starting point for future studies. The species of large dimensions, such as the Asiatic lion, the Caspian tiger, the Asiatic cheetah, and the Syrian brown bear, became extinct in historical times, the last leopard being reputed to have been killed in 1963 on the Alauwit Mountains (Al Nusyriain Mountains. The checklist of the extant Syrian carnivores amounts to 15 species, which are essentially referable to 4 canids, 5 mustelids, 4 felids – the sand catbeen reported only recently for the first time – one hyaenid, and one herpestid. The occurrence of the Blandford fox has yet to be confirmed. This paper is almost entirely the result of a series of field surveys carried out by the author mainly between 1989 and 1995, integrated by data from several subsequent reports and sightings by other authors.

  18. Oil in Syria between Terrorism and Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Almohamad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sale of oil and gas is one of the most important components of the Syrian economy. Unfortunately, since the discovery of these resources, the Syrian people have not benefited from the revenues earned. This study deals with the development of oil and gas production and the geographical distribution of fields, as well as production control, deterioration of production, refining and selling mechanisms, and the resulting health and environmental impacts following Islamic State’s (IS control of the majority of oilfields in Syria. Since summer 2015, IS controls 80% of the fields with a production of 65,000 barrels per day (b/d; the Assad regime controls 8% of fields with 10,000 b/d; and Kurdish forces dominate the remaining 12% with 25,000 b/d. IS depends on oil as a major source of financing for its military and civilian activities, and has also managed to set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighbouring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and other resources. IS produces and exports within its areas of control and sells part of the oil to the Assad regime, and another portion to the liberated areas, as well as to Iraq and Turkey.

  19. The impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  20. The impact of Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, B.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003-2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabian to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa. On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  1. The impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on springtime dust activity in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Bing; Ginoux, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The increasing trend of aerosol optical depth in the Middle East and a recent severe dust storm in Syria have raised questions as to whether dust storms will increase and promoted investigations on the dust activities driven by the natural climate variability underlying the ongoing human perturbations such as the Syrian civil war. This study examined the influences of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) on dust activities in Syria using an innovative dust optical depth (DOD) dataset derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue aerosol products. A significantly negative correlation is found between the Syrian DOD and the PDO in spring from 2003 to 2015. High DOD in spring is associated with lower geopotential height over the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa, accompanied by near-surface anomalous westerly winds over the Mediterranean basin and southerly winds over the eastern Arabian Peninsula. These large-scale patterns promote the formation of the cyclones over the Middle East to trigger dust storms and also facilitate the transport of dust from North Africa, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia to Syria, where the transported dust dominates the seasonal mean DOD in spring. A negative PDO not only creates circulation anomalies favorable to high DOD in Syria but also suppresses precipitation in dust source regions over the eastern and southern Arabian Peninsula and northeastern Africa.On the daily scale, in addition to the favorable large-scale condition associated with a negative PDO, enhanced atmospheric instability in Syria (associated with increased precipitation in Turkey and northern Syria) is also critical for the development of strong springtime dust storms in Syria.

  2. Information War in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Smirnov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, in many countries around the world the role of society in political decision making quickly strengthened, and the population is increasingly affects the position of the state leaders. For countries pretending to have the support of its policies in other regions, public diplomacy is an essential tool. Today, public diplomacy is regularly used in various conflicts, one of which is the civil war in Syria. Media, Internet, social networks and other tools are used daily to cover the events and create the necessary views of the population in different countries. At the beginning of the article the reasons for the outbreak of the war are discussed from the standpoints of the main actors - the current Syrian government and its opposition, as well as their allies and enemies. The causes of the conflict are essential for further evaluation of the evs, so diametrically opposite points of view of the main actors of the events are analyzed in the material. Then we consider the coverage of the war, because period of direct military action is important to assess the behavior of its members. Among the most important and controversial topics covered by the international media in the conflict, are the use of prohibited weapons, killing of civilians, a violation of international agreements. Determination of the prospects of civil war in Syria is also critical when planning further action by all these events. To get the necessary public support, the parties are trying to have different interpretation of further scenarios. Much depends on this: whether the country's population supports the direction of further assistance or troops, how residents of other countries would react to a further continuation of the conflict, or how the representatives of international organizations would answer the question about the legitimacy of any move. The formation of public opinion in different countries aimed at obtaining approval of its policy on the part of the

  3. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from Near East/South Asia, Algeria, Sudan, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Iran, and Pakistan, contains articles on Economics, Political Science...

  4. INIS National Center in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallack, R.

    2006-01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 2.5 million references increasing at approximately 85,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. In addition, the PC-based software for inputs preparation (WinFIBRE) is demonstrated. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)

  5. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  7. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  8. Oil Regime Change in Iraq. Possible Strategic Implications for OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon Von Ochssee, T.A.

    2006-06-01

    The potential strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and Iran on OPEC in the long-run is explored. In the first part of the paper short overviews are given of the present international oil market; of US oil import issues and energy policy; of the strategic position of the US in the Persian Gulf and of geopolitical developments in the Persian Gulf at large. Also, attention is paid to the OPEC and the role of a 'new' Iraq. In the second part the game of 'boxed pigs' is used to explore the possible strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and possible regime change in Iran on OPEC. This exploration takes place within four possible futures for the Gulf

  9. The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...

  10. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Dabidian; Mohammed Wafaa Al-Ani; Christopher Hassaan Francke; Ahmed Redwan

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  11. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  12. Waqf and Madrasas in Late Medieval Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamid, Hatim

    2013-01-01

    The "madrasa" began to spread in Syria ("Bilad al-Sham") as a higher institution for religious education since the Zangid rule (521H./1127 to 569H./ 1173). During the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods, main cities of Syria were characterized by many madrasas, especially the major cities that served the political rule like, Damascus,…

  13. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes three attachments: the letter of 3 May 1984 from the Director General of the IAEA to the Resident Representative of Iraq, the letter of 10 May 1984 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq and the summary record of discussion in the Board of Governors on 5 June 1984 at its 619th meeting concerning item 20 of the provisional agenda ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  14. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  15. Iraq: A Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jon C., Ed.

    Accused of harboring and supporting terrorists, Saddam Hussein's country of Iraq sits at the top of a short list of targets in United States war on terrorism. Iraq is a country about twice the size of the state of Idaho with a population of over 22 million. The country relies on oil for its economic well-being and controls what some estimate to be…

  16. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Angola, Iran, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. The possible return of Iraq on the petroleum market has an influence on petroleum prices. In Algeria, Sonatrach will deliver 2.5 milliards m 3 to Portugal through the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline. In Tunisia, a petroleum exploration permit has been attributed to Atlantic Richfield Company and Miskar natural gas field would come into production in 1995. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has bought all the petroleum refining and distribution interests of the Saudi Arabian Marketing and Refining Company and Petromin Company and now Saudi Aramco is become a national integrated petroleum company. Petroleum exploration is going on in Caspian sea (Iran), six new oil fields have come into production in the Deir ez-Zor and Ash Sham permits (Syria) and petroleum exploration contracts have been signed in Angola, Nigeria and Zaire. In Egypt, the growth of natural gas consumption gives an indication upon the future growing deficit

  17. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  18. Omnibalancing in Syria: Prospects for Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergen, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    ...; who makes decisions irrespective of domestic political considerations in Syria. This thesis challenges that conceptualization by arguing that domestic concerns are the central element in the making of Syrian foreign policy...

  19. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  20. Women negotiating peace in Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-18

    May 18, 2018 ... Panelists will also address women's experience of the conflict in Syria, their ... to 2011 and headed the Labour Civil First Instance Court in Damascus just before the ... civil society, and formal and informal mediation processes.

  1. Russia’s Impossible Position on Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Follebouckt, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    The uprising in Syria is increasingly veering towards a full-fledged civil war, which raises legitimate fears for the stability of the Middle East as a whole and, more critically, for Russia’s credibility on the international front

  2. Income from oil could have made Iraq's economy flourish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.; Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    He whole economy of Iraq is based on oil industry. 95 percent of Iraq's foreign currency income is traditionally related to oil export. Another typical feature of its economy is a high level of government interference and dependence on food import. Though Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world and a reasonably good transport and export infrastructure it is struggling with economical problems. It was the wars that have had a major impact on the country's economy during the last two decades. In late seventies and early eighties Iraq's economic perspectives seemed very positive. Iraq was winning 3.5 million barrels of oil a day and the export incomes exceeded 27 billion USD. Tedious wars with the neighbouring Iran in the eighties cost Iraq according to American CIA's estimates about 100 billion USD. Before the wars started Iraq's foreign currency reserves reached 35 billion USD but the high cost of the war and all damage done to the oil facilities caused that before it ended Iraq was forced to take credits and later even restructure the related repayments. By the end of the conflict Iraq's foreign indebtedness grew to exceed 40 billion USD. After the war ended conditions became more favourable for increasing volumes of oil export, building of new pipelines and reconstruction of damaged facilities. But only two years later Saddam Hussain's regime invaded Kuwait and this lead to a military intervention by a coalition lead by the USA and the United Nations inflicted economical sanctions against Iraq. As a result the economic activity in the country decreased dramatically. The limited recourses the country had were used to finance military forces. Living conditions of Iraq's citizens slightly improved in second half of the nineties after United Nations allowed the country to export a limited amount of oil in exchange for food, medicines and some spare parts needed for reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1999 the United Nations adopted changes to

  3. An Overview of the Conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Albasoos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In Syria, there is not expected to break out of the revolution of this magnitude. Most people of Syria before others did not expect that the revolution breaks out originally because the regime governs Syria in an oppressive security manner. The regime controls the situation that making it difficult of any popular movement. Political life is not existent in the country. There are no civil society organizations and trade unions are not real and not real parties or political groupings, making it difficult with the outbreak of the revolution in the country in such a dictatorship, security control, which controls everything in people's lives. So Syria was apparently outside the US and global thinking. It has been stated by some officials in America and has had their expectations outbreak of the revolution in Syria minimal because the global system was not ready to abandon the Assad regime because the regime is better for them. However, the revolution in Syria broke out, caught and swept across the country, confusing international systems that were not planning to substitute for the Syrian regime. The Syrian regime is no doubt that one of the major hubs in the region.

  4. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  5. The Conflict in Syria: Key Issues and Consequences on the International Market of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulică

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At the end of August 2013, the international prices of Brent crude rose to a 17-month high ($ 117.8 /barrel as Western powers, mainly USA, readied a military strike against Syria, and traders and analysts cited concerns over stability in the Middle East. The main concern was the risk that Western intervention in Syria could prompt a wider regional conflict, given the support that Iran has provided to the regime of Syria. The attack failed to materialize, because U.S. and Russia reached an agreement with the goal of disarming Syria’s chemical weapon arsenal, and consequently the prices declined, but the risk of geopolitical and social unrest movementsAlpha is still high, so that a reactivation of geopolitical tensions in the extended area of Middle East and north Africa is anytime possible with the afferent disruptive effects on the international oil market. We tried to answer to some questions in order to clear up the background of the problem: 1 What was the real stake of the U.S. plan to intervene in Syria: the concern generated by chemical weapons or U.S. geostrategic interests in the wider Middle East? 2 Why Syria matters to oil market, given that it is not a major oil producer (as was Libya, nor is it a major transit point for oil and gas exports (as is Egypt? 3 The aftermath of a serious military action targeted against the Middle Eastern country and “qui prodest”? 4 Will Iran’s possible return to the world oil market send oil prices down, and how much?

  6. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs

  7. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. [Centre for Global Energy Studies, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs.

  8. Syria: Land of history, civilizations and war

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As the Syrians are welcomed into Canada, it is useful to learn about where they are coming from. Syria is an ancient land with a rich history and has always been home to diverse cultures, ethnicities and religions. Palmyra was an ancient civilization that arose during the second century. Syria became part of the land of Islam in AD 640 and was a cultural, religious and artistic center. During the Middle Ages, Syria came under the control of the Crusaders and was part of the Ottoman Empire from the early fifteen hundreds until the end of the nineteenth century. During World War I it came under French influence and was recognized as an independent nation after World War II. In 1963, Hafez al-Assad led a military coup and since then, Syria has been ruled under emergency law. After al-Assad died in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad was elected President in an uncontested presidential campaign. Before the current conflict, Syria had a population of approximately 22 million people but now about half the population have been displaced internally and into neighbouring countries, including approximately four million refugees. It is estimated that 250,000 people have died during the Syrian conflict. PMID:29770036

  9. 15 CFR 742.9 - Anti-terrorism: Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Syria. 742.9 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.9 Anti-terrorism: Syria. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT Column 1 of the... required for export and reexport to Syria for anti-terrorism purposes. (2) The Secretary of State has...

  10. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  11. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  12. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun

  13. The Lancet Commission on Syria | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The journal has adopted a series of global commissions that convene groups of experts for a limited time to produce thematic work aimed at improving human lives through scientific review and inquiry, and to encourage accountability for the problem under study. The Commission on Syria marks the first time a Southern ...

  14. 15 CFR 746.9 - Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Syria. 746.9 Section 746.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS EMBARGOES AND OTHER SPECIAL...

  15. Learning from Libya, Acting in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin A. Buckley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The international community has reached an impasse. The violence committed by Syrian President Assad's government against opposition forces, who have been calling for democratic reform, regime change, and expanded rights, has necessitated a response from the international community. This article explores various ways the international community could respond to the crisis in Syria and the consequences of each approach. It compares the current calamity in Syria to the crisis in Libya and examines the international community's response to the violence perpetrated by Qaddafi's regime. It further analyzes reports, primarily from the UN and news sources, about the ongoing predicament in Syria. The article concludes that the international community should proceed with achieving a ceasefire via dialogue but must begin by conveying newly imposed sanctions that affect the Sunni merchant class and thus threaten Assad's grip on power to make that dialogue more effective. World leaders should also identify a Syrian leader who could replace Assad, who must be removed from power because of the crimes against humanity that have been committed by his regime. Western states must accept that they will have to engage peacekeeping forces in the region to aid the transition of power in Syria.

  16. Health problems in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D

    1992-02-22

    Iraq is faced with large scale public health problems that have been caused by the destruction to their infrastructure during the Gulf war. Humanitarian aid is needed in order to avoid a large scale human disaster. In 1988 73% of Iraq's population lived in urban areas. The loss of electrical generating capacity has affected hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment. Iraq had made great strides int he health of their people with an infant mortality rate of 42/1000 in 1990 and 52./1000 for children under 5. The international study team's survey of over 9000 households revealed surprising evidence of widespread chronic malnutrition. Based on accepted mortality as a baseline, data suggests that mortality among Iraqi infants and children under 5 doubled in 1991. The current food ration provides only half of the energy requirement and with rapidly accelerating inflation, the cost of food while only make the situation worse. The UN Disaster Relief Office has received $1.059 billion from donor countries; but, only half of the requested $14 million has been funded through Unicef. This money is needed to meet basic requirements for water, sanitation, antibiotics, and vaccines. The UN Security Council approved resolutions 706 and 712 which would have allowed Iraq to sell $1.6 billion for foodstuffs, medicines, and materials and supplies necessary to civilian needs subject to monitoring and supervision to ensure equitable distribution. The Iraqi government has not met the requirements of 706 and 712 because of the monitoring conditions, so no money has been issued. More money is needed if humanitarian organizations are to do their work. Only $29 million of the $145 million needed for the 1st half of this year has been pledged.

  17. Iraq's bomb: Blueprints and artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    After more than half a year of investigating Iraq's clandestine nuclear program, UN and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors found the biggest remaining piece of the puzzle: details of Iraq's effort to design and develop a nuclear explosive device. On September 22, an inspection team - the seventh sent by the UN Special Commission to uncover Iraq's weapons of mass destruction - discovered the nuclear weapons program archives at program headquarters in Baghdad. Many of the documents found there recorded Iraq's plans and progress. Less than a week earlier, Rahim Al-Kital, Iraq's ambassador to the IAEA, informed the agency's 1991 conference in Vienna that Iraq had already 'told the United Nations everything,' and that inspectors were 'guessing' about a nuclear weapons program that did not exist. But the find put an end to any doubts that Iraq's secret effort to enrich uranium was for weapons purposes. The documents showed that since 1988 or 1989 Iraq had invested heavily in facilities to develop and make nuclear weapons. By mid 1990, Iraqi scientists had made some progress in understanding how a relatively crude nuclear explosive device with a core of highly enriched uranium would work, and they had done some experiments on parts of the technology. By that time, an experimental program was under way for using shaped conventional charges to activate a nuclear explosion by uniformly compressing a uranium sphere. But on the eve of the Kuwait invasion, Iraqi experts still had many theoretical and experimental questions to answer

  18. International legal problem in combating 'Islamic State' terrorist group in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Islamic State of Iraq and Syria' (ISIS has occupied parts of internationally recognized states and exerts further territorial pretensions. ISIS, also, implements a repressive rule, through violations of human rights and humanitarian law, which may constitute international crimes. In facing the threat od ISIS, the perception of international terrorism is important since this group has the features of a territorial entity. So far, facing with the threat of ISIS has been reduced to a model that is adopted by the UN Security Council against the terrorist network Al-Qaida. An international coalition of states, led by the United States, has undertaken air strikes on positions ISIS, on several grounds: the responsibility to protect, the protection of national security, and at the request of Iraq. At the same time, the strikes are applied in Syria, which can not be accountable for the actions of ISIS and has not requested international assistance. International law does not allow actions which would aim to destroy or jeopardize the territorial integrity or political independence of any sovereign and independent state, which is acting in accordance with the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and is hence governed by a representative government. The UNSC resolution 2249 remains short of recommending international armed action under the aegis of UNSC, but represents a step forward in recognizing the responsibility of this body in facing ISIS, at least as far as the 'destruction of refuge' is concerned. The use of force in the territory of Syria, without the express authorization of the UNSC is illegal, because terrorism does not constitute grounds for the use of force against countries. But, it opens broader issues of responsibility for the development of ISIS and the humanitarian crisis in the Middle East, as well as the functioning of the system of collective security. Overcoming the current crisis UNSC implies not just a

  19. A negotiation support system for disputes between Iraq and Turkey over the Tigris-Euphrates basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagonari, Fabio; Rossi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a flexible prototype negotiation support system (NSS), to be used in a participatory context, based on the negotiation setting that was suggested by Turkey: bilateral negotiations between Turkey and Iraq, annual analysis, the assumption that Iraq and Syria have no inherent water rights, differences in water entitlements or needs are neglected, analysis restricted to the Tigris-Euphrates basin, current irrigation technologies in Turkey and Iraq, and negotiations on water quantity and quality that account for national dam construction plans. The analysis is based on all principles of the 1997 UN Convention that are recognised by Turkey: net benefits defined at a basin level, equitable use, non-significant harm, maintenance of water quality. The goal is to achieve a balance of interests among the parties that combines analysis of the quantity and quality of water and the net benefits. The negotiation outcomes arise from simulated dynamic interactions between the parties. We demonstrate an application of the NSS based on plausible and reasonable, but tentative, data to provide insights into water allocation rules, side-payments, water requirements of the two parties, and cooperation. Allocations should meet Iraqi non-significant harm and equitable use constraints and allocate the remaining water to Turkey for agricultural use in the feasible negotiation scenario, whereas allocations should meet Turkish maximum agricultural water demands and allocate the remaining water to Iraq for agricultural use in the unlikely cooperation scenario.

  20. Area Handbook Series. Syria, A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    elderly and those in authority, and forbidding adultery, gambling , usury, and the consumption of carrion, blood, pork, and alcohol . A Muslim stands in a...Health: Gastrointestinal ailments, trachoma, and infectious dis- eases prevalent ; considerable progress has been made in control of malaria. Severe...complete understanding of the Baath, The Ba ’th Party: A History from Its Origins to 1966. In the same genre is Patrick Seale’s The Struggle for Syria. A. L

  1. Iran irritates and puzzles the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author analyses political and economic situation in the Iran. Iran is endangered by economic sanctions and military attacks on nuclear facilities, the president threatens by retributive military attacks. Situation in Iran is compared with Iraq. Perspectives of application of political and economic embargo against Iran are discussed. USA and co-adjuster would probably meet the Russian or Chinese veto. On the international markets or on the bilateral level the good volition to disable to Iran the sale of its oil and natural gas would by scarcely expected. Iran exports from 2.5 to 3 million barrels of oil daily. It is impossible to substitute Iran essentially. The country is the fourth biggest exporter of oil in the world and has the second biggest stocks of oil after Saudi Arabia. Iran is endangered by the fact that big question mark will stay to hang above nuclear program. The part of uranium is imported from African countries like Gabon and Niger through France and the sanctions of UN would stop this import. Iran has its own uranium fields, even which belongs to the largest in the world. However, Iran cannot exploit them effectively without help of western companies. Nuclear program, which is supported by big hope and sources from the country, probably collide with unexpected barriers. Even if UN Safety Council would not confirmed anti-Iran sanctions, the seven states that produce nuclear technologies would stop their sale to Iran. It would freeze its civilian and military nuclear program from a few years or some decades

  2. Human tuberculosis predates domestication in ancient Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Oussama; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Besra, Gurdyal S; Minnikin, David E; Llewellyn, Gareth; Williams, Christopher M; Maixner, Frank; O'Sullivan, Niall; Zink, Albert; Chamel, Bérénice; Khawam, Rima; Coqueugniot, Eric; Helmer, Daniel; Le Mort, Françoise; Perrin, Pascale; Gourichon, Lionel; Dutailly, Bruno; Pálfi, György; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    The question of pre-neolithic tuberculosis is still open in paleopathological perspective. One of the major interests is to explore what type of infection could have existed around the early stage of animal domestication. Paleopathological lesions evoking skeletal TB were observed on five human skeletons coming from two PPNB sites in Syria, which belongs to the geographical cradle of agriculture. These sites represent respectively pre-domestication phase (Dja'de el Mughara, Northern Syria, 8800-8300 BCE cal.) and early domestication phase (Tell Aswad, Southern Syria, 8200-7600 BCE cal.). MicroCT scan analyses were performed on two specimens (one per site) and revealed microscopic changes in favor of TB infection. Detection of lipid biomarkers is positive for two specimens (one per site). Initial molecular analysis further indicates the presence of TB in one individual from Dja'de. Interestingly, no morphological evidence of TB was observed on animal remains of wild and newly domesticated species, discovered in these sites. These observations strongly suggest the presence of human tuberculosis before domestication and at its early stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Trade and Transport in Late Roman Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Christopher

    Despite the relative notoriety and miraculous level of preservation of the Dead Cities of Syria, fundamental questions of economic and subsistence viability remain unanswered. In the 1950s Georges Tchalenko theorized that these sites relied on intensive olive monoculture to mass export olive oil to urban centers. Later excavations discovered widespread cultivation of grains, fruit, and beans which directly contradicted Tchalenko's assertion of sole reliance on oleoculture. However, innumerable olive presses in and around the Dead Cities still speak to a strong tradition of olive production. This thesis tests the logistical viability of olive oil transportation from the Dead Cities to the distant urban centers of Antioch and Apamea. Utilization of Raster GIS and remote sensing data allows for the reconstruction of the physical and social landscapes of Late Roman Syria. Least Cost Analysis techniques produce a quantitative and testable model with which to simulate and evaluate the viability of long distance olive oil trade. This model not only provides a clearer understanding of the nature of long distance trade relationships in Syria, but also provides a model for investigating ancient economic systems elsewhere in the world. Furthermore, this project allows for the generation of new information regarding sites that are currently inaccessible to researchers.

  4. Baku paper reports Armenian role in Iran's nuclear program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The war in Iraq has made the subject of nuclear research in countries of the third world a matter of current interest. Talk at this time is mostly about Iran, which has oil, and American experts believe, will in the next 3-4 years be perfectly capable of making a nuclear bomb" (1 page).

  5. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  6. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  7. Syria: Overview of the Humanitarian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    humanitarian workers have observed a sharp rise in gender -based crimes, including rape and sexual violence, as well as exploitation and discrimination ...threatening conditions; gender -based violence prevention and response; emergency support to refugee women and girls; mental health care; protection...immediate surrounding region, including Turkey, Lebanon , Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and other parts of North Africa. The situation is fluid and continues to

  8. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly exhibiting peaceful competition but continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting...

  9. Syria: The Consolidation of the Asad Regime, 1970-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert W.

    1982-01-01

    Up to 1975-76, Syria's Hafiz al-Asad was successful in consolidating his power, securing the maintenance of his regime, and broadening his base of political power. His system started weakening in 1975 due to increased opposition stemming from Syria's intervention in the Lebanese civil war. (AM)

  10. Destination Syria : An Exploratory Study into the Daily Lives of Dutch 'Syria Travellers'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, D.; Peters, R.; Bakker, E.; Bont, de R.

    2016-01-01

    Destination Syria is an exploratory study providing insights on the daily lives of western citizens that have travelled to the area, torn by conflict to join jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al-Nusra. Specific attention has been paid to daily life in ISIS territories and in areas controlled by

  11. European Views and Policies Toward the Middle East

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    .... The most vitriolic dispute has centered on the conflict in Iraq. However, divisions over how best to approach the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian conflict, manage Iran and Syria, and combat terrorism also persist...

  12. Maroc : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: HUMAN RIGHTS, GENDER EQUALITY, DEMOCRATIZATION, CULTURAL RELATIONS ... Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Morocco, Tunisia ... South Asia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Israel.

  13. Near East/South Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    .... This report from the Near East/South Asia, Egypt, Libya, Tunisa, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Iran and Pakistan, the articles are on Politics, Economics...

  14. Overseas Contingency Operations: Observations on the Use of Force Management Levels in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    made 18 recommendations in prior work cited in this statement. DOD has implemented 12 of them. Continued attention is needed to ensure that some...of logical steps to examine the mission; develop, analyze, and compare courses of action; select the best course of action; and produce a plan or...provide a complete picture of U.S. forces engaged in operations. Chairwoman Hartzler, Ranking Member Speier, and Members of the Subcommittee, this

  15. Strategy in Fragmented Civil Wars: Iraq, Syria, and the Challenge of External Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    intolerable and were powerless to change. When the African National Congress’ nonviolent campaign failed to overturn apartheid in South Africa, Nelson ... Mandela broke with the party and created an underground military wing 12 For an overview of the...14 Dixon, Robyn. “ Nelson Mandela’s Legacy: As a leader, he was willing to use violence,” L.A. Times. December 6, 2013, http://lat.ms/1n1TUcw

  16. From Cradle to Grave: The Lifecycle of Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    psychological exploration,” American Psychologist 60:2 (2005), p. 161. 23 Jean-Paul Azam, “Suicide- bombing as Inter-generational Investment,” Public...did so because of discontent with their employment or as a consequence of having no em - ployment, as opposed to the wide range of other possible...French Jihadists ‘Behind IS Group Suicide Bombings in Iraq’,” France 24, May 23, 2015. 94 Oliver Duggan, “British Muslim Unmasked as Terrorist Fighting in

  17. The Insurgency Business: The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, 2010-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    principles , money, manpower, materiel, terrorism financing, logistics, economic durability, resiliency, entrepreneurialism 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 141 16...Gunrunners, Smugglers, and the Black Market ...........................................................................................77 4. Logistical...its expenditures and outlays. The IS incentivized its fighters and followers with monthly salaries and spent millions of dollars in marketing

  18. The Collapse of Iraq and Syria: The End of the Colonial Construct in the Greater Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    leadership style was deemed passive, allowing key decisions to fall to his subordinates or not be made at all. The situation required someone else...do we know who or what those autocratic forces will be. We do absolutely know it will not be a Western style democracy and it will be imposed top...Operations Forces (SOF) students and leaders for consideration by the SOF community and defense leadership . JSOU is the educational component of

  19. Beating the Islamic State: Selecting a New Strategy for Iraq and Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    explains what he thinks will happen after IS is defeated on the battlefield: If there is no solution to the political problems, they will just go...back and become Al Qaeda, or Ansar al-Sunna or Naqshabandi [other terror groups] . . . . I don’t think it is going to end. There has to be political...2016, the PYD is reportedly hedging its bets between the United States and Russia: It is receiving strong U.S. support to fight ISIS. But it is not

  20. Climate Change and Political Instability in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C. P.; Mohtadi, S.; Cane, M. A.; Seager, R.; Kushnir, Y.

    2013-12-01

    From 2005 to 2010, Syria experienced the most severe and persistent drought in the instrumental record, devastating the agriculture and causing widespread crop failure. A mass migration of farming families to urban peripheries followed the resulting food shortages, unemployment, and disruption of rural social structure. The addition of nearly 1.5 million drought refugees to the recent influx of Iraqi refugees greatly exacerbated conditions in the urban slums. Anger at the government's failure to respond to the drought's impacts contributed to the political unrest that began in March 2011. The recent decrease in Syrian precipitation is a combination of natural variability and long-term drying trend, and the unusual severity of the observed drought is here shown to be highly unlikely without the trend. Precipitation changes in Syria are linked to rising mean sea-level pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean, which also shows a long-term trend. Compared to the natural variability alone, the trend has made the occurrence of such a severe drought eight times more likely. There has been also a long-term warming trend in Syria, adding to the drawdown of soil moisture. No natural cause is apparent for these trends, whereas the observed drying and warming are consistent with observed increases in greenhouse gases. Furthermore, model studies show an increasingly drier and hotter future mean climate for the Eastern Mediterranean. The severity and duration of the recent Syrian drought, implicated as a cause of the current conflict, is highly likely to be a consequence of human interference in the climate system.

  1. 31 CFR 103.188 - Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Programs Law Enforcement Access to Foreign Bank Records § 103.188 Special measures against Commercial Bank of Syria. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: (1) Commercial Bank of Syria means any branch, office, or subsidiary of Commercial Bank of Syria operating in Syria or in any other jurisdiction...

  2. Lebanon and Syria: between dissociation and spillover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Lion Bustillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The risk of Syrian civil war violence spreading towards Lebanon is high. This can be explained by various factors deriving as much from the neighbouring conflict as from other existing factors in Lebanese politics, which have led to the significant collaboration of Lebanon’s Future Movement and Hezbollah with their respective allies in Syria, and to undermining Najib Mikati’s dissociation policies. However, the leaders of those parties tend to balance their will to preserve their confessional leadership with an image of being the defender of national interests. This limits the possibility of an openly sectarian conflict, but it does not totally eliminate it.

  3. "Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant ("ISIL" As A Threat To The World Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina V. Volodina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines illegal activities of ISIS. Territory of victorious monotheism is so-called by experts and proclaimed in June 2014 "Islamic state" with the original name of "Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant", in other words "Caliphate" in a particular area of the modern states of Syria and Iraq. Founded illegally on the territory of the sovereign State of Iraq and Syria, "IS" with a sharia form of government, it is the first step of creating a global "caliphate", which do not recognize borders. Author notes that the creation of the "Islamic state", that poses a threat to the constitutional security of many countries of Asia, as well as the Russian Federation, both in terms of the "capture" of Islamic extremists and terrorists, and includes part of the territory of present Russia. Author concludes that: first, the creation of the world "Caliphate", no borders - the main goal of the Islamists, raising fears in the world, including the Russian Federation and the long term threaten to the country's sovereignty. Second, law enforcement authorities should be attentive to the problems that arose in the Russian Federation related to the Islamic radical organizations. Recruiters, Islamic radicals operate illegally in our country. Thirdly, important but insufficient measures taken, such as the steps to revive the Russian Islam the idea of a "single Russian muftiat", in particular to the Russian ummah was proposed "rigid vertical of power" and Sufism as a means of radicalism. Fourth, not enough attention is paid to the States to the Islamic States (IS in the Russian Federation and analysis of the problems associated with the radical Islam, which is no longer seen as a phenomenon inherent only in the Arab world. Fifth, there are opposing views on the "IS".

  4. Electrical connections: Iran's power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Attention is drawn to business opportunities in Iran, a middle-eastern country that is still in the process of rebuilding its power generating capacity in the wake of its eight-year-long war with Iraq. In reviewing opportunities to tap into this market , the article lists a number of factors that must be considered before rushing to follow the current. One of these factors is the U.S. trade embargo against Iran. Under this embargo Canada does not allow the re-export of goods of U.S. origin from Canada to Iran. The complex character of doing business in Iran by foreign companies must also be considered. Nevertheless,, those who are well prepared to face the restrictions and are willing to take the time to learn about the 'Iranian way' may receive considerable help from the Export Development Corporation, including financing and insurance on a case-by-case basis. The Canadian government's program for export market development also offers direct financial assistance to Canadian exporters in an effort to reduce the risk of entering a foreign market. The Canadian Embassy in Tehran can also provide useful advice and assistance. There is also http://exportsource.gc.ca., Team Canada Inc.'s on-line resource that may be consulted for export information

  5. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction...

  6. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The initial section of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, economic progress, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  7. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ... of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  8. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  9. Search Results | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Remove Palestine filter Palestine; Israel 6 Apply Israel filter · Lebanon 5 Apply Lebanon filter · Jordan 3 Apply Jordan filter · Iraq 2 Apply Iraq filter · Syria 2 Apply Syria filter · Iran 1 Apply Iran filter · Yemen 1 Apply Yemen filter · Central Asia 20 Apply Central Asia filter · Far East Asia 20 Apply Far East Asia filter · South Asia 20 ...

  10. Polio in Syria: Problem still not solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Moujahed, Ahmad; Alahdab, Fares; Abolaban, Heba; Beletsky, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The reappearance of polio in Syria in mid-2013, 18 years after it was eliminated from the country, manifests the public health catastrophe brought on by the civil war. Among the lessons learned, this outbreak emphasizes the importance of increasing the international financial and logistical support for vaccine and immunization efforts, especially in countries suffering from conflicts. The lack of access to polio accredited laboratory or outright lack of laboratories in settings of conflict should be recognized allowing international surveillance to be strengthened by supplementing the laboratory definition with the clinical definition. In addition, it illustrates the imperative for the United Nations (UN) agencies involved in global health to be able to operate independently from governments during conflicts in order to provide adequate and efficient medical and humanitarian relief for civilians. Proper communicable disease surveillance and control, delivery of vaccinations, and other pivotal healthcare services to these areas require independence from governments and all military actors involved. Moreover, it shows the necessity to adequately support and fund the front-line nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that are implementing the delivery of medical and humanitarian aid in Syria.

  11. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    the Central Bank assets discussed above could be used to pay the terrorism judgements —a decision that resulted in Iranian threats to sue the United...legislation that might affect Iran’s behavior might also be inconsistent with the JCPOA. See also CRS Report R43333, Iran Nuclear Agreement, by Kenneth...against Iran have multiple objectives and address multiple perceived threats from Iran simultaneously. This report analyzes U.S. and international

  12. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Mars Co. (candy manufacturer); Kraft Foods; Wrigley’s (gum); and McCormick and Co. ( spices ). Some previously licensed U.S. goods have been sold through...that deliveries had begun. India India is implementing international sanctions against Iran but its cultural , economic, and historic ties—as well...September 2012. • Barring Iran from International Sporting Events. A further option is to limit sports or cultural exchanges with Iran, such as

  13. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    sanctions and human rights-related provisions of CISADA and other laws. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran: U.S...the Treasury Department, saw business opportunity by picking up the transactions business from a competitor who had, in accordance with U.S...and South Korea announced that their automakers Toyota , Hyundai, and Kia Motors would cease selling automobiles to Iran. • Attorneys for BNP

  14. Iran's nuclear lies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Beyond the antiaircraft gun emplacements and the early-warning radar systems, and shortly before you get to the high concrete walls topped with concertina wire that surround Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, there's a large sign announcing that the facility Welcomes guests. Like so much about die Iranian nuclear program, die signals are incongruous, contradictory and more then a little sinister. If Iran is to be believed, then the world has nothing to fear from its nuclear program. The United States, Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia and other oil producers nearby can rest easy, because the ayatollahs have no plans to threaten the region with atomic weapons or put nukes in the hands of terrorists. If Iran is to be believed, its only goal, repeated countless times, ratified in treaties and open to inspections, is to develop a completely independent ability to make nuclear ir fuel and use it to generate electricity. But neither die United States nor Eu rope nor the United Nations is ready simply to believe Iran, at least not easily, and not without verification. Its record of concealment and deceit about its nuclear program goes back at least 20 years. Its extensive uranium-enrichment program was uncovered in detail only two years ago; its promise of 'full disclosure' and 'transparency' since then has been something considerably less. The election of a new hard-line Iranian president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, last month raises still more questions about how far Tehran can be trusted about its nuclear programs, if at all. Iran's concealments have been as vast as a secret underground facility at Natanz that was being readied for 50,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium when it was exposed in 2002. They have seemed as small as some undeclared milligrams of plutonium from a research laboratory. In a cat-and-mouse game reminiscent of the lead-up to the Iraq invasion in 2003, the Iranians have claimed to be cooperating while throwing up what often seem to be petty obstacles in front

  15. Israel’s Efforts to Defeat Iran’s Nuclear Program: An Integrated Use of National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    a Chernobyl or Fukushima type disaster transpire. Most Iranians are not aware of the potential risks to which they and their country are being...humanitarian and environmental disaster that would ensue. When Israel struck the nuclear facilities in Iraq and Syria, it did so before the reactors came...such as Chernobyl , Fukushima, Three Mile Island or Bhopal;” would likely cause the deaths of tens of thousands of noncombatants; and spread

  16. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  17. Developing hydrological model for water quality in Iraq marshes zone using Landsat-TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged; Hasab, Hashim Ali; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Bin Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    The Mesopotamia marshlands constitute the largest wetland ecosystem in the Middle East and Western Eurasia. These wetlands are located at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in southern Iraq. However, there are series reductions in the wetland zones because of neighbor countries, i.e. Turkey, Syria built dams upstream of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In addition, the first Gulf war of the 1980s had damaged majority of the marches resources. In fact,the marshes had been reduced in size to less than 7% since 1973 and had deteriorated in water quality parameters. The study integrates Hydrological Model of RMA-2 with Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques to map the water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq. This study shows that RMA-2 shows the two dimensional water flow pattern and water quality quantities in the marshlands. It can be said that the integration between Hydrological Model of RMA-2, Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques can be used to monitor water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq.

  18. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  19. Transitional Justice in Syria: Scenarios and Options | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and there has been widespread destruction to property and physical infrastructure. Syria's ... The project will provide research on key transitional justice issues, including methods to ... Syrian Center for Political and Strategic Studies SCPSS.

  20. Shaping Jihadism: How Syria Molded the Muslim Brotherhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krummrich, Seth

    2007-01-01

    In February 1982, Syrian President Assad's military and security forces surrounded, assaulted, and leveled the fourth largest city in Syria, Hama, killing between 5,000-25,000 Syrians in less than three weeks...

  1. Economic Liberalization in Syria: Prospects for Regime Stability and Democratization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Dana

    1998-01-01

    From 1985 to 1991, Syria experienced a severe economic crisis. In response, the regime of Hafiz al-Asad implemented economic reforms designed to move the Syrian economy toward free-market capitalism...

  2. A possible "grinder" from Tell Arbid, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitre, Mindy C; Koliński, Rafał; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    2017-12-01

    Cereal grinding has been practiced in Mesopotamia since the Upper Palaeolithic. While evidence of cereal grinding is clear from the archaeological and textual records, what remains unclear is whether the activity leaves signs on the skeleton in the form of markers of occupational stress (MOS). A particular constellation of MOS (e.g., osteoarthritis, traumatic injuries, and accessory articular facets) has previously been used to infer the habitual grinding of grain. These same MOS were recently observed in the skeleton of a female discovered in the Middle Bronze Age cemetery at Tell Arbid, NE Syria. Through differential diagnosis our results suggest that it remains problematic to identify grain-processing activities from the skeleton, even when a bioarchaeological approach is carried out.

  3. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney don...

  4. To School or to Syria? The foreign fighter phenomenon from a children’s rights perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozemarijn van Spaendonck

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the international, national and local level, authorities seek to prevent citizens from travelling to the Middle East to join fighting parties or settle in the ISIS caliphate (also referred to as IS, ISIS or its Arab language acronym, Daesh. As some travellers have not reached the age of majority, the authorities should take the best interests of the child (Article 3 Convention on the Rights of the Child into account while addressing this so-called foreign fighter phenomenon. This article explores to what extent the best interests of the child are considered at the international (United Nations, Council of Europe, European Union, national (the Netherlands and local (The Hague level when preventing minors from travelling to Syria and Iraq. In general, it finds that little distinction is made between the position of children and young adults. The position of children is explicitly addressed when measures are taken to prevent radicalization. Attention for the position of children is often lacking when repressive measures such as criminal and administrative measures are taken.

  5. Minimal debridement or simple wound closure as the only surgical treatment in war victims with low-velocity penetrating head injuries. Indications and management protocol based upon more than 8 years follow-up of 99 cases from Iran-Iraq conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjamshidi, Abbass; Abbassioun, Kazem; Rahmat, Hamid

    2003-08-01

    During military conflicts, surviving victims traditionally underwent large enough craniectomy or craniotomy to achieve extensive debridement of the in-driven bone, shell fragments, and debris. Meanwhile, the completely as well as the partially devitalized adjacent brain tissue would also be debrided. This might have led to additional neurologic deficit or lesser degree of recovery of functions. We studied the efficacy and safety of much more limited or even absence of surgical intervention in a selected group of wartime head-wounded patients. Among 1,150 war victims with penetrating head wounds referred to two major centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the 8-year period spanning the Iran-Iraq conflict, there were 191 head-wounded patients who underwent either no surgical intervention or a very limited debridement. We have attempted to follow up as closely as possible for more than 8 years. Ninety-nine of them fulfilled the criteria to be included in this series. Close follow-up for development of cerebral infections, functional recovery, or development of new neurologic deficits and epilepsy were performed. At least 3 contrast-enhanced CT scans were taken for each patient. All patients were victims of the battle-field areas with low- to moderate-velocity missile or shell fragment injury. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of the patients were between 8-14 when visited by the first attending neurosurgery staff. The factors considered to be effective in the outcome analysis were the entry point, the number of the in-driven bone fragments, the retained shell fragments, the brain compartments affected, and the paranasal sinus or skull base involvement with or without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. There were 13 unilobar, 44 bilobar, 4 trilobar, 38 transventricular, and 3 skull base lesions. The number of retained metal fragments varied between 1 to 6. The number of retained bone fragments varied between 1 to 5 in 73 victims and more

  6. Request by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the statement made by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Board of Governors on 20 February 1987 and the statement which the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran intended to make in response to the statement made by the Governor from Iraq in the Board of Governors on 20 February 1987. They refer to military attacks on Iranian nuclear facilities

  7. The Role of Airpower in the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    light. Butl their valor w~as essentiall\\ wasted because of* their org anizational inadequacies. Political Influences T1he impact of raqi domestic...8217 /tI’hl Iato. I thin,’ It ( ’oh,,,al l),y; p/11,10 i; edited by Louise E. Sw\\eet iGarden Cit\\. NiY.: Naturall I I itors Press. I1970). 1 O5-289). 211. D. R

  8. Geopolitics. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters

  9. Geopolitics. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-09-15

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters.

  10. 78 FR 43972 - Amendments to the Export Administration Regulations: Implementation of Limited Syria Waiver for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of 2003 (the SAA). The waiver authorizes..., agricultural production and food processing, power generation, oil and gas production, construction and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...

  11. An introduction to Iran palms: types, usage and production problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Ehteshami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Palms are considered the symbol of desert and they probably originated from Iraq and Iran. Due to its high tolerance in difficult climatic conditions, planting this tree has increased in warm areas all over the world during the recent years. The main regions for producing this fruit are the Middle East and north of Africa. Iran is one of the main date producing countries in the world. There are more than 200 varieties of date in Iran, the most important of which are Estameran, Shahani, Mazafati, Barhee, and Piaram. The palm tree is a multipurpose plant and various parts of the tree are used as food, medicine, and in industry. Despite high production of date in Iran, a large amount of this product is wasted due to lack of packaging and processing.

  12. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... assistance, the strengthening of Iraq's security forces, evident in the recent transfer of security responsibilities in Anbar and Babylon to Iraqi control, the incremental improvement in essential...

  13. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... The first section of the report, Stability and Security in Iraq, describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable...

  14. Kebijakan Politik Luar Negeri Arab Saudi terhadap Krisis Syria (2011-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Tjarsono, Idjang; khsan, Fadhly

    2015-01-01

    This research is intended to analyze the Saudi Arabia foreign policy toward Syria Crisis. In March 2011,Student of a School in Syria had written anti-governent slogan on their School€™s wall. Syrian Police arrested tand tortured them as punishment to the Student, this action cause Syria people movement to protest the government regime and ask for freedom and democratic transformation. In this case, Syria government tried to handle demonstration with the military action, This conflict increase...

  15. Iran: Economy, Senility, and Ineptitude Greasing the Slide to Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-13

    Business 5 Foreign Trade 6 Political Developments 8 Industry 10 Finance 12 Inflation 13 Rationing 14 Countertrade 16 Oil 17 War With Iraq 18 Outlook 20...imposed diplomatic isolation and threatening revolutionary rhetoric discourage foreign budgetary or balance of payments assistance. Countertrade : In...order to obtain these goods and services while reducing foreign exchange expenditures, Iran has expanded the use of barter and countertrade . Barter

  16. Explaining Iran’s Foreign Policy, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    of reasons. From a strictly realist perspective, Iran’s behavior may seem maddeningly inconsistent. Decisions made by the leadership to prolong...objective of this book is to offer a framework to help U.S. policymakers and analysts better understand existing and evolving leadership dynamics...neoconservatives and liberals sold on Kantian peace. While the realities of the Iraq war may have muted calls for regime change in Iran, recent

  17. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  18. Literature Review and Profile of Cancer Diseases Among Afghan Refugees in Iran: Referrals in Six Years of Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoukesh, Salman; Mojtahedzadeh, Mona; Figlin, Robert A; Rosenfelt, Fred P; Behazin, Arash; Sherzai, Dean; Cooper, Chad J; Nahleh, Zeina A

    2015-11-23

    There is a paucity of research on the profile of cancers among displaced populations, specifically Afghan refugees in Iran. This study illustrates the pattern of cancers in this population, and highlights the challenges of cancer care in displaced people with the intent that this data will facilitate appropriate allocation of resources to improve care in this population. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study, in which we collected the demographics and profile of cancers among Afghan refugees from 2005 to 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offices in Iran. Accrued evidence by other studies published between January 1993 and July 2014 pertaining to cancer diagnoses in refugees from Afghanistan, Tibet, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq was reviewed. Cancer diagnoses accounted for 3083 of 23 152 total referrals, with 49% female and 51% male cases; 23.3% were 0-17 years of age, 61.2% were 18-59, and 15.5% were above 60. The most common health referral for females and males (0-17) was malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue, accounting for 34.2%. In the age groups 18-59 and above 60 for both male and females it was malignant neoplasm of the digestive system, occurring in 26.3% and 48.7%, respectively. In the setting of humanitarian crises especially war, cancer diagnoses among refugees is a major health burden both on the host countries and the international community with serious implications considering the recent growing trend in the Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of certain cancer diagnoses among refugees, like gastrointestinal, respiratory, breast, and genitourinary cancers necessitates a multidirectional approach, primarily aimed at prevention and early detection. International partnerships are essential for improvement in cancer surveillance service availability, and delivery of the standard of care, in an overall effort to reduce the human cost, monetary, and resource associated burdens of

  19. Literature Review and Profile of Cancer Diseases Among Afghan Refugees in Iran: Referrals in Six Years of Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoukesh, Salman; Mojtahedzadeh, Mona; Figlin, Robert A.; Rosenfelt, Fred P.; Behazin, Arash; Sherzai, Dean; Cooper, Chad J.; Nahleh, Zeina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research on the profile of cancers among displaced populations, specifically Afghan refugees in Iran. This study illustrates the pattern of cancers in this population, and highlights the challenges of cancer care in displaced people with the intent that this data will facilitate appropriate allocation of resources to improve care in this population. Material/Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study, in which we collected the demographics and profile of cancers among Afghan refugees from 2005 to 2010 from referrals to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) offices in Iran. Accrued evidence by other studies published between January 1993 and July 2014 pertaining to cancer diagnoses in refugees from Afghanistan, Tibet, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq was reviewed. Results Cancer diagnoses accounted for 3083 of 23 152 total referrals, with 49% female and 51% male cases; 23.3% were 0–17 years of age, 61.2% were 18–59, and 15.5% were above 60. The most common health referral for females and males (0–17) was malignant neoplasms of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue, accounting for 34.2%. In the age groups 18–59 and above 60 for both male and females it was malignant neoplasm of the digestive system, occurring in 26.3% and 48.7%, respectively. Conclusions In the setting of humanitarian crises especially war, cancer diagnoses among refugees is a major health burden both on the host countries and the international community with serious implications considering the recent growing trend in the Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of certain cancer diagnoses among refugees, like gastrointestinal, respiratory, breast, and genitourinary cancers necessitates a multidirectional approach, primarily aimed at prevention and early detection. International partnerships are essential for improvement in cancer surveillance service availability, and delivery of the standard of care, in an overall effort to reduce the

  20. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  1. Survey of patient dose in computed tomography in Syria 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharita, M H; Khazzam, S

    2010-09-01

    The radiation doses to patient in computed tomography (CT) in Syria have been investigated and compared with similar studies in different countries. This work surveyed 30 CT scanners from six different manufacturers distributed all over Syria. Some of the results in this paper were part of a project launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency in different regions of the world covering Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe. The dose quantities covered are CT dose index (CTDI(w)), dose-length product (DLP), effective dose (E) and collective dose. It was found that most CTDI(w) and DLP values were similar to the European reference levels and in line with the results of similar surveys in the world. The results were in good agreement with the UNSCEAR Report 2007. This study concluded a recommendation for national diagnostic reference level for the most common CT protocols in Syria. The results can be used as a base for future optimisation studies in the country.

  2. Current Challenges of Organ Donation Programs in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. Results: The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. Conclusion: The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased

  3. IAEA inspections and Iraq's nuclear capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-04-01

    It is reported that IAEA teams have been investigating Iraq's nuclear capabilities since May 1991 and following the Gulf War under terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 directed at eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and means to produce and use them. A chronology of the events as well as the IAEA plan of further actions are described

  4. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Meshkab Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) is June 2010. This WTP project, funded by $23.1 million Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) and $46.9...Forces - Iraq USG U.S. Government VBIED Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device WG Working Group WTO World Trade Organization WTP Water

  5. Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coipuram, Jr, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The war with Iraq, which began on March 19, 2003, has now moved into a new phase as a result of coalition forces controlling all of the major cites in Iraq and the demise of the Iraqi political and military leadership...

  6. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq: Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2003-01-01

    .... military action against Iraq; the role of America in the region after the war with Iraq; the nature of security partnerships in the region after the war with Iraq; and the effect that war with Iraq will have on the war on terrorism in the region.

  7. Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-17

    of the Euphrates River valley from the Syrian border to Abu Ghraib on the outskirts of Baghdad, and was conducting intense military operations in...underscoring growing tensions among Sunni extremists in the region. In July 2013, ISIL attacked prisons at Abu Ghraib and Taji in Iraq, reportedly...groups, and Baathists in Iraq. Background The group’s ideological and organizational roots (Figure 2) lie in the forces built and led by the late Abu

  8. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Control does not place a valuation on such real estate holdings, but public sources assess these assets at a value of about $500 million. There have...Development in Iran Completed,” Total/ Bow Valley (Canada)/ENI $300 million 40,000 bpd 97 Khajehpour

  9. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  10. Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-06

    23 Appendixes Appendix A. Syrian History and Demographics...the OPCW-UN JIM, and the Secretary General appointed Virginia Gamba of Argentina to head the independent three-member panel that leads the JIM...Syrian History and Demographics Background: Syria, its People, and the Conflict The Syrian Arab Republic emerged as an independent country during the

  11. Epidemiology of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albache, Nizar; Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is considerable public health problem, but data on the prevalence and correlates of T2DM in Syria are scarce. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable estimates of the prevalence of T2DM in Syria. A cross-sectional, population-based survey was conducted in Aleppo, Syria (population 2.5 million), in 2006. The study was conducted on a random sample of 1168 subjects ≥25 years of age (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information regarding a personal history of diabetes and other risk factors was collected, followed by measurement of weight, height, and the waist:hip ratio (WHR). Of the 1168 participants, 806 provided fasting blood samples that were analyzed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c. The prevalence of T2DM based on FPG ≥126 mg/dL and HbA1c ≥6.5% was 15.6% (11.2% self-reported; 5.0% diagnosed) and 14.8%, respectively. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (FPG ≥110 and Syria. Many of those with T2DM are unaware of their disease and most have unsatisfactory control of their disease. © 2009 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of the environmental impact assessment system in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, F.; Pediaditi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Syria is a country experiencing rapid change, undergoing a process of political and governance decentralisation, opening its markets to the private sector, and experiencing a rise in infrastructure development. In light of these economic growth targeted changes, knowledge of the status and capacity of the Syrian EIA system to ensure environmental protection becomes of paramount importance. Syria first introduced EIA as a Draft Decree in 1995, which was not formally adopted until 2008. To date, no structured evaluation of Syria's EIA system has been conducted, a knowledge gap addressed through this paper. The research presented herein comprises a review and comparative evaluation of Syrian legislation and procedures, to the EU EIA Directive and World Bank Operational Directive, as well as a series of interviews with Syrian stakeholders involved in EIA implementation. The investigation concluded that the new EIA provisions provide a sound legal basis. From interviews however, it was ascertained that EIA implementation faces a number of barriers such as, a lack of EIA integration into existing decision making and licensing processes and persistent exclusion of public projects from EIA. A number of recommendations are proposed, perceived necessary for the enhancement of EIA implementation in Syria.

  13. Forecasting future prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Mzayek, Fawaz; Rastam, Samer; M Fouad, Fouad; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Maziak, Wasim

    2013-05-25

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasingly becoming a major public health problem worldwide. Estimating the future burden of diabetes is instrumental to guide the public health response to the epidemic. This study aims to project the prevalence of T2DM among adults in Syria over the period 2003-2022 by applying a modelling approach to the country's own data. Future prevalence of T2DM in Syria was estimated among adults aged 25 years and older for the period 2003-2022 using the IMPACT Diabetes Model (a discrete-state Markov model). According to our model, the prevalence of T2DM in Syria is projected to double in the period between 2003 and 2022 (from 10% to 21%). The projected increase in T2DM prevalence is higher in men (148%) than in women (93%). The increase in prevalence of T2DM is expected to be most marked in people younger than 55 years especially the 25-34 years age group. The future projections of T2DM in Syria put it amongst countries with the highest levels of T2DM worldwide. It is estimated that by 2022 approximately a fifth of the Syrian population aged 25 years and older will have T2DM.

  14. THE CIPA DATABASE FOR SAVING THE HERITAGE OF SYRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Silver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA’s initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA’s strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  15. The Cipa Database for Saving the Heritage of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Minna; Rinaudo, Fulvio; Morezzi, Emanuele; Quenda, Francesca; Moretti, Maria Laura

    2016-06-01

    CIPA is contributing with its technical knowledge in saving the heritage of Syria by constructing an open access database based on the data that the CIPA members have collected during various projects in Syria over the years before the civil war in the country broke out in 2011. In this way we wish to support the protection and preservation of the environment, sites, monuments, and artefacts and the memory of the cultural region that has been crucial for the human past and the emergence of civilizations. Apart from the countless human atrocities and loss, damage, destruction and looting of the cultural heritage have taken place in a large scale. The CIPA's initiative is one of the various international projects that have been set up after the conflict started. The Directorate-General of the Antiquities and Museums (DGAM) of Syria as well as UNESCO with its various sub-organizations have been central in facing the challenges during the war. Digital data capture, storage, use and dissemination are in the heart of CIPA's strategies in recording and documenting cultural heritage, also in Syria. It goes without saying that for the conservation and restoration work the high quality data providing metric information is of utmost importance.

  16. Nuclear knowledge dissemination in Syria: An INIS objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hallack, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS) is the world's leading information system on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology and it is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria. An overview of INIS products, services, philosophy and operation is given. INIS hold a database containing over 3 million references increasing at approximately 100,000 references per year and a collection of full text non-conventional, or grey literature that would be hard to obtain elsewhere. INIS national center in Syria is considered as a regional center for INIS inputs preparation. The center is responsible for selecting the relevant nuclear literature produced and published in Syria and preparing the national inputs and send them to INIS Secretariat to be included in the INIS database. The center also provides INIS services and products to users within Syria. Availability of INIS Database on CD-ROMs, which updated monthly, and the internet version, which updated weekly, and the NCL collections are also presented. Finally, translation activity of the center, such as INIS Booklet entitled Presenting INIS , INIS Database Interface, and the INIS Thesaurus into Arabic were mentioned. This was an in-kind contribution from the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria to support the valuable work of the INIS and Nuclear Knowledge Management (NKM) section and will contribute significantly the dissemination of information among the researchers and scientists in the Arab Countries. (author)

  17. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  18. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W.; Ali, Malik H.; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-01-01

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km2 large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area range...

  19. Iran's 'Risk-Taking' in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahram, Chubin

    2008-01-01

    Assessing any state's intentions is a difficult undertaking - especially at a specific moment in time. When a state is considered hostile, its behaviour erratic, and its system opaque, what is difficult under normal circumstances becomes nearly impossible. It may thus often seem prudent to attribute the worst of intentions to such states, but this can create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Iran with its revolutionary pretensions, fiery rhetoric and nuclear ambitions, is a case in point, since it is particularly difficult to 'read'. Located in the centre of a geo-politically sensitive and conflict-driven area, Iran is in a position to influence - positively or otherwise - the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus, the Middle East and South Asia. This influence may furthermore be expanding as a result of the weakening of Iraq and Lebanon, divisions among the Palestinians, and the more general rise of the Shi'i across the broader region. Add to this the ambiguous aims of Iran's nuclear programme and the shadow this has already thrown across the region, and the need to assess Iran's intentions accurately appears crucial. Here, Iran's past behavior may provide some help, especially when it comes to Iran's proclivity for risk taking - provided the acquisition of a nuclear capability does not alter Iran's intentions or behavior so as to make the past irrelevant. Some commentators believe that Iran's ideology and past behaviour suggest that a nuclear-capable Iran will be inclined to take on a high level of risk, without concern for the potential costs of this recklessness, and that Iran may perhaps even welcome the risks involved. By contrast, the recent National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), a composite of US intelligence agency estimates, has concluded that Iran's 'decisions are guided by a cost-benefit approach' and therefore 'may be more vulnerable to influence' than they had previously (i.e.2005) judged. These divergent views broadly reflect the division between those who believe

  20. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  1. Nutritional status of women and child refugees from Syria-Jordan, April-May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilukha, Oleg O; Jayasekaran, Douglas; Burton, Ann; Faender, Gabriele; King'ori, James; Amiri, Mohammad; Jessen, Dorte; Leidman, Eva

    2014-07-25

    As a result of civil war, an estimated 2.8 million refugees have fled Syria and reside in neighboring countries, mainly Lebanon, Turkey, Jordan, and Iraq. The largest Syrian refugee camp in the region is Zaatari camp in Jordan, with approximately 79,000 refugees; another estimated 500,000 Syrian refugees live in Jordanian cities, towns, and villages, mostly in the capital (Amman) and in four northern governorates (Irbid, Mafraq, Jarash, and Zarqa). Although all registered refugees in Jordan receive food vouchers from the World Food Programme (WFP) and vulnerable refugees receive cash assistance from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and nongovernmental organizations, the nutritional status of some refugees might be compromised because of dislocation, lack of income, and limited access to nutritious foods. To assess the nutritional status of Syrian refugees, UNHCR, WFP, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Medair International (a nongovernmental organization), and CDC, in collaboration with the United Nations Population Fund and the World Health Organization (WHO), conducted cross-sectional, population-representative cluster surveys in Zaatari camp and among refugees residing in the host community. The surveys were conducted during April-May 2014 with the principal objective of assessing nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and nonpregnant women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Preliminary findings indicated a high prevalence of anemia in Zaatari camp among both children and women (48.4% and 44.8%, respectively). Nutrition policies aimed at ensuring optimal child and maternal micronutrient status and addressing the underlying risk factors for anemia are likely to result in improved health outcomes and a reduction in anemia.

  2. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The

  3. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Transshipment and Brokering. The ITRs prohibit U.S. transshipment of goods across Iran and ban any activities by U.S. persons to broker commercial ...accordance with the JCPOA, the United States has relaxed restrictions on sales of parts for commercial aircraft and licensing of sales of whole commercial ...tuition payments for Iranian students abroad (paid directly to the educational institutions). The waiver of Section 1245(d)(1) of IFCA allowed those

  4. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    from the international banking system , caused a sharp drop in the value of Iran’s currency, the rial; raised inflation to over 50%; and cut off...Congressional Research Service 8 international banking system . Prior to September 2013, all NGOs that sought to perform relief efforts in Iran... barter arrangements with neighboring countries, virtually all of Iran’s oil exports flow through the Strait of Hormuz, which carries about one-third of

  5. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    general license. The list was expanded in July and November 2013 to include electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, dialysis machines, MRI ...accept India’s local currency, the rupee, to settle 45% of its oil sales to India, which Iran mostly used to buy Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals , rice...services for hydroelectric, oil, and gas services. However, GE subsidiary sales of medical diagnostic products such as MRI machines, marketed through

  6. Geophysical survey at Tell Barri (Syria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Giovanni; Cella, Federico; Pierobon, Raffaella; Castaldo, Raffaele; Castiello, Gabriella; Fedi, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    A geophysical survey at the archaeological site of Tell Barri (Northeasterm Syria) was carried out. The Tell (Arab word for "hill") is 32 m high with a whole covered area of 37 hectares. The Tell, with its huge dimensions and with a great amount of pottery on the surface, is a precious area to study the regional history from IV mill. BC to Islamic and Medieval period. The geophysical study consisted in magnetic and electromagnetic measurements in the lower town area. The aim of this survey was to provide evidence of the presence of buried archaeological structures around an already excavated area. The wall structures in the Tell Barri are made by backed or crude clay bricks. The instrument used for the magnetic survey was an Overhauser-effect proton magnetometer (Gem GSM-19GF), in gradiometric configuration. The electromagnetic instrument used, Geonics Ltd. EM31, implements a Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Method (FDEM). It was used in vertical coils configuration, and this choice should grant a maximum theoretical investigation depth of about 6 m. Before starting the measurements on a larger scale, we conducted a magnetic and EM test profile on some already excavated, outcropping, baked bricks walls. Results were encouraging, because clear and strong magnetic and EM anomalies were recorded over the outcropping walls. However, in the survey area these structures are covered by 3 to 4 meters of clay material and the increased sensors-structures distance will reduce the anomalies amplitude. Moreover, the cover material is disseminated with bricks, basalt blocks and ceramics, all of which have relevant magnetic properties. After magnetic surveying some 50 m side square areas, we verified that unfortunately their effect resulted to be dominant with respect to the deeper wall structures, degrading too much the signal-to-noise ratio. The processing and analysis of magnetic data is however currently underway and will determine decisions about further use of this method

  7. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  8. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ..., %%Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists...

  9. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as growing sectarian violence...

  10. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    .... However, there are concerns that the Kurds are using their political strength to serve their own interests at the expense of a unified Iraq, in the process inflaming long-standing Turkish concerns...

  11. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... At the same time, mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs stimulated debate within the United States over whether the initial goals of the intervention -- a stable, democratic Iraq that is a partner in the global war...

  12. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This report to Congress, Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, is submitted pursuant to Section 9010 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2007, Public Law 109-289 as amended by Section...

  13. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181.1 The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  14. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  15. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  16. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime, but during 2004-2007 much of Iraq was wracked by violence caused by Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, resulting Sunni-Shiite...

  17. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    devoting significant resources to that plan. On April 30, 2012, the COR enacted a law to facilitate elimination of trafficking in persons, both sexual ...human rights reports have noted continuing instances of harassment and intimidation of journalists who write about corruption and the lack of government...extradite him to the United States, but Iraq released him in November 2012 and he returned to Lebanon , despite U.S. efforts to persuade Iraq to keep

  18. Thi Qar Bee Farm Thi Qar, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vegetation and fields where bees once gathered pollen and beekeepers face hardships from droughts and lack of financial assistance. 1...of equipment, and provided training to the bee farmers. General topography of the area was flat with vacant or agricultural land extending for a...OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION THI QAR BEE FARM THI QAR, IRAQ SIGIR PA--09--188

  19. Incidence and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Iran and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns in many countries, however the available and effective treatment is known. Tuberculosis typically determined with socio-economic problems such as war, malnutrition and HIV prevalence. In Iran, many progresses are carried to control tuberculosis but, different factors such as immigration from neighboring countries are affective to tuberculosis infection. Objectives In this paper, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis is evaluated in different regions of Iran and neighboring countries. Methods The data are collected from different and valid sources such as Scopus, Pubmed and also many reports from world health organization (WHO and center of disease control and prevention (CDC for a period of 25 years (1990 - 2015 evaluated for Iran and neighboring countries. Results This study as a descriptive- analytical research is conducted cross- sectional among Iran and neighboring countries since 1990. The information is obtained from exact and valid informative data from web of sciences. The east and west border countries of Iran which are faced with war and immigration in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq are source of tuberculosis infection that effect on tuberculosis prevalence in Iran. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and Excel 2013. Conclusions The incidence of tuberculosis in Iran has been decreased because of many controlling actions such as BCG vaccination, electronic reporting system for tuberculosis and free access to tuberculosis medication. Some of Iran neighboring countries such as Tajikistan and Pakistan have the highest incidence of tuberculosis which known as a challenge for tuberculosis control in Iran while Saudi Arabia and Turkey have the lowest incidence.

  20. Iran’s Role in Iraq: Room for U.S.-Iran Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    international isolation, but could also increase its leverage on nuclear negotiations with the P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Rus- sia, the United Kingdom, and...Iranian- born Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani, are wary of Iran’s velayat-e faghih (rule of the supreme jurisprudence ). Moreover, many Iraqis, including...foreign policy objectives, from decreasing Tehran’s international isolation to possibly gaining more leverage on nuclear negotiation. Therefore, it is

  1. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  2. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  3. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  4. Climate Change and Human Occupation in Denmark and Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Niels; Jensen, Gitte; Limborg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    the main changes in human activities in the areas. It also confirms that the climatic histories of the sites are closely correlated - with strong ties to global causes of climate change. The NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) caused contrasting rainfall conditions in Denmark and Levant. Over a period of one......Classical sites for studies of human occupation and climatic changes in Denmark and Syria - have been re-examined. A detailed geological/geophysical mapping of selected sites and geochemical /palynological analysis of cores/profiles confirms that climate change has been the decisive factor behind....... The changes in human occupation in Syria and in Denmark both seems to correlate with the proxies of climate change esp. the change from Atlantic to Subboreal around 4000BC, the change from Subboreal to Subatlantic around 500 BC are marked in as well the climate record and archaeological records (monsoon...

  5. Armed Conflict in Syria: U.S. and International Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    the export of liquid petroleum gas ( LPG ) to Syria, since it is widely used by ordinary households for heating and cooking. Since new sanctions were...chemical weapons program suggests that nerve gas and mustard gas production and storage infrastructure is concentrated at facilities in and around Al...population). They inhabit agriculturally rich areas, which also contain several of Syria’s most valuable oil and natural gas fields. In an attempt to

  6. Gynaikothrips uzeli (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), new record from Tartous, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali Yaseen

    2014-01-01

    The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Sun Tzu and Machiavelli in Syria: Attacking Alliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    known book The Prince , but also his lesser read work The Art of War (not to be confused with Sun Tzu’s The Art of War). Machiavelli understood the...Tzu located in Yurihama, Japan. Public domain photo. Right: Statue of Italian philosopher and writer Niccolo Machiavelli located in Florence... Machiavelli , juxtaposed to the normative trend the West has followed ever so ineffectually since the conflict began in Syria. Let me be clear upfront; this

  8. Modeling system for the rapid construction in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefabrication is a manufacturing process conducted at a specialized facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation. Prefabrication techniques have been progressively adopted in the construction industry in various countries. The demand was at its peak in the early 1970s in Eastern and Western Europe for the construction of new towns. Worldwide, the highest precast levels in 1996 were located in Denmark (43%, the Netherlands (40%, Sweden and Germany (31%. In Asia, the precast levels in Japan and Singapore were about 15% and 8%, respectively, recently, the use of prefabrication is further encouraged to increase productivity and build ability. In Syria too, the first residential project in Damascus: the establishment of 2400 housing units in the year (77-80. Except that the rate of construction pre-cast in Syria is still not exceed 2% of Building of reinforced concrete. In order to participate in the reconstruction of Syria, after the destruction and devastation caused by the war over four years, this search evaluates successful international experiences in rapid construction technique, and modeled system that could serve the current Syrian reality. Introduction of this technology as a new method in the world of construction in Syria requires a good base, relying on the availability of the necessary raw materials and nearness of work site, as well as the need to replace old technology into modern technology, and analyzing the economic, social, environmental criteria, to make the decision about the best solution. Cost and time will form the most important indicators that will be analyzed and calculated, before the final model mode, in order to be able to use this system later in Syrian construction companies.

  9. Cheap Oil and the Impact on Rebuilding Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Syrian energy infrastructure will not be cost effective in the current oil pricing environment. I will present a quick overview of oil’s historic role...in the Syrian economy, followed by a synopsis of the current state of Syria’s oil infrastructure . An analysis of the impact of low oil prices on...similarities between countries, a specific comparison will be made to Yemen in an effort to predict the challenges that Syria will face when entering the

  10. Detection of Listeria in raw milk in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Abou-Younes, A.

    2010-01-01

    The 66 milk collected from all province of Syria, were examined for the presence of Listeria sp. using a several technique, and L. monocytogenes serotypes associated with human listeriosis were also identified in the product. The PCR based method identified 117 strains of Listeria, L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. ivanovii, L. gravi, and L. welshimeri. The API Listeria system identified 94% of the isolates whereas FTIR identification was 98% for all Listeria species. (author)

  11. Geophysical survey at archaeological sites in northeastern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mateiciucová, Inna; Milo, Peter; Tencer, Tomáš; Vlach, Marek

    2011-01-01

    From August 25 to September 4, 2008, geophysical surveys were carried out at the Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze and Iron Age tell- and non-tell settlements in the Khabur region in Northeastern Syria (Syrian-Polish-Czech expedition) (Fig. 1). Four sites were prospected: Tell Arbid Abyad, Tell Arbid (West-hill), Khirbet Shane, Khirbet Bezi. The Scintrex Navmag SM-5 – Caesium Magnetometer was used for the measurement of the vertical gradient of the local magnetic field. The measurement resoluti...

  12. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.

  13. Military diplomacy and Russia’s policy in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Verbitskaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of problematic issues of the change of modern international relations system. It was found that such changes have affected the very essence of international relations: actors (the emergence of non-governmental actors, the importance of which is increasing, methods (the scope of military diplomacy has been expanded, objects (the nature of armed confl icts, both international and non-international, has been changed; the concept of international crime is determined by the danger posed to the international community. The author sets time frameworks of the changes, studies the characteristics of international system and its elements. The study focuses on the phenomenon of military diplomacy and criteria of its effectiveness. These criteria for the effectiveness of military diplomacy are applied to the Russia’s actions in Syria as part of its fi ght against international terrorism. The key documents of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Syrian Arab Republic are analyzed. The research is focused on Russian measures in its war against terror in Syria. The author posits that Russia’s actions in Syria represent a model which refl ects the role of non-governmental actors in world politics, the methods used in international affairs and the specifi cs of international crimes.

  14. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Kalam, Faiza

    2014-01-01

    Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15-18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females). Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  15. Dietary habits and lifestyle among adolescents in Damascus, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Musaiger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Dietary and lifestyle behaviours among adolescents are risk factors for several chronic diseases in adulthood. objective. To examine the differences in dietary habits and lifestyle between male and female adolescents in Syria. materials and method. A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified sampling study was carried out on adolescents, 15–18-years-old, in Damascus, Syria. The total sample selected was 365 (178 males and 187 females. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire. results. There were significant differences between males and females in the frequency of intake of vegetables, milk and dairy products, red meat, sugary beverages and fast foods. Females were more likely to skip breakfast than males (52.4% vs. 43%, but the difference was not statistically significant. Males were significantly more likely to consume larger portions of fast foods and soft drinks. Significant differences were found between genders in eating while watching television, hours using Internet, practicing physical activity and emotional eating. conclusion. A significant variation between male and female Syrian adolescents in their food habits and lifestyle was observed. Interventions should consider the gender differences to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren in Syria.

  16. Top DoD Management Challenges, Fiscal Year 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Providing Effective, Comprehensive, and Cost Effective Health Care 10. Identifying and Implementing Efficiencies in the DoD INSPECTOR GENERAL...8: Ensuring Ethical Conduct ................ 64 Challenge 9: Providing Effective, Comprehensive, and Cost Effective Health  Care...eroding ISIS physical caliphate in Iraq. INFLUENCE OF RUSSIA AND IRAN IN SYRIA In March 2017, General Votel testified that Iran poses the greatest

  17. 77 FR 5387 - Amendment to the Export Administration Regulations: Addition of a Reference to a Provision of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... imposition of sanctions under the ISA. There are several possible sanctions that may be imposed under the ISA... three statutory authorities: (1) The Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-484); (2) the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (Pub. L. 106-178); or (3) Section 11B(b)(1)(B)(i...

  18. Gender and spatial population mobility in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmasi, M

    1994-01-01

    1976-1986 data from the National Census of Population and Housing were analyzed to examine the spatial patterns of internal migration of women and men in Iran within its Islamic patriarchal cultural system. The researcher also organized 1986 data into two interprovincial migration matrixes for men and women. Women were spatially as mobile as men (urban, 16.7% for men and 17% for women; rural, 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively). Gender spatial mobility patterns during the 10 years included: migration streams from nine provinces consistently led to Tehran province, most migration flows to Tehran and most other provinces originated from Khuzistan, East Azerbaijan province still continued to lose population (about 500,000), and out-flows generally originated from the provinces affected by the Iran-Iraq war and went to the central and eastern provinces. The strongest determinants of women's migration was men's migration ratio and the road distance between the origin and destination. Reasons for these strong associations were few employed women ( 10%), strong family ties, and traditional cultural values (e.g., women tend not to travel alone). So their migration patterns tended to be associational rather than autonomous. Despite the fact that internal migration patterns of men and women were the same, the causes, processes, and consequences of migration were still very gender-specific in Iran. There are no signs of change in the near future.

  19. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Michuda Y.P.; Ridha F.

    2012-01-01

    Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA), and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a con...

  20. Nutritional situation among Syrian refugees hosted in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon: cross sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Moazzem; Leidman, Eva; Kingori, James; Al Harun, Abdullah; Bilukha, Oleg O

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing armed conflict in Syria has caused large scale displacement. Approximately half of the population of Syria have been displaced including the millions living as refugees in neighboring countries. We sought to assess the health and nutrition of Syrian refugees affected by the conflict. Representative cross-sectional surveys of Syrian refugees were conducted between October 2 and November 30, 2013 in Lebanon, April 12 and May 1, 2014 in Jordan, and May 20 and 31, 2013 in Iraq. Surveys in Lebanon were organized in four geographical regions (North, South, Beirut/Mount Lebanon and Bekaa). In Jordan, independent surveys assessed refugees residing in Za'atri refugee camp and refugees residing among host community nationwide. In Iraq, refugees residing in Domiz refugee camp in the Kurdistan region were assessed. Data collected on children aged 6 to 59 months included anthropometric indicators, morbidity and feeding practices. In Jordan and Lebanon, data collection also included hemoglobin concentration for children and non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49 years, anthropometric indicators for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and household level indicators such as access to safe water and sanitation. The prevalence of global acute malnutrition among children 6 to 59 months of age was less than 5 % in all samples (range 0.3-4.4 %). Prevalence of acute malnutrition among women 15 to 49 years of age, defined as mid-upper arm circumference less than 23.0 cm, was also relatively low in all surveys (range 3.5-6.5 %). For both children and non-pregnant women, anemia prevalence was highest in Za'atri camp in Jordan (48.4 % and 44.8 %, respectively). Most anemia was mild or moderate; prevalence of severe anemia was less than or equal to 1.1 % in all samples of children and women. Despite the ongoing conflict, results from all surveys indicate that global acute malnutrition is relatively low in the assessed Syrian refugee populations. However, prevalence of anemia

  1. The Patterns and Dynamics of Revolution: Insights into Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    197. 80 Rabasa, 56. 26 81 Ibid., 53. 82 Roger Cohen. 83 Crane and Terrill, 33. 84 Andrew Krepinevich, "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" 8...in Iraq." Christian Science Monitor, 20 September 2004, 1. Krepinevich, Andrew. "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" Center for Strategic and

  2. Middle East authoritarianisms: governance, contestation, and regime resilience in Syria and Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydemann, S.; Leenders, R.

    2013-01-01

    The developments of early 2011 have left the political landscape of the Middle East changed but recognizable. Even as urgent struggles continue, it remains clear that authoritarianism will survive this transformational moment. The study of authoritarian governance, therefore, remains essential for

  3. Political Dynamics and Security in the Arabian Peninsula Through the 1990s,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Moreover, not only were historical and ideological differences between Syria and Iraq present, but Dam- ascus had supported Iran throughout the Iran...Iraq wanted to rebuild its war-dam- aged facilities as well as expand its industrial capacity., The need to show something for the war, coupled with a...outlooks, Gulf shaykhdoms articulated na- tional security policies through age -old political survival techniques. By 1992, however, and in large

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to the Actions of the Government of Syria Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice... of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty Restoration Act of...

  5. 78 FR 27299 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...

  6. 75 FR 24777 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria Accountability and Lebanese Sovereignty...

  7. 76 FR 24791 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria... Government of Syria. To deal with this national emergency, Executive Order 13338 authorized the blocking of...

  8. 77 FR 27557 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... the National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria #0; #0; #0; Presidential... National Emergency With Respect to the Actions of the Government of Syria On May 11, 2004, pursuant to his authority under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, 50 U.S.C. 1701-1706, and the Syria...

  9. Factors in the Introduction of a New Communications Technology Into Syria and Turkey: Background Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCompte, Gare

    Syria and Turkey differ in styles of government and patterns of media use. Syria is governed by a military junta; factionalism, intolerance of opposition, and the lack of any options except the use of force to gain political power, have inhibited political stability. Syrian newspapers have low credibility and are characterized by low standards,…

  10. Impact of Conflict in Syria on Syrian Children at the Zaatari Refugee Camp in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Sinaria Abdel; Zaza, Haidar Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate the impact of the conflict in Syria on Syrian refugee children. The Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan was chosen for this task. Two control (comparison) groups of children were selected: one from the Jordanian Ramtha district, which is just across the border from Syria, and that indirectly feel…

  11. 78 FR 36223 - Extension and Redesignation of Syria for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... children died in military offensives, sniper fire, attacks on protests, and massacres. Children have... Postal Service. Immigration Services, Attn: TPS Syria, P.O. Box 6943, Chicago, IL 60680-6943. You are... Syria, 131 S. Dearborn 3rd Floor, Chicago, IL 60603-5517. If you were granted TPS by an Immigration...

  12. Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a Vision for the Transition in Syria. The development of civil society institutions in Syria has been largely controlled by the governing regime, never reaching the level of inclusion, participation, and pluralism needed to achieve an open and democratic society. In order for Syrians to work towards an inclusive and ...

  13. Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in the Term of Social Geograpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat BENEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical process between Syria and Turkey has always high tension. According to Turkey, Syria is the country,which has hosted the Turkish enemies, which causes problems in the sharing of water resources and geographically it is seen as ‘’enemy country’’ because of interfering in Turkey's territorial integrity; According to Syria, Turkey is "enemy" is because it doesn’t share water resources in a fair way and as supporters of western countries, claiming rights over their territory (Hatay. In short, for many years strained relations with Syria-Turkey relations , by signing of the Treaty of Adana in 1998, good relations has been established with unpredictable speed in a short time . Escalating positive relations between Turkey and Syria in the years 1998-2011, and relations has again strained the outbreak of the Syria Civil War in 2011, and was even worse off period before 1998. Therefore the main goal of this study "Historical Background of Turkey-Syria Relations in terms of Social Geography" is to examine the dynamics of it. For this purpose, treaties defining the Turkey-Syria relationship, the protocols, briefings given by officials were examined. Historical background of the two countries' relations in terms of social geography has been tried to put forward in chronological order

  14. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Iraq; (b) Relating to travel and activities for the conduct of the official business of the United... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.207 Prohibited transactions relating to travel to...

  15. US Presence and Grounds for Cooperation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and United States in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Javadikouchaksaraei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, USA has not designed a policy to deal with Afghanistan and Iraq without Iran. One of the fundamental strategies of USA is to cooperate with the European Union, the Pacific, Russia, the Balkan Area, as well as the Caucasus the Middle East, North Africa, and Middle Asia. All of the countries relate to Iran in saving the Pacific. Iran is the most influential country in the area surrounding Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Northern Africa and Middle Asia. USA has to face Iran in the Middle East to meet the benefits of this relation. Therefore, such situation leads to the main question: does the attendance of USA in Afghanistan create the grounds for cooperation with Iran? Despite the existing disputes between the two governments, the attendance of USA in Afghanistan seems to have created new security, political, economic, and cultural fields for the cooperation of both countries.

  16. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  17. Continental margin evolution of the northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic))

    1993-02-01

    Synthesis of available geological and geophysical data in the Syrian Arab Republic permits a descriptive account of the pre-Cenozoic geologic history of the northern Arabian platform. The northern Arabian platform appears to be a composite plate similar up to that interpreted in the rocks of the Arabian shield. The structural and stratigraphic relationships of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary sections in Syria record the transformation of an eastward-facing Gondwana passive margin in the early Paleozoic into a westward-facing Levantine margin in the Mesozoic, at which time the northern platform was closely associated with the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin. Timing of the margin transformation is inferred from the orientation and thickness variations of Lower Triassic rocks, but the transformation may have initiated as early as the Permian. The diversity and timing of geological features in Syria suggest that the northern Arabian platform did not behave as a rigid plate throughout its geological history. The present-day Palmyride mountain belt, located within the northern Arabian platform in Syria and initiated in the early Mesozoic as a northeast-trending rift nearly perpendicular to the Levantine margin, subsequently was inverted in the Cenozoic by transpression. The location of the rift may be associated with the reactivation of a zone of crustal weakness, i.e., a Proterozoic suture zone previously proposed from modeling of Bouguer gravity data. Thus, the northern and southern parts of the Arabian platform are similar in their respective geologic histories during the Proterozoic and Paleozoic; however, the northern Arabian platform was greatly affected by Mesozoic rifting and the creation of the eastern Mediterranean basin during the Mesozoic. 13 figs.

  18. Chemical and environmental isotopes study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.; Abou Zakhem, B.

    2009-02-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were monitored at 12 stations distributed over the entire region in Syria for a period of 4 years from December 1999 to April 2003. Amount of precipitation and mean air temperature of rain monthly were also recorded. The conductivity of rain waters varies between 35 μ/cm in the mountainous stations and 336 μ/cm at Deir Az-Zor station. Excepted Tartous station, the mean value of Cl in the rainfall in all station is 3.8 mg/l. The seasonal variations in δ 18 O are smaller at west stations than to the east stations due to low seasonal temperature variations. All stations are characterized by water lines with slopes significantly lower than GMWL, except Bloudan, suggesting the influence of local factors on the isotopic composition of the precipitation. d-excess values decrease from 19% in the western part to 13% in the eastern part of Syria, indicating the influence of the precipitation generated by the air masses coming from the Mediterranean Sea over Syria. A reliable altitude effect represent by depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about -0.21, and -1.47, per 100 m elevation of 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively. Monthly tritium activity and seasonal variations pattern are low in the west stations than at the east stations. The weighted mean tritium values are between 3 to 9 TU during 2000-2003, and it is increasing with distance from the Syrian coast by 1 TU /100 Km. (author)

  19. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Very little information is available to IAEA on the geology and uranium potential of Syria. In 1975 a contract was awarded to Huntings Geology and Geophysics Ltd by the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources to carry out a study of the country's mineral resources with particular reference to phosphate uranium, chrome and industrial materials. The results of this survey are not known. Apart from the assumption of some possibility of uranium recovery as a by-product from phosphate production it is assumed that the Speculative Potential is likely to be less than 1000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  20. Geographical distribution of β-globin gene mutations in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Hossam; Moasses, Faten; Dabboul, Amir; Mukhalalaty, Yasser; Bakoor, Ahmad Omar; Al-Achkar, Walid; Jarjour, Rami A

    2018-04-11

    Objectives β-Thalassemia disease is caused by mutations in the β-globin gene. This is considered as one of the common genetic disorders in Syria. The aim of this study was to identify the geographical distribution of the β-thalassemia mutations in Syria. Methods β-Globin gene mutations were characterized in 636 affected patients and 94 unrelated carriers using the amplification refractory mutations system-polymerase chain reaction technique and DNA sequencing. Results The study has revealed the presence of 38 β-globin gene mutations responsible for β-thalassemia in Syria. Important differences in regional distribution were observed. IVS-I.110 [G > A] (22.2%), IVS-I.1 [G > A] (17.8%), Cd 39 [C > T] (8.2%), IVS-II.1 [G > A] (7.6%), IVS-I.6 [T > C] (7.1%), Cd 8 [-AA] (6%), Cd 5 [-CT] (5.6%) and IVS-I.5 [G > C] (4.1%) were the eight predominant mutations found in our study. The coastal region had higher relative frequencies (37.9 and 22%) than other regions. A clear drift in the distribution of the third common Cd 39 [C > T] mutation in the northeast region (34.8%) to the northwest region (2.5%) was noted, while the IVS-I.5 [G > C] mutation has the highest prevalence in north regions. The IVS-I.6 [T > C] mutation had a distinct frequency in the middle region. Ten mutations -86 [C > G], -31 [A > G], -29 [A > G], 5'UTR; +22 [G > A], CAP + 1 [A > C], Codon 5/6 [-TG], IVS-I (-3) or codon 29 [C > T], IVS-I.2 [T > A], IVS-I.128 [T > G] and IVS-II.705 [T > G] were found in Syria for the first time. Conclusions These data will significantly facilitate the population screening, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis in Syrian population.

  1. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  2. The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Contemporary Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Juan R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Iraqi Shiism is undergoing profound changes, leading to new elaborations of the relationship between clerics and democratic principles in an Islamic state. The Najaf tradition of thinking about Shiite Islam and the modern state in Iraq, which first developed during the Iranian constitutional

  3. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... by Section 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Some Capparis L. Species Growing in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Al- Safadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the genetic diversity and relationships among Capparis species growing in Syria using IRAP and ISSR techniques. Forty-seven samples of three Capparis species genotypes were collected from 21 different locations in Syria. The genotypes were morphologically identified based on the descriptions available in the literature. When IRAP technique was used, an average of 71.5% of the amplified fragments were polymorphic compared to 82.04% in ISSR. Morphological characterization along with the cluster and PCoA analyses of the data divided the studied genotypes into three groups. The groups included genotypes identified as Capparis spinosa L, C. sicula Duh., and C. aegyptia Lam. Based on the morphological description, molecular studies and statistical analyses of this study, C. aegyptia could be suggested as a separate species and not a varietal rank of C. spinosa(C. spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam.. Two samples (Alep1 and Idl were not placed in any of the three distinctive groups, despite their closeness morphologically to C. spinosa. In PCoA analysis, sample Alep1 came between C. sicula and C. spinosa and Idl was placed between C. sicula and C. aegyptia. Although hybridization between Capparis species could occur, it was not clear from the present study if these two genotypes were hybrids.

  5. Determination of lead 210 atmospheric fluxes in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Shaik Khalil, H.

    2001-01-01

    Lead 210 atmospheric fluxes were determined by collecting 51 profiles from Syrian soil during 1998. Lead 210 fluxes in Syria calculated from lead 210 inventory in soil ranged from 15 Bq.m -2 .y -1 and 407 Bq.m -2 .y -1 with an average value of 128 Bq.m -2 .y -1 . the highest fluxes were found to be in Hama area due to the Gaab fault, which is considered as a radon source in the area. In addition, fluxes were also high in most sites, which are located in Syria valleys and around the lakes. Moreover, the study has indicated that there is no linear relation between lead 210 flux values and other parameters such as annual rainfall and bulk density of the soil. On the other hand, an effect, of those two factors on lead 210 distribution with depth has been observed. In addition, the results of variable lead 210 fluxes from site to another have proved that it is necessary, in order to obtain a representative mean value of lead 210 flux obtained in this study is within the worldwide range for lead 210 flux. (Author)

  6. Syria: health in a country undergoing tragic transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taleb, Ziyad; Bahelah, Raed; Fouad, Fouad M; Coutts, Adam; Wilcox, Meredith; Maziak, Wasim

    2015-01-01

    To document the ongoing destruction as a result of the tragic events in Syria, to understand the changing health care needs and priorities of Syrians. A directed examination of the scientific literature and reports about Syria before and during the Syrian conflict, in addition to analyzing literature devoted to the relief and rebuilding efforts in crisis situations. The ongoing war has had high direct war casualty, but even higher suffering due to the destruction of health system, displacement, and the breakdown of livelihood and social fabric. Millions of Syrians either became refugees or internally displaced, and about half of the population is in urgent need for help. Access to local and international aid organizations for war-affected populations is an urgent and top priority. Syrians continue to endure one of the biggest human tragedies in modern times. The extent of the crisis has affected all aspects of Syrians' life. Understanding the multi-faceted transition of the Syrian population and how it reflects on their health profile can guide relief and rebuilding efforts' scope and priorities.

  7. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2008-01-01

    13 meteoric stations were selected in syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the syrian or local meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.63 and that of both syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude was determined by 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14% and - 0.84%/100 m elevation respectively). The spatial variability of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content of precipitation, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern mediterranean climate type over this region. (author)

  8. Radio spectrometric survey of un-surveyed areas in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R; Jubeli, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The values and distribution of the radioelements e U, e Th, % K and Ur units in the surface geological formations of the west and south sectors of Syrian region, were estimated using carbone gamma ray spectrometric survey. The radiometric maps were prepared, as well as, many geological profiles, cross sections studied in different locations and geochemical samples were analyzed by laboratory gamma ray spectrometry and by x-ray diffractometry, the results of the all sets were compared. In general, the survey shows, low radioelement concentrations in the area, especially on basic rocks (Jabal Al-arab, Hawran) south Syria, and on ultra basic rocks (ophiolitic complex) north-west Syria, but there are some separate anomalous spots were connected with phosphate rocks, detected on cretaceous and Palaeogene age. Some times we noticed high radioelement concentrations haloes associated with fractured zones were already arise from secondary uranium mineralization, as a result of solutions movement through fissures in carbonatic and/or chalk like limestone rocks. finally, the obtained concentrations, represent a background values which has no significant importance for uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  9. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among adults in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Radwan; Rastam, Samer; Fouad, Fouad M; Mzayek, Fawaz; Maziak, Wasim

    2011-12-01

    This report provides the first comprehensive and standardized assessment of the distribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Syria, where such data are still scarce. A population-based household survey was conducted in Aleppo (population >2.5 million), involving 1,168 subjects ≥25 years old (47.7% men; mean age 44.7 ± 12.7 years). Information about socio-demographics, personal behavior, and other CVD risk factors was collected. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained. The prevalence of clinical risk factors of CVD (ClinRFs) was 45.6% for hypertension, 43.2% for obesity, 21.9% for hypercholesterolemia and 15.6% for diabetes. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors (BehRFs) was 82.3% for physical inactivity, 39.0% for smoking, and 33.4% for unhealthy diet. All ClinRFs increased with age, while gender was associated only with obesity and smoking. Education was associated with obesity and diabetes (P Syria have some of the world's highest prevalence of CVD risk factors. Unhealthy behaviors and social norms unfavorable to women may explain some of such risk profiles.

  10. Regulatory control in the rehabilitation of contaminated sites in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Suman, H.

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this paper is concerning the regulatory control set by the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) for the contaminated sites with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in the oil industries in the northeast of Syria. These sites lie in a desert region with poor population density and low occupancy. The decision was made to use the activity concentration of 226 Ra per unit mass as a measure to identify the need for cleanup. Two limits were set for this purpose so that contamination concentration above the higher limit is defined as waste that has to be excavated from the site, while contamination concentration between the two limits can be dealt with on site. Contamination concentration below the lower limit was looked at as acceptable. Remediation plan to transfer the contaminated soil, with radium concentration over the higher limit, to an engineered disposal pit was adopted. Proper stabilisation measures and environmental monitoring programme were requested by the AECS and considered as essential parts of the remediation plan. (author)

  11. Improvement of wood quality used in Syria by irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakarji, E. H.

    2002-06-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) have been prepared with five low-grade woods, native to Syria, and with Okoume (aucoumea klaineana pierre) imported to Syria in large quantities. Three monomer systems; acrylamide, butylmethacrylate, and styrene were used. polymerization was induced at various radiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy) to study the role of radiation doses using a 60 Co gamma radiation source. Some physical properties of WPC, namely polymer loading and compression strength or tensile strength of the obtained wood polymer composites (WPC) were studied. The effect of the additives, sulfuric acid (H + ), N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), trimethyolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), urea (U), lithium nitrate (LiNo 3 ), copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and co-additives on monomer system polymerization were also investigated. Methanol, water and water/methanol mixtures were used as the swelling agents. In general, the use of additives and co-additives brought about an enhancement of tensile strength or compression strength and polymer loading of the composites. In some cases, additives also lowered the monomer concentration and the gamma radiation dose required for polymerization (author)

  12. A series of civilian fatalities during the war in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karaarslan, Bekir; Demirkıran, Dua Sümeyra; Zeren, Cem; Arslan, Muhammet Mustafa

    2014-09-01

    A considerable number of deaths due to firearm injuries have occurred during wars all over the world. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics and injury properties of cases died during civil war in Syria. The postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 321 forensic deaths occurred between January and December 2012 were analyzed, retrospectively. Of the 321 forensic deaths,186 cases were injured and died in the civil war in Syria and, therefore, included in the scope of the study. Four cases died by natural causes or traffic accidents were excluded. Cases were most commonly (n=73, 39.2%) aged between 21 and 30 years, and 21.5% (n=40) of cases aged under 20 years. Of females, 68.8% (n=11) were children and young adults under 20 years of age. An overwhelming majority of deaths (n=125, 67.2%) were caused by explosive and shrapnel injuries, followed by (n=49, 26.3%) gunshot injuries related deaths. This study indicated that a significant proportion of those who died after being injured in the Syrian war were children, women and elderly people. The nature and localization of the observed injuries indicated open attacks by military forces regardless of targets being civilians and human rights violations.

  13. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  14. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  15. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    .... relief and reconstruction program in Iraq. Two notable developments frame this Report. First, total relief and reconstruction investment for Iraq from all sources the United States, Iraq, and other donors passed...

  16. Post-Transition Violence in Iraq (2004-2005): The Military Perspective of an Insider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karam, Jabbar N

    2006-01-01

    .... Governing Iraq has been complicated by the violence Iraq is have since suffered. The nature of this violence in the regions north and west of Baghdad must be analyzed to provide a solution for a safe and secure Iraq...

  17. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  18. U.S. Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq: Progress Made in Implementing Revised Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel, Robert; Haigler, Dan; Hlinka, Joan

    2008-01-01

    .... anticorruption activities in Iraq. SIGIR instituted reviews of these programs in recognition of the significant detrimental effect corruption has on Iraq's economic, social, and political reconstruction...

  19. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    International pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program is increasing the hesitation of many major foreign firms to invest in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production beyond...

  20. Nationalism in Ottoman Greater Syria 1840-1914: The Divisive Legacy of Sectarianism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francioch, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    ... for a sustainable, peaceful, and just international system of interactions between nation states. Syria and Lebanon pose some of the most challenging problems to policy makers working to achieve these conditions...

  1. Regional radiometric map of Syria, using gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.; Nasser, R.

    2005-01-01

    The regional radiometric gamma-ray spectrometry map of Syria, scaled 1/1000000, for surficial concentration of the total radioactivity (Ur), eU, eTh and %K was completely achieved after normalizing the airborne and carbon data sets to match each other. It worthy notice that, the anomalies found to be closely related to either phosphate and/or glauconite deposits. It is worth mentioning that throughout the survey work many scattered occurrences of secondary uranium mineralization were found as spots in some formations and phosphate rocks. Where this phenomena attributes to chemical and physical disseminating instead of accumulating the radioelements. So, that leads to a weak expectation for usual surface uranium deposits where attributed to the oxidizing condition. Then this expectation remains, as an open question requires answering through planning to subsurface prospecting. (Author)

  2. Natural radioactivity in hot and mineral waters in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Abbass, M.; Kattan, Z.

    1994-08-01

    A study of water chemistry and radioactivity of hot and mineral ground waters was conducted in Syria in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels as well as the mobility process of major radionuclides in the studied systems. The water samples were collected generally from carbonate and basaltic aquifer systems. The chemistry of groundwaters was a reflection of the rock type, while no relationship was found between the radionuclide activities and water temperatures. The increase of 222 Rn concentration in hot and mineral waters was accompanied by a similar increase of the concentration of its patent radionuclides (U t ot and 226 Ra). In parallel, the relative increase of 222 Rn concentration was correlated significantly with the presence of the large faults systems prevailing in the studied areas (Palmyrides and Great African Faults Systems). In all the cases, the radionuclide activity levels were below the maximum contaminant levels given for drinking water and health effects. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Patient doses from diagnostic radiographic examinations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M.H.; Khedr, M.; Wannus, K.

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate radiation doses received by adult patients undergoing 9 routine common types of x-ray examination in Syria covering (chest PA, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spine LAT, Urography, abdomen, pelvis and hip, head, shoulder and extremities). The study consisted of measurements for 1308 x-ray examination for patients in 26 public hospitals. The average effective dose imparted to each patient per examination was computed from measurement of dose area product for the examination and using the X-dose software, the result of the effective dose except for extremities are gradually (0.125, 1.67, 1.23, 2.7, 1.07, 0.85, 0.05 and 0.025) and the average of the DAP for extremities was 0.095 Gy.cm 2 . (author)

  4. Repeated prayers: saying the rosary in contemporary Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Mauss' seminal doctoral thesis, On Prayer [1909], captured the social character of prayer, but he sidelined the rosary as a merely mechanical prayer of repetition. This article also finds repetition at play in the rosary, as it is performed in the shrine of Our Lady of Soufanieh, Damascus, in pre......-2011 Syria. However, it argues that repetition need not be conceptualised as dulling and inhibiting for the devotee. Rather, repetition can be seen like a heartbeat: something alive and pulsating. The repetition of the prayers among the followers is seen as unforced, a voluntary response to a grace...... already bestowed upon them by the Virgin Mary and Christ. Prayers are a response to this grace and, in this sense, repetition is to be understood as re-petition. This re-petition is seen as modelling the individual in the image of the Virgin Mary and, by this, exemplifying the saintly character...

  5. The Evolution of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Implications for Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Min, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The world today is confronted by North Korea that has apparently acquired successfully nuclear weapons, and by Iran that seems bent on acquiring, at a minimum, a virtual nuclear weapons capability. This trend suggests that prospects for freezing, if not rolling back, both Iran's and North Korea's programs are becoming increasingly difficult prospects. While President George W. Bush came under attack for going to war with Iraq based on faulty intelligence assessments and also for labeling Iran, Iraq and North Korea as part of the 'axis of evil', it cannot be denied that the world's 'most dangerous states with the most dangerous weapons' remain one of the defining security challenges of the post-9/11 era. Nevertheless, the Bush Administration's efforts to prevent, and failing that, to minimize the fallout from a nuclearized North Korea and a potentially nuclear capable Iran, have been decidedly mixed. Although North Korea maintained nuclear ambiguity for two decades, it finally gave up the pretense of having a 'virtual nuclear weapons program' in October 2006 whereas Iran continues on the path of nuclear brinkmanship. Whether Iran is going to cross the nuclear Rubicon remains uncertain but the fact that it has the requisite technologies and the political will to cross the nuclear threshold if it chose to do so remains unchanged. Regardless of Tehran's ultimate choice and attendant strategic consequences, Iran cannot but have gained key glimpses and insights from North Korea's decades-long pursuit of nuclear weapons. While Iran and North Korea have vastly different political histories and national ideologies, their paths have criss-crossed on the road towards nuclearization. Tehran and Pyongyang are not 'natural' allies although Iran has benefited from North Korea's ballistic missile sales (such as the Shahab-3 long-range missile). For its part, Pyongyang has gained not only from missile exports to Iran, but perhaps more significantly, by Iran's own nuclear challenge

  6. The Evolution of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Implications for Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung Min, Lee

    2009-07-01

    The world today is confronted by North Korea that has apparently acquired successfully nuclear weapons, and by Iran that seems bent on acquiring, at a minimum, a virtual nuclear weapons capability. This trend suggests that prospects for freezing, if not rolling back, both Iran's and North Korea's programs are becoming increasingly difficult prospects. While President George W. Bush came under attack for going to war with Iraq based on faulty intelligence assessments and also for labeling Iran, Iraq and North Korea as part of the 'axis of evil', it cannot be denied that the world's 'most dangerous states with the most dangerous weapons' remain one of the defining security challenges of the post-9/11 era. Nevertheless, the Bush Administration's efforts to prevent, and failing that, to minimize the fallout from a nuclearized North Korea and a potentially nuclear capable Iran, have been decidedly mixed. Although North Korea maintained nuclear ambiguity for two decades, it finally gave up the pretense of having a 'virtual nuclear weapons program' in October 2006 whereas Iran continues on the path of nuclear brinkmanship. Whether Iran is going to cross the nuclear Rubicon remains uncertain but the fact that it has the requisite technologies and the political will to cross the nuclear threshold if it chose to do so remains unchanged. Regardless of Tehran's ultimate choice and attendant strategic consequences, Iran cannot but have gained key glimpses and insights from North Korea's decades-long pursuit of nuclear weapons. While Iran and North Korea have vastly different political histories and national ideologies, their paths have criss-crossed on the road towards nuclearization. Tehran and Pyongyang are not 'natural' allies although Iran has benefited from North Korea's ballistic missile sales (such as the Shahab-3 long-range missile). For its part, Pyongyang has gained not only from missile

  7. Chemical and isotopic composition of precipitations in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Zakhem, B.; Hafez, R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine isotopic characteristics of precipitation, the climatic and geographical conditions affecting isotopic composition in order to obtain the input function of groundwater to evaluate the water resources.13 meteoric stations were selected in Syria for cumulative monthly rainfall sampling during two hydrological cycles; 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The chemical and isotopic compositions of monthly precipitation were studied. The winter and spring rainfall isotopic characteristics were determined, in addition to the Syrian meteoric line (SMWL) was estimated with a slope of 6.62 and that of both Syria and Jordan of 6.73. The effect of climatic factors as temperature and relative air humidity on oxygen-18, deuterium and d-excess were studied and it was found that the relationship between temperature and oxygen-18 and deuterium is a positive linear correlation; however, it is a negative correlation with d-excess. The mean seasonal variation amplitude of 18 O was about 6%, and the amount effect on isotopic content of precipitation was studied. The geographic factors and its affect on isotopic contents of precipitation such as altitude were considered, furthermore, the isotopic gradient with altitude was determined for both oxygen-18 and deuterium (-0.14 % and -0.84% /100m respectively). The spatial distribution of oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium and d-excess indicted the effect of mountain chains and gaps between mountains on the isotopic content, the continental effect on tritium build-up by about 33% per 100 Km from the coast. The increase of d-excess values towards the south west proves the eastern Mediterranean climate type over this region.(author)

  8. First record of the Lesser Horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800) (Rhinolophidae, Chiroptera) from Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Shehab, Adwan; Mamkhair, Inrahim; Amr, Zuhair

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros was recorded for the first time from Syria in 2005-06. Two solitary hibernating specimens (a male and a female) were collected from an underground cave in Basofan village, NW of Aleppo, and from Al Marqab Citadel, Banyas. External and cranial measurements are given for both specimens. The list of recorded species of bats of Syria includes 17 species. Riassunto&l...

  9. Strategic Forum. Number 285, January 2014. The Flawed Strategic Debate on Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that the Syrian regime of 2015 and beyond will not count us among its benefactors. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote, “A prince must imitate the fox and...who_is_in_charge_of_us_syria_policy>. 60 Niccolò Machiavelli , The Prince , trans. Harvey Mansfield (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 69...very real possibility that Syria will not fulfill its chemi- cal weapons obligations under the agreement reached in late 2013. For as Machiavelli

  10. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  11. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    and half of whom would be elected by direct, lected medicine and milk for children and told the world secret balloting, about the killing of civilians...the continua- nomic siege on Iraq and banning milk from reaching the tion of campaigns of pressure and the blockade. Conser- children and elderly...organizations, which are characterized by ment. falsehood, falsification of facts, the shirking of responsi- bility, insistence on pushing for the

  12. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  13. Iran - waiting and watching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  14. Iran’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Toyota (Japan), Kia Motors (South Korea), Proton ( Malaysia ), and Chery CRS-22 89 EIU, “Country Profile 2007: Iran,” 2007, p. 45. Prime Vista Research...Background The 1979 Islamic revolution changed Iran’s modern political and economic history . Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his supporters transformed Iran...heating during one of the coldest winters in recent Iranian history . Turkmenistan has since resumed supplying gasoline to Iran. Foreign Involvement in

  15. Where is Iran going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  16. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  17. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  18. New Late Neolithic (c. 7000-5000 BC) archeointensity data from Syria. Reconstructing 9000 years of archeomagnetic field intensity variations in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Molist Montaña, Miquel; Genevey, Agnès; Clop García, Xavier; Thébault, Erwan; Gómez Bach, Anna; Le Goff, Maxime; Robert, Béatrice; Nachasova, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We present new archeomagnetic intensity data from two Late Neolithic archeological sites (Tell Halula and Tell Masaïkh) in Syria. These data, from 24 groups of potsherds encompassing 15 different time levels, are obtained using the Triaxe experimental protocol, which takes into account both the thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate effects on intensity determinations. They allow us to recover the geomagnetic intensity variations in the Middle East, between ∼7000 BC and ∼5000 BC, i.e. during the so-called pre-Halaf, proto-Halaf, Halaf and Halaf-Ubaid Transitional cultural phases. The data are compared with previous archeointensity results of similar ages from Northern Iraq (Yarim Tepe II and Tell Sotto) and Bulgaria. We find that previous dating of the Iraqi material was in error. When corrected, all northern Mesopotamian data show a relatively good consistency and also reasonably match with the Bulgarian archeointensity dataset. Using a compilation of available data, we construct a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for the Middle East encompassing the past 9000 years, which makes it presently the longest known regional archeomagnetic intensity record. We further use this compilation to constrain variations in dipole field moment over most of the Holocene. In particular, we discuss the possibility that a significant dipole moment maximum occurred during the third millennium BC, which cannot easily be identified in available time-varying global geomagnetic field reconstructions.

  19. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  20. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  1. Iraq's shop-till-you-drop nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a series of articles that began in March 1991, the authors have tried to separate fact from fiction about Iraq's ability to build nuclear weapons and to produce material to fuel them. After exposing Iraq's efforts to enrich uranium and design an atomic bomb, UN and IAEA experts zeroed in on how Iraq put its program together. The basic answer is that along with determination and persistence, Iraq had a great deal of foreign help. Iraq's 'Petrochemical Three,' the secret nuclear program conducted under the authority of its Atomic Energy Commission with links to the Defense Ministry and the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, received massive infusions of money and resources. Like the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bombs in the United States, Iraq's program simultaneously pursued a number of different technical avenues to the bomb. Not knowing which efforts would succeed, Iraq poured billions of dollars into its multifaceted quest. Providing for these programs required the establishment of elaborate procurement networks in Europe, North America, and Asia. Like the technical quest, the procurement effort was carried out on many fronts at once. Diplomacy and secrecy were required, because few companies would knowingly supply a nuclear weapons program, or even a secret nuclear program that was ostensibly for civil purposes. Iraq showed great ingenuity in hiding its purchases behind such innocuous pursuits as automobile manufacturing, dairy production, and oil refining

  2. Design issues concerning Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was ∼80% complete and unit 2 was ∼50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction

  3. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  4. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  5. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  6. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  8. Energy saving in housing in Syria; Energieeinsparung im Wohnungsbau in Syrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantouch, Yaser

    2009-06-03

    The demand for energy is increasing in Syria annually by 10-11% and the population increases annually 2.54% This growth leads also to increase in the housing,that it is energy-unconscious and consumes many energy. This large increase in energy consumption is an important problem in the housing in Syria, particularly with the lack of observance of various climatic factors,this leads to install the heating or cooling system in all housing in order to improve thermal comfort. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency. The starting point is the experience from other countries (such as Germany), which have extensive policies, experience and rules for energy-saving buildings. The aim of this work is to provide insights into residential buildings with very high energy efficiency to win. The starting point is the experience from other countries such as Germany, which has extensive policies and rules for energy-saving buildings have. These are transferred with appropriate additions to residential buildings in Syria, and they are specified for special conditions, as well as the economic, social, climatic and regulatory requirements in Syria. There is a new architectural concepts in the design of residential buildings in Syria on their energy issues to research.it was discussed the links between architecture, energy and ecology, concepts of energy-saving building and influencing factors in energy consumption in buildings analyzed and influence of these factors on building and energy in the study area (Syria). This work includes the calculations of energy-efficient building (temperature and energy consumption) for different variants with different simulation programs, and these are assessed socially and economically through interviews, surveys and calculations of Energy Price and the Cost of Buildings. It turns out that there are many opportunities for energy saving in housing in Syria by architectural, design

  9. "The Islamic State Of Iraq And The Levant" (ISIL In The System Of Threats To The National Security Of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Agapov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work authors analyze political, economic, military and many other aspects of the "Islamic State of Iraq and Levant" activity as essential factor of the destabilization in the region of the Middle East. Authors investigate destructive consequences of this terrorist religious group's positions strengthening for the national security of the Russian Federation and border states. Authors note that actions in Syria and Iraq have indirect, but transnational effect, pose threat to the interests of the national security of Russia, especially including one, conducted in Crimea with the use of Islamic radicals for this purpose, who are on the peninsula and territory of the Ukraine. In the present article authors note that every year in the process of the population's psychological fatigue strengthening, new losses among the military personnel and the intelligence services staff and also death of peaceful citizens, their positions will only amplify. "Defeatism" will become a powerful political force. Problem of the international legal aspect of the counteraction to the threat from the actions of foreign fighters-terrorists who are hired or accepted with ISIL, al-Nusra Front and other groups and organizations of the terrorist orientation is connected with the implementation of the UN Security Council Resolution 2178 (2014 made on September 24, 2014. It’s main objective – development of the nonviolent ways of the conflicts prevention and settlement for the purposes of the radicalization to the level generating terrorism risk degree decrease. In the conclusion authors argument that it is especially actual for the Russian regions, which is extremely vulnerable to extremism (North Caucasus, Volga Region.

  10. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining

  11. Israel’s Interests and Options in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    expense of Israel’s security needs”21 because they enable Iran and its proxies to maintain their influence and their presence in the region, which...expand Israel’s presence in the Golan by building additional housing, promoting tourism , and investing in infrastructure and industry.38 Thus, the...relief, medical care, and other basic supplies to villages in the Syrian Golan could encourage these populations to resist the influence or oppose the

  12. Have IAEA safety precautions failed in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1981-01-01

    Israel's air raid on the Tamuz-1 research reactor (Osirak) in Iraq has given new impetus to the discussion of the potential and limits of international control as carried out by the IAEA in the framework of the non-proliferation treaty. A lack of faith in the effectiveness of IAEA control must be assuemd to be one of the main reasons for this attack. Prof. Grimm, vice chairman of the nuclear safeguards department of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comments on the possibility of producing nuclear weapons with the aid of this reactor and on the efficiency of present and projected nuclear safeguards measures. (orig.) [de

  13. Republic of Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    Saddam Hussein’s rise to power and his continued control of Iraq we see these Machiavell ian principles in operation. In February 1963, after calling the... managed to al ienate everyone of her neighbors, and cannot be counted on to promote anything but Saddam’s personal irterests. The economic sanctions...House; Nev. Dehli , 19 ’I1 45. Roe-,ert O,.=..r,, "The Kur dish Question in the Aftermatih of t i,- Gulf W.r"., Third World Quarterly, 1992, 47E5 -45? 24

  14. Kofi Annan, Syria and the Uses of Uncertainty in Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gowan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One year after Kofi Annan presented his six-point plan for ending the Syrian civil war, it can only be called a failure. But it is necessary to recall the situation facing the UN-Arab League envoy and his team in early 2012. The Syrian conflict had created serious tensions between the major powers. A Western military intervention appeared unlikely but could not be ruled out with absolute certainty. This commentary contends that Annan’s initial priority was to reduce the level of uncertainty inside and outside Syria, thereby creating a framework for political talks.  However, in lowering the level of uncertainty, Annan reduced his own leverage as the Syrian government correctly concluded that it would not be punished for failing to cooperate in good faith.  The commentary concludes that there are occasions where it is advisable for international mediators to maintain and exploit a degree of uncertainty about how a conflict may develop.

  15. Modelling the Spatial Isotope Variability of Precipitation in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattan, Z.; Kattaa, B. [Department of Geology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2013-07-15

    Attempts were made to model the spatial variability of environmental isotope ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H and {sup 3}H) compositions of precipitation in syria. Rainfall samples periodically collected on a monthly basis from 16 different stations were used for processing and demonstrating the spatial distributions of these isotopes, together with those of deuterium excess (d) values. Mathematically, the modelling process was based on applying simple polynomial models that take into consideration the effects of major geographic factors (Lon.E., Lat.N., and altitude). The modelling results of spatial distribution of stable isotopes ({sup 18}O and {sup 2}H) were generally good, as shown from the high correlation coefficients (R{sup 2} = 0.7-0.8), calculated between the observed and predicted values. In the case of deuterium excess and tritium distributions, the results were most likely approximates (R{sup 2} = 0.5-0.6). Improving the simulation of spatial isotope variability probably requires the incorporation of other local meteorological factors, such as relative air humidity, precipitation amount and vapour pressure, which are supposed to play an important role in such an arid country. (author)

  16. Chemical and environmental isotope study of precipitation in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Waters from a network of rainfall collection covering mine meteorological stations distributed mainly in the western part of Syria have been assayed using chemical and environmental isotope techniques for a period of 5 months from Dec. 1989 to Apr. 1990. The chemistry of rain waters falling over the mountainous stations shows a low solute concentration (20-105 mg 1 -1 ) compared with those falling over the coastal and anterior stations (50-210 mg 1 -1 ). The rain waters was generally characterized by a high deuterium excess (d=19%) compared with that of typical global meteoric waters (d=10%). The estimated deuterium excess is lower than that for the eastern Mediterranean meteoric waters (d=22%). The altitude effect is shown up by a depletion of heavy stable isotopes of about - 0.23% and -1.65% per 100 m elevation of δ 1 8 O and δD, respectively. The spatial distribution pattern of tritium contents shows a gradual build up with increasing distance from the Syrian coast. The weighted mean tritium content in rain waters falling over the country is estimated to amount to 9.5 tritium units (TU) during the period of observation. (author)

  17. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  18. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastam Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD, mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. Methods The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Results Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81% of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Conclusion Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  19. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Al Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-09-09

    Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81%) of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  20. Seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion in Iran between 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Asadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion in different areas of Iran. One thousand and one hundred ovine and 180 caprine samples from 43 sheep and goat flocks in four counties located in the Northeast (Mashhad, Central (Isfahan, Western (Arak, and Southwest (Shiraz Iran were collected randomly between March 2011 and April 2012. The CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit was used to identify specific antibodies against C. burnetii in sheep and goats. The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats was 19.5% and 27.2%, respectively. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between sheep and goats (P<0.05. Central Iran significantly had the highest prevalence among the studied areas, especially in goat coxiellosis (23.8% and 40.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. The lowest prevalence in sheep was 12.8% in Northeast Iran while in Western Iran C. burnetii antibodies were absent in goats. The higher prevalence of Q fever in Central Iran may be partly due to persistent favourable conditions to spread C. burnetii in this area including drought and dust storms that originated from neighbouring Iraq and Kuwait. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the relatively high prevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion. Therefore, Q fever could be responsible for considerable numbers of ovine and caprine abortions in Iran.

  1. Relationships between holocene vegetation and the spreading out of civilizations and languages in Southwestern-Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F.

    1991-01-01

    A pluridisciplinary approach is proposed, which deals with the reconstitution of holocene environments and estimation of the human impact. This effects varies in time and space, as in the case of South Eastern Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran), where advanced civilization appeared very early. Special attention is paid to palynology, archaeology and linguistic

  2. : tous les projets | Page 430 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Israel. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 500,000.00. Gouvernance, réformes et islamisme au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord.

  3. : tous les projets | Page 431 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Middle East, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Israel. Programme: Fondements pour l'innovation. Financement total : CA$ 500,000.00. Gouvernance, réformes et islamisme au Moyen-Orient et en Afrique du Nord.

  4. Oil for the Lamps of China - Beijing’s 21st-Century Search for Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    CNPC engaged in exploration and production in Russia, Libya, Syria, Algeria, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Tunisia , Kazakhstan, Venezuela, Burma, “and other...Sinopec and PetroChina Still Dominate China’s Gas Station Market,” SinoCast, in Alexander’s 8, no. 3 (February 6, 2003); “BP to Build 1,000 Petrol

  5. Kurds and the PKK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, J.P.; Akkaya, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Comprising some thirty to forty million people, the Kurds constitute the fourth largest ethnicity in Western Asia. Divided between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, Kurdistan is located in the northern part of the Middle East. A sense of national belonging among the Kurds emerged during the course of

  6. All projects related to | Page 91 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... have reignited debate around the need for more inclusive political systems where the rights of different ethnic and religious groups are a priority in the transition period. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, ETHNIC GROUPS, POLICY MAKING, POLITICS. Region: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon.

  7. : tous les projets | Page 77 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey ... Sujet: EDUCATION. Région: South of Sahara, Kenya. Programme: Think Tank Initiative. Financement total : CA$ 1,709,655.00. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis. Projet.

  8. Search Results | Page 93 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 921 - 930 of 9578 ... Agriculture and Environment ... Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Micronesia, North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of), Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, .... Kenya has an estimated 18.2 million cattle, 16.3 million sheep, and 24.6 million goats.

  9. 78 FR 6750 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR): Articles the President Determines No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... mail or delivery to Regulatory Policy Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of..., Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela, Vietnam... under ECCN 0E604 or 9E604 would be subject to the licensing policies that apply to items controlled for...

  10. Thinking Dangerously: Imagining United States Special Operations Command in the Post CT-World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-07

    the near immediate spike in counterterrorism opera- tions in Iraq and later Yemen and Afghanistan. Consequently, fourth was the decision to have... infrastructure development.39 China has announced that it will begin to shape international norms and agendas, not just passively accept those asserted by...appears to be consolidating its influence regionally with active proxy forces in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, the Gaza Strip, and possibly Yemen .46 Iran has

  11. When Empathy Hurts: Modelling University Students' Word of Mouth Behaviour in Public vs. Private Universities in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ali Bassam; Grigoriou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examines and compares word of mouth (WOM) behaviour among university students in Syria. To date, little is known about this important phenomenon which is surprising given the deregulated education market in Syria that allows for private universities to compete for students alongside public universities. Using a mixed methods research…

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL AFTERMATH FROM THE DRYING PROCESSES OF AL-HUWAIZA MARSHLAND, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaja Ahmed Mays SADKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Huwaiza marsh shows environmental and economic significance, but it has been exposed to the drying processes and then to the drowning processes. It has witnessed great decrease in the water resources specified for the country and the decrease in the water portion feeding it. A fact which shows negative effects on its area, for the change of the environmental variables, has affected the process of nurturing the marsh - only 33.4% of the area of the marsh has been drowned during the 1990s. As a result, its environmental features have been deteriorated, which have negatively affected the kind of water contained in it and which require a series of procedures and solutions to be done in this regard. Among these there are the following: encouraging the dialogue and negotiations with the countries in which the high basins of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates are located (Turkey, Syria and Iran, controlling the random spread of the marshes and concentrating on the constant and deep marshes, developing and rehabilitating the deep marshes by means of establishing natural protected areas, enlivening the constant marshes by means of connecting them to one another, supporting and encouraging studies and research, controlling the pollution of the marshes, developing the general services of the marsh areas and the neighboring ones, and stronger involving of the ministries which should pay their serious and actual attention to the environment and the population of the marshes.

  13. The Right US Strategy for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    King , King of Kings , King of countries containing all kinds of men, King in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian , a...Highlights of the Iraq Strategy Review, January 2007, http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/iraq/2007/iraq-strategy011007. pdf . 13 Greg Jaffe and Neil King Jr...do if Iraq Implodes?” August 2006, Brookings Report, (Washington DC) http://www.brook.edu/views/articles/pollack/20060820. pdf . 21 Neil King Jr. and

  14. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    ... in March 2008, which imposed sanctions on Tehran. Despite this pressure, Iran continues at its Natanz centrifuge facility to enrich uranium, expand the number of operating centrifuges, and conduct research on new types of centrifuges...

  15. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  16. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions, most recently...

  17. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions which imposed sanctions on Tehran...

  18. Reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health in conflict: a case study on Syria using Countdown indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Jocelyn; Ghattas, Hala; Bashour, Hyam; Mourtada, Rima; Akik, Chaza; Reese-Masterson, Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Women and children account for a disproportionate morbidity burden among conflict-affected populations, and yet they are not included in global accountability frameworks for women’s and children’s health. We use Countdown to 2015 (Millennium Development Goals) health indicators to provide an up-to-date review and analysis of the best available data on Syrian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey and internally displaced within Syria and explore data challenges in this conflict setting. Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Popline and Index Medicus for WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region Office and relevant development/humanitarian databases in all languages from January 2011 until December 2015. We met in person or emailed relevant key stakeholders in Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Turkey to obtain any unpublished or missing data. We convened a meeting of experts working with these populations to discuss the results. Results The following trends were found based on available data for these populations as compared with preconflict Syria. Birth registration in Syria and in host neighbouring countries decreased and was very low in Lebanon. In Syria, the infant mortality rate and under-five mortality rate increased, and coverage of antenatal care (one visit with a skilled attendant), skilled birth attendance and vaccination (except for DTP3 vaccine) declined. The number of Syrian refugee women attending more than four antenatal care visits was low in Lebanon and in non-camp settings in Jordan. Few data were available on these indicators among the internally displaced. In conflict settings such as that of Syria, coverage rates of interventions are often unknown or difficult to ascertain because of measurement challenges in accessing conflict-affected populations or to the inability to determine relevant denominators in this dynamic setting. Conclusion Research, monitoring and evaluation in humanitarian settings could better inform public health

  19. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  20. Self-Determination Of The Kurdes In Syria: Origins, Forms And International Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E.I.I. Dyurre

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the problem of self-determination of the Kurdish ethnos in Syria. Kurds are an indigenous people in this territory and for a long time lived within a single space within the Ottoman Empire. The artificial division of the Middle East into states in the interests of European powers led to ignoring the interests and rights of the Kurdish ethnos. Self-organization of Kurds in Syria occurred gradually and mainly under the influence of external factors. The first one was the political activity of Kurds in neighboring countries, the second – the assimilation efforts of the Syrian authorities. Although the Kurdish population, basically, retained its identity, half a century of assimilation policy led to the erosion of the Kurdish ethnic enclaves in the north of the country. Moreover, self-organization and political mobilization of Kurds in Syria began to be accompanied by disagreements and splits of the main political forces. Kurdish political parties sought to act as a “third force” in the course of the civil war in Syria. However, disagreements prevented this, as well as certain pressure from Western countries, which pushed the Syrian Kurds to support the moderate opposition. The power vacuum in the north of Syria was able to fill the center-left party “Democratic Union”. This political force is in contact with the official Syrian authorities and, at the same time, receives US support. Created by the efforts of the “Democratic Union” the Kurdish autonomy in the north of the country provides stability in territories with the Kurdish and mixed populations, and also performs socio-economic functions. This makes the Kurdish autonomy an important element of negotiations about the future political structure of Syria.

  1. Rapid Deployment of International Tele-Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas; Weinert, Craig

    2016-02-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country.

  2. Rapid Deployment of International Tele–Intensive Care Unit Services in War-Torn Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughrabieh, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The conflict in Syria has created the largest humanitarian emergency of the twenty-first century. The 4-year Syrian conflict has destroyed hospitals and severely reduced the capacity of intensive care units (ICUs) and on-site intensivists. The crisis has triggered attempts from abroad to support the medical care of severely injured and acutely ill civilians inside Syria, including application of telemedicine. Within the United States, tele-ICU programs have been operating for more than a decade, albeit with high start-up costs and generally long development times. With the benefit of lessons drawn from those domestic models, the Syria Tele-ICU program was launched in December 2012 to manage the care of ICU patients in parts of Syria by using inexpensive, off-the-shelf video cameras, free social media applications, and a volunteer network of Arabic-speaking intensivists in North America and Europe. Within 1 year, 90 patients per month in three ICUs were receiving tele-ICU services. At the end of 2015, a network of approximately 20 participating intensivists was providing clinical decision support 24 hours per day to five civilian ICUs in Syria. The volunteer clinicians manage patients at a distance of more than 6,000 miles, separated by seven or eight time zones between North America and Syria. The program is implementing a cloud-based electronic medical record for physician documentation and a medication administration record for nurses. There are virtual chat rooms for patient rounds, radiology review, and trainee teaching. The early success of the program shows how a small number of committed physicians can use inexpensive equipment spawned by the Internet revolution to support from afar civilian health care delivery in a high-conflict country. PMID:26788827

  3. Iran's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boureston, J.; Marvin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program is discussed, activity of enterprises connected with the nuclear industry of the country is evaluated. IAEA initiated inspection of some industrial sites with the aim of data acquisition about nuclear developments of Iran. Uranium ore mining and reducing to small size, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, production of plutonium: plant of heavy water production, spent fuel reprocessing are discussed [ru

  4. Why Iran proliferates

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Iran and the United States have faced each other across a deep divide ever since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the events of the American Embassy Hostage crisis. The absence of diplomatic relations between the two nations has led to a lack of communication which has resulted in difficulties crafting successful policies to build bridges between the two governments. The specter of Iran's quest for nuclear weapons casts a further pall on the troubled relations. Case studies of historical ex...

  5. Learning From Iraq: A Final Report From the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    example, USAID planned on basic health services to be available to 25% of the entire population and 50% of mothers and children within 60 days of the...in the vaccination of millions of children against measles, mumps, and rubella. In addition, by 2011, the national infant-mortality rate had...the program, the United States Congress appeared to have a “laissez faire” attitude toward the expenditure of U.S. tax dollars in Iraq. The

  6. Soil Catena Properties of Daher Al- Jabal in South Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussam H. M. Husein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil catena concept is a sequence of soils extends across relief positions and is developed from similar parent material. This study highlighted on the important aspects and properties of soil catena of Daher El-Jabal in Jabal Al-Arab mountainous area South eastern of Syria, by implementing pedologic study in 2010-2012. Six soil profiles have been studied along pedo-genetic transect in order to highlight the soil catena prevailing properties. The results reveal that the soil has formed from igneous basaltic parent casts, related to Neogen era, where reliefs had the key role in the developing of soil solum. Consequently, Entisols were dominated on eroded summits, Inceptisols on back slops and mountain flanks, Mollisols on depressions. Both water erosion of soil surface and leaching inside soil solum processes were responsible for variation of soil texture, as such soils showed evident of changing in particles size distribution as well as in clay content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC was less than moderate with domination of Magnesium cation. Soil trace elements were poor to somewhat poor. Soil pH values in general were low; which reflect the pedo-genic character of igneous parent material in which soil drifted from. In some cases, where soil body subjected to continuous leaching of soil bases, in particular calcium cation; soil profiles became totally freed from calcium carbonates. Accordingly soil problems related to downing of soil reaction (pH are more expected to be increasing by time. This is main reason for some physical diseases, which beginning arise on pomes fruits, particularly bitter pit.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 87-107

  7. Natural radioactivity of drinking water in the southern and middle parts of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.

    1998-01-01

    Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria, were collected twice and analyzed for 222 sup Rn, 226 sup Rn, 210 sup Po, and total uranium. the results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. the highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle part of Syria with 113 kBq m - 1 for 222 sup Rn, 350 Bq m - 1 for 226 sup Ra, 8 Bq m - 1 for 210 sup Po, and 350 Bq m - 1 for total uranium. (author). 1 Fig., 2 Tabs., 12 Refs

  8. Anthropogenic Origin of Siliceous Scoria Droplets from Pleistocene and Holocene Archeaological Sites in Northern Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Willcox, George; Barfod, Gry

    2015-01-01

    Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event. The !ndi......Siliceous scoria droplets, measuring from 1 to 10 mm, from one late Pleistocene and four early Holocene archaeological sites in northern Syria are compared to similar droplets previously suggested to be the result of a cosmic impact at the onset of the Younger Dryas global cooling event...

  9. Sectarianism, Revolutionary Subjectivity and War in Syria - the case of the peaceful movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Events unfolding in Syria since 2011 have all too often been depicted too simply as a “sectarian war”. Against the backdrop of such accounts, this article investigates the lived revolutionary experience of Syrians active in the peaceful revolutionary movement and the local coordination committees...... of the peaceful movement not only counteract the narratives of the regime. It also offers a window into revolutionary subjectivity and ideology in Syria’s peaceful movement as part of broader social changes occurring in Syria in the context of devastating war and destruction....

  10. Syria: a waited petroleum production of 600 000 barrels per day for the end of 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the reserves of petroleum deposits and gives statistical data on the production of the main oil fields in Syria. Petroleum production has grown from 160000 barrels per day in 1984 to 515000 barrels per day in 1992 and a production at a level of 600000 barrels per day is waited in 1993. Several petroleum companies, operating in Syria, have contributed to this rise, especially Al-Furat Petroleum Company (AFPC), joint venture between Syrian Petroleum Company (SPC) and Pecten/Shell/Deminex, followed by Deiz Ezzor Petroleum Company (DEZPC), association between the french company Elf Aquitaine and SPC. 2 tabs

  11. The Effects of Climate Change on Invasion Potential of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch in Iran and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Karim Mousavi

    2017-09-01

    barley weed establishment. under climate change scenarios, Zanjan, Hamedan, Ardebil, West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan, Kurdistan, Chharmhal and bakhtyary, and Markazi climate conditions will be more favorable in comparison with the current situation for establishment of wild barley weed, and the climate conditions in other provinces will be less favorable. Under climate change scenarios condition, the climate conditions of Lorestan will be 8.5% unfavorable to establish wild barley. Islamabad gharb, Borujerd, Ivan, Tuyserkan, Kangavar, peers, Kermanshah, Kamyaran, Ardal, Silakhor, Sararood, Sanandaj, Shamiran Tehran, Rawansar, Rvmshkan, Skinheads, Ilam, Farsan, Tazehabad, Nourabad Delfan, Mahabad, Azna, Songhor, Harsin, Sisakht, Khorramabad, Sepidan, Zarghan, Moalem Kalayeh, Sarableh, Bukan, Qazvin, Shahin Dez, Bane, Bilasuvar, Shazand, Takhte jamshid, Arak, Khomeini, Hashtgerd, Saghez, Oshnavieh, Saman, Khondab, Shiraz, Shahr kord, and Malayer with a composite match index of greater than 0.9 were considered the most vulnerable regions against the wild barley invasion. In the current climate situation, Spain, United States of America, Algeria, Greece, Syria, Turkey, Italy, Australia, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, Pakistan, Iraq, Morocco, Chile, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Portugal, Argentina, Turkmenistan, Libya, Romania, Jordan, South Africa, France, Armenia, Ukraine, Palestine and China have at least one region with composite match index greater than 0.8 for wild barley weed infested region in Lorestan province. Climate conditions of North Korea, Switzerland, South Korea, Hungary, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mongolia, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Germany, Canada, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, South Georgia, Belgium, Russia, Bulgaria, Netherlands, Ukraine, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Finland, Belarus, England, Norway, France, Denmark and Ireland become 10-30% more vulnerable to wild barley invasion, according to the UK scenario for the year 2080, climate change in compared with

  12. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tressler, David M

    2007-01-01

    U.S. soldiers in Iraq from junior to senior leaders conduct thousands of negotiations with Iraqi leaders while pursuing tactical and operational objectives that affect the strategic import of the U.S...

  13. Mutual incomprehension: U.S.- German value gaps beyond Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Larres, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Differences over Iraq policy have revealed deep U.S.- German value gaps over multilateralism, nationalism, and the role of force in international relations. Cooperation in four areas of mutual importance can help compensate for them.

  14. Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, Nanette; Borseth, Ann; Bruno, David; Byers, Donna; Cain, Dan; Christoff, Joseph A; Coffey, Carole; Cothern, Lynn; Cross, Tracey; D'Agostino, Davi

    2007-01-01

    ... I: More Comprehensive U.S. Strategy Needed to Achieve Goals and Address Challenges in Iraq; Enclosure II: U.S. Commitments Involve Significant Resources, but DoD Cost Reports and Budgets Limit Transparency...

  15. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  16. Contractors' Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frisk, Daniel; Trunkey, R. D; Talaber, Adam; Adedeji, Adebayo; Liu, Victoria; Dennis, Robert; Gullo, Theresa; Sammartino, Frank; Murphy, Robert; Elsea, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper, which covers the period from 2003 through 2007, provides an overview of the federal costs of employing contractors in Iraq and in nearby countries, the type of products and services...

  17. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... and coalition forces since the invasion of Iraq. The bombs have been hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with IEDs are becoming more numerous and deadly...

  18. Estimating the Costs of Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, J. M

    2007-01-01

    This testimony, given by J. Michael Gilmore, Assistant Director for National Security, before the Committee on the Budget, United States Senate, discusses the costs of operations in the Iraq theater and issues associated...

  19. The Survival of the Company Man in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Kyle S

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the decision-making processes used by company grade officers operating in combat roles in Iraq and seeks to determine if innovation largely originates among lower ranking officers...

  20. review article two perspectives on the recent war in iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Making a killing: The explosive story of a hired gun in Iraq is James ... information about armed conflict by reading the personal accounts of participants ... career as a law practitioner, but soon regretted his decision and started daydreaming.

  1. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  2. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  3. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  4. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.

  5. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Huri Yaseen; Hani Shakir; YM Hajah Tenku Mazuwana Bt. T. Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study al...

  6. Monitoring-based analysis of agriculture in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Tokareva, Olga Sergeevna; Pasko, Olga Anatolievna; Alshaibi, A.; Mochalov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with change in area and structure of Iraq agricultural lands. It revealed the main reasons for the change: crisis (war, sanctions, etc.); economic (swamp and lake drainage, melioration, etc.); weather condition. Land-use intensification as a reason for reduction of agricultural land areas was not proved. The area of cultivated lands proved to correlate significantly with the level of precipitation, wheat productivity -with the average temperature in Iraq.

  7. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي اسماعيل الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  8. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russillo, Victor

    2003-01-01

    ..., comprehensive policy toward Iran. Iran has concerned the US due to its support for terrorist organizations, its efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction, its attempts to export the Islamic Revolution...

  9. Respon Iran Terhadap Film Argo

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Nidya; Pakpahan, Saiman

    2017-01-01

    This research discusses Iran's response to the political thriller movie Argo and how the movie represents Iranians. Argo movie was launch in October 2012 focusing on an exfiltration mission in Iran by the CIA, which is based on true events in 1979 when the Islamic Revolution broke in Iran. Iranian in 2012 was shocked by Argo's Iranian depiction that was deem by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ‘anti Iranian' and American propaganda. Iran further their accusation when Argo receive the prestigious...

  10. Uranium occurence in nature: Geophysical prospecting, and its occurence in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Haj Rasheed, Zaki

    1985-01-01

    A general idea about naturaly occured uranium minerals such as uranite, pechblende, carnotite, coffinit, and bronnerit is given. At the same time, different geophysical methods and detecting devices applied for uranium exploration have been demonstrated. Investigations and studies carried out in Syria point to a uranium content of 100 ppm in the exploited Syrian phosphorite. 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Not so coarse, nor always plain - the earliest pottery of Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, Olivier P.; Akkermans, Peter M. M. G.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    The site of Tell Sabi Abyad in Syria offers a superb stratified sequence passing, from the aceramic (pre-pottery) to pottery-using Neolithic around 7000 BC Surprisingly the first pottery arrives fully developed with mineral tempering, burnishing and stripey decoration in painted slip. The expected,

  12. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  13. Burning Down the House: the Burnt Building V6 at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkermans, Peter M.M.G.; Brüning, Merel L.; Hammers, Neeke Mineke

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the remains of a T-shaped burnt building found in trench V6 in Operation II at Late Neolithic Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. The burnt building closely resembles the so-called Burnt Village excavated earlier at Tell Sabi Abyad in Operation I, level 6, but is slightly older. Many...

  14. In Search of a Role to Play: The EU and the War in Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, S.

    2017-01-01

    Driven by the recognition that more needs to be done, the Council of Ministers adopted a new EU Strategy for Syria on the eve of the April 2017 Brussels donor. This Overview explores the potential of, and limits to, the different roles of the EU in the pursuit of its own (constitutional) objectives

  15. Coinage and the economy of Syria-Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries CE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2010-01-01

    Coin data from archaeological excavations can provide interesting perspectives on changing economic conditions over time, but the interpretative pitfalls are many. The presentation and analysis of coin material needs to be conducted within a wider archaeological context should historical conclusi...... conclusions be sought from the material, as the coinage of late antique and early Islamic Syria-Palestine demonstrates....

  16. The Employability Skills of Business Graduates in Syria: Do Policymakers and Employers Speak the Same Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Alzarif, Kahla; Khalifa, Bayan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the desired employability skills of business graduates in Syria from the perspective of both higher education policymakers and employers in the private sector. Design/Methodology/Approach: Interviews were conducted with 12 higher education policymakers and managers from the business sector. Content…

  17. Refugee warriors or war refugees? Iraqi refugees' predicament in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, R.

    2009-01-01

    This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and

  18. 76 FR 24787 - Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Order 13572 of April 29, 2011 Blocking Property of Certain Persons With Respect to Human Rights Abuses..., finding that the Government of Syria's human rights abuses, including those related to the repression of... have engaged in human rights abuses, constitute an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national...

  19. Bayesian estimation of shrubs diversity in rangelands under two management systems in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.; Singh, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of shrubs in rangelands of northern Syria is affected by the grazing management systems restricted by the increase in human and livestock populations. To describe and estimate diversity and compare the rangeland grazing management treatments, two popular indices for diversity, the

  20. 78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  1. 78 FR 55326 - Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8460] Determinations Regarding Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991 AGENCY: Bureau of... Government has determined on August 2, pursuant to Section 306(a) of the Chemical and Biological Weapons...

  2. Impact of grazing on range plant community components under arid Mediterranean climate in northern Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niane, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: Rotational grazing, full protection, continuous grazing species richness,

    species diversity, soil seed bank, Bayesian methods, Salsola vermiculata, seed

    longevity, rangeland management, Syria.

    Rangelands represent 70% of the semi-arid and arid

  3. Nuclear cardiology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, R.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the most active branches of nuclear medicine and plays important role in diagnosis in treatment of CAD patients. Few nuclear cardiology surveys were published in the literature, mostly from developed countries. A nuclear cardiology survey in Iran and analysis of the findings in comparison with other countries may lead to better decision making and improve practice in our country. A questionnaire was sent by mail or e-mail to all nuclear medicine centers in Iran asking for details of nuclear cardiology practice. Also ownership of the centers, number of gamma cameras and number of cardiac studies in each week were recorded. Some centers were studied using telephone interview. From 79 nuclear medicine centers in Iran, 55 centers (69.6%) filled the questionnaire including 28 centers in Tehran and 27 centers in other cities. There was 69 Gamma cameras in these centers, 62.3% with SPECT capability. It is estimated that we may have 100 gamma cameras in Iran. This study showed that about 68287 cardiac studies were done in Iran each year with Myocardial perfusion scan accounting for about 99 2% of the studies. Considering population of the country nuclear cardiology activity will be about 1.05 study/1000/year. Regarding radiotracers used, about 13.5% of studies were done with T I-201, with some centers using only Tc- 99 m-M I B I

  4. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  5. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  6. Conflict in the Middle East: Egyptian Policy and Strategy to Create an Egyptian Proposal to Achieve Stability in the Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-14

    Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Arab Gulf Sheikhdo.s like ( atar , Oman, Bahrain, Kuwait) - Aden and the Ducal trucial states, Yemen...ndin fro-..- the north, %Jest anC southwest. The. Ira, MuaiSauai Arab ’ia 7Mingro:.-, Da.rain, (’ atar , Uniteu,- Arab-’rcs andOran SultinatCe; Iran lies...suuzort. The continued uncertainty, many observers felt, helpecd the Soviets, if so, only in the psychological sense of threatening the future

  7. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries.

  8. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  9. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  10. On Conflict Transformation in Iraq: Democracy and its Effect on Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Aaron S

    2007-01-01

    .... The level of violence in Iraq gradually increased as Iraq progressed from the first national elections in January 2005 to a constitutional referendum and then subsequent elections in December 2005...

  11. Congressional Authority to Limit U.S. Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Garcia, Michael J; Nicola, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... The situation in Iraq has focused attention on whether Congress has the constitutional authority to legislate limits on the President's authority to conduct military operations in Iraq, even though...

  12. Special Report: Iraq and the Gulf States. The Balance of Fear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alterman, Jon B

    2007-01-01

    .... As part of the Institute's Iraq and Its Neighbors project, a group of leading specialists on the geopolitics of the region is assessing the interests and influence of the countries surrounding Iraq and the impact on U.S...

  13. Snapshot of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Iraq is specific in having its own most predominant lineage (SIT1144/T1 which is not found among neighboring countries. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR can be useful in discriminating M. tuberculosis isolates in Iraq.

  14. LDC nuclear power: Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Islamic Revolutionary Government has eliminated what had been an ambitious program to install 23,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 1984, but the program has already become unpopular before the downfall to the Shah for economic reasons. Iran originally planned a domestic nuclear program to diversify its energy base and satisfy Western demands to recycle petrodollars, but substantial commissions for foreign contracts were also a factor. No comprehensive study of a nuclear program has been done to determine if there is a nuclear future for Iran. 8 references

  15. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  16. Investigation of dust storms entering Western Iran using remotely sensed data and synoptic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloorani, Ali D; Nabavi, Seyed O; Bahrami, Hosain A; Mirzapour, Fardin; Kavosi, Musa; Abasi, Esmail; Azizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    One of the natural phenomena which have had considerable impacts on various regions of the world, including Iran, is "dust storm". In recent years, this phenomenon has taken on new dimensions in Iran and has changed from a local problem to a national issue. This study is an attempt to investigate the formation of the dust storms crossing the Western Iran. To find the sources of the dust storms entering Iran, first we examine three determined dust paths in the region and their temporal activities, using MODIS satellite images. Then, four regions were identified as dust sources through soil, land cover and wind data. Finally, atmospheric analyses are implemented to find synoptic patterns inducing dust storms. Source 1 has covered the region between the eastern banks of Euphrates and western banks of Tigris. Source 2 is in desert area of western and south-western Iraq. Finally source 3 is bounded in eastern and south-eastern deserts of Saudi Arabia called Rub-Al-Khali desert, or Empty Quarter. Moreover, south-eastern part of Iraq (source 4) was also determined as a secondary source which thickens the dust masses originating from the above mentioned sources. The study of synoptic circulations suggests that the dust storms originating from source 1 are formed due to the intense pressure gradient between the low-pressure system of Zagros and a high-pressure cell formed on Mediterranean Sea. The dust events in sources 2 and 3 are outcomes of the atmospheric circulations dominant in the cold period of the year in mid-latitudes.

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a...

  18. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  19. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  20. Saddam’s War: An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    saddam hussein’s personality according to the theories of [ Sigmund ] Freud or [Alfred] Adler, or even [Ivan] Pavlov. We need the theories of these...psychologists because they bring in different elements: freud was the founder of the theory of the analytical method in psychology; adler is the one who

  1. Strategic Personality and the Effectiveness of Nuclear Deterrence: Deterring Iraq and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziemke, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the international system since the end of the Cold War have necessitated reevaluation of the theoretical assumptions that provided the foundations of deterrence theory for the past six decades...

  2. A Comparative Textbooks’ Content Analysis of Iran and Syria as a Representation of the Formal Culture of Veil

    OpenAIRE

    vahid ghasemi; rezaali norozi; rana mohammadtaghinejad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Students of each country are the next generation of that. Making decision about educational, teaching and training programs is of crucial importance. Thus each country can consider suitable approach toward students for making decisions about them (codifying them). One of the methods is transferring concepts via educational routes. It refers to the messages which are conveyed by text books, educational rules, pictures in the books, etc. Presupposition of the government is that...

  3. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  4. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  5. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  6. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-01-01

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  7. Iran, the crisis situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This book is an updated edition of a previous book by the same author: 'Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments'. The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  8. Health workers and the weaponisation of health care in Syria: a preliminary inquiry for The Lancet-American University of Beirut Commission on Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Fouad M; Sparrow, Annie; Tarakji, Ahmad; Alameddine, Mohamad; El-Jardali, Fadi; Coutts, Adam P; El Arnaout, Nour; Karroum, Lama Bou; Jawad, Mohammed; Roborgh, Sophie; Abbara, Aula; Alhalabi, Fadi; AlMasri, Ibrahim; Jabbour, Samer

    2017-12-02

    The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked. Evidence shows use of this strategy on an unprecedented scale by the Syrian Government and allied forces, in what human rights organisations described as a war-crime strategy, although all parties seem to have committed violations. Attacks on health care have sparked a large-scale exodus of experienced health workers. Formidable challenges face health workers who have stayed behind, and with no health care a major factor in the flight of refugees, the effect extends well beyond Syria. The international community has left these violations of international humanitarian and human rights law largely unanswered, despite their enormous consequences. There have been repudiated denunciations, but little action on bringing the perpetrators to justice. This inadequate response challenges the foundation of medical neutrality needed to sustain the operations of global health and humanitarian agencies in situations of armed conflict. In this Health Policy, we analyse the situation of health workers facing such systematic and serious violations of international humanitarian law. We describe the tremendous pressures that health workers have been under and continue to endure, and the remarkable resilience and resourcefulness they have displayed in response to this crisis. We propose policy imperatives to protect and support health workers working in armed conflict

  9. 75 FR 26938 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and investment ties between the United States and Iraq... areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in Iraq, including disincentives to... regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both...

  10. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dirk J; Maghdid, Delshad M; Mohammed, Maqsood S; Sherwani, Govand H S

    2014-03-01

    Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework for stimulating urological education and research in other countries where urologists face the same obstacles. Data were obtained from the perspective of two academics who co-operate with urologists from Iraq, and from the perspective of two officials from the Ministry of Higher education of the Kurdistan Regional Government who are responsible for stimulating continuous education. Based on a co-operative and supportive attitude of both Government and Academics, urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq have brought the standards of education and cooperative research to an internationally competitive level. The authors hope that the examples given here can stimulate urologists from Arab countries to fully engage in new urological developments, despite the obstacles that they perceive.

  11. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  12. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  13. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  14. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  15. IAEA calls for urgent action on nuclear situation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, called on the United States and other Coalition authorities to allow IAEA experts to return to Iraq to address a possible radiological emergency there. 'I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites and about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.' Such reports have described among other things yellow cake emptied on the ground from containers then taken for domestic use, and radioactive sources being stolen and removed from their shielding. 'We have a moral responsibility to establish the facts without delay and take urgent remedial action,' said Dr. ElBaradei. As hostilities in Iraq were coming to an end, Dr. ElBaradei wrote on 10 April to the US government bringing its attention to the need to secure the nuclear material stored at Tuwaitha - Iraq's nuclear research centre - and under IAEA seal since 1991. The IAEA also provided the United States with information about the nuclear material, radioactive sources, and nuclear waste in Iraq. The IAEA received oral assurances that physical protection of the site was in place; but following reports of looting there and at other sites, Dr. ElBaradei wrote again on 29 April, emphasizing the responsibility of the Coalition forces to maintain appropriate protection over the materials in question. This includes natural and low-enriched uranium, radioactive sources such as Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, and nuclear waste. Dr. ElBaradei regrets that the IAEA has to date not received a response. He again urged that the Agency be allowed to send a safety and security team to Iraq so that a potentially serious humanitarian situation can be addressed without further delay. The IAEA has experienced international teams of radiation safety, nuclear security and emergency response specialists

  16. Iran's 'Risk-Taking' in Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahram, Chubin

    2008-07-01

    Assessing any state's intentions is a difficult undertaking - especially at a specific moment in time. When a state is considered hostile, its behaviour erratic, and its system opaque, what is difficult under normal circumstances becomes nearly impossible. It may thus often seem prudent to attribute the worst of intentions to such states, but this can create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Iran with its revolutionary pretensions, fiery rhetoric and nuclear ambitions, is a case in point, since it is particularly difficult to 'read'. Located in the centre of a geo-politically sensitive and conflict-driven area, Iran is in a position to influence - positively or otherwise - the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus, the Middle East and South Asia. This influence may furthermore be expanding as a result of the weakening of Iraq and Lebanon, divisions among the Palestinians, and the more general rise of the Shi'i across the broader region. Add to this the ambiguous aims of Iran's nuclear programme and the shadow this has already thrown across the region, and the need to assess Iran's intentions accurately appears crucial. Here, Iran's past behavior may provide some help, especially when it comes to Iran's proclivity for risk taking - provided the acquisition of a nuclear capability does not alter Iran's intentions or behavior so as to make the past irrelevant. Some commentators believe that Iran's ideology and past behaviour suggest that a nuclear-capable Iran will be inclined to take on a high level of risk, without concern for the potential costs of this recklessness, and that Iran may perhaps even welcome the risks involved. By contrast, the recent National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), a composite of US intelligence agency estimates, has concluded that Iran's 'decisions are guided by a cost-benefit approach' and therefore 'may be more vulnerable to influence' than they had previously (i.e.2005) judged. These

  17. Ballistic trauma: lessons learned from iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H; Sabino, Jennifer M; Nanos, George P; Valerio, Ian L

    2015-02-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  18. IAEA inspectors complete verification of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: At the request of the Government of Iraq and pursuant to the NPT Safeguards Agreement with Iraq, a team of IAEA safeguards inspectors has completed the annual Physical Inventory Verification of declared nuclear material in Iraq, and is returning to Vienna. The material - natural or low-enriched uranium - is not sensitive from a proliferation perspective and is consolidated at a storage facility near the Tuwaitha complex, south of Baghdad. This inspection was conducted with the logistical and security assistance of the Multinational Force and the Office of the UN Security Coordinator. Inspections such as this are required by safeguards agreements with every non-nuclear-weapon state party to the NPT that has declared holdings of nuclear material, to verify the correctness of the declaration, and that material has not been diverted to any undeclared activity. Such inspections have been performed in Iraq on a continuing basis. The most recent took place in June 2003, following reports of looting of nuclear material at the Tuwaitha complex; IAEA inspectors recovered, repackaged and resealed all but a minute amount of material. NPT safeguards inspections are limited in scope and coverage as compared to the verification activities carried out in 1991-98 and 2002-03 by the IAEA under Security Council resolution 687 and related resolutions. 'This week's mission was a good first step,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. 'Now we hope to be in a position to complete the mandate entrusted to us by the Security Council, to enable the Council over time to remove all sanctions and restrictions imposed on Iraq - so that Iraq's rights as a full-fledged member of the international community can be restored.' The removal of remaining sanctions is dependent on completion of the verification process by the IAEA and the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). It should be noted that IAEA technical assistance to Iraq has been resumed over

  19. Starvation of children in Syria--sanctions and the politics of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.

  20. Rethinking therapeutic decisions for hepatitis B infection in Syria: insights into molecular monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2012-10-19

    Hepatitis B virus patients are usually treated in Syria with alpha interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Genotypic viral factors causing inadequate response or relapse following initial response are not routinely investigated. This study aimed to explore and discuss local therapeutic decisions from a molecular perspective. Fifty patients with hepatitis B from Syria were tested for HBV genotyping and drug-resistance mutations by DNA sequencing. All patients had genotype D, which is characterized by relatively low response to interferon-based therapy. Drug-resistant viral mutant variants were detected in one fifth of the enrolled patients, and distributed similarly in both nucleos(t)ide analogues-naïve and -treated patients. However, nucleos(t)ide analogues-based therapy was associated with the existence of more mutations and hence increased resistance. Investigating HBV genotypes and drug-resistance mutations to support treatment decisions is critically needed for efficient therapy and patients' survival.

  1. Natural radioactivity of drinking water on the southern and middle parts of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Yassine, T.

    1998-05-01

    Water samples from 48 sites, covering the major drinking water sources in the southern and middle parts of Syria were collected twice and analyzed for 222 Rn, 226 Ra, 210 Po and total uranium. Also all samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, physical properties and Hardness. The results obtained were generally low and comparable with those found for other countries. The highest values were found in regions around the phosphate mines in the middle par of Syria with 113 Kb.m -3 for 222 Rn, 350 Bq.m -3 for 226 Ra, 8 Bq.m -3 for 210 Po and 350 Bq.m -3 for total uranium. (author). 6 tabs

  2. Perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth: an exploratory study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana

    2013-03-01

    The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Solar ultraviolet radiation in Syria measurements and relationship with skin cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I; Baydon, S.A.; Dawood, S.

    1994-11-01

    Seasonal variations of solar UVB (285-320) and UVA (320-400) were measured in three sites in Syria (33-37 N sup O) for two years: 1992-1993. UVB measurements were performed using polysulphone films and Robertson-Berger meter, while UVA measurements were done by NVA intensity meter. Two sets of measurements were carried out : - Maximal daily doses three times a week (every other day) - Diurnal variations from sun-rise to sun-set every two hours twice a month (every fortnight). The biological consequences of ultraviolet radiation withreference to some epidemiological data of skin cancer incidence in Syria since 1980 were discussed .(author). 36 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Threats to Security Posed by ISIS in Syria: A Human Security Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Louw

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil war in Syria coupled with the attacks by ISIS, has resulted in one of the largest humanitarian crises since World War II. Although international efforts have resulted in regaining control of important cities, these military approaches have escalated and inflamed the violence of which innocent civilians bear the consequences. The continuing violence and resulting threats or insecurities negatively affect the lives, freedom, dignity and development of the people to name but a few. For that reason, the aim is to explore the applicability of a human security approach to the conflict in Syria that focuses on, among other aspects, minimising violence, mitigating the effects of the conflict, protecting people, restoring peace and eliminating the grounds that resulted in the development of these conditions in the first place.

  5. Iran and regional energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics reviewed in these conference proceedings in the first session include domestic imperatives covering the economy, social imperatives - civil society and the rule of law, and the overall investment climate. Session 2 focuses on Iran and the energy sector with papers on oil and gas pipelines, and the effect of sanctions. Session 3 deals with Iran and the Persian Gulf with papers on new developments in Iran and its Arab neighbours, and Iran and Arab attempts to manage oil output. Session 4 concentrates on business and investment perspectives with papers on the low oil and gas prices and the new competition for investment capital, the investment climate, the building of connection with Iran, and identifying the predominant trends. A keynote address by the former deputy Foreign Minister of Iran examines regional energy development

  6. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  7. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  8. The Occurrence of the Cicada Cicadatra persica on Apple Trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A.; Belal, Hamzeh M.R.; Basheer, Abedlnabi M.

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved. PMID:23909877

  9. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K

    2012-01-01

    Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria's cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian's health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries.

  10. The Security Gap in Syria: Individual and Collective Security in ‘Rebel-held’ Territories

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ali Abdul Kadir

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap, understood as the gap between security practices and objectives which have implications for individual and collective security. Practices of security can be the state apparatus, the military, and militias. The objective – safety – can refer to the safety or security of a range of collectives including the state, political parties, and ethnic groups, while individual security re...

  11. Provenance Study of Archaeological Ceramics from Syria Using XRF Multivariate Statistical Analysis and Thermoluminescence Dating

    OpenAIRE

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Abboud, Rana; Issa, Haissm

    2014-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating and multivariate statistical methods based on radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analysis have been utilized to date and classify Syrian archaeological ceramics fragment from Tel Jamous site. 54 samples were analyzed by radioisotope X-ray fluorescence; 51 of them come from Tel Jamous archaeological site in Sahel Akkar region, Syria, which fairly represent ceramics belonging to the Middle Bronze Age (2150 to 1600 B.C.) and the remaining three samples come from Mar-T...

  12. MENUJU DIALOG ISLAM – KRISTEN: PERJUMPAAN GEREJA ORTODOKS SYRIA DENGAN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenul Arifin

    2012-05-01

    Konflik antara Kristen dengan Islam tampil dalam sejarah agama. Karena memiliki sumber asal yang sama, kedua agama selalu terlibat dalam kontak ke­kerasan. Tulisan ini mencoba untuk mengkaji secara mendalam geraja orthodoks Syria dan ditemukan akan adanya akar yang sama dengan Islam. Ditemukan pula adanya paralelisasi dalam aspek teologinya, khususnya pe­laksana­an kewajiban agama. Data yang didapatkan menunjukkan arti penting dalam pengembangan dialog antara Islam dengan Kristen

  13. Public health challenges in the political economy of conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Faisal, Waleed Al

    2015-01-01

    Recent uprisings in the Arab world and a full-scale war in Syria are widely viewed as popular demand for political voice against repressive regimes. However, growing economic inequalities and serious economic dysfunction played a role as trigger for conflict than is commonly accepted. Tunisia, Egypt and Syria all implemented policies of liberalization over the past two decades, leading to the worsening of living standards for the majority. The various forms of liberalization played a significant role in embedding social division and discontent whose outcomes affected other countries of the region with the onset of market reforms in nascent welfare states. Egypt, for example, was viewed by the World Bank as an economic 'best performer', despite regular riots over food prices, job losses and land expropriation for tourism. Tunisia was praised by donors just prior to the uprising (in 2010), for 'weathering well' the global economic downturn through 'sound macroeconomic management'. In Syria, the market economy made its mark over the 90s, but macroeconomic adjustment policies were implemented in a bilateral agreement with the European Union and approved by the International Monetary Fund in 2003. The economic stabilization programme that followed had limited concern for social impacts such as jobs losses, price rises and national debt, which ultimately caused immense hardship for the population at large, acting as a trigger for the initial uprising in 2011, prior to its transformation into a fully blown conflict. This article focuses on reforms implemented in the health sector and sets these in the context of the current political economy of Syria. It suggests that a protective approach to public health services during and in the aftermath of conflict may increase the possibilities of reconstruction and reconciliation between warring sides. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Crime-Conflict Nexus and the Civil War in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Steenkamp

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong relationship between organised crime and civil war. This article contributes to the crime-conflict nexus literature by providing a consideration of the role of organised crime in the Syrian conflict. It provides an overview of pre- and post-war organised crime in Syria. The article then builds the argument that war provides opportunities for organised crime through the state’s diminished law enforcement ability; the economic hardship which civilians face during war; and the ...

  15. Injuries in Aleppo, Syria; first population-based estimates and characterization of predominant types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziak Wasim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing burden of injuries worldwide, Syria and many other Arab countries still lack population-based estimates of different types of injuries. This study aims toprovide first population-based estimates of major injuries in Syria and characterize groups at increased risk. Methods An interviewer-administered population-based survey of adults 18–65 years residing in Aleppo, Syria was conducted in 2004. The study sample involved 2038 household representatives in Aleppo (45.2% men, mean age 35.3 ± 12.1, response rate 86%. We inquired about participants self-reported injuries in the past year that required medical attention as well as injuries among their household members. When reported, injuries were further assessed according to type, place, and outcome. Results Overall, there was 153 self-reported injuries in the past year (77.3 per 1000 adult respondents, 93.1 per 1000 in men and 64.4 per 1000 in women, p = 0.02. Other than gender, injuries differed by age (the older age group being least affected, and place of occurrence, as men were more likely to sustain traffic injuries and be injured outside the home. Injuries were reported among 236 household members (21.0 per 1000, and were slightly more frequent in children than adults (22.0 per 1000 for children, and 19.7 per 1000 for adults, p = 0.2. Traffic injuries, falls, and poisoning (food were by far the most common types of injury experienced by participants as well as their household members. Falls and traffic injuries seem to have caused most morbidity for the injured, while burns, although not frequently reported, were associated with an unfavorable outcome in the majority of cases. Conclusion This information provides baseline information about the burden of different injuries in Syria, and the sociodemographic factors related to them.

  16. Pepino mosaic virus, a first report of a virus infecting tomato in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV occurring in tomato plants grown in plastic greenhouses in a Mediterranean city in Syria. One tomato fruit from sixty samples tested positive for this virus by DAS-ELISA. Biotest assay, RT-PCR, and sequencing confirmed the presence of PepMV. The highest sequence identity of the Syrian isolate was with the EU-tomato strains of PepMV.

  17. Explaining Humanitarian Intervention in Libya and Non-Intervention in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    enforcement of human rights could prevent authoritarian governments from hurting their own populations. On the other hand, the violent protests in Syria...humanitarian intervention in its current form because it "reinforces authoritarianism , hard sovereignty, [and] militarization.൩ Furthermore, he asks...December 2011), p. 48. 78 Philip Cunliffe, Dangerous duties: power, paternalism and the ’responsibility to protect’, Review of International Studies (2010

  18. Seasonal occurrence of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southern Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Mohammed; Mohamad Fater

    2016-01-01

    Population fluctuations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, were investigated between 1999 and 2001 at several locations representing fruit production areas in the southern part of Syria (Damascus Ghota, Zabadani, Sargaiah, Rankus, Orneh and Ain Al-Arab). Medfly adults were monitored weekly all year around using Jackson traps baited with trimedlure dispensers. Larvae were also sampled in Damascus Ghota by collecting fruits from ripe or ripening fruit trees and recordi...

  19. Epidemiology of organomercury poisoning in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mufti, A. W.; Copplestone, J. F.; Kazantzis, G.; Mahmoud, R. M.; Majid, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a defined area in rural Iraq where there had been many cases of organomercury poisoning following the consumption of bread contaminated by mercury, in order to determine the true incidence of the disorder. The results were compared with those obtained from a similar rural area from which few cases had been reported. A questionnaire was used to determine the amount of contaminated bread eaten and the frequency of symptoms; a simple clinical examination was performed and blood and hair samples were collected for estimation of total mercury concentration. Of 700 people over the age of 5 years in the high-exposure area, 66% admitted to having eaten contaminated bread, while none of the 864 persons in the low exposure area had done so. The mean period during which contaminated bread was eaten was 32 days, but some people had eaten it for as long as 3 months. A mean of 121 loaves was eaten, the maximum being 480 loaves. For the mean number of loaves the intake of methylmercury was likely to have been between 80 mg and 250 mg, but the people who had consumed the largest amount of contaminated bread may have ingested up to 1 000 mg of methylmercury over a 3-month period. Of those with signs of alkylmercury poisoning at the time of the survey, 80% had eaten more than 100 loaves, and 53 (71%) out of 75 persons who had eaten more than 200 loaves showed some evidence of poisoning. The incidence rate for poisoning was estimated at 271 per 1 000; this figure includes a mortality rate of 59 per 1 000, 32 per 1 000 cases with severe disability, 41 per 1 000 cases with mild or moderate disability and 138 per 1 000 cases with only subjective evidence of poisoning at the time of the study. PMID:1086164

  20. Iran's role in the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enav, Peter

    1999-08-01

    Contains Chapters on: The Central Asian pipeline puzzle; What's at stake - Central Asian oil supply and world oil demand to 2015; Non-Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports - assessing the alternative; Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports; Iran's hydrocarbon development strategy - in conflict with Central Asia? US policy and Iran; Iran and the Russian role in Central Asia; The Iranian impact on Central Asian hydrocarbon development. (Author)

  1. Irans Foreign and Defense Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    buses, restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. However, in 2012, their differing positions on the ongoing Syria conflict caused a rift...Uzbekistan (IMU).104 That group, which is active in Afghanistan, in mid-2015, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State organization.105 Almost all...natural gas customer . Perhaps in an attempt to diversify gas export routes, President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov signaled in 2007 that Turkmenistan

  2. Humanitarian Needs Among Displaced and Female-Headed Households in Government-Controlled Areas of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily

    2017-06-01

    To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38.1% of people in need. Displaced and female-headed households were more vulnerable than nondisplaced and male-headed households in numerous sectors. Despite approximately half of surveyed households reporting receipt of humanitarian assistance in the preceding month and apparently effective targeting of assistance by vulnerability, unmet needs were nearly ubiquitous. The humanitarian situation in inaccessible areas of Syria is likely to be considerably worse; thus, findings presented here likely underestimate humanitarian needs. Efforts to expand support to Syria's most vulnerable households are desperately needed as are innovative targeting and modalities that enable more efficient and effective assistance.

  3. The effect of the Syrian crisis on organ transplantation in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bassam

    2015-04-01

    The war in Syria that started in March 2011 has destroyed much of the country's infrastructure including many hospitals. The total number of kidney transplants performed in Syria in 2010 was 385 transplants before the number gradually declined to 154 transplants in 2013, a decrease of 60%. In addition, the number of operational kidney transplant centers has decreased from 8 to 4 centers. Unrelated-donor kidney transplant decreased from 70% during the years that preceded the crisis to 47% in 2013. More than 50% of physicians and surgeons involved in kidney transplant are not practicing transplant currently in their centers. Difficulties in the provision of immunosuppressive drugs for all patients in all provinces constitute a major challenge for the health authorities and transplant patients, especially patients who cannot arrange an alternate source. The project to initiate liver transplant came to a halt because foreign trainers could not visit Syria. The autologous bone marrow transplant program continued to function, but in a smaller and irregular manner. The commitment of transplant teams despite the large challenges was, and still is, extraordinary. In conclusion, all aspects of organ transplant have been affected, paralyzing new projects and negatively affecting existing programs.

  4. The large earthquake on 29 June 1170 (Syria, Lebanon, and central southern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela; Bernardini, Filippo; Comastri, Alberto; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-07-01

    On 29 June 1170 a large earthquake hit a vast area in the Near Eastern Mediterranean, comprising the present-day territories of western Syria, central southern Turkey, and Lebanon. Although this was one of the strongest seismic events ever to hit Syria, so far no in-depth or specific studies have been available. Furthermore, the seismological literature (from 1979 until 2000) only elaborated a partial summary of it, mainly based solely on Arabic sources. The major effects area was very partial, making the derived seismic parameters unreliable. This earthquake is in actual fact one of the most highly documented events of the medieval Mediterranean. This is due to both the particular historical period in which it had occurred (between the second and the third Crusades) and the presence of the Latin states in the territory of Syria. Some 50 historical sources, written in eight different languages, have been analyzed: Latin (major contributions), Arabic, Syriac, Armenian, Greek, Hebrew, Vulgar French, and Italian. A critical analysis of this extraordinary body of historical information has allowed us to obtain data on the effects of the earthquake at 29 locations, 16 of which were unknown in the previous scientific literature. As regards the seismic dynamics, this study has set itself the question of whether there was just one or more than one strong earthquake. In the former case, the parameters (Me 7.7 ± 0.22, epicenter, and fault length 126.2 km) were calculated. Some hypotheses are outlined concerning the seismogenic zones involved.

  5. Schemes for photovoltaic-wind electrification in rural areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, A.; Kaadan, M.

    2004-01-01

    The electricity authority has, over the years, connected most of population to the electric grid. But for very small villages (2000 villages which are yet to be electrified) and newly established Bedouins settlements (80,000 Bedouin families), the cost of grid connections would be high. The purpose of this paper is to propose planning schemes for off-grid hybrid PV-wind power systems that are suitable for energy requirements and general conditions of Syrian remote small villages. A case study will be introduced where a village with 25 houses and a school is to be supplied by hybrid PV-wind AC systems. The paper presents first a survey and operation evaluation of the PV power systems installed in Syria. Three types of stand-alone PV electrification systems (centralized, individual DC and individual AC systems) with a total capacity of about 100 kW were installed in Syria. Furthermore, the paper presents a summary of the renewable energy development plans, especially PV and PV hybrid systems, included in the renewable energy master plan that was recently performed for Syria. The master plan suggests activities to develop wind, bio-energy, solar, hydro and hybrid systems, which will provide heat and power to Syrian energy needs until 2010. (authors)

  6. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  7. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  8. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  9. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  10. The Effect of Global Political Events in the Arab Spring on Stock Returns: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim BOZKURT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available International events or news have an effect on countries’ internal and external policies and since this effect is reflected on the markets, the decisions of domestic and foreign investors are revised continually. This study aims to analyze the effect of international good and bad news related to Iraq, Iran and Syria that are located in the Arab spring region and are border to Turkey, on the returns of ISE-100 index The study utilized event study methodology, international news related to Iraq, Iran and Syria between 2010-2013 and the daily closing price data of MSCI Emerging Markets Index and ISE-100 index between 2010-2013 constituted the dataset. At the end of the study, it was found that only the Iran-related news had effect on ISE-100 index.

  11. Migration from Iraq between the Gulf and the Iraq wars (1990-2003): historical and sociospacial dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Working Paper 09-68, COMPAS - Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (Oxford University). http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/wp-09-68/#c221; This paper describes and analyses trends and patterns of migration from Iraq with a focus on the movement of those Iraqis who migrated from their country between the Gulf War in 1990-1991 and the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in April 2003. The conceptual frame of migration orders is used however combined with approaches proposed b...

  12. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  13. Results of a Nationwide Capacity Survey of Hospitals Providing Trauma Care in War-Affected Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani; Hariri, Mahmoud; Alnahhas, Houssam; Ludwig, Elizabeth; Allodami, Tammam; Mahameed, Bahaa; Koly, Jamal Kaby; Aldbis, Ahmed; Saqqur, Maher; Zhang, Baobao; Al-Kassem, Anas

    2016-09-01

    The Syrian civil war has resulted in large-scale devastation of Syria's health infrastructure along with widespread injuries and death from trauma. The capacity of Syrian trauma hospitals is not well characterized. Data are needed to allocate resources for trauma care to the population remaining in Syria. To identify the number of trauma hospitals operating in Syria and to delineate their capacities. From February 1 to March 31, 2015, a nationwide survey of 94 trauma hospitals was conducted inside Syria, representing a coverage rate of 69% to 93% of reported hospitals in nongovernment controlled areas. Identification and geocoding of trauma and essential surgical services in Syria. Although 86 hospitals (91%) reported capacity to perform emergency surgery, 1 in 6 hospitals (16%) reported having no inpatient ward for patients after surgery. Sixty-three hospitals (70%) could transfuse whole blood but only 7 (7.4%) could separate and bank blood products. Seventy-one hospitals (76%) had any pharmacy services. Only 10 (11%) could provide renal replacement therapy, and only 18 (20%) provided any form of rehabilitative services. Syrian hospitals are isolated, with 24 (26%) relying on smuggling routes to refer patients to other hospitals and 47 hospitals (50%) reporting domestic supply lines that were never open or open less than daily. There were 538 surgeons, 378 physicians, and 1444 nurses identified in this survey, yielding a nurse to physician ratio of 1.8:1. Only 74 hospitals (79%) reported any salary support for staff, and 84 (89%) reported material support. There is an unmet need for biomedical engineering support in Syrian trauma hospitals, with 12 fixed x-ray machines (23%), 11 portable x-ray machines (13%), 13 computed tomographic scanners (22%), 21 adult (21%) and 5 pediatric (19%) ventilators, 14 anesthesia machines (10%), and 116 oxygen cylinders (15%) not functional. No functioning computed tomographic scanners remain in Aleppo, and 95 oxygen cylinders (42

  14. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  15. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework

  16. The Gulf War on Computer: A Review of "Iraq Stack."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Dick

    1993-01-01

    Reviews a HyperCard stack designed for use in schools and at home. Describes the program as primarily a database of information on Iraq, Kuwait, and the Gulf War. Contends that the program is pedagogically weak and of marginal use in the classroom. (CFR)

  17. UNSCOM faces entirely new verification challenges in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevan, T.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with the very first declarations and inspections, it became evident that Iraq was not acting in good faith, would use every possible pretext to reinterpret UNSCOM's inspection rights, and occasionally would use harassment tactics to make inspections as difficult as possible. Topics considered in detail include; initial assumptions, outstanding issues, and UNSCOM's future attitude

  18. The Arab spring and online protests in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article traces the influence of the Arab Spring on Iraq as activists staged fervent protests against the corruption, sectarianism, and favoritism of Nouri Maliki's government. A group of young Iraqi intellectuals, journalists, students, government employees, and unemployed youth

  19. Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Ballard, a recent Iraq veteran, all contributed greatly. From the Institute for National Strategic Studies, Dr. Christopher J. Lamb , Dr. James A. Schear...reforms of 1986 were stewing for many years and were only enacted after a series of disappointing opera- tions in which the obvious national failure was

  20. Identifying water mass depletion in northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.; Olsthoorn, T.N.; Al-manmi, D.A.M.A.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Smidt, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 146 ± 6 mm equivalent water height (EWH) in northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. These data are used as an independent validation of lake mass variations and a rainfall-runoff model, which is

  1. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration…

  2. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  3. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM INVESTMENT GAS INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Hayder Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern world. Economy of the biggest part of states based on the foreigninvestments, which are quite necessaryfor developing their economy and infrastructure. On the present stage of thedevelopment the Republic of Iraq the gassector problems could be solved onlythrough investments.

  4. Iraq cracks a few heads in the Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.

    1990-08-20

    Last month Saddam Hussein charged that oil overproduction by his neighbors was costing Iraq dearly. When an OPEC meeting collapsed last week, he sent 100,000 troops to seize Kuwait, which he had accused of stealing oil. The US is scrambling to organize a Western boycott, but some analysts question just how effective such a more would be.

  5. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  6. The IAEA in Iraq: Past activities and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This summary paper was first published in August 2002 along with papers of similar scope describing other aspects of Iraq's WMD programmes. Despite its inclusion in a compendium introducing the concept of 'coercive inspections', the author made it clear to the publisher the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace (CEIP) - that he did not support that concept which he considered to have the potential to result in a serious hazard to inspectors in the field. Since that time the UN Security Council has adopted resolution 1441 - not dissimilar in scope and objective to that contained in the author's paper to the CEIP workshop on Iraq in July 1991 - and inspectors have already resumed their activities in Iraq. Resolution 1441 contains little new but is extremely helpful in bringing to prominence and elaborating the extensive rights of the inspection authorities already embodied in their respective plans for on goings monitoring and verification. What is new is the inspectorates' right to transport Iraqi nationals and their family members outside Iraq in order to conduct unencumbered interviews. This new right seems to have been viewed with circumspection within the inspectorates and rightly so. Its implementation is fraught with difficulty. For example, if the Iraqi regime is true to the media model then it must be assumed that valued family members of critical interviewees have already been at least identified by the regime if, that is, they are not already 'enjoying the hospitality of the State'. Again, would the apparent refusal of family members, young and old, to accompany the interviewee be deemed to be non-co-operation? Does 1441 really give the inspectorates the right of extradition or does it mean that those interviewees willing to leave, along with their families, and released without serious objections by the Iraqi regime, are likely to have little to contribute to current knowledge? Despite the above reservation, resolution 1441 provides a firm basis for

  7. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  8. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  9. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  10. Use of remote sensing techniques for mitigation and relief action of the main disaster concerns in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalati, M.

    The main disaster concern in Syria is the Earthquakes since that Northwest of Syria is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift Afro-Arabian rift System Those areas are tectonically active and cause time to time a lot of seismically events This faulting zone system represent a unique structural feature in the Mediterranean Region The system formed initially as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate since the mid-Cenozoic The other disaster concern in Syria is Landslides whom caused significant damaging in Syria during the last decades especially in the Northwestern and Southwestern regions Landslide disasters killed some people and destroyed many mud and cement houses coastal mountains and cut off some roads few years ago It is known that many of the earthquakes and landslides that ever happened on our planet are located in active faults zones So it is of most important to obtain detailed information on regional tectonic structures The main approach of active faults survey at present is to use geological and geophysical methods such as in-situ measuring drilling and analysis of gravity and magnetic fields However because of the magnitude of the work there are still many uncertainties that we cannot figure out by traditional approaches Remote sensing has been brought forward for many years and has applications in many hazard

  11. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  12. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  13. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  14. Celiac disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekzadeh R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until a few decades ago, celiac disease was considered to be essentially a disease of European people and to be very rare in Middle Eastern countries. During the last two decades, having met the criteria for the WHO general screening, the advent and application of novel serological assays used to screen for celiac disease and the use of endoscopic small bowel biopsy have led to increasing numbers of diagnoses of celiac disease in western countries. With this new data, our knowledge on both the clinical pattern and epidemiology of celiac disease has increased, and is now known to be a relatively common autoimmune disorder. Studies performed in different parts of the developing world have shown that the prevalence of celiac disease in this area is similar to or even higher than that in western countries. In fact, celiac disease is known to be the most common form of chronic diarrhea in Iran. However, contrary to common belief, celiac disease is more than a pure digestive alteration. It is a protean systemic disease, and, with a 95 percent genetic predisposition, has a myriad of symptoms including gastrointestinal, dermatological, dental, neurological and behavioral that can occur at a variety of ages. Monosymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, atypical (without gastrointestinal symptoms, silent and latent forms of celiac disease have been identified. In this study we review the epidemiology of celiac disease based on the studies performed in Iran and discuss its pathogenesis, the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the importance of its diagnosis and treatment in Iran.

  15. Choosing Spouse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia'

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing.            Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are

  16. Questioning the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The Impact of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that question the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…

  17. Lut Desert, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Iran is a large country with several desert regions. In the Dasht-E-Lut (Lut Desert) (30.5N, 58.5E) an area known as Namak-Zar, about 100 miles east of the city of Kerman, is at the center of this photograph. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs (very long, parallel ridges and depressions) have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments. At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind.

  18. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  19. Water, sanitation, and hygiene access in southern Syria: analysis of survey data and recommendations for response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikder, Mustafa; Daraz, Umar; Lantagne, Daniele; Saltori, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria. During the survey, household water was tested for free chlorine residual (FCR). Descriptive statistics were calculated, and mixed effect logistic regressions were completed to determine associations between demographic and WASH variables with outcomes of FCR > 0.1 mg/L in household water and reported diarrhea in children market-available hygiene items were unaffordable. FCR > 0.1 mg/L increased from 4.1% to 27.9% over this time, with Water Safety Plan (WSP) programming strongly associated with FCR (mOR: 24.16; 95% CI: 5.93-98.5). The proportion of households with childhood diarrhea declined from 32.8% to 20.4% over this time; sanitation and hygiene access were protective against childhood diarrhea. The private sector has effectively replaced decaying infrastructure in Syria, although at high cost and uncertain quality. Allowing market forces to manage WASH services and quantity, and targeting emergency response activities on increasing affordability with well-targeted subsidies and improving water quality and regulation via WSPs can be an effective, scalable, and cost-effective strategy to guarantee water and sanitation access in protracted emergencies with local markets.

  20. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  1. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.A. Alkhaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1 and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1 more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

  2. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to study ceramic fragments from Damascus Castle site, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E.H.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-three archaeological ceramic fragment samples from Damascus Castle archaeological site, Damascus city, Syria, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). 36 elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that 84.8% of the ceramics samples classified by cluster analysis are correctly classified by cluster analysis. The results provided persuasive evidence that Castle pottery used at least four different clay sources. Moreover, by means of systematic local analysis it will be clear whether these sources are local or not. (author)

  3. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.

    2008-11-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  4. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mariri, A; Sharabi, N D [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic), Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

    2008-11-15

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (Authors)

  5. Landscape ecological, phytosociological and geobotanical study of eumediterranean in west of Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The Eu-Mediterranean vegetation in Syria is widespread over a large geographical area, occupying an altitudinal zone mainly from 300 to 900 m asl., but can be also found outside this range. The study area is located to the west of the longitude 37° E, where this vegetation dominates. A complete field surveying of the landscape for all regions in the study area was carried out. The environmental variables of the landscape (climate, soil, geology, land use, flora and vegetation) were ana...

  6. Multidrug resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from nosocomial respiratory and urinary infections in Aleppo, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Maysa; Al Najjar, Mona; Hamzeh, Abdul Rezzak

    2015-02-19

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a serious clinical challenge due to its frequent involvement in nosocomial infections and its tendency towards multidrug resistance. This study uncovered antibiotic susceptibility patterns in 177 isolates from inpatients in three key hospitals in Aleppo, the largest city in Syria. Exceptionally low susceptibility to most routinely used antibiotics was uncovered; resistance to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was 64.9% and 70.3%, respectively. Contrarily, susceptibility to colistin was the highest (89.1%). Multidrug resistance was rife, found at a rate of 53.67% among studied P. aeruginosa isolates.

  7. Regional Exchange and the Role of the Shop in Byzantine and Early Islamic Syria-Palestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2012-01-01

    a significant factor in the prosperity of Syria-Palestine at that time, facilitating not only local exchange but also, on a wider scale, the transportation of goods from outside the immediate region. Crucial to this trade system at the local level was the shop. Archaeological evidence for a shop-based market...... system has expanded greatly in recent years, giving a detailed insight into the system of exchange within an urban context. However, its social function as an urban institution has been, by comparison, little considered. This paper will reflect on the shops, their keepers, the suppliers and the patrons...

  8. Typing some of lactic acid bacteria in Syria using PCR and FT-IR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mariri, A.; Sharabi, N. D.

    2010-01-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are considered to be the most useful microorganisms. They are beneficial in flavoring foods, inhibiting pathogenic as well as spoilage bacteria in food products. The isolates of LAB were obtained from traditional Syrian dairy products (white cheese and curdled yogurt) obtained from different regions in Syria. The isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization analyses. The PCR technique of bacterial DNA was evaluated as an advanced tool for the identification of LAB. It was found that strains: E. faecium, E. faecalis and S. thermophilus dominate in white cheese and in yogurt. Our results demonstrated that we could identify LAB using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) patterns. (author)

  9. System program information of internal occupational radiation exposure in Syria (SORIES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitar, A.; Moghrabi, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work describes personal-computer-based software, SORIES, which enables users to estimate intake activity and the resulting internal doses for all radionuclides existing in ICRP /78/ and IAEA Safety Reports Series No.37. The program forms a useful tool to get a database containing all the information related to occupational internal monitoring program. Furthermore, SORIES offers the possibility to obtain different reports of results. The SORIES program was built to be easy-to-use and user friendly. The program is based on Microsoft FoxPro database program and runs on Microsoft Windows 97-XP. SORIES software is distributed by Atomic Energy Commission in Syria.(author)

  10. Analytical investigations of cooking pottery from Tell Beydar (NE-Syria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekmans, T.; Adriaens, A.; Pantos, E.

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of a technological and socio-economical study of pottery production in Tell Beydar (NE-Syria) during the third millennium BC, the chemical composition and mineralogy of cooking pottery from that site has been studied using polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDX) and X-ray diffraction by means of synchrotron radiation (SR-XRD). The obtained data were used to make inferences concerning the pottery's technology, such as clay preparation and firing techniques

  11. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  12. Head and neck trauma in Iraq and Afghanistan: different war, different surgery, lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The objectives are to compare and contrast the head and neck trauma experience in Iraq and Afghanistan and to identify trauma lessons learned that are applicable to civilian practice. A retrospective review of one head and neck surgeon's operative experience in Iraq and Afghanistan was performed using operative logs and medical records. The surgeon's daily operative log book with patient demographic data and operative reports was reviewed. Also, patient medical records were examined to identify the preoperative and postoperative course of care. The head and neck trauma experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan were very different, with a higher percentage of emergent cases performed in Iraq. In Iraq, only 10% of patients were pretreated at a facility with surgical capabilities. In Afghanistan, 93% of patients were pretreated at such facilities. Emergent neck exploration for penetrating neck trauma and emergent airway surgery were more common in Iraq, which most likely accounted for the increased perioperative mortality also seen in Iraq (5.3% in Iraq vs. 1.3% in Afghanistan). Valuable lessons regarding soft tissue trauma repair, midface fracture repair, and mandible fracture repair were learned. The head and neck trauma experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan were very different, and the future training for mass casualty trauma events should reflect these differences. Furthermore, valuable head and neck trauma lessons learned in both war zones are applicable to the civilian practice of trauma. Level 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Differences in Services and Fees for Management and Administration of Iraq Reconstruction Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David; Childress, David; Salvatierra, George; Thompson, Chuck; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    ...), a field operating agency of the Air Force Civil Engineer, are two primary organizations providing project management and contract administration services for major Iraq reconstruction projects...

  14. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  15. Decommissioning plan for Tammuz-2 research reactor in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. A.; Jasim, H. I.

    2012-12-01

    For nuclear facilities, decommissioning is the final phase in the life cycle after sitting, design, construction, commissioning and operation. It is a process involving operations such as decontamination, dismantling of plant equipment of result in materials. All these activities take into account health and safety requirements for operating personnel and the general public, and any implications for the environment. (1) In several projects to decommission various type of nuclear facilities, it has been shown that technical methods and equipment are available today to dismantle safely nuclear facilities, of whatever type or size. Much experience in the use of these techniques has the decommissioning of prototype, demonstration, and small power reactors or other nuclear facilities. In Iraq these activities will be done by the cooperation with (IAEA) International Atomic Energy Agency and the other national regulatory bodies such as (IRSRA) Iraqi Radioactive Sources Regulatory Authority, and (RPC/MoEn) Radiation Protection Center/ Ministry of Environment in Iraq. (Author)

  16. Casualties: narrative and images of the war on Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Seiji; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Farmer, Paul E

    2006-01-01

    The Iraqi people have endured an excess burden of morbidity and mortality during the past 15 years due to war and sanctions, with the March 2003 Anglo-American assault on and subsequent occupation of Iraq representing the most recent chapter. Children have been disproportionately affected; many have died from infectious disease, malnutrition, and lack of access to health care. There have been significant differences in the availability of narrative accounts and images of this suffering, reflective of the need of those who wage wars and impose sanctions to keep the public uninformed. This article suggests that public health and medical practitioners have a responsibility to seek out such accounts and images. The authors explore possible responses to narrative and images of this suffering, and outline the sorts of responses engendered by three perspectives-charity, development, and social justice. The suffering of the people of Iraq should spur a response from the health community to alleviate the situation and prevent unnecessary suffering.

  17. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  18. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Iraq consists of a lowland trough lying between asymmetrical and very different upland massifs to the east, north and west and continuing southeastwards to the Persian Gulf. The region is one of crustal weakness and subsidence with relatively young plastic sedimentary rocks engulfed in downwarped, ancient, rigid and highly resistant blocks. Exploration in the 1954-55 period found some minor radioactive anomalies and very low uranium contents in limestones and phosphates. The results of an aerial radiometric survey in 1973-74 are not known to IAEA. Iraq has no reported uranium resources but there are several favourable formations which warrant a detailed survey. In view of the size of the country and the small amount of systematic exploration carried out up to the present time, the Speculative Potential is considered to lie in the 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  19. Prevalence of AIV subtype H9 among poultry with respiratory signs in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. A. Kraidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The H9N2 avian influenza A viruses (AIV have been recorded in Eurasia for several years. In this study, the prevalence of the circulated H9 subtype in the poultry population in middle and south of Iraq provinces was studied during a period from September 2014 to June 2015. Samples were col-lected from one hundred broiler flocks with respiratory signs from seven provinces. The detection and identification of virus were carried out by using highly sensitive method, Taqman Real-time Poly-merase Chain Reaction, which has been increasingly used for detecting avian pathogens in recent years. The prevalence of H9 subtype in 16% of the infected flocks was reported, and the results re-vealed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05 in the prevalence rate of H9 subtype among broiler flocks in Al-Basra, Al-Qadisyia and An-Najaf provinces (14.28%, 20% and 23.80%, respec-tively as compared to other provinces, while An-Najaf province had the highest prevalence rate (23.80% among all other provinces. The H9 subtype has been recorded for the first time in broiler flocks of Al-Basra and Wasit with lower prevalence rate in Wasit (10%. The prevalence of the H9 virus infection in the winter (75% was higher than that in summer (25%. Since the provinces are in the vicinity of the Iran, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait with H9 infection records, results of this study indicate circulation of AIV between these countries and in the larger scale, Middle East. This can be very impor-tant due to the presence of migratory birds coming from Russia and China and stay in winter months in the marshes of Al-Basra and consequently, AIV transportation to the other parts of the world.

  20. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... Second, Iran uses the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Qods Force (QF) to provide aid in the form of paramilitary training, weapons, and equipment to various Iraqi militant groups, including Moqtada al-Sadr's Jaysh al-Mahdi (JAM...