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Sample records for ir spectral analysis

  1. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. Whi...... 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applications like gas analysis and medical diagnostics....

  2. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Umarkhodgaev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some possible physical processes are analysed that cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electric field, emissions in the infrared (IR interval. The atmospheric transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7–15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analyzed. For daytime conditions, modifications of the adsorption spectra of the scattered solar emissions are studied; for nighttime, variations of emission spectra may be used for the analysis.

  3. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  4. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B; Patil, Nikhil A; Mulimani, B G

    2016-02-05

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400c m(-1)) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  6. Camouflage in thermal IR: spectral design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan; Kariis, Hans; Lindell, Roland; Hallberg, Tomas; Högström, Herman

    2016-10-01

    In this work a spectral designed coating from SPECTROGON is evaluated. Spectral design in this case means that the coating has a reflectivity equal to one at 3-5 and 8-12 microns were sensors operate and a much lower reflectivity in the other wave length regions. Three boxes are evaluated: one metallic, one black-body and one with a spectral designed surface, all with a 15 W radiator inside the box. It is shown that the box with the spectral designed surface can combine the two good characteristics of the other boxes: low signature from the metallic box and reasonable inside temperature from the black-body box. The measurements were verified with calculations using RadThermIR.

  7. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  8. Application of FT-IR spectroscopy on breast cancer serum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Movaghar, Afshin Fayyaz; Elmi, Maryam Mitra; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nikbakhsh, Novin

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer is regarded as the most malignant tumor among women throughout the world. Therefore, early detection and proper diagnostic methods have been known to help save women's lives. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with PCA-LDA analysis, is a new technique to investigate the characteristics of serum in breast cancer. In this study, 43 breast cancer and 43 healthy serum samples were collected, and the FT-IR spectra were recorded for each one. Then, PCA analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the spectral data. The results showed that there were differences between the spectra of the two groups. Discriminating wavenumbers were associated with several spectral differences over the 950-1200 cm- 1(sugar), 1190-1350 cm- 1 (collagen), 1475-1710 cm- 1 (protein), 1710-1760 cm- 1 (ester), 2800-3000 cm- 1 (stretching motions of -CH2 & -CH3), and 3090-3700 cm- 1 (NH stretching) regions. PCA-LDA performance on serum IR could recognize changes between the control and the breast cancer cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of PCA-LDA analysis for 3000-3600 cm- 1 (NH stretching) were found to be 83%, 84%, 74% for the control and 80%, 76%, 72% for the breast cancer cases, respectively. The results showed that the major spectral differences between the two groups were related to the differences in protein conformation in serum samples. It can be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy, together with multivariate data analysis, is able to discriminate between breast cancer and healthy serum samples.

  9. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  10. Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Tsonko

    2011-01-01

    A technique that is useful in the study of pharmaceutical products and biological molecules, polarization IR spectroscopy has undergone continuous development since it first emerged almost 100 years ago. Capturing the state of the science as it exists today, "Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis" demonstrates how the technique can be properly utilized to obtain important information about the structure and spectral properties of oriented compounds. The book starts with the theoretical basis of linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscop

  11. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF IR, 1 H- AND 13 C-NMR SPECTRAL DATA OF N-ALKYL AND N-CYCLOALKYL CYANOACETAMIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar D. Marinković

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear free energy relationships (LFER were applied to the IR, 1H- and 13C--NMR spectral data in N-alkyl and N-cycloalkyl cyanoacetamides. N-alkyl and N-cycloalkyl cyanocetamides were synthesized from corresponding amine and ethyl cyanoacetate. A number of substituents were employed for alkyl substitution, and fairly good correlations were obtained, using simple Hammett equation. In N-alkyl and N-cycloalkyl cyanoacetamides substituent cause SCS of N-H hydrogen primarily by steric interaction, polar subtituent effect influences SCS shift of C=O carbon, while steric effect of N-alkyl substituent causes IR stretching frequencies of N-H, C=O and CN group. The conformations of investigated compounds have been studied by the use of semiempirical PM6 method, and together with LFER analysis, give a better insight into the influence of such a structure on the transmission of electronic substituent effects. Negative ρ values for several correlations (reverse substituent effect were found.

  12. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  13. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  14. Innovative monolithic detector for tri-spectral (THz, IR, Vis) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocas, S.; Perenzoni, M.; Massari, N.; Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Rabaud, W.; Martin, S.; Delplanque, B.; Imperinetti, P.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of multispectral images has been explored for many years for security and used in a number of commercial products. CEA-Leti and FBK have developed an innovative sensor technology that gathers monolithically on a unique focal plane arrays, pixels sensitive to radiation in three spectral ranges that are terahertz (THz), infrared (IR) and visible. This technology benefits of many assets for volume market: compactness, full CMOS compatibility on 200mm wafers, advanced functions of the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and operation at room temperature. The ROIC houses visible APS diodes while IR and THz detections are carried out by microbolometers collectively processed above the CMOS substrate. Standard IR bolometric microbridges (160x160 pixels) are surrounding antenna-coupled bolometers (32X32 pixels) built on a resonant cavity customized to THz sensing. This paper presents the different technological challenges achieved in this development and first electrical and sensitivity experimental tests.

  15. Spectral Confirmation of New Galactic LBV and WN Stars Associated With Mid-IR Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2014-08-01

    Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars represent an extremely rare class and short-lived phase in the lives of very luminous massive stars with high mass loss rates. Extragalactic LBVs are responsible for producing false supernovae (SN), the SN Impostors, and have been directly linked with the progenitors of actual SN, indicating the LBV phase can be a final endpoint for massive star evolution. Yet only a few confirmed LBVs have been identified in the Galaxy. Their stellar evolution is poorly constrained by observations, and the physical reason for their unstable nature, both in terms of moderate spectral and photometric variability of a few magnitudes and the giant eruptions a la η Car that rival SN explosions, remains a mystery. Newly discovered mid-IR shells act as signposts, pointing to the central massive stars (LBV and Wolf-Rayet [WR] stars) that produced them. We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of possible progenitor stars within these shells and are discovering that many are LBVs and WN-type WR transitional stars. We propose to extend this IR spectral survey to the south to search for new progenitor stars associated with dozens of newly identified shells. This survey should result in a substantial increase of new WRs and candidate LBVs for continued future study. Spectral analysis will yield new insights into the winds and physical properties of these rare and important objects, and lead to a better understanding of the physics driving giant eruptions.

  16. Spectral analysis of the structure of ultradispersed diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglov, V. V.; Shimanski, V. I.; Rusalsky, D. P.; Samtsov, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    The structure of ultradispersed diamonds (UDD) is studied by spectral methods. The presence of diamond crystal phase in the UDD is found based on x-ray analysis and Raman spectra. The Raman spectra also show sp2-and sp3-hybridized carbon. Analysis of IR absorption spectra suggests that the composition of functional groups present in the particles changes during the treatment.

  17. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S.; Harker, D. E.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Murphy, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 μm [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, λFλ vs. λ) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline forsterite formed. The

  18. MicrOmega IR: a new infrared hyperspectral imaging microscope or in situ analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitua, Leroi; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    MicrOmega IR is an ultra miniaturized Near Infrared hyperspectral microscope for in situ analysis of samples. It is designed to be implemented on board space planetary vehicles (lander and/or rovers). It acquires images of samples typically some 5 mm in width with a spatial sampling of 20 μm. On each pixel, MicrOmega acquires the spectrum in the spectral range 0.9 - 2.6 μm, with a possibility to extend the sensibility up to 4 μm. The spectrum will be measured in up to 300 contiguous spectral channels (600 in the extended range): given the diagnostic spectral features present in this domain, it provides the composition of each spatially resolved constituent. MicrOmega has thus the potential to identify: minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine, ferric oxides, hydrated phases such as phyllosilicates, sulfates and carbonates, ices and organics. The composition of the various phases within a given sample is a critical record of its formation and evolution. Coupled to the mapping information, it provides unique clues to describe the history of the parent body. In particular, the capability to identify hydrated grains and to characterize their adjacent phases has a huge potential in the search for potential bio-relics in Martian samples. This purely non destructive characterization enables further analyses (e.g. through mass spectrometry) to be performed, and/or to contribute to sample selection to return to Earth. MicrOmega IR is coupled to a visible microscope: MicrOmega VIS. Thus, the MicrOmega instrument is developed by an international consortium: IAS (Orsay, France), LESIA (Meudon, France), CBM (Orléans, France), University Of Bern (Bern, Switzerland), IKI (Moscow, Russia). This instrument (MicrOmega IR, MicrOmega VIS and the electronics) is selected for the ESA Exomars mission (launch scheduled for 2013). MicrOmega IR will be used in a reduced spectral range (0.9 - 2.6 μm), due to power, mass and thermal constraints: however, most minerals and other

  19. Raman and Mid-IR Spectral Analysis of the Atacamite-Structure Hydroxyl/Deuteroxyl Nickel Chlorides Ni2(OH/D)3Cl

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Dong; Hagihala Masato; ZHENG Xu-Guang; MENG Dong-Doug; GUO Qi-Xin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Vibrational spectra(Raman 4000-95cm-1 and mid-IR 4000-400cm-1) of the atacamite-structure Ni2(OH)3Cl,including a rarely reported kind of asymmetric trimetric hydrogen bond, as a member of the geometrically frustrated material series and its deuteride Ni2(OD)3Cl are, to the best of our knowledge, reported for the first time and analyzed at room temperature.Through a comparative study of four spectra according to their crystal structural parameters, we assign OH stretching modes v(OH) in a functional group region(3700-3400 cm-1) and their deformation modes δ(NiOH/D) in the correlation peak region(900-600 cm-1)with the corresponding mode frequency ratios ωv(OD)/ωv(OH)≈73% and ωδ(NiOD)/ωδ(NiOH)≈75%, and further self-consistently suggest NiO and Ni-Cl related modes in the fingerprint region(500-200cm-1 and 200-Ocm-1, respectively) by use of the unified six-ligand NiO5Cl and NiO4Cl2 frames.This report may contribute to the spectral analysis of other hydroxyl transition-metal halides and to the understanding of the fundamental physics of their exotic magnetic geometrical frustration property from the spectral changes around the corresponding low transition temperatures.

  20. Wide-band IR imaging in the NIR-MIR-FIR regions for in situ analysis of frescoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Pezzati, L.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Di Biase, R.; Mariotti, P. I.; Frosinini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Imaging methods offer several advantages in the field of conservation allowing to perform non-invasive inspection of works of art. In particular, non-invasive techniques based on imaging in different infrared (IR) regions are widely used for the investigation of paintings. Using radiation beyond the visible range, different characteristics of the inspected artwork may be revealed according to the bandwidth acquired. In this paper we present the recent results of a joint project among the two research institutes DIMEG and CNR-INO, and the restoration facility Opificio delle Pietre Dure, concerning the wide-band integration of IR imaging techniques, in the spectral ranges NIR 0.8-2.5 μm, MIR 3-5 μm, and FIR 8-12 μm, for in situ analysis of artworks. A joint, multi-mode use of reflection and thermal bands is proposed for the diagnostics of mural paintings, and it is demonstrated to be an effective tool in inspecting the layered structure. High resolution IR reflectography and, to a greater extent, IR imaging in the 3-5 μm band, are effectively used to characterize the superficial layer of the fresco and to analyze the stratigraphy of different pictorial layers. IR thermography in the 8-12 μm band is used to characterize the support deep structure. The integration of all the data provides a multi- layered and multi-spectral representation of the fresco that yields a comprehensive analysis.

  1. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Belov; V. A. Gorodnichev; D. A. Kravtsov; A. A. Cherpakova

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m) and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m) spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to ful...

  2. Similarity maps and hierarchical clustering for annotating FT-IR spectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiaoyong; Yang, Chen; Großerüschkamp, Frederik; Kallenbach-Thieltges, Angela; Serocka, Peter; Gerwert, Klaus; Mosig, Axel

    2013-11-20

    Unsupervised segmentation of multi-spectral images plays an important role in annotating infrared microscopic images and is an essential step in label-free spectral histopathology. In this context, diverse clustering approaches have been utilized and evaluated in order to achieve segmentations of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microscopic images that agree with histopathological characterization. We introduce so-called interactive similarity maps as an alternative annotation strategy for annotating infrared microscopic images. We demonstrate that segmentations obtained from interactive similarity maps lead to similarly accurate segmentations as segmentations obtained from conventionally used hierarchical clustering approaches. In order to perform this comparison on quantitative grounds, we provide a scheme that allows to identify non-horizontal cuts in dendrograms. This yields a validation scheme for hierarchical clustering approaches commonly used in infrared microscopy. We demonstrate that interactive similarity maps may identify more accurate segmentations than hierarchical clustering based approaches, and thus are a viable and due to their interactive nature attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering. Our validation scheme furthermore shows that performance of hierarchical two-means is comparable to the traditionally used Ward's clustering. As the former is much more efficient in time and memory, our results suggest another less resource demanding alternative for annotating large spectral images.

  3. Detection and classification of salmonella serotypes using spectral signatures collected by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spectral signatures of Salmonella serotypes namely Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky were collected using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). About 5-10 µL of Salmonella suspensions with concentrations of 1...

  4. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Simple Algorithm Analysis for Rapid and Non-Destructive Assessment of Developmental Cotton Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-06-22

    With cotton fiber growth or maturation, cellulose content in cotton fibers markedly increases. Traditional chemical methods have been developed to determine cellulose content, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive, mostly owing to the slow hydrolysis process of fiber cellulose components. As one approach, the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy technique has also been utilized to monitor cotton cellulose formation, by implementing various spectral interpretation strategies of both multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and 1-, 2- or 3-band/-variable intensity or intensity ratios. The main objective of this study was to compare the correlations between cellulose content determined by chemical analysis and ATR FT-IR spectral indices acquired by the reported procedures, among developmental Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and immature fiber ( im ) mutant cotton fibers. It was observed that the R value, CI IR , and the integrated intensity of the 895 cm -1 band exhibited strong and linear relationships with cellulose content. The results have demonstrated the suitability and utility of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, combined with a simple algorithm analysis, in assessing cotton fiber cellulose content, maturity, and crystallinity in a manner which is rapid, routine, and non-destructive.

  5. Multivariat least-squares methods applied to the quantitative spectral analysis of multicomponent samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.; Easterling, R.G.; Vopicka, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In an extension of earlier work, weighted multivariate least-squares methods of quantitative FT-IR analysis have been developed. A linear least-squares approximation to nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law is made by allowing the reference spectra to be a set of known mixtures, The incorporation of nonzero intercepts in the relation between absorbance and concentration further improves the approximation of nonlinearities while simultaneously accounting for nonzero spectra baselines. Pathlength variations are also accommodated in the analysis, and under certain conditions, unknown sample pathlengths can be determined. All spectral data are used to improve the precision and accuracy of the estimated concentrations. During the calibration phase of the analysis, pure component spectra are estimated from the standard mixture spectra. These can be compared with the measured pure component spectra to determine which vibrations experience nonlinear behavior. In the predictive phase of the analysis, the calculated spectra are used in our previous least-squares analysis to estimate sample component concentrations. These methods were applied to the analysis of the IR spectra of binary mixtures of esters. Even with severely overlapping spectral bands and nonlinearities in the Beer-Lambert law, the average relative error in the estimated concentration was <1%

  6. An improved synthesis, spectroscopic (FT-IR, NMR) study and DFT computational analysis (IR, NMR, UV-Vis, MEP diagrams, NBO, NLO, FMO) of the 1,5-methanoazocino[4,3-b]indole core structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludağ, Nesimi; Serdaroğlu, Goncagül

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the synthesis of azocino[4,3-b]indole structure, which constitutes the tetracyclic framework of uleine, dasycarpidoneand tubifolidineas well as ABDE substructure of the strychnosalkaloid family. It has been synthesized by Fischer indolization of 2 and through the cylization of 4 by 2,3-dichlor-5-6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ). 1H and 1C NMR chemical shifts have been predicted with GIAO approach and the calculated chemical shifts show very good agreement with observed shifts. FT-IR spectroscopy is important for the analysis of functional groups of synthesized compounds and we also supported FT-IR vibrational analysis with computational IR analysis. The vibrational spectral analysis was performed at B3LYP level of the theory in both the gas and the water phases and it was compared with the observed IR values for the important functional groups. The DFT calculations have been conducted to determine the most stable structure of the 1,2,3,4,5,6,7-Hexahydro-1,5-methanoazocino [4,3-b] indole (5). The Frontier Molecular Orbital Analysis, quantum chemical parameters, physicochemical properties have been predicted by using the same theory of level in both gas phase and the water phase, at 631 + g** and 6311++g** basis sets. TD- DFT calculations have been performed to predict the UV- Vis spectral analysis for this synthesized molecule. The Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis have been performed at B3LYP level of theory to elucidate the intra-molecular interactions such as electron delocalization and conjugative interactions. NLO calculations were conducted to obtain the electric dipole moment and polarizability of the title compound.

  7. Sugar and acid content of Citrus prediction modeling using FT-IR fingerprinting in combination with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung Yeob; Lee, Young Koung; Kim, In-Jung

    2016-01-01

    A high-throughput screening system for Citrus lines were established with higher sugar and acid contents using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis. FT-IR spectra confirmed typical spectral differences between the frequency regions of 950-1100 cm(-1), 1300-1500 cm(-1), and 1500-1700 cm(-1). Principal component analysis (PCA) and subsequent partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were able to discriminate five Citrus lines into three separate clusters corresponding to their taxonomic relationships. The quantitative predictive modeling of sugar and acid contents from Citrus fruits was established using partial least square regression algorithms from FT-IR spectra. The regression coefficients (R(2)) between predicted values and estimated sugar and acid content values were 0.99. These results demonstrate that by using FT-IR spectra and applying quantitative prediction modeling to Citrus sugar and acid contents, excellent Citrus lines can be early detected with greater accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radical protection by differently composed creams in the UV/VIS and IR spectral ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C; Syring, Felicia; Schanzer, Sabine; Haag, Stefan F; Graf, Rüdiger; Loch, Manuela; Gersonde, Ingo; Groth, Norbert; Pflücker, Frank; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Modern sunscreens are well suited to provide sufficient protection in the UV range because the filter substances absorb or scatter UV radiation. Although up to 50% of radicals are formed in the visible and infrared spectral range during solar radiation protection strategies are not provided in this range. Previous investigations of commercially available products have shown that in addition to physical filters, antioxidants (AO) are necessary to provide protective effects in the infrared range by neutralizing already formed radicals. In this study, the efficacy of filter substances and AO to reduce radical formation in both spectral ranges was investigated after UV/VIS or IR irradiation. Optical properties and radical protection were determined for the investigated creams. It was found that organic UV filters lower radical formation in the UV/VIS range to 35% compared to untreated skin, independent of the presence of AO. Further reduction to 14% was reached by addition of 2% physical filters, whereas physical filters alone were ineffective in the UV/VIS range due to the low concentration. In contrast, this filter type reduced radical formation in the IR range significantly to 65%; similar effects were aroused after application of AO. Sunscreens which contain organic UV filters, physical filters and AO ensure protection in the complete solar spectrum. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  9. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to fulfill the tasks of laser sensing the natural formations and laser aerosol sensing in the atmosphere.It is shown that the remote sensing lasers with appropriate characteristics can be selected both in the UV band (at a wavelength of 0.355 μm and in the near-IR band (at wavelengths of 1.54 ~ or ~ 2 μm.Molecular scattering has its maximum (for the selected wavelength at a wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the minimum at the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near -IR band. The main contribution to the molecular absorption at a wavelength of 0.355 μm is made by ozone. In the near-IR spectral band the radiation is absorbed due to water vapor and carbon dioxide.Calculations show that the total effect of the molecular absorption and scattering has no influence on radiation transmission for both the wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near-IR band for sensing trails ~ 1 km.One of the main factors of laser radiation attenuation in the Earth's atmosphere is radiation scattering by aerosol particles.The results of calculations at wavelengths of 0.355 μm, 1.54 μm and 2.09 μm for the several models of the atmosphere show that a choice of the most effective (in terms of the recorded signal of lidar and eye-safe radiation wavelength depends strongly on the task of sensing.To fulfill the task of laser sensing the natural formations, among the eye-safe wavelengths there is one significantly advantageous

  10. EPR and IR spectral investigations on some leafy vegetables of Indian origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuna, C. P. Lakshmi; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Gopal, N. O.

    2009-09-01

    EPR spectral investigations have been carried out on four edible leafy vegetables of India, which are used as dietary component in day to day life. In Rumex vesicarius leaf sample, EPR spectral investigations at different temperatures indicate the presence of anti-ferromagnetically coupled Mn(IV)-Mn(IV) complexes. EPR spectra of Trigonella foenum graecum show the presence of Mn ions in multivalent state and Fe 3+ ions in rhombic symmetry. EPR spectra of Basella rubra indicate the presence of Mn(IV)-O-Mn(IV) type complexes. The EPR spectra of Basella rubra have been studied at different temperatures. It is found that the spin population for the resonance signal at g = 2.06 obeys the Boltzmann distribution law. The EPR spectra of Moringa oliefera leaves show the presence of Mn 2+ ions. Radiation induced changes in free radical of this sample have also been studied. The FT-IR spectra of Basella rubra and Moringa oliefera leaves show the evidences for the protein matrix bands and those corresponding to carboxylic C dbnd O bonds.

  11. Spectral reflectance relationships to leaf water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripple, William J.

    1986-01-01

    Spectral reflectance data were collected from detached snapbean leaves in the laboratory with a multiband radiometer. Four experiments were designed to study the spectral response resulting from changes in leaf cover, relative water content of leaves, and leaf water potential. Spectral regions included in the analysis were red (630-690 nm), NIR (760-900 nm), and mid-IR (2.08-2.35 microns). The red and mid-IR bands showed sensitivity to changes in both leaf cover and relative water content of leaves. The NIR was only highly sensitive to changes in leaf cover. Results provided evidence that mid-IR reflectance was governed primarily by leaf moisture content, although soil reflectance was an important factor when leaf cover was less than 100 percent. High correlations between leaf water potentials and reflectance were attributed to covariances with relative water content of leaves and leaf cover.

  12. Ames S-32 O-16 O-18 Line List for High-Resolution Experimental IR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    By comparing to the most recent experimental data and spectra of the SO2 628 ?1/?3 bands (see Ulenikov et al., JQSRT 168 (2016) 29-39), this study illustrates the reliability and accuracy of the Ames-296K SO2 line list, which is accurate enough to facilitate such high-resolution spectroscopic analysis. The SO2 628 IR line list is computed on a recently improved potential energy surface (PES) refinement, denoted Ames-Pre2, and the published purely ab initio CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ dipole moment surface. Progress has been made in both energy level convergence and rovibrational quantum number assignments agreeing with laboratory analysis models. The accuracy of the computed 628 energy levels and line list is similar to what has been achieved and reported for SO2 626 and 646, i.e. 0.01-0.03 cm(exp -1) for bands up to 5500 cm(exp -1). During the comparison, we found some discrepancies in addition to overall good agreements. The three-IR-list based feature-by-feature analysis in a 0.25 cm(exp -1) spectral window clearly demonstrates the power of the current Ames line lists with new assignments, correction of some errors, and intensity contributions from varied sources including other isotopologues. We are inclined to attribute part of detected discrepancies to an incomplete experimental analysis and missing intensity in the model. With complete line position, intensity, and rovibrational quantum numbers determined at 296 K, spectroscopic analysis is significantly facilitated especially for a spectral range exhibiting such an unusually high density of lines. The computed 628 rovibrational levels and line list are accurate enough to provide alternatives for the missing bands or suspicious assignments, as well as helpful to identify these isotopologues in various celestial environments. The next step will be to revisit the SO2 828 and 646 spectral analyses.

  13. Nonlocal Coulomb correlations in pure and electron-doped Sr2IrO4 : Spectral functions, Fermi surface, and pseudo-gap-like spectral weight distributions from oriented cluster dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cyril; Lenz, Benjamin; Perfetti, Luca; Brouet, Veronique; Bertran, François; Biermann, Silke

    2018-03-01

    We address the role of nonlocal Coulomb correlations and short-range magnetic fluctuations in the high-temperature phase of Sr2IrO4 within state-of-the-art spectroscopic and first-principles theoretical methods. Introducing an "oriented-cluster dynamical mean-field scheme", we compute momentum-resolved spectral functions, which we find to be in excellent agreement with angle-resolved photoemission spectra. We show that while short-range antiferromagnetic fluctuations are crucial to accounting for the electronic properties of Sr2IrO4 even in the high-temperature paramagnetic phase, long-range magnetic order is not a necessary ingredient of the insulating state. Upon doping, an exotic metallic state is generated, exhibiting cuprate-like pseudo-gap spectral properties, for which we propose a surprisingly simple theoretical mechanism.

  14. A calibration method for the measurement of IR detector spectral responses using a FTIR spectrometer equipped with a DTGS reference cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravrand, Olivier; Wlassow, J.; Bonnefond, L.

    2014-07-01

    Various high performance IR detectors are today available on the market from QWIPs to narrow gap semiconductor photodiodes, which exhibit various spectral features. In the astrophysics community, the knowledge of the detector spectral shape is of first importance. This quantity (spectral QE or response) is usually measured by means of a monochromator followed by an integrating sphere and compared to a calibrated reference detector. This approach is usually very efficient in the visible range, where all optical elements are very well known, particularly the reference detector. This setup is also widely used in the near IR (up to 3μm) but as the wavelength increases, it becomes less efficient. For instance, the internal emittance of integrating spheres in the IR, and the bad knowledge of reference detectors for longer wavelengths tend to degrade the measurement reliability. Another approach may therefore be considered, using a Fourier transform IR spectrometer (FTIR). In this case, as opposed to the monochromator, the tested detector is not in low flux condition, the incident light containing a mix of different wavelengths. Therefore, the reference detector has to be to be sensitive (and known) in the whole spectral band of interest, because it will sense all those wavelengths at the same time. A popular detector used in this case is a Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate thermal detector (DTGS). Being a pyro detetector, the spectral response of such a detector is very flat, mainly limited by its window. However, the response of such a detector is very slow, highly depending on the temporal frequency of the input signal. Moreover, being a differential detector, it doesn't work in DC. In commercial FTIR spectrometers, the source luminance is usually continuously modulated by the moving interferometer, and the result is that the interferogram mixes optical spectral information (optical path difference) and temporal variations (temporal frequency) so that the temporal

  15. Solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral analysis of benzimidazoles and their N 1-protonated salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, B. B.

    2005-11-01

    A stereo structural characterization of 2,5,6-thrimethylbenzimidazole (MBIZ) and 2-amino-benzimidaziole (2-NH 2-BI) and their N 1 protonation salts was carried out using a polarized solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral (IR-LD) analysis in nematic liquid crystal suspension. All experimental predicted structures were compared with the theoretical ones, obtained by ab initio calculations. The Cs to C2v* symmetry transformation as a result of protonation processes, with a view of its reflection on the infrared spectral characteristics was described.

  16. The design and application of a multi-band IR imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan

    2018-02-01

    Multi-band IR imaging system has many applications in security, national defense, petroleum and gas industry, etc. So the relevant technologies are getting more and more attention in rent years. As we know, when used in missile warning and missile seeker systems, multi-band IR imaging technology has the advantage of high target recognition capability and low false alarm rate if suitable spectral bands are selected. Compared with traditional single band IR imager, multi-band IR imager can make use of spectral features in addition to space and time domain features to discriminate target from background clutters and decoys. So, one of the key work is to select the right spectral bands in which the feature difference between target and false target is evident and is well utilized. Multi-band IR imager is a useful instrument to collect multi-band IR images of target, backgrounds and decoys for spectral band selection study at low cost and with adjustable parameters and property compared with commercial imaging spectrometer. In this paper, a multi-band IR imaging system is developed which is suitable to collect 4 spectral band images of various scenes at every turn and can be expanded to other short-wave and mid-wave IR spectral bands combination by changing filter groups. The multi-band IR imaging system consists of a broad band optical system, a cryogenic InSb large array detector, a spinning filter wheel and electronic processing system. The multi-band IR imaging system's performance is tested in real data collection experiments.

  17. UNTANGLING THE NEAR-IR SPECTRAL FEATURES IN THE PROTOPLANETARY ENVIRONMENT OF KH 15D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulanantham, Nicole A.; Herbst, William; Gilmore, Martha S.; Cauley, P. Wilson [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: nicole.arulanantham@colorado.edu [Gemini Observatory (North), Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We report on Gemini/GNIRS observations of the binary T Tauri system V582 Mon (KH 15D) at three orbital phases. These spectra allow us to untangle five components of the system: the photosphere and magnetosphere of star B, the jet, scattering properties of the ring material, and excess near-infrared (near-IR) radiation previously attributed to a possible self-luminous planet. We confirm an early-K subgiant classification for star B and show that the magnetospheric He i emission line is variable, possibly indicating increased mass accretion at certain times. As expected, the H{sub 2} emission features associated with the inner part of the jet show no variation with orbital phase. We show that the reflectance spectrum for the scattered light has a distinctive blue slope and spectral features consistent with scattering and absorption by a mixture of water and methane ice grains in the 1–50 μ m size range. This suggests that the methane frost line is closer than ∼5 au in this system, requiring that the grains be shielded from direct radiation. After correcting for features from the scattered light, jet, magnetosphere, and photosphere, we confirm the presence of leftover near-IR light from an additional source, detectable near minimum brightness. A spectral emission feature matching the model spectrum of a 10 M {sub J}, 1 Myr old planet is found in the excess flux, but other expected features from this model are not seen. Our observations, therefore, tentatively support the picture that a luminous planet is present within the system, although they cannot yet be considered definitive.

  18. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  19. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  20. Qualitative infrared spectral analysis of products adsorbed by silica gel from ditolylmethane coolant and their adsorption isotherm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, V.A.; Benderskaya, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    The IR-spectral analysis has been applied to study the products adsorbed from ditolylmethane first-circuit coolant, as well as from still bottoms after coolant distillation on silicagel of various makes. The qualitative study of desorbate IR-spectra has shown that they refer to the classes of arylaldehydes, diarylketones and carbonic acids. Under actual conditions first-circuit reactor coolant also has a wide set of products of its radiolysis, therefore the spectrum of coolant oxidaton products must be wider. It is noted that adsorption on silica gel, ASK of oxygen-bearing compounds which are present in ditolyl methane coolant has 2 stages

  1. Infrared spectral imaging as a novel approach for histopathological recognition in colon cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallala, Jayakrupakar; Gobinet, Cyril; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Untereiner, Valérie; Bouché, Olivier; Manfait, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh Dhruvananda; Piot, Olivier

    2012-11-01

    Innovative diagnostic methods are the need of the hour that could complement conventional histopathology for cancer diagnosis. In this perspective, we propose a new concept based on spectral histopathology, using IR spectral micro-imaging, directly applied to paraffinized colon tissue array stabilized in an agarose matrix without any chemical pre-treatment. In order to correct spectral interferences from paraffin and agarose, a mathematical procedure is implemented. The corrected spectral images are then processed by a multivariate clustering method to automatically recover, on the basis of their intrinsic molecular composition, the main histological classes of the normal and the tumoral colon tissue. The spectral signatures from different histological classes of the colonic tissues are analyzed using statistical methods (Kruskal-Wallis test and principal component analysis) to identify the most discriminant IR features. These features allow characterizing some of the biomolecular alterations associated with malignancy. Thus, via a single analysis, in a label-free and nondestructive manner, main changes associated with nucleotide, carbohydrates, and collagen features can be identified simultaneously between the compared normal and the cancerous tissues. The present study demonstrates the potential of IR spectral imaging as a complementary modern tool, to conventional histopathology, for an objective cancer diagnosis directly from paraffin-embedded tissue arrays.

  2. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  3. Quantitative analysis of semivolatile organic compounds in selected fractions of air sample extracts by GC/MI-IR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childers, J.W.; Wilson, N.K.; Barbour, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are currently investigating the capabilities of gas chromatography/matrix isolation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in environmental air sample extracts. Their efforts are focused on the determination of SVOCs such as alkylbenzene positional isomers, which are difficult to separate chromatographically and to distinguish by conventional electron-impact ionization GC/mass spectrometry. They have performed a series of systematic experiments to identify sources of error in quantitative GC/MI-IR analyses. These experiments were designed to distinguish between errors due to instrument design or performance and errors that arise from some characteristic inherent to the GC/MI-IR technique, such as matrix effects. They have investigated repeatability as a function of several aspects of GC/MI IR spectrometry, including sample injection, spectral acquisition, cryogenic disk movement, and matrix deposition. The precision, linearity, dynamic range, and detection limits of a commercial GC/MI-IR system for target SVOCs were determined and compared to those obtained with the system's flame ionization detector. The use of deuterated internal standards in the quantitative GC/MI-IR analysis of selected fractions of ambient air sample extracts will be demonstrated. They will also discuss the current limitations of the technique in quantitative analyses and suggest improvements for future consideration

  4. Examination of Spectral Transformations on Spectral Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Wu, C.

    2018-04-01

    While many spectral transformation techniques have been applied on spectral mixture analysis (SMA), few study examined their necessity and applicability. This paper focused on exploring the difference between spectrally transformed schemes and untransformed scheme to find out which transformed scheme performed better in SMA. In particular, nine spectrally transformed schemes as well as untransformed scheme were examined in two study areas. Each transformed scheme was tested 100 times using different endmember classes' spectra under the endmember model of vegetation- high albedo impervious surface area-low albedo impervious surface area-soil (V-ISAh-ISAl-S). Performance of each scheme was assessed based on mean absolute error (MAE). Statistical analysis technique, Paired-Samples T test, was applied to test the significance of mean MAEs' difference between transformed and untransformed schemes. Results demonstrated that only NSMA could exceed the untransformed scheme in all study areas. Some transformed schemes showed unstable performance since they outperformed the untransformed scheme in one area but weakened the SMA result in another region.

  5. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  6. An unbiased spectral line survey toward R CrA IRS7B in the 345 GHz window with ASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Lindberg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band...... corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C3H2, are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino...... chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates...

  7. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  8. THE ORION FINGERS: NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF AN EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    We present near-IR (1.1–2.4 μ m) position–position–velocity cubes of the 500 year old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1″ and spectral resolution 86 km s{sup −1}. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H{sub 2} and [Fe ii] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H{sub 2} lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All of the ratios show the dominance of the shock excitation of the H{sub 2} emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O i] and [Fe ii] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  9. Improvenments in environmental trace analysis by GC-IR and LC-IR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.; Jong, A.P.J.M.; Somsen, G.W.; Hankemeier, T.; Velthorst, N.H.; Gooijer, C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been carried out to enlarge the potential of infrared (IR) spectrometry as a detector in gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC). The study has been directed to applications in environmental analysis. Examples of recently obtained results are presented. The analyte detectability of

  10. Upconversion applied for mid-IR hyperspectral image acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer

    2015-01-01

    Different schemes for upconversion mid-IR hyperspectral imaging is implemented and compared in terms of spectral coverage, spectral resolution, speed and noise. Phasematch scanning and scanning of the object within the field of view is considered....

  11. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF EXCHANGE RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEŠA LOTRIČ DOLINAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using spectral analysis is very common in technical areas but rather unusual in economics and finance, where ARIMA and GARCH modeling are much more in use. To show that spectral analysis can be useful in determining hidden periodic components for high-frequency finance data as well, we use the example of foreign exchange rates

  12. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  13. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  14. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, MR; Martin-Hernandez, NL; Lenorzer, A; de Koter, A; Tielens, AGGA

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of 0 main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  15. Metallicity and the spectral energy distribution and spectral types of dwarf O-stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokiem, M.R.; Martín-Hernández, N.L.; Lenorzer, A.; de Koter, A.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the effect of metallicity on the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) of O main sequence (dwarf) stars, focussing on the hydrogen and helium ionizing continua, and on the optical and near-IR lines used for spectral classification. The spectra are based on

  16. Composite multilobe descriptors for cross-spectral recognition of full and partial face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2016-08-01

    Cross-spectral image matching is a challenging research problem motivated by various applications, including surveillance, security, and identity management in general. An example of this problem includes cross-spectral matching of active infrared (IR) or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. A summary of recent developments in the field of cross-spectral face recognition by the authors is presented. In particular, it describes the original form and two variants of a local operator named composite multilobe descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction with the purpose of cross-spectral matching of near-IR, short-wave IR, mid-wave IR, and long-wave IR to a gallery of visible light images. The experiments demonstrate that the variants of CMLD outperform the original CMLD and other recently developed composite operators used for comparison. In addition to different IR spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated. Performance of CMLD I to III is evaluated for each of the three cases of distances. The newly developed operators, CMLD I to III, are further utilized to conduct a study on cross-spectral partial face recognition where different facial regions are compared in terms of the amount of useful information they contain for the purpose of conducting cross-spectral face recognition. The experimental results show that among three facial regions considered in the experiments the eye region is the most informative for all IR spectra at all standoff distances.

  17. Spectral analysis and filter theory in applied geophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Buttkus, Burkhard

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fundamentals and methods of spectral analysis and filter theory and their appli­ cations in geophysics. The principles and theoretical basis of the various methods are described, their efficiency and effectiveness eval­ uated, and instructions provided for their practical application. Be­ sides the conventional methods, newer methods arediscussed, such as the spectral analysis ofrandom processes by fitting models to the ob­ served data, maximum-entropy spectral analysis and maximum-like­ lihood spectral analysis, the Wiener and Kalman filtering methods, homomorphic deconvolution, and adaptive methods for nonstation­ ary processes. Multidimensional spectral analysis and filtering, as well as multichannel filters, are given extensive treatment. The book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art of spectral analysis and fil­ ter theory. The importance and possibilities ofspectral analysis and filter theory in geophysics for data acquisition, processing an...

  18. Imaging of lipids in atherosclerotic lesion in aorta from ApoE/LDLR-/- mice by FT-IR spectroscopy and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Wrobel, Tomasz; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-21

    Spectroscopy-based approaches can provide an insight into the biochemical composition of a tissue sample. In the present work Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to develop a reliable methodology to study the content of free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters as well as cholesterol in aorta from mice with atherosclerosis (ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice). In particular, distribution and concentration of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid derivatives were analyzed. Spectral analysis of pure compounds allowed for clear discrimination between free fatty acids and other similar moieties based on the carbonyl band position (1699-1710 cm(-1) range). In order to distinguish cholesteryl esters from triglycerides a ratio of carbonyl band to signal at 1010 cm(-1) was used. Imaging of lipids in atherosclerotic aortic lesions in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice was followed by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The aorta from C57Bl/6J control mice (fed with chow diet) was used for comparison. The measurements were completed with an FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a 128 × 128 FPA detector. In cross-section of aorta from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice a region of atherosclerotic plaque was clearly identified by HCA, which was later divided into 2 sub-regions, one characterized by the higher content of cholesterol, while the other by higher contents of cholesteryl esters. HCA of tissues deposited on normal microscopic glass, hence limited to the 2200-3800 cm(-1) spectral range, also identified a region of atherosclerotic plaque. Importantly, this region correlates with the area stained by standard histological staining for atherosclerotic plaque (Oil Red O). In conclusion, the use of FT-IR and HCA may provide a novel tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of contents and distribution of lipids in atherosclerotic plaque.

  19. Third-generation intelligent IR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John; Jack, Michael D.; Pettijohn, Kevin L.; Schlesselmann, John D.; Norworth, Joe

    1998-03-01

    SBRC is at the forefront of industry in developing IR focal plane arrays including multi-spectral technology and '3rd generation' functions that mimic the human eye. 3rd generation devices conduct advanced processing on or near the FPA that serve to reduce bandwidth while performing needed functions such as automatic target recognition, uniformity correction and dynamic range enhancement. These devices represent a solution for processing the exorbitantly high bandwidth coming off large area FPAs without sacrificing systems sensitivity. SBRC's two-color approach leverages the company's HgCdTe technology to provide simultaneous multiband coverage, from short through long wave IR, with near theoretical performance. IR systems that are sensitive to different spectral bands achieve enhanced capabilities for target identification and advanced discrimination. This paper will provide a summary of the issues, the technology and the benefits of SBRC's third generation smart and two-color FPAs.

  20. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Boisen, Anja; Schmid, Silvan

    2016-01-01

    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from dispersion and efficiently collected on nanomechanical string resonators through a non-diffusion limited sampling method. Even very small amounts of sample can convert absorbed IR light into a measu...

  1. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  2. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO2 in exhale air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 μm). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm -1 ) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO 2 in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1‰.

  3. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-15

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-01

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs.

  5. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from...

  6. SpectralNET – an application for spectral graph analysis and visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Stuart L

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graph theory provides a computational framework for modeling a variety of datasets including those emerging from genomics, proteomics, and chemical genetics. Networks of genes, proteins, small molecules, or other objects of study can be represented as graphs of nodes (vertices and interactions (edges that can carry different weights. SpectralNET is a flexible application for analyzing and visualizing these biological and chemical networks. Results Available both as a standalone .NET executable and as an ASP.NET web application, SpectralNET was designed specifically with the analysis of graph-theoretic metrics in mind, a computational task not easily accessible using currently available applications. Users can choose either to upload a network for analysis using a variety of input formats, or to have SpectralNET generate an idealized random network for comparison to a real-world dataset. Whichever graph-generation method is used, SpectralNET displays detailed information about each connected component of the graph, including graphs of degree distribution, clustering coefficient by degree, and average distance by degree. In addition, extensive information about the selected vertex is shown, including degree, clustering coefficient, various distance metrics, and the corresponding components of the adjacency, Laplacian, and normalized Laplacian eigenvectors. SpectralNET also displays several graph visualizations, including a linear dimensionality reduction for uploaded datasets (Principal Components Analysis and a non-linear dimensionality reduction that provides an elegant view of global graph structure (Laplacian eigenvectors. Conclusion SpectralNET provides an easily accessible means of analyzing graph-theoretic metrics for data modeling and dimensionality reduction. SpectralNET is publicly available as both a .NET application and an ASP.NET web application from http://chembank.broad.harvard.edu/resources/. Source code is

  7. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-06-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 μg mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 μg of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  9. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  10. FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis as an auxiliary tool for diagnosis of mental disorders: Bipolar and schizophrenia cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogruc Ildiz, G.; Arslan, M.; Unsalan, O.; Araujo-Andrade, C.; Kurt, E.; Karatepe, H. T.; Yilmaz, A.; Yalcinkaya, O. B.; Herken, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a methodology based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis and partial least square methods is proposed for the analysis of blood plasma samples in order to identify spectral changes correlated with some biomarkers associated with schizophrenia and bipolarity. Our main goal was to use the spectral information for the calibration of statistical models to discriminate and classify blood plasma samples belonging to bipolar and schizophrenic patients. IR spectra of 30 samples of blood plasma obtained from each, bipolar and schizophrenic patients and healthy control group were collected. The results obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) show a clear discrimination between the bipolar (BP), schizophrenic (SZ) and control group' (CG) blood samples that also give possibility to identify three main regions that show the major differences correlated with both mental disorders (biomarkers). Furthermore, a model for the classification of the blood samples was calibrated using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), allowing the correct classification of BP, SZ and CG samples. The results obtained applying this methodology suggest that it can be used as a complimentary diagnostic tool for the detection and discrimination of these mental diseases.

  11. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  12. Synthesis and IR spectral study of MoO2Cl2 molecular complex with acetoacetanilides. Crystal structure of MoO2Cl2 complex with acetoacet-2-toluidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, V.L.; Sergienko, V.S.; Churakov, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Certain MoO 2 Cl 2 complexes with acetoacetanilide derivatives were synthesized, two IR spectral study being performed. Crystal and molecular structure of MoO 2 Cl 2 complex with acetoacet-2-toluidine (HL) was determined using X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals are monoclinic, a = 7.621 (7), b = 9.498 (3), c = 19.980 (9) A, β = 95.16 (7), Z = 4, sp.gr. P2 1 /n. Coordination polyhedron of Mo atom is a distorted octahedron with two O oxoatoms in cis-position, two Cl atom in mutual trans-position and two O(HL) atoms in trans-positions in reference to O(oxo) [ru

  13. Pulsed photothermal profiling of water-based samples using a spectrally composite reconstruction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majaron, B; Milanic, M

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed photothermal profiling involves reconstruction of temperature depth profile induced in a layered sample by single-pulse laser exposure, based on transient change in mid-infrared (IR) emission from its surface. Earlier studies have indicated that in watery tissues, featuring a pronounced spectral variation of mid-IR absorption coefficient, analysis of broadband radiometric signals within the customary monochromatic approximation adversely affects profiling accuracy. We present here an experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal profiling in layered agar gel samples utilizing a spectrally composite kernel matrix vs. the customary approach. By utilizing a custom reconstruction code, the augmented approach reduces broadening of individual temperature peaks to 14% of the absorber depth, in contrast to 21% obtained with the customary approach.

  14. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  15. Digital spectral analysis parametric, non-parametric and advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Castanié, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Digital Spectral Analysis provides a single source that offers complete coverage of the spectral analysis domain. This self-contained work includes details on advanced topics that are usually presented in scattered sources throughout the literature.The theoretical principles necessary for the understanding of spectral analysis are discussed in the first four chapters: fundamentals, digital signal processing, estimation in spectral analysis, and time-series models.An entire chapter is devoted to the non-parametric methods most widely used in industry.High resolution methods a

  16. The X-Shooter spectral library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y. P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Lançon, A.; Prugniel, Ph.; Koleva, M.

    2012-01-01

    We are building a new spectral library with the X-Shooter instrument on ESO's VLT: XSL, the X-Shooter Spectral Library. We present our progress in building XSL, which covers the wavelength range from the near-UV to the near-IR with a resolution of R˜10000. As of now we have collected spectra for

  17. Isolation and Spectral Analysis of Naturally Occurring Thiarubrine A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan; Morton, Melita; Downum, Kelsey; O'Shea, Kevin E.

    2001-06-01

    We have designed an experiment in which students isolate and characterize thiarubrine A, a pseudo-antiaromatic 1,2-dithia-3,5-cyclohexadiene derivative. Thiarubrines are an important class of compounds which have recently received attention because of their unusual reactivity, unique biological activity, and potential medicinal applications. They possess a distinctive red color and structure features that are particularly useful for demonstrating UV-vis, NMR, and IR spectral analyses. A crude mixture containing thiarubrine A is obtained by methanol (liquid-solid) extraction of the roots of short ragweed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Alternatively, these compounds can be isolated from numerous taxa within the family Asteraceae. Thiarubrine A possesses alkyl, alkenyl, and alkynyl functionality, which is useful in illustrating the utility of IR and NMR in the characterization of natural products. The long wavelength UV-vis absorption band of thiarubrine is indication of the nonplanarity of dithiin ring and provides an excellent opportunity to discuss the concepts of aromaticity, conjugation, and molecular orbital theory.

  18. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  19. Evaluation of Turmeric Powder Adulterated with Metanil Yellow Using FT-Raman and FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Dhakal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L. is valued both for its medicinal properties and for its popular culinary use, such as being a component in curry powder. Due to its high demand in international trade, turmeric powder has been subject to economically driven, hazardous chemical adulteration. This study utilized Fourier Transform-Raman (FT-Raman and Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR spectroscopy as separate but complementary methods for detecting metanil yellow adulteration of turmeric powder. Sample mixtures of turmeric powder and metanil yellow were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1%, and 0.01% (w/w. FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were acquired for these mixture samples as well as for pure samples of turmeric powder and metanil yellow. Spectral analysis showed that the FT-IR method in this study could detect the metanil yellow at the 5% concentration, while the FT-Raman method appeared to be more sensitive and could detect the metanil yellow at the 1% concentration. Relationships between metanil yellow spectral peak intensities and metanil yellow concentration were established using representative peaks at FT-Raman 1406 cm−1 and FT-IR 1140 cm−1 with correlation coefficients of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively.

  20. Basic Functional Analysis Puzzles of Spectral Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles.......We explain an array of basic functional analysis puzzles on the way to general spectral flow formulae and indicate a direction of future topological research for dealing with these puzzles....

  1. SPATIAL VARIATIONS OF PAH PROPERTIES IN M17SW REVEALED BY SPITZER /IRS SPECTRAL MAPPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S.; Suzuki, T.; Nishimura, A.; Kohno, M. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T.; Ohashi, S. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagayama, T.; Matsuo, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Umemoto, T.; Minamidani, T.; Fujita, S. [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), 462-2, Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Tsuda, Y., E-mail: yamagish@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Meisei University, 2-1-1 Hodokubo, Hino, Tokyo 191-0042 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    We present Spitzer /IRS mid-infrared spectral maps of the Galactic star-forming region M17 as well as IRSF/SIRIUS Br γ and Nobeyama 45 m/FOREST {sup 13}CO ( J = 1–0) maps. The spectra show prominent features due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at wavelengths of 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, 12.0, 12.7, 13.5, and 14.2  μ m. We find that the PAH emission features are bright in the region between the H ii region traced by Br γ and the molecular cloud traced by {sup 13}CO, supporting that the PAH emission originates mostly from photo-dissociation regions. Based on the spatially resolved Spitzer /IRS maps, we examine spatial variations of the PAH properties in detail. As a result, we find that the interband ratio of PAH 7.7  μ m/PAH 11.3  μ m varies locally near M17SW, but rather independently of the distance from the OB stars in M17, suggesting that the degree of PAH ionization is mainly controlled by local conditions rather than the global UV environments determined by the OB stars in M17. We also find that the interband ratios of the PAH 12.0  μ m, 12.7  μ m, 13.5  μ m, and 14.2  μ m features to the PAH 11.3  μ m feature are high near the M17 center, which suggests structural changes of PAHs through processing due to intense UV radiation, producing abundant edgy irregular PAHs near the M17 center.

  2. Mid-IR laser system for advanced neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosner, M.; Wu, C.; Heller, D. F.

    2014-03-01

    We present work on a laser system operating in the near- and mid-IR spectral regions, having output characteristics designed to be optimal for cutting various tissue types. We provide a brief overview of laser-tissue interactions and the importance of controlling certain properties of the light beam. We describe the principle of operation of the laser system, which is generally based on a wavelength-tunable alexandrite laser oscillator/amplifier, and multiple Raman conversion stages. This configuration provides robust access to the mid-IR spectral region at wavelengths, pulse energies, pulse durations, and repetition rates that are attractive for neurosurgical applications. We summarize results for ultra-precise selective cutting of nerve sheaths and retinas with little collateral damage; this has applications in procedures such as optic-nerve-sheath fenestration and possible spinal repair. We also report results for cutting cornea, and dermal tissues.

  3. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  4. Synthesis, spectral analysis, optical and thermal properties of new organic NLO crystal: N,N";-Diphenylguanidinium Nitrate (DPGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-10-01

    A new organic NLO material N,N";-Diphenylguanidinium Nitrate (DPGN) single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique using methanol as solvent. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out in order to confirm the structure and crystalline nature of DPGN crystal. Wide band gap of 3.9 eV with transmittance of 57% up to 800 nm is observed for the grown crystal using UV-vis spectral analysis. The chemical bonding and presence of various functional groups were confirmed by the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral studies. The thermal behavior of DPGN crystal was analyzed by simultaneous TG-DTA studies. The second harmonic generation (SHG) nonlinearity of the grown crystal was measured by Kurtz and Perry powder technique and was found to be comparable with that of the standard reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal.

  5. SPAM- SPECTRAL ANALYSIS MANAGER (DEC VAX/VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    The Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) was developed to allow easy qualitative analysis of multi-dimensional imaging spectrometer data. Imaging spectrometers provide sufficient spectral sampling to define unique spectral signatures on a per pixel basis. Thus direct material identification becomes possible for geologic studies. SPAM provides a variety of capabilities for carrying out interactive analysis of the massive and complex datasets associated with multispectral remote sensing observations. In addition to normal image processing functions, SPAM provides multiple levels of on-line help, a flexible command interpretation, graceful error recovery, and a program structure which can be implemented in a variety of environments. SPAM was designed to be visually oriented and user friendly with the liberal employment of graphics for rapid and efficient exploratory analysis of imaging spectrometry data. SPAM provides functions to enable arithmetic manipulations of the data, such as normalization, linear mixing, band ratio discrimination, and low-pass filtering. SPAM can be used to examine the spectra of an individual pixel or the average spectra over a number of pixels. SPAM also supports image segmentation, fast spectral signature matching, spectral library usage, mixture analysis, and feature extraction. High speed spectral signature matching is performed by using a binary spectral encoding algorithm to separate and identify mineral components present in the scene. The same binary encoding allows automatic spectral clustering. Spectral data may be entered from a digitizing tablet, stored in a user library, compared to the master library containing mineral standards, and then displayed as a timesequence spectral movie. The output plots, histograms, and stretched histograms produced by SPAM can be sent to a lineprinter, stored as separate RGB disk files, or sent to a Quick Color Recorder. SPAM is written in C for interactive execution and is available for two different

  6. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  7. IR and NMR characterisation of extraction products of radioactively deuteromethylated coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, M.; Wachowska, H.; Adriaensens, P.; Gelan, J. [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Chemistry

    1999-12-01

    Products of reductive methylation and deuteromethylation of two Polish coals of different rank performed in the potassium/liquid ammonia system were subjected to extraction by dichloromethane. Spectral analysis of the extracts was made. A comparison of {sup 1}H and {sup 2}H NMR spectra indicated that the cleavage of C-C bonds in methylene bridges is of substantial importance for the fragmentation of the coal structure taking place under the effect of potassium in liquid ammonia. This finding was confirmed by results of IR analysis. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Particulate characterization by PIXE multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Grant, Patrick G.; Kotula, Paul G.; Doyle, Barney L.; Richardson, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Obtaining particulate compositional maps from scanned PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission) measurements is extremely difficult due to the complexity of analyzing spectroscopic data collected with low signal-to-noise at each scan point (pixel). Multivariate spectral analysis has the potential to analyze such data sets by reducing the PIXE data to a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (that include both spectral and image information). We have adapted the AXSIA (automated expert spectral image analysis) program, originally developed by Sandia National Laboratories to quantify electron-excited X-ray spectroscopy data, for this purpose. Samples consisting of particulates with known compositions and sizes were loaded onto Mylar and paper filter substrates and analyzed by scanned micro-PIXE. The data sets were processed by AXSIA and the associated principal component spectral data were quantified by converting the weighting images into concentration maps. The results indicate automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis is useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of compositional components needed for locating individual particles-of-interest on large area collection media

  9. Functional analysis, spectral theory, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Einsiedler, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a careful treatment of functional analysis and some of its applications in analysis, number theory, and ergodic theory. In addition to discussing core material in functional analysis, the authors cover more recent and advanced topics, including Weyl’s law for eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator, amenability and property (T), the measurable functional calculus, spectral theory for unbounded operators, and an account of Tao’s approach to the prime number theorem using Banach algebras. The book further contains numerous examples and exercises, making it suitable for both lecture courses and self-study. Functional Analysis, Spectral Theory, and Applications is aimed at postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students with some background in analysis and algebra, but will also appeal to everyone with an interest in seeing how functional analysis can be applied to other parts of mathematics.

  10. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, J.

    2006-12-01

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of -8 cm -1 Hz -1/2 and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO 2 , CO, C 2 H 2 , CH 4 and the determination of the isotopic ratio 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 μm), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  11. Data fusion of Landsat TM and IRS images in forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangxing Wang; Markus Holopainen; Eero Lukkarinen

    2000-01-01

    Data fusion of Landsat TM images and Indian Remote Sensing satellite panchromatic image (IRS-1C PAN) was studied and compared to the use of TM or IRS image only. The aim was to combine the high spatial resolution of IRS-1C PAN to the high spectral resolution of Landsat TM images using a data fusion algorithm. The ground truth of the study was based on a sample of 1,020...

  12. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Barbary, A. A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-10

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C{sub 20} and C{sub 60} fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H{sub 2} molecule at peak around 4440 cm{sup −1}. However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  13. Hydrogenated fullerenes in space: FT-IR spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Fullerenes and hydrogenated fullerenes are found in circumstellar and interstellar environments. But the determination structures for the detected bands in the interstellar and circumstellar space are not completely understood so far. For that purpose, the aim of this article is to provide all possible infrared spectra for C 20 and C 60 fullerenes and their hydrogenated fullerenes. Density Functional theory (DFT) is applied using B3LYP exchange-functional with basis set 6–31G(d, p). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is found to be capable of distinguishing between fullerenes, mono hydrogenated fullerenes and fully hydrogenated fullerenes. In addition, deposition of one hydrogen atom outside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes is found to be distinguished by forming H 2 molecule at peak around 4440 cm −1 . However, deposition of one hydrogen atom inside the fully hydrogenated fullerenes cannot be distinguished. The obtained spectral structures are analyzed and are compared with available experimental results.

  14. Third-harmonic generation in silicon and photonic crystals of macroporous silicon in the spectral intermediate-IR range; Erzeugung der Dritten Harmonischen in Silizium und Photonischen Kristallen aus makroporoesem Silizium im spektralen mittleren IR-Bereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitzschke, Kerstin

    2007-11-01

    Nonlinear optical spectroscopy is a powerful method to study surface or bulk properties of condensed matter. In centrosymmetric materials like silicon even order nonlinear optical processes are forbidden. Besides self-focussing or self phase modulation third-harmonic-generation (THG) is the simplest process that can be studied. This work demonstrates that THG is a adapted non-contact and non-invasive optical method to get information about bulk structures of silicon and Photonic crystals (PC), consisting of silicon. Until now most studies are done in the visible spectral range being limited by the linear absorption losses. So the extension of THG to the IR spectral range is extremely useful. This will allow the investigation of Photonic Crystals, where frequencies near a photonic bandgap are of special interest. 2D- photonic structures under investigation were fabricated via photoelectrochemical etching of the Si (100) wafer (thickness 500 {mu}m) receiving square and hexagonal arranged pores. The typical periodicity of the structures used is 2 {mu}m and the length of the pores reached to 400 {mu}m. Because of stability the photonic structures were superimposed on silicon substrate. The experimental set-up used for the THG experiments generates tuneable picosecond IR pulses (tuning range 1500-4000 cm{sup -1}). The IR-pulse hit the sample either perpendicular to the sample surface or under an angle {theta}. The sample can be rotated (f) around the surface normal. The generated third harmonic is analysed by a polarizer, spectrally filtered by a polychromator and registered by a CCD camera. The setup can be used either in transmission or in reflection mode. Optical transmission and reflection spectra of the Si bulk correspond well with the theoretical description, a 4-fold and a 8-fold dependencies of the azimuth angle resulting in the structure of the x{sup (3)}-tensor of (100)-Si. The situation changes dramatically if the PC with hexagonal structure is investigated

  15. Signal-to-noise ratio of FT-IR CO gas spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Clausen, Sønnik

    1999-01-01

    in emission and transmission spectrometry, an investigation of the SNR in CO gas spectra as a function of spectral resolution has been carried out. We present a method to (1) determine experimentally the SNR at constant throughput, (2) determine the SNR on the basis of measured noise levels and Hitran......The minimum amount of a gaseous compound which can be detected and quantified with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the measured gas spectra. In order to use low-resolution FT-IR spectrometers to measure combustion gases like CO and CO2...... simulated signals, and (3) determine the SNR of CO from high to low spectral resolutions related to the molecular linewidth and vibrational-rotational lines spacing. In addition, SNR values representing different spectral resolutions but scaled to equal measurement times were compared. It was found...

  16. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  17. Analysis of effect of cable degradation on SPND IR calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, P.K.; Sharma, A.; Prasad, A.D.; Singh, Nita; Antony, J.; Kelkar, M.G.; Kaurav, Reetesh; Pramanik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron flux is the most vital parameter in the nuclear reactor safety against Neutronic over power. The modern days Indian PHWRs with large core size are loosely coupled reactors and hence In-core Self Power Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) are most suitable for monitoring local neutron power for generating Regional Overpower Trip. However the SPNDs and its Mineral Insulation Cable are prone to IR loss due to use of ceramic insulation which are highly hygroscopic. The present paper covers the online analysis of IR f degraded cable as per the surveillance requirement of monitoring the IR to assess the healthiness of SPNDs which are part of SSC/SSE for Reactor Protection Systems. The paper also proposes an alternative method for monitoring IR for startup//low power range when SPND signals are yet to pick up and Reactor Control and Protection are based on out of core Ionization Chambers. (author)

  18. Identification of Serine Conformers by Matrix-Isolation IR Spectroscopy Aided by Near-Infrared Laser-Induced Conformational Change, 2D Correlation Analysis, and Quantum Mechanical Anharmonic Computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najbauer, Eszter E; Bazsó, Gábor; Apóstolo, Rui; Fausto, Rui; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo; Tarczay, György

    2015-08-20

    The conformers of α-serine were investigated by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. This method, aided by 2D correlation analysis, enabled unambiguously grouping the spectral lines to individual conformers. On the basis of comparison of at least nine experimentally observed vibrational transitions of each conformer with empirically scaled (SQM) and anharmonic (GVPT2) computed IR spectra, six conformers were identified. In addition, the presence of at least one more conformer in Ar matrix was proved, and a short-lived conformer with a half-life of (3.7 ± 0.5) × 10(3) s in N2 matrix was generated by NIR irradiation. The analysis of the NIR laser-induced conversions revealed that the excitation of the stretching overtone of both the side chain and the carboxylic OH groups can effectively promote conformational changes, but remarkably different paths were observed for the two kinds of excitations.

  19. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  20. Spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Gomez, Julian

    2001-01-01

    This Research Note addresses several pivotal problems in spectral theory and nonlinear functional analysis in connection with the analysis of the structure of the set of zeroes of a general class of nonlinear operators. It features the construction of an optimal algebraic/analytic invariant for calculating the Leray-Schauder degree, new methods for solving nonlinear equations in Banach spaces, and general properties of components of solutions sets presented with minimal use of topological tools. The author also gives several applications of the abstract theory to reaction diffusion equations and systems.The results presented cover a thirty-year period and include recent, unpublished findings of the author and his coworkers. Appealing to a broad audience, Spectral Theory and Nonlinear Functional Analysis contains many important contributions to linear algebra, linear and nonlinear functional analysis, and topology and opens the door for further advances.

  1. [Analysis of sensitive spectral bands for burning status detection using hyper-spectral images of Tiangong-01].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xian-Lin; Zhu, Xi; Yang, Fei; Zhao, Kai-Rui; Pang, Yong; Li, Zeng-Yuan; Li, Xu-Zhi; Zhang, Jiu-Xing

    2013-07-01

    To obtain the sensitive spectral bands for detection of information on 4 kinds of burning status, i. e. flaming, smoldering, smoke, and fire scar, with satellite data, analysis was conducted to identify suitable satellite spectral bands for detection of information on these 4 kinds of burning status by using hyper-spectrum images of Tiangong-01 (TG-01) and employing a method combining statistics and spectral analysis. The results show that: in the hyper-spectral images of TG-01, the spectral bands differ obviously for detection of these 4 kinds of burning status; in all hyper-spectral short-wave infrared channels, the reflectance of flaming is higher than that of all other 3 kinds of burning status, and the reflectance of smoke is the lowest; the reflectance of smoke is higher than that of all other 3 kinds of burning status in the channels corresponding to hyper-spectral visible near-infrared and panchromatic sensors. For spectral band selection, more suitable spectral bands for flaming detection are 1 000.0-1 956.0 and 2 020.0-2 400.0 nm; the suitable spectral bands for identifying smoldering are 930.0-1 000.0 and 1 084.0-2 400.0 nm; the suitable spectral bands for smoke detection is in 400.0-920.0 nm; for fire scar detection, it is suitable to select bands with central wavelengths of 900.0-930.0 and 1 300.0-2 400.0 nm, and then to combine them to construct a detection model.

  2. Protonation of benzimidazoles and 1,2,3-benzotriazoles Solid-state linear dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectral analysis and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B.; Pindeva, Liliya I.

    2006-09-01

    IR-LD spectroscopic data obtained by the orientated solid samples as a suspension in a nematic liquid crystal of 1-hydroxy-1,2,3-benzotriazole, 2-methyl-, 2-acetonitrilebenzimidazoles and their protonated salts have been presented. The stereo-structures have been predicted and compared with theoretical ones. The IR-characteristic bands assignments of all molecule systems have been achieved.

  3. Spectral studies of coordination compounds of cobalt(II) with thiosemicarbazone of heterocyclic ketone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Umendra

    2005-12-01

    The paper presents the spectral analysis of cobalt(II) complexes with indoxyl thiosemicarbazone (ITSC) of general composition [CoL 2X 2] (where L = ITSC, X = Cl -, NO 3-, (1/2)SO 42-, NCS -). The geometry of the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral (electronic, IR, EPR, 1H NMR, mass) studies. The various physico-chemical techniques suggested a coordination number of six (octahedral) for chloro, nitrato and thiocyanato complexes. Whereas sulfato complex was found to have five coordinate trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. All the complexes are of high spin type showing magnetic moment corresponding to three unpaired electrons.

  4. Liver Status Assessment by Spectrally and Time Resolved IR Detection of Drug Induced Breath Gas Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Rubin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The actual metabolic capacity of the liver is crucial for disease identification, liver therapy, and liver tumor resection. By combining induced drug metabolism and high sensitivity IR spectroscopy of exhaled air, we provide a method for quantitative liver assessment at bedside within 20 to 60 min. Fast administration of 13C-labelled methacetin induces a fast response of liver metabolism and is tracked in real-time by the increase of 13CO2 in exhaled air. The 13CO2 concentration increase in exhaled air allows the determination of the metabolic liver capacity (LiMAx-test. Fluctuations in CO2 concentration, pressure and temperature are minimized by special gas handling, and tracking of several spectrally resolved CO2 absorption bands with a quantum cascade laser. Absorption measurement of different 12CO2 and 13CO2 rotation-vibration transitions in the same time window allows for multiple referencing and reduction of systematic errors. This FLIP (Fast liver investigation package setup is being successfully used to plan operations and determine the liver status of patients.

  5. Solvent-free synthesis of azomethines, spectral correlations and antimicrobial activities of some E-benzylidene-4-chlorobenzenamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suresh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Some azomethines including substituted benzylidene-4-chlorobenzenamines (E-imines have been synthesized by fly-ash: PTS catalyzed microwave assisted condensation of 4-chloroaniline and substituted benzaldehydes under solvent-free conditions. The yield of the imines has been found to be more than 85%. The purity of all imines has been checked using their physical constants and UV, IR and NMR spectral data. These spectral data have been correlated with Hammett substituent constants and F and R parameters using single and multi-linear regression analysis. From the results of statistical analysis, the effect of substituents on the above spectral data has been studied. The antimicrobial activities of all imines have been studied using standard methods.

  6. On Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis: a full informational spectral representation for nonlinear and non-stationary data

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Norden E.; Hu, Kun; Yang, Albert C. C.; Chang, Hsing-Chih; Jia, Deng; Liang, Wei-Kuang; Yeh, Jia Rong; Kao, Chu-Lan; Juan, Chi-Hung; Peng, Chung Kang; Meijer, Johanna H.; Wang, Yung-Hung; Long, Steven R.; Wu, Zhauhua

    2016-01-01

    The Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis (HHSA) method is introduced to cure the deficiencies of traditional spectral analysis and to give a full informational representation of nonlinear and non-stationary data. It uses a nested empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert–Huang transform (HHT) approach to identify intrinsic amplitude and frequency modulations often present in nonlinear systems. Comparisons are first made with traditional spectrum analysis, which usually achieved its results through c...

  7. Identification of Serine Conformers by Matrix-Isolation IR Spectroscopy Aided by Near-Infrared Laser Induced Conformational Change, 2D Correlation Analysis, and Quantum Mechanical Anharmonic Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najbauer, Eszter E.; Bazsó, Gábor; Apóstolo, Rui; Fausto, Rui; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Barone, Vincenzo; Tarczay, György

    2018-01-01

    The conformers of α-serine were investigated by matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. This method, aided by 2D correlation analysis, enabled unambiguously grouping the spectral lines to individual conformers. On the basis of comparison of at least nine experimentally observed vibrational transitions of each conformer with empirically scaled (SQM) and anharmonic (GVPT2) computed IR spectra, 6 conformers were identified. In addition, the presence of at least one more conformer in Ar matrix was proved, and a short-lived conformer with a half-live of (3.7±0.5)·103 s in N2 matrix was generated by NIR irradiation. The analysis of the NIR laser induced conversions revealed that the excitation of the stretching overtone of both the side-chain and the carboxylic OH groups can effectively promote conformational changes, but remarkably different paths were observed for the two kinds of excitations. PMID:26201050

  8. Extending laser plasma accelerators into the mid-IR spectral domain with a next-generation ultra-fast CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Skaritka, J.; Tresca, O.; Dover, N. P.; Najmudin, Z.; Lu, W.; Cook, N.; Ting, A.; Chen, Y.-H.

    2016-03-01

    Expanding the scope of relativistic plasma research to wavelengths longer than the λ/≈   0.8-1.1 μm range covered by conventional mode-locked solid-state lasers would offer attractive opportunities due to the quadratic scaling of the ponderomotive electron energy and critical plasma density with λ. Answering this quest, a next-generation mid-IR laser project is being advanced at the BNL ATF as a part of the user facility upgrade. We discuss the technical approach to this conceptually new 100 TW, 100 fs, λ  =   9-11 μm CO2 laser BESTIA (Brookhaven Experimental Supra-Terawatt Infrared at ATF) that encompasses several innovations applied for the first time to molecular gas lasers. BESTIA will enable new regimes of laser plasma accelerators. One example is shock-wave ion acceleration (SWA) from gas jets. We review ongoing efforts to achieve stable, monoenergetic proton acceleration by dynamically shaping the plasma density profile from a hydrogen gas target with laser-produced blast waves. At its full power, 100 TW BESTIA promises to achieve proton beams at an energy exceeding 200 MeV. In addition to ion acceleration in over-critical plasma, the ultra-intense mid-IR BESTIA will open up new opportunities in driving wakefields in tenuous plasmas, expanding the landscape of laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) studies into the unexplored long-wavelength spectral domain. Simple wavelength scaling suggests that a 100 TW CO2 laser beam will be capable of efficiently generating plasma ‘bubbles’ a thousand times greater in volume compared with a near-IR solid state laser of an equivalent power. Combined with a femtosecond electron linac available at the ATF, this wavelength scaling will facilitate the study of external seeding and staging of LWFAs.

  9. AN UNBIASED SPECTRAL LINE SURVEY TOWARD R CrA IRS7B IN THE 345 GHz WINDOW WITH ASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Lindberg, Johan E.; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey in the 332-364 GHz region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope toward R CrA IRS7B, a low-mass protostar in the Class 0 or Class 0/I transitional stage. We have also performed some supplementary observations in the 450 GHz band. In total, 16 molecular species are identified in the 332-364 GHz region. Strong emission lines of CN and CCH are observed, whereas complex organic molecules and long carbon-chain molecules, which are characteristics of hot corino and warm carbon-chain chemistry (WCCC) source, respectively, are not detected. The rotation temperature of CH 3 OH is evaluated to be 31 K, which is significantly lower than that reported for the prototypical hot corino IRAS 16293-2422 (∼85 K). The deuterium fractionation ratios for CCH and H 2 CO are obtained to be 0.038 and 0.050, respectively, which are much lower than those in the hot corino. These results suggest a weak hot corino activity in R CrA IRS7B. On the other hand, the carbon-chain related molecules, CCH and c-C 3 H 2 , are found to be abundant. However, this source cannot be classified as a WCCC source, since long carbon-chain molecules are not detected. If WCCC and hot corino chemistry represent the two extremes in chemical compositions of low-mass Class 0 sources, R CrA IRS7B would be a source with a mixture of these two chemical characteristics. The UV radiation from the nearby Herbig Ae star R CrA may also affect the chemical composition. The present line survey demonstrates further chemical diversity in low-mass star-forming regions.

  10. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  11. Nonlinear physical systems spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirillov, Oleg N

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together 18 chapters written by leading experts in dynamical systems, operator theory, partial differential equations, and solid and fluid mechanics, this book presents state-of-the-art approaches to a wide spectrum of new and challenging stability problems.Nonlinear Physical Systems: Spectral Analysis, Stability and Bifurcations focuses on problems of spectral analysis, stability and bifurcations arising in the nonlinear partial differential equations of modern physics. Bifurcations and stability of solitary waves, geometrical optics stability analysis in hydro- and magnetohydrodynam

  12. Nanomechanical IR Spectroscopy for the fast analysis of picogram samples of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, demands for novel sensitive techniques allowing for the analysis of minute samples. We present nanoelectromechanical system-based IR spectroscopy (NEMS-IR) of picograms of polymeric micelles. The micelles are nebulized...

  13. Emissivity compensated spectral pyrometry—algorithm and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagqvist, Petter; Sikström, Fredrik; Christiansson, Anna-Karin; Lennartson, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of non-contact temperature measurements on an object with varying emissivity, a new method is herein described and evaluated. The method uses spectral radiance measurements and converts them to temperature readings. It proves to be resilient towards changes in spectral emissivity and tolerates noisy spectral measurements. It is based on an assumption of smooth changes in emissivity and uses historical values of spectral emissivity and temperature for estimating current spectral emissivity. The algorithm, its constituent steps and accompanying parameters are described and discussed. A thorough sensitivity analysis of the method is carried out through simulations. No rigorous instrument calibration is needed for the presented method and it is therefore industrially tractable. (paper)

  14. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  15. The first photometric analysis of the near contact binary IR Cas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kai; Hu, S.-M.; Guo, D.-F.; Jiang, Y.-G.; Gao, D.-Y.; Chen, X.

    2014-01-01

    The first photometric analysis of IR Cas was carried out based on the new observed BVRI light curves. The symmetric light curves and nearly flat secondary minimum indicate that very precise photometric results can be determined. We found that IR Cas is a near contact binary with the primary component filling its Roche lobe. An analysis of the O – C diagram based on all available times of minimum light reveals evidence for a periodic change with a semi-amplitude of 0.0153 days and a period of 39.7 yr superimposed on a secular decrease at a rate of dp/dt = –1.28(± 0.09) × 10 –7 days yr –1 . The most reasonable explanation for the periodic change is the light time-travel effect due to a third body. The period decrease may be caused by mass transfer from the primary component to the secondary. With the decreasing period, IR Cas would eventually evolve into a contact system.

  16. Mid IR-fiber spectroscopy in the 2-17μm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyushenko, Viatcheslav G.; Bocharnikov, A.; Colquhoun, Gary; Leach, Clive A.; Lobachov, Vladimir; Pirogova, Lyudmila; Sakharova, Tatjana; Savitskij, Dmitrij; Ezhevskaya, Tatjana; Bublikov, Alexandr

    2007-10-01

    The latest development in IR-fibre optics enables us to expand the spectral range of process spectroscopy from 2μm out to 17μm (5000 to 600cm-1) i.e. into the most informative "finger-print" part of the spectrum. Mid-IR wavelength ranges from 2 to 6-10μm may be covered by Chalcogenide IR-glass CIR-fibres while Polycrystalline PIR-fibres made of Silver Halides solid solutions transmit 4-17 μm wavelength radiation. PIR-fibre immersion ATR probes and Transmission/Reflection probes had been manufactured and successfully tested with different FTIR spectrometers in the field of remote spectroscopy for forensic substances identification, chemical reaction control, and monitoring of exhaust or exhalation gases. Using these techniques no sample preparation is necessary for fibre probes to measure evanescent, reflection and transmission spectra, in situ and in real time. QCL spectrometer may be used as a portable device for multispectral gas analysis at 1ppb level of detectivity for various applications in environmental pollution monitoring.

  17. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  18. Spatio-spectral analysis of ionization times in high-harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soifer, Hadas, E-mail: hadas.soifer@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Dagan, Michal; Shafir, Dror; Bruner, Barry D. [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Ivanov, Misha Yu. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Max-Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Serbinenko, Valeria; Barth, Ingo; Smirnova, Olga [Max-Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Max-Born-Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Dudovich, Nirit [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2013-03-12

    Graphical abstract: A spatio-spectral analysis of the two-color oscillation phase allows us to accurately separate short and long trajectories and reconstruct their ionization times. Highlights: ► We perform a complete spatio-spectral analysis of the high harmonic generation process. ► We analyze the ionization times across the entire spatio-spectral plane of the harmonics. ► We apply this analysis to reconstruct the ionization times of both short and long trajectories. - Abstract: Recollision experiments have been very successful in resolving attosecond scale dynamics. However, such schemes rely on the single atom response, neglecting the macroscopic properties of the interaction and the effects of using multi-cycle laser fields. In this paper we perform a complete spatio-spectral analysis of the high harmonic generation process and resolve the distribution of the subcycle dynamics of the recolliding electron. Specifically, we focus on the measurement of ionization times. Recently, we have demonstrated that the addition of a weak, crossed polarized second harmonic field allows us to resolve the moment of ionization (Shafir, 2012) [1]. In this paper we extend this measurement and perform a complete spatio-spectral analysis. We apply this analysis to reconstruct the ionization times of both short and long trajectories showing good agreement with the quantum path analysis.

  19. Mid-IR Reflectance (DRIFT) Spectral Variations in Basaltic Mineralogy with Direction of Impact at Lonar Crater, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaiah, N.; Chavan, R. S.; Arif, M.

    2012-12-01

    Identification of spectral changes with the direction of impact has important implications for understanding the impact cratering phenomenon occurring on both terrestrial and extraterrestrial planets and also for geology of the crater. Fortuitously, Lonar Impact Crater (India) is the only well-preserved terrestrial simple crater excavated on Deccan basalts and serves as an excellent analogue to craters on Mars and Moon. An ~570 ka old Lonar crater was suggested to be formed by an oblique impact of a chondritic impactor that struck the pre-impact target from the east into a sequence of six basaltic Deccan flows and created a 1.88 km diameter crater with two layers of ejecta blanket. Here we report preliminary laboratory studies of spectral results on fine-grained rock powers (IR (4000-400 cm-1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. The basalts were collected from two profiles in the east and south sections of the crater wall and the upper most crater rim, which later subdivided into sector-wise samples to carry out a systematic study of spectral properties of Lonar basalts, together with impact related samples of breccias and impact melts. For the first time, data of the shock metamorphism of Lonar basalt is examined using DRIFT spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of rock powders of relatively unshocked and shocked basalts are obtained to document the mineralogical variations and the distribution of primary (e.g. Plagioclase Feldspar, Pyroxene), and secondary Phyllosilicate minerals (e.g. Illite, Smectite, Montmorillonite, Saponite, Serpentine) with direction of impact. The spectral data between pre-impact unshocked and post-impact shocked basalts are interpreted to reflect the effect of shock pressure and alteration that rock have undergone. On western crater rim sector, typical silicate spectral features in 900-1200 cm-1 which attributed to Si-O stretching, are observed to change slightly in the width and shift in position as a result of

  20. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  1. PIXE-quantified AXSIA: Elemental mapping by multivariate spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Kotula, P.G.; Antolak, A.J.; Ryan, C.G.; Campbell, J.L.; Barrett, K.

    2006-01-01

    Automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis techniques are useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of chemical components (spectra and images) that are needed to describe the measurement. We report the first use of the multivariate spectral analysis program AXSIA (Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to quantitatively analyze micro-PIXE data maps. AXSIA implements a multivariate curve resolution technique that reduces the spectral image data sets into a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (including both spectra and images). We show that the principal component spectra can be further analyzed using conventional PIXE programs to convert the weighting images into quantitative concentration maps. A common elemental data set has been analyzed using three different PIXE analysis codes and the results compared to the cases when each of these codes is used to separately analyze the associated AXSIA principal component spectral data. We find that these comparisons are in good quantitative agreement with each other

  2. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  3. Model and measurements of linear mixing in thermal IR ground leaving radiance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Lee; Clodius, William; Jeffery, Christopher; Theiler, James; McCabe, Matthew; Gillespie, Alan; Mushkin, Amit; Danilina, Iryna

    2007-10-01

    Hyperspectral thermal IR remote sensing is an effective tool for the detection and identification of gas plumes and solid materials. Virtually all remotely sensed thermal IR pixels are mixtures of different materials and temperatures. As sensors improve and hyperspectral thermal IR remote sensing becomes more quantitative, the concept of homogeneous pixels becomes inadequate. The contributions of the constituents to the pixel spectral ground leaving radiance are weighted by their spectral emissivities and their temperature, or more correctly, temperature distributions, because real pixels are rarely thermally homogeneous. Planck's Law defines a relationship between temperature and radiance that is strongly wavelength dependent, even for blackbodies. Spectral ground leaving radiance (GLR) from mixed pixels is temperature and wavelength dependent and the relationship between observed radiance spectra from mixed pixels and library emissivity spectra of mixtures of 'pure' materials is indirect. A simple model of linear mixing of subpixel radiance as a function of material type, the temperature distribution of each material and the abundance of the material within a pixel is presented. The model indicates that, qualitatively and given normal environmental temperature variability, spectral features remain observable in mixtures as long as the material occupies more than roughly 10% of the pixel. Field measurements of known targets made on the ground and by an airborne sensor are presented here and serve as a reality check on the model. Target spectral GLR from mixtures as a function of temperature distribution and abundance within the pixel at day and night are presented and compare well qualitatively with model output.

  4. Spectral signature verification using statistical analysis and text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoster, Mallory E.; Firpi, Alexe H.; Jacobs, Samantha K.; Cone, Shelli R.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the spectral science community, numerous spectral signatures are stored in databases representative of many sample materials collected from a variety of spectrometers and spectroscopists. Due to the variety and variability of the spectra that comprise many spectral databases, it is necessary to establish a metric for validating the quality of spectral signatures. This has been an area of great discussion and debate in the spectral science community. This paper discusses a method that independently validates two different aspects of a spectral signature to arrive at a final qualitative assessment; the textual meta-data and numerical spectral data. Results associated with the spectral data stored in the Signature Database1 (SigDB) are proposed. The numerical data comprising a sample material's spectrum is validated based on statistical properties derived from an ideal population set. The quality of the test spectrum is ranked based on a spectral angle mapper (SAM) comparison to the mean spectrum derived from the population set. Additionally, the contextual data of a test spectrum is qualitatively analyzed using lexical analysis text mining. This technique analyzes to understand the syntax of the meta-data to provide local learning patterns and trends within the spectral data, indicative of the test spectrum's quality. Text mining applications have successfully been implemented for security2 (text encryption/decryption), biomedical3 , and marketing4 applications. The text mining lexical analysis algorithm is trained on the meta-data patterns of a subset of high and low quality spectra, in order to have a model to apply to the entire SigDB data set. The statistical and textual methods combine to assess the quality of a test spectrum existing in a database without the need of an expert user. This method has been compared to other validation methods accepted by the spectral science community, and has provided promising results when a baseline spectral signature is

  5. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  6. MIR and FIR Analysis of Inorganic Species in a Single Data Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shilov, Sergey

    2017-06-01

    The extension of the mid IR towards the far IR spectral range below 400 \\wn is of great interest for molecular vibrational analysis for inorganic and organometallic chemistry, for geological, pharmaceutical, and physical applications, polymorph screening and crystallinity analysis as well as for matrix isolation spectroscopy. In these cases, the additional far infrared region offers insight to low energy vibrations which are observable only there. This includes inorganic species, lattice vibrations or intermolecular vibrations in the ordered solid state. The spectral range of a FTIR spectrometer is defined by the major optical components such as the source, beamsplitter, and detector. The globar source covers a broad spectral range from 8000 to 20 \\wn. However a bottle neck exists with respect to the beamsplitter and detector. To extend the spectral range further into the far IR and THz spectral ranges, one or more additional far IR beam splitters and detectors have been previously required. Two new optic components have been incorporated in a spectrometer to achieve coverage of both the mid and far infrared in a single scan: a wide range MIR-FIR beam splitter and the wide range DLaTGS detector that utilizes a diamond window. The use of a standard SiC IR source with these components yields a spectral range of 6000 down to 50 \\wn in one step for all types of transmittance, reflectance and ATR measurements. Utilizing the external water cooled mercury arc high power lamp the spectral range can be ultimately extended down to 10 \\wn. Examples of application will include emission in MIR-THz range, identification of pigments, additives in polymers, and polymorphism studies.

  7. Combining random forest and 2D correlation analysis to identify serum spectral signatures for neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin R; Ashton, Katherine M; Brodbelt, Andrew; Dawson, Timothy; Jenkinson, Michael D; Hunt, Neil T; Palmer, David S; Baker, Matthew J

    2016-06-07

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has long been established as an analytical technique for the measurement of vibrational modes of molecular systems. More recently, FTIR has been used for the analysis of biofluids with the aim of becoming a tool to aid diagnosis. For the clinician, this represents a convenient, fast, non-subjective option for the study of biofluids and the diagnosis of disease states. The patient also benefits from this method, as the procedure for the collection of serum is much less invasive and stressful than traditional biopsy. This is especially true of patients in whom brain cancer is suspected. A brain biopsy is very unpleasant for the patient, potentially dangerous and can occasionally be inconclusive. We therefore present a method for the diagnosis of brain cancer from serum samples using FTIR and machine learning techniques. The scope of the study involved 433 patients from whom were collected 9 spectra each in the range 600-4000 cm(-1). To begin the development of the novel method, various pre-processing steps were investigated and ranked in terms of final accuracy of the diagnosis. Random forest machine learning was utilised as a classifier to separate patients into cancer or non-cancer categories based upon the intensities of wavenumbers present in their spectra. Generalised 2D correlational analysis was then employed to further augment the machine learning, and also to establish spectral features important for the distinction between cancer and non-cancer serum samples. Using these methods, sensitivities of up to 92.8% and specificities of up to 91.5% were possible. Furthermore, ratiometrics were also investigated in order to establish any correlations present in the dataset. We show a rapid, computationally light, accurate, statistically robust methodology for the identification of spectral features present in differing disease states. With current advances in IR technology, such as the development of rapid discrete

  8. [Possibility of the spectral analysis of heterogeneous biological systems. The determination of the mycelium concentration of Actinomyces aureofaciens, a producer of tetracycline, cultured on a medium with corn meal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Iu N; Slugina, M D; Makarevich, V G; Telegin, N L

    1979-03-01

    A possibility of using spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection in the IR region for analysis of the heterogenic system consisting of the microorganisms and plant cells is discussed. The method of spectroscopy is proposed for estimating the mycelium concentration of Act. aureofaciens producing tetracycline in the presence of corn meal in the medium. The experimental data confirming this possibility are presented. The peculiar properties of the spectral analysis under these particular conditions are discussed. It is supposed that the method may be used for analysis of heterogenous systems including other microorganisms.

  9. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spectral Analysis of Moderately Charged Rare-Gas Atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyna Almandos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review concerning the spectral analysis of several ions of neon, argon, krypton and xenon, with impact on laser studies and astrophysics that were mainly carried out in our collaborative groups between Argentina and Brazil during many years. The spectra were recorded from the vacuum ultraviolet to infrared regions using pulsed discharges. Semi-empirical approaches with relativistic Hartree–Fock and Dirac-Fock calculations were also included in these investigations. The spectral analysis produced new classified lines and energy levels. Lifetimes and oscillator strengths were also calculated.

  11. Evaluation of Fourier integral. Spectral analysis of seismic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitaru, Cristian; Enescu, Dumitru

    2003-01-01

    Spectral analysis of seismic events represents a method for great earthquake prediction. The seismic signal is not a sinusoidal signal; for this, it is necessary to find a method for best approximation of real signal with a sinusoidal signal. The 'Quanterra' broadband station allows the data access in numerical and/or graphical forms. With the numerical form we can easily make a computer program (MSOFFICE-EXCEL) for spectral analysis. (authors)

  12. Low loss mid-IR transmission bands using silica hollow-core anisotropic anti-resonant fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Bang, Ole; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a node-free anisotropic hollow-core anti-resonant fiber has been proposed to give low transmission loss in the near-IR to mid-IR spectral regime. The proposed silica-based fiber design shows transmission loss below 10 dB/km at 2.94 μm with multiple low loss transmission bands. Tran...

  13. THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK, DUST, AND JETS IN THE IR EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Nemmen, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A., E-mail: rmason@gemini.edu [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    We use recent high-resolution infrared (IR; 1-20 μm) photometry to examine the origin of the IR emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). The data are compared with published model fits that describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of LLAGN in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow, truncated thin accretion disk, and jet. The truncated disk in these models is usually not luminous enough to explain the observed IR emission, and in all cases its spectral shape is much narrower than the broad IR peaks in the data. Synchrotron radiation from the jet appears to be important in very radio-loud nuclei, but the detection of strong silicate emission features in many objects indicates that dust must also contribute. We investigate this point by fitting the IR SED of NGC 3998 using dusty torus and optically thin (τ{sub mid-IR} ∼ 1) dust shell models. While more detailed modeling is necessary, these initial results suggest that dust may account for the nuclear mid-IR emission of many LLAGN.

  14. 2.5 TW, two-cycle IR laser pulses via frequency domain optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, V; Ernotte, G; Lassonde, P; Laramée, A; Bionta, M R; Chaker, M; Di Mauro, L; Corkum, P B; Ibrahim, H; Schmidt, B E; Legaré, F

    2017-10-30

    Broadband optical parametric amplification in the IR region has reached a new milestone through the use of a non-collinear Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification system. We report a laser source delivering 11.6 fs pulses with 30 mJ of energy at a central wavelength of 1.8 μm at 10 Hz repetition rate corresponding to a peak power of 2.5 TW. The peak power scaling is accompanied by a pulse shortening of about 20% upon amplification due to the spectral reshaping with higher gain in the spectral wings. This source paves the way for high flux soft X-ray pulses and IR-driven laser wakefield acceleration.

  15. Drift and transmission FT-IR spectroscopy of forest soils: an approach to determine decomposition processes of forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    1999-06-01

    A method is described to characterize organic soil layers using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The applicability of FT-IR, either dispersive or transmission, to investigate decomposition processes of spruce litter in soil originating from three different forest sites in two climatic regions was studied. Spectral information of transmission and diffuse reflection FT-IR spectra was analyzed and compared. For data evaluation Kubelka Munk (KM) transformation was applied to the DRIFT spectra. Sample preparation for DRIFT is simpler and less time consuming in comparison to transmission FT-IR, which uses KBr pellets. A variety of bands characteristics of molecular structures and functional groups has been identified for these complex samples. Analysis of both transmission FT-IR and DRIFT, showed that the intensity of distinct bands is a measure of the decomposition of forest litter. Interferences due to water adsorption spectra were reduced by DRIFT measurement in comparison to transmission FT-IR spectroscopy. However, data analysis revealed that intensity changes of several bands of DRIFT and transmission FT-IR were significantly correlated with soil horizons. The application of regression models enables identification and differentiation of organic forest soil horizons and allows to determine the decomposition status of soil organic matter in distinct layers. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of decomposition dynamics in forest soils. (author)

  16. Oxadiazole-carbazole polymer (POC)-Ir(ppy)3 tunable emitting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Annalisa; Borriello, Carmela; Di Luccio, Tiziana; Sessa, Lucia; Concilio, Simona; Haque, Saif A.; Minarini, Carla

    2017-04-01

    POC polymer is an oxadiazole-carbazole copolymer we have previously synthetized and established as light emitting material in Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs), although POC quantum yield emission efficiency and color purity still need to be enhanced. On the other hand, tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) complexes, namely Ir(ppy)3 are among the brightest luminophores employed in green light emitting devices. Our aim, in this work, is to take advantage of Ir(ppy)3 bright emission by combining the Ir complex with blue emitting POC to obtain tunable light emitting composites over a wide range of the visible spectrum. Here we have investigated the optical proprieties POC based nanocomposites with different concentrations of Ir(ppy)3, ranging from 1 to 10 wt%. Both spectral and time resolved fluorescence measurements show an efficient energy transfer from the polymer to the dopants, resulting in white-emitting composites. The most intense and stable emission has been found when POC was doped with about 5 wt% concentration of Ir(ppy)3.

  17. A System for Compressive Spectral and Polarization Imaging at Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    UV -­‐ VIS -­‐IR   60mm   Apo   Macro  lens   Jenoptik-­‐Inc   $5,817.36   IR... VIS /NIR Compressive Spectral Imager”, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP ’15), Quebec City, Canada, (September...imaging   system   will   lead   to   a   wide-­‐band   VIS -­‐NIR-­‐SWIR   compressive  spectral  and  polarimetric

  18. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  19. Far-IR measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2010-09-01

    In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23°S , 67.8°W at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating infrared (IR) absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to 100μm (2000 to 100cm-1), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.643cm-1, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

  20. Spectral Identification of New Galactic cLBV and WR Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, G. S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Beletsky, Y.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2012-12-01

    We have undertaken a near-IR spectral survey of stars associated with compact nebulae recently revealed by the Spitzer and WISE imaging surveys. These circumstellar nebulae, produced by massive evolved stars, display a variety of symmetries and shapes and are often only evident at mid-IR wavelengths. Stars associated with ˜50 of these nebulae have been observed. We also obtained recent spectra of previously confirmed (known) luminous blue variables (LBVs) and candidate LBVs (cLBVs). The spectral similarity of the stars observed when compared directly to known LBVs and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars indicate many are newly identified cLBVs, with a few being newly discovered WR stars, mostly of WN8-9h spectral type. These results suggest that a large population of previously unidentified cLBVs and related transitional stars reside in the Galaxy and confirm that circumstellar nebulae are inherent to most (c)LBVs.

  1. Robust and transferable quantification of NMR spectral quality using IROC analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrello, Matthew A.; Maciejewski, Mark W.; Schuyler, Adam D.; Weatherby, Gerard; Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2017-12-01

    Non-Fourier methods are increasingly utilized in NMR spectroscopy because of their ability to handle nonuniformly-sampled data. However, non-Fourier methods present unique challenges due to their nonlinearity, which can produce nonrandom noise and render conventional metrics for spectral quality such as signal-to-noise ratio unreliable. The lack of robust and transferable metrics (i.e. applicable to methods exhibiting different nonlinearities) has hampered comparison of non-Fourier methods and nonuniform sampling schemes, preventing the identification of best practices. We describe a novel method, in situ receiver operating characteristic analysis (IROC), for characterizing spectral quality based on the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. IROC utilizes synthetic signals added to empirical data as "ground truth", and provides several robust scalar-valued metrics for spectral quality. This approach avoids problems posed by nonlinear spectral estimates, and provides a versatile quantitative means of characterizing many aspects of spectral quality. We demonstrate applications to parameter optimization in Fourier and non-Fourier spectral estimation, critical comparison of different methods for spectrum analysis, and optimization of nonuniform sampling schemes. The approach will accelerate the discovery of optimal approaches to nonuniform sampling experiment design and non-Fourier spectrum analysis for multidimensional NMR.

  2. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  3. MEM spectral analysis for predicting influenza epidemics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Ayako; Kamo, Ken-ichi

    2012-03-01

    The prediction of influenza epidemics has long been the focus of attention in epidemiology and mathematical biology. In this study, we tested whether time series analysis was useful for predicting the incidence of influenza in Japan. The method of time series analysis we used consists of spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) in the frequency domain and the nonlinear least squares method in the time domain. Using this time series analysis, we analyzed the incidence data of influenza in Japan from January 1948 to December 1998; these data are unique in that they covered the periods of pandemics in Japan in 1957, 1968, and 1977. On the basis of the MEM spectral analysis, we identified the periodic modes explaining the underlying variations of the incidence data. The optimum least squares fitting (LSF) curve calculated with the periodic modes reproduced the underlying variation of the incidence data. An extension of the LSF curve could be used to predict the incidence of influenza quantitatively. Our study suggested that MEM spectral analysis would allow us to model temporal variations of influenza epidemics with multiple periodic modes much more effectively than by using the method of conventional time series analysis, which has been used previously to investigate the behavior of temporal variations in influenza data.

  4. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  5. Spectral map-analysis: a method to analyze gene expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Bijnens, Luc J.M.; Lewi, Paul J.; Göhlmann, Hinrich W.; Molenberghs, Geert; Wouters, Luc

    2004-01-01

    bioinformatics; biplot; correspondence factor analysis; data mining; data visualization; gene expression data; microarray data; multivariate exploratory data analysis; principal component analysis; Spectral map analysis

  6. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis; Mouhot, Clé ment

    2011-01-01

    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  7. Analysis of spectral methods for the homogeneous Boltzmann equation

    KAUST Repository

    Filbet, Francis

    2011-04-01

    The development of accurate and fast algorithms for the Boltzmann collision integral and their analysis represent a challenging problem in scientific computing and numerical analysis. Recently, several works were devoted to the derivation of spectrally accurate schemes for the Boltzmann equation, but very few of them were concerned with the stability analysis of the method. In particular there was no result of stability except when the method was modified in order to enforce the positivity preservation, which destroys the spectral accuracy. In this paper we propose a new method to study the stability of homogeneous Boltzmann equations perturbed by smoothed balanced operators which do not preserve positivity of the distribution. This method takes advantage of the "spreading" property of the collision, together with estimates on regularity and entropy production. As an application we prove stability and convergence of spectral methods for the Boltzmann equation, when the discretization parameter is large enough (with explicit bound). © 2010 American Mathematical Society.

  8. [Preparation and spectral analysis of a new type of blue light-emitting material delta-Alq3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-ying; Gao, Zhi-xiang; Zhou, He-feng; Xu, Bing-she

    2006-10-01

    In the present article, delta-Alq3, a new type of blue light-emitting material, was synthesized and investigated by IR spectra, XRD spectra, UV-Vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and electroluminescence (EL) spectra. The relationship between molecular spatial structure and spectral characteristics was studied by the spectral analysis of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3. Results show that a new phase of Alq3 (delta-Alq3) can be obtained by vacuum heating alpha-Alq3, and the molecular spatial structure of alpha-Alq3 changes during the vacuum heating. The molecular spatial structure of delta-Alq3 lacks symmetry compared to alpha-Alq3. This transformation can reduce the electron cloud density on phenoxide of Alq3 and weaken the intermolecular conjugated interaction between adjacent Alq3 molecules. Hence, the pi--pi* electron transition absorption peak of delta-Alq3 shifts toward short wavelength in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the maximum emission peak of delta-Alq3 (lamda max = 480 nm) blue-shifts by 35 nm compared with that of alpha-Alq3 (lamda max = 515 nm) in PL spectra. The maximum emission peaks of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3 are all at 520 nm in EL spectra.

  9. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as an Analytical Method to Investigate the Secondary Structure of a Model Protein Embedded in Solid Lipid Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2018-02-01

    Protein drugs may encounter conformational perturbations during the formulation processing of lipid-based solid dosage forms. In aqueous protein solutions, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can investigate these conformational changes following the subtraction of spectral interference of solvent with protein amide I bands. However, in solid dosage forms, the possible spectral contribution of lipid carriers to protein amide I band may be an obstacle to determine conformational alterations. The objective of this study was to develop an ATR FT-IR spectroscopic method for the analysis of protein secondary structure embedded in solid lipid matrices. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a model protein, while Precirol AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58 ℃) was employed as the model lipid matrix. Bovine serum albumin was incorporated into lipid using physical mixing, melting and mixing, or wet granulation mixing methods. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were performed for the analysis of BSA secondary structure and its dissolution in aqueous media, respectively. The results showed significant interference of Precirol ATO5 with BSA amide I band which was subtracted up to 90% w/w lipid content to analyze BSA secondary structure. In addition, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy also detected thermally denatured BSA solid alone and in the presence of lipid matrix indicating its suitability for the detection of denatured protein solids in lipid matrices. Despite being in the solid state, conformational changes occurred to BSA upon incorporation into solid lipid matrices. However, the extent of these conformational alterations was found to be dependent on the mixing method employed as indicated by area overlap calculations. For instance, the melting and mixing method imparted negligible effect on BSA secondary structure, whereas the wet granulation mixing method promoted

  10. IR reflectance spectroscopy of carbon dioxide clathrate hydrates. Implications for Saturn's icy moons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oancea, A.; Grasset, O.; Le Menn, E.; Bezacier, L.; Bollengier, O.; Le Mouélic, S.; Tobie, G.

    2012-04-01

    A CO2 spectral band was discovered by VIMS on the Saturn's satellites Dione, Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe [1]. The band position on the three first satellites corresponds to CO2 trapped in a complex material, but no indication exists whether this latter is water ice or some mineral or complex organic compound [1]. On Phoebe, the CO2 spectral band is consistent with solid CO2 or CO2 molecules trapped in the small cages of a clathrate hydrate structure [2]. It is thought that clathrate hydrates could play a significant role in the chemistry of the solar nebula [3] and in the physical evolution of astrophysical objects [4]. But so far, no clathrate hydrate structure has been observed in astrophysical environments. Moreover, identification of molecules trapped in a clathrate hydrate structure is extremely difficult because of the strong IR vibration modes of the water ice matrix. In this work, experimental IR reflectance spectra for CO2 clathrate hydrates are studied on grains and films. Clathrates are synthesized in a high pressure autoclave at low temperatures. IR spectral analysis is made with a low pressure and low temperature cryostat. These experimental conditions - 80 spectrum will be presented. A comparison between the absorption bands of CO2 clathrate hydrates obtained in our lab and CO2 absorption bands as detected by VIMS on the icy satellites of Saturn will be shown. This experimental work confirms that VIMS data are not consistent with the presence of structure I CO2 clathrate hydrates on the surface of the icy moons. Possibility of having metastable structure II still remains unsolved and will be discussed. [1] Dalton et al., Space Sci. Rev. 2010, 153 : 113-154. [2] Cruikshank D.P. et al, Icarus, 2010, 206: 561-572. [3] Mousis O. et al , Ap. J. 2009, 691: 1780-1786. [4] Choukroun M. et al, in Solar System Ices, edited by Castillo-Rogez, J. et al., 2011.

  11. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir(4+) ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory, and Madelung potential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-03-21

    The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.

  12. Rapid determination and chemical change tracking of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by multi-step IR macro-fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Xi; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuan; Sun, Su-Qin; Gu, Dong-Chen; He, Helen; Xu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Xi-Chang

    2016-02-01

    BPO is often added to wheat flour as flour improver, but its excessive use and edibility are receiving increasing concern. A multi-step IR macro-fingerprinting was employed to identify BPO in wheat flour and unveil its changes during storage. BPO contained in wheat flour (treatment of BPO in wheat flour based on 2DCOS-IR and spectral subtraction analysis, it was found that BPO in wheat flour not only decomposed into benzoic acid and benzoate, but also produced other deleterious substances, e.g., benzene. This study offers a promising method with minimum pretreatment and time-saving to identify BPO in wheat flour and its chemical products during storage in a holistic manner.

  13. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  14. Power spectral analysis of heart rate in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatori, V; Bellavere, F; Pezzarossa, A; Dellera, A; Gemma, M L; Thomaseth, K; Castello, R; Moghetti, P; Muggeo, M

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the cardiovascular system by separately analyzing the sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on heart rate. Heart rate variability was evaluated by autoregressive power spectral analysis. This method allows a reliable quantification of the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of the heart rate power spectral density; these are considered to be under mainly sympathetic and pure parasympathetic control, respectively. In 10 newly diagnosed untreated hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease, we analyzed power spectral density of heart rate cyclic variations at rest, while lying, and while standing. In addition, heart rate variations during deep breathing, lying and standing, and Valsalva's maneuver were analyzed. The results were compared to those obtained from 10 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched control subjects. In 8 hyperthyroid patients, the same evaluation was repeated after the induction of stable euthyroidism by methimazole. Heart rate power spectral analysis showed a sharp reduction of HF components in hyperthyroid subjects compared to controls [lying, 13.3 +/- 4.1 vs. 32.0 +/- 5.6 normalized units (NU; P hyperthyroid subjects while both lying (11.3 +/- 4.5 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.1; P hyperthyroid patients than in controls (1.12 +/- 0.03 vs. 1.31 +/- 0.04; P activity and, thus, a relative hypersympathetic tone.

  15. The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbe, Katia; Filik, Jacob; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2013-02-01

    The study of individual cells with infrared (IR) microspectroscopy often requires living cells to be cultured directly onto a suitable substrate. The surface effect of the specific substrates on the cell growth-viability and associated biochemistry-as well as on the IR analysis-spectral interference and optical artifacts-is all too often ignored. Using the IR beamline, MIRIAM (Diamond Light Source, UK), we show the importance of the substrate used for IR absorption spectroscopy by analyzing two different cell lines cultured on a range of seven optical substrates in both transmission and reflection modes. First, cell viability measurements are made to determine the preferable substrates for normal cell growth. Successively, synchrotron radiation IR microspectroscopy is performed on the two cell lines to determine any genuine biochemically induced changes or optical effect in the spectra due to the different substrates. Multivariate analysis of spectral data is applied on each cell line to visualize the spectral changes. The results confirm the advantage of transmission measurements over reflection due to the absence of a strong optical standing wave artifact which amplifies the absorbance spectrum in the high wavenumber regions with respect to low wavenumbers in the mid-IR range. The transmission spectra reveal interference from a more subtle but significant optical artifact related to the reflection losses of the different substrate materials. This means that, for comparative studies of cell biochemistry by IR microspectroscopy, it is crucial that all samples are measured on the same substrate type.

  16. Spectral analysis of full field digital mammography data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heine, John J.; Velthuizen, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    The spectral content of mammograms acquired from using a full field digital mammography (FFDM) system are analyzed. Fourier methods are used to show that the FFDM image power spectra obey an inverse power law; in an average sense, the images may be considered as 1/f fields. Two data representations are analyzed and compared (1) the raw data, and (2) the logarithm of the raw data. Two methods are employed to analyze the power spectra (1) a technique based on integrating the Fourier plane with octave ring sectioning developed previously, and (2) an approach based on integrating the Fourier plane using rings of constant width developed for this work. Both methods allow theoretical modeling. Numerical analysis indicates that the effects due to the transformation influence the power spectra measurements in a statistically significant manner in the high frequency range. However, this effect has little influence on the inverse power law estimation for a given image regardless of the data representation or the theoretical analysis approach. The analysis is presented from two points of view (1) each image is treated independently with the results presented as distributions, and (2) for a given representation, the entire image collection is treated as an ensemble with the results presented as expected values. In general, the constant ring width analysis forms the foundation for a spectral comparison method for finding spectral differences, from an image distribution sense, after applying a nonlinear transformation to the data. The work also shows that power law estimation may be influenced due to the presence of noise in the higher frequency range, which is consistent with the known attributes of the detector efficiency. The spectral modeling and inverse power law determinations obtained here are in agreement with that obtained from the analysis of digitized film-screen images presented previously. The form of the power spectrum for a given image is approximately 1/f 2

  17. Global spectral graph wavelet signature for surface analysis of carpal bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Majid; Rezaei, Mahsa; Ben Hamza, A.

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative shape comparison is a fundamental problem in computer vision, geometry processing and medical imaging. In this paper, we present a spectral graph wavelet approach for shape analysis of carpal bones of the human wrist. We employ spectral graph wavelets to represent the cortical surface of a carpal bone via the spectral geometric analysis of the Laplace-Beltrami operator in the discrete domain. We propose global spectral graph wavelet (GSGW) descriptor that is isometric invariant, efficient to compute, and combines the advantages of both low-pass and band-pass filters. We perform experiments on shapes of the carpal bones of ten women and ten men from a publicly-available database of wrist bones. Using one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and permutation testing, we show through extensive experiments that the proposed GSGW framework gives a much better performance compared to the global point signature embedding approach for comparing shapes of the carpal bones across populations.

  18. Multi-spectral Image Analysis for Astaxanthin Coating Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    Industrial quality inspection using image analysis on astaxanthin coating in aquaculture feed pellets is of great importance for automatic production control. In this study multi-spectral image analysis of pellets was performed using LDA, QDA, SNV and PCA on pixel level and mean value of pixels...

  19. Multitaper spectral analysis of atmospheric radar signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Anandan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Multitaper spectral analysis using sinusoidal taper has been carried out on the backscattered signals received from the troposphere and lower stratosphere by the Gadanki Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere (MST radar under various conditions of the signal-to-noise ratio. Comparison of study is made with sinusoidal taper of the order of three and single tapers of Hanning and rectangular tapers, to understand the relative merits of processing under the scheme. Power spectra plots show that echoes are better identified in the case of multitaper estimation, especially in the region of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Further analysis is carried out to obtain three lower order moments from three estimation techniques. The results show that multitaper analysis gives a better signal-to-noise ratio or higher detectability. The spectral analysis through multitaper and single tapers is subjected to study of consistency in measurements. Results show that the multitaper estimate is better consistent in Doppler measurements compared to single taper estimates. Doppler width measurements with different approaches were studied and the results show that the estimation was better in the multitaper technique in terms of temporal resolution and estimation accuracy.

  20. Toward optimal spatial and spectral quality in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy of IR labelled single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Eric C; Unger, Miriam; Clède, Sylvain; Lambert, François; Policar, Clotilde; Imtiaz, Asher; D'Souza, Roshan; Hirschmugl, Carol J

    2013-10-07

    Advancements in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy have recently been demonstrated following the commissioning of IRENI (InfraRed ENvironmental Imaging), a Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) chemical imaging beamline at the Synchrotron Radiation Center. The present study demonstrates the effects of magnification, spatial oversampling, spectral pre-processing and deconvolution, focusing on the intracellular detection and distribution of an exogenous metal tris-carbonyl derivative 1 in a single MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell. We demonstrate here that spatial oversampling for synchrotron-based infrared imaging is critical to obtain accurate diffraction-limited images at all wavelengths simultaneously. Resolution criteria and results from raw and deconvoluted images for two Schwarzschild objectives (36×, NA 0.5 and 74×, NA 0.65) are compared to each other and to prior reports for raster-scanned, confocal microscopes. The resolution of the imaging data can be improved by deconvolving the instrumental broadening that is determined with the measured PSFs, which is implemented with GPU programming architecture for fast hyperspectral processing. High definition, rapidly acquired, FTIR chemical images of respective spectral signatures of the cell 1 and shows that 1 is localized next to the phosphate- and Amide-rich regions, in agreement with previous infrared and luminescence studies. The infrared image contrast, localization and definition are improved after applying proven spectral pre-processing (principal component analysis based noise reduction and RMie scattering correction algorithms) to individual pixel spectra in the hyperspectral cube.

  1. Development of IR Contrast Data Analysis Application for Characterizing Delaminations in Graphite-Epoxy Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havican, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop infrared (IR) flash thermography application based on use of a calibration standard for inspecting graphite-epoxy laminated/honeycomb structures. Background: Graphite/Epoxy composites (laminated and honeycomb) are widely used on NASA programs. Composite materials are susceptible for impact damage that is not readily detected by visual inspection. IR inspection can provide required sensitivity to detect surface damage in composites during manufacturing and during service. IR contrast analysis can provide characterization of depth, size and gap thickness of impact damage. Benefits/Payoffs: The research provides an empirical method of calibrating the flash thermography response in nondestructive evaluation. A physical calibration standard with artificial flaws such as flat bottom holes with desired diameter and depth values in a desired material is used in calibration. The research devises several probability of detection (POD) analysis approaches to enable cost effective POD study to meet program requirements.

  2. A novel FT-IR spectroscopic method based on lipid characteristics for qualitative and quantitative analysis of animal-derived feedstuff adulterated with ruminant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Zhou, Simiao; Han, Lujia; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian

    2017-12-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the ability of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to authenticate adulterated animal-derived feedstuff. A total of 18 raw meat and bone meals (MBMs), including 9 non-ruminant MBMs and 9 ruminant MBMs, were mixed to obtain 81 binary mixtures with specific proportions (1-35%). Lipid spectral characteristics were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. Changes in FT-IR spectra were observed as adulterant concentration was varied. The results illustrate ruminant adulteration can be successfully distinguished based on lipid characteristics. PLS model was established to quantify ruminant adulteration, which was shown to be valid (R 2 P >0.90). Furthermore, the ratios of CC/CO and CC/CH(CH 2 ), as well as the number of CH(CH 2 ) in the fatty acids of adulterated lipids, were calculated, which showed that differences in the trans fatty acid content and the degree of unsaturation were the main contributors to determination of adulteration based on FT-IR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Processing of spectral X-ray data with principal components analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, A P H; Cook, N J; Butzer, J; Schleich, N; Tlustos, L; Scott, N; Grasset, R; de Ruiter, N; Anderson, N G

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the work was to develop a general method for processing spectral x-ray image data. Principle component analysis (PCA) is a well understood technique for multivariate data analysis and so was investigated. To assess this method, spectral (multi-energy) computed tomography (CT) data was obtained using a Medipix2 detector in a MARS-CT (Medipix All Resolution System). PCA was able to separate bone (calcium) from two elements with k-edges in the X-ray spectrum used (iodine and barium) within a mouse. This has potential clinical application in dual-energy CT systems and future Medipix3 based spectral imaging where up to eight energies can be recorded simultaneously with excellent energy resolution. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of MidIR fibre optic reflectance: Detection limit, reproducibility and binary mixture discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Clarimma; Bagán, Héctor; García, José Francisco

    2013-11-01

    MidIR fibre optic reflectance (MidIR-FORS) is a promising analytical technique in the field of science conservation, especially because it is non-destructive. Another advantage of MidIR-FORS is that the obtained information is representative, as a large amount of spectral data can be collected. Although the technique has a high potential and is almost routinely applied, its quality parameters have not been thoroughly studied in the specific application of analysis of artistic materials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the instrumental capabilities of MidIR-FORS for the analysis of artwork materials in terms of detection limit, reproducibility, and mixture characterisation. The study has been focused on oil easel painting and several paints of known composition have been analysed. Paint layers include blue pigments not only because of their important role along art history, but also because their physical and spectroscopic characteristics allow a better evaluation of the MidIR-FORS capabilities. The results of the analysis indicate that MidIR-FORS supplies a signal affected by different factors, such as the optical, morphological and physical properties of the surface, in addition to the composition of materials analysed. Consequently, the detection limits established are relatively high for artistic objects (Prussian blue - PB 2.1-6.5%; Phthalocyanine blue - Pht 6.3-10.2%; synthetic Ultramarine blue - UM 12.1%) and may therefore lead to an incomplete description of the artwork. Reproducibility of the technique over time and across surface has been determined. The results show that the major sources of dispersion are the heterogeneity of the pigments distribution, physical features, and band shape distortions. The total dispersion is around 4% for the most intense bands (oil) and increases up to 26% when weak or overlapped bands are considered (PB, Pht, UM). The application of different pre-treatments (cutoff of fibres absorption, Savizky-Golay smoothing

  5. Multivariate spectral-analysis of movement-related EEG data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    The univariate method of event-related desynchronization (ERD) analysis, which quantifies the temporal evolution of power within specific frequency bands from electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded during a task or event, is extended to an event related multivariate spectral analysis method. With this method, time courses of cross-spectra, phase spectra, coherence spectra, band-averaged coherence values (event-related coherence, ERCoh), partial power spectra and partial coherence spectra are estimated from an ensemble of multivariate event-related EEG trials. This provides a means of investigating relationships between EEG signals recorded over different scalp areas during the performance of a task or the occurrence of an event. The multivariate spectral analysis method is applied to EEG data recorded during three different movement-related studies involving discrete right index finger movements. The first study investigates the impact of the EEG derivation type on the temporal evolution of interhemispheric coherence between activity recorded at electrodes overlying the left and right sensorimotor hand areas during cued finger movement. The question results whether changes in coherence necessarily reflect changes in functional coupling of the cortical structures underlying the recording electrodes. The method is applied to data recorded during voluntary finger movement and a hypothesis, based on an existing global/local model of neocortical dynamics, is formulated to explain the coherence results. The third study applies partial spectral analysis too, and investigates phase relationships of, movement-related data recorded from a full head montage, thereby providing further results strengthening the global/local hypothesis. (author)

  6. Antioxidant activity and FT-IR analysis of Datura innoxia and Datura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Determination of total phenolic content and total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in terms of total antioxidant assay, ABTS assay, DPPH assay and in-vitro lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity were determined along with the FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) analysis of the ...

  7. Terahertz Josephson spectral analysis and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snezhko, A. V.; Gundareva, I. I.; Lyatti, M. V.; Volkov, O. Y.; Pavlovskiy, V. V.; Poppe, U.; Divin, Y. Y.

    2017-04-01

    Principles of Hilbert-transform spectral analysis (HTSA) are presented and advantages of the technique in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are discussed. THz HTSA requires Josephson junctions with high values of characteristic voltages I c R n and dynamics described by a simple resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. To meet these requirements, [001]- and [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions with deviations from the RSJ model less than 1% have been developed. Demonstrators of Hilbert-transform spectrum analyzers with various cryogenic environments, including integration into Stirling coolers, are described. Spectrum analyzers have been characterized in the spectral range from 50 GHz to 3 THz. Inside a power dynamic range of five orders, an instrumental function of the analyzers has been found to have a Lorentz form around a single frequency of 1.48 THz with a spectral resolution as low as 0.9 GHz. Spectra of THz radiation from optically pumped gas lasers and semiconductor frequency multipliers have been studied with these spectrum analyzers and the regimes of these radiation sources were optimized for a single-frequency operation. Future applications of HTSA will be related with quick and precise spectral characterization of new radiation sources and identification of substances in the THz frequency range.

  8. Application of PCA and SIMCA statistical analysis of FT-IR spectra for the classification and identification of different slag types with environmental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpe, B; Engel, T; Steinweg, B; Marschner, B

    2012-04-03

    In the past, different slag materials were often used for landscaping and construction purposes or simply dumped. Nowadays German environmental laws strictly control the use of slags, but there is still a remaining part of 35% which is uncontrolled dumped in landfills. Since some slags have high heavy metal contents and different slag types have typical chemical and physical properties that will influence the risk potential and other characteristics of the deposits, an identification of the slag types is needed. We developed a FT-IR-based statistical method to identify different slags classes. Slags samples were collected at different sites throughout various cities within the industrial Ruhr area. Then, spectra of 35 samples from four different slags classes, ladle furnace (LF), blast furnace (BF), oxygen furnace steel (OF), and zinc furnace slags (ZF), were determined in the mid-infrared region (4000-400 cm(-1)). The spectra data sets were subject to statistical classification methods for the separation of separate spectral data of different slag classes. Principal component analysis (PCA) models for each slag class were developed and further used for soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Precise classification of slag samples into four different slag classes were achieved using two different SIMCA models stepwise. At first, SIMCA 1 was used for classification of ZF as well as OF slags over the total spectral range. If no correct classification was found, then the spectrum was analyzed with SIMCA 2 at reduced wavenumbers for the classification of LF as well as BF spectra. As a result, we provide a time- and cost-efficient method based on FT-IR spectroscopy for processing and identifying large numbers of environmental slag samples.

  9. Antepartum Fetal Monitoring and Spectral Analysis of Preterm Birth Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păsăricără, Alexandru; Nemescu, Dragoş; Arotăriţei, Dragoş; Rotariu, Cristian

    2017-11-01

    The monitoring and analysis of antepartum fetal and maternal recordings is a research area of notable interest due to the relatively high value of preterm birth. The interest stems from the improvement of devices used for monitoring. The current paper presents the spectral analysis of antepartum heart rate recordings conducted during a study in Romania at the Cuza Voda Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinical Hospital from Iasi between 2010 and 2014. The study focuses on normal and preterm birth risk subjects in order to determine differences between these two types or recordings in terms of spectral analysis.

  10. Synthesis, spectral and photophysical properties of novel phthalocyanines bearing bulky phenantroxy moiety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogmuş, Ali; Lütfi Ugur, Ahmet; Memişoglu, Abdussamed; Erden, İbrahim

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, spectral and photophysical properties of soluble 9-Phenanthroxy substituted oxo-titanium (IV), zinc, magnesium and nickel phthalocyanines (1a, 1b, 1c and 1d) are reported for the first time. The new compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1 H–NMR spectroscopy, electronic spectroscopy and mass spectra. General trends are described for spectral, fluorescence properties and fluorescence quantum yields of these compounds in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and toluene. All phthalocyanine complexes (1a to 1d) exhibited excellent solubility in organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, THF, toluene, DMF and DMSO. - Highlights: ► New metallophthalocyanines (1a–1d) were synthesized. ► These new phthalocyanine derivatives show the enhanced solubility in organic solvents. ► The spectral and photophysical properties of TiO(IV), zinc (II) and Mg(II) phthalocyanine (1a–1c) are investigated in DMSO and toluene. ► Ground state electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra.

  11. Quantitative spectral and orientational analysis in surface sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Gan, Wei; Lu, Rong; Rao, Yi; Wu, Bao-Hua

    guidelines are developed for assignment of the SFG-VS spectrum. Using the selection rules, SFG-VS spectra of vapour/diol, and vapour/n-normal alcohol (n˜ 1-8) interfaces are assigned, and some of the ambiguity and confusion, as well as their implications in previous IR and Raman assignment, are duly discussed. The ability to assign a SFG-VS spectrum using the polarization selection rules makes SFG-VS not only an effective and useful vibrational spectroscopy technique for interface studies, but also a complementary vibrational spectroscopy method in general condensed phase studies. These developments will put quantitative orientational and spectral analysis in SFG-VS on a more solid foundation. The formulations, concepts and issues discussed in this review are expected to find broad applications for investigations on molecular interfaces in the future.

  12. Differentiation of Body Fluid Stains on Fabrics Using External Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles Fernández; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Body fluids are evidence of great forensic interest due to the DNA extracted from them, which allows genetic identification of people. This study focuses on the discrimination among semen, vaginal fluid, and urine stains (main fluids in sexual crimes) placed on different colored cotton fabrics by external reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with chemometrics. Semen-vaginal fluid mixtures and potential false positive substances commonly found in daily life such as soaps, milk, juices, and lotions were also studied. Results demonstrated that the IR spectral signature obtained for each body fluid allowed its identification and the correct classification of unknown stains by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). Interestingly, results proved that these IR spectra did not show any bands due to the color of the fabric and no substance of those present in daily life which were analyzed, provided a false positive. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP): Initial Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jeffrey; Kong, J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Berkeley SuperNova Ia Program (BSNIP) has been observing nearby (z analysis of this dataset consists of accurately and robustly measuring the strength and position of various spectral features near maximum brightness. We determine the endpoints, pseudo-continuum, expansion velocity, equivalent width, and depth of each major feature observed in our wavelength range. For objects with multiple spectra near maximum brightness we investigate how these values change with time. From these measurements we also calculate velocity gradients and various flux ratios within a given spectrum which will allow us to explore correlations between spectral and photometric observables. Some possible correlations have been studied previously, but our dataset is unique in how self-consistent the data reduction and spectral feature measurements have been, and it is a factor of a few larger than most earlier studies. We will briefly summarize the contents of the full dataset as an introduction to our initial analysis. Some of our measurements of SN Ia spectral features, along with a few initial results from those measurements, will be presented. Finally, we will comment on our current progress and planned future work. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of NSF grant AST-0908886, the TABASGO Foundation, and the Marc J. Staley Graduate Fellowship in Astronomy.

  14. Diagnostics of Coronal Magnetic Fields through the Hanle Effect in UV and IR Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raouafi, Nour E. [The John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD (United States); Riley, Pete [Predictive Science Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Gibson, Sarah [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fineschi, Silvano [The Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, National Institute for Astrophysics, Turin (Italy); Solanki, Sami K., E-mail: noureddine.raouafi@jhuapl.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Göttingen (Germany); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, South (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-22

    The plasma thermodynamics in the solar upper atmosphere, particularly in the corona, are dominated by the magnetic field, which controls the flow and dissipation of energy. The relative lack of knowledge of the coronal vector magnetic field is a major handicap for progress in coronal physics. This makes the development of measurement methods of coronal magnetic fields a high priority in solar physics. The Hanle effect in the UV and IR spectral lines is a largely unexplored diagnostic. We use magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to study the magnitude of the signal to be expected for typical coronal magnetic fields for selected spectral lines in the UV and IR wavelength ranges, namely the H i Ly-α and the He i 10,830 Å lines. We show that the selected lines are useful for reliable diagnosis of coronal magnetic fields. The results show that the combination of polarization measurements of spectral lines with different sensitivities to the Hanle effect may be most appropriate for deducing coronal magnetic properties from future observations.

  15. Zr 2Ir 6B with an eightfold superstructure of the cubic perovskite-like boride ZrIr 3B 0.5: Synthesis, crystal structure and bonding analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermus, Martin; Fokwa, Boniface P. T.

    2010-04-01

    Single phase powder samples and single crystals of Zr 2Ir 6B were successfully synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled copper crucible under an argon atmosphere. Superstructure reflections were observed both on powder and on single crystal diffraction data, leading to an eightfold superstructure of ZrIr 3B x phase. The new phase, which has a metallic luster, crystallizes in space group Fm3¯m (no. 225) with the lattice parameters a=7.9903(4) Å, V=510.14(4) Å 3. Its crystal structure was refined on the basis of powder as well as single crystal data. The single crystal refinement converged to R1=0.0239 and w R2=0.0624 for all 88 unique reflections and 6 parameters. Zr 2Ir 6B is isotypic to Ti 2Rh 6B and its structure can be described as a defect double perovskite, A2BB' O6, where the A site is occupied by zirconium, the B site by boron, the O site by iridium but the B' site is vacant, leading to the formation of empty and boron-filled octahedral Ir 6 clusters. According to the result of tight-binding electronic structure calculations, Ir-B and Ir-Zr interactions are mainly responsible for the structural stability of the phase. According to COHP bonding analysis, the strongest bonding occurs for the Ir-B contacts, and the Ir-Ir bonding within the empty clusters is two times stronger than that in the BIr 6 octahedra.

  16. Attenuated total reflection design for in situ FT-IR spectroelectrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Hendrik; Curtright, Aimee E.; McCusker, James K.; Sauer, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    A versatile spectroelectrochemical apparatus is introduced to study the changes in IR spectra of organic and inorganic compounds upon oxidation or reduction. The design is based on an attenuated total reflection (ATR) device, which permits the study of a wide spectral range of 16,700 cm-1 (600 nm) - 250 cm-1 with a small opaque region of 2250 - 1900 cm-1. In addition, an IR data collection protocol is introduced to deal with electrochemically non-reversible background signals. This method is tested with ferrocene in acetonitrile, producing results that agree with those in the literature

  17. Mapping the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses by extreme-ultraviolet emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Candong; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan; Nisoli, Mauro

    2015-04-20

    An all-optical method is proposed for the measurement of the spectral phase of isolated attosecond pulses. The technique is based on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation in a gas by the combination of an attosecond pulse and a strong infrared (IR) pulse with controlled electric field. By using a full quantum simulation, we demonstrate that, for particular temporal delays between the two pulses, the IR field can drive back to the parent ions the photoelectrons generated by the attosecond pulse, thus leading to the generation of XUV photons. It is found that the generated XUV spectrum is notably sensitive to the chirp of the attosecond pulse, which can then be reliably retrieved. A classical quantum-path analysis is further used to quantitatively explain the main features exhibited in the XUV emission.

  18. Spectral analysis of growing graphs a quantum probability point of view

    CERN Document Server

    Obata, Nobuaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed as a concise introduction to the recent achievements on spectral analysis of graphs or networks from the point of view of quantum (or non-commutative) probability theory. The main topics are spectral distributions of the adjacency matrices of finite or infinite graphs and their limit distributions for growing graphs. The main vehicle is quantum probability, an algebraic extension of the traditional probability theory, which provides a new framework for the analysis of adjacency matrices revealing their non-commutative nature. For example, the method of quantum decomposition makes it possible to study spectral distributions by means of interacting Fock spaces or equivalently by orthogonal polynomials. Various concepts of independence in quantum probability and corresponding central limit theorems are used for the asymptotic study of spectral distributions for product graphs. This book is written for researchers, teachers, and students interested in graph spectra, their (asymptotic) spectr...

  19. [Applications of spectral analysis technique to monitoring grasshoppers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Han, Jian-guo; Zhang, Lu-da

    2008-12-01

    Grasshopper monitoring is of great significance in protecting environment and reducing economic loss. However, how to predict grasshoppers accurately and effectively is a difficult problem for a long time. In the present paper, the importance of forecasting grasshoppers and its habitat is expounded, and the development in monitoring grasshopper populations and the common arithmetic of spectral analysis technique are illustrated. Meanwhile, the traditional methods are compared with the spectral technology. Remote sensing has been applied in monitoring the living, growing and breeding habitats of grasshopper population, and can be used to develop a forecast model combined with GIS. The NDVI values can be analyzed throughout the remote sensing data and be used in grasshopper forecasting. Hyper-spectra remote sensing technique which can be used to monitor grasshoppers more exactly has advantages in measuring the damage degree and classifying damage areas of grasshoppers, so it can be adopted to monitor the spatial distribution dynamic of rangeland grasshopper population. Differentialsmoothing can be used to reflect the relations between the characteristic parameters of hyper-spectra and leaf area index (LAI), and indicate the intensity of grasshopper damage. The technology of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy has been employed in judging grasshopper species, examining species occurrences and monitoring hatching places by measuring humidity and nutrient of soil, and can be used to investigate and observe grasshoppers in sample research. According to this paper, it is concluded that the spectral analysis technique could be used as a quick and exact tool in monitoring and forecasting the infestation of grasshoppers, and will become an important means in such kind of research for their advantages in determining spatial orientation, information extracting and processing. With the rapid development of spectral analysis methodology, the goal of sustainable monitoring

  20. Synthesis and Spectral Evaluation of Some Unsymmetrical Mesoporphyrinic Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rica Boscencu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and spectral evaluation of new zinc and copper unsymmetrical mesoporphyrinic complexes are reported. Zn(II-5-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-carboxymethylphenylporphyrin, Zn(II-5-[(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl]-10,15,20-tris-(4-carboxymethylphenylporphyrin, Cu(II-5-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-carboxymethylphenylporphyrin and Cu(II-5-[(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl]-10,15,20-tris-(4-carboxymethylphenylporphyrin were synthesized using microwave-assisted synthesis. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, EPR and NMR spectroscopy, which fully confirmed their structure. The spectral absorption properties of the porphyrinic complexes were studied in solvents with different polarities. Fluorescence emission and singlet oxygen formation quantum yields were evaluated for the compounds under study, revealing high yields for the zinc derivatives. The copper complexes are not emissive and only display residual capacity for singlet oxygen formation.

  1. Spectral analysis of an algebraic collapsing acceleration for the characteristics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.

    2005-01-01

    A spectral analysis of a diffusion synthetic acceleration called Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA) was carried out in the context of the characteristics method to solve the neutron transport equation. Two analysis were performed in order to assess the ACA performances. Both a standard Fourier analysis in a periodic and infinite slab-geometry and a direct spectral analysis for a finite slab-geometry were investigated. In order to evaluate its performance, ACA was compared with two competing techniques used to accelerate the convergence of the characteristics method, the Self-Collision Re-balancing technique and the Asymptotic Synthetic Acceleration. In the restricted framework of 1-dimensional slab-geometries, we conclude that ACA offers a good compromise between the reduction of the spectral radius of the iterative matrix and the resources to construct, store and solve the corrective system. A comparison on a monoenergetic 2-dimensional benchmark was performed and tends to confirm these conclusions. (authors)

  2. Cloud Masking for Remotely Sensed Data Using Spectral and Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of cloud masking tuned to tropical conditions have been developed, based on spectral analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. In the spectral approach, thresholds were applied to four reflective bands (1, 2, 3, and 4, three thermal bands (29, 31 and 32, the band 2/band 1 ratio, and the difference between band 29 and 31 in order to detect clouds. The PCA approach applied a threshold to the first principal component derived from the seven quantities used for spectral analysis. Cloud detections were compared with the standard MODIS cloud mask, and their accuracy was assessed using reference images and geographical information on the study area.

  3. Spectral studies of 2-pyrazoline derivatives: structural elucidation through single crystal XRD and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaraja, D; Rajalakshmi, R; Srinivasan, T; Velmurugan, D; Jayabharathi, J

    2014-04-24

    A series of biologically active N-thiocarbamoyl pyrazoline derivatives have been synthesized using anhydrous potassium carbonate as the catalyst. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectral studies, LCMS, CHN Analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 7). In order to supplement the XRD parameters, molecular modelling was carried out by Gaussian 03W. From the optimized structure, the energy, dipolemoment and HOMO-LUMO energies of all the systems were calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and spectral characterization of hydrazone derivative of furfural using experimental and DFT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N Ramesh; Subashchandrabose, S; Ali Padusha, M Syed; Saleem, H; Erdoğdu, Y

    2014-01-01

    The Spectral Characterization of (E)-1-(Furan-2-yl) methylene)-2-(1-phenylvinyl) hydrazine (FMPVH) were carried out by using FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis., Spectrometry. The B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of optimization has been performed on the title compound. The conformational analysis was performed for this molecule, in which the cis and trans conformers were studied for spectral characterization. The recorded spectral results were compared with calculated results. The optimized bond parameters of FMPVH molecule was compared with X-ray diffraction data of related molecule. To study the intra-molecular charge transfers within the molecule the Lewis (bonding) and Non-Lewis (anti-bonding) structural calculation was performed. The Non-linear optical behavior of the title compound was measured using first order hyperpolarizability calculation. The atomic charges were calculated and analyzed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. RESOLVING THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND HOST EMISSION IN THE MID-INFRARED USING A MODEL-INDEPENDENT SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005, Santander (Spain); Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Spoon, Henrik W. W. [Cornell University, CRSR, Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Santos, Tanio Díaz [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO18 1BJ (United Kingdom); González-Martín, Omaira [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica (CRyA-UNAM), 3-72 (Xangari), 8701, Morelia (Mexico); Esquej, Pilar, E-mail: ahernan@ifca.unican.es [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    We present results on the spectral decomposition of 118 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra from local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a large set of Spitzer/IRS spectra as templates. The templates are themselves IRS spectra from extreme cases where a single physical component (stellar, interstellar, or AGN) completely dominates the integrated mid-infrared emission. We show that a linear combination of one template for each physical component reproduces the observed IRS spectra of AGN hosts with unprecedented fidelity for a template fitting method with no need to model extinction separately. We use full probability distribution functions to estimate expectation values and uncertainties for observables, and find that the decomposition results are robust against degeneracies. Furthermore, we compare the AGN spectra derived from the spectral decomposition with sub-arcsecond resolution nuclear photometry and spectroscopy from ground-based observations. We find that the AGN component derived from the decomposition closely matches the nuclear spectrum with a 1σ dispersion of 0.12 dex in luminosity and typical uncertainties of ∼0.19 in the spectral index and ∼0.1 in the silicate strength. We conclude that the emission from the host galaxy can be reliably removed from the IRS spectra of AGNs. This allows for unbiased studies of the AGN emission in intermediate- and high-redshift galaxies—currently inaccesible to ground-based observations—with archival Spitzer/IRS data and in the future with the Mid-InfraRed Instrument of the James Webb Space Telescope. The decomposition code and templates are available at http://denebola.org/ahc/deblendIRS.

  6. [Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong

    2015-11-01

    With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level.

  7. Outlier Detection with Space Transformation and Spectral Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Xuan-Hong; Micenková, Barbora; Assent, Ira

    2013-01-01

    which rely on notions of distances or densities, this approach introduces a novel concept based on local quadratic entropy for evaluating the similarity of a data object with its neighbors. This information theoretic quantity is used to regularize the closeness amongst data instances and subsequently......Detecting a small number of outliers from a set of data observations is always challenging. In this paper, we present an approach that exploits space transformation and uses spectral analysis in the newly transformed space for outlier detection. Unlike most existing techniques in the literature...... benefits the process of mapping data into a usually lower dimensional space. Outliers are then identified by spectral analysis of the eigenspace spanned by the set of leading eigenvectors derived from the mapping procedure. The proposed technique is purely data-driven and imposes no assumptions regarding...

  8. Subarcsecond observations of NGC 7538 IRS 1: Continuum distribution and dynamics of molecular gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei; Shi, Hui [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wright, M. C. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sandell, Göran [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Wu, Yue-Fang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Brogan, Crystal; Corder, Stuartt, E-mail: lzhu@nao.cas.cn [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We report new results based on the analysis of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) observations of NGC 7538 IRS 1 at 1.3 and 3.4 mm with subarcsecond resolutions. With angular resolutions ∼0.''7, the SMA and CARMA observations show that the continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.4 mm from the hyper-compact H II region IRS 1 is dominated by a compact source with a tail-like extended structure to the southwest of IRS 1. With a CARMA B-array image at 1.3 mm convolved to 0.''1, we resolve the hyper-compact H II region into two components: an unresolved hyper-compact core, and a north-south extension with linear sizes of <270 AU and ∼2000 AU, respectively. The fine structure observed with CARMA is in good agreement with the previous Very Large Array results at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the hyper-compact H II region at the center of IRS 1 is associated with an ionized bipolar outflow. We image the molecular lines OCS(19-18) and CH{sub 3}CN(12-11) as well as {sup 13}CO(2-1) surrounding IRS 1, showing a velocity gradient along the southwest-northeast direction. The spectral line profiles in {sup 13}CO(2-1), CO(2-1), and HCN(1-0) observed toward IRS 1 show broad redshifted absorption, providing evidence for gas infall with rates in the range of 3-10 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} inferred from our observations.

  9. Mineralogy and Thermal Properties of V-Type Asteroid 956 Elisa: Evidence for Diogenitic Material from the Spitzer IRS (5-35 Micrometers) Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    We present the thermal infrared (5-35 micrometer) spectrum of 956 Elisa as measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph ("IRS"; Houck,1.R. et .11. [20041. Astrophys, 1. SuppL 154, 18-24) together with new ground-based lightcurve data and near-IR spectra. From the visible lightcurve photometry, we determine a rotation period of 16.494 +/- 0.001 h, identify the rotational phase of the Spitzer observations, and estimate the visible absolute magnitude (Hv) at that rotational phase to be 12.58 +/- 0.04. From radiometric analysis of the thermal flux spectrum, we find that at the time of observation 956 Elisa had a projected radius of 5.3 +/- 0.4 km with a visible albedo pv = 0.142+/- 0.022, significantly lower than that of the prototype V-type asteroid, 4 Vesta. (This corresponds to a radius of 5.2 +/- 0.4 km at lightcurve mean.) Analysis with the standard thermal model (STM) results in a sub-solar temperature of 292.3 +/- 2.8 K and beaming parameter eta = 1.16 +/- 0.05. Thermophysical modeling places a lower limit of 20 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) on the thermal inertia of the asteroid's surface layer (if the surface is very smooth) but more likely values fall between 30 and 150 J m(exp -2)K(exp -1)s(exp -1/2) depending on the sense of rotation. The emissivity spectrum, calculated by dividing the measured thermal flux spectrum by the modeled thermal continuum, exhibits mineralogically interpretable spectral features within the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen band, the 15-16.5 micrometer Si-O-Si stretching region, and the 16-25 micrometer reststrahlen region that are consistent with pyroxene of diogenitic composition: extant diogenitic pyroxenes fall within the narrow compositional range W0(sub 2+/-1)En(sub 74+/-2)Fs(sub 24+/-1). Spectral deconvolution of the 9-12 micrometer reststrahlen features indicates that up to approximately 20% olivine may also be present, suggesting an olivine-diogenite-like mineralogy. The mid-IR spectrum is inconsistent with non

  10. Monte-Carlo error analysis in x-ray spectral deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirk, D.G.; Hoffman, N.M.

    1985-01-01

    The deconvolution of spectral information from sparse x-ray data is a widely encountered problem in data analysis. An often-neglected aspect of this problem is the propagation of random error in the deconvolution process. We have developed a Monte-Carlo approach that enables us to attach error bars to unfolded x-ray spectra. Our Monte-Carlo error analysis has been incorporated into two specific deconvolution techniques: the first is an iterative convergent weight method; the second is a singular-value-decomposition (SVD) method. These two methods were applied to an x-ray spectral deconvolution problem having m channels of observations with n points in energy space. When m is less than n, this problem has no unique solution. We discuss the systematics of nonunique solutions and energy-dependent error bars for both methods. The Monte-Carlo approach has a particular benefit in relation to the SVD method: It allows us to apply the constraint of spectral nonnegativity after the SVD deconvolution rather than before. Consequently, we can identify inconsistencies between different detector channels

  11. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  12. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz wide spectral survey toward orion KL. I. method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Nathan R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Favre, Cécile [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schilke, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Phillips, Thomas G. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bell, Tom A.; Cernicharo, José; Esplugues, Gisela B. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC/INTA), Laboratiorio de Astrofísica Molecular, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Blake, Geoffrey; Kleshcheva, Maria [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gupta, Harshal; Pearson, John [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lord, Steven [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marcelino, Nuria [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); McGuire, Brett A. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plume, Rene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Van der Tak, Floris [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broadband spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at a resolution of 1.1 MHz. These observations thus encompass the largest spectral coverage ever obtained toward this high-mass star-forming region in the submillimeter with high spectral resolution and include frequencies >1 THz, where the Earth's atmosphere prevents observations from the ground. In all, we detect emission from 39 molecules (79 isotopologues). Combining this data set with ground-based millimeter spectroscopy obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we model the molecular emission from the millimeter to the far-IR using the XCLASS program, which assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Several molecules are also modeled with the MADEX non-LTE code. Because of the wide frequency coverage, our models are constrained by transitions over an unprecedented range in excitation energy. A reduced χ{sup 2} analysis indicates that models for most species reproduce the observed emission well. In particular, most complex organics are well fit by LTE implying gas densities are high (>10{sup 6} cm{sup –3}) and excitation temperatures and column densities are well constrained. Molecular abundances are computed using H{sub 2} column densities also derived from the HIFI survey. The distribution of rotation temperatures, T {sub rot}, for molecules detected toward the hot core is significantly wider than the compact ridge, plateau, and extended ridge T {sub rot} distributions, indicating the hot core has the most complex thermal structure.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Spectral Properties and Prosodic Parameters of Emotional Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, J.; Přibilová, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses reflection of microintonation and spectral properties in male and female acted emotional speech. Microintonation component of speech melody is analyzed regarding its spectral and statistical parameters. According to psychological research of emotional speech, different emotions are accompanied by different spectral noise. We control its amount by spectral flatness according to which the high frequency noise is mixed in voiced frames during cepstral speech synthesis. Our experiments are aimed at statistical analysis of cepstral coefficient values and ranges of spectral flatness in three emotions (joy, sadness, anger), and a neutral state for comparison. Calculated histograms of spectral flatness distribution are visually compared and modelled by Gamma probability distribution. Histograms of cepstral coefficient distribution are evaluated and compared using skewness and kurtosis. Achieved statistical results show good correlation comparing male and female voices for all emotional states portrayed by several Czech and Slovak professional actors.

  14. Thermo spectral analysis (TSA) of living human skin by FT-IR -Development of a diagnostic method for the early detection of chronic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, W.; Heim, G.

    1985-12-01

    A Fourier spectrometer was used in order to measure the spectral emissivity E(k) of human skin in the FIR region k=190-420 cm-1. Three studies on patient groups with defined chronic diseases have been performed: patients with untreated bronchial carcinoma, patients with rheumatic arthritis and patients with chronic renal insufficiency. In comparison with a symptomfree control group all patient groups show significant differences in E(k). As result of a discriminant analysis a separation of 95.7% between carcinoma patients and control persons is possible. The separation quotes between the other groups indicate that patients with malignant neoplasms can be discriminated from other chronically ill persons.

  15. Radiation from an equilibrium CO2-N2 plasma in the [250-850 nm] spectral region: II. Spectral modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M Lino da; Vacher, D; Andre, P; Faure, G; Dudeck, M

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of this work, described in a previous paper, the thermodynamic conditions in an atmospheric pressure inductively coupled CO 2 -N 2 plasma have been determined, and the radiation emission spectrum has been measured and calibrated in the [250-850 nm] spectral region. In the second part of this work, a synthetic radiation spectrum is obtained taking into account (a) the geometry of the plasma torch and (b) the local thermodynamic conditions of the plasma. This synthetic spectrum has then been compared against the measured spectrum. The good agreement between the two spectra allows validating the spectral database of the line-by-line code SPARTAN for the simulation of the radiative emission of CO 2 -N 2 plasmas from the near-UV to the near-IR spectral region.

  16. Spectral analysis of Floating Car Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gössel, F.; Michler, E.; Wrase, B.

    2003-01-01

    Floating Car Data (FCD) are one important data source in traffic telematic systems. The original variable in these systems is the vehicle velocity. The paper analyses the measured value “vehicle velocity" by methods of information technology. Consequences for processing, transmission and storage of FCD under condition of limited resources are discussed. Starting point of the investigation is the analysis of spectral characteristics of velocity-time-profiles. The spectra are determined by...

  17. Spectral emissivity of tungsten: analytic expressions for the 340-nm to 2.6-μm spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pon, R.M.; Hessler, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    To correct emission spectra a standard radiance source is often used to determine the spectral responsivity of the detection system. In the near-UV, visible, and near-IR spectral regions the most common radiance standard is a tungsten strip lamp calibrated by a standards laboratory. For day-to-day experiments where slightly less accuracy is acceptable, a less expensive uncalibrated lamp is useful. In this case, the radiant temperature T/sub r/ of the lamp is measured with an optical pyrometer, generally at a single wavelength such as 650 nm, and the source spectral radiance L(λ) is calculated from L(λ) = tau(λ)epsilon(λ,T)L/sub B/(λ,T). The transmittance of the source is tau(λ), the spectral emissivity is epsilon(λ,T), and L/sub B/(λ,T) is the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation, Planck's radiation law. To obtain the true temperature T, Wien's approximation is employed. To conveniently calibrate a system, especially one which utilizes a microcomputer, it is advantageous to have analytic expressions for the spectral emissivity of tungsten. Although Larrabee has published such expressions, they are limited to the 450-800-nm spectral region. To obtain analytic expressions from 340 nm to 2.6 μm they have used the measurements of DeVos. Although DeVos's results differ by 2% from those of Larrabee, this difference is assumed to be acceptable

  18. Evaluation of abrasive waterjet produced titan surfaces topography by spectral analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kozak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of a titan grade 2 surface topography prepared by abrasive waterjet cutting is performed using methods of the spectral analysis. Topographic data are acquired by means of the optical profilometr MicroProf®FRT. Estimation of the areal power spectral density of the studied surface is carried out using the periodogram method combined with the Welch´s method. Attention is paid to a structure of the areal power spectral density, which is characterized by means of the angular power spectral density. This structure of the areal spectral density is linked to the fine texture of the surface studied.

  19. Specific features of diffuse reflection of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotov, L E; Sinichkin, Yu P; Tuchin, Valerii V; Al'tshuler, G B; Yaroslavskii, I V

    2011-01-01

    The specific features of diffuse reflection from different areas of human face skin for laser and non-laser sources of visible and near-IR light have been investigated to localise the closed-eye (eyelid) region. In the visible spectral range the reflection from the eyelid skin surface can be differentiated by measuring the slope of the spectral dependence of the effective optical density of skin in the wavelength range from 650 to 700nm. In the near-IR spectral range the reflectances of the skin surface at certain wavelengths, normalised to the forehead skin reflectance, can be used as a criterion for differentiating the eyelid skin. In this case, a maximum discrimination is obtained when measuring the skin reflectances at laser wavelengths of 1310 and 1470nm, which correspond to the spectral ranges of maximum and minimum water absorption. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  20. Rapid, nondestructive estimation of surface polymer layer thickness using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and synthetic spectra derived from optical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.

  1. Automics: an integrated platform for NMR-based metabonomics spectral processing and data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Lijia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spectral processing and post-experimental data analysis are the major tasks in NMR-based metabonomics studies. While there are commercial and free licensed software tools available to assist these tasks, researchers usually have to use multiple software packages for their studies because software packages generally focus on specific tasks. It would be beneficial to have a highly integrated platform, in which these tasks can be completed within one package. Moreover, with open source architecture, newly proposed algorithms or methods for spectral processing and data analysis can be implemented much more easily and accessed freely by the public. Results In this paper, we report an open source software tool, Automics, which is specifically designed for NMR-based metabonomics studies. Automics is a highly integrated platform that provides functions covering almost all the stages of NMR-based metabonomics studies. Automics provides high throughput automatic modules with most recently proposed algorithms and powerful manual modules for 1D NMR spectral processing. In addition to spectral processing functions, powerful features for data organization, data pre-processing, and data analysis have been implemented. Nine statistical methods can be applied to analyses including: feature selection (Fisher's criterion, data reduction (PCA, LDA, ULDA, unsupervised clustering (K-Mean and supervised regression and classification (PLS/PLS-DA, KNN, SIMCA, SVM. Moreover, Automics has a user-friendly graphical interface for visualizing NMR spectra and data analysis results. The functional ability of Automics is demonstrated with an analysis of a type 2 diabetes metabolic profile. Conclusion Automics facilitates high throughput 1D NMR spectral processing and high dimensional data analysis for NMR-based metabonomics applications. Using Automics, users can complete spectral processing and data analysis within one software package in most cases

  2. Automics: an integrated platform for NMR-based metabonomics spectral processing and data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Shao, Kang; Chu, Qinying; Ren, Yanfei; Mu, Yiming; Qu, Lijia; He, Jie; Jin, Changwen; Xia, Bin

    2009-03-16

    Spectral processing and post-experimental data analysis are the major tasks in NMR-based metabonomics studies. While there are commercial and free licensed software tools available to assist these tasks, researchers usually have to use multiple software packages for their studies because software packages generally focus on specific tasks. It would be beneficial to have a highly integrated platform, in which these tasks can be completed within one package. Moreover, with open source architecture, newly proposed algorithms or methods for spectral processing and data analysis can be implemented much more easily and accessed freely by the public. In this paper, we report an open source software tool, Automics, which is specifically designed for NMR-based metabonomics studies. Automics is a highly integrated platform that provides functions covering almost all the stages of NMR-based metabonomics studies. Automics provides high throughput automatic modules with most recently proposed algorithms and powerful manual modules for 1D NMR spectral processing. In addition to spectral processing functions, powerful features for data organization, data pre-processing, and data analysis have been implemented. Nine statistical methods can be applied to analyses including: feature selection (Fisher's criterion), data reduction (PCA, LDA, ULDA), unsupervised clustering (K-Mean) and supervised regression and classification (PLS/PLS-DA, KNN, SIMCA, SVM). Moreover, Automics has a user-friendly graphical interface for visualizing NMR spectra and data analysis results. The functional ability of Automics is demonstrated with an analysis of a type 2 diabetes metabolic profile. Automics facilitates high throughput 1D NMR spectral processing and high dimensional data analysis for NMR-based metabonomics applications. Using Automics, users can complete spectral processing and data analysis within one software package in most cases. Moreover, with its open source architecture, interested

  3. Synthesis of metal complexes involving Schiff base ligand with methylenedioxy moiety: spectral, thermal, XRD and antimicrobial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, M L; Jeyakumar, T; Anandakumaran, J; Karpanai Selvan, B

    2014-10-15

    Metal complexes of Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Mn(II) Hg(II), and Ag(I) have been synthesized from Schiff base ligand, prepared by the condensation of 3,4-(methylenedioxy)aniline and 5-bromo salicylaldehyde. All the compounds have been characterized by using elemental analysis, molar conductance, FT-IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, mass spectra, powder XRD and thermal analysis (TG/DTA) technique. The elemental analysis suggests the stoichiometry to be 1:1 (metal:ligand). The FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and UV-Vis spectral data suggest that the ligand coordinate to the metal atom by imino nitrogen and phenolic oxygen as bidentate manner. Mass spectral data further support the molecular mass of the compounds and their structure. Powder XRD indicates the crystalline state and morphology of the ligand and its metal complexes. The thermal behaviors of the complexes prove the presence of lattice as well as coordinated water molecules in the complexes. Melting point supports the thermal stability of all the compounds. The in vitro antimicrobial effects of the synthesized compounds were tested against five bacterial and three fungal species by well diffusion method. Antioxidant activities have also been performed for all the compounds. Metal complexes show more biological activity than the Schiff base. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, P. E.; Timchenko, E. V.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Red'kin, N. A.; Frolov, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm-1 ((PO4)3- (ν1) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm-1 ((CO3)2-(ν1) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy.

  5. Spectral analysis of allogeneic hydroxyapatite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, P E; Timchenko, E V; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Red’kin, N A; Frolov, O O

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the application of Raman spectroscopy to the in vitro analysis of the hydroxyapatite powder samples produced from different types of animal bone tissue during demineralization process at various acid concentrations and exposure durations. The derivation of the Raman spectrum of hydroxyapatite is attempted by the analysis of the pure powders of its known constituents. Were experimentally found spectral features of hydroxyapatite, based on analysis of the line amplitude at wave numbers 950-965 cm -1 ((PO 4 ) 3- (ν 1 ) vibration) and 1065-1075 cm -1 ((CO 3 ) 2- (ν 1 ) B-type replacement). Control of physicochemical properties of hydroxyapatite was carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Research results are compared with an infrared Fourier spectroscopy. (paper)

  6. General review of multispectral cooled IR development at CEA-Leti, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, F.; Marmonier, F.; Grangier, C.; Adelmini, L.; Gravrand, O.; Ballet, P.; Baudry, X.; Baylet, J.; Badano, G.; Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bisotto, S.

    2017-02-01

    Multicolor detection capabilities, which bring information on the thermal and chemical composition of the scene, are desirable for advanced infrared (IR) imaging systems. This communication reviews intra and multiband solutions developed at CEA-Leti, from dual-band molecular beam epitaxy grown Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) photodiodes to plasmon-enhanced multicolor IR detectors and backside pixelated filters. Spectral responses, quantum efficiency and detector noise performances, pros and cons regarding global system are discussed in regards to technology maturity, pixel pitch reduction, and affordability. From MWIR-LWIR large band to intra MWIR or LWIR bands peaked detection, results underline the full possibility developed at CEA-Leti.

  7. X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and thermal characterization of partially hydrolyzed guar gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S

    2012-05-01

    Guar gum was hydrolyzed using cellulase from Aspergillus niger at 5.6 pH and 50°C temperature. Hydrolyzed guar gum sample was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dilute solution viscometry and rotational viscometry. Viscometry analysis of native guar gum showed a molecular weight of 889742.06, whereas, after enzymatic hydrolysis, the resultant product had a molecular weight of 7936.5. IR spectral analysis suggests that after enzymatic hydrolysis of guar gum there was no major transformation of functional group. Thermal analysis revealed no major change in thermal behavior of hydrolyzed guar gum. It was shown that partial hydrolysis of guar gum could be achieved by inexpensive and food grade cellulase (Aspergillus niger) having commercial importance and utilization as a functional soluble dietary fiber for food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The spectral analysis of motion: An "open field" activity test example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have described the new mathematical approach, with spectral analysis of the data to evaluate position and motion in the „„open field““ experiments. The aim of this work is to introduce several new parameters mathematically derived from experimental data by means of spectral analysis, and to quantitatively estimate the quality of the motion. Two original software packages (TRACKER and POSTPROC were used for transforming a video data to a log file, suitable for further computational analysis, and to perform analysis from the log file. As an example, results obtained from the experiments with Wistar rats in the „open field“ test are included. The test group of animals was treated with diazepam. Our results demonstrate that all the calculated parameters, such as movement variability, acceleration and deceleration, were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group. We believe that the application of parameters obtained by spectral analysis could be of great significance in assessing the locomotion impairment in any kind of motion. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41007 i br. ON174028

  9. Enhanced spectral emissivity of CeO2 coating with cauliflower-like microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianping; Li Yibin; He Xiaodong; Song Guangping; Fan Chenglei; Sun Yue; Fei Weidong; Du Shanyi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cauliflower-like microstructured CeO 2 coating is prepared on Ni based substrate. ► The infrared emissive property at high temperature is investigated. ► Rough CeO 2 coating shows high emissivity, that is, 0.9 at 873 K and 0.87 at 1073 K. ► The emissivity enhancement mechanisms for the rough CeO 2 coating are discussed. - Abstract: Cerium dioxide is a transparent oxide with high refractive index (from 1.6 to 2.5 at 633 nm) in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. However, little attention has been paid to its optical property in mid-IR (2.5–25 μm). Here we report that the cauliflower-like microstructured CeO 2 coating deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition technique shows high emissivity up to 0.9 at 873 K in the mid-IR spectral region. The high emissivity is attributed to the coupling between free propagating waves and space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure. This high emissivity coating shows a potential application in high temperature components.

  10. Parametric image reconstruction using spectral analysis of PET projection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, Steven R.; Matthews, Julian C.; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Bailey, Dale L.; Livieratos, Lefteris; Jones, Terry; Price, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Spectral analysis is a general modelling approach that enables calculation of parametric images from reconstructed tracer kinetic data independent of an assumed compartmental structure. We investigated the validity of applying spectral analysis directly to projection data motivated by the advantages that: (i) the number of reconstructions is reduced by an order of magnitude and (ii) iterative reconstruction becomes practical which may improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A dynamic software phantom with typical 2-[ 11 C]thymidine kinetics was used to compare projection-based and image-based methods and to assess bias-variance trade-offs using iterative expectation maximization (EM) reconstruction. We found that the two approaches are not exactly equivalent due to properties of the non-negative least-squares algorithm. However, the differences are small ( 1 and, to a lesser extent, VD). The optimal number of EM iterations was 15-30 with up to a two-fold improvement in SNR over filtered back projection. We conclude that projection-based spectral analysis with EM reconstruction yields accurate parametric images with high SNR and has potential application to a wide range of positron emission tomography ligands. (author)

  11. Joint Spectral Analysis for Early Bright X-ray Flares of γ-Ray Bursts ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A joint spectral analysis for early bright X-ray flares that were simultaneously observed with Swift BAT and XRT are present. Both BAT and XRT lightcurves of these flares are correlated. Our joint spectral anal- ysis shows that the radiations in the two energy bands are from the same spectral component, which can ...

  12. Intra-operative on-line discrimination of kidney cancer from normal tissue by IR ATR spectroscopy of extracellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urboniene, V.; Velicka, M.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Jankevicius, F.; Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.

    2016-03-01

    Determination of cancerous and normal kidney tissues during partial, simple or radical nephrectomy surgery was performed by using differences in the IR absorption spectra of extracellular fluid taken from the corresponding tissue areas. The samples were prepared by stamping of the kidney tissue on ATR diamond crystal. The spectral measurements were performed directly in the OR during surgery for 58 patients. It was found that intensities of characteristic spectral bands of glycogen (880-1200 cm-1) in extracellular fluid are sensitive to the type of the tissue and can be used as spectral markers of tumours. Characteristic spectral band of lactic acid (1730 cm-1) - product of the anaerobic glycolysis, taking place in the cancer cells is not suitable for use as a spectral marker of cancerous tissue, since it overlaps with the band of carbonyl stretch in phospholipids and fatty acids. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis of the spectra show that the spectra of healthy and tumour tissue films can be reliably separated into two groups. On the other hand, possibility to differentiate between tumours of different types and grades remains in question. While the fluid from highly malignant G3 tumour tissue contains highly pronounced glycogen spectral bands and can be well separated from benign and G1 tumours by principal component analysis, the variations between spectra from sample to sample prevent from obtaining conclusive results about the grouping between different tumour types and grades. The proposed method is instant and can be used in situ and even in vivo.

  13. Spectral theory and nonlinear analysis with applications to spatial ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Cano-Casanova, S; Mora-Corral , C

    2005-01-01

    This volume details some of the latest advances in spectral theory and nonlinear analysis through various cutting-edge theories on algebraic multiplicities, global bifurcation theory, non-linear Schrödinger equations, non-linear boundary value problems, large solutions, metasolutions, dynamical systems, and applications to spatial ecology. The main scope of the book is bringing together a series of topics that have evolved separately during the last decades around the common denominator of spectral theory and nonlinear analysis - from the most abstract developments up to the most concrete applications to population dynamics and socio-biology - in an effort to fill the existing gaps between these fields.

  14. Euler deconvolution and spectral analysis of regional aeromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe craton has been analysed using 3D Euler deconvolution and spectral analysis to obtain quantitative information on the geological units and structures for depth constraints on the geotectonic interpretation of the region. The Euler solution maps confirm ...

  15. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  16. Development of spectral analysis math models and software program and spectral analyzer, digital converter interface equipment design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, W. L.; Robinson, L. H.

    1972-01-01

    Spectral analyses of angle-modulated communication systems is studied by: (1) performing a literature survey of candidate power spectrum computational techniques, determining the computational requirements, and formulating a mathematical model satisfying these requirements; (2) implementing the model on UNIVAC 1230 digital computer as the Spectral Analysis Program (SAP); and (3) developing the hardware specifications for a data acquisition system which will acquire an input modulating signal for SAP. The SAP computational technique uses extended fast Fourier transform and represents a generalized approach for simple and complex modulating signals.

  17. Investigating cardiorespiratory interaction by cross-spectral analysis of event series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Carsten; Rosenblum, Michael G.; Pikovsky, Arkady S.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2000-02-01

    The human cardiovascular and respiratory systems interact with each other and show effects of modulation and synchronization. Here we present a cross-spectral technique that specifically considers the event-like character of the heartbeat and avoids typical restrictions of other spectral methods. Using models as well as experimental data, we demonstrate how modulation and synchronization can be distinguished. Finally, we compare the method to traditional techniques and to the analysis of instantaneous phases.

  18. OH/IR stars in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, B.

    1978-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations leading to the discovery of 71 OH/IR sources are described in this thesis. These OH/IR sources are characterized by their double peaked OH emission profile at a wavelength of 18 cm and by their strong IR infrared emission. An analysis of the distribution and radial velocities of a number of previously known and new OH/IR sources was performed. The parameter ΔV (the velocity separation between two emission peaks of the 18 cm line profile) was found to be a good criterion for a population classification with respect to stellar age

  19. Wide-field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry: Bringing High Resolution to the Far- Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitx, David

    Wide-field spatio-spectral interferometry combines spatial and spectral interferometric data to provide integral field spectroscopic information over a wide field of view. This technology breaks through a mission cost barrier that stands in the way of resolving spatially and measuring spectroscopically at far-infrared wavelengths objects that will lead to a deep understanding of planetary system and galaxy formation processes. A space-based far-IR interferometer will combine Spitzer s superb sensitivity with a two order of magnitude gain in angular resolution, and with spectral resolution in the thousands. With the possible exception of detector technology, which is advancing with support from other research programs, the greatest challenge for far-IR interferometry is to demonstrate that the interferometer will actually produce the images and spectra needed to satisfy mission science requirements. With past APRA support, our team has already developed the highly specialized hardware testbed, image projector, computational model, and image construction software required for the proposed effort, and we have access to an ideal test facility.

  20. An Improved Spectral Analysis Method for Fatigue Damage Assessment of Details in Liquid Cargo Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng-yuan; Huang, Xiao-ping

    2018-03-01

    Errors will be caused in calculating the fatigue damages of details in liquid cargo tanks by using the traditional spectral analysis method which is based on linear system, for the nonlinear relationship between the dynamic stress and the ship acceleration. An improved spectral analysis method for the assessment of the fatigue damage in detail of a liquid cargo tank is proposed in this paper. Based on assumptions that the wave process can be simulated by summing the sinusoidal waves in different frequencies and the stress process can be simulated by summing the stress processes induced by these sinusoidal waves, the stress power spectral density (PSD) is calculated by expanding the stress processes induced by the sinusoidal waves into Fourier series and adding the amplitudes of each harmonic component with the same frequency. This analysis method can take the nonlinear relationship into consideration and the fatigue damage is then calculated based on the PSD of stress. Take an independent tank in an LNG carrier for example, the accuracy of the improved spectral analysis method is proved much better than that of the traditional spectral analysis method by comparing the calculated damage results with the results calculated by the time domain method. The proposed spectral analysis method is more accurate in calculating the fatigue damages in detail of ship liquid cargo tanks.

  1. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) Imaging of Cerebral Ischemia: Combined Analysis of Rat Brain Thin Cuts Toward Improved Tissue Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekova, Anna; Lohninger, Hans; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Bonta, Maximilian; Limbeck, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Al-Saad, Khalid A; Ali, Mohamed; Celikic, Minja; Ofner, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Microspectroscopic techniques are widely used to complement histological studies. Due to recent developments in the field of chemical imaging, combined chemical analysis has become attractive. This technique facilitates a deepened analysis compared to single techniques or side-by-side analysis. In this study, rat brains harvested one week after induction of photothrombotic stroke were investigated. Adjacent thin cuts from rats' brains were imaged using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS data were normalized using an internal standard (a thin gold layer). The acquired hyperspectral data cubes were fused and subjected to multivariate analysis. Brain regions affected by stroke as well as unaffected gray and white matter were identified and classified using a model based on either partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or random decision forest (RDF) algorithms. The RDF algorithm demonstrated the best results for classification. Improved classification was observed in the case of fused data in comparison to individual data sets (either FT-IR or LA-ICP-MS). Variable importance analysis demonstrated that both molecular and elemental content contribute to the improved RDF classification. Univariate spectral analysis identified biochemical properties of the assigned tissue types. Classification of multisensor hyperspectral data sets using an RDF algorithm allows access to a novel and in-depth understanding of biochemical processes and solid chemical allocation of different brain regions.

  2. Gaz Phase IR and UV Spectroscopy of Neutral Contact Ion Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habka, Sana; Brenner, Valerie; Mons, Michel; Gloaguen, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Cations and anions, in solution, tend to pair up forming ion pairs. They play a crucial role in many fundamental processes in ion-concentrated solutions and living organisms. Despite their importance and vast applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, they remain difficult to characterize namely because of the coexistence of several types of pairing in solution. However, an interesting alternative consists in applying highly selective gas phase spectroscopy which can offer new insights on these neutral ion pairs. Our study consists in characterizing contact ion pairs (CIPs) in isolated model systems (M+, Ph-(CH2)n-COO- with M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and n=1-3), to determine their spectral signatures and compare them to ion pairs in solution. We have used laser desorption to vaporize a solid tablet containing the desired salt. Structural information for each system was obtained by mass-selective, UV and IR laser spectroscopy combined with high level quantum chemistry calculations1. Evidence of the presence of neutral CIPs was found by scanning the π-π* transition of the phenyl ring using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). Then, conformational selective IR/UV double resonance spectra were recorded in the CO2- stretch region for each conformation detected. The good agreement between theoretical data obtained at the BSSE-corrected-fullCCSD(T)/dhf-TZVPP//B97-D3/dhf-TZVPP level and experimental IR spectra led us to assign the 3D structure for each ion pair formed. Spectral signatures of (M+, Ph-CH2-COO-) pairs, were assigned to a bidentate CIPs between the alkali cation and the carboxylate group. In the case of (Li+, Ph-(CH2)3-COO-) pairs, the presence of a flexible side chain promotes a cation-π interaction leading to a tridentate O-O-π structure with its unique IR and UV signatures. IR spectra obtained on isolated CIPs were found very much alike the ones published on lithium and sodium acetate in solution2. However, in the case of sodium acetate, solution

  3. Photometric and Spectral Study of the Saturnian Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah F.

    2005-01-01

    Photometric and spectra analysis of data from the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) has yielded intriguing findings regarding the surface properties of several of the icy Saturnian satellites. Spectral cubes were obtained of these satellites with a wavelength distribution in the IR far more extensive than from any previous observations. Disk-integrated solar phase curves were constructed in several key IR wavelengths that are indicative of key properties of the surface of the body, such as macroscopic roughness, fluffiness (or the porosity of the surface), global albedo and scattering properties of surface particles. Polynomial fits to these phase curves indicate a linear albedo trend of the curvature of the phase functions. Rotational phase functions from Enceladus were found to exhibit a double-peaked sinusoidal curve, which shows larger amplitudes for bands corresponding to water ice and a linear amplitude-albedo trend. These functions indicate regions on the surface of the satellite of more recent geologic activity. In addition, recent images of Enceladus show tectonic features and an absence of impact craters on Southern latitudes which could be indicative of a younger surface. Investigations into the properties of these features using VIMS are underway.

  4. Estimation of spectral reflectance of snow from IRS-1D LISS-III ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Marine and Water Resources Group, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad, 380 015, India. The sensor ... snowpack characteristics as a result of various metamorphic processes, with age, can cause varia- tions in its ... estimate the direct radiation income of slopes in ... model are: mean solar exo-atmospheric spectral.

  5. New Ir Bis-Carbonyl Precursor for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daria L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Beltrán-Suito, Rodrigo [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Thomsen, Julianne M. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Hashmi, Sara M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental; Materna, Kelly L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Sheehan, Stafford W. [Catalytic Innovations LLC, 70 Crandall; Mercado, Brandon Q. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Crabtree, Robert H. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225

    2016-02-05

    This paper introduces IrI(CO)2(pyalc) (pyalc = (2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate) as an atom-efficient precursor for Ir-based homogeneous oxidation catalysis. This compound was chosen to simplify analysis of the water oxidation catalyst species formed by the previously reported Cp*IrIII(pyalc)OH water oxidation precatalyst. Here, we present a comparative study on the chemical and catalytic properties of these two precursors. Previous studies show that oxidative activation of Cp*Ir-based precursors with NaIO4 results in formation of a blue IrIV species. This activation is concomitant with the loss of the placeholder Cp* ligand which oxidatively degrades to form acetic acid, iodate, and other obligatory byproducts. The activation process requires substantial amounts of primary oxidant, and the degradation products complicate analysis of the resulting IrIV species. The species formed from oxidation of the Ir(CO)2(pyalc) precursor, on the other hand, lacks these degradation products (the CO ligands are easily lost upon oxidation) which allows for more detailed examination of the resulting Ir(pyalc) active species both catalytically and spectroscopically, although complete structural analysis is still elusive. Once Ir(CO)2(pyalc) is activated, the system requires acetic acid or acetate to prevent the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of the activated bis-carbonyl complex also suggests several Ir(pyalc) isomers may exist in solution. By 1H NMR, activated Ir(CO)2(pyalc) has fewer isomers than activated Cp*Ir complexes, allowing for advanced characterization. Future research in this direction is expected to contribute to a better structural understanding of the active species. A diol crystallization agent was needed for the structure determination of 3.

  6. Spectral Analysis Methods of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks (such as Facebook, Twitter, VKontakte, etc. being an important channel for disseminating information are often used to arrange an impact on the social consciousness for various purposes - from advertising products or services to the full-scale information war thereby making them to be a very relevant object of research. The paper reviewed the analysis methods of social networks (primarily, online, based on the spectral theory of graphs. Such methods use the spectrum of the social graph, i.e. a set of eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix, and also the eigenvectors of the adjacency matrix.Described measures of centrality (in particular, centrality based on the eigenvector and PageRank, which reflect a degree of impact one or another user of the social network has. A very popular PageRank measure uses, as a measure of centrality, the graph vertices, the final probabilities of the Markov chain, whose matrix of transition probabilities is calculated on the basis of the adjacency matrix of the social graph. The vector of final probabilities is an eigenvector of the matrix of transition probabilities.Presented a method of dividing the graph vertices into two groups. It is based on maximizing the network modularity by computing the eigenvector of the modularity matrix.Considered a method for detecting bots based on the non-randomness measure of a graph to be computed using the spectral coordinates of vertices - sets of eigenvector components of the adjacency matrix of a social graph.In general, there are a number of algorithms to analyse social networks based on the spectral theory of graphs. These algorithms show very good results, but their disadvantage is the relatively high (albeit polynomial computational complexity for large graphs.At the same time it is obvious that the practical application capacity of the spectral graph theory methods is still underestimated, and it may be used as a basis to develop new methods.The work

  7. Leak detection in pipelines through spectral analysis of pressure signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and test of a technique for leak detection in pipelines is presented. The technique is based on the spectral analysis of pressure signals measured in pipeline sections where the formation of stationary waves is favoured, allowing leakage detection during the start/stop of pumps. Experimental tests were performed in a 1250 m long pipeline for various operational conditions of the pipeline (liquid flow rate and leakage configuration. Pressure transients were obtained by four transducers connected to a PC computer. The obtained results show that the spectral analysis of pressure transients, together with the knowledge of reflection points provide a simple and efficient way of identifying leaks during the start/stop of pumps in pipelines.

  8. Lanthanide ions as absorption spectral probes in biochemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    The interactions of adenine, adenosine, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, 5'-diphosphate and 5'-triphosphate with Pr(III) and Nd(III) in different stoichiometries and at varying pH levels have been investigated by electronic spectral studies. The intra 4f-4f transitions yield sharp bands which were analysed individually by Gaussian curve analysis. The energy interaction (Fsup(k),Esup(k)) spin orbit interaction (ζ4f), bonding(b), nephelauxetic (β,δ) and intensity parameters (Tsub(τ.P)) have been computed on HP-1000/45 computer using regression analyses refined by least square fit. The nature of bonding, coordination environment, outer and inner sphere coordination have been interpreted in terms of the magnitude of these parameters as compared to the lanthanide free ion. In order to supplicate the solution studies the crystalline compounds of AMP, ADP and ATP with Pr(III) and Nd(III) have been isolated and characterized by IR, 1 H and 31 P NMR studies. The infrared spectral data indicated weak interaction with the imidazole nitrogen of adenine moiety and bidentate attachment of oxygen. (author). 10 refs

  9. Estimation and analysis of spectral solar radiation over Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Wahab, M.M.; Omran, M.

    1994-05-01

    This work presents a methodology to estimate spectral diffuse and global radiation on horizontal surface. This method is validated by comparing with measured direct and global spectral radiation in four bands. The results show a good performance in cloudless conditions. The analysis of the ratio of surface values to extraterrestrial ones revealed an over-all depletion in the summer months. Also there was no evidence for any tendency for conversion of radiational components through different bands. The model presents excellent agreement with the measured values for (UV/G) ratio. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  10. FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil and quantum models of fatty acids triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, K. V.; Antonova, E. M.; Shagautdinova, I. T.; Chernavina, M. L.; Dvoretskiy, K. N.; Grechukhina, O. N.; Vasilyeva, L. M.; Rybakov, A. V.; Likhter, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    FT-IR spectra of grape seed oil and glycerol were registered in the 650-4000 cm-1 range. Molecular models of glycerol and some fatty acids that compose the oil under study - linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids - as well as their triglycerides were developed within B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional model. A vibrating FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil was modeled on the basis of calculated values of vibrating wave numbers and IR intensities of the fatty acids triglycerides and with regard to their percentage. Triglyceride spectral bands that were formed by glycerol linkage vibrations were revealed. It was identified that triglycerol linkage has a small impact on the structure of fatty acids and, consequently, on vibrating wave numbers. The conducted molecular modeling became a basis for theoretical interpretation on 10 experimentally observed absorption bands in FT-IR spectrum of grape seed oil.

  11. Test and evaluation of IR detectors and arrays II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Forney M.

    The present conference discusses a radiometric calibration system for IR cameras, a methodology for testing IR focal-plane arrays in simulated nuclear radiation environments, process optimization for Si:As In-bumped focal-plane arrays, precise MTF measurements for focal-plane arrays, and IR focal-plane array crosstalk measurement. Also discussed are an imaging metric for IR focal-plane arrays, optical stimuli for high-volume automated testing of 2D HgCdTe focal-plane arrays, the evaluation of a solid-state photomultiplier focal-plane array for SDI, spectral effects on bulk photoconductors operated at cryogenic temperatures, and a novel technique for measuring the ionizing radiation effects in MOS transistors.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structures, spectral, thermal and antimicrobial properties of new Zn(II) 5-iodo- and 5-bromosalicylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košická, Petra; Győryová, Katarína; Smolko, Lukáš; Gyepes, Róbert; Hudecová, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    Two new analogous zinc(II) complexes containing 5-iodo- and 5-bromosalicylate ligands, respectively, were prepared in single-crystal form and characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and elemental analysis. The solid-state structures of prepared complexes were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Both complexes are isostructural and their crystal structures composed of neutral molecules [Zn(5-Xsal)2(H2O)2] (where X = Br, I, sal = salicylato). Central Zn(II) atom is in both complexes coordinated by six oxygen atoms, four of which are from two chelate bonded 5-halosalicylates and remaining two from coordinated water molecules. The found chelate binding mode is in line with the Δ values calculated from IR spectral data. Antimicrobial activity of prepared complexes was studied against selected bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi. Obtained results indicate that 5-iodosalicylate complex is more antimicrobially active than its 5-bromo substituted analogue.

  13. Spectral analysis of bedform dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Christian; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Noormets, Riko

    Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods for the an....... The proposed method overcomes the above mentioned problems of common descriptive analysis as it is an objective and straightforward mathematical process. The spectral decomposition of superimposed dunes allows a detailed description and analysis of dune patterns and migration.......Successive multibeam echo sounder surveys in tidal channels off Esbjerg (Denmark) on the North Sea coast reveal the dynamics of subaquatic compound dunes. Mainly driven by tidal currents, dune structures show complex migration patterns in all temporal and spatial scales. Common methods...... allows the application of a procedure, which has been a standard for the analysis of water waves for long times: The bathymetric signal of a cross-section of subaquatic compound dunes is approximated by the sum of a set of harmonic functions, derived by Fourier transformation. If the wavelength...

  14. IL 6: 2D-IR spectroscopy: chemistry and biophysics in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredenbeck, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed multidimensional experiments, daily business in the field of NMR spectroscopy, have been demonstrated only relatively recently in IR spectroscopy. Similar as nuclear spins in multidimensional NMR, molecular vibrations are employed in multidimensional IR experiments as probes of molecular structure and dynamics, albeit with femtosecond time resolution. Different types of multidimensional IR experiments have been implemented, resembling basic NMR experiments such as NOESY, COSY and EXSY. In contrast to one-dimensional linear spectroscopy, such multidimensional experiments reveal couplings and correlations of vibrations, which are closely linked to molecular structure and its change in time. The use of mixed IR/VIS pulse sequences further extends the potential of multidimensional IR spectroscopy, enabling studies of ultrafast non-equilibrium processes as well as surface specific, highly sensitive experiments. A UV/VIS pulse preceding the IR pulse sequence can be used to prepare the system under study in a non-equilibrium state. 2D-IR snapshots of the evolving non-equilibrium system are then taken, for example during a photochemical reaction or during the photo-cycle of a light sensitive protein. Preparing the system in a non-equilibrium state by UV/Vis excitation during the IR pulse sequence allows for correlating states of reactant and product of the light triggered process via their 2D-IR cross peaks - a technique that has been used to map the connectivity between different binding sites of a ligand as it migrates through a protein. Introduction of a non-resonant VIS pulse at the end of the IR part of the experiment allows to selectively up-convert the infrared signal of interfacial molecules to the visible spectral range by sum frequency generation. In this way, femtosecond interfacial 2D-IR spectroscopy can be implemented, achieving sub-monolayer sensitivity. (author)

  15. Ion beam synthesis of IrSi3 by implantation of 2 MeV Ir ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.; Chisholm, M.F.; Hinneberg, H.J.

    1992-11-01

    Formation of a buried IrSi 3 layer in (111) oriented Si by ion implantation and annealing has been studied at an implantation energy of 2 MeV for substrate temperatures of 450--550C. Rutherford backscattering (RBS), ion channeling and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that a buried epitaxial IrSi 3 layer is produced at 550C by implanting ≥ 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 and subsequently annealing for 1 h at 1000C plus 5 h at 1100C. At a dose of 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 , the thickness of the layer varied between 120 and 190 nm and many large IrSi 3 precipitates were present above and below the film. Increasing the dose to 4.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 improved the layer uniformity at the expense of increased lattice damage in the overlying Si. RBS analysis of layer formation as a function of substrate temperature revealed the competition between the mechanisms for optimizing surface crystallinity vs. IrSi 3 layer formation. Little apparent substrate temperature dependence was evident in the as-implanted state but after annealing the crystallinity of the top Si layer was observed to deteriorate with increasing substrate temperature while the precipitate coarsening and coalescence improved

  16. Technical Training on High-Order Spectral Analysis and Thermal Anemometry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslov, A. A.; Shiplyuk, A. N.; Sidirenko, A. A.; Bountin, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    The topics of thermal anemometry and high-order spectral analyses were the subject of the technical training. Specifically, the objective of the technical training was to study: (i) the recently introduced constant voltage anemometer (CVA) for high-speed boundary layer; and (ii) newly developed high-order spectral analysis techniques (HOSA). Both CVA and HOSA are relevant tools for studies of boundary layer transition and stability.

  17. Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai

    OpenAIRE

    Mockevičius, Arminas

    2014-01-01

    Viešosios teisės magistro studijų programos studento Armino Mockevičiaus buvo parašytas magistro baigiamasis darbas „Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai“. Šis darbas parašytas Vilniuje, 2014 metais, Mykolo Romerio universiteto Teisės fakulteto Konstitucinės ir administracinės teisės institute, vadovaujant dr. Gintautui Vilkeliui, apimtis 98 p. Darbo tikslas yra atskleisti alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklau...

  18. Mapping invasive species and spectral mixture relationships with neotropical woody formations in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cibele H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Almeida, Teodoro I. R.; Souza Filho, Carlos R.

    2015-10-01

    Biological invasion substantially contributes to the increasing extinction rates of native vegetative species. The remote detection and mapping of invasive species is critical for environmental monitoring. This study aims to assess the performance of a Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) applied to imaging spectroscopy data for mapping Dendrocalamus sp. (bamboo) and Pinus elliottii L. (slash pine), which are invasive plant species, in a Brazilian neotropical landscape within the tropical Brazilian savanna biome. The work also investigates the spectral mixture between these exotic species and the native woody formations, including woodland savanna, submontane and alluvial seasonal semideciduous forests (SSF). Visible to Shortwave Infrared (VSWIR) imaging spectroscopy data at one-meter spatial resolution were atmospherically corrected and subset into the different spectral ranges (VIS-NIR1: 530-919 nm; and NIR2-SWIR: 1141-2352 nm). The data were further normalized via continuum removal (CR). Multiple endmember selection methods, including Interactive Endmember Selection (IES), Endmember average root mean square error (EAR), Minimum average spectral angle (MASA) and Count-based (CoB) (collectively called EMC), were employed to create endmember libraries for the targeted vegetation classes. The performance of the MESMA was assessed at the pixel and crown scales. Statistically significant differences (α = 0.05) were observed between overall accuracies that were obtained at various spectral ranges. The infrared region (IR) was critical for detecting the vegetation classes using spectral data. The invasive species endmembers exhibited spectral patterns in the IR that were not observed in the native formations. Bamboo was characterized as having a high green vegetation (GV) fraction, lower non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and a low shade fraction, while pine exhibited higher NPV and shade fractions. The invasive species showed a statistically

  19. Tree species mapping in tropical forests using multi-temporal imaging spectroscopy: Wavelength adaptive spectral mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, B.; Asner, G. P.

    2014-09-01

    The use of imaging spectroscopy for florisic mapping of forests is complicated by the spectral similarity among co-existing species. Here we evaluated an alternative spectral unmixing strategy combining a time series of EO-1 Hyperion images and an automated feature selection in Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA). The temporal analysis provided a way to incorporate species phenology while feature selection indicated the best phenological time and best spectral feature set to optimize the separability between tree species. Instead of using the same set of spectral bands throughout the image which is the standard approach in MESMA, our modified Wavelength Adaptive Spectral Mixture Analysis (WASMA) approach allowed the spectral subsets to vary on a per pixel basis. As such we were able to optimize the spectral separability between the tree species present in each pixel. The potential of the new approach for floristic mapping of tree species in Hawaiian rainforests was quantitatively assessed using both simulated and actual hyperspectral image time-series. With a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.65, WASMA provided a more accurate tree species map compared to conventional MESMA (Kappa = 0.54; p-value < 0.05. The flexible or adaptive use of band sets in WASMA provides an interesting avenue to address spectral similarities in complex vegetation canopies.

  20. Optical properties of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 composites in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-yue; Li, Xiao-xia; Guo, Yu-xiang; Zeng, Yu-run

    2018-01-01

    The complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 composites prepared by hydrothermal method was calculated using infrared Micro-reflective spectra and K-K relation, and the calculation errors were analyzed according to its IR transmission and spectral reflectivity calculated by Fresnel formula. And then normal emissivity of the composite in IR atmospheric window was calculated by means of Fresnel formula and modified refraction angle formula. The calculation accuracy was verified by comparing measured normal total emissivity with the calculated one. The results show that complex refractive index and normal emissivity calculated by the formulas have a high accuracy. It has been found that the composite has a good absorption and radiation characteristics in IR atmospheric window and a strong scattering ability in middle IR region by analyzing its extinction, absorption and radiation properties in IR region. Therefore, it may be used as IR absorption, extinction and radiation materials in some special fields.

  1. Comparison of modal spectral and non-linear time history analysis of a piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, R.; Aelbrecht, D.; Lafaille, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    A typical piping system of the discharge line of the chemical and volumetric control system, outside the containment, between the penetration and the heat exchanger, an operating power plant was analyzed using four different methods: Modal spectral analysis with 2% constant damping, modal spectral analysis using ASME Code Case N411 (PVRC damping), linear time history analysis, non-linear time history analysis. This paper presents an estimation of the conservatism of the linear methods compared to the non-linear analysis. (orig./HP)

  2. Spectral and thermal investigation of tetrabenzoylacetonatobenzoylacetonediuranyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Klavsut', G.N.; Umrejko, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium(6) compound with benzoylacetone (NBA) of [(UO 2 ) 2 (NBA)(BA) 4 ] composition was prepared by the method of electrochemical synthesis in oxidizing medium. Spectral and thermal investigation (data of IR, Raman spectra, TG, DTA) was conducted to show that four NBA molecules entered the compound as acidoligands and one NBA molecule (being a bridge) - as neutral ligand in keto-form. Mechanism of thermal decomposition was suggested and kinetic parameters of thermolysis of examined substance were calculated

  3. An introduction to random vibrations, spectral & wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newland, D E

    2005-01-01

    One of the first engineering books to cover wavelet analysis, this classic text describes and illustrates basic theory, with a detailed explanation of the workings of discrete wavelet transforms. Computer algorithms are explained and supported by examples and a set of problems, and an appendix lists ten computer programs for calculating and displaying wavelet transforms.Starting with an introduction to probability distributions and averages, the text examines joint probability distributions, ensemble averages, and correlation; Fourier analysis; spectral density and excitation response relation

  4. Accurate and independent spectral response scale based on silicon trap detectors and spectrally invariant detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Jarle

    2005-01-01

    The study aims to establish an independent high accuracy spectral response scale over a broad spectral range based on standard laboratory equipment at a moderate cost. This had to be done by a primary method, where the responsivity of the detector is linked to fundamental constants. Summary, conclusion and future directions: In this thesis it has been demonstrated that an independent spectral response scale from the visual to the IR based on simple relative measurements can be established. The accuracy obtained by the hybrid self-calibration method demonstrates that state of the art accuracy is obtained with self-calibration principles. A calculable silicon trap detector with low internal losses over a wide spectral range is needed to establish the scale, in addition to a linear, spectrally independent detector with a good signal to noise ratio. By fitting the parameters in the responsivity model to a purely relative measurement we express the spectral response in terms of fundamental constants with a known uncertainty This is therefore a primary method. By applying a digital filter on the relative measurements of the InGaAs detectors in the infrared reduces the standard deviation by 30 %. In addition, by optimising the necessary scaling constant converting the relative calibration to absolute values, we have managed to establish an accurate and cost efficient spectral response scale in the IR. The full covariance analysis, which takes into account the correlation in the absolute values of the silicon detector, the correlation caused by the filter and the scaling constant, shows that the spectral response scale established in the infrared with InGaAs detectors is done with high accuracy. A similar procedure can be used in the UV, though it has not been demonstrated here. In fig. 10 the responsitivities of the detectors (a) and their associated uncertainties (b) at the 1 sigma level of confidence is compared for the three publications. We see that the responsivity

  5. ANALYSIS OF SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS AMONG DIFFERENT SENSORS BY USE OF SIMULATED RS IMAGES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This research, by use of RS image-simulating method, simulated apparent reflectance images at sensor level and ground-reflectance images of SPOT-HRV,CBERS-CCD,Landsat-TM and NOAA14-AVHRR' s corresponding bands. These images were used to analyze sensor's differences caused by spectral sensitivity and atmospheric impacts. The differences were analyzed on Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI). The results showed that the differences of sensors' spectral characteristics cause changes of their NDVI and reflectance. When multiple sensors' data are applied to digital analysis, the error should be taken into account. Atmospheric effect makes NDVI smaller, and atn~pheric correction has the tendency of increasing NDVI values. The reflectance and their NDVIs of different sensors can be used to analyze the differences among sensor' s features. The spectral analysis method based on RS simulated images can provide a new way to design the spectral characteristics of new sensors.

  6. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  7. Multivariate statistical analysis for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectral imaging: Effect of image acquisition time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, D.E.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Kotula, P.G.; Hutton, S.; Blomfield, C.

    2004-01-01

    The acquisition of spectral images for x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a relatively new approach, although it has been used with other analytical spectroscopy tools for some time. This technique provides full spectral information at every pixel of an image, in order to provide a complete chemical mapping of the imaged surface area. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques applied to the spectral image data allow the determination of chemical component species, and their distribution and concentrations, with minimal data acquisition and processing times. Some of these statistical techniques have proven to be very robust and efficient methods for deriving physically realistic chemical components without input by the user other than the spectral matrix itself. The benefits of multivariate analysis of the spectral image data include significantly improved signal to noise, improved image contrast and intensity uniformity, and improved spatial resolution - which are achieved due to the effective statistical aggregation of the large number of often noisy data points in the image. This work demonstrates the improvements in chemical component determination and contrast, signal-to-noise level, and spatial resolution that can be obtained by the application of multivariate statistical analysis to XPS spectral images

  8. Optimization of silicon waveguides for gas detection application at mid-IR wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, M. A.; Kozlova, E. S.

    2018-04-01

    There are several trace gases such as N2O, CO, CO2, NO, H2O, NO2, NH3, CH4 etc. which have their absorption peaks in Mid-IR spectrum These gases strongly absorb in the mid-IR > 2.5 μm spectral region due to their fundamental rotational and vibrational transitions. In this work, we modelled and optimized three different kinds of waveguides such as rib, strip and slot based on silicon platform to obtain maximum evanescent field ratio. These waveguides are designed at 3.39 μm and 4.67 μm which correspond to the absorption line of methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO) respectively.

  9. An experiment with spectral analysis of emotional speech affected by orthodontic appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Ďuračková, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The contribution describes the effect of the fixed and removable orthodontic appliances on spectral properties of emotional speech. Spectral changes were analyzed and evaluated by spectrograms and mean Welch’s periodograms. This alternative approach to the standard listening test enables to obtain objective comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. Obtained results of analysis performed on short sentences of a female speaker in four emotional states (joyous, sad, angry, and neutral) show that, first of all, the removable orthodontic appliance affects the spectrograms of produced speech.

  10. VIBRATIONS DETECTION IN INDUSTRIAL PUMPS BASED ON SPECTRAL ANALYSIS TO INCREASE THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhadef RACHID

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral analysis is the key tool for the study of vibration signals in rotating machinery. In this work, the vibration analy-sis applied for conditional preventive maintenance of such machines is proposed, as part of resolved problems related to vibration detection on the organs of these machines. The vibration signal of a centrifugal pump was treated to mount the benefits of the approach proposed. The obtained results present the signal estimation of a pump vibration using Fourier transform technique compared by the spectral analysis methods based on Prony approach.

  11. FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible spectral investigations and ab initio computations of anti-epileptic drug: Vigabatrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Bismi; Joe, I. Hubert

    2013-10-01

    Vibrational analysis of anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin, a structural GABA analog was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers were studied using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bond orbital analysis and optimized molecular structure show clear evidence for the effect of electron charge transfer on the activity of the molecule. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Good consistency is found between the calculated results and experimental data for the electronic absorption as well as IR and Raman spectra. The blue-shifting of the Csbnd C stretching wavenumber reveals that the vinyl group is actively involved in the conjugation path. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions resulting in ICT causing stabilization of the system.

  12. [Spectral characteristics of decomposition of incorporated straw in compound polluted arid loess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Ying-Chao; Xu, Ji-Ting; Wang, Jia-Hong

    2014-04-01

    The original loess from western China was used as soil sample, the spectral methods of scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) were used to investigate the characteristics of decomposed straw and formed humic acids in compound polluted arid loess. The SEM micrographs show the variation from dense to decomposed surface, and finally to damaged structure, and the EDS data reveal the phenomenon of element transfer. The newly-formed humic acids are of low aromaticity, helpful for increasing the activity of organic matters in loess. The FTIR spectra in the whole process are similar, indicating the complexity of transformation dynamics of humic acids. The molecular structure of humic acids becomes simpler, shown from 13C NMR spectra. The spectral methods are useful for humic acids identification in loess region in straw incorporation process.

  13. Solitonic supercontinuum of femtosecond mid-IR pulses in W-type index tellurite fibers with two zero dispersion wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedenburg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed experimental parameter study on mid-IR supercontinuum generation in W-type index tellurite fibers, which reveals how the core diameter, pump wavelength, fiber length, and pump power dramatically influence the spectral broadening. As pump source, we use femtosecond mid-IR pulses from a post-amplified optical parametric oscillator tunable between 1.7 μm and 4.1 μm at 43 MHz repetition rate. We are able to generate red-shifted dispersive waves up to a wavelength of 5.1 μm by pumping a tellurite fiber in the anomalous dispersion regime between its two zero dispersion wavelengths. Distinctive soliton dynamics can be identified as the main broadening mechanism resulting in a maximum spectral width of over 2000 nm with output powers of up to 160 mW. We experimentally demonstrated that efficient spectral broadening with considerably improved power proportion in the important first atmospheric transmission window between 3 and 5 μm can be achieved in robust W-type tellurite fibers pumped at long wavelengths by ultra-fast lasers.

  14. Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Young, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the most important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  15. Temporal and spectral studies of high-order harmonics generated by polarization-modulated infrared fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, I. J.; Zaier, A.; Cormier, E.; Mevel, E.; Constant, E.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Johnsson, P.; Varju, K.; Mauritsson, J.; L'Huillier, A.; Strelkov, V.

    2006-01-01

    The temporal confinement of high harmonic generation (HHG) via modulation of the polarization of the fundamental pulse is studied in both temporal and spectral domains. In the temporal domain, a collinear cross-correlation setup using a 40 fs IR pump for the HHG and a 9 fs IR pulse to probe the generated emission is used to measure the XUV pulse duration. The observed temporal confinement is found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. An increased confinement is observed when a 9 fs pulse is used to generate the harmonics. An important spectral broadening, including a continuum background, is also measured. Theoretical calculations show that with 10 fs driving pulses, either one or two main attosecond pulses are created depending on the value of the carrier envelope phase

  16. Spectral dimension of the universe in quantum gravity at a lifshitz point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horava, Petr

    2009-04-24

    We extend the definition of "spectral dimension" d_{s} (usually defined for fractal and lattice geometries) to theories in spacetimes with anisotropic scaling. We show that in gravity with dynamical critical exponent z in D+1 dimensions, the spectral dimension of spacetime is d_{s}=1+D/z. In the case of gravity in 3+1 dimensions with z=3 in the UV which flows to z=1 in the IR, the spectral dimension changes from d_{s}=4 at large scales to d_{s}=2 at short distances. Remarkably, this is the behavior found numerically by Ambjørn et al. in their causal dynamical triangulations approach to quantum gravity.

  17. Correlative Spectral Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts using Swift-BAT and GLAST-GBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Taka; Band, David L.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary results of spectral analysis simulations involving anticipated correlated multi-wavelength observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope's (GLAST) Burst Monitor (GLAST-GBM), resulting in joint spectral fits, including characteristic photon energy (E peak ) values, for a conservative annual estimate of ∼30 GRBs. The addition of BAT's spectral response will (i) complement in-orbit calibration efforts of GBM's detector response matrices, (ii) augment GLAST's low energy sensitivity by increasing the ∼20-100 keV effective area, (iii) facilitate ground-based follow-up efforts of GLAST GRBs by increasing GBM's source localization precision, and (iv) help identify a subset of non-triggered GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis. Such multi-wavelength correlative analyses, which have been demonstrated by successful joint-spectral fits of Swift-BAT GRBs with other higher energy detectors such as Konus-WIND and Suzaku-WAM, would enable the study of broad-band spectral and temporal evolution of prompt GRB emission over three energy decades, thus potentially increasing science return without placing additional demands upon mission resources throughout their contemporaneous orbital tenure over the next decade.

  18. Correlative Spectral Analysis of Gamma-Ray Bursts using Swift-BAT and GLAST-GBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatikos, Michael; Sakamoto, Takanori; Band, David L.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the preliminary results of spectral analysis simulations involving anticipated correlated multi-wavelength observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope's (GLAST) Burst Monitor (GLAST-GBM), resulting in joint spectral fits, including characteristic photon energy (E peak ) values, for a conservative annual estimate of ∼30 GRBs. The addition of BAT/s spectral response will (i) complement in-orbit calibration efforts of GBM's detector response matrices, (ii) augment GLAST's low energy sensitivity by increasing the ∼20-100 keV effective area, (iii) facilitate ground-based follow-up efforts of GLAST GRBs by increasing GBM's source localization precision, and (iv) help identify a subset of non-triggered GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis. Such multi-wavelength correlative analyses, which have been demonstrated by successful joint-spectral fits of Swift-BAT GRBs with other higher energy detectors such as Konus-WIND and Suzaku-WAM, would enable the study of broad-band spectral and temporal evolution of prompt GRB emission over three energy decades, thus potentially increasing science return without placing additional demands upon mission resources throughout their contemporaneous orbital tenure over the next decade

  19. PENDIDIKAN AKHLAK MUSLIMAT MELALUISYA’IR : ANALISIS GENDER ATAS AJARAN SYI’IR MUSLIMAT KARYA NYAI WANIFAH KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Said

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini difokuskan pada tiga hal: (1 Apakah karakteristik lingkup isi Syi’ir Muslimat?, (2 Bagai-manakah kondisi sosial budaya pada saat naskah ditulis oleh penulis?, (3 Apa nilai-nilai pendidikan moral bagi perempuan Muslim di isi Syi’ir Muslimat dalam perspektif gender?. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan filologi dengan meningkatkan penggunaan analisis gender. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, Syi’ir Muslimat ditulis oleh Nyai Wanifah, seorang wanita yang hidup pada zaman kolonial Belanda dipesantren tradisi di Kudus, Jawa Tengah. Kedua, beberapa nilai pendidikan moral di Syi’ir Muslimatantara lain: (1 Pentingnya pendidikan moral, (2 Bahaya perempuan bodoh; (3 Pentingnya belajar bagi perempuan di usia dini, (4 Etika menghias diri; (5 Bahaya materialisme, (6 Etika hubungan keluarga; (7 Dari rumah untuk mencapai surga; (8 Berhati-hatilah dengan tipu iblis; (9 Hindari perzinahan; (10 yang penting dari penutupan aurot; (11 yang ditujukan kepada orang tua. Ketiga, meskipun ada beberapa senyawa yang bias gender dalam Syi’ir Muslimat misalnya: (a Ada penjelasan yang menunjukkan bahwa perempuan lebih rendah dibandingkan laki-laki dalam derajat, (2 Pernyataan bahwa wanita bicara dibandingkan laki-laki, (3 wanita hanya cocok di wilayah domestik; Namun secara umum nasihat di syi’ir masih sangat relafen dalam konteks sekarang, terutama untuk memberikan solusi alternatif dalam merespon krisis moral bangsa terutama pada wanita generasi muda. Kata kunci: Syi’ir Muslimat, Pendidikan Karakter, Analisis Gender. This study focused on three things: (1 What is the characteristics of the scope of contents of Syi’ir Muslimat?, (2 What is the socio-cultural conditions at the time the manuscript was written by the author?, (3 What are the moral education values for Muslim women in the content of Syi’ir Muslimat in the perspective of gender?. This research uses a philological approach with enhanced use of gender analysis. The

  20. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surleen Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2 plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 [1]. The ibid data is part of author׳s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 [2] that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer. Keywords: IRS-2, TFBS, FSH, SP1, ChIP

  1. FT-IR spectroscopic studies of protein secondary structures for breast cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamancheva, I; Simonova, D.; Milev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Roughly 14 million new cancer cases and 8 million cancer deaths have occurred worldwide in 2012. At least 30 % of all cancer cases and 40 % of the cancer deaths should be avoided by improving the early detection. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has shown many advantages as a tool for the detection of cancer over the traditional methods such as histopathological analysis, X-ray transmission, ultrasonic and computer tomography techniques. With the aim to establish the FT-IR spectroscopy as an alternative method for the diagnosis of human cancers, we have made several studies to examine in details the spectroscopic properties of normal and carcinomatous tissues. Human breast tissues were obtained immediately after surgical breast resection with the informed patient's consent. In our studies we made extensive use of Fourier self-deconvolution, second-order derivatization, difference spectra, curve-fitting procedures and quantitative determinations according to Beer's law. Cancer is a multi-step process. Characteristic differences in both the frequencies and the intensity ratios of several bands have been revealed. Considerable differences have been found in the spectral patterns. The most important and informative region in the mid-IR for determination of protein secondary structure is the amide I and amide II region. The bands between 1730 and 1600 cm -1 are highly sensitive to conformational changes. Considerable changes were observed in the A1735/A1652 absorbance ratio, which provides a measure for the content of a- helix and P-sheet domains. Our investigations have shown that the major biomarker peaks are in the amide I and amide II regions. In the so called 'fingerprint region' many molecular constituents such as lipids, phospholipids, proteins, DNA and RNA, carbohydrates and metabolites may overlap and the quantitative interpretation is impossible. The spectrum may therefore reflect only the average biochemical composition.; key words

  2. Near diffraction limited mid-IR spectromicroscopy using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    morphological and spectral imaging. Recent developments in nonlinear frequency upconversion, have demonstrated the potential to perform both imaging and spectroscopy in the mid-IR range at unparalleled low levels of illumination, the low upconversion detector noise being orders of magnitude below competing...... technologies. With these applications in mind, we have incorporated microscopy optics into an image upconversion system, achieving near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the 3 μm range. Spectroscopic information is further acquired by appropriate control of the phase match condition of the upconversion...

  3. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectral dependence of the main parameters of ITE silicon avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Grynglas, Maria; Wegrzecki, Maciej

    2001-08-01

    New applications for avalanche photodiodes (APDs) as in systems using visible radiation, have prompted the need for the evaluation of detection properties of ITE APDs in the 400 divided by 700 nm spectral range. The paper presents the method and result of studies on the spectral dependence of the gain, dark and noise currents, sensitivity and excess noise factor of ITE APDs. The studies have shown that ITE APDs optimized for the near IR radiation can be effectively applied in the detection of radiation above the 500 nm wavelength.

  5. Enhanced spectral emissivity of CeO{sub 2} coating with cauliflower-like microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Jianping [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150080 Harbin (China); Li Yibin, E-mail: liyibin@hit.edu.cn [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150080 Harbin (China); He Xiaodong; Song Guangping [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150080 Harbin (China); Fan Chenglei [Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Sun Yue [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150080 Harbin (China); Fei Weidong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Du Shanyi [Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150080 Harbin (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cauliflower-like microstructured CeO{sub 2} coating is prepared on Ni based substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The infrared emissive property at high temperature is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rough CeO{sub 2} coating shows high emissivity, that is, 0.9 at 873 K and 0.87 at 1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The emissivity enhancement mechanisms for the rough CeO{sub 2} coating are discussed. - Abstract: Cerium dioxide is a transparent oxide with high refractive index (from 1.6 to 2.5 at 633 nm) in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. However, little attention has been paid to its optical property in mid-IR (2.5-25 {mu}m). Here we report that the cauliflower-like microstructured CeO{sub 2} coating deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition technique shows high emissivity up to 0.9 at 873 K in the mid-IR spectral region. The high emissivity is attributed to the coupling between free propagating waves and space-variant polarizations caused by the cauliflower-like microstructure. This high emissivity coating shows a potential application in high temperature components.

  6. Fast analysis of spectral data using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Fast analysis techniques are highly desirable in experiments where measurements are recorded at high rates. In fusion experiments the processing required to obtain plasma parameters is usually orders of magnitude slower than the data acquisition. Spectroscopic diagnostics suffer greatly from this problem. The extraction of plasma parameters from a measured spectrum typically corresponds to a nonlinear mapping between distinct multi-dimensional spaces. Where no analytic expression for the mapping exists, conventional analysis methods (e.g. least squares) are usually iterative and therefore slow. With this concern in mind a fast spectral analysis method involving neural networks has been investigated. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs

  7. Semiconductor detectors in current energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betin, J; Zhabin, E; Krampit, I; Smirnov, V

    1980-04-01

    A review is presented of the properties of semiconductor detectors and of the possibilities stemming therefrom of using the detectors in X-ray spectral analysis in industries, in logging, in ecology and environmental control, in medicine, etc.

  8. Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based, Long-slit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1996-12-08

    Dec 8, 1996 ... Spectral Analysis of the Background in Ground-based,. Long-slit .... Figure 1 plots spectra from the 2-D array, after instrumental calibration and before correction for ..... which would merit attention and a better understanding.

  9. Spectral Analysis Related to Bare-Metal and Drug-Eluting Coronary Stent Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rose Mary Ferreira Lisboa da, E-mail: roselisboa@cardiol.br [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Silva, Carlos Augusto Bueno [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Belo Horizonte, Hospital São João de Deus, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Greco, Otaviano José [Belo Horizonte, Hospital São João de Deus, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Maria da Consolação Vieira [Faculdade de Medicina da UFMG, Divinópolis, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The autonomic nervous system plays a central role in cardiovascular regulation; sympathetic activation occurs during myocardial ischemia. To assess the spectral analysis of heart rate variability during stent implantation, comparing the types of stent. This study assessed 61 patients (mean age, 64.0 years; 35 men) with ischemic heart disease and indication for stenting. Stent implantation was performed under Holter monitoring to record the spectral analysis of heart rate variability (Fourier transform), measuring the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components, and the LF/HF ratio before and during the procedure. Bare-metal stent was implanted in 34 patients, while the others received drug-eluting stents. The right coronary artery was approached in 21 patients, the left anterior descending, in 28, and the circumflex, in 9. As compared with the pre-stenting period, all patients showed an increase in LF and HF during stent implantation (658 versus 185 ms2, p = 0.00; 322 versus 121, p = 0.00, respectively), with no change in LF/HF. During stent implantation, LF was 864 ms2 in patients with bare-metal stents, and 398 ms2 in those with drug-eluting stents (p = 0.00). The spectral analysis of heart rate variability showed no association with diabetes mellitus, family history, clinical presentation, beta-blockers, age, and vessel or its segment. Stent implantation resulted in concomitant sympathetic and vagal activations. Diabetes mellitus, use of beta-blockers, and the vessel approached showed no influence on the spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Sympathetic activation was lower during the implantation of drug-eluting stents.

  10. Evaluating Surgical Margins with Optical Spectroscopy and Spectral Imaging Following Breast Cancer Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Raman spectral features of hydroxyapatite crystals (found in breast calcifications) through overlying lean chicken breast tissue [18]. Thus, the...Raman signature of bone through several mm of soft tissue [3-5]. It has also been used to detect the Ram an spectral features of hydroxyapatite ...all f eaturing in- line f iltering at the ir tips (Em vision). All seve n f ibers we re bin ned a fter a sing le 3 se cond acquisition, and these

  11. Interpretation of IR and Raman spectra of dopamine neurotransmitter and effect of hydrogen bond in HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, T.; Mukherjee, V.

    2018-05-01

    The potential energy scanning with respect to the different dihedral angles were performed to search possible numbers of dopamine (neutral) conformers and further, fifteen conformers of dopamine were identified on the basis of energy minima. Vibrational frequencies were calculated for all the conformers of dopamine. Density functional theory was employed to carry out all the computations. The exchange correlation functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31++G(d,p) were included in DFT calculation. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of dopamine hydrochloride were also recorded in the spectral region 400-4000 cm-1 and 50-4000 cm-1 respectively. The normal coordinate analysis was also performed to scale DFT calculated force constants and to calculate potential energy distributions. The detailed vibrational spectral analysis and the assignments of the bands, done on the best-fit basis comparison of the experimentally obtained and theoretically calculated IR and Raman spectra, match quite well indicating DFT calculations as very accurate source of normal mode assignments. The interaction of the most stable conformer of dopamine with HCl was also studied to know the effect of hydrogen bond on its geometry and dynamics. The stability of the dopamine in isolated and protonated forms arising from hyperconjugative interactions was also analyzed by natural bond orbital analysis.

  12. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization

  13. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  14. Synthesis and spectral studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) complexes of 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxaldehyde hydrazone derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.; Khattab, M.A.; Bekheit, M.M.; El-Kaddah, A.H.

    1996-01-01

    A few complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-chlorobenzylhydrazone) (BCBH) and 4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-3-(carboxaldehyde-4-methylbenzylhydrazone) (BMBH) have been synthesised and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivities, magnetic measurements and infrared (IR) and visible spectral studies. The IR spectra show that BCBH and BMBH behave as bidentate ligands either in the keto or enol form. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Living Matter Observations with a Novel Hyperspectral Supercontinuum Confocal Microscope for VIS to Near-IR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R. Bertani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  16. Synthesis, Spectral and Anthelmintic Activity Studies on Some Novel Imidazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Dahiya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the synthesis of a novel series of 3,5-diiodo-4-(5-nitro-1H-2-imidazolylbenzoyl amino acids and di/tri/tetrapeptides using diisopropylcarbodiimide/dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DIPC/DCC as coupling agents and N-methylmorpholine/triethylamine (NMM/TEA as bases. Structure elucidation of all the newly synthesized compounds was done by elemental analysis and IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. Synthesized imidazolopeptides were screened for their anthelmintic activity and found to possess moderate to good bioactivity against earthworms Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea when compared to reference drugs - albendazole and mebendazole at dose level of 2 mg mL−1.

  17. An assessment of surface emissivity variation effects on plasma uniformity analysis using IR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Abigail; Showers, Melissa; Biewer, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    The Prototype-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear plasma device operating at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Its purpose is to test plasma source and heating concepts for the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which has the mission to test the plasma-material interactions under fusion reactor conditions. In this device material targets will be exposed to high heat fluxes (>10 MW/m2). To characterize the heat fluxes to the target a IR thermography system is used taking up to 432 frames per second videos. The data is analyzed to determine the surface temperature on the target in specific regions of interest. The IR analysis has indicated a low level of plasma uniformity; the plasma often deposits more heat to the edge of the plate than the center. An essential parameter for IR temperature calculation is the surface emissivity of the plate (stainless steel). A study has been performed to characterize the variation in the surface emissivity of the plate as its temperature changes and its surface finish is modified by plasma exposure.

  18. Curie depth and geothermal gradient from spectral analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resent (2009) aeromagnetic data covering lower part of Benue and upper part of Anambra basins was subjected to one dimensional spectral analysis with the aim of estimating the curie depth and subsequently evaluating both the geothermal gradient and heat flow for the area. Curie point depth estimate obtained were ...

  19. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  20. Radiometric and spectral calibrations of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) using principle component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is

  1. Spectral decomposition in advection-diffusion analysis by finite element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.; Gartling, D.K.; Strang, G.

    1978-01-01

    In a recent study of the convergence properties of finite element methods in nonlinear fluid mechanics, an indirect approach was taken. A two-dimensional example with a known exact solution was chosen as the vehicle for the study, and various mesh refinements were tested in an attempt to extract information on the effect of the local Reynolds number. However, more direct approaches are usually preferred. In this study one such direct approach is followed, based upon the spectral decomposition of the solution operator. Spectral decomposition is widely employed as a solution technique for linear structural dynamics problems and can be applied readily to linear, transient heat transfer analysis; in this case, the extension to nonlinear problems is of interest. It was shown previously that spectral techniques were applicable to stiff systems of rate equations, while recent studies of geometrically and materially nonlinear structural dynamics have demonstrated the increased information content of the numerical results. The use of spectral decomposition in nonlinear problems of heat and mass transfer would be expected to yield equally increased flow of information to the analyst, and this information could include a quantitative comparison of various solution strategies, meshes, and element hierarchies

  2. High-Selectivity Filter Banks for Spectral Analysis of Music Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz W. P. Biscainho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches, under a unified framework, several algorithms for the spectral analysis of musical signals. Such algorithms include the fast Fourier transform (FFT, the fast filter bank (FFB, the constant-Q transform (CQT, and the bounded-Q transform (BQT, previously known from the associated literature. Two new methods are then introduced, namely, the constant-Q fast filter bank (CQFFB and the bounded-Q fast filter bank (BQFFB, combining the positive characteristics of the previously mentioned algorithms. The provided analyses indicate that the proposed BQFFB achieves an excellent compromise between the reduced computational effort of the FFT, the high selectivity of each output channel of the FFB, and the efficient distribution of frequency channels associated to the CQT and BQT methods. Examples are included to illustrate the performances of these methods in the spectral analysis of music signals.

  3. Spectral Analysis within the Virtual Observatory: The GAVO Service TheoSSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringat, E.

    2012-03-01

    In the last decade, numerous Virtual Observatory organizations were established. One of these is the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) that e.g. provides access to spectral energy distributions via the service TheoSSA. In a pilot phase, these are based on the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) and suitable for hot, compact stars. We demonstrate the power of TheoSSA in an application to the sdOB primary of AA Doradus by comparison with a “classical” spectral analysis.

  4. Standard gamma-ray spectra for the comparison of spectral analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, S.; Hemingway, J.; Bowles, N.

    1997-01-01

    Three sets of standard γ-ray spectra have been produced for use in assessing the performance of spectral analysis software. The origin of and rationale behind the spectra are described. Nine representative analysis systems have been tested both in terms of component performance and in terms of overall performance and the problems encountered in the analysis are discussed. (author)

  5. Standard gamma-ray spectra for the comparison of spectral analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, S.; Hemingway, J.; Bowles, N. [and others

    1997-08-01

    Three sets of standard {gamma}-ray spectra have been produced for use in assessing the performance of spectral analysis software. The origin of and rationale behind the spectra are described. Nine representative analysis systems have been tested both in terms of component performance and in terms of overall performance and the problems encountered in the analysis are discussed. (author)

  6. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  7. Semiconductor detectors in current energy dispersive X-ray spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betin, J.; Zhabin, E.; Krampit, I.; Smirnov, V.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the properties of semiconductor detectors and of the possibilities stemming therefrom of using the detectors in X-ray spectral analysis in industries, in logging, in ecology and environmental control, in medicine, etc. (M.S.)

  8. Rapid discrimination of sea buckthorn berries from different H. rhamnoides subspecies by multi-step IR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Gang; Tu, Ya; Sun, Suqin; Shen, Xudong; Li, Qingzhu; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    As an important ethnic medicine, sea buckthorn was widely used to prevent and treat various diseases due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, sea buckthorn was originated from H. rhamnoides, which includes five subspecies distributed in China. Confusion and misidentification usually occurred due to their similar morphology, especially in dried and powdered forms. Additionally, these five subspecies have vital differences in quality and physiological efficacy. This paper focused on the quick classification and identification method of sea buckthorn berry powders from five H. rhamnoides subspecies using multi-step IR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. The holistic chemical compositions revealed by the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were the main chemical components. Further, the differences in FT-IR spectra regarding their peaks, positions and intensities were used to identify H. rhamnoides subspecies samples. The discrimination was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that the combination of multi-step IR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis offered a simple, fast and reliable method for the classification and identification of the sea buckthorn berry powders from different H. rhamnoides subspecies.

  9. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  10. Ultra-Low-Noise Sub-mm/Far-IR Detectors for Space-Based Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan

    The sub-mm and Far-IR spectrum is rich with information from a wide range of astrophysical sources, including exoplanet atmospheres and galaxies at the peak star formation. In the 10-400 μm range, the spectral lines of important chemical species such H2O, HD, and [OI] can be used to map the formation and evolution of planetary systems. Dust emission in this spectral range is also an important tool for characterizing the morphology of debris disks and interstellar magnetic fields. At larger scales, accessing the formation and distribution of luminous Far-IR and sub-mm galaxies is essential to understanding star formation triggers, as well as the last stages of reionization at z 6. Detector technology is essential to realizing the full science potential of a next-generation Far-IR space telescope (Far-IR Surveyor). The technology gap in large-format, low-noise and ultra-low-noise Far-IR direct detectors is specifically highlighted by NASA's Cosmic Origins Program, and prioritized for development now to enable a flagship mission such as the Far-IR Surveyor that will address the key Cosmic Origins science questions of the next two decades. The detector requirements for a mid-resolution spectrometer are as follows: (1) Highly sensitive detectors with performance approaching 10^-19 - 10^-20 WHz 1/2 for background- limited operation in telescopes with cold optics. (2) Detector time constant in the sub- millisecond range. (3) Scalable architecture to a kilo pixel array with uniform detector characteristics. (4) Compatibility with space operation in the presence of particle radiation. We propose phononic crystals to meet the requirements of ultra-low-noise thermal detectors. By design, a phononic crystal exhibits phonon bandgaps where heat transport is forbidden. The size and location of the bandgaps depend on the elastic properties of the dielectric and the geometry of the phononic unit cell. A wide-bandwidth low-pass thermal filter with a cut-off frequency of 1.5 GHz and

  11. Dimensionality Reduction of Hyperspectral Image with Graph-Based Discriminant Analysis Considering Spectral Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fubiao Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, graph embedding has drawn great attention for dimensionality reduction in hyperspectral imagery. For example, locality preserving projection (LPP utilizes typical Euclidean distance in a heat kernel to create an affinity matrix and projects the high-dimensional data into a lower-dimensional space. However, the Euclidean distance is not sufficiently correlated with intrinsic spectral variation of a material, which may result in inappropriate graph representation. In this work, a graph-based discriminant analysis with spectral similarity (denoted as GDA-SS measurement is proposed, which fully considers curves changing description among spectral bands. Experimental results based on real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method is superior to traditional methods, such as supervised LPP, and the state-of-the-art sparse graph-based discriminant analysis (SGDA.

  12. Iterative random vs. Kennard-Stone sampling for IR spectrum-based classification task using PLS2-DA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Loong Chuen; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2018-04-01

    External testing (ET) is preferred over auto-prediction (AP) or k-fold-cross-validation in estimating more realistic predictive ability of a statistical model. With IR spectra, Kennard-stone (KS) sampling algorithm is often used to split the data into training and test sets, i.e. respectively for model construction and for model testing. On the other hand, iterative random sampling (IRS) has not been the favored choice though it is theoretically more likely to produce reliable estimation. The aim of this preliminary work is to compare performances of KS and IRS in sampling a representative training set from an attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectral dataset (of four varieties of blue gel pen inks) for PLS2-DA modeling. The `best' performance achievable from the dataset is estimated with AP on the full dataset (APF, error). Both IRS (n = 200) and KS were used to split the dataset in the ratio of 7:3. The classic decision rule (i.e. maximum value-based) is employed for new sample prediction via partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS2-DA). Error rate of each model was estimated repeatedly via: (a) AP on full data (APF, error); (b) AP on training set (APS, error); and (c) ET on the respective test set (ETS, error). A good PLS2-DA model is expected to produce APS, error and EVS, error that is similar to the APF, error. Bearing that in mind, the similarities between (a) APS, error vs. APF, error; (b) ETS, error vs. APF, error and; (c) APS, error vs. ETS, error were evaluated using correlation tests (i.e. Pearson and Spearman's rank test), using series of PLS2-DA models computed from KS-set and IRS-set, respectively. Overall, models constructed from IRS-set exhibits more similarities between the internal and external error rates than the respective KS-set, i.e. less risk of overfitting. In conclusion, IRS is more reliable than KS in sampling representative training set.

  13. Spectral Inverse Quantum (Spectral-IQ Method for Modeling Mesoporous Systems: Application on Silica Films by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai V. Putz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work advances the inverse quantum (IQ structural criterion for ordering and characterizing the porosity of the mesosystems based on the recently advanced ratio of the particle-to-wave nature of quantum objects within the extended Heisenberg uncertainty relationship through employing the quantum fluctuation, both for free and observed quantum scattering information, as computed upon spectral identification of the wave-numbers specific to the maximum of absorption intensity record, and to left-, right- and full-width at the half maximum (FWHM of the concerned bands of a given compound. It furnishes the hierarchy for classifying the mesoporous systems from more particle-related (porous, tight or ionic bindings to more wave behavior (free or covalent bindings. This so-called spectral inverse quantum (Spectral-IQ particle-to-wave assignment was illustrated on spectral measurement of FT-IR (bonding bands’ assignment for samples synthesized within different basic environment and different thermal treatment on mesoporous materials obtained by sol-gel technique with n-dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB and of their combination as cosolvents. The results were analyzed in the light of the so-called residual inverse quantum information, accounting for the free binding potency of analyzed samples at drying temperature, and were checked by cross-validation with thermal decomposition techniques by endo-exo thermo correlations at a higher temperature.

  14. FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible spectral investigations and ab initio computations of anti-epileptic drug: vigabatrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Bismi; Joe, I Hubert

    2013-10-01

    Vibrational analysis of anti-epileptic drug vigabatrin, a structural GABA analog was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers were studied using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bond orbital analysis and optimized molecular structure show clear evidence for the effect of electron charge transfer on the activity of the molecule. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Good consistency is found between the calculated results and experimental data for the electronic absorption as well as IR and Raman spectra. The blue-shifting of the C-C stretching wavenumber reveals that the vinyl group is actively involved in the conjugation path. The NBO analysis confirms the occurrence of intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions resulting in ICT causing stabilization of the system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; hide

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fit by a simple power law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  16. Spectacle and SpecViz: New Spectral Analysis and Visualization Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Nicholas; Peeples, Molly; JDADF Developers

    2018-01-01

    A new era of spectroscopic exploration of our universe is being ushered in with advances in instrumentation and next-generation space telescopes. The advent of new spectroscopic instruments has highlighted a pressing need for tools scientists can use to analyze and explore these new data. We have developed Spectacle, a software package for analyzing both synthetic spectra from hydrodynamic simulations as well as real COS data with an aim of characterizing the behavior of the circumgalactic medium. It allows easy reduction of spectral data and analytic line generation capabilities. Currently, the package is focused on automatic determination of absorption regions and line identification with custom line list support, simultaneous line fitting using Voigt profiles via least-squares or MCMC methods, and multi-component modeling of blended features. Non-parametric measurements, such as equivalent widths, delta v90, and full-width half-max are available. Spectacle also provides the ability to compose compound models used to generate synthetic spectra allowing the user to define various LSF kernels, uncertainties, and to specify sampling.We also present updates to the visualization tool SpecViz, developed in conjunction with the JWST data analysis tools development team, to aid in the exploration of spectral data. SpecViz is an open source, Python-based spectral 1-D interactive visualization and analysis application built around high-performance interactive plotting. It supports handling general and instrument-specific data and includes advanced tool-sets for filtering and detrending one-dimensional data, along with the ability to isolate absorption regions using slicing and manipulate spectral features via spectral arithmetic. Multi-component modeling is also possible using a flexible model fitting tool-set that supports custom models to be used with various fitting routines. It also features robust user extensions such as custom data loaders and support for user

  17. X-ray-phase and IR-spectral study of clay rocks mineral content of the Caspian Sea Gulf depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakonov, A.N.; Mukhanova, M.U.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of clays selected from different oil fields (Sazankurak, Kemerkol, Kozha and others) and deposition depths are examined on both the X-ray diffractometers (Dron-2 and Dron-4) and the infrared-spectrometers (IR-20). In this diagnostic the American file with different minerals X-ray systematized data is used. The X-ray reflections, which are in compliance with suitable inter-plane distances and clay impurities reflex intensities are determined. With confirmation purpose for mineral content correctness obtained according X-ray-phase analysis the infrared-spectrometric method is used, in which principal attention was paid to absorption field (3,400-3,700 cm -1 ) of H 2 O and OH valency frequency vibrations

  18. Synthesis and spectral studies of Pd(II) complexes with 2, 3-disubstituted quinazolin-(3H)-4-ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, B.; Lingaiah, P.; Laxima Reddy, K.

    1991-01-01

    A number of palladium(II) complexes of bidentate O-O and O-N donors, 2,3-disubstituted quinazoline-(3H)-4-ones, have been synthesized and characterized based on analytical, conductivity, magnetic, thermal, IR, electronic and PMR spectral data. The complexes of Pd(II) with ligands such as 2-(R)-3-(X)-substituted quinazoline-(3H)-4-ones, where R=methyl/phenyl and X=2'-hydroxybenzalimino (MHBQ/PHBQ), carboxymethyl (MCMQ/PCMQ), furfuralimino (MFQ/PFQ), acetamino (MAQ/PAQ), uramino (MUQ/PUQ) and thiouramino (MTUQ/PTUQ), yielded the complexes of the type [Pd(O-N) 2 ]Cl 2 and [Pd(O-O) 2 ]. The IR and PMR spectral data of the metal complexes indicate that MHQB, PHQB, MCMQ, and PCMQ act as uninegative bidentate ligands whereas MFQ, PFQ, MAQ, PAQ, MUQ, PUQ, MTUQ and PTUQ act as neutral bidentate ligands. The electronic spectral studies of these complexes indicate that they were square-planar geometry. (author). 23 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Insulating phase in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}: An investigation using critical analysis and magnetocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatti, Imtiaz Noor; Pramanik, A.K., E-mail: akpramanik@mail.jnu.ac.in

    2017-01-15

    The nature of insulating phase in 5d based Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} is quite debated as the theoretical as well as experimental investigations have put forward evidences in favor of both magnetically driven Slater-type and interaction driven Mott-type insulator. To understand this insulating behavior, we have investigated the nature of magnetic state in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} through studying critical exponents, low temperature thermal demagnetization and magnetocaloric effect. The estimated critical exponents do not exactly match with any universality class, however, the values obey the scaling behavior. The exponent values suggest that spin interaction in present material is close to mean-field model. The analysis of low temperature thermal demagnetization data, however, shows dual presence of localized- and itinerant-type of magnetic interaction. Moreover, field dependent change in magnetic entropy indicates magnetic interaction is close to mean-field type. While this material shows an insulating behavior across the magnetic transition, yet a distinct change in slope in resistivity is observed around T{sub c}. We infer that though the insulating phase in Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} is more close to be Slater-type but the simultaneous presence of both Slater- and Mott-type is the likely scenario for this material. - Highlights: • Critical analysis shows Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} has ferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub c}~225 K. • Obtained critical exponents imply spin interaction is close to mean-field model. • Analysis of magneto-entropy data also supports mean-field type interaction. • However, the presence of both itinerant and localized spin interaction is evident. • Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} has simultaneous presence of both Slater- and Mott-type insulating phase.

  20. Spectral analysis of major heart tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejkowski, W.; Dobrowolski, A. P.; Majka, K.; Olszewski, R.

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) figures clearly indicate that cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death and disability in the world. Early detection of cardiovascular pathologies may contribute to reducing such a high mortality rate. Auscultatory examination is one of the first and most important step in cardiologic diagnostics. Unfortunately, proper diagnosis is closely related to long-term practice and medical experience. The article presents the author's system of recording phonocardiograms and the way of saving data, as well as the outline of the analysis algorithm, which will allow to assign a case to a patient with heart failure or healthy voluntaries' with a certain high probability. The results of a pilot study of phonocardiographic signals were also presented as an introduction to further research aimed at the development of an efficient diagnostic algorithm based on spectral analysis of the heart tone.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Spectral Transmittance of Some Welding Glasses with ANSI Z87.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Welding emits harmful rays to the eyes. We evaluate and compare the UV, blue light and IR transmittance characteristics of some currently available welding safety protectors with ANSI Z87.1 criteria.Materials and Methods: Three type of welding safety protectors (three of each type have been evaluated for spectral transmittance. One-sample T-test was performed to establish is there a statistically significant difference between the standard criteria and UV, blue and IR regions for the welding protectors (α=0.05.Results: In ultraviolet (UV (far and near region, two types of the tested protectors (P1, P2 transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001. In infrared (IR spectrum only one type (P3 transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001. In blue light region, all of the tested protectors transmitted lower than the maximum allowable value specified in the standard (P<0.001.Conclusion: Although all of the tested glasses could meet some parts of the criteria, but none of them could meet the complete spectral transmittance requirements of ANSI Z87.1.

  2. Spectral variation of the solar radiation during an eclipse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koepke

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The time dependent variation of the spectral extraterrestrial solar flux is modelled for the conditions during a total eclipse. These data are used to calculate irradiance and actinic flux at the Earth’s surface for atmospheric conditions of August 11, 1999 at Weihenstephan. These results are compared with measurements. It is shown, that the spectral composition of solar radiation varies during the eclipse, since solar limb darkening has a spectral dependence. The solar radiation differs from that of a hypothetical sun without limb darkening by up to 30% in the near IR at 1500 nm and 60% in the UV-B at 310 nm. As shown by a comparison of modelling and measurements, this spectral variation has to be taken into account for modelling of UV radiative quantities in the atmosphere and resulting photochemical processes. The effect of broken cloudiness on irradiance and actinic flux and its dependency on wavelength and receiver geometry is explained. Der Verlauf der spektralen extraterrestrischen solaren Strahlung wÄhrend einer Sonnenfinsternis wurde berechnet. Basierend auf diesen Daten, unter BerÜcksichtigung der atmosphÄrischen Bedingungen am 11. August 1999 in Weihenstephan, wurden Globalstrahlung und Aktinischer Fluss am Boden modelliert und mit Messwerten verglichen. Die spektrale Zusammensetzung der Strahlung Ändert sich wÄhrend einer Sonnenfinsternis, bedingt durch die wellenlÄngenabhÄngige Randverdunklung der Sonne. Im Vergleich zu einer hypothetischen Sonne ohne Randverdunklung ist die solare Strahlung im nahen IR um bis zu 30% gemindert und im UVB bei 310 nm um bis zu 60%. Diese spektralen Änderungen sollten bei der Modellierung von Strahlung, z.B. fÜr photochemische Prozesse berÜcksichtigt werden. Dies wurde durch Messung und Modellierung gezeigt. Der Einfluss von Wolken auf gemessene Werte von Globalstrahlung und Aktinischem Fluss wurde untersucht und erklÄrt.

  3. Spectral properties of common intraocular lens (IOL) types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Peter J.; Chapon, Pascal F.; Hamaoui, Marie; Parel, Jean-Marie A.; Clayman, H.; Rol, Pascal O.

    1999-06-01

    Currently over 50 kinds of intraocular lenses (IOLs) are approved for patient use in the treatment of cataracts and ametropia. These lenses are manufactured from at least 2 kinds of silicones as well as several kinds of acrylic polymers including polyHEMA, Poly HOXEMA, a range of polymethacrylate and polyacrylate formulations. We sought to measure spectral transmission curves of a range of IOLS in the UV-visible and near IR spectral regions in order to better characterize their optical properties and to provide a baseline from which to assess their alteration following implantation over time. Consideration of how this may best be achieved are discussed. The variable ability of both explained IOLs and some samples from a range of manufacturers to block UV wavelengths is commented upon.

  4. Stereoselective synthesis and spectral studies of some benzotriazolylacetyl hydrazones of 3-alkyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, M. Velayutham; Rajeswari, K.; Kumar, C. Udhaya; Krishnan, K. Gokula; Mahendran, S.; Ramalingan, C.; Nagarajan, E. R.; Vidhyasagar, T.

    2017-12-01

    An effort to include biologically potent benzotriazole nucleus into piperidine ring is achieved through hydrazone formation. The characterization of the synthesized compounds was carried out using FT-IR, 1H &13C NMR, 1H-1H COSY, 1H-13C COSY, NOESY spectral techniques and GC-Mass spectrum. The spectral assignments were done without ambiguity using 2D-NMR techniques. The conformational preference of the piperidine ring deduced from the spectral studies is 'chair'. The diastereotopic nature of the methylene protons/methyl groups present in the molecules is revealed clearly in their spectral pattern observed.

  5. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  6. Characterization of Hydrogen Bonds by IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojta, D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the identification and quantification of hydrogen bond, as one of the most abundant non-covalent interactions in phenomena like self-assembly and molecular recognition, IR spectrosopy has been employed as the most sensitive method. The performance of the high dilution method enables determination of the stability constant of hydrogen-bonded complex as one of the most important thermodynamic quantities used in their characterization. However, the alleged experimental simplicity of the mentioned method is loaded with errors originating not only from researcher intervention but also independent from it. The second source of error is particularly emphasized and elaborated in this paper, which is designed as the recipe for the successful characterization of hydrogen bonds. Besides the enumeration of all steps in the determination of hydrogen-bonded stability constants, the reader can be acquainted with the most important ex perimental conditions that should be fulfilled in order to minimize the naturally occurring errors in this type of investigation. In the spectral analysis, the application of both uni- and multivariate approach has been discussed. Some computer packages, considering the latter, are mentioned, described, and recommended. KUI -10/2012Received August 1, 2011Accepted October 24, 2011

  7. Archives of Astronomical Spectral Observations and Atomic/Molecular Databases for their Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabchikova T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of open-source data for stellar spectroscopy investigations. It includes lists of the main archives of medium-to-high resolution spectroscopic observations, with brief characteristics of the archive data (spectral range, resolving power, flux units. We also review atomic and molecular databases that contain parameters of spectral lines, cross-sections and reaction rates needed for a detailed analysis of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio stellar spectra.

  8. Differentiation between probiotic and wild-type Bacillus cereus isolates by antibiotic susceptibility test and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietke, Henriette; Beer, W; Schleif, Julia; Schabert, G; Reissbrodt, R

    2010-05-30

    Animal feed often contains probiotic Bacillus strains used as feed additives. Spores of the non-pathogenic B. cereus var. toyoi (product name Toyocerin) are used. Distinguishing between toxic wild-type Bacillus cereus strains and this probiotic strain is essential for evaluating the quality and risk of feed. Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 (product name Paciflor was used as probiotic strain until 2001. The properties of the two probiotic strains are quite similar. Differentiating between probiotic strains and wild-type B. cereus strains is not easy. ss-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin and cefamandole exhibit an inhibition zone in the agar diffusion test of probiotic B. cereus strains which are not seen for wild-type strains. Therefore, performing the agar diffusion test first may make sense before FT-IR testing. When randomly checking these strains by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the probiotic B. cereus strains were separated from wild-type B. cereus/B. thuringiensis/B. mycoides/B. weihenstephanensis strains by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The discriminatory information was contained in the spectral windows 3000-2800 cm(-1) ("fatty acid region"), 1200-900 cm(-1) ("carbohydrate region") and 900-700 cm(-1) ("fingerprint region"). It is concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for the rapid quality control and risk analysis of animal feed containing probiotic B. cereus strains. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral, thermal, kinetic, molecular modeling and eukaryotic DNA degradation studies for a new series of albendazole (HABZ) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2011-01-01

    This work represents the elaborated investigation for the ligational behavior of the albendazole ligand through its coordination with, Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Cr(III) ions. Elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, spectral studies (IR, UV-Vis and ESR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG and DTG) have been used to characterize the isolated complexes. A deliberate comparison for the IR spectra reveals that the ligand coordinated with all mentioned metal ions by the same manner as a neutral bidentate through carbonyl of ester moiety and NH groups. The proposed chelation form for such complexes is expected through out the preparation conditions in a relatively acidic medium. The powder XRD study reflects the amorphous nature for the investigated complexes except Mn(II). The conductivity measurements reflect the non-electrolytic feature for all complexes. In comparing with the constants for the magnetic measurements as well as the electronic spectral data, the octahedral structure was proposed strongly for Cr(III) and Ni(II), the tetrahedral for Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes but the square-pyramidal for the Cu(II) one. The thermogravimetric analysis confirms the presence or absence of water molecules by any type of attachments. Also, the kinetic parameters are estimated from DTG and TG curves. ESR spectrum data for Cu(II) solid complex confirms the square-pyramidal state is the most fitted one for the coordinated structure. The albendazole ligand and its complexes are biologically investigated against two bacteria as well as their effective effect on degradation of calf thymus DNA.

  10. The analysis of toxic connections content in water by spectral methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.; Artyushin, V. R.

    2017-08-01

    The current state of ecology means the strict observance of measures for the utilization of household and industrial wastes that is connected with very essential expenses of means and time. Thanks to spectroscopic devices usage the spectral methods allow to carry out the express quantitative and qualitative analysis in a workplace and field conditions. In a work the application of spectral methods by studying the degradation of toxic organic compounds after preliminary radiation of various sources is shown. Experimental data of optical density of water at various influences are given.

  11. Application of spectral decomposition analysis to in vivo quantification of aluminum by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsa, D.C. E-mail: comsadc@mcmaster.ca; Prestwich, W.V.; McNeill, F.E.; Byun, S.H

    2004-12-01

    The toxic effects of aluminum are cumulative and result in painful forms of renal osteodystrophy, most notably adynamic bone disease and osteomalacia, but also other forms of disease. The Trace Element Group at McMaster University has developed an accelerator-based in vivo procedure for detecting aluminum body burden by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Further refining of the method was necessary for increasing its sensitivity. In this context, the present study proposes an improved algorithm for data analysis, based on spectral decomposition. A new minimum detectable limit (MDL) of (0.7{+-}0.1) mg Al was reached for a local dose of (20{+-}1) mSv. The study also addresses the feasibility of a new data acquisition technique, the electronic rejection of the coincident events detected by a NaI(Tl) system. It is expected that the application of this technique, together with spectral decomposition analysis, would provide an acceptable MDL for the method to be valuable in a clinical setting.

  12. High-speed Vibrational Imaging and Spectral Analysis of Lipid Bodies by Compound Raman Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Le, Thuc T.; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-01-01

    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid-droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We use a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of t...

  13. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  14. Extending Supernova Spectral Templates for Next Generation Space Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, Justin; Rodney, Steven A.; Steven Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Widely used empirical supernova (SN) Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) have not historically extended meaningfully into the ultraviolet (UV), or the infrared (IR). However, both are critical for current and future aspects of SN research including UV spectra as probes of poorly understood SN Ia physical properties, and expanding our view of the universe with high-redshift James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) IR observations. We therefore present a comprehensive set of SN SED templates that have been extended into the UV and IR, as well as an open-source software package written in Python that enables a user to generate their own extrapolated SEDs. We have taken a sampling of core-collapse (CC) and Type Ia SNe to get a time-dependent distribution of UV and IR colors (U-B,r’-[JHK]), and then generated color curves are used to extrapolate SEDs into the UV and IR. The SED extrapolation process is now easily duplicated using a user’s own data and parameters via our open-source Python package: SNSEDextend. This work develops the tools necessary to explore the JWST’s ability to discriminate between CC and Type Ia SNe, as well as provides a repository of SN SEDs that will be invaluable to future JWST and WFIRST SN studies.

  15. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-10-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in cancerous skin spots. Finally a spectral index is calculated to obtain a range of spectral indices defined for skin cancer. Our results show a confidence level of 95.4%.

  16. Power scaling of ultrafast mid-IR source enabled by high-power fiber laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Gengji

    2017-11-15

    Ultrafast laser sources with high repetition-rate (>10 MHz) and tunable in the mid-infrared (IR) wavelength range of 7-18 μm hold promise for many important spectroscopy applications. Currently, these ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources can most easily be achieved via difference-frequency generation (DFG) between a pump beam and a signal beam. However, current ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources feature a low average power, which limits their applications. In this thesis, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to power scaling of DFG-based ultrafast mid-IR laser sources. The essence of this novel approach is the generation of a high-energy signal beam. Both the pump beam and the signal beam are derived from a home-built Yb-fiber laser system that emits 165-fs pulses centered at 1035 nm with 30-MHz repetition rate and 14.5-W average power (corresponding to 483-nJ pulse energy). We employ fiber-optic self-phase modulation (SPM) to broaden the laser spectrum and generate isolated spectral lobes. Filtering the rightmost spectral lobe leads to femtosecond pulses with >10 nJ pulse energy. Tunable between 1.1-1.2 μm, this SPM-enabled ultrafast source exhibits ∝100 times higher pulse energy than can be obtained from Raman soliton sources in this wavelength range. We use this SPM-enabled source as the signal beam and part of the Yb-fiber laser output as the pump beam. By performing DFG in GaSe crystals, we demonstrate that power scaling of a DFG-based mid-IR source can be efficiently achieved by increasing the signal energy. The resulting mid-IR source is tunable from 7.4 μm to 16.8 μm. Up to 5.04-mW mid-IR pulses centered at 11 μm are achieved. The corresponding pulse energy is 167 pJ, representing nearly one order of magnitude improvement compared with other reported DFG-based mid-IR sources at this wavelength. Despite of low pulse energy, Raman soliton sources have become a popular choice as the signal source. We carry out a detailed study on

  17. Power scaling of ultrafast mid-IR source enabled by high-power fiber laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Gengji

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafast laser sources with high repetition-rate (>10 MHz) and tunable in the mid-infrared (IR) wavelength range of 7-18 μm hold promise for many important spectroscopy applications. Currently, these ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources can most easily be achieved via difference-frequency generation (DFG) between a pump beam and a signal beam. However, current ultrafast mid- to longwavelength-IR sources feature a low average power, which limits their applications. In this thesis, we propose and demonstrate a novel approach to power scaling of DFG-based ultrafast mid-IR laser sources. The essence of this novel approach is the generation of a high-energy signal beam. Both the pump beam and the signal beam are derived from a home-built Yb-fiber laser system that emits 165-fs pulses centered at 1035 nm with 30-MHz repetition rate and 14.5-W average power (corresponding to 483-nJ pulse energy). We employ fiber-optic self-phase modulation (SPM) to broaden the laser spectrum and generate isolated spectral lobes. Filtering the rightmost spectral lobe leads to femtosecond pulses with >10 nJ pulse energy. Tunable between 1.1-1.2 μm, this SPM-enabled ultrafast source exhibits ∝100 times higher pulse energy than can be obtained from Raman soliton sources in this wavelength range. We use this SPM-enabled source as the signal beam and part of the Yb-fiber laser output as the pump beam. By performing DFG in GaSe crystals, we demonstrate that power scaling of a DFG-based mid-IR source can be efficiently achieved by increasing the signal energy. The resulting mid-IR source is tunable from 7.4 μm to 16.8 μm. Up to 5.04-mW mid-IR pulses centered at 11 μm are achieved. The corresponding pulse energy is 167 pJ, representing nearly one order of magnitude improvement compared with other reported DFG-based mid-IR sources at this wavelength. Despite of low pulse energy, Raman soliton sources have become a popular choice as the signal source. We carry out a detailed study on

  18. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.

    2016-01-01

    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  19. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  20. Spectral Signature of Radiative Forcing by East Asian Dust-Soot Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The Pacific Dust Experiment (PACDEX) provides the first detailed sampling of dust-soot mixtures from the western Pacific to the eastern Pacific Ocean. The data includes down and up spectral irradiance, mixing state of dust and soot, and other aerosol properties. This study attempts to simulate the radiative forcing by dust-soot mixtures during the experimental period. The MODTRAN band model was employed to investigate the spectral signatures of solar irradiance change induced by aerosols at moderate spectral resolutions. For the short wave band (300-1100nm) used in this study, the reduction of downward irradiance at surface by aerosols greatly enhances with increasing wavelength in the UV band (300-400nm), reaches a maximum in the blue band, then gradually decreases toward the red band. In the near-IR band (700-1100nm), irradiance reduction by aerosols shows great fluctuations in the band with center wavelength at around 940nm, 820nm, 720nm, 760nm, 690nm, where the aerosol effect is overwhelmed by the water vapor and O2 absorptions. The spectral pattern of irradiance reduction varies for different aerosol species. The maximum reduction lies at around 450nm for soot, and shifting to about 490nm for East Asian mineral dust. It's worth noting that although soot aerosols reduce more irradiance than East Asian dust in the UV and blue band, the impact of dust to the irradiance exceeds that by soot at the longer wavelength band (i.e. around 550nm). The reduction of irradiance by East Asian dust (soot) in the UV band, visible band, and near-IR accounts for about 6% (10%), 56% (64%), and 38% (26%) of total irradiance reduction. As large amount of soot aerosols are involved during the long range transport of East Asian dust, the optical properties of dust aerosols are modified with different mixing state with soot, the spectral pattern of the irradiance reduction will be changed. The study of aerosol forcing at moderate spectral resolutions has the potential application for

  1. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    ruminal degradation in both carinata meal and canola meal. Although carinata meal differed from canola meal in some carbohydrate spectral parameters, multivariate results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that both original and in situ residues of two meals were not fully distinguished from each other within carbohydrate spectral regions. It was concluded that carbohydrate structural conformation could be detected in carinata meal by using ATR-FT/IR techniques and further study is needed to explore more information on molecular spectral features of other functional group such as protein structure profile and their association with potential nutrient supply and availability of carinata meal in animals.

  2. Complementary online aerosol mass spectrometry and offline FT-IR spectroscopy measurements: Prospects and challenges for the analysis of anthropogenic aerosol particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Bierl, Reinhard; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is well established in investigating highly time-resolved dynamics of submicron aerosol chemical composition including organic aerosol (OA). However, interpretation of mass spectra on molecular level is limited due to strong fragmentation of organic substances and potential reactions inside the AMS ion chamber. Results from complementary filter-based FT-IR absorption measurements were used to explain features in high-resolution AMS mass spectra of different types of OA (e.g. cooking OA, cigarette smoking OA, wood burning OA). Using this approach some AMS fragment ions were validated in this study as appropriate and rather specific markers for a certain class of organic compounds for all particle types under investigation. These markers can therefore be used to get deeper insights in the chemical composition of OA based on AMS mass spectra in upcoming studies. However, the specificity of other fragment ions such as C2H4O2+ (m/z 60.02114) remains ambiguous. In such cases, complementary FT-IR measurements allow the interpretation of highly time-resolved AMS mass spectra at the level of molecular functional groups. Furthermore, this study discusses the challenges in reducing inorganic interferences (e.g. from water and ammonium salts) in FT-IR spectra of atmospheric aerosols to decrease spectral uncertainties for better comparisons and, thus, to get more robust results.

  3. Web-based Data Exploration, Exploitation and Visualization Tools for Satellite Sensor VIS/IR Calibration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, A.; Doelling, D. R.; Scarino, B. R.; Chee, T.; Haney, C.; Bhatt, R.

    2016-12-01

    The CERES calibration group at NASA/LaRC has developed and deployed a suite of online data exploration and visualization tools targeted towards a range of spaceborne VIS/IR imager calibration applications for the Earth Science community. These web-based tools are driven by the open-source R (Language for Statistical Computing and Visualization) with a web interface for the user to customize the results according to their application. The tool contains a library of geostationary and sun-synchronous imager spectral response functions (SRF), incoming solar spectra, SCIAMACHY and Hyperion Earth reflected visible hyper-spectral data, and IASI IR hyper-spectral data. The suite of six specific web-based tools was designed to provide critical information necessary for sensor cross-calibration. One of the challenges of sensor cross-calibration is accounting for spectral band differences and may introduce biases if not handled properly. The spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) are a function of the earth target, atmospheric and cloud conditions or scene type and angular conditions, when obtaining sensor radiance pairs. The SBAF will need to be customized for each inter-calibration target and sensor pair. The advantages of having a community open source tool are: 1) only one archive of SCIAMACHY, Hyperion, and IASI datasets needs to be maintained, which is on the order of 50TB. 2) the framework will allow easy incorporation of new satellite SRFs and hyper-spectral datasets and associated coincident atmospheric and cloud properties, such as PW. 3) web tool or SBAF algorithm improvements or suggestions when incorporated can benefit the community at large. 4) The customization effort is on the user rather than on the host. In this paper we discuss each of these tools in detail and explore the variety of advanced options that can be used to constrain the results along with specific use cases to highlight the value-added by these datasets.

  4. Effective approach to spectroscopy and spectral analysis techniques using Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Lv, Yong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electronic information, computer and network, modern education technology has entered new era, which would give a great impact on teaching process. Spectroscopy and spectral analysis is an elective course for Optoelectronic Information Science and engineering. The teaching objective of this course is to master the basic concepts and principles of spectroscopy, spectral analysis and testing of basic technical means. Then, let the students learn the principle and technology of the spectrum to study the structure and state of the material and the developing process of the technology. MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. A proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data, Based on the teaching practice, this paper summarizes the new situation of applying Matlab to the teaching of spectroscopy. This would be suitable for most of the current school multimedia assisted teaching

  5. Application of IRS-1D data in water erosion features detection (case study: Nour roud catchment, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaimani, K; Amri, M A Hadian

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was capability of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) data of 1D to detecting erosion features which were created from run-off. In this study, ability of PAN digital data of IRS-1D satellite was evaluated for extraction of erosion features in Nour-roud catchment located in Mazandaran province, Iran, using GIS techniques. Research method has based on supervised digital classification, using MLC algorithm and also visual interpretation, using PMU analysis and then these were evaluated and compared. Results indicated that opposite of digital classification, with overall accuracy 40.02% and kappa coefficient 31.35%, due to low spectral resolution; visual interpretation and classification, due to high spatial resolution (5.8 m), prepared classifying erosion features from this data, so that these features corresponded with the lithology, slope and hydrograph lines using GIS, so closely that one can consider their boundaries overlapped. Also field control showed that this data is relatively fit for using this method in investigation of erosion features and specially, can be applied to identify large erosion features.

  6. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues; Das TApIR Experiment IR-Absorptionsspektren fluessiger Wasserstoffisotopologe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-11-27

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  7. Spectral Analysis of the sdO Standard Star Feige 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present our current work on the spectral analysis of the hot sdO star Feige 34. We combine high S/N optical spectra and fully-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres to derive its fundamental parameters (Teff, log g) and helium abundance. Our best fits indicate Teff = 63 000 K, log g = 6.0 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.8. We also use available ultraviolet spectra (IUE and FUSE) to measure metal abundances. We find the star to be enriched in iron and nickel by a factor of ten with respect to the solar values, while lighter elements have subsolar abundances. The FUSE spectrum suggests that the spectral lines could be broadened by rotation.

  8. Arbitrary-order Hilbert Spectral Analysis and Intermittency in Solar Wind Density Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Alberti, Tommaso; Lepreti, Fabio; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Němeček, Zdenek; Šafránková, Jana

    2018-05-01

    The properties of inertial- and kinetic-range solar wind turbulence have been investigated with the arbitrary-order Hilbert spectral analysis method, applied to high-resolution density measurements. Due to the small sample size and to the presence of strong nonstationary behavior and large-scale structures, the classical analysis in terms of structure functions may prove to be unsuccessful in detecting the power-law behavior in the inertial range, and may underestimate the scaling exponents. However, the Hilbert spectral method provides an optimal estimation of the scaling exponents, which have been found to be close to those for velocity fluctuations in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. At smaller scales, below the proton gyroscale, the system loses its intermittent multiscaling properties and converges to a monofractal process. The resulting scaling exponents, obtained at small scales, are in good agreement with those of classical fractional Brownian motion, indicating a long-term memory in the process, and the absence of correlations around the spectral-break scale. These results provide important constraints on models of kinetic-range turbulence in the solar wind.

  9. Spectral studies of new fullerene-tetrathiafulvalene based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskowska, Barbara; Lapinski, Andrzej; Graja, Andrzej; Hudhomme, Pietrick

    2007-01-01

    Molecular and electronic structures as well as electronic and vibrational spectra of compounds 1-3 were investigated. The spectra were recorded in the large spectral range from 400 to 50,000 cm -1 ; our interest was focused on the electronic excitations of both moieties of the dyad and the intramolecular vibrations of the dyad's components. With the help of the Gaussian 03 program, molecular geometry, electron structure and normal mode analysis for the dyad and/or reference compounds were studied. An assignment of the main vibrational bands of the dyad and its reference molecules was made taking into consideration their IR and Raman spectra as well as results of the normal mode analysis. In principle, the intramolecular vibrations typical for C 60 and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives can be found in the spectra of the dyad; the bands' frequencies are insignificantly shifted comparing with the separated molecules but their shape is usually modified. It suggests that symmetry and molecular structure of both components of the dyad are rather kept after dyad's formation but redistribution of charges occurs

  10. The role of the computer in automated spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.

    This report describes how a computer can be an extremely valuable tool for routine analysis of spectra, which is a time consuming process. A number of general-purpose algorithms that are available for the various phases of the analysis can be implemented, if these algorithms are designed to cope with all the variations that may occur. Since this is basically impossible, one must find a compromise between obscure error and program complexity. This is usually possible with human interaction at critical points. In spectral analysis this is possible if the user scans the data on an interactive graphics terminal, makes the necessary changes and then returns control to the computer for completion of the analysis

  11. Spectral Quantitative Analysis Model with Combining Wavelength Selection and Topology Structure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopy is an efficient and widely used quantitative analysis method. In this paper, a spectral quantitative analysis model with combining wavelength selection and topology structure optimization is proposed. For the proposed method, backpropagation neural network is adopted for building the component prediction model, and the simultaneousness optimization of the wavelength selection and the topology structure of neural network is realized by nonlinear adaptive evolutionary programming (NAEP. The hybrid chromosome in binary scheme of NAEP has three parts. The first part represents the topology structure of neural network, the second part represents the selection of wavelengths in the spectral data, and the third part represents the parameters of mutation of NAEP. Two real flue gas datasets are used in the experiments. In order to present the effectiveness of the methods, the partial least squares with full spectrum, the partial least squares combined with genetic algorithm, the uninformative variable elimination method, the backpropagation neural network with full spectrum, the backpropagation neural network combined with genetic algorithm, and the proposed method are performed for building the component prediction model. Experimental results verify that the proposed method has the ability to predict more accurately and robustly as a practical spectral analysis tool.

  12. New horizons for Supercontinuum light sources: from UV to mid-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Carsten L.; Nielsen, Frederik Donbæk; Johansen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    Commercially available supercontinuum sources continue to experience a strong growth in a wide range of industrial and scientific applications. In addition, there is a significant research effort focused on extending the wavelength coverage both towards UV and Mid-IR. Broadband sources covering...... and novel pumping schemes, whereas shifting the spectrum further towards the UV has been based on sophisticated microstructure fiber designs. Here we present our latest developments in tailoring the power and spectral coverage of spatially coherent broadband supercontinuum sources....

  13. Tarptautinio turizmo raida ir vystymo prognozės Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkaitė, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Išanalizuota ir įvertinta Lietuvos ir Lenkijos atvykstamojo turizmo raida 2000- 2007m., užsienio turistų srautai, apgyvendinimo paslaugų paklausa, turistų tikslai ir kelionių transporto pasirinkimas, turistų išlaidos ir šalių turizmo pajamos, iškeltos atvykstamojo turizmo problemos bei pateikti jų sprendimo siūlymai.paskutinėje darbo dalyje buvo atliktos 2008- 2015metų Lietuvos ir Lenkijos turizmo raidos prognozės. In the final master work Lithuanian and Poland arriving tourism development...

  14. Evans hole and non linear optical activity in Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate: A vibrational spectral study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, V R; Binoy, J; Dawn Dharma Roy, S; Marchewka, M K; Jayakumar, V S

    2015-01-01

    Bis(melaminium) sulphate dihydrate (BMSD), an interesting melaminium derivative for nonlinear optical activity, has been subjected to vibrational spectral analysis using FT IR and FT Raman spectra. The analysis has been aided by the Potential Energy Distribution (PED) of vibrational spectral bands, derived using density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The geometry is found to correlate well with the XRD structure and the band profiles for certain vibrations in the finger print region have been theoretically explained using Evans hole. The detailed Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of the hydrogen bonding in BMSD has also been carried out to understand the correlation between the stabilization energy of hyperconjugation of the lone pair of donor with the σ(∗) orbital of hydrogen-acceptor bond and the strength of hydrogen bond. The theoretical calculation shows that BMSD has NLO efficiency, 2.66 times that of urea. The frontier molecular orbital analysis points to a charge transfer, which contributes to NLO activity, through N-H…O intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the melaminium ring and the sulphate. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping has also been performed for the detailed analysis of the mutual interactions between melaminium ring and sulphate ion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. US-LHC IR magnet error analysis and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Ptitsin, V.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Gelfand, N.; Wan, W.; Holt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of the insertion-region (IR) magnet field errors on LHC collision performance. Compensation schemes including magnet orientation optimization, body-end compensation, tuning shims, and local nonlinear correction are shown to be highly effective

  16. Mars atmosphere studies with the SPICAM IR emission phase function observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokhimovskiy, Alexander; Fedorova, Anna; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    Emission Phase Function (EPF) observations is a powerful tool for characterization of atmosphere and surface. EPF sequence provides the extensive coverage of scattering angles above the targeted surface location which allow to separate the surface and aerosol scattering, study a vertical distribution of minor species and aerosol properties. SPICAM IR instrument on Mars Express mission provides continuous atmospheric observations in near IR (1-1.7 mu) in nadir and limb starting from 2004. For the first years of SPICAM operation only a very limited number of EPFs was performed. But from the mid 2013 (Ls=225, MY31) SPICAM EPF observations become rather regular. Based on the multiple-scattering radiative transfer model SHDOM, we analyze equivalent depths of carbon dioxide (1,43 mu) and water vapour (1,38 mu) absorption bands and their dependence on airmass during observation sequence to get aerosol optical depths and properties. The derived seasonal dust opacities from near IR can be used to retrieve the size distribution from comparison with simultaneous results of other instruments in different spectral ranges. Moreover, the EPF observations of water vapour band allow to access poorly known H2O vertical distribution for different season and locations.

  17. Photochemistry of Fe:H2O Adducts in Argon Matrixes: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study in the Mid-IR and UV-Visible Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguin, Vincent; Mascetti, Joëlle; Simon, Aude; Ben Amor, Nadia; Aupetit, Christian; Latournerie, Sandra; Noble, Jennifer A

    2018-01-18

    The photochemistry of Fe:H 2 O adducts is of interest in fields as diverse as catalysis and astrochemistry. Industrially, iron can be used as a catalyst to convert H 2 O to H 2 , whereas in the interstellar medium it may be an important component of dust grains, influencing the chemistry on their icy surfaces. This study consisted of the deposition and spectral characterization of binary systems of atomic iron with H 2 O in cryogenic argon matrixes. In this way, we were able to obtain information about the interaction of the two species; we observed the formation of adducts of iron monomers and dimers with water molecules in the mid-IR and UV-visible spectral domains. Upon irradiation with a UV radiation source, the iron species were inserted into the water molecules to form HFeOH and HFe 2 OH, leading in some cases to the formation of FeO possibly accompanied by the production of H 2 . DFT and correlated multireference wave function calculations confirmed our attributions. This combination of IR and UV-visible spectroscopy with theoretical calculations allowed us to determine, for the first time, the spectral characteristics of iron adducts and their photoproducts in the UV-visible and in the OH stretching region of the mid-IR domain.

  18. Real-time spectral analysis of HRV signals: an interactive and user-friendly PC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basano, L; Canepa, F; Ottonello, P

    1998-01-01

    We present a real-time system, built around a PC and a low-cost data acquisition board, for the spectral analysis of the heart rate variability signal. The Windows-like operating environment on which it is based makes the computer program very user-friendly even for non-specialized personnel. The Power Spectral Density is computed through the use of a hybrid method, in which a classical FFT analysis follows an autoregressive finite-extension of data; the stationarity of the sequence is continuously checked. The use of this algorithm gives a high degree of robustness of the spectral estimation. Moreover, always in real time, the FFT of every data block is computed and displayed in order to corroborate the results as well as to allow the user to interactively choose a proper AR model order.

  19. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure

  20. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na+(Glucose) Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    We report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na+(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na+(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctive Na+ coordination. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKCδ on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKCδ catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1

  2. Semiclassical analysis spectral correlations in mesoscopic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argaman, N.; Imry, Y.; Smilansky, U.

    1991-07-01

    We consider the recently developed semiclassical analysis of the quantum mechanical spectral form factor, which may be expressed in terms of classically defiable properties. When applied to electrons whose classical behaviour is diffusive, the results of earlier quantum mechanical perturbative derivations, which were developed under a different set of assumptions, are reproduced. The comparison between the two derivations shows that the results depends not on their specific details, but to a large extent on the principle of quantum coherent superposition, and on the generality of the notion of diffusion. The connection with classical properties facilitates application to many physical situations. (author)

  3. Piecewise spectrally band-pass for compressive coded aperture spectral imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Lu-Lu; Lü Qun-Bo; Huang Min; Xiang Li-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Coded aperture snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) has been discussed in recent years. It has the remarkable advantages of high optical throughput, snapshot imaging, etc. The entire spatial-spectral data-cube can be reconstructed with just a single two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing measurement. On the other hand, for less spectrally sparse scenes, the insufficiency of sparse sampling and aliasing in spatial-spectral images reduce the accuracy of reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) spectral cube. To solve this problem, this paper extends the improved CASSI. A band-pass filter array is mounted on the coded mask, and then the first image plane is divided into some continuous spectral sub-band areas. The entire 3D spectral cube could be captured by the relative movement between the object and the instrument. The principle analysis and imaging simulation are presented. Compared with peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the information entropy of the reconstructed images at different numbers of spectral sub-band areas, the reconstructed 3D spectral cube reveals an observable improvement in the reconstruction fidelity, with an increase in the number of the sub-bands and a simultaneous decrease in the number of spectral channels of each sub-band. (paper)

  4. Spectral Electroencephalogram Analysis for the Evaluation of Encephalopathy Grade in Children With Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Craig A; Morgan, Lindsey; Mills, Michele; Stack, Cynthia V; Goldstein, Joshua L; Alonso, Estella M; Wainwright, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    Spectral electroencephalogram analysis is a method for automated analysis of electroencephalogram patterns, which can be performed at the bedside. We sought to determine the utility of spectral electroencephalogram for grading hepatic encephalopathy in children with acute liver failure. Retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Patients between 0 and 18 years old who presented with acute liver failure and were admitted to the PICU. None. Electroencephalograms were analyzed by spectral analysis including total power, relative δ, relative θ, relative α, relative β, θ-to-Δ ratio, and α-to-Δ ratio. Normal values and ranges were first derived using normal electroencephalograms from 70 children of 0-18 years old. Age had a significant effect on each variable measured (p liver failure were available for spectral analysis. The median age was 4.3 years, 14 of 33 were male, and the majority had an indeterminate etiology of acute liver failure. Neuroimaging was performed in 26 cases and was normal in 20 cases (77%). The majority (64%) survived, and 82% had a good outcome with a score of 1-3 on the Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended at the time of discharge. Hepatic encephalopathy grade correlated with the qualitative visual electroencephalogram scores assigned by blinded neurophysiologists (rs = 0.493; p encephalopathy was correlated with a total power of less than or equal to 50% of normal for children 0-3 years old, and with a relative θ of less than or equal to 50% normal for children more than 3 years old (p > 0.05). Spectral electroencephalogram classification correlated with outcome (p encephalopathy and correlates with outcome. Spectral electroencephalogram may allow improved quantitative and reproducible assessment of hepatic encephalopathy grade in children with acute liver failure.

  5. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  6. EXOPLANETARY DETECTION BY MULTIFRACTAL SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John S. [Program in Applied Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Sordo, Fabio Del [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Owing to technological advances, the number of exoplanets discovered has risen dramatically in the last few years. However, when trying to observe Earth analogs, it is often difficult to test the veracity of detection. We have developed a new approach to the analysis of exoplanetary spectral observations based on temporal multifractality, which identifies timescales that characterize planetary orbital motion around the host star and those that arise from stellar features such as spots. Without fitting stellar models to spectral data, we show how the planetary signal can be robustly detected from noisy data using noise amplitude as a source of information. For observation of transiting planets, combining this method with simple geometry allows us to relate the timescales obtained to primary and secondary eclipse of the exoplanets. Making use of data obtained with ground-based and space-based observations we have tested our approach on HD 189733b. Moreover, we have investigated the use of this technique in measuring planetary orbital motion via Doppler shift detection. Finally, we have analyzed synthetic spectra obtained using the SOAP 2.0 tool, which simulates a stellar spectrum and the influence of the presence of a planet or a spot on that spectrum over one orbital period. We have demonstrated that, so long as the signal-to-noise-ratio ≥ 75, our approach reconstructs the planetary orbital period, as well as the rotation period of a spot on the stellar surface.

  7. On asymptotic analysis of spectral problems in elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nazarov

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional spectral elasticity problem is studied in an anisotropic and inhomogeneous solid with small defects, i.e., inclusions, voids, and microcracks. Asymptotics of eigenfrequencies and the corresponding elastic eigenmodes are constructed and justified. New technicalities of the asymptotic analysis are related to variable coefficients of differential operators, vectorial setting of the problem, and usage of intrinsic integral characteristics of defects. The asymptotic formulae are developed in a form convenient for application in shape optimization and inverse problems.

  8. Pulse shaping for high data rate ultra-wideband wireless transmission under the Russian spectral emission mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses impulse-radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) transmission under the Russian spectral emission mask for unlicensed UWB radio communications. Four pulse shapes are proposed and their bit error rate (BER) performance is both estimated analytically and evaluated experimentally. Well......-known shapes such as the Gaussian, root-raised cosine, hyperbolic secant, and the frequency B-spline wavelet are used to form linear combinations of component pulses, shaped to make efficient use of the spectral emission mask. Analytical BER values are derived using a Nakagami-m model, and good agreement......-UWB transmission under the strict regulations of the Russian spectral emission mask....

  9. IR fixed points in SU(3 gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Ishikawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in lattice gauge theories and apply it to the SU(3 gauge theories with Nf fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator through the RG analysis with a finite IR cutoff, which we cannot remove in the conformal field theories in sharp contrast to the confining theories. The method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for Nf=16,12,8 and Nf=7 and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in all cases.

  10. Evaluation criteria for spectral design of camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Fagerström, Jan; Hallberg, Tomas; Kariis, Hans

    2015-10-01

    In development of visual (VIS) and infrared (IR) camouflage for signature management, the aim is the design of surface properties of an object to spectrally match or adapt to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast perceived by a threatening sensor. The so called 'ladder model" relates the requirements for task measure of effectiveness with surface structure properties through the steps signature effectiveness and object signature. It is intended to link materials properties via platform signature to military utility and vice versa. Spectral design of a surface intends to give it a desired wavelength dependent optical response to fit a specific application of interest. Six evaluation criteria were stated, with the aim to aid the process to put requirement on camouflage and for evaluation. The six criteria correspond to properties such as reflectance, gloss, emissivity, and degree of polarization as well as dynamic properties, and broadband or multispectral properties. These criteria have previously been exemplified on different kinds of materials and investigated separately. Anderson and Åkerlind further point out that the six criteria rarely were considered or described all together in one and same publication previously. The specific level of requirement of the different properties must be specified individually for each specific situation and environment to minimize the contrast between target and a background. The criteria or properties are not totally independent of one another. How they are correlated is part of the theme of this paper. However, prioritization has been made due to the limit of space. Therefore all of the interconnections between the six criteria will not be considered in the work of this report. The ladder step previous to digging into the different material composition possibilities and choice of suitable materials and structures (not covered here), includes the object signature and decision of what the spectral response should be

  11. Spectral Depth Analysis of some Segments of the Bida Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-16

    Dec 16, 2017 ... ABSTRACT: Spectral depth analysis was carried out on ten (10) of the 2009 total magnetic field intensity data sheets covering some segments of the Bida basin, to determine the depth to magnetic basement within the basin. The data was ... groundwater lie concealed beneath the earth surface and the ...

  12. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications; Instruments de mesure multi-polluants par spectroscopie infrarouge bases sur des lasers fibres et par generation de difference de frequences: developpement et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, J

    2006-12-15

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of < 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2} and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and the determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 {mu}m), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  13. Thermal infrared spectral analysis of compacted fine-grained mineral mixtures: implications for spectral interpretation of lithified sedimentary materials on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Rogers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the thermal infrared (TIR) spectral mixing behavior of compacted fine-grained mineral assemblages is necessary for facilitating quantitative mineralogy of sedimentary surfaces from spectral measurements. Previous researchers have demonstrated that TIR spectra from igneous and metamorphic rocks as well as coarse-grained (>63 micron) sand mixtures combine in proportion to their volume abundance. However, the spectral mixing behavior of compacted, fine-grained mineral mixtures that would be characteristic of sedimentary depositional environments has received little attention. Here we characterize the spectral properties of pressed pellet samples of pestle and centrifuged to obtain less than 10 micron size. Pure phases and mixtures of two, three and four components were made in varying proportions by volume. All of the samples were pressed into pellets at 15000PSI to minimize volume scattering. Thermal infrared spectra of pellets were measured in the Vibrational Spectroscopy Laboratory at Stony Brook University with a Thermo Fisher Nicolet 6700 Fourier transform infrared Michelson interferometer from ~225 to 2000 cm-1. Our preliminary results indicate that some pelletized samples have contributions from volume scattering, which leads to non-linear spectral combinations. It is not clear if the transparency features (which arise from multiple surface reflections of incident photons) are due to minor clinging fines on an otherwise specular pellet surface or to partially transmitted energy through optically thin grains in the compacted mixture. Inclusion of loose powder (analysis of TES and Mini-TES data of lithified sedimentary deposits.

  14. IR and UV spectroscopic analysis of TBP complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Berrak, A.; Seridi, L.; Attou, M.

    1985-06-01

    The complexity of TBP molecule and the limited number of references stimulated the elaboration of this report. The spectroscopic of TBP and its complexes in the IR and UV fields permitted to elucidate or to confirm certain aspects concerning the solvation phenomenum. In IR spectroscopy, the stretching band of the P→O bond only is characteristic of the complex formed. The position of this band gives sufficient information about the kind and the stability of a complex. The TBP electronic spectra are characterized by two bands (200-220 nm) 1 and (268-290 nm) 2 whose intensity ratio (2/1) is about 0,13. The solvent nature seems to influence the positions of these bands and that of the inflexion point. The band 2 disappears when the TBP is complexed and the position and the intensity of the band 1 depend upon the complex nature

  15. Composition dependence of phase transformation behavior and shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Hara, T.; Kitashima, T.; Miura, S.; Hosoda, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The partial isothemal section at 1523 K was determined in Ti–Pt–Ir. ► The high-temperature shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir) was investigated. ► The shape recovery ratio was 72% in Ti–10Pt–32Ir after deformation at 1123 K. ► Ir addition to TiPt is effective to improve shape memory effect of TiPt. -- Abstract: The phase transformation and high-temperature shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir) were investigated. First, the Ti-rich phase boundary of Ti(Pt, Ir) was investigated by phase composition analysis by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) using an electron probe X-ray micro analyzer (EPMA), X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then, the three alloys Ti–35Pt–10Ir, Ti–22Pt–22Ir, and Ti–10Pt–32Ir (at%) close to the phase boundary but in the single phase of Ti(Pt, Ir) were prepared by the arc melting method. The shape memory effect and crystal structure were investigated by compression loading–unloading tests and high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively

  16. Use of fast Fourier transform in gamma-ray spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Shojiro; Sasaki, Takashi; Ueda, Isamu.

    1978-01-01

    In order to simplify the mass data processing in a response matrix method for γ-ray spectral analysis, a method using a Fast Fourier Transform has been devised. The validity of the method has been confirmed by computer simulation for spectra of a NaI detector. First, it is shown that spectral data can be represented by Fourier series with a reduced number of terms. Then the estimation of intensities of γ-ray components is performed by a matrix operation using the compressed data of an observation spectrum and standard spectra in Fourier coefficients. The identification of γ-ray energies is also easy. Several features of the method and a general problem to be solved in relation to a response matrix method are described. (author)

  17. Improved mid infrared detector for high spectral or spatial resolution and synchrotron radiation use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, Mbaye; Bordessoule, Michel; Kanouté, Brahim; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Manceron, Laurent [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Laboratoire MONARIS, CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 8233, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    When using bright, small effective size sources, such as synchrotron radiation light beam, for broadband spectroscopy at spectral or spatial high resolution for mid-IR FTIR measurements, a marked detectivity improvement can be achieved by setting up a device matching the detector optical étendue to that of the source. Further improvement can be achieved by reducing the background unmodulated flux and other intrinsic noise sources using a lower temperature cryogen, such as liquid helium. By the combined use of cooled apertures, cold reimaging optics, filters and adapted detector polarization, and preamplification electronics, the sensitivity of a HgCdTe photoconductive IR detector can be improved by a significant factor with respect to standard commercial devices (more than one order of magnitude on average over 6–20 μm region) and the usable spectral range extended to longer wavelengths. The performances of such an optimized detector developed on the AILES Beamline at SOLEIL are presented here.

  18. Measurement of the Shape of the Optical-IR Spectrum of Prompt Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossan, Bruce; Kistaubayev, M.; Smoot, G.; Scherr, L.

    2017-06-01

    While the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been extensively measured, detections of prompt emission (i.e. during bright X-gamma emission) are more limited. Some prompt optical measurements are regularly made, but these are typically in a single wide band, with limited time resolution, and no measurement of spectral shape. Some models predict a synchrotron self-absorption spectral break somewhere in the IR-optical region. Measurement of the absorption frequency would give extensive information on each burst, including the electron Lorentz factor, the radius of emission, and more (Shen & Zhang 2008). Thus far the best prompt observations have been explained invoking a variety of models, but often with a non-unique interpretation. To understand this apparently heterogeneous behavior, and to reduce the number of possible models, it is critical to add data on the optical - IR spectral shape.Long GRB prompt X-gamma emission typically lasts ~40-80 s. The Swift BAT instrument rapidly measures GRB positions to within a few arc minutes and communicates them via the internet within a few seconds. We have measured the time for a fast-moving D=700 mm telescope to point and settle to be less than 9 s anywhere on the observable sky. Therefore, the majority of prompt optical-IR emission can be measured responding to BAT positions with this telescope. In this presentation, we describe our observing and science programs, and give our design for the Burst Simultaneous Three-channel Instrument (BSTI), which uses dichroics to send eparate bands to 3 cameras. Two EMCCD cameras, give high-time resolution in B and V; a third camera with a HgCdTe sensor covers H band, allowing us to study extinguished bursts. For a total exposure time of 10 s, we find a 5 sigma sensitivity of 21.3 and 20.3 mag in B and R for 1" seeing and Kitt Peak sky brightness, much fainter than typical previous prompt detections. We estimate 5 sigma H-band sensitivity for an IR optimized telescope to be

  19. Monitoring urban greenness dynamics using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muye Gan

    Full Text Available Urban greenness is increasingly recognized as an essential constituent of the urban environment and can provide a range of services and enhance residents' quality of life. Understanding the pattern of urban greenness and exploring its spatiotemporal dynamics would contribute valuable information for urban planning. In this paper, we investigated the pattern of urban greenness in Hangzhou, China, over the past two decades using time series Landsat-5 TM data obtained in 1990, 2002, and 2010. Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was used to derive vegetation cover fractions at the subpixel level. An RGB-vegetation fraction model, change intensity analysis and the concentric technique were integrated to reveal the detailed, spatial characteristics and the overall pattern of change in the vegetation cover fraction. Our results demonstrated the ability of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis to accurately model the vegetation cover fraction in pixels despite the complex spectral confusion of different land cover types. The integration of multiple techniques revealed various changing patterns in urban greenness in this region. The overall vegetation cover has exhibited a drastic decrease over the past two decades, while no significant change occurred in the scenic spots that were studied. Meanwhile, a remarkable recovery of greenness was observed in the existing urban area. The increasing coverage of small green patches has played a vital role in the recovery of urban greenness. These changing patterns were more obvious during the period from 2002 to 2010 than from 1990 to 2002, and they revealed the combined effects of rapid urbanization and greening policies. This work demonstrates the usefulness of time series of vegetation cover fractions for conducting accurate and in-depth studies of the long-term trajectories of urban greenness to obtain meaningful information for sustainable urban development.

  20. Spectral analysis of the He-enriched sdO-star HD 127493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Matti; Latour, Marilyn; Heber, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    The bright sdO star HD127493 is known to be of mixed H/He composition and excellent archival spectra covering both optical and ultraviolet ranges are available. UV spectra play a key role as they give access to many chemical species that do not show spectral lines in the optical, such as iron and nickel. This encouraged the quantitative spectral analysis of this prototypical mixed H/He composition sdO star. We determined atmospheric parameters for HD127493 in addition to the abundance of C, N, O, Si, S, Fe, and Ni in the atmosphere using non-LTE model atmospheres calculated with TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. A comparison between the parallax distance measured by Hipparcos and the derived spectroscopic distance indicate that the derived atmospheric parameters are realistic. From our metal abundance analysis, we find a strong CNO signature and enrichment in iron and nickel.

  1. Localized Spectral Analysis of Fluctuating Power Generation from Solar Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nijs

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in solar irradiance are a serious obstacle for the future large-scale application of photovoltaics. Occurring regularly with the passage of clouds, they can cause unexpected power variations and introduce voltage dips to the power distribution system. This paper proposes the treatment of such fluctuating time series as realizations of a stochastic, locally stationary, wavelet process. Its local spectral density can be estimated from empirical data by means of wavelet periodograms. The wavelet approach allows the analysis of the amplitude of fluctuations per characteristic scale, hence, persistence of the fluctuation. Furthermore, conclusions can be drawn on the frequency of occurrence of fluctuations of different scale. This localized spectral analysis was applied to empirical data of two successive years. The approach is especially useful for network planning and load management of power distribution systems containing a high density of photovoltaic generation units.

  2. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to

  3. Spectral analysis and multigrid preconditioners for two-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaderi, Hamid; Dehghan, Mehdi; Donatelli, Marco; Mazza, Mariarosa

    2017-12-01

    Fractional diffusion equations (FDEs) are a mathematical tool used for describing some special diffusion phenomena arising in many different applications like porous media and computational finance. In this paper, we focus on a two-dimensional space-FDE problem discretized by means of a second order finite difference scheme obtained as combination of the Crank-Nicolson scheme and the so-called weighted and shifted Grünwald formula. By fully exploiting the Toeplitz-like structure of the resulting linear system, we provide a detailed spectral analysis of the coefficient matrix at each time step, both in the case of constant and variable diffusion coefficients. Such a spectral analysis has a very crucial role, since it can be used for designing fast and robust iterative solvers. In particular, we employ the obtained spectral information to define a Galerkin multigrid method based on the classical linear interpolation as grid transfer operator and damped-Jacobi as smoother, and to prove the linear convergence rate of the corresponding two-grid method. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed grid transfer operator is strong enough for working also with the V-cycle method and the geometric multigrid. On this basis, we introduce two computationally favourable variants of the proposed multigrid method and we use them as preconditioners for Krylov methods. Several numerical results confirm that the resulting preconditioning strategies still keep a linear convergence rate.

  4. Spectral methods for the detection of network community structure: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2010-01-01

    Spectral analysis has been successfully applied to the detection of community structure of networks, respectively being based on the adjacency matrix, the standard Laplacian matrix, the normalized Laplacian matrix, the modularity matrix, the correlation matrix and several other variants of these matrices. However, the comparison between these spectral methods is less reported. More importantly, it is still unclear which matrix is more appropriate for the detection of community structure. This paper answers the question by evaluating the effectiveness of these five matrices against benchmark networks with heterogeneous distributions of node degree and community size. Test results demonstrate that the normalized Laplacian matrix and the correlation matrix significantly outperform the other three matrices at identifying the community structure of networks. This indicates that it is crucial to take into account the heterogeneous distribution of node degree when using spectral analysis for the detection of community structure. In addition, to our surprise, the modularity matrix exhibits very similar performance to the adjacency matrix, which indicates that the modularity matrix does not gain benefits from using the configuration model as a reference network with the consideration of the node degree heterogeneity

  5. Spectral analysis and comparison of mineral deposits forming in opacified intraocular lens and senile cataractous lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Chen, Ko-Hwa; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Cheng, Wen-Ting; Li, Mei-Jane

    2010-10-01

    This preliminary report was attempted to compare the chemical components of mineral deposits on the surfaces of an opacified intraocular lens (IOL) and a calcified senile cataractous lens (SCL) by vibrational spectral diagnosis. An opacified intraocular lens (IOL) was obtained from a 65-year-old male patient who had a significant decrease in visual acuity 2-years after an ocular IOL implantation. Another SCL with grayish white calcified plaque on the subcapsular cortex was isolated from a 79-year-old male patient with complicated cataract after cataract surgery. Optical light microscope was used to observe both samples and gross pictures were taken. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman microspectroscopic techniques were employed to analyze the calcified deposits. The curve-fitting algorithm using the Gaussian function was also used to quantitatively estimate the chemical components in each deposit. The preliminary results of spectral diagnosis indicate that the opacified IOL mainly consisted of the poorly crystalline, immature non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA) with higher content of type B carbonated apatites. However, the calcified plaque deposited on the SCL was comprised of a mature crystalline stoichiometric HA having higher contents of type A and type B carbonate apatites. More case studies should be examined in future.

  6. Assessment of modern spectral analysis methods to improve wavenumber resolution of F-K spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, T.E.; Laster, S.J.; Meek, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The improvement in wavenumber spectra obtained by using high resolution spectral estimators is examined. Three modern spectral estimators were tested, namely the Autoregressive/Maximum Entropy (AR/ME) method, the Extended Prony method, and an eigenstructure method. They were combined with the conventional Fourier method by first transforming each trace with a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). A high resolution spectral estimator was applied to the resulting complex spatial sequence for each frequency. The collection of wavenumber spectra thus computed comprises a hybrid f-k spectrum with high wavenumber resolution and less spectral ringing. Synthetic and real data records containing 25 traces were analyzed by using the hybrid f-k method. The results show an FFT-AR/ME f-k spectrum has noticeably better wavenumber resolution and more spectral dynamic range than conventional spectra when the number of channels is small. The observed improvement suggests the hybrid technique is potentially valuable in seismic data analysis

  7. Robustness of the charge-ordered phases in IrTe2 against photoexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monney, C.; Schuler, A.; Jaouen, T.; Mottas, M.-L.; Wolf, Th.; Merz, M.; Muntwiler, M.; Castiglioni, L.; Aebi, P.; Weber, F.; Hengsberger, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a time-resolved angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy study of IrTe2, which undergoes two first-order structural and charge-ordered phase transitions on cooling below 270 K and below 180 K. The possibility of inducing a phase transition by photoexcitation with near-infrared femtosecond pulses is investigated in the charge-ordered phases. We observe changes of the spectral function occurring within a few hundreds of femtoseconds and persisting up to several picoseconds, which we interpret as a partial photoinduced phase transition (PIPT). The necessary time for photoinducing these spectral changes increases with increasing photoexcitation density and reaches time scales longer than the rise time of the transient electronic temperature. We conclude that the PIPT is driven by a transient increase of the lattice temperature following the energy transfer from the electrons. However, the photoinduced changes of the spectral function are small, which indicates that the low-temperature phase is particularly robust against photoexcitation. We suggest that the system might be trapped in an out-of-equilibrium state, for which only a partial structural transition is achieved.

  8. On the spectral analysis of iterative solutions of the discretized one-group transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the Fourier-mode technique used for the spectral analysis of iterative solutions of the one-group discretized transport equation. We introduce a direct spectral analysis for the iterative solution of finite difference approximations for finite slabs composed of identical layers, providing thus a complementary analysis that is more appropriate for reactor applications. Numerical calculations for the method of characteristics and with the diamond difference approximation show the appearance of antisymmetric modes generated by the iteration on boundary data. We have also utilized the discrete Fourier transform to compute the spectrum for a periodic slab containing N identical layers and shown that at the limit N → ∞ one obtains the familiar Fourier-mode solution

  9. Structural Changes Induced in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. DNA by Femtosecond IR Laser Pulses: A Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta E. Dina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, surface-enhanced Raman spectra of ten genomic DNAs extracted from leaf tissues of different grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. varieties, respectively, are analyzed in the wavenumber range 300–1800 cm−1. Furthermore, structural changes induced in grapevine genomic nucleic acids upon femtosecond (170 fs infrared (IR laser pulse irradiation (λ = 1100 nm are discussed in detail for seven genomic DNAs, respectively. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS signatures, vibrational band assignments and structural characterization of genomic DNAs are reported for each case. As a general observation, the wavenumber range between 1500 and 1660 cm−1 of the spectra seems to be modified upon laser treatment. This finding could reflect changes in the base-stacking interactions in DNA. Spectral shifts are mainly attributed to purines (dA, dG and deoxyribose. Pyrimidine residues seem to be less affected by IR femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the conformational properties of nucleic acid segments are observed after laser treatment. We have found that DNA isolated from Feteasca Neagra grapevine leaf tissues is the most structurally-responsive system to the femtosecond IR laser irradiation process. In addition, using unbiased computational resources by means of principal component analysis (PCA, eight different grapevine varieties were discriminated.

  10. Spectroscopic studies (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible), normal co-ordinate analysis, first-order hyperpolarizability and HOMO, LUMO studies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone by using Density Functional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Prasad, K; Samatha, K; Jagadeeswara Rao, D; Santhamma, C; Muthu, S; Mark Heron, B

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DCLBP) were obtained from the FT-IR and Raman spectral data, and evaluated based on the Density Functional Theory using the standard method B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) as the basis set. On the basis of potential energy distribution together with the normal-co-ordinate analysis and following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology, the assignments for the various frequencies were described. The values of the electric dipole moment (μ) and the first-order hyperpolarizability (β) of the molecule were computed. The UV-absorption spectrum was also recorded to study the electronic transitions. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The NBO analysis, to study the intramolecular hyperconjugative interactions, was carried out. Mulliken's net charges were evaluated. The MEP and thermodynamic properties were also calculated. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor, such as Fukui functions, was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in 3,4-dichlorobenzophenone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. SNSEDextend: SuperNova Spectral Energy Distributions extrapolation toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierel, Justin D. R.; Rodney, Steven A.; Avelino, Arturo; Bianco, Federica; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew; Hicken, Malcolm; Hounsell, Rebekah; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kessler, Richard; Kirshner, Robert; Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, Gautham; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Scolnic, Daniel; Strolger, Louis-Gregory

    2018-05-01

    SNSEDextend extrapolates core-collapse and Type Ia Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) into the UV and IR for use in simulations and photometric classifications. The user provides a library of existing SED templates (such as those in the authors' SN SED Repository) along with new photometric constraints in the UV and/or NIR wavelength ranges. The software then extends the existing template SEDs so their colors match the input data at all phases. SNSEDextend can also extend the SALT2 spectral time-series model for Type Ia SN for a "first-order" extrapolation of the SALT2 model components, suitable for use in survey simulations and photometric classification tools; as the code does not do a rigorous re-training of the SALT2 model, the results should not be relied on for precision applications such as light curve fitting for cosmology.

  12. Spectral and cross-spectral analysis of uneven time series with the smoothed Lomb-Scargle periodogram and Monte Carlo evaluation of statistical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Igúzquiza, Eulogio; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2012-12-01

    Many spectral analysis techniques have been designed assuming sequences taken with a constant sampling interval. However, there are empirical time series in the geosciences (sediment cores, fossil abundance data, isotope analysis, …) that do not follow regular sampling because of missing data, gapped data, random sampling or incomplete sequences, among other reasons. In general, interpolating an uneven series in order to obtain a succession with a constant sampling interval alters the spectral content of the series. In such cases it is preferable to follow an approach that works with the uneven data directly, avoiding the need for an explicit interpolation step. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram is a popular choice in such circumstances, as there are programs available in the public domain for its computation. One new computer program for spectral analysis improves the standard Lomb-Scargle periodogram approach in two ways: (1) It explicitly adjusts the statistical significance to any bias introduced by variance reduction smoothing, and (2) it uses a permutation test to evaluate confidence levels, which is better suited than parametric methods when neighbouring frequencies are highly correlated. Another novel program for cross-spectral analysis offers the advantage of estimating the Lomb-Scargle cross-periodogram of two uneven time series defined on the same interval, and it evaluates the confidence levels of the estimated cross-spectra by a non-parametric computer intensive permutation test. Thus, the cross-spectrum, the squared coherence spectrum, the phase spectrum, and the Monte Carlo statistical significance of the cross-spectrum and the squared-coherence spectrum can be obtained. Both of the programs are written in ANSI Fortran 77, in view of its simplicity and compatibility. The program code is of public domain, provided on the website of the journal (http://www.iamg.org/index.php/publisher/articleview/frmArticleID/112/). Different examples (with simulated and

  13. Spectral analysis of bacanora (agave-derived liquor) by using FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Clavero, Valentin; Weber, Andreas; Schröder, Werner; Curticapean, Dan

    2016-04-01

    The industry of the agave-derived bacanora, in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, has been growing substantially in recent years. However, this higher demand still lies under the influences of a variety of social, legal, cultural, ecological and economic elements. The governmental institutions of the state have tried to encourage a sustainable development and certain levels of standardization in the production of bacanora by applying different economical and legal strategies. However, a large portion of this alcoholic beverage is still produced in a traditional and rudimentary fashion. Beyond the quality of the beverage, the lack of proper control, by using adequate instrumental methods, might represent a health risk, as in several cases traditional-distilled beverages can contain elevated levels of harmful materials. The present article describes the qualitative spectral analysis of samples of the traditional-produced distilled beverage bacanora in the range from 0 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1 by using a Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer. This particular technique has not been previously explored for the analysis of bacanora, as in the case of other beverages, including tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement for the spectral analysis has been built by combining conventional hardware parts (Michelson interferometer, photo-diodes, visible laser, etc.) and a set of self-developed evaluation algorithms. The resulting spectral information has been compared to those of pure samples of ethanol and to the spectra from different samples of the alcoholic beverage tequila. The proposed instrumental arrangement can be used the analysis of bacanora.

  14. Heat-induced changes to lipid molecular structure in Vimy flaxseed: Spectral intensity and molecular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Damiran, Daalkhaijav

    2011-06-01

    Autoclaving was used to manipulate nutrient utilization and availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize any changes of the functional groups mainly associated with lipid structure in flaxseed ( Linum usitatissimum, cv. Vimy), that occurred on a molecular level during the treatment process using infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH 3 asymmetric (ca. 2959 cm -1), CH 2 asymmetric (ca. 2928 cm -1), CH 3 symmetric (ca. 2871 cm -1) and CH 2 symmetric (ca. 2954 cm -1) functional groups, lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group (ca. 1745 cm -1), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (ca. 3010 cm -1) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Flaxseed samples were kept raw for the control or autoclaved in batches at 120 °C for 20, 40 or 60 min for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios showed a significant decrease ( P 0.05) on lipid carbonyl C dbnd O ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to C dbnd C) (with average spectral peak area intensities of 138.3 and 68.8 IR intensity units, respectively). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH 3 and CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2988-2790 cm -1). The results indicated that autoclaving had an impact to the mid-infrared molecular spectrum of flaxseed to identify heat-induced changes in lipid conformation. A future study is needed to quantify the relationship between lipid molecular structure changes and functionality/availability.

  15. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina, E-mail: cpopescu@icmpp.ro [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania); Gomez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (Spain); Simionescu, Bogdan C. [' Petru Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry (Romania)

    2013-06-15

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010-2,710, 1,530-1,170, and 1,170-625 cm{sup -1} regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 Degree-Sign C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si-O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}-N{sup +} groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH{sub 2}, C-N, Si-C and C-C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  16. Characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy of a carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Gómez, Rafael; Mata, Fco Javier de la; Rasines, Beatriz; Simionescu, Bogdan C.

    2013-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy were used to study the microstructural changes occurring on heating of a new carbosilane dendrimer with peripheral ammonium groups. Temperature-dependent spectral variations in the 3,010–2,710, 1,530–1,170, and 1,170–625 cm −1 regions were monitored during the heating process. The dependence, on temperature, of integral absorptions and position of spectral bands was established and the spectral modifications associated with molecular conformation rearrangements, allowing molecular shape changes, were found. Before 180 °C, the studied carbosilane dendrimer proved to be stable, while at higher temperatures it oxidizes and Si–O groups appear. 2D IR correlation spectroscopy gives new information about the effect of temperature on the structure and dynamics of the system. Synchronous and asynchronous spectra indicate that, at low temperature, conformational changes of CH 3 and CH 3 –N + groups take place first. With increasing temperature, the intensity variation of the CH 2 , C–N, Si–C and C–C groups from the dendritic core is faster than that of the terminal units. This indicates that, with increasing temperature, the segments of the dendritic core obtain enough energy to change their conformation more easily as compared to the terminal units, due to their internal flexibility.

  17. Modal spectral analysis of piping: Determination of the significant frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the number of modes on the response of a piping system in a dynamic modal spectral analysis. It shows how the analysis can be limited to a specific frequency range of the pipe (independent of the frequency range of the response spectrum), allowing cost reduction without loss in accuracy. The 'missing mass' is taken into account through an original technique. (orig./HP)

  18. Optical design for a breadboard high-resolution spectrometer for SIRTF/IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert J.; Houck, James R.; van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    1996-11-01

    The optical design of a breadboard high resolution infrared spectrometer for the IRS instrument on the SIRTF mission is discussed. The spectrometer uses a crossed echelle grating configuration to cover the spectral region from 10 to 20 micrometer with a resolving power of approximately equals 600. The all reflective spectrometer forms a nearly diffraction limited image of the two dimensional spectrum on a 128 multiplied by 128 arsenic doped silicon area array with 75 micrometer pixels. The design aspects discussed include, grating numerology, image quality, packaging and alignment philosophy.

  19. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 ≤ z ≤ 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame ∼0.1-5 μm spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  20. THE ULTRAVIOLET-TO-MID-INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ryan A.; Shemmer, Ohad [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Fan Xiaohui [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Anderson, Scott F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Plotkin, Richard M. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Strauss, Michael A., E-mail: RyanLane@my.unt.edu, E-mail: ohad@unt.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope photometry of 18 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars at 2.7 {<=} z {<=} 5.9 which have weak or undetectable high-ionization emission lines in their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra (hereafter weak-lined quasars, or WLQs). The Spitzer data are combined with SDSS spectra and ground-based, near-infrared (IR) photometry of these sources to produce a large inventory of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of WLQs across the rest-frame {approx}0.1-5 {mu}m spectral band. The SEDs of our sources are inconsistent with those of BL Lacertae objects which are dominated by synchrotron emission due to a jet aligned close to our line of sight, but are consistent with the SED of ordinary quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts that exhibit a near-to-mid-IR 'bump', characteristic of hot dust emission. This indicates that broad emission lines in WLQs are intrinsically weak, rather than suffering continuum dilution from a jet, and that such sources cannot be selected efficiently from traditional photometric surveys.

  1. Design and Development of a Spectral Library for Different Vegetation and Landcover Types for Arctic, Antarctic and Chihuahua Desert Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharasi, K.; Goswami, S.; Gamon, J.; Vargas, S.; Marin, R.; Lin, D.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2008-12-01

    All objects on the Earth's surface absorb and reflect portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Depending on the composition of the material, every material has its characteristic spectral profile. The characteristic spectral profile for vegetation is often used to study how vegetation patterns at large spatial scales affect ecosystem structure and function. Analysis of spectroscopic data from the laboratory, and from various other platforms like aircraft or spacecraft, requires a knowledge base that consists of different characteristic spectral profiles for known different materials. This study reports on establishment of an online and searchable spectral library for a range of plant species and landcover types in the Arctic, Anatarctic and Chihuahuan desert ecosystems. Field data were collected from Arctic Alaska, the Antarctic Peninsula and the Chihuahuan desert in the visible to near infrared (IR) range using a handheld portable spectrometer. The data have been archived in a database created using postgre sql with have been made publicly available on a plone web-interface. This poster describes the data collected in more detail and offers instruction to users who wish to make use of this free online resource.

  2. [Analysis of software for identifying spectral line of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on LabVIEW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-yu; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Wei-guang; Yan, Xiao-juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Zhang, Yong-zhi; Wang, Le; Dong, Lei; Yin, Wang-bao; Jia, Suo-tang

    2012-03-01

    Self-designed identifying software for LIBS spectral line was introduced. Being integrated with LabVIEW, the soft ware can smooth spectral lines and pick peaks. The second difference and threshold methods were employed. Characteristic spectrum of several elements matches the NIST database, and realizes automatic spectral line identification and qualitative analysis of the basic composition of sample. This software can analyze spectrum handily and rapidly. It will be a useful tool for LIBS.

  3. Two Step Procedure Using a 1-D Slab Spectral Geometry in a Pebble Bed Reactor Core Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Kim, Kang Seog; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2005-01-01

    A strong spectral interaction between the core and the reflector has been one of the main concerns in the analysis of pebble bed reactor cores. To resolve this problem, VSOP adopted iteration between the spectrum calculation in a spectral zone and the global core calculation. In VSOP, the whole problem domain is divided into many spectral zones in which the fine group spectrum is calculated using bucklings for fast groups and albedos for thermal groups from the global core calculation. The resulting spectrum in each spectral zone is used to generate broad group cross sections of the spectral zone for the global core calculation. In this paper, we demonstrate a two step procedure in a pebble bed reactor core analysis. In the first step, we generate equivalent cross sections from a 1-D slab spectral geometry model with the help of the equivalence theory. The equivalent cross sections generated in this way include the effect of the spectral interaction between the core and the reflector. In the second step, we perform a diffusion calculation using the equivalent cross sections generated in the first step. A simple benchmark problem derived from the PMBR-400 Reactor was introduced to verify this approach. We compared the two step solutions with the Monte Carlo (MC) solutions for the problem

  4. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program

    2016-03-01

    The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) measures the absolute infrared (IR) spectral radiance (watts per square meter per steradian per wavenumber) of the sky directly above the instrument. More information about the instrument can be found through the manufacturer’s website. The spectral measurement range of the instrument is 3300 to 520 wavenumbers (cm-1) or 3-19.2 microns for the normal-range instruments and 3300 to 400 cm-1 or 3-25 microns, for the extended-range polar instruments. Spectral resolution is 1.0 cm-1. Instrument field-of-view is 1.3 degrees. Calibrated sky radiance spectra are produced on cycle of about 141 seconds with a group of 6 radiance spectra zenith having dwell times of about 14 seconds each interspersed with 55 seconds of calibration and mirror motion. The ASSIST data is comparable to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data and can be used for 1) evaluating line-by-line radiative transport codes, 2) detecting/quantifying cloud effects on ground-based measurements of infrared spectral radiance (and hence is valuable for cloud property retrievals), and 3) calculating vertical atmospheric profiles of temperature and water vapor and the detection of trace gases.

  5. Surface core level shifts of clean and oxygen covered Ir(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, M; Cassese, D; Cavallin, A; Comin, R; Orlando, F; Postregna, L [Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via A Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Golfetto, E; Baraldi, A [Dipartimento di Fisica e CENMAT, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Via A Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Lizzit, S [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 Km 163.5, 34012 Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: alessandro.baraldi@elettra.trieste.it

    2009-06-15

    We present the results of high resolution core level photoelectron spectroscopy employed to investigate the electronic structure of clean and oxygen covered Ir(111) surface. Ir 4f{sub 7/2} core level spectra are shown to be very sensitive to the local atomic environment. For the clean surface we detected two distinct components shifted by 550 meV, originated by surface and bulk atoms. The larger Gaussian width of the bulk component is explained as due to experimentally unresolved subsurface components. In order to determine the relevance of the phonon contribution we examined the thermal behaviour of the core level lineshape using the Hedin-Rosengren theory. From the phonon-induced spectral broadening we found the Debye temperature of bulk and surface atoms to be 298 and 181 K, respectively, which confirms the softening of the vibrational modes at the surface. Oxygen adsorption leads to the appearance of new surface core level components at -200 meV and +230 meV, which are interpreted as due to first-layer Ir atoms differently coordinated with oxygen. The coverage dependence of these components demonstrates that the oxygen saturation corresponds to 0.38 ML, in good agreement with recent density functional theory calculations.

  6. Solubility and IR studies of gamma-irradiated arabinoxylan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebringerova, A.; Kacurakova, M.; Hromadkova, Z.; Pruzinec, J.

    1989-01-01

    The structural and solubility changes of a water-insoluble arabinoxylan with a low degree of branching was studied after γ-irradiation by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the polysaccharide and its polymeric fractions. New functional groups like hydroperoxidic, carbonylic and endiolic ones were found after irradiation. The IR spectra shows that the structural changes involved by radiolytic treatment are reflected in the shape of the IR spectra of both polymeric fractions. The ratio of absorbance of the peaks at 1725 and 2920 cm -1 increased with radiation dose. (author) 17 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Dust-deficient Palomar-Green Quasars and the Diversity of AGN Intrinsic IR Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic broadband infrared (IR) emission properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 87 z ≲ 0.5 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars. While the Elvis AGN template with a moderate far-IR correction can reasonably match the SEDs of the AGN components in ∼60% of the sample (and is superior to alternatives such as that by Assef), it fails on two quasar populations: (1) hot-dust-deficient (HDD) quasars that show very weak emission thoroughly from the near-IR to the far-IR, and (2) warm-dust-deficient (WDD) quasars that have similar hot dust emission as normal quasars but are relatively faint in the mid- and far-IR. After building composite AGN templates for these dust-deficient quasars, we successfully fit the 0.3–500 μm SEDs of the PG sample with the appropriate AGN template, an infrared template of a star-forming galaxy, and a host galaxy stellar template. 20 HDD and 12 WDD quasars are identified from the SED decomposition, including seven ambiguous cases. Compared with normal quasars, the HDD quasars have AGNs with relatively low Eddington ratios and the fraction of WDD quasars increases with AGN luminosity. Moreover, both the HDD and WDD quasar populations show relatively stronger mid-IR silicate emission. Virtually identical SED properties are also found in some quasars from z = 0.5 to 6. We propose a conceptual model to demonstrate that the observed dust deficiency of quasars can result from a change of structures of the circumnuclear tori that can occur at any cosmic epoch.

  8. On the Spatially Resolved Star Formation History in M51. I. Hybrid UV+IR Star Formation Laws and IR Emission from Dust Heated by Old Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, R. T.; Lehmer, B. D.; Zezas, A.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Basu-Zych, A.; Wiklind, T.; Yukita, M.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Markwardt, L.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present LIGHTNING, a new spectral energy distribution fitting procedure, capable of quickly and reliably recovering star formation history (SFH) and extinction parameters. The SFH is modeled as discrete steps in time. In this work, we assumed lookback times of 0-10 Myr, 10-100 Myr, 0.1-1 Gyr, 1-5 Gyr, and 5-13.6 Gyr. LIGHTNING consists of a fully vectorized inversion algorithm to determine SFH step intensities and combines this with a grid-based approach to determine three extinction parameters. We apply our procedure to the extensive far-UV-to-far-IR photometric data of M51, convolved to a common spatial resolution and pixel scale, and make the resulting maps publicly available. We recover, for M51a, a peak star formation rate (SFR) between 0.1 and 5 Gyr ago, with much lower star formation activity over the past 100 Myr. For M51b, we find a declining SFR toward the present day. In the outskirt regions of M51a, which includes regions between M51a and M51b, we recover an SFR peak between 0.1 and 1 Gyr ago, which corresponds to the effects of the interaction between M51a and M51b. We utilize our results to (1) illustrate how UV+IR hybrid SFR laws vary across M51 and (2) provide first-order estimates for how the IR luminosity per unit stellar mass varies as a function of the stellar age. From the latter result, we find that IR emission from dust heated by stars is not always associated with young stars and that the IR emission from M51b is primarily powered by stars older than 5 Gyr.

  9. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  10. Study of transition metal cations state on the catalyst surface by IR-spectroscopy of adsorbed test-molecules (CO, NO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Using the methods of IR spectroscopy and ESR spectral manifestations of CO and NO in complexes with cations of vanadium in different oxidation degrees and coordination states have been studied. V 5+ cations do not coordinate NO and CO, but coordinate ammonia. Regular decrease of νCO values in V n+ -CO complexes with vanadium oxidation degree decrease has been shown. Spectral manifestation of NO complexes with V 4+ and V 3+ have been followed. The formation of V 4+ -NO, V 3+ -NO and V 3+ (NO) complexes has been established

  11. High-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis of lipid bodies by compound Raman microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Le, Thuc T; Chen, Hongtao; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-05-28

    Cells store excess energy in the form of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. At present, it is unclear how different types of fatty acids contribute to the formation of lipid droplets. We describe a compound Raman microscope capable of both high-speed chemical imaging and quantitative spectral analysis on the same platform. We used a picosecond laser source to perform coherent Raman scattering imaging of a biological sample and confocal Raman spectral analysis at points of interest. The potential of the compound Raman microscope was evaluated on lipid bodies of cultured cells and live animals. Our data indicate that the in vivo fat contains much more unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) than the fat formed via de novo synthesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, in vivo analysis of subcutaneous adipocytes and glands revealed a dramatic difference not only in the unsaturation level but also in the thermodynamic state of FAs inside their lipid bodies. Additionally, the compound Raman microscope allows tracking of the cellular uptake of a specific fatty acid and its abundance in nascent cytoplasmic lipid droplets. The high-speed vibrational imaging and spectral analysis capability renders compound Raman microscopy an indispensible analytical tool for the study of lipid-droplet biology.

  12. UV TO FAR-IR CATALOG OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN NEARBY CLUSTERS: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a sample of cluster galaxies devoted to study the environmental influence on the star formation activity. This sample of galaxies inhabits in clusters showing a rich variety in their characteristics and have been observed by the SDSS-DR6 down to M{sub B} {approx} -18, and by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer AIS throughout sky regions corresponding to several megaparsecs. We assign the broadband and emission-line fluxes from ultraviolet to far-infrared to each galaxy performing an accurate spectral energy distribution for spectral fitting analysis. The clusters follow the general X-ray luminosity versus velocity dispersion trend of L{sub X} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup 4.4}{sub c}. The analysis of the distributions of galaxy density counting up to the 5th nearest neighbor {Sigma}{sub 5} shows: (1) the virial regions and the cluster outskirts share a common range in the high density part of the distribution. This can be attributed to the presence of massive galaxy structures in the surroundings of virial regions. (2) The virial regions of massive clusters ({sigma}{sub c} > 550 km s{sup -1}) present a {Sigma}{sub 5} distribution statistically distinguishable ({approx}96%) from the corresponding distribution of low-mass clusters ({sigma}{sub c} < 550 km s{sup -1}). Both massive and low-mass clusters follow a similar density-radius trend, but the low-mass clusters avoid the high density extreme. We illustrate, with ABELL 1185, the environmental trends of galaxy populations. Maps of sky projected galaxy density show how low-luminosity star-forming galaxies appear distributed along more spread structures than their giant counterparts, whereas low-luminosity passive galaxies avoid the low-density environment. Giant passive and star-forming galaxies share rather similar sky regions with passive galaxies exhibiting more concentrated distributions.

  13. Application of spectral analysis for differentiation between metals using signals from eddy-current transducers

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovych, Anton; Poddubny, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    The authors theoretically and experimentally substantiated the use of the spectral method for processing a signal of the vortex-current metal detector for dichotomous differentiation between metals. Results of experimental research that prove the possibility of using spectral analysis for differentiation between metals were presented. The vortex-current method for detection of hidden metal objects was analyzed. It was indicated that amplitude of output VCD signal is determined by electric con...

  14. A Sensitivity Study on the Effects of Particle Chemistry, Asphericity and Size on the Mass Extinction Efficiency of Mineral Dust in the Earth's Atmosphere: From the Near to Thermal IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, R. A., Jr.; Reid, J. S.; Tsay, S. C.; Roush, T. L.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    To determine a plausible range of mass extinction efficiencies (MEE) of terrestrial atmospheric dust from the near to thermal IR, sensitivity analyses are performed over an extended range of dust microphysical and chemistry perturbations. The IR values are subsequently compared to those in the near-IR, to evaluate spectral relationships in their optical properties. Synthesized size distributions consistent with measurements, model particle size, while composition is defined by the refractive indices of minerals routinely observed in dust, including the widely used OPAC/Hess parameterization. Single-scattering properties of representative dust particle shapes are calculated using the T-matrix, Discrete Dipole Approximation and Lorenz-Mie light-scattering codes. For the parameterizations examined, MEE ranges from nearly zero to 1.2 square meters per gram, with the higher values associated with non-spheres composed of quartz and gypsum. At near-IR wavelengths, MEE for non-spheres generally exceeds those for spheres, while in the thermal IR, shape-induced changes in MEE strongly depend on volume median diameter (VMD) and wavelength, particularly for MEE evaluated at the mineral resonant frequencies. MEE spectral distributions appear to follow particle geometry and are evidence for shape dependency in the optical properties. It is also shown that non-spheres best reproduce the positions of prominent absorption peaks found in silicates. Generally, angular particles exhibit wider and more symmetric MEE spectral distribution patterns from 8-10 micrometers than those with smooth surfaces, likely due to their edge-effects. Lastly, MEE ratios allow for inferring dust optical properties across the visible-IR spectrum. We conclude the MEE of dust aerosol are significant for the parameter space investigated, and are a key component for remote sensing applications and the study of direct aerosol radiative effects.

  15. Mid-IR Spectra of Refractory Minerals Relevant to Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Shekeab

    2008-09-01

    On 4 July 2005 the Spitzer Space Telescope obtained mid-IR ( 5-40 µm) spectra of the ejecta from the hypervelocity impact of the Deep Impact projectile with comet 9P/Tempel 1. Spectral modeling demonstrates that there are abundant minerals present in the ejecta including Ca/Fe/Mg-rich silicates, carbonates, phyllosilicates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides [1]. However, precise mineralogical identifications are hampered by the lack of comprehensive 5 - 40 µm spectral measurements of the emissivity for a broad compositional range of these materials. Here, we present our initial results for 2 - 50 µm transmission spectra and absorption constants for materials relevant to comets, including pyrrhotite, pyrite, and several phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. Measuring the transmission of materials over the full spectral range sensitive by Spitzer requires grinding the minerals into submicron powders and then mixing them with KBr (for the 1-25 um region) and polyethylene (16-50 um region) to form pellets. Transmission measurements of sub-micron sulfides are particularly difficult to obtain because the minerals oxidize rapidly upon grinding and subsequent handling unless special care is taken. A detailed description of our sample preparation and measurement technique will be provided to assist other researchers in their attempts to acquire similar spectra. References: [1] Lisse, C.M. et al., Science 313, 635 - 640 (2006)

  16. Detection of metanil yellow contamination in turmeric using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Chan, Dian

    2016-05-01

    Turmeric is well known for its medicinal value and is often used in Asian cuisine. Economically motivated contamination of turmeric by chemicals such as metanil yellow has been repeatedly reported. Although traditional technologies can detect such contaminants in food, high operational costs and operational complexities have limited their use to the laboratory. This study used Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy (FT-Raman) and Fourier Transform - Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric powder. Mixtures of metanil yellow in turmeric were prepared at concentrations of 30%, 25%, 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%, 1% and 0.01% (w/w). The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectral signal of pure turmeric powder, pure metanil yellow powder and the 8 sample mixtures were obtained and analyzed independently to identify metanil yellow contamination in turmeric. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy can detect metanil yellow mixed with turmeric at concentrations as low as 1% and 5%, respectively, and may be useful for non-destructive detection of adulterated turmeric powder.

  17. Spectral Analysis Of Business Cycles In The Visegrad Group Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijek Arkadiusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the business cycle properties of Visegrad group countries. The main objective is to identify business cycles in these countries and to study the relationships between them. The author applies a modification of the Fourier analysis to estimate cycle amplitudes and frequencies. This allows for a more precise estimation of cycle characteristics than the traditional approach. The cross-spectral analysis of GDP cyclical components for the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia makes it possible to assess the degree of business cycle synchronization between the countries.

  18. Overlapping communities detection based on spectral analysis of line graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Chun; Zhang, Ruisheng; Hu, Rongjing; Huang, Guoming; Wei, Jiaxuan

    2018-05-01

    Community in networks are often overlapping where one vertex belongs to several clusters. Meanwhile, many networks show hierarchical structure such that community is recursively grouped into hierarchical organization. In order to obtain overlapping communities from a global hierarchy of vertices, a new algorithm (named SAoLG) is proposed to build the hierarchical organization along with detecting the overlap of community structure. SAoLG applies the spectral analysis into line graphs to unify the overlap and hierarchical structure of the communities. In order to avoid the limitation of absolute distance such as Euclidean distance, SAoLG employs Angular distance to compute the similarity between vertices. Furthermore, we make a micro-improvement partition density to evaluate the quality of community structure and use it to obtain the more reasonable and sensible community numbers. The proposed SAoLG algorithm achieves a balance between overlap and hierarchy by applying spectral analysis to edge community detection. The experimental results on one standard network and six real-world networks show that the SAoLG algorithm achieves higher modularity and reasonable community number values than those generated by Ahn's algorithm, the classical CPM and GN ones.

  19. An Excel‐based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro‐arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T‐wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results. PMID:25501439

  20. HYPERSPECTRAL HYPERION IMAGERY ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION USING SPECTRAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Pervez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid advancement in remote sensing open new avenues to explore the hyperspectral Hyperion imagery pre-processing techniques, analysis and application for land use mapping. The hyperspectral data consists of 242 bands out of which 196 calibrated/useful bands are available for hyperspectral applications. Atmospheric correction applied to the hyperspectral calibrated bands make the data more useful for its further processing/ application. Principal component (PC analysis applied to the hyperspectral calibrated bands reduced the dimensionality of the data and it is found that 99% of the data is held in first 10 PCs. Feature extraction is one of the important application by using vegetation delineation and normalized difference vegetation index. The machine learning classifiers uses the technique to identify the pixels having significant difference in the spectral signature which is very useful for classification of an image. Supervised machine learning classifier technique has been used for classification of hyperspectral image which resulted in overall efficiency of 86.6703 and Kappa co-efficient of 0.7998.

  1. A theoretical-experimental methodology for assessing the sensitivity of biomedical spectral imaging platforms, assays, and analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas J; Sweat, Brenner; Abbott, Caitlyn; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C

    2018-01-01

    Spectral imaging technologies have been used for many years by the remote sensing community. More recently, these approaches have been applied to biomedical problems, where they have shown great promise. However, biomedical spectral imaging has been complicated by the high variance of biological data and the reduced ability to construct test scenarios with fixed ground truths. Hence, it has been difficult to objectively assess and compare biomedical spectral imaging assays and technologies. Here, we present a standardized methodology that allows assessment of the performance of biomedical spectral imaging equipment, assays, and analysis algorithms. This methodology incorporates real experimental data and a theoretical sensitivity analysis, preserving the variability present in biomedical image data. We demonstrate that this approach can be applied in several ways: to compare the effectiveness of spectral analysis algorithms, to compare the response of different imaging platforms, and to assess the level of target signature required to achieve a desired performance. Results indicate that it is possible to compare even very different hardware platforms using this methodology. Future applications could include a range of optimization tasks, such as maximizing detection sensitivity or acquisition speed, providing high utility for investigators ranging from design engineers to biomedical scientists. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Performance evaluation of spectral deconvolution analysis tool (SDAT) software used for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.; Biegalski, S.R.; Haas, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. Spectral deconvolution spectroscopy is an analysis method that utilizes the entire signal deposited in a gamma-ray detector rather than the small portion of the signal that is present in one gamma-ray peak. This method shows promise to improve detection limits over classical gamma-ray spectroscopy analytical techniques; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. To address this issue, we performed three tests to compare the detection ability and variance of SDAT results to those of commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) software which utilizes a standard peak search algorithm. (author)

  3. Validity and reproducibility of HOMA-IR, 1/HOMA-IR, QUICKI and McAuley's indices in patients with hypertension and type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafidis, P A; Lasaridis, A N; Nilsson, P M; Pikilidou, M I; Stafilas, P C; Kanaki, A; Kazakos, K; Yovos, J; Bakris, G L

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, its reciprocal (1/HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) and McAuley's index in hypertensive diabetic patients. In 78 patients with hypertension and type II diabetes glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels were determined after a 12-h fast to calculate these indices, and insulin sensitivity (IS) was measured with the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique. Two weeks later, subjects had again their glucose, insulin and triglycerides measured. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were applied to assess the validity of these indices compared to clamp IS and coefficients of variation between the two visits were estimated to assess their reproducibility. HOMA-IR index was strongly and inversely correlated with the basic IS clamp index, the M-value (r=-0.572, PHOMA-IR and QUICKI indices were positively correlated with the M-value (r=0.342, PHOMA-IR was the best fit of clamp-derived IS. Coefficients of variation between the two visits were 23.5% for HOMA-IR, 19.2% for 1/HOMA-IR, 7.8% for QUICKI and 15.1% for McAuley's index. In conclusion, HOMA-IR, 1/HOMA-IR and QUICKI are valid estimates of clamp-derived IS in patients with hypertension and type II diabetes, whereas the validity of McAuley's index needs further evaluation. QUICKI displayed better reproducibility than the other indices.

  4. A novel IrNi@PdIr/C core-shell electrocatalyst with enhanced activity and durability for the hydrogen oxidation reaction in alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bowen; Yu, Hongmei; Jia, Jia; Jun, Chi; Gao, Xueqiang; Yao, Dewei; Sun, Xinye; Song, Wei; Yi, Baolian; Shao, Zhigang

    2018-03-08

    Herein, a novel non-platinum core-shell catalyst, namely, IrNi@PdIr/C was prepared via a galvanic replacement reaction; it exhibits enhanced hydrogen oxidation activity and excellent stability under alkaline conditions. Electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the mass and specific activities at 50 mV of IrNi@PdIr/C are 2.1 and 2.2 times that of commercial Pt/C in 0.1 M KOH at 298 K, respectively. Moreover, accelerated degradation tests have shown that the electrochemically active surface area (ECSA) of IrNi@PdIr/C reduces by only 5.1%, which is almost 4 times less than that of commercial Pt/C and the mass activity at 50 mV of IrNi@PdIr/C after 2000 potential cycles is still 1.8 times higher than that of aged Pt/C. XRD and XPS analysis suggest that the enhanced HOR activity is attributed to the weakening of the hydrogen binding to the PdIr overlayers induced by the IrNi core. The better stability to potential cycling can be associated with the PdIr shell, which inhibits oxide formation. These results suggest that IrNi@PdIr/C is a promising non-platinum anode catalyst for alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells.

  5. Spectral analysis of underwater explosions in the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Y.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Ginzburg, A.

    1998-08-01

    The present study utilizes the Israel Seismic Network (ISN) as a spatially distributed multichannel system for the discrimination of low-magnitude events (ML UWEs) and 16 earthquakes in the magnitude range ML = 1.6-2.8, within distances of 10-150 km, recorded by the ISN, were selected for the analysis. The analysis is based on a smoothed (0.5 Hz window) Fourier spectrum of the whole signal (defined by the signal-to-noise criterion), without picking separate wave phases. It was found that the classical discriminant of the seismic energy ratio between the relatively low-frequency (1-6 Hz) and high-frequency (6-11 Hz) bands, averaged over an ISN subnetwork, showed an overlap between UWEs and earthquakes and cannot itself provide reliable identification. We developed and tested a new multistation discriminant based on the low- frequency spectral modulation (LFSM) method. In our case the LFSM is associated with the bubbling effect in underwater explosions. The method demonstrates a distinct azimuth-invariant coherency of spectral shapes in the low-frequency range (1-12 Hz) of short-period seismometer systems. The coherency of the modulated spectra for different ISN stations was measured by semblance statistics commonly used in seismic prospecting for phase correlation in the time domain. The modified statistics provided an almost complete separation between earthquakes and underwater explosions.

  6. Spectral data based vegetation indices to characterise crop growth parameters and radiation interception in brassica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, G.; Chakravarty, N.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    Four spectral data based vegetation indices viz., infra-red/red (IR/R) ratio, normalized difference (N.D.), greenness index (GNI) and brightness index (BNI) were derived to characterise leaf area index, above ground biomass production and intercepted photosynthetically active radiation in Brassica oilseed crop. It was found from correlation study among different spectral indices, plant growth parameters and radiation interception that there was strong relationship between infrared/red and normalized difference with green area index for all the three Brassica cultivars whereas these spectral were not significantly correlated with above ground biomass. On the other hand, the brightness and greenness indices were closely correlated with above groundry biomass as compared to infrared/red ratio and normalized difference. All the four spectral indices were correlated with intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IP AR). The best fit equations relating them were derived, which can be incorporated in the algorithms of crop growth simulation model to estimate plant growth parameters and radiation interception using spectral indices

  7. Spectral characterization and crystal structure of 2-amino-N′-[(1Z-1-(4-chlorophenylethylidene]-benzohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of 2-amino-N′-[(1Z-1-(4-chlorophenylethylidene]benzohydrazide (I is determined by X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The structure of I also was characterized by elemental analysis, mass, FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The compound crystallizes in triclinic system, and space group is P1¯. Unit-cell dimensions are the following: a = 7.05380(10 Å, b = 7.65490(10 Å, c = 13.7094(4 Å, V = 694.01(2 Å3, Z = 2. The title compound is nearly planar and has intermolecular N–H⋯O hydrogen bonding. According to the spectral data, I exhibits an amide-iminol tautomerism.

  8. Spectral stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to stratigraphic analysis is described which uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data combined with topographic information to determine the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the surface. The new stratigraphic procedure is illustrated by examples in the literature. The published results demonstrate the potential of spectral stratigraphy for mapping strata, determining dip and strike, measuring and correlating stratigraphic sequences, defining lithofacies, mapping biofacies, and interpreting geological structures.

  9. Spectral analysis in thin tubes with axial heterogeneities

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita; Mascarenhas, M. Luí sa; Piatnitski, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the 3D-1D asymptotic analysis of the Dirichlet spectral problem associated with an elliptic operator with axial periodic heterogeneities. We extend to the 3D-1D case previous 3D-2D results (see [10]) and we analyze the special case where the scale of thickness is much smaller than the scale of the heterogeneities and the planar coefficient has a unique global minimum in the periodic cell. These results are of great relevance in the comprehension of the wave propagation in nanowires showing axial heterogeneities (see [17]).

  10. Comparison of Analysis and Spectral Nudging Techniques for Dynamical Downscaling with the WRF Model over China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the problem that the horizontal resolution of global climate models may be too low to resolve features which are important at the regional or local scales, dynamical downscaling has been extensively used. However, dynamical downscaling results generally drift away from large-scale driving fields. The nudging technique can be used to balance the performance of dynamical downscaling at large and small scales, but the performances of the two nudging techniques (analysis nudging and spectral nudging are debated. Moreover, dynamical downscaling is now performed at the convection-permitting scale to reduce the parameterization uncertainty and obtain the finer resolution. To compare the performances of the two nudging techniques in this study, three sensitivity experiments (with no nudging, analysis nudging, and spectral nudging covering a period of two months with a grid spacing of 6 km over continental China are conducted to downscale the 1-degree National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP dataset with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Compared with observations, the results show that both of the nudging experiments decrease the bias of conventional meteorological elements near the surface and at different heights during the process of dynamical downscaling. However, spectral nudging outperforms analysis nudging for predicting precipitation, and analysis nudging outperforms spectral nudging for the simulation of air humidity and wind speed.

  11. A UV to mid-IR study of AGN selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Mi; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC and MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ∼20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. We fit galaxy, active galactic nucleus (AGN), stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are σ/(1 + z) = 0.040 and σ/(1 + z) = 0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. On the basis of the χ{sub ν}{sup 2} of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I = 23.5 mag. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy-AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGNs, including spatially resolved AGNs with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of 'composite' spectra. We also use our results to compare with the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color, and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F > 10, we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I = 23.5 mag and a surface density of ∼1900 AGN deg{sup –2}.

  12. Fully automated dual-frequency three-pulse-echo 2DIR spectrometer accessing spectral range from 800 to 4000 wavenumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, Joel D.; Nyby, Clara M.; Varner, Clyde; Tang, Jianan; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Yue, Yuankai; Kireev, Victor V.; Burtsev, Viacheslav D.; Qasim, Layla N.; Rubtsov, Igor V., E-mail: irubtsov@tulane.edu [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Rubtsov, Grigory I. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    A novel dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared instrument is designed and built that permits three-pulse heterodyned echo measurements of any cross-peak within a spectral range from 800 to 4000 cm{sup −1} to be performed in a fully automated fashion. The superior sensitivity of the instrument is achieved by a combination of spectral interferometry, phase cycling, and closed-loop phase stabilization accurate to ∼70 as. The anharmonicity of smaller than 10{sup −4} cm{sup −1} was recorded for strong carbonyl stretching modes using 800 laser shot accumulations. The novel design of the phase stabilization scheme permits tuning polarizations of the mid-infrared (m-IR) pulses, thus supporting measurements of the angles between vibrational transition dipoles. The automatic frequency tuning is achieved by implementing beam direction stabilization schemes for each m-IR beam, providing better than 50 μrad beam stability, and novel scheme for setting the phase-matching geometry for the m-IR beams at the sample. The errors in the cross-peak amplitudes associated with imperfect phase matching conditions and alignment are found to be at the level of 20%. The instrument can be used by non-specialists in ultrafast spectroscopy.

  13. Synthesis and XRD, FT-IR vibrational, UV-vis, and nonlinear optical exploration of novel tetra substituted imidazole derivatives: A synergistic experimental-computational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Saeed; Khalid, Muhammad; Shaheen, Muhammad Ashraf; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Muhammad Usman; Braga, Ataualpa Albert Carmo; Shad, Hazoor Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Heterocyclic compounds have potential applications in many fields of life. We synthesized novel tetra substituted imidazoles by four-component condensation of benzil, substituted aldehydes, substituted anilines and ammonium acetate as a source of ammonia and acetic acid as the solvent. Their chemical structures were resolved through X-ray crystallographic and spectroscopic (Fourier transform IR and UV-vis) techniques. In addition to experimental analysis, density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) level were performed on 4-bromo-2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenol (1), 4-bromo-2-(1-(1-naphthalen-yl)-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole-2-yl)phenol (2), and 2-(1-(2-chlorophenyl)-4,5-diphenyl-1-H-imidazole-2-yl)-6-methoxyphenol (3) to obtain the optimized geometry and spectroscopic (Fourier transform IR and UV-vis) and non-linear optical properties. Frontier molecular orbital analysis was performed at the Hartee-Fock/6-311+g(d,p) and DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Natural bond orbital (NBO) and UV-vis spectral analyses were performed at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p) and time-dependent DFT/B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels, respectively. Overall, the DFT findings show good agreement with the experimental data. The hyper conjugative interaction network, which is responsible for the stability of compounds 1, 2 and 3 was explored by the NBO approach. The global reactivity parameters were explored with use of the energy of the frontier molecular orbitals. DFT calculations predict the first-order hyperpolarizabilities of compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 294.89 × 10-30, 219.45 × 10-30 and 146.77 × 10-30 esu, respectively. A two-state model was used to describe the non-linear optical properties of the compounds investigated.

  14. Monitoring PSR B1509–58 with RXTE: Spectral analysis 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Litzinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the X-ray spectra of the young, Crab-like pulsar PSR B1509–58 (pulse period P ~ 151ms observed by RXTE over 14 years since the beginning of the mission in 1996. The uniform dataset is especially well suited for studying the stability of the spectral parameters over time as well as for determining pulse phase resolved spectral parameters with high significance. The phase averaged spectra as well as the resolved spectra can be well described by an absorbed power law.

  15. Acid-base properties, FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy and computational study of 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Procházková, Markéta; Sevčík, Richard; Pazdera, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    We report the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 1-(pyrid-4-yl)piperazine (PyPi). Single crystals of PyPi suitable for X-ray structural analysis were obtained. The acid-base properties are also reported. PyPi supported on a weak acid cation-exchanger in the single protonated form and this system can be used efficiently as the solid supported analogue of 4-N,N-dimethyl-aminopyridine. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule and with the molecular electrostatic potential map was applied for the reactivity assessment of PyPi molecule toward proton, electrophiles and nucleopholes as well. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of PyPi is 17.46 times that of urea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical studies on photoelectron and IR spectral properties of Br2.-(H2O)n clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Mukherjee, T; Maity, D K

    2007-07-28

    We report vertical detachment energy (VDE) and IR spectra of Br2.-.(H2O)n clusters (n=1-8) based on first principles electronic structure calculations. Cluster structures and IR spectra are calculated at Becke's half-and-half hybrid exchange-correlation functional (BHHLYP) with a triple split valence basis function, 6-311++G(d,p). VDE for the hydrated clusters is calculated based on second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) theory with the same set of basis function. On full geometry optimization, it is observed that conformers having interwater hydrogen bonding among solvent water molecules are more stable than the structures having double or single hydrogen bonded structures between the anionic solute, Br2.-, and solvent water molecules. Moreover, a conformer having cyclic interwater hydrogen bonded network is predicted to be more stable for each size hydrated cluster. It is also noticed that up to four solvent H2O units can reside around the solute in a cyclic interwater hydrogen bonded network. The excess electron in these hydrated clusters is localized over the solute atoms. Weighted average VDE is calculated for each size (n) cluster based on statistical population of the conformers at 150 K. A linear relationship is obtained for VDE versus (n+3)(-1/3) and bulk VDE of Br2.- aqueous solution is calculated as 10.01 eV at MP2 level of theory. BHHLYP density functional is seen to make a systematic overestimation in VDE values by approximately 0.5 eV compared to MP2 data in all the hydrated clusters. It is observed that hydration increases VDE of bromine dimer anion system by approximately 6.4 eV. Calculated IR spectra show that the formation of Br2.--water clusters induces large shifts from the normal O-H stretching bands of isolated water keeping bending modes rather insensitive. Hydrated clusters, Br2.-.(H2O)n, show characteristic sharp features of O-H stretching bands of water in the small size clusters.

  17. Theoretical studies on photoelectron and IR spectral properties of Br2.-(H2O)n clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A. K.; Mukherjee, T.; Maity, D. K.

    2007-07-01

    We report vertical detachment energy (VDE) and IR spectra of Br2•-•(H2O)n clusters (n=1-8) based on first principles electronic structure calculations. Cluster structures and IR spectra are calculated at Becke's half-and-half hybrid exchange-correlation functional (BHHLYP) with a triple split valence basis function, 6-311++G(d,p). VDE for the hydrated clusters is calculated based on second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) theory with the same set of basis function. On full geometry optimization, it is observed that conformers having interwater hydrogen bonding among solvent water molecules are more stable than the structures having double or single hydrogen bonded structures between the anionic solute, Br2•-, and solvent water molecules. Moreover, a conformer having cyclic interwater hydrogen bonded network is predicted to be more stable for each size hydrated cluster. It is also noticed that up to four solvent H2O units can reside around the solute in a cyclic interwater hydrogen bonded network. The excess electron in these hydrated clusters is localized over the solute atoms. Weighted average VDE is calculated for each size (n) cluster based on statistical population of the conformers at 150K. A linear relationship is obtained for VDE versus (n+3)-1/3 and bulk VDE of Br2•- aqueous solution is calculated as 10.01eV at MP2 level of theory. BHHLYP density functional is seen to make a systematic overestimation in VDE values by ˜0.5eV compared to MP2 data in all the hydrated clusters. It is observed that hydration increases VDE of bromine dimer anion system by ˜6.4eV. Calculated IR spectra show that the formation of Br2•--water clusters induces large shifts from the normal O-H stretching bands of isolated water keeping bending modes rather insensitive. Hydrated clusters, Br2•-•(H2O)n, show characteristic sharp features of O-H stretching bands of water in the small size clusters.

  18. Spectral analysis of time series of events: effect of respiration on heart rate in neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drongelen, Wim; Williams, Amber L; Lasky, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    Certain types of biomedical processes such as the heart rate generator can be considered as signals that are sampled by the occurring events, i.e. QRS complexes. This sampling property generates problems for the evaluation of spectral parameters of such signals. First, the irregular occurrence of heart beats creates an unevenly sampled data set which must either be pre-processed (e.g. by using trace binning or interpolation) prior to spectral analysis, or analyzed with specialized methods (e.g. Lomb's algorithm). Second, the average occurrence of events determines the Nyquist limit for the sampled time series. Here we evaluate different types of spectral analysis of recordings of neonatal heart rate. Coupling between respiration and heart rate and the detection of heart rate itself are emphasized. We examine both standard and data adaptive frequency bands of heart rate signals generated by models of coupled oscillators and recorded data sets from neonates. We find that an important spectral artifact occurs due to a mirror effect around the Nyquist limit of half the average heart rate. Further we conclude that the presence of respiratory coupling can only be detected under low noise conditions and if a data-adaptive respiratory band is used

  19. Quantitative analysis of the dual-energy CT virtual spectral curve for focal liver lesions characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qi, E-mail: wq20@hotmail.com; Shi, Gaofeng, E-mail: gaofengs62@sina.com; Qi, Xiaohui, E-mail: qixiaohui1984@163.com; Fan, Xueli, E-mail: 407849960@qq.com; Wang, Lijia, E-mail: 893197597@qq.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We establish a feasible method using the virtual spectral curves (VSC) to differentiate focal liver lesions using DECT. • Our study shows the slope of the VSC can be used to differentiate between hemangioma, HCC, metastasis and cyst. • Importantly, the diagnostic specificities associated with using the slope to diagnose both hemangioma and cysts were 100%. - Abstract: Objective: To assess the usefulness of the spectral curve slope of dual-energy CT (DECT) for differentiating between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatic metastasis, hemangioma (HH) and cysts. Methods: In total, 121 patients were imaged in the portal venous phase using dual-energy mode. Of these patients, 23 patients had HH, 28 patients had HCC, 40 patients had metastases and 30 patients had simple cysts. The spectral curves of the hepatic lesions were derived from the 40–190 keV levels of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging. The spectral curve slopes were calculated from 40 to 110 keV. The slopes were compared using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to determine the optimal cut-off value of the slope of the spectral curve to differentiate between the lesions. Results: The spectral curves of the four lesion types had different baseline levels. The HH baseline level was the highest followed by HCC, metastases and cysts. The slopes of the spectral curves of HH, HCC, metastases and cysts were 3.81 ± 1.19, 1.49 ± 0.57, 1.06 ± 0.76 and 0.13 ± 0.17, respectively. These values were significantly different (P < 0.008). Based on ROC analysis, the respective diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for hemangioma (cut-off value ≥ 2.988), 82.1% and 65.9% for HCC (cut-off value 1.167–2.998), 65.9% and 59% for metastasis (cut-off value 0.133–1.167) and 44.4% and 100% for cysts (cut-off value ≤ 0.133). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of the DECT spectral curve in the portal venous phase can be used to

  20. Hyperspectral imaging of polymer banknotes for building and analysis of spectral library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2017-11-01

    The use of counterfeit banknotes increases crime rates and cripples the economy. New countermeasures are required to stop counterfeiters who use advancing technologies with criminal intent. Many countries started adopting polymer banknotes to replace paper notes, as polymer notes are more durable and have better quality. The research on authenticating such banknotes is of much interest to the forensic investigators. Hyperspectral imaging can be employed to build a spectral library of polymer notes, which can then be used for classification to authenticate these notes. This is however not widely reported and has become a research interest in forensic identification. This paper focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging on polymer notes to build spectral libraries, using a pushbroom hyperspectral imager which has been previously reported. As an initial study, a spectral library will be built from three arbitrarily chosen regions of interest of five circulated genuine polymer notes. Principal component analysis is used for dimension reduction and to convert the information in the spectral library to principal components. A 99% confidence ellipse is formed around the cluster of principal component scores of each class and then used as classification criteria. The potential of the adopted methodology is demonstrated by the classification of the imaged regions as training samples.

  1. Multicomponent quantitative spectroscopic analysis without reference substances based on ICA modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Mushtakova, Svetlana P

    2017-05-01

    A fast and reliable spectroscopic method for multicomponent quantitative analysis of targeted compounds with overlapping signals in complex mixtures has been established. The innovative analytical approach is based on the preliminary chemometric extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from UV-vis and IR spectral profiles of a calibration system using independent component analysis (ICA). Using this quantitative model and ICA resolution results of spectral profiling of "unknown" model mixtures, the absolute analyte concentrations in multicomponent mixtures and authentic samples were then calculated without reference solutions. Good recoveries generally between 95% and 105% were obtained. The method can be applied to any spectroscopic data that obey the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law. The proposed method was tested on analysis of vitamins and caffeine in energy drinks and aromatic hydrocarbons in motor fuel with 10% error. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is a promising tool for rapid simultaneous multicomponent analysis in the case of spectral overlap and the absence/inaccessibility of reference materials.

  2. Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busarev, Vladimir V; Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, Valentina V; Bochkov, Valerii V

    2007-01-01

    A method of reflectance spectrophotometry of atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system, its specificity, and the means of eliminating basic spectral noise are considered. As a development, joining the method of reflectance spectrophotometry with the frequency analysis of observational data series is proposed. The combined spectral-frequency method allows identification of formations with distinctive spectral features, and estimations of their sizes and distribution on the surface of atmospherelss celestial bodies. As applied to investigations of asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, the spectral frequency method has given us the possibility of obtaining fundamentally new information about minor planets. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  3. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  4. Investigation of spectral characteristics of tunnel photodiodes based on DLC nanofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchurin, Garif G.; Aban'shin, Nickolay P.; Avetisyan, Yuri A.; Akchurin, Georgy G.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Yakunin, Alexander N.

    2018-04-01

    The tunneling photo effect has been studied in a microdiode with an electrostatic field localized at an emitter based on a nanosized DLC structure. It is established the photocurrent, when the carbon nanoemitter is exposed by laser and tunable low-coherent radiation in the spectral range from UV to near IR with photons of low energy (below work function). A linear dependence of the photocurrent on the level of optical power in the range of micro- and milliwatt power is established. The effect of saturation of the current-voltage characteristics of the tunnel photocurrent associated with a finite concentration of non-equilibrium photoelectrons is observed. The observed spectral Watt-Amper characteristics can be adequately interpreted using a modified Fowler-Nordheim equation for non-equilibrium photoelectrons.

  5. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mohan, R.; Chang, T.; Tian, M.; Bekker, S.; Olson, A.; Ostrander, C.; Khallaayoun, A.; Dollinger, C.; Babbitt, W.R.; Cole, Z.; Reibel, R.R.; Merkel, K.D.; Sun, Y.; Cone, R.; Schlottau, F.; Wagner, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution (∼25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 μs) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed

  6. Ultra-wideband spectral analysis using S2 technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Mohan, R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)]. E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.edu; Chang, T. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Tian, M. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Bekker, S. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Olson, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Ostrander, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Khallaayoun, A. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Dollinger, C. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cole, Z. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Reibel, R.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Merkel, K.D. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); S2 Corporation, Bozeman, MT 59718 (United States); Sun, Y. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cone, R. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Schlottau, F. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Wagner, K.H. [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    This paper outlines the efforts to develop an ultra-wideband spectrum analyzer that takes advantage of the broad spectral response and fine spectral resolution ({approx}25 kHz) of spatial-spectral (S2) materials. The S2 material can process the full spectrum of broadband microwave transmissions, with adjustable time apertures (down to 100 {mu}s) and fast update rates (up to 1 kHz). A cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm is used as the core for the spectrum analyzer. Efforts to develop novel component technologies that enhance the performance of the system and meet the application requirements are discussed, including an end-to-end device model for parameter optimization. We discuss the characterization of new ultra-wide bandwidth S2 materials. Detection and post-processing module development including the implementation of a novel spectral recovery algorithm using field programmable gate array technology (FPGA) is also discussed.

  7. Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma, produced by laser pulses of 45 fs duration, focussed up to an intensity of ∼1018 W cm-2, is carried out. The plasma conditions prevalent during the emission of X-ray spectrum were identified by comparing the experimental spectra with the ...

  8. Noise analysis role in reactor safety, Spectral analysis (PSD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Velickovic, Lj.

    1967-11-01

    Spectral power density of a zero power reactor is frequency dependent and related to transfer function of the reactor and to spectral density of the input disturbance. Measurement of spectral power density of a critical system is used to obtain the ratio (β/l), β is the effective yield of delayed neutrons, and l is the effective mean neutron lifetime. When reactor is subcritical, if the effective yie ald of delayed neutrons, the effective mean neutron lifetime are known, the shutdown margin can be determined by relation α = (1 - k (1- β0)/l, k is the effective multiplication factor. Output neutron spectrum at the RB reactor in Vinca was measured for a few reactor core configurations and for a few levels of heavy water at subcritical state. Measured values were satisfactory when the reactor was critical, but the reactor noise of subcritical system was covered by the white noise of the detector and electronic equipment. The Ra-Be source was under the reactor vessel when measurements of subcritical system were done. More efficient detector or external random stimulus for increasing the intensity of neutron fluctuations would be needed to obtain results for subcritical system

  9. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  10. An Excel-based implementation of the spectral method of action potential alternans analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Action potential (AP) alternans has been well established as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Proper interpretation of AP alternans requires a robust method of alternans quantification. Traditional methods of alternans analysis neglect higher order periodicities that may have greater pro-arrhythmic potential than classical 2:1 alternans. The spectral method of alternans analysis, already widely used in the related study of microvolt T-wave alternans, has also been used to study AP alternans. Software to meet the specific needs of AP alternans analysis is not currently available in the public domain. An AP analysis tool is implemented here, written in Visual Basic for Applications and using Microsoft Excel as a shell. This performs a sophisticated analysis of alternans behavior allowing reliable distinction of alternans from random fluctuations, quantification of alternans magnitude, and identification of which phases of the AP are most affected. In addition, the spectral method has been adapted to allow detection and quantification of higher order regular oscillations. Analysis of action potential morphology is also performed. A simple user interface enables easy import, analysis, and export of collated results. © 2014 The Author. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Spectral analysis of IGR J01572-7259 during its 2016 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Palombara, N.; Esposito, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Pintore, F.; Sidoli, L.; Tiengo, A.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the results of the XMM-Newton observation of IGR J01572-7259 during its most recent outburst in 2016 May, the first since 2008. The source reached a flux f ˜ 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1, which allowed us to perform a detailed analysis of its timing and spectral properties. We obtained a pulse period Pspin = 11.58208(2) s. The pulse profile is double peaked and strongly energy dependent, as the second peak is prominent only at low energies and the pulsed fraction increases with energy. The main spectral component is a power-law model, but at low energies, we also detected a soft thermal component, which can be described with either a blackbody or a hot plasma model. Both the EPIC and RGS spectra show several emission lines, which can be identified with the transition lines of ionized N, O, Ne, and Fe and cannot be described with a thermal emission model. The phase-resolved spectral analysis showed that the flux of both the soft excess and the emission lines vary with the pulse phase: the soft excess disappears in the first pulse and becomes significant only in the second, where also the Fe line is stronger. This variability is difficult to explain with emission from a hot plasma, while the reprocessing of the primary X-ray emission at the inner edge of the accretion disc provides a reliable scenario. On the other hand, the narrow emission lines can be due to the presence of photoionized matter around the accreting source.

  12. The quantum spectral analysis of the two-dimensional annular billiard system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Hui, Zhang; Ji-Quan, Zhang; Xue-You, Xu; Sheng-Lu, Lin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the extended closed-orbit theory together with spectral analysis, this paper studies the correspondence between quantum mechanics and the classical counterpart in a two-dimensional annular billiard. The results demonstrate that the Fourier-transformed quantum spectra are in very good accordance with the lengths of the classical ballistic trajectories, whereas spectral strength is intimately associated with the shapes of possible open orbits connecting arbitrary two points in the annular cavity. This approach facilitates an intuitive understanding of basic quantum features such as quantum interference, locations of the wavefunctions, and allows quantitative calculations in the range of high energies, where full quantum calculations may become impractical in general. This treatment provides a thread to explore the properties of microjunction transport and even quantum chaos under the much more general system. (general)

  13. IR spectra and structure of glasses in the BaO-WO3-P2O5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnichenko, O.Ya.; Mombelli, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Studied are IR absorption spectra and determined are the main structural characteristics of tungstophosphate glasses of the BaO-WO 3 -P 2 O 5 system in all the area of glass formation. It is shown that the main structural components of their anion network are phosphate chains consisting of PO 4 tetrahedrons and tungstate chains consisting of WO 4 tetrahedrons and of WO 6 octahedrons. These chains are connected by P-O-W bridges into three-dimentional tungstophosphate network, where the ratio of phosphate and tungstate structural units and their polymerization degree change without limits depending on the glass composition. Analysis of concentration frequency dependence and spectral band intensity permit to clarify the effect of each component on the glass structure in all the area of glass formation of the triple system

  14. Research on the strong optical feedback effects based on spectral analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhaoli; Qu, XueMin; Li, Weina; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hao; Li, Tuo

    2018-01-01

    The strong optical feedback has the advantage of generating high resolution fringes. However, these feedback fringes usually seem like the noise signal when the feedback level is high. This defect severely limits its practical application. In this paper, the generation mechanism of noise fringes with strong optical feedback is studied by using spectral analysis method. The spectral analysis results show that, in most cases, the noise-like fringes are observed owing to the strong multiple high-order feedback. However, at certain feedback cavity condition, there may be only one high-order feedback beam goes back to the laser cavity, the noise-like fringes can change to the cosine-like fringes. And the resolution of this fringe is dozens times than that of the weak optical feedback. This research provides a method to obtain high resolution cosine-like fringes rather than noise signal in the strong optical feedback, which makes it possible to be used in nanoscale displacement measurements.

  15. Pulse Shaping for High Capacity Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband Wireless Links Under the Russian Spectral Emission Mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grakhova, Elizaveta P.; Rommel, Simon; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Two pulse shapes for IR-UWB transmission under the Russian spectral emission mask are proposed and their potential experimentally demonstrated. Pulses based on the hyperbolic secant square function and the frequency B-spline wavelet are shown to enable transmission of 1.25 Gbit/s signals, reaching...

  16. Methodology for diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots by spectral analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra-Rosas, Esperanza; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new methodology for the diagnosing of skin cancer on images of dermatologic spots using image processing is presented. Currently skin cancer is one of the most frequent diseases in humans. This methodology is based on Fourier spectral analysis by using filters such as the classic, inverse and k-law nonlinear. The sample images were obtained by a medical specialist and a new spectral technique is developed to obtain a quantitative measurement of the complex pattern found in can...

  17. Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin FEM: Spectral Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedi, R; Omidi, O; Clarke, P L

    2014-01-01

    Materials in nature demonstrate certain spectral shapes in terms of their material properties. Since successful experimental demonstrations in 2000, metamaterials have provided a means to engineer materials with desired spectral shapes for their material properties. Computational tools are employed in two different aspects for metamaterial modeling: 1. Mircoscale unit cell analysis to derive and possibly optimize material's spectral response; 2. macroscale to analyze their interaction with conventional material. We compare two different approaches of Time-Domain (TD) and Frequency Domain (FD) methods for metamaterial applications. Finally, we discuss advantages of the TD method of Spacetime Discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (FEM) for spectral analysis of metamaterials

  18. Estimation of sub-pixel water area on Tibet plateau using multiple endmembers spectral mixture spectral analysis from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Shi, Jiancheng; Xu, Yuanliu

    2011-12-01

    Water is the basic needs for human society, and the determining factor of stability of ecosystem as well. There are lots of lakes on Tibet Plateau, which will lead to flood and mudslide when the water expands sharply. At present, water area is extracted from TM or SPOT data for their high spatial resolution; however, their temporal resolution is insufficient. MODIS data have high temporal resolution and broad coverage. So it is valuable resource for detecting the change of water area. Because of its low spatial resolution, mixed-pixels are common. In this paper, four spectral libraries are built using MOD09A1 product, based on that, water body is extracted in sub-pixels utilizing Multiple Endmembers Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) using MODIS daily reflectance data MOD09GA. The unmixed result is comparing with contemporaneous TM data and it is proved that this method has high accuracy.

  19. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  20. Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method for water hammer analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fast and efficient algorithm, Chebyshev super spectral viscosity (SSV method, is introduced to solve the water hammer equations. Compared with standard spectral method, the method's advantage essentially consists in adding a super spectral viscosity to the equations for the high wave numbers of the numerical solution. It can stabilize the numerical oscillation (Gibbs phenomenon and improve the computational efficiency while discontinuities appear in the solution. Results obtained from the Chebyshev super spectral viscosity method exhibit greater consistency with conventional water hammer calculations. It shows that this new numerical method offers an alternative way to investigate the behavior of the water hammer in propellant pipelines.

  1. Analysis of laser and inkjet prints using spectroscopic methods for forensic identification of questioned documents

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Lukáš; Belovičová, Michaela; Oravec, Michal; Palková, Miroslava; Čeppan, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The spectral properties in UV-VIS-NIR and IR regions of laser and inkjet prints were studied for the purposes of forensic analysis of documents. The procedures of measurements and processing of spectra of printed documents using fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy in UV-VIS and NIR region, FTIR-ATR with diamond/ZnSe and germanium crystals were optimized. It was found that the shapes of spectra of various black laser jet prints and inkjet prints generally differ in the spectral regions...

  2. Principle component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging data for differentiating basal cell carcinoma and healthy skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Lesnichaya, Anastasiya D.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Perchik, Alexei V.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2016-09-01

    In present paper, an ability to differentiate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and healthy skin by combining multi-spectral autofluorescence imaging, principle component analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been demonstrated. For this purpose, the experimental setup, which includes excitation and detection branches, has been assembled. The excitation branch utilizes a mercury arc lamp equipped with a 365-nm narrow-linewidth excitation filter, a beam homogenizer, and a mechanical chopper. The detection branch employs a set of bandpass filters with the central wavelength of spectral transparency of λ = 400, 450, 500, and 550 nm, and a digital camera. The setup has been used to study three samples of freshly excised BCC. PCA and LDA have been implemented to analyze the data of multi-spectral fluorescence imaging. Observed results of this pilot study highlight the advantages of proposed imaging technique for skin cancer diagnosis.

  3. Deposition and characterization of IrOx nanofoils on carbon nanotube templates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2012-01-01

    Large surface area IrO x nanofoils (IrO x NF) were deposited on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) templates, forming IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites, by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering using Ir metal target. The structural and spectroscopic properties of IrO x NF were characterized. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of foil-like structure for the as-deposited samples. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the contiguous presence of glassy iridium oxide, iridium metal, and iridium dioxide nanocrystals in the foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis provided the information of the oxidation states and the stoichiometry of IrO x NF. Raman spectra revealed the amorphous-like phase of the as-deposited IrO x NF. The nanofoil structure provided ultra-high surface area for electrical charge storage which made the IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites as an attractive candidate for the supercapacitor applications.

  4. Spectral Analysis of a Quantum System with a Double Line Singular Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kondej, S.; Krejčiřík, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2013), s. 831-859 ISSN 0034-5318 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/0701 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrödinger operator * singular perturbation * spectral analysis * Hardy inequality * resonance Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.614, year: 2013

  5. GBTIDL: Reduction and Analysis of GBT Spectral Line Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marganian, P.; Garwood, R. W.; Braatz, J. A.; Radziwill, N. M.; Maddalena, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    GBTIDL is an interactive package for reduction and analysis of spectral line data taken with the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The package, written entirely in IDL, consists of straightforward yet flexible calibration, averaging, and analysis procedures (the "GUIDE layer") modeled after the UniPOPS and CLASS data reduction philosophies, a customized plotter with many built-in visualization features, and Data I/O and toolbox functionality that can be used for more advanced tasks. GBTIDL makes use of data structures which can also be used to store intermediate results. The package consumes and produces data in GBT SDFITS format. GBTIDL can be run online and have access to the most recent data coming off the telescope, or can be run offline on preprocessed SDFITS files.

  6. Miniature robotic sample analysis lab for planetary in situ mineralogy and microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman; Wong, Brian; Haddad, Emile; Jamroz, Wes; Cloutis, Edward; Strong, Kimberly; Ghafoor, Nadeem; Jessen, Sean

    The current Martian surface conditions are relatively inhospitable, with average diurnal temperature ranges from 170 K to 268 K, a low air pressure of about 7 to 10 mbar consisting mainly of CO2 and negligible ozone to moderate the UV portion of the incident solar radiation. The intense UV effectively sterilizes the surface, and in combination with the low air pressure, makes any unbound surface liquid water unstable. However, there is mounting evidence to support the notion that the near subsurface of Mars may differ dramatically from the uppermost surface. The Inukshuk landed Mars mission, as initially developed under a pre-Phase A study for the Canadian Space Agency, focuses on the search for hydrated mineralogy and subsurface water sites that can provide evidence of past or present life. The mission will be achieved using a miniature suite of complementary spectral instruments operating in collaboration with a robotic tethered mole drill system for the systematic in situ subsurface exploration of the planetary mineralogy, water content and microbiology. The Inukshuk mission will, for the first time, study variations in the Mars subsurface characteristics and composition in detail at different locations. These will be correlated with the current planetary boundary layer conditions using an elevating Skycam platform and surface stand-off measurement capabilities. The subsurface analysis will be provided using a miniature bore-hole probe integrated within the mole driller and interfaced to the rover-based instrument suite using an IR fiber-optic link. This will allow subsurface mapping of the stratigraphy and composition in steps of a few mm to depths beyond 1 m. During the drilling, the bore-hole probe will be shielded using a wiper/shutter system. The in situ bore-hole analysis has an advantage for detecting biomarkers for astrobiology on Mars in that the alteration of the sample by surface radiation can be minimized. The bore-hole sample analysis will employ

  7. A meta-analysis of the effect of angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers on blood pressure, glycemia and the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-bao; Xing, Yue; Tang, Lu; Zheng, Xiao-yong; Wang, Zi-cheng; Gao, Yu-wei; Li, Min-xia; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the effect of insulin resistance (IR) as assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic patients. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify studies published before December 2012 that investigated the use of ARBs and CCBs to determine the effect on the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetics. Parameters on IR and blood pressure were collected. Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 12.0 were used to perform the meta-analysis. Fixed and random effects models were applied to various aspects of the meta-analysis, which assessed the therapeutic effects of the two types of drug using the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetic patients. The meta-analysis included five clinical trials. Patient comparisons before and after treatment with ARBs and CCBs revealed that ARBs reduced the HOMA-IR index (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.93 to -0.38) and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) (WMD -2.01, 95% CI -3.27 to -0.74) significantly more than CCBs. No significant differences in the therapeutic effects of these two types of drug on blood pressure were observed. Given that there are no significant differences in the therapeutic effects of ARBs and CCBs on blood pressure, as ARBs are superior to CCBs in their effect on the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetics, they might be a better choice in hypertension patients without diabetes. © 2013.

  8. NMR and IR Spectroscopy for the Structural Characterization of Edible Fats and Oils: An Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Molly W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an upper-level instrumental laboratory for undergraduates that explores the complementary nature of IR and NMR spectroscopy for analysis of several edible fats and oils that are structurally similar but differ in physical properties and health implications. Five different fats and oils are analyzed for average chain length,…

  9. On the detection of corrosion pit interactions using two-dimensional spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrah, Adil; Nianga, Jean-Marie; Iost, Alain; Guillemot, Gildas; Najjar, Denis

    2010-01-01

    A statistical methodology for detecting pits interactions based on a two-dimensional spectral analysis is presented. This method can be used as a tool for the exploratory analysis of spatial point patterns and can be advanced as an alternative of classical methods based on distance. One of the major advantages of the spectral analysis approach over the use of classical methods is its ability to reveal more details about the spatial structure like the scale for which pits corrosion can be considered as independent. Furthermore, directional components of pattern can be investigated. The method is validated in a first time using numerical simulations on random, regular and aggregated structures. The density of pits, used in the numerical simulations, corresponds to that assessed from a corroded aluminium sheet. In a second time, this method is applied to verify the independence of the corrosion pits observed on the aforementioned aluminium sheet before applying the Gumbel theory to determine the maximum pit depth. Indeed, the property of independence is a prerequisite of the Gumbel theory which is one of the most frequently used in the field of safety and reliability.

  10. Discrimination between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus isolates in apple juice by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Holy, Murad A; Lin, Mengshi; Alhaj, Omar A; Abu-Goush, Mahmoud H

    2015-02-01

    Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between 4 Alicyclobacillus strains and 4 Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm(-1) reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (for example, principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these 2 genera. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  12. Application of linear discriminant analysis and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy for diagnosis of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Bagheri Garmarudi, Amir; Samani, Simin; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Ashuri, Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) microspectroscopy was applied for detection of colon cancer according to the spectral features of colon tissues. Supervised classification models can be trained to identify the tissue type based on the spectroscopic fingerprint. A total of 78 colon tissues were used in spectroscopy studies. Major spectral differences were observed in 1,740-900 cm(-1) spectral region. Several chemometric methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster analysis (CA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) were applied for classification of IR spectra. Utilizing the chemometric techniques, clear and reproducible differences were observed between the spectra of normal and cancer cases, suggesting that infrared microspectroscopy in conjunction with spectral data processing would be useful for diagnostic classification. Using LDA technique, the spectra were classified into cancer and normal tissue classes with an accuracy of 95.8%. The sensitivity and specificity was 100 and 93.1%, respectively.

  13. FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR studies and ab initio-HF, DFT-B3LYP vibrational analysis of 4-chloro-2-fluoroaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivazhagan, M; Anitha Rexalin, D

    2012-10-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of 4-chloro-2-fluoroaniline (CFA) have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, bonding features and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been investigated with the help of ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule are calculated by the Gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The first order hyperpolarizability (β(0)) of this novel molecular system and related properties (β, α(0) and Δα) of CFA are calculated using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and HF/6-311++G(d,p) methods on the finite-field approach. The calculated results also show that the CFA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The result confirms the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The HOMO-LUMO energies UV-vis spectral analysis and MEP are performed by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) approach. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of CFA is also reported based on total energy distribution (TED). The difference between the observed and scaled wave number values of the most of the fundamentals is very small. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing and monitoring of urban vegetation using multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.

    2013-08-01

    During last years urban vegetation with significant health, biological and economical values had experienced dramatic changes due to urbanization and human activities in the metropolitan area of Bucharest in Romania. We investigated the utility of remote sensing approaches of multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) applied to IKONOS and Landsat TM/ETM satellite data for estimating fractional cover of urban/periurban forest, parks, agricultural vegetation areas. Because of the spectral heterogeneity of same physical features of urban vegetation increases with the increase of image resolution, the traditional spectral information-based statistical method may not be useful to classify land cover dynamics from high resolution imageries like IKONOS. So we used hierarchy tree classification method in classification and MESMA for vegetation land cover dynamics assessment based on available IKONOS high-resolution imagery of Bucharest town. This study employs thirty two endmembers and six hundred and sixty spectral models to identify all Earth's features (vegetation, water, soil, impervious) and shade in the Bucharest area. The mean RMS error for the selected vegetation land cover classes range from 0.0027 to 0.018. The Pearson correlation between the fraction outputs from MESMA and reference data from all IKONOS images 1m panchromatic resolution data for urban/periurban vegetation were ranging in the domain 0.7048 - 0.8287. The framework in this study can be applied to other urban vegetation areas in Romania.

  15. Spectral analysis software improves confidence in plant and soil water stable isotope analyses performed by isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Goldsmith, G R; Matimati, I; Dawson, T E

    2011-08-30

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for large errors to occur when analyzing waters containing organic contaminants using isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). In an attempt to address this problem, IRIS manufacturers now provide post-processing spectral analysis software capable of identifying samples with the types of spectral interference that compromises their stable isotope analysis. Here we report two independent tests of this post-processing spectral analysis software on two IRIS systems, OA-ICOS (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and WS-CRDS (Picarro Inc.). Following a similar methodology to a previous study, we cryogenically extracted plant leaf water and soil water and measured the δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of identical samples by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and IRIS. As an additional test, we analyzed plant stem waters and tap waters by IRMS and IRIS in an independent laboratory. For all tests we assumed that the IRMS value represented the "true" value against which we could compare the stable isotope results from the IRIS methods. Samples showing significant deviations from the IRMS value (>2σ) were considered to be contaminated and representative of spectral interference in the IRIS measurement. Over the two studies, 83% of plant species were considered contaminated on OA-ICOS and 58% on WS-CRDS. Post-analysis, spectra were analyzed using the manufacturer's spectral analysis software, in order to see if the software correctly identified contaminated samples. In our tests the software performed well, identifying all the samples with major errors. However, some false negatives indicate that user evaluation and testing of the software are necessary. Repeat sampling of plants showed considerable variation in the discrepancies between IRIS and IRMS. As such, we recommend that spectral analysis of IRIS data must be incorporated into standard post-processing routines. Furthermore, we suggest that the results from spectral analysis be

  16. Infrared imaging of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Jackson, Michael; Crowson, A. Neil; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2002-02-01

    IR spectroscopy produces spectra in which detailed information concerning chemical structure is inherent. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most useful IR methods for analysis of biological tissues are microscopic image-based techniques in which fine-scaled spatial and high-quality spectral information is integrated. Unlike traditional visible microscopic methods, the contrast in IR imaging is gained by differences in spectra and the spatial heterogeneity of biochemical components, not by the addition of stains. In order for IR imaging to be more broadly accepted, non-subjective data processing methods are being developed to extract the most out of the large spectral images that are acquired. This paper demonstrates data processing techniques that have been extremely useful in the analysis of normal and abnormal skin. Analysis of skin specimens is of particular clinical importance due to the difficulty in rendering a differential diagnosis. Unstained frozen skin sections were mapped using an IR microscope. Functional group mapping, clustering routines and linear discriminant analysis were used to process the data. Functional group mapping and clustering routines were useful in the initial interpretation of images and to research for trends in uncharacterized spectral images. LDA was useful for differentiating normal from abnormal tissue once a well- defined training spectral set was established. Representative spectroscopic images are shown that demonstrate the power of IR imaging.

  17. Analyzing availability using transfer function models and cross spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singpurwalla, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper shows how the methods of multivariate time series analysis can be used in a novel way to investigate the interrelationships between a series of operating (running) times and a series of maintenance (down) times of a complex system. Specifically, the techniques of cross spectral analysis are used to help obtain a Box-Jenkins type transfer function model for the running times and the down times of a nuclear reactor. A knowledge of the interrelationships between the running times and the down times is useful for an evaluation of maintenance policies, for replacement policy decisions, and for evaluating the availability and the readiness of complex systems

  18. Sensitive Spectroscopic Analysis of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, A.; Bounds, J.; Zhu, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Kaya, N.; Aluauee, E.; Amani, M.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2018-06-01

    We have developed a novel optical setup which is based on a high finesse cavity and absorption laser spectroscopy in the near-IR spectral region. In pilot experiments, spectrally resolved absorption measurements of biomarkers in exhaled breath, such as methane and acetone, were carried out using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). With a 172-cm-long cavity, an efficient optical path of 132 km was achieved. The CRDS technique is well suited for such measurements due to its high sensitivity and good spectral resolution. The detection limits for methane of 8 ppbv and acetone of 2.1 ppbv with spectral sampling of 0.005 cm-1 were achieved, which allowed to analyze multicomponent gas mixtures and to observe absorption peaks of 12CH4 and 13CH4. Further improvements of the technique have the potential to realize diagnostics of health conditions based on a multicomponent analysis of breath samples.

  19. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing quinoline-azoimine (NN'N″) tridentate ligands: synthesis, spectral characterization, electrochemical properties and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S; Fasfous, Ismail I; El-khateeb, Mohammad; Awwadi, Firas F; Warad, Ismail

    2014-05-05

    Four octahedral ruthenium(II) azoimine-quinoline complexes having the general molecular formula [Ru(II)(L-Y)(bpy)Cl](PF6) {L-Y=YC6H4N=NC(COCH3)=NC9H6N, Y=H (1), CH3 (2), Br (3), NO2 (4) and bpy=2,2'-bipyrdine} were synthesized. The azoimine-quinoline based ligands behave as NN'N″ tridentate donors and coordinated to ruthenium via azo-N', imine-N' and quinolone-N″ nitrogen atoms. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis, spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, (1)H NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 is reported. The Ru(II) oxidation state is greatly stabilized by the novel tridentate ligands, showing Ru(III/II) couples ranging from 0.93-1.27 V vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe(+). The absorption spectrum of 1 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of In-Situ Spectral Reflectance of Sago and Other Palms: Implications for Their Detection in Optical Satellite Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon Santillan, Jojene; Makinano-Santillan, Meriam

    2018-04-01

    We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa) to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345-1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2). Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  1. Exchange, x-ray and IR spectral behaviour of lanthanum and praseodymium exchanged zeolite X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D.; Upreti, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Exchange behaviour of lanthanum and praseodymium ions in zeolite X involves three steps: preferential exchange, intrazeolitic exchange and irreversible exchange. At room temperature , higher exchange has been observed with La(III) than with Pr(III) which is attributed to the smaller hydrosphere of lanthanum than praseodymium. IR spectra of these zeolites in KBr pellets show a shift in the major Si-O stretching vibration of 972 cm -1 to higher frequencies. Their x-ray diffraction patterns remain unchanged except a large decrease of the line intensities caused by the absorption of x-rays by heavy La(III) and Pr(III) ions. The present study reports the preparation and physicochemical properties of lanthanum and praseodymium exchanged zeolite X. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Spectral analysis of mammographic images using a multitaper method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Gang; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Power spectral analysis in radiographic images is conventionally performed using a windowed overlapping averaging periodogram. This study describes an alternative approach using a multitaper technique and compares its performance with that of the standard method. This tool will be valuable in power spectrum estimation of images, whose content deviates significantly from uniform white noise. The performance of the multitaper approach will be evaluated in terms of spectral stability, variance reduction, bias, and frequency precision. The ultimate goal is the development of a useful tool for image quality assurance. Methods: A multitaper approach uses successive data windows of increasing order. This mitigates spectral leakage allowing one to calculate a reduced-variance power spectrum. The multitaper approach will be compared with the conventional power spectrum method in several typical situations, including the noise power spectra (NPS) measurements of simulated projection images of a uniform phantom, NPS measurement of real detector images of a uniform phantom for two clinical digital mammography systems, and the estimation of the anatomic noise in mammographic images (simulated images and clinical mammograms). Results: Examination of spectrum variance versus frequency resolution and bias indicates that the multitaper approach is superior to the conventional single taper methods in the prevention of spectrum leakage and variance reduction. More than four times finer frequency precision can be achieved with equivalent or less variance and bias. Conclusions: Without any shortening of the image data length, the bias is smaller and the frequency resolution is higher with the multitaper method, and the need to compromise in the choice of regions of interest size to balance between the reduction of variance and the loss of frequency resolution is largely eliminated.

  3. Analysis of IRS-1-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in the adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome patients complicated with insulin resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongli, Chu [Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai (China). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Hongyu, Qiu; Yongyu, Sun; Min, Li; Hongfa, Li

    2004-04-01

    Objective: To investigate the insulin receptor substance-1 (IRS-1)-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and to explore molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance of PCOS. Methods: Blood and adipose tissue samples from patients with PCOS with insulin resistance (n=19), PCOS without insulin resistance (n=10) and controls (n=15) were collected. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Fasting insulin (FIN) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured by oxidase assay. Insulin resistance index (IR) was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to analyze the relationship between these markers and insulin resistance. The tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was measured by immunoprecipitation and enhanced chemiluminescent immunoblotting technique. PI-3 kinase activity was detected by immunoprecipitation, thin-layer chromatography and gamma scintillation counting. The results were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: 1) The levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS without insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of control group (all P<0.05); the levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS with insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of PCOS without insulin resistance (all P<0.05). 2) The tyrosine phosphorylation analysis of IRS-1 showed that IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly decreased in PCOS with insulin resistance compared to that of PCOS without insulin resistance and control groups (P<0.01). 3) PI-3 kinase activity was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. Conclusion: In consequence of the weaker signal caused by the change of upper stream signal molecule IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, PI-3 kinase activity decreased, it affects the insulin signal

  4. Analysis of IRS-1-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation in the adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome patients complicated with insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Yongli; Qiu Hongyu; Sun Yongyu; Li Min; Li Hongfa

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the insulin receptor substance-1 (IRS-1)-mediated phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI-3) kinase activity in adipose tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and to explore molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance of PCOS. Methods: Blood and adipose tissue samples from patients with PCOS with insulin resistance (n=19), PCOS without insulin resistance (n=10) and controls (n=15) were collected. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) were measured by chemiluminescence assay. Fasting insulin (FIN) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was measured by oxidase assay. Insulin resistance index (IR) was calculated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) to analyze the relationship between these markers and insulin resistance. The tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was measured by immunoprecipitation and enhanced chemiluminescent immunoblotting technique. PI-3 kinase activity was detected by immunoprecipitation, thin-layer chromatography and gamma scintillation counting. The results were analyzed by statistical methods. Results: 1) The levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS without insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of control group (all P<0.05); the levels of serum LH, LH/FSH, T, FIN and HOMA-IR in PCOS with insulin resistance were significantly higher than those of PCOS without insulin resistance (all P<0.05). 2) The tyrosine phosphorylation analysis of IRS-1 showed that IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation was significantly decreased in PCOS with insulin resistance compared to that of PCOS without insulin resistance and control groups (P<0.01). 3) PI-3 kinase activity was significantly decreased (P<0.01) and negatively correlated with HOMA-IR. Conclusion: In consequence of the weaker signal caused by the change of upper stream signal molecule IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation, PI-3 kinase activity decreased, it affects the insulin signal

  5. Estimation of spectral kurtosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2017-03-01

    Rolling bearings are the most important elements in rotating machinery. Bearing frequently fall out of service for various reasons: heavy loads, unsuitable lubrications, ineffective sealing. Bearing faults may cause a decrease in performance. Analysis of bearing vibration signals has attracted attention in the field of monitoring and fault diagnosis. Bearing vibration signals give rich information for early detection of bearing failures. Spectral kurtosis, SK, is a parameter in frequency domain indicating how the impulsiveness of a signal varies with frequency. Faults in rolling bearings give rise to a series of short impulse responses as the rolling elements strike faults, SK potentially useful for determining frequency bands dominated by bearing fault signals. SK can provide a measure of the distance of the analyzed bearings from a healthy one. SK provides additional information given by the power spectral density (psd). This paper aims to explore the estimation of spectral kurtosis using short time Fourier transform known as spectrogram. The estimation of SK is similar to the estimation of psd. The estimation falls in model-free estimation and plug-in estimator. Some numerical studies using simulations are discussed to support the methodology. Spectral kurtosis of some stationary signals are analytically obtained and used in simulation study. Kurtosis of time domain has been a popular tool for detecting non-normality. Spectral kurtosis is an extension of kurtosis in frequency domain. The relationship between time domain and frequency domain analysis is establish through power spectrum-autocovariance Fourier transform. Fourier transform is the main tool for estimation in frequency domain. The power spectral density is estimated through periodogram. In this paper, the short time Fourier transform of the spectral kurtosis is reviewed, a bearing fault (inner ring and outer ring) is simulated. The bearing response, power spectrum, and spectral kurtosis are plotted to

  6. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references. (JFP)

  7. WINDOWS: a program for the analysis of spectral data foil activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stallmann, F.W.; Eastham, J.F.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1978-12-01

    The computer program WINDOWS together with its subroutines is described for the analysis of neutron spectral data foil activation measurements. In particular, the unfolding of the neutron differential spectrum, estimated windows and detector contributions, upper and lower bounds for an integral response, and group fluxes obtained from neutron transport calculations. 116 references

  8. Planck 2013 results. IX. HFI spectral response

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Armitage-Caplan, C; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Atrio-Barandela, F; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bobin, J; Bock, J J; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bridges, M; Bucher, M; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chen, X; Chiang, L -Y; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Church, S; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Delouis, J -M; Désert, F -X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gratton, S; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, T R; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Knox, L; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Laureijs, R J; Lawrence, C R; Leahy, J P; Leonardi, R; Leroy, C; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maffei, B; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; McGehee, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Netterfield, C B; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H U; North, C; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Osborne, S; Oxborrow, C A; Paci, F; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Prézeau, G; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Riller, T; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Roudier, G; Rusholme, B; Santos, D; Savini, G; Shellard, E P S; Spencer, L D; Starck, J -L; Stolyarov, V; Stompor, R; Sudiwala, R; Sureau, F; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Terenzi, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) spectral response was determined through a series of ground based tests conducted with the HFI focal plane in a cryogenic environment prior to launch. The main goal of the spectral transmission tests was to measure the relative spectral response (including out-of-band signal rejection) of all HFI detectors. This was determined by measuring the output of a continuously scanned Fourier transform spectrometer coupled with all HFI detectors. As there is no on-board spectrometer within HFI, the ground-based spectral response experiments provide the definitive data set for the relative spectral calibration of the HFI. The spectral response of the HFI is used in Planck data analysis and component separation, this includes extraction of CO emission observed within Planck bands, dust emission, Sunyaev-Zeldovich sources, and intensity to polarization leakage. The HFI spectral response data have also been used to provide unit conversion and colour correction analysis tools. Ver...

  9. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  10. Computational and spectral studies of 6-phenylazo-3-(p-tolyl)-2H-chromen-2-one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimekalai, A.; Vijayalakshmi, N.

    2015-02-01

    6-Phenylazo-3-(p-tolyl)-2H-chromen-2-one 4 was prepared and characterized by IR, 1H, and 13C NMR spectral studies. The optimized structure of the chromen-2-one 4 was investigated by the Gaussian 03 B3LYP density functional method calculations at 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) 13C and 1H chemical shift calculations for the synthesized chromen-2-one in CDCl3 were also made by the same method. The computed IR frequencies of the chromen-2-one and the corresponding vibrational assignments were analyzed by means of potential energy distribution (PED%) calculation using vibrational energy distribution analysis (VEDA) program. The first order hyperpolarizability (βtot), polarizability (α) and dipole moment (μ) were calculated using 6-311G(d,p) basis set and the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties are also addressed theoretically. Stability of the chromen-2-one 4 molecule has been analyzed by calculating the intramolecular charge transfer using natural bond order (NBO) analysis. The molecular electrostatic potentials, HOMO-LUMO energy gap and geometrical parameters were also computed. Topological properties of the electronic charge density in chromen-2-one 4 were analyzed employing the Bader's Atoms in Molecule (AIM) theory which indicated the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the molecule.

  11. An experimental applications of impedance measurements by spectral analysis to electrochemistry and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.B.; Vilche, J.R.; Milocco, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    An impedance measurement system based on the spectral analysis of excitation and response signals was implemented using a pseudo-random binary sequence in the generation of the electrical perturbation signal. The spectral density functions were estimated through finite Fourier transforms of the original time history records by fast computation of Fourier series. Experimental results obtained using the FFT algorithm in the developed impedance measurement system which covers a wide frequency range, 10 KHz >= f >= 1 mHz, are given both for dummy cells representing conventional electric circuits in electrochemistry and corrosion systems and for the Fe/acidic chloride solution interfaces under different polarization conditions. (C.L.B.) [pt

  12. TG/FT-IR characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThermogravimetric analysis coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR is a very popular technique for rubbers characterization. It involves analyses of the base polymer and additives. Ethylene–propylene–diene (EPDM rubbers are frequently investigated by TG/FT-IR; however, the focus has been the degradation temperature range of the polymer. In this study, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubber and its additives were investigated by TG/FT-IR, without solvent extraction, and in a wide temperature range. Initially, the additives were individually characterized. TG/FT-IR identified the characteristic groups of all the additives analyzed and distinguished them from each other. Afterwards, unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM rubbers were investigated without prior extraction.TG/FT-IR detected absorptions due to the additives tetramethylthiuram monosulfide and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Both of these sulfur-containing additives were present in the EPDM formulation at concentrations of 0.7 phr (0.63 wt %. The TG/FT-IR technique had some limitations, because not all the additives in EPDM rubber were detected. Paraffin oil, stearic acid and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline functional groups were not observed in either the unvulcanized or vulcanized EPDM. Nevertheless, in addition to the ability of this method to detect sulfur-containing groups, the lack of a pre-extraction reduces the time and effort required for additive analysis in rubbers.

  13. Kinetics and evolved gas analysis for pyrolysis of food processing wastes using TGA/MS/FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the pyrolysis of different bio-waste produced by food processing industry in a comprehensible manner. For this purpose, pyrolysis behaviors of chestnut shells (CNS), cherry stones (CS) and grape seeds (GS) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with a Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and a mass spectrometer (MS). In order to make available theoretical groundwork for biomass pyrolysis, activation energies were calculated with the help of four different model-free kinetic methods. The results are attributed to the complex reaction schemes which imply parallel, competitive and complex reactions during pyrolysis. During pyrolysis, the evolution of volatiles was also characterized by FT-IR and MS. The main evolved gases were determined as H 2 O, CO 2 and hydrocarbons such as CH 4 and temperature dependent profiles of the species were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spectral analysis methods for vehicle interior vibro-acoustics identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Fouladi, Mohammad; Nor, Mohd. Jailani Mohd.; Ariffin, Ahmad Kamal

    2009-02-01

    Noise has various effects on comfort, performance and health of human. Sound are analysed by human brain based on the frequencies and amplitudes. In a dynamic system, transmission of sound and vibrations depend on frequency and direction of the input motion and characteristics of the output. It is imperative that automotive manufacturers invest a lot of effort and money to improve and enhance the vibro-acoustics performance of their products. The enhancement effort may be very difficult and time-consuming if one relies only on 'trial and error' method without prior knowledge about the sources itself. Complex noise inside a vehicle cabin originated from various sources and travel through many pathways. First stage of sound quality refinement is to find the source. It is vital for automotive engineers to identify the dominant noise sources such as engine noise, exhaust noise and noise due to vibration transmission inside of vehicle. The purpose of this paper is to find the vibro-acoustical sources of noise in a passenger vehicle compartment. The implementation of spectral analysis method is much faster than the 'trial and error' methods in which, parts should be separated to measure the transfer functions. Also by using spectral analysis method, signals can be recorded in real operational conditions which conduce to more consistent results. A multi-channel analyser is utilised to measure and record the vibro-acoustical signals. Computational algorithms are also employed to identify contribution of various sources towards the measured interior signal. These achievements can be utilised to detect, control and optimise interior noise performance of road transport vehicles.

  15. A distributed microcomputer-controlled system for data acquisition and power spectral analysis of EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, T D; Dwyer, G; Szeto, H H

    1986-04-01

    A relatively powerful and inexpensive microcomputer-based system for the spectral analysis of the EEG is presented. High resolution and speed is achieved with the use of recently available large-scale integrated circuit technology with enhanced functionality (INTEL Math co-processors 8087) which can perform transcendental functions rapidly. The versatility of the system is achieved with a hardware organization that has distributed data acquisition capability performed by the use of a microprocessor-based analog to digital converter with large resident memory (Cyborg ISAAC-2000). Compiled BASIC programs and assembly language subroutines perform on-line or off-line the fast Fourier transform and spectral analysis of the EEG which is stored as soft as well as hard copy. Some results obtained from test application of the entire system in animal studies are presented.

  16. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  17. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  18. Thermal structure of the Martian atmosphere retrieved from the IR- spectrometry in the 15 mkm CO2 band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L.; Formisano, V.; Grassi, D.; Igantiev, N.; Moroz, V.

    Thermal IR spectrometry is one of the methods of the Martian atmosphere investigation below 55 km. The temperature profiles retrieved from the 15 μm CO2 band may be used for MIRA database. This approach gives the vertical resolution of several kilometers and accuracy of several Kelvins. An aerosol abundance, which influences the temperature profiles, is obtained from the continuum of the same spectrum. It is taken into account in the temperature retrieval procedure in a self- consistent way. Although this method has limited vertical resolution it possesses some advantages. For example, the radio occultation method gives the temperature profiles with higher spectral resolution, but the radio observations are sparse in space and local time. Direct measurements, which give the most accurate results, enable to obtain the temperature profiles only for some chosen points (landing places). Actually, the thermal IR-spectrometry is the only method, which allows to monitor the temperature profiles with good coverage both in space and local time. The first measurements of this kind were fulfilled by IRIS, installed on board of Mariner 9. This spectrometer was characterized by rather high spectral resolution (2.4 cm-1). The temperature profiles vs. local time dependencies for different latitudes and seasons were retrieved, including dust storm conditions, North polar night, Tharsis volcanoes. The obtained temperature profiles have been compared with the temperature profiles for the same conditions, taken from Climate Data Base (European GCM). The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express (which is planned to be launched in 2003) has the spectral range 1.2-45 μm and spectral resolution of 1.5 cm- 1. Temperature retrieval is one of the main scientific goals of the experiment. It opens a possibility to get a series of temperature profiles taken for different conditions, which can later be used in MIRA producing.

  19. Infrared Reflectance Analysis of Epitaxial n-Type Doped GaN Layers Grown on Sapphire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsykaniuk, Bogdan I; Nikolenko, Andrii S; Strelchuk, Viktor V; Naseka, Viktor M; Mazur, Yuriy I; Ware, Morgan E; DeCuir, Eric A; Sadovyi, Bogdan; Weyher, Jan L; Jakiela, Rafal; Salamo, Gregory J; Belyaev, Alexander E

    2017-12-01

    Infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy is applied to study Si-doped multilayer n + /n 0 /n + -GaN structure grown on GaN buffer with GaN-template/sapphire substrate. Analysis of the investigated structure by photo-etching, SEM, and SIMS methods showed the existence of the additional layer with the drastic difference in Si and O doping levels and located between the epitaxial GaN buffer and template. Simulation of the experimental reflectivity spectra was performed in a wide frequency range. It is shown that the modeling of IR reflectance spectrum using 2 × 2 transfer matrix method and including into analysis the additional layer make it possible to obtain the best fitting of the experimental spectrum, which follows in the evaluation of GaN layer thicknesses which are in good agreement with the SEM and SIMS data. Spectral dependence of plasmon-LO-phonon coupled modes for each GaN layer is obtained from the spectral dependence of dielectric of Si doping impurity, which is attributed to compensation effects by the acceptor states.

  20. "Batch" kinetics in flow: online IR analysis and continuous control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason S; Jensen, Klavs F

    2014-01-07

    Currently, kinetic data is either collected under steady-state conditions in flow or by generating time-series data in batch. Batch experiments are generally considered to be more suitable for the generation of kinetic data because of the ability to collect data from many time points in a single experiment. Now, a method that rapidly generates time-series reaction data from flow reactors by continuously manipulating the flow rate and reaction temperature has been developed. This approach makes use of inline IR analysis and an automated microreactor system, which allowed for rapid and tight control of the operating conditions. The conversion/residence time profiles at several temperatures were used to fit parameters to a kinetic model. This method requires significantly less time and a smaller amount of starting material compared to one-at-a-time flow experiments, and thus allows for the rapid generation of kinetic data. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Vibrational investigation on FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra, IR intensity, Raman activity, peak resemblance, ideal estimation, standard deviation of computed frequencies analyses and electronic structure on 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene using HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, S; Jayaprakash, A; Mohan, S; Karabacak, M

    2011-11-01

    FT-IR and FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) spectral measurements of 3-methyl-1,2-butadiene (3M12B) have been attempted in the present work. Ab-initio HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, IR intensities and Raman activities. Complete vibrational assignments on the observed spectra are made with vibrational frequencies obtained by HF and DFT (LSDA/B3LYP/B3PW91) at 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The results of the calculations have been used to simulate IR and Raman spectra for the molecule that showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The potential energy distribution (PED) corresponding to each of the observed frequencies are calculated which confirms the reliability and precision of the assignment and analysis of the vibrational fundamentals modes. The oscillation of vibrational frequencies of butadiene due to the couple of methyl group is also discussed. A study on the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures reveal the correlations between standard heat capacities (C) standard entropies (S), and standard enthalpy changes (H). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectral analysis of point-vortex dynamics: first application to vortex polygons in a circular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speetjens, M F M; Meleshko, V V; Van Heijst, G J F

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses the classical problem of the dynamics and stability of a cluster of N-point vortices of equal strength arranged in a polygonal configuration (‘N-vortex polygons’). In unbounded domains, such N-vortex polygons are unconditionally stable for N⩽7. Confinement in a circular domain tightens the stability conditions to N⩽6 and a maximum polygon size relative to the domain radius. This work expands on existing studies on stability and integrability by a first giving an exploratory spectral analysis of the dynamics of N vortex polygons in circular domains. Key to this is that the spectral signature of the time evolution of vortex positions reflects their qualitative behaviour. Expressing vortex motion by a generic evolution operator (the so-called Koopman operator) provides a rigorous framework for such spectral analyses. This paves the way to further differentiation and classification of point-vortex behaviour beyond stability and integrability. The concept of Koopman-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for N-vortex polygons. This reveals that conditional stability can be seen as a local form of integrability and confirms an important generic link between spectrum and dynamics: discrete spectra imply regular (quasi-periodic) motion; continuous (sub-)spectra imply chaotic motion. Moreover, this exposes rich nonlinear dynamics as intermittency between regular and chaotic motion and quasi-coherent structures formed by chaotic vortices. (ss 1)

  3. Analysis of neutron reflectivity data: maximum entropy, Bayesian spectral analysis and speckle holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.; Hamilton, W.A.; Smith, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The analysis of neutron reflectivity data to obtain nuclear scattering length density profiles is akin to the notorious phaseless Fourier problem, well known in many fields such as crystallography. Current methods of analysis culminate in the refinement of a few parameters of a functional model, and are often preceded by a long and laborious process of trial and error. We start by discussing the use of maximum entropy for obtained 'free-form' solutions of the density profile, as an alternative to the trial and error phase when a functional model is not available. Next we consider a Bayesian spectral analysis approach, which is appropriate for optimising the parameters of a simple (but adequate) type of model when the number of parameters is not known. Finally, we suggest a novel experimental procedure, the analogue of astronomical speckle holography, designed to alleviate the ambiguity problems inherent in traditional reflectivity measurements. (orig.)

  4. Spectrally- and Time-Resolved Sum Frequency Generation (STiR-SFG): a new tool for ultrafast hydrogen bond dynamics at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderskii, Alexander; Bordenyuk, Andrey; Weeraman, Champika

    2006-03-01

    The recently developed spectrally- and time-resolved Sum Frequency Generation (STiR-SFG) is a surface-selective 3-wave mixing (IR+visible) spectroscopic technique capable of measuring ultrafast spectral evolution of vibrational coherences. A detailed description of this measurement will be presented, and a noniterative method or deconvolving the laser pulses will be introduced to obtain the molecular response function. STiR-SFG, combined with the frequency-domain SFG spectroscopy, was applied to study hydrogen bonding dynamics at aqueous interfaces (D2O/CaF2). Spectral dynamics of the OD-stretch on the 50-150 fs time scale provides real-time observation of ultrafast H-bond rearrangement. Tuning the IR wavelength to the blue or red side of the OD-stretch transition, we selectively monitor the dynamics of different sub-ensembles in the distribution of the H-bond structures. The blue-side excitation (weaker H-bonding) shows monotonic red-shift of the OD-frequency. In contrast, the red-side excitation (stronger H-bonding structures) produces a blue-shift and a recursion, which may indicate the presence of an underdamped intermolecular mode of interfacial water. Effect of electrolyte concentration on the H-bond dynamics will be discussed.

  5. Spectral properties of generalized eigenparameter dependent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jost function, spectrum, the spectral singularities, and the properties of the principal vectors corresponding to the spectral singularities of L, if. ∞Σn=1 n(∣1 - an∣ + ∣bnl) < ∞. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 34L05, 34L40, 39A70, 47A10, 47A75. Key words: Discrete equations, eigenparameter, spectral analysis, ...

  6. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  7. ANALYSIS OF IN-SITU SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF SAGO AND OTHER PALMS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEIR DETECTION IN OPTICAL SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santillan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a characterization, comparison and analysis of in-situ spectral reflectance of Sago and other palms (coconut, oil palm and nipa to ascertain on which part of the electromagnetic spectrum these palms are distinguishable from each other. The analysis also aims to reveal information that will assist in selecting which band to use when mapping Sago palms using the images acquired by these sensors. The datasets used in the analysis consisted of averaged spectral reflectance curves of each palm species measured within the 345–1045 nm wavelength range using an Ocean Optics USB4000-VIS-NIR Miniature Fiber Optic Spectrometer. This in-situ reflectance data was also resampled to match the spectral response of the 4 bands of ALOS AVNIR-2, 3 bands of ASTER VNIR, 4 bands of Landsat 7 ETM+, 5 bands of Landsat 8, and 8 bands of Worldview-2 (WV2. Examination of the spectral reflectance curves showed that the near infra-red region, specifically at 770, 800 and 875 nm, provides the best wavelengths where Sago palms can be distinguished from other palms. The resampling of the in-situ reflectance spectra to match the spectral response of optical sensors made possible the analysis of the differences in reflectance values of Sago and other palms in different bands of the sensors. Overall, the knowledge learned from the analysis can be useful in the actual analysis of optical satellite images, specifically in determining which band to include or to exclude, or whether to use all bands of a sensor in discriminating and mapping Sago palms.

  8. UV / IR mixing in noncommutative field theory via open string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiem, Youngjai; Lee, Sangmin

    2000-01-01

    We explicitly evaluate one-loop (annulus) planar and nonplanar open string amplitudes in the presence of the background NS-NS two-form field. In the decoupling limit of Seiberg and Witten, we find that the nonplanar string amplitudes reproduce the UV/IR mixing of noncommutative field theories. In particular, the investigation of the UV regime of the open string amplitudes shows that certain IR closed string degrees of freedom survive the decoupling limit as previously predicted from the noncommutative field theory analysis. These degrees of freedom are responsible for the quadratic, linear and logarithmic IR singularities when the D-branes embedded in space-time have the codimension zero, one and two, respectively. The analysis is given for both bosonic and supersymmetric open strings

  9. Comprehensive spectral and instrumental approaches for the easy monitoring of features and purity of different carbon nanostructures for nanocomposite applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaleri, Enrico; Arrais, Aldo; Frache, Alberto; Gianelli, Walter; Fino, Paolo; Camino, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    A wide series of carbon nanostructures (ranging from fullerenes, through carbon nanotubes, up to carbon nanofibers) promise to change several fields in material science, but a real industrial implementation depends on their availability at reasonable prices with affordable and reproducible degrees of purity. In this study we propose simple instrumental approaches to efficiently characterize different commercial samples, particularly for qualitative evaluation of impurities, the discrimination of their respective spectral features and, when possible, for quantitative determination. We critically discuss information that researchers in the field of nanocomposite technology can achieve in this aim by spectral techniques such as Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetrical analysis, mass spectrometry-hyphenated thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. All these can be helpful, in applied research on material science, for a fast reliable monitoring of the actual purity of carbon products in both commercial and laboratory-produced samples as well as in composite materials

  10. Ngc7538 Irs1 - A Highly Collimated Ionized Wind Source Powered By Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Goran H. L.; Wright, M.; Goss, W.; Corder, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent images show that NGC7538 IRS1 is not a conventional Ultracompact or Hypercompact HII region, but is completely wind-excited (other broad recombination line hypercompact HII regions may be similar to IRS1). NGC 7538 IRS1 is a well studied young high-mass star (L 2 10^5 L_Sun).VLA images at 6 and 2 cm (Cambell 1984; ApJ, 282, L27) showed a compact bipolar core (lobe separation 0.2") with more extended faint lobes. Recombination line observations (Gaume et al. 1995, ApJ, 438, 776) show extremely wide line profiles indicating substantial mass motion of the ionized gas. We re-analyzed high angular resolution VLA archive data from 6 cm to 7 mm, and measured the flux from the compact core and the extended (1.5 - 2") bipolar lobes. We find that the compact core has a spectral index, alpha 0.6, which could be explained by an optically thick hypercompact core with a density gradient. However, the size of the core shrinks with increasing frequency; from 0.24" at 6 cm to 0.1" at 7 mm, consistent with that expected for a collimated jet (Reynolds 1986, ApJ, 304, 713). If we do a crude size correction so that we compare emission from the optically thick inner part of the jet for a set of 2 cm and 7 mm observations we get alpha 1.6, i.e. close to the optically thick value. BIMA and CARMA continuum observations at 3 mm show some dust excess, while. HCO+ J=1-0 observations combined with FCRAO single dish data show a clear inverse P Cygni profile towards IRS1. These observations confirm that IRS1 is heavily accreting with an accretion rate 2 10^-4 M_Sun/year, sufficient to quench the formation of an HII region.

  11. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  12. Development of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile IR24 and IR64 Using CW-CMS/Rf17 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriyama, Kinya; Kazama, Tomohiko

    2016-12-01

    A wild-abortive-type (WA) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been almost exclusively used for breeding three-line hybrid rice. Many indica cultivars are known to carry restorer genes for WA-CMS lines and cannot be used as maintainer lines. Especially elite indica cultivars IR24 and IR64 are known to be restorer lines for WA-CMS lines, and are used as male parents for hybrid seed production. If we develop CMS IR24 and CMS IR64, the combination of F1 pairs in hybrid rice breeding programs will be greatly broadened. For production of CMS lines and restorer lines of IR24 and IR64, we employed Chinese wild rice (CW)-type CMS/Restorer of fertility 17 (Rf17) system, in which fertility is restored by a single nuclear gene, Rf17. Successive backcrossing and marker-assisted selection of Rf17 succeeded to produce completely male sterile CMS lines and fully restored restorer lines of IR24 and IR64. CW-cytoplasm did not affect agronomic characteristics. Since IR64 is one of the most popular mega-varieties and used for breeding of many modern varieties, the CW-CMS line of IR64 will be useful for hybrid rice breeding.

  13. Numerical Solution of Nonlinear Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations Using Spectral Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pashazadeh Atabakan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral homotopy analysis method (SHAM as a modification of homotopy analysis method (HAM is applied to obtain solution of high-order nonlinear Fredholm integro-differential problems. The existence and uniqueness of the solution and convergence of the proposed method are proved. Some examples are given to approve the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed method. The SHAM results show that the proposed approach is quite reasonable when compared to homotopy analysis method, Lagrange interpolation solutions, and exact solutions.

  14. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  15. New impressive capabilities of SE-workbench for EO/IR real-time rendering of animated scenarios including flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To provide technical assessments of EO/IR flares and self-protection systems for aircraft, DGA Information superiority resorts to synthetic image generation to model the operational battlefield of an aircraft, as viewed by EO/IR threats. For this purpose, it completed the SE-Workbench suite from OKTAL-SE with functionalities to predict a realistic aircraft IR signature and is yet integrating the real-time EO/IR rendering engine of SE-Workbench called SE-FAST-IR. This engine is a set of physics-based software and libraries that allows preparing and visualizing a 3D scene for the EO/IR domain. It takes advantage of recent advances in GPU computing techniques. The recent past evolutions that have been performed concern mainly the realistic and physical rendering of reflections, the rendering of both radiative and thermal shadows, the use of procedural techniques for the managing and the rendering of very large terrains, the implementation of Image- Based Rendering for dynamic interpolation of plume static signatures and lastly for aircraft the dynamic interpolation of thermal states. The next step is the representation of the spectral, directional, spatial and temporal signature of flares by Lacroix Defense using OKTAL-SE technology. This representation is prepared from experimental data acquired during windblast tests and high speed track tests. It is based on particle system mechanisms to model the different components of a flare. The validation of a flare model will comprise a simulation of real trials and a comparison of simulation outputs to experimental results concerning the flare signature and above all the behavior of the stimulated threat.

  16. Sensitivity Range Analysis of Infrared (IR) Transmitter and Receiver Sensor to Detect Sample Position in Automatic Sample Changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Maslina Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity range of IR Transmitter and Receiver Sensor influences the effectiveness of the sensor to detect position of a sample. Then the purpose of this analysis is to determine the suitable design and specification the electronic driver of the sensor to gain appropriate sensitivity range for required operation. The related activities to this analysis cover e