WorldWideScience

Sample records for ionization profile monitors

  1. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.

    1997-01-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM's). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests

  2. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.

  3. An Ionization Profile Monitor for the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Jansson, Andreas; Bowie, Kwame; Bross, Alan; Dysert, Robert; Fitzpatrick, Thomas; Kwarciany, Richard; Lundberg, Carl; Nguyen, Hogan; Rivetta, Claudio H; Slimmer, David; Valerio, Linda; Zagel, James

    2005-01-01

    Primarily to study emittance blowup during injection and ramping, an ionization profile monitor has been developed for the Tevatron. It is based on a prototype installed in the Main Injector, although with extensive modifications. In particular, the electromagnetic shielding has been improved, the signal path has been cleaned up, and provisions have been made for an internal electron source. Due to the good Tevatron vacuum, a local pressure bump is introduced to increase the primary signal, which is then amplified by a microchannel plate and detected on anode strips. For the DAQ, a custom ASIC developed for the CMS experiment is used. It is a combined charge integrator and digitizer, with a sensitivity of a few fC, and a time-resolution that allows single bunch measurement. Digitization is done in the tunnel to reduce noise. Preparations for detector installation were made during the long 2004 shutdown, with the installation of magnets, vacuum chambers, vacuum pumps and cabling. The actual detector will be in...

  4. A Prototype Ionization Profile Monitor for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Cameron, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ryan, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Shea, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sikora, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-03-17

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab will accelerate and store beams of ions ranging from protons to gold nuclei. Transverse beam profiles will be obtained by measuring the distribution of free electrons formed by beam ionization of the residual gas. The electrons are swept from the beamline by a transverse electric field, amplified by a microchannel plate (MCP), and collected on a circuit board with strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. A uniform magnetic field,parallel to the sweep electric field, counters the defocusing effects of space charge and recoil momentum. A single-plane prototype ionization profile montor (IPM) was installed near the end of the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line (ATR) and tested during the sextant commissioning rung. It measured vertical profiles of single bunches of Au nuclei with intensities of 0.6-1.0 x 108 particles. These profiles are compared to profiles on a fluorescent screen (WF3) located 2m downstream from the IPM. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam test.

  5. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  6. Development of residual gas ionization profile monitor for high intensity proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Y; Hirose, E; Ieiri, M; Igarashi, Y; Inaba, S; Katoh, Y; Minakawa, M; Noumi, H; Saitó, M; Suzuki, Y; Takahashi, H; Takasaki, M; Tanaka, K; Toyoda, A; Yamada, Y; Yamanoi, Y; Watanabe, H

    2006-01-01

    Nondestructive beam profile monitor utilizing ionizations of residual gas has been developed for continuous monitoring of 3?0(J-PARC). Knock-on electrons produced in the ionizations of residual gas vacuumed to 1 Pa are collected with a uniform electric field applied between electrodes. Applying a uniform electric field parallel to the electric field is essential to reduce diffusion of electrons crossing over magnetic flux. A prototype monitor has been constructed and installed in EP2-C beam line at KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron (12 Ge V-PS). The profiles measured with the present monitor agree with the ones measured with the existing destructive profile monitor. The present monitor shows sufficient performances as a candidate of the profile monitor at J-PARC. In the present article, the working principle of the present monitor, the results of test experiments, and further developments are described in detail.

  7. Profile distortion by beam space-charge in Ionization Profile Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vilsmeier, D; Wettig, T

    Measuring the transverse beam size in the Large Hadron Collider by using Ionization Profile Monitors is a difficult task for energies above injection during the energy ramp from 450 GeV to 6.5TeV. The beam size decreases from around 1mm to 200um and the brightness of the beam is high enough to destroy the structure of any form of interacting matter. While the electron trajectories are confined by an external electro-magnetic field which forces the electrons accordingly on helix paths with certain gyroradii, this gyration is heavily increased under the influence of the electric field of the beam. Smaller beam sizes, which go hand in hand with increased bunch electric fields, lead to larger gyroradii of the ionized electrons, which results in strongly distorted profiles. In addition, this distortion becomes more visible for smaller beam sizes as the extent of gyration grows compared to the actual beam size. Depending on the initial momentum distribution of the electrons, emerging from the ionization process wit...

  8. Direct profiling of phytochemicals in tulip tissues and in vivo monitoring of the change of carbohydrate content in tulip bulbs by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2009-12-01

    Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems.

  9. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  10. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.B.C. [Radiation Safety Consultancy, Engadine, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives. 8 refs., 9 tabs.

  11. Monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Button, J.B.C.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of methods of monitoring occupational exposure to ionizing radiation together with reasons for such monitoring and maintaining dose histories of radiation occupationally exposed persons. The various Australian providers of external radiation monitoring services and the types of dosemeters they supply are briefly described together with some monitoring results. Biological monitoring methods, are used to determine internal radiation dose. Whole body monitors, used for this purpose are available at Australian Radiation Lab., ANSTO and a few hospitals. Brief mention is made of the Australian National Radiation Dose Register and its objectives

  12. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  13. Whole body personnel monitoring via ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; Bounds, K.A.; Kerr, P.L.; Steadman, P.A.; Whitley, C.R.

    1998-02-01

    A project between Fernald EMP and LANL is to field a monitor for the detection of alpha-emitting contamination on a human body. Traditional personnel monitoring for alpha emitters involves either frisking with a probe or pressing against large detectors in order to overcome the short range of alpha particles. These methods have a low alpha collection efficiency, and can miss contamination on less accessible surfaces. The authors have investigated the sensitivity and practicality of measuring the entire subject simultaneously using the technique of ionization monitoring. The goal is to create a booth that personnel step into quickly during egress from radiological facilities. The detection technique relies on a breeze of air passing over the subject. Alpha emission produces copious ions in the ambient air which are transported by the air current to an ion collector, resulting in a small electrical current proportional to the amount of contamination. Results indicate a conservative sensitivity of 3,000 disintegrations per minute localized to one of five areas of the body in a measurement lasting less than 2 minutes

  14. Hand and shoe monitor using air ionization probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A hand and shoe radiation monitor is provided which includes a probe support body defining a plurality of cells, within each cell there being an ionization probe. The support body provides structural strength for protecting the ionization probes from force applied to the support body during a radiation monitoring event. There is also provided a fast response time amplifier circuit for the output from the ionization probes

  15. Profile Monitors Based on Residual Gas Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P; Giacomini, T; Peters, A

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of transverse beam profiles at high current hadron accelerators has to be performed non-interceptingly. Two methods will be discussed based on the excitation of the residual gas molecules by the beam particles: Firstly, by beam induced fluorescence (BIF) light is emitted from the residual gas molecules and is observed with an image intensified CCD camera. At most laboratories N2 gas is inserted, which has a large cross section for emission in the blue wave length region. Secondly, a larger signal strength is achieved by detecting the ionization products in an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). By applying an electric field all ionization products are accelerated toward a spatial resolving Micro-Channel Plate. The signal read-out can either be performed by observing the light from a phosphor screen behind the MCP or electronically by a wire array. Methods to achieve a high spatial resolution and a fast turn-by-turn readout capability are discussed. Even though various approaches at dif...

  16. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for on-line characterization, monitoring and isotopic profiling of the main selenium-metabolite in human urine after consumption of Se-rich and Se-enriched food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Emmie; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita

    2006-01-01

    The metabolism of selenium (Se) in the human body has yet not completely been unravelled and hence, an efficient method for characterization and on-line monitoring of the main Se-compound in human urine after consumption of Se-rich food was developed. Total Se-concentration in human urine after consumption of several Se-rich products was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest Se concentration in urine was observed after 4-10 h. The urine samples were brought onto a reversed phase column and the Se was detected by ICP-MS. Parameters for liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) measurements were optimized by using commercially available sugars, because it is known that some of the urinary metabolites contain a sugar moiety. In order to characterize the predominant Se-metabolite, it was necessary to extensively clean-up the sample and preconcentrate the species. The main metabolite was measured on its precursor ion on three different m/z according to three isotopes of Se. Relative peak surfaces matched the relative abundances of the isotopes. The product ions could be measured in a human urine sample in accordance to the product ions of the commercially available sugars. Moreover, the evidence of a selenosugar was demonstrated by the use of the Se-isotopes when measuring the product ions. LC-ESI-MS-MS was proven to be very efficient for the characterization of the main urinary Se-metabolite and can be used for on-line monitoring of the compound in urine samples. The method can be extended for clinical screening after consumption of Se-(en)rich(ed) food by use of the Se-isotopic profile and/or of the typical product ions of (methyl)-N-acetyl-hexosamines

  17. The first experience with LHC beam gas ionization monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Dehning, B; Guerrero, A; Patecki, M; Versteegen, R

    2012-01-01

    The Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI) are used to measure beam emittance on LHC. This paper describes the detectors and their operation and discusses the issues met during the commissioning. It also discusses the various calibration procedures used to correct for non-uniformity of Multi-Channel plates and to correct the beam size for effects affecting the electron trajectory after ionization.

  18. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  19. Ionization profile of beta radiation from radioactive cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujovic, M.; Vojvodic, V.

    1978-01-01

    A method for calculation of the ionization profile induced by beta radiation from a radioactive cloud is given. The procedure can be applied for high altitudes of the could (H 75 km) as well as for lower ones, when the thickness of the cloud must be taken into account. The final result is given in the analytical form. (author)

  20. Ionization rates and profiles of electron concentration in Martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komitov, B.; Spasov, S.; Gogoshev, M.

    1981-01-01

    The ionization and vertical profiles of electron concentration in the Martian atmosphere are calculated as functions of the solar zenith angles varying from O deg to 90 deg. A neutral atmospheric model based on direct mass-spectometric measurements from the Viking-1 landing modul is employed in the calculation. The Earth data of the ionization solar flux at the same level of the solar activity and for the month of the Viking-1 measurements reduced for the Mars orbit are used. The numerical result for the photoionization rates and quasi-equilibrium electron-concentration profiles in the upper Martian atmosphere at different solar zenith angles from 0 deg to 100 deg are presented. It is shown that the maxima of both quantities decrease and move towards the upper atmosphere regions. The calculated electron density at the zenith solar angle of 40 deg are compared to Viking-1 experimental data and a good agreement is achieved

  1. Development of alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A novel alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology has been developed for future constitution of 'Clearance Level' for uranium and TRU radioactive waste. We carried out optimum design and realized two kinds of practical alpha activity monitor, combining with radiation detector technology, ionized air physics and computational fluid dynamics. The results will bring paradigm shift on the alpha-ray measurement such as converting 'closely contacting and scanning measurement' to 'remotely measurement in the block', and drastically improve the efficiency of measurement operation. We hope that this technology will be widely endorsed as the practical method for the alpha clearance measurement in future. (author)

  2. IFMIF-LIPAc Beam Diagnostics. Profiling and Loss Monitoring Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egberts, J.

    2012-01-01

    The IFMIF accelerator will accelerate two 125 mA continuous wave (cw) deuteron beams up to 40 MeV and blasts them onto a liquid lithium target to release neutrons. The very high beam power of 10 MW pose unprecedented challenges for the accelerator development. Therefore, it was decided to build a prototype accelerator, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc), which has the very same beam characteristic, but is limited to 9 MeV only. In the frame of this thesis, diagnostics devices for IFMIF and LIPAc have been developed. The diagnostics devices consist of beam loss monitors and interceptive as well as non-interceptive profile monitors. For the beam loss monitoring system, ionization chambers and diamond detectors have been tested and calibrated for neutron and γ radiation in the energy range expected at LIPAc. During these tests, for the first time, diamond detectors were successfully operated at cryogenic temperatures. For the interceptive profilers, thermal simulations were performed to ensure safe operation. For the non-interceptive profiler, Ionization Profile Monitors (IPMs) were developed. A prototype has been built and tested, and based on the findings, the final IPMs were designed and built. To overcome the space charge of accelerator beam, a software algorithm was written to reconstruct the actual beam profile. (author) [fr

  3. Ionization chamber for monitoring radioactive gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotrappa, P.; Dempsey, J.

    1992-01-01

    This present invention provides simple, effective and accurate cumulative measurement of radioactive gas over a time period. Measurements of radioactive gas are important for many purposes. Tritium concentrations in potentially exposed workers are measured, for example, with periodic urine specimens. Carbon-14 serves as a useful research tool for monitoring the progress of many chemical and biological reactions and interactions. For example, many microorganisms break down carbon-14 containing compounds in sugar to produce carbon-14 dioxide gas which can be collected and measured to determine various characteristics of the microorganisms. Both tritium and carbon-14 dioxide produce low energy radiation which cannot be easily measured by conventional radioactivity detectors. (author). 4 figs

  4. Ionization chamber for monitoring radioactive gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotrappa, P; Dempsey, J

    1992-09-22

    This present invention provides simple, effective and accurate cumulative measurement of radioactive gas over a time period. Measurements of radioactive gas are important for many purposes. Tritium concentrations in potentially exposed workers are measured, for example, with periodic urine specimens. Carbon-14 serves as a useful research tool for monitoring the progress of many chemical and biological reactions and interactions. For example, many microorganisms break down carbon-14 containing compounds in sugar to produce carbon-14 dioxide gas which can be collected and measured to determine various characteristics of the microorganisms. Both tritium and carbon-14 dioxide produce low energy radiation which cannot be easily measured by conventional radioactivity detectors. (author). 4 figs.

  5. Beam profile monitors in the NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nantista, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Brown, R.L.; Fuller, R.; Rifkin, J.

    1997-05-01

    The transverse current profile in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) electron beam can be monitored at several locations along the beam line by means of profile monitors. These consist of insertable phosphor screens, light collection and transport systems, CID cameras, a frame-grabber, and PC and VAX based image analysis software. In addition to their usefulness in tuning and steering the accelerator, the profile monitors are utilized for emittance measurement. A description of these systems and their performance is presented

  6. Ionization profile of beta radiation from radioactive cloud; Jonizacioni profil beta zracenja radioaktivnog oblaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vujovic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Vojvodic, V [VTI Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1978-07-01

    A method for calculation of the ionization profile induced by beta radiation from a radioactive cloud is given. The procedure can be applied for high altitudes of the could (H 75 km) as well as for lower ones, when the thickness of the cloud must be taken into account. The final result is given in the analytical form. (author)

  7. Design and construction of a radiation monitor with ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    The design and construction of a portable radiation monitor with ionization chamber for gamma and x rays measurements in the range from 40 KeV to 2 MeV are described in detail. The monitor is calibrated to give the exposure rate in Roentgens/hour in three linear ranges: 0-25 mR/h, 0-250 mR/h and 0-2500 mR/h for an ionization chamber with a sensitive volume of 600 cubic centimeters. Two conventional 9 V alkaline batteries are used to energize the monitor. The small current coming from the ionization chamber is measured by an operational amplifier with electrometer characteristics. The high voltage power supply to bias the chamber is made with a blocking oscillator and a ferrite transformer. Starting form a discussion of the desired characteristics of the monitor, the technical specifications are established. The design criteria for every section are shown. The testing procedures used to qualify every block and the results for three units are reported. (Author)

  8. Protocol of specific health monitoring: ionizing radiation, 11 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the approval on November 11 t h 2003 of the Protocol of Specific Health Monitoring for Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation a study has been carried out to discover its effectiveness. These areas were examined: the daily practice od accupational medicine and, in particular, its specific task in the application of the different clinical/labour criteria for workers exposed to ionizing radiation or at risk of radioactive contamination; the degree of its uses as well as the updates and improvements. For that purpose, a descriptive bibliographic revision has been used for the last 11 years. The results revealed the lack of updates of the Protocol as well as the few usable objective criteria, when the clinical/labour aptitudes are reflected upon. (Author)

  9. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  10. Relationships between structure, ionization profile and sensitivity of exogenous anabolic steroids under electrospray ionization and analysis in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eunju; Kim, Sohee; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2016-04-01

    The relationships between the ionization profile, sensitivity, and structures of 64 exogenous anabolic steroids (groups I-IV) was investigated under electrospray ionization (ESI) conditions. The target analytes were ionized as [M + H](+) or [M + H-nH2 O](+) in the positive mode, and these ions were used as precursor ions for selected reaction monitoring analysis. The collision energy and Q3 ions were optimized based on the sensitivity and selectivity. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.05-20 ng/mL for the 64 steroids. The LODs for 38 compounds, 14 compounds and 12 compounds were in the range of 0.05-1, 2-5 and 10-20 ng/mL, respectively. Steroids including the conjugated keto-functional group at C3 showed good proton affinity and stability, and generated the [M + H](+) ion as the most abundant precursor ion. In addition, the LODs of steroids using the [M + H](+) ion as the precursor ion were mostly distributed at low concentrations. In contrast, steroids containing conjugated/unconjugated hydroxyl functional groups at C3 generated [M + H - H2 O](+) or [M + H - 2H2 O](+) ions, and these steroids showed relatively high LODs owing to poor stability and multiple ion formation. An LC-MS/MS method based on the present ionization profile was developed and validated for the determination of 78 steroids (groups I-V) in human urine. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Study on time response properties of ionization chamber in profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhentao; Shen Yixiong; Wang Liqiang; Hao Pengfei

    2011-01-01

    The drift time of ions in the ionization chamber was measured by means of using a shortly pulsed X-ray device and through analyzing the voltage signals on the load resistor of the chamber recorded by a digital oscilloscope. By using this method, the time response properties of the ionization chamber in the profile gauge were studied, results of ion drift time for ionization chambers with different internal structures, different voltages and different gas pressures were introduced and the sources of error were discussed. The experiment results show that the time response of ionization chamber in profile gauge meets the requirement of on-line hot strip measuring. (authors)

  12. Design, construction and characterization of special ionization chambers for X radiation beams monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, Maira Tiemi

    2010-01-01

    X radiation equipment may show fluctuations in the radiation beam intensity, as they are connected to the power net. These intensity variations can, in turn, modify the air kerma rate produced by this radiation beam. In a calibration laboratory, where radiation detectors (from clinics and hospital services) are calibrated, variations in the radiation beam intensity may cause an error in the absorbed dose determination. The monitor ionization chambers are used to verify the radiation beam intensity constancy, and to provide a correction for possible fluctuations. In this work, monitor ionization chambers for X radiation beams were designed, assembled and characterized. The developed ionization chambers have an innovative design, ring-shaped, with aluminium or graphite electrodes. These ring-shaped ionization chambers have the advantage of not interfering in the direct radiation beams. A double-volume ionization chamber with graphite electrodes was also developed. This ionization chamber is similar to the commercial monitor ionization chamber used in the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. All developed ionization chambers were tested in several standardized radiation beams and their performances were compared with those of commercial ionization chambers. The results show that two of the four ionization chambers developed showed performance comparable to that of the commercial ionization chambers tested. Besides presenting good results, the ionization chambers were designed and manufactured using low cost materials, which are easily found on the Brazilian market. (author)

  13. Method and apparatus to monitor a beam of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Brandon W.; Chichester, David L.; Watson, Scott M.; Johnson, James T.; Kinlaw, Mathew T.

    2015-06-02

    Methods and apparatus to capture images of fluorescence generated by ionizing radiation and determine a position of a beam of ionizing radiation generating the fluorescence from the captured images. In one embodiment, the fluorescence is the result of ionization and recombination of nitrogen in air.

  14. Quality assurance in individual monitoring of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julius, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    In todays world, where competition gets tougher, there is a growing consciousness of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) being key elements to success. This does not only apply o manufacturing of industrial products, it is equally true for public services. Because of the increasing awareness in our modern societies of the quality of life and hence of optimal health care and general safety, it is also the general public that calls for 'products' of the highest possible quality. Good examples of the latter are the continuously improving safety standards for automobiles, for medical diagnostic imaging and for the working environment. Therefore, QA unquestionably plays a vital role in individual monitoring of ionizing radiation, especially since the media talked so many into some sort of radiation phobia. In the following an attempt is made to roughly outline some aspects that may come into play if QA is applied to routine personnel dosimetry. The author wants to emphasize that the subject, which has hardly been dealt with in the professional literature on radiation dosimetry, is a rather 'soft' one. There may be a large number of different approaches to QA, depending on special local situations and individual - sometimes national - views. It should therefore be considered as a general guide, provided in the form of (check)lists containing items of interest in routine monitoring

  15. Unrestricted release measurements with ambient air ionization monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Gunn, R.; Dockray, T.; Luff, C.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation monitoring systems based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique, such as the BNFL Instruments IonSens trademark, provide a single contamination measurement for an entire object rather than the more familiar individual readings for smaller surface areas. The LRAD technique relies on the ionization of ambient air molecules by alpha particles, and the subsequent detection of these ions, rather than direct detection of the alpha particles themselves. A single monitor can detect all of the ions produced over a large object and report a total contamination level for the entire surface of that object. However, both the unrestricted release limits specified in USDOE Order 5400.5 (and similar documents in other countries), and the definitions of radioactive waste categories, are stated in terms of contamination per area. Thus, conversion is required between the total effective contamination as measured by the LRAD-based detector and the allowable release limits. In addition, since the release limits were not written assuming an averaging detector system, the method chosen to average the assumed contamination over the object can have a significant impact on the effective sensitivity of the detector

  16. Development of fluctuation monitor type sodium ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Sato, Yoshihiko; Ibe, Eishi; Suzuoki, Akira

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity and the reliability of the sodium leak detection system used in the fast breeder reactors, a new type SID (sodium ionization detector) has been developed, in which the monitored signal is only the fluctuating component of the current between the filament and the ion collector. The fluctuating component was extracted by a band pass filter and its root mean square value was calculated as the SID signal. Fluctuation characteristics of the output current were studied by its frequency spectrum. The results revealed that the current spectrum was affected by the particle size distribution of the aerosol and was most clearly distinguished from that of the background current in the frequency region of 0.5 ∼ 10 Hz. Output characteristics of the fluctuation monitor type SID (FM-SID) were obtained as a function of sodium concentration in the gas. The FM-SID sensitivity was lowered by impurities in the gas, such as oxygen and water vapor. Finally, in comparisons with the conventional DC-SIDs, the background noise level of the FM-SID was much lower and S/N ratio was greatly improved. The detectable sodium concentration level was ten times lower than that of the DC-SID. (author)

  17. The JET neutron emission profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.M.; Syme, D.B.; Watkins, N.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a technical description of the neutron emission profile monitor as used routinely at the Joint European Torus (JET), and includes representative examples of its operational capabilities. The primary function of this instrument is to measure the neutron emission as a function of both position and time in a poloidal (vertical along major radius) section through the torus. For the first time the spatially localised effects of sawteeth (magnetic relaxation phenomena) have been observed using a neutron diagnostic. The total (global) neutron emission can be obtained from the profile monitor data by performing a volume integral over the plasma; the absolute neutron emission rates agree with those obtained from the JET time-resolved neutron monitor to within ±15%. This was the first such instrument routinely in use on any tokamak. It provides unique data which are independent of all other diagnostic measurements. (orig.)

  18. Characteristics of Noble Gas-filled Ionization Chambers for a Low Dose Rate Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Soo; Park, Se Hwan; Ha, Jan Ho; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Nam Ho; Kim, Jung Bok; Kim, Yong Kyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Cho, Seung Yeon

    2007-01-01

    An ionization chamber is still widely used in fields such as an environmental radiation monitoring, a Radiation Monitoring System (RMS) in nuclear facilities, and an industrial application due to its operational stability for a long period and its designs for its applications. Ionization chambers for RMS and an environmental radiation monitoring are requested to detect a low dose rate at as low as 10-2 mR/h and several 3R/h, respectively. Filling gas and its pressure are two of the important factors for an ionization chamber development to use it in these fields, because these can increase the sensitivity of an ionization chamber. We developed cylindrical and spherical ionization chambers for a low dose rate monitoring. Response of a cylindrical ionization chamber, which has a 1 L active volume, was compared when it was filled with Air, Ar, and Xe gas respectively. Response of a spherical ionization chamber was also compared in the case of 9 atm and 25 atm filling-pressures. An inter-comparison with a commercially available high pressure Ar ionization chamber and a fabricated ionization chamber was also performed. A High Pressure Xenon (HPXe) ionization chamber, which was configured with a shielding mesh to eliminate an induced charge of positive ions, was fabricated both for the measurement of an environmental dose rate and for the measurement of an energy spectrum

  19. Development of Residual Gas Profile Monitors at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomini, T.; Forck, P.; Barabin, S.; Liakin, D.; Skachkov, V.

    2004-01-01

    Beam profile measurements at modern ion synchrotrons and storage rings require high timing performances on a turn-by-turn basis. High spatial resolutions are essential for cold beams and beamwidth measurings. The currently used RGM supported very interesting measurements and applications. Due to the readout technology the spatial and time resolution is limited. To meet the expanded demands a more comprehensive device is under development. It will be an all-purpose residual gas monitor to cover the wide range of beam currents and transversal particle distributions. Due to the fast profile detection it will operate on primary electrons after residual gas ionization. A magnetic field of 100 mT binds them to the ionization point inside 0.1-mm orbits. The high-resolution mode will be read out by a digital CCD camera with an upstream MCP-phosphor screen assembly. It is planned to read out the fast turn-by-turn mode by an array of 100 photodiodes with a resolution of 1 mm. Every photodiode is equipped with an amplifier-digitizer device providing a frame rate of ∼ 10 MSamples/s

  20. Development of Residual Gas Profile Monitors at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, T.; Barabin, S.; Forck, P.; Liakin, D.; Skachkov, V.

    2004-11-01

    Beam profile measurements at modern ion synchrotrons and storage rings require high timing performances on a turn-by-turn basis. High spatial resolutions are essential for cold beams and beamwidth measurings. The currently used RGM supported very interesting measurements and applications. Due to the readout technology the spatial and time resolution is limited. To meet the expanded demands a more comprehensive device is under development. It will be an all-purpose residual gas monitor to cover the wide range of beam currents and transversal particle distributions. Due to the fast profile detection it will operate on primary electrons after residual gas ionization. A magnetic field of 100 mT binds them to the ionization point inside 0.1-mm orbits. The high-resolution mode will be read out by a digital CCD camera with an upstream MCP-phosphor screen assembly. It is planned to read out the fast turn-by-turn mode by an array of 100 photodiodes with a resolution of 1 mm. Every photodiode is equipped with an amplifier-digitizer device providing a frame rate of ˜ 10 MSamples/s.

  1. Ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document reprints the text of the French by-law from January 8, 2002 relative to the approval and to the controls and verifications of facilities devoted to the ionizing of food products for human beings and animals. The by-law imposes the operators of such facilities to perform measurements and dosimetric verifications all along the ionization process. (J.S.)

  2. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale e INFN, Via P.Giuria 1, 1-10125 Turin (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [Fondazione TERA, Via Puccini 1, 1-28100 Novara (Italy); Cirio, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale e INFN, Via P.Giuria 1, 1-10125 Turin (Italy)] (and others)

    2006-01-15

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  3. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape

  4. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Luparia, A.; Marchette, F.; Peroni, C.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  5. Strip Ionization Chamber as Beam Monitor in the Proton Therapy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, F.; Cirio, R.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Boriano, A.; Givehchi, N.; La Rosa, A.; Peroni, C.; Donetti, M.; Bourhaleb, F.; Pitta', G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2006-04-01

    Since spring 2002, ocular pathologies have been treated in Catania at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) within a collaboration between INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Physics Department, Ophthalmology Institute, Radiology Institute of the Catania University and CSFNSM Catania. A beam line from a 62 MeV Superconducting Cyclotron is used to treat shallow tumors. The beam is conformed to the tumor shape with a passive delivery system. A detector system has been developed in collaboration with INFN-Torino to be used as real time beam monitor. The detector, placed upstream of the patient collimator, consists of two parallel plate ionization chambers with the anode segmented in strips. Each anode is made of 0.5 mm-wide 256 strips corresponding to (12.8 × 12.8) cm2 sensitive area. With the two strip ionization chambers one can measure the relevant beam parameters during treatment to probe both asymmetry and flatness. In the test carried out at CATANA the detector has been used under different and extreme beam conditions. Preliminary results are given for profiles and skewness, together with a comparison with reference detectors.

  6. Highly informative multiclass profiling of lipids by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - Low resolution (quadrupole) mass spectrometry by using electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Marco; Inferrera, Veronica; Rigano, Francesca; Gorynski, Krzysztof; Purcaro, Giorgia; Pawliszyn, Janusz; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2017-08-04

    A simple, fast, and versatile method, using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography system coupled with a low resolution (single quadrupole) mass spectrometer was optimized to perform multiclass lipid profiling of human plasma. Particular attention was made to develop a method suitable for both electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interfaces (sequentially in positive- and negative-ion mode), without any modification of the chromatographic conditions (mobile phase, flow-rate, gradient, etc.). Emphasis was given to the extrapolation of the structural information based on the fragmentation pattern obtained using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface, under each different ionization condition, highlighting the complementary information obtained using the electrospray ionization interface, of support for related molecule ions identification. Furthermore, mass spectra of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol obtained using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface are reported and discussed for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wire breakage in SLC wire profile monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, C.; McCormick, D.; Raimondi, P.; Ross, M.

    1998-05-01

    Wire scanning beam profile monitors are used at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) for emittance preservation control and beam optics optimization. Twenty such scanners have proven most useful for this purpose and have performed a total of 1.5 million scans in the 4 to 6 years since their installation. Most of the essential scanners are equipped with 20 to 40 microm tungsten wires. SLC bunch intensities and sizes often exceed 2 x 10 7 particles/microm 2 (3C/m 2 ). The authors believe that this has caused a number of tungsten wire failures that appear at the ends of the wire, near the wire support points, after a few hundred scans are accumulated. Carbon fibers, also widely used at SLAC, have been substituted in several scanners and have performed well. In this paper, the authors present theories for the wire failure mechanism and techniques learned in reducing the failures

  8. Ionization chambers for monitoring in high-intensity charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, J; Viren, B; Diwan, M; Erwin, A R; Naples, D; Ping, H

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-hard ionization chambers were tested using an intense electron beam from the accelerator test facility at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detectors were designed to be used as the basic element for monitoring muons in the Main Injector Neutrino beamline at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Measurements of linearity of response, voltage dependence, and the onset of ionization saturation as a function of gap voltage were performed.

  9. Ionizing radiations and health. Exposures, epidemiological surveillance and sociological monitoring measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spira, Alfred; Boutou, Odile

    1999-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the epidemiological effect of natural and artificial ionizing radiation exposures on man. It describes ionizing radiation sources from nuclear facilities and medical establishments. The case here is in the region of La Hague in France where 4800 employees are exposed to ionizing radiations. The topic of leukemia research and thyroid studies for children in the region are discussed. The impact of radiations on fertility, life quality is covered. Finally, national propositions to establish a monitoring measurement system is also discussed including the personnel and the general population exposed

  10. Analysis of abused drugs by selected ion monitoring: quantitative comparison of electron impact and chemical ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, R.L.; Knowlton, D.A.; Lin, D.C.K.; Fentiman, A.F. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison was made of the relative sensitivities of electron impact and chemical ionization when used for selected ion monitoring analysis of commonly abused drugs. For most of the drugs examined chemical ionization using ammonia as the reactant gas gave the largest single m/e ion current response per unit weight of sample. However, if maximum sensitivity is desired it is important to evaluate electron impact and chemical ionization with respect to both maximum response and degree of interference from background and endogenous materials

  11. Monitoring of wine aging process by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland Sawaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of wine samples by direct insertion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, without pre-treatment or chromatographic separation, in a process denominated fingerprinting, has been applied to several samples of wine produced with grapes of the Pinot noir, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties from the state o Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The ESI-MS fingerprints of the samples detected changes which occurred during the aging process in the three grape varieties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA of the negative ion mode fingerprints was used to group the samples, pinpoint the main changes in their composition, and indicate marker ions for each group of samples.

  12. An ionization chamber shower detector for the LHC luminosity monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Beche, J F; Datte, P S; Haguenauer, Maurice; Manfredi, P F; Millaud, J E; Placidi, Massimo; Ratti, L; Re, V; Riot, V J; Schmickler, Hermann; Speziali, V; Turner, W C

    2000-01-01

    The front IR quadrupole absorbers (TAS) and the IR neutral particle absorbers (TAN) in the high luminosity insertions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) each absorb approximately 1.8 TeV of forward collision products on average per pp interaction (~235 W at design luminosity 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/). This secondary particle flux can be exploited to provide a useful storage ring operations tool for optimization of luminosity. A novel segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for sampling the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The system design choices have been strongly influenced by optimization of signal to noise ratio and by the very high radiation environment. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. Data on each bunch are to be separately accumulated over multiple bunch crossings until the desire...

  13. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring system with a large volume air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, C.; Witzani, J.

    1986-01-01

    An improved environmental monitoring system has been designed and tested consisting of an ionization chamber with 120 l sensitive volume, operated at atmospheric pressure, and a commercial electrometer amplifier with digital voltmeter. The system is controlled by a desk calculator with printer for automated operation and calculation of dose and doserate. The ionization chamber provides superior dosimetric performance as compared to usual GM-counters and high pressure chambers. The system has been field-tested during the 'European Intercomparison Programme for Environmental Monitoring Instruments' organized by the Commission of the European Communities. (Author)

  14. A multi-wire beam profile monitor in the AGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.; Buxton, W.; Castillo, V.; Glenn, J.W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    A multi-wire beam profile monitor which can be used to directly monitor and control the optical matching between the Booster and AGS rings has been installed and tested in the AGS. Placement of a multi-wire monitor directly in the AGS provides profile measurements taken upon injection and the first two or more revolutions of the beam. The data from such measurements can be used to determine the optical properties of the beam transport line leading into the AGS.

  15. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James William; Khajeh-Hosseini, Ali; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incen...

  16. Detection of lung cancer using plasma protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Valeriy E; Arnotskaya, Natalia E; Zaridze, David G

    2010-01-01

    There are no satisfactory plasma biomarkers which are available for the early detection and monitoring of lung cancer, one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. The aim of this study is to explore the application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) to plasma proteomic patterns to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy individuals. The EDTA plasma samples have been pre-fractionated using magnetic bead kits functionalized with weak cation exchange coatings. We compiled MS protein profiles for 90 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and compared them with profiles from 187 healthy controls. The MALDI-ToF spectra were analyzed statistically using ClinProTools bioinformatics software. Depending on the sample used, up to 441 peaks/spectrum could be detected in a mass range of 1000-20,000 Da; 33 of these proteins had statistically differential expression levels between SCC and control plasma (P 90%) in external validation test. These results suggest that plasma MALDI-ToF MS protein profiling can distinguish patients with SCC and also from healthy individuals with relatively high sensitivity and specificity and that MALDI- ToF MS is a potential tool for the screening of lung cancer.

  17. System for monitoring the position, intensity, uniformity, and directivity of a beam of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boux, R.

    1976-01-01

    A monitoring device transparent to ionizing radiation, designed to measure the orientation, intensity and uniformity of an incident beam, comprises a cylindrical housing forming at least one ionization chamber with one or more ion-collecting electrodes transverse to the housing axis, each electrode being subdivided into a plurality of mutually insulated conductive elements connected to respective amplifiers. The elements of at least one electrode include one or more outer elements surrounding or bracketing one or more inner elements to measure the radiation in a central zone and a peripheral zone. The outputs of the respective amplifiers are additively and subtractively combined in an evaluation circuit

  18. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandovil, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5 MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H - ions and residual nitrogen in the vacuum chamber cause the nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented. (Author) 5 refs., 7 figs

  19. Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H - ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented

  20. First assessment of individual monitoring of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation in Burkina Faso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakoro, A.; Nobila Ouédraogo, Salimata Traoré

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of monitoring of medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation as a consequence of exposure to X-rays, from 2007 to 2010, in Burkina Faso. The radiation exposure monitoring was made with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100) type 0110 and the reader used was Harshaw 4500. The medical establishments. subscribers were provided with personal dosimeters (measuring Hp (10) and Hp (0.07)) and dosimeters for background and workplace exposure (H*10) measurement. The dosimeters have been worn for periods of 2 months each. The number of establishments subscribed and workers monitored has gradually increased from 4 radiology establishments with 13 workers monitored at September 2007 to 23 subscribers with 121 workers monitored at the end of April 2010. 13 establishments were still working without monitoring. From September 2007 to April 2010, no individual annual dose limit has really been reached. 88.16% of the 2 months dose values of personal dosimeters were below 0.1mSv, the detection limit and 96.61% of Hp (10) bimonthly values were below 3.33mSv. The workplace exposure monitoring values were often low (varying from 0.00mSv to 40.45mSv). 87.08% of the values of H*(10) were below 3.33mSv, the upper limit of Hp (10) for a period of 2 months. Low values of individual dose have also been recorded despite of high values of workplace monitoring. This allowed to state that the workers monitored were not exposed to a major risk. Nevertheless, 13 TLD have been lost and 3 damaged by subscribers (out of 1504 TLD provided). 26 times (out of 240), background measurement and workplace exposure monitoring dosimeters have been placed at the improper location. Therefore, sensitization of the establishments using ionizing radiation should be reinforced and the national regulations should impose radiation monitoring (author)

  1. Measurements made in the SPS with a rest gas profile monitor by collecting electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.; Koopman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have regularly been performed during the 1999 run, using the Rest Gas Monitor installed in the SPS. The exploited signal resulted from electrons produced by ionization of the rest gas during the circulating beam passage. A magnetic field parallel to the electric extraction field was applied to channel the electrons. Proton beam horizontal transverse distributions were recorded during entire SPS acceleration cycles, between 14 GeV/c and 450 GeV/c and for different beam structures and bunch intensities. The influence of several parameters on the measured beam profiles was investigated. Results are presented and analyzed in order to determine the performance that can be expected

  2. Remote sensing of high-latitude ionization profiles by ground-based and spaceborne instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ionospheric specification and modeling are now largely based on data provided by active remote sensing with radiowave techniques (ionosondes, incoherent-scatter radars, and satellite beacons). More recently, passive remote sensing techniques have been developed that can be used to monitor quantitatively the spatial distribution of high-latitude E-region ionization. These passive methods depend on the measurement, or inference, of the energy distribution of precipitating kilovolt electrons, the principal source of the nighttime E-region at high latitudes. To validate these techniques, coordinated measurements of the auroral ionosphere have been made with the Chatanika incoherent-scatter radar and a variety of ground-based and spaceborne sensors

  3. Flatness of two-dimensional beam profile measured with an ionization chamber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanovski, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Open beam profiles are basic dosimetric characteristics for the formation of the dose calculation algorithms parameters and for determination of beam quality. One characteristic of the beam profiles as a measure for the beam quality is the field flatness defined as ratio of the difference of maximum and minimum dose in central 80% of the field to the sum of these doses in the part of the field. The measurements, instead with an ordinary ionization chamber, were performed with a chamber array in two depths (1.6 cm and 10 cm) in water phantom. Nominal photon beam energy was 6 MV and field size was 25 cm x 25 cm on the water surface. Field flatness was in the range of 1-2 % which is in accordance with the data acquired during the acceptance testing and commissioning of the accelerators. with the array chamber the beam profiles can be performed quickly and preciously. These features recommend a chamber array as an excellent tool for periodic quality control of beam profiles. (Author)

  4. Instantaneous Characterization Of Vegetable Oils Via Tag And Ffa Profiles By Easy Ambient Sonic-spray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2015-01-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil an...

  5. Substrate-Coated Illumination Droplet Spray Ionization: Real-Time Monitoring of Photocatalytic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Dandan; Jiang, Jie; You, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Real-time monitoring of photocatalytic reactions facilitates the elucidation of the mechanisms of the reactions. However, suitable tools for real-time monitoring are lacking. Herein, a novel method based on droplet spray ionization named substrate-coated illumination droplet spray ionization (SCI-DSI) for direct analysis of photocatalytic reaction solution is reported. SCI-DSI addresses many of the analytical limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) for analysis of photocatalytic-reaction intermediates, and has potential for both in situ analysis and real-time monitoring of photocatalytic reactions. In SCI-DSI-mass spectrometry (MS), a photocatalytic reaction occurs by loading sample solutions onto the substrate-coated cover slip and by applying UV light above the modified slip; one corner of this slip adjacent to the inlet of a mass spectrometer is the high-electric-field location for launching a charged-droplet spray. After both testing and optimizing the performance of SCI-DSI, the value of this method for in situ analysis and real-time monitoring of photocatalytic reactions was demonstrated by the removal of cyclophosphamide (CP) in TiO2/UV. Reaction times ranged from seconds to minutes, and the proposed reaction intermediates were captured and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, the free hydroxyl radical (·OH) was identified as the main radicals for CP removal. These results show that SCI-DSI is suitable for in situ analysis and real-time monitoring of CP removal under TiO2-based photocatalytic reactions. SCI-DSI is also a potential tool for in situ analysis and real-time assessment of the roles of radicals during CP removal under TiO2-based photocatalytic reactions. Graphical Abstract[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Fast-scan, beam-profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    A minimodular, data-acquisition system can be used to rapidly interrogate a 45-point matrix of beam-current sampling targets over the 3- x 12-in. rectangular, output beam cross section of a 50-A, neutral-beam ion source. This system, operating at a throughput rate of 12 μs per channel, can make several complete scans during the 10- to 25-ms-duration beam pulse. Data obtained are available in both analog and digital form. The analog signal is used to create an immediately interpretable CRT display of the beam-current density profile that shows how well the source is aimed. The digital data are held in buffer memory until transfer to a minicomputer for software processing and plotting

  7. Ohmic ion temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles from the JET neutron emission profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Marcus, F.B.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to study ohmically heated deuterium discharges. The radial profile of the neutron emissivity is deduced from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature, T[sub i], and ion thermal diffusivity, [chi][sub i], are derived under steady-state conditions. The ion thermal diffusivity is higher than, and its scaling with plasma current opposite to, that predicted by neoclassical theory. (author).

  8. Ohmic ion temperature and thermal diffusivity profiles from the JET neutron emission profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, B.

    1993-01-01

    The JET neutron emission profile monitor was used to study ohmically heated deuterium discharges. The radial profile of the neutron emissivity is deduced from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature, T i , and ion thermal diffusivity, χ i , are derived under steady-state conditions. The ion thermal diffusivity is higher than, and its scaling with plasma current opposite to, that predicted by neoclassical theory. (author)

  9. Real Time Monitoring of Containerless Microreactions in Acoustically Levitated Droplets via Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth A; Esen, Cemal; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2016-09-06

    Direct in-droplet (in stillo) microreaction monitoring using acoustically levitated micro droplets has been achieved by combining acoustic (ultrasonic) levitation for the first time with real time ambient tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The acoustic levitation and inherent mixing of microliter volumes of reactants (3 μL droplets), yielding total reaction volumes of 6 μL, supported monitoring the acid-catalyzed degradation reaction of erythromycin A. This reaction was chosen to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of directly monitoring in stillo microreactions via hyphenated acoustic levitation and ambient ionization mass spectrometry. The microreactions took place completely in stillo over 30, 60, and 120 s within the containerless stable central pressure node of an acoustic levitator, thus readily promoting reaction miniaturization. For the evaluation of the miniaturized in stillo reactions, the degradation reactions were also carried out in vials (in vitro) with a total reaction volume of 400 μL. The reacted in vitro mixtures (6 μL total) were similarly introduced into the acoustic levitator prior to ambient ionization MS/MS analysis. The in stillo miniaturized reactions provided immediate real-time snap-shots of the degradation process for more accurate reaction monitoring and used a fraction of the reactants, while the larger scale in vitro reactions only yielded general reaction information.

  10. Circuitry for monitoring a high direct current voltage supply for an ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement to measure the voltage of the supply and a switching means controlled by this is described. The voltage measurer consists of first and second signal coupling means, the input of the second (connected to the voltage supply) is connected in series with the output of the first. An ionization chamber with this circuitry may be used to monitor the radiation output of a particle accelerator more accurately. Faulty measurements of the dose output, caused by voltages in the earth circuit, are avoided. (U.K.)

  11. Dynamic wedge, electron energy and beam profile Q.A. using an ionization chamber linear array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.B.; Todd, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    Since the introduction of multi-modal linacs the quality assurance workload of a Physical Sciences department has increased dramatically. The advent of dynamic wedges has further complicated matters because of the need to invent accurate methods to perform Q.A. in a reasonable time. We have been using an ionization chamber linear array, the Thebes 7000 TM by Victoreen, Inc., for some years to measure X-ray and electron beam profiles. Two years ago we developed software to perform Q.A. on our dynamic wedges using the array and more recently included a routine to check electron beam energies using the method described by Rosenow, U.F. et al., Med. Phys. 18(1) 19-25. The integrated beam and profile management system has enabled us to maintain a comprehensive quality assurance programme on all our linaccs. Both our efficiency and accuracy have increased to the point where we are able to keep up with the greater number of tests required without an increase in staff or hours spent in quality assurance. In changing the processor from the Z80 of the Thebes console to the 486 of the PC we have also noticed a marked increase in the calibration stability of the array. (author)

  12. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final forms of a beamline or collider. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTR

  13. An open-walled ionization chamber appropriate to tritium monitoring for glovebox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhilin; Chang Ruiming; Mu Long; Song Guoyang; Wang Heyi; Wu Guanyin; Wei Xiye

    2010-01-01

    An open-walled ionization chamber is developed to monitor the tritium concentration in gloveboxes in tritium processing systems. Two open walls are used to replace the sealed wall in common ionization chambers, through which the tritium gas can diffuse into the chamber without the aid of pumps and pipelines. Some basic properties of the chamber are examined to evaluate its performance. Results turn out that an open-walled chamber of 1 l in volume shows a considerably flat plateau over 700 V for a range of tritium concentration. The chamber also gives a good linear response to gamma fields over 4 decades under a pressure condition of 1 atm. The pressure dependence characteristics show that the ionization current is only sensitive at low pressures. The pressure influence becomes weaker as the pressure increases mainly due to the decrease in the mean free path of β particles produced by tritium decay. The minimum detection limit of the chamber is 3.7x10 5 Bq/m 3 .

  14. Monitoring the genetic health of persons in Goiania accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation from caesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cruz, A.D.; Glickman, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    This work describes the long term genetic monitoring of the Goiania population exposed to ionizing radiation from 137 Cs, using cytogenetic and molecular endpoints. Cytogenetically, micronucleus frequencies differentiated groups exposed to different levels of radiation. Two molecular methods were employed: 1) the hprt clonal assay, involving in vitro selection of 6-thioguanine-resistant hprt mutant clones which were characterized at the molecular level using RT-PCR and genomic analysis. Ionizing radiation exposure initially elevated hprt mutation frequency which gradually diminished, so that no significant increase was observed four and a half years after original exposure. The spectrum of hprt mutations recovered from ten individuals exposed to relatively high doses of radiation revealed a fourfold increase in the frequency of A:T → G:C transitions. The increase is consistent with the effects of ionizing radiation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. Additionally, a twofold increase in the frequency of deletions was observed which may reflect radiation induced DNA strand breakage; 2) determination of microsatellite instability using fluorescent PCR and genomic DNA from mononuclear cells. The frequency distributions of somatic microsatellite alterations in exposed and non-exposed populations were not different. Our assay lacked sensitivity to discriminate between spontaneous and induced microsatellite instability and therefore, is not suitable for population monitoring. Finally, we estimated the risk associated with radiation exposure for the exposed Goiania population. The estimated genetic risk of dominant disorders in the first post-exposure generation was increased nearly twenty-fourfold. The risk of carcinogenesis was increased by a factor of 1.5. (author)

  15. Monitoring the genetic health of persons in Goiania accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation from caesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cruz, A D; Glickman, B W [Centre for Environmental Health, Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    This work describes the long term genetic monitoring of the Goiania population exposed to ionizing radiation from {sup 137}Cs, using cytogenetic and molecular endpoints. Cytogenetically, micronucleus frequencies differentiated groups exposed to different levels of radiation. Two molecular methods were employed: (1) the hprt clonal assay, involving in vitro selection of 6-thioguanine-resistant hprt mutant clones which were characterized at the molecular level using RT-PCR and genomic analysis. Ionizing radiation exposure initially elevated hprt mutation frequency which gradually diminished, so that no significant increase was observed four and a half years after original exposure. The spectrum of hprt mutations recovered from ten individuals exposed to relatively high doses of radiation revealed a fourfold increase in the frequency of A:T {yields} G:C transitions. The increase is consistent with the effects of ionizing radiation in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes. Additionally, a twofold increase in the frequency of deletions was observed which may reflect radiation induced DNA strand breakage; (2) determination of microsatellite instability using fluorescent PCR and genomic DNA from mononuclear cells. The frequency distributions of somatic microsatellite alterations in exposed and non-exposed populations were not different. Our assay lacked sensitivity to discriminate between spontaneous and induced microsatellite instability and therefore, is not suitable for population monitoring. Finally, we estimated the risk associated with radiation exposure for the exposed Goiania population. The estimated genetic risk of dominant disorders in the first post-exposure generation was increased nearly twenty-fourfold. The risk of carcinogenesis was increased by a factor of 1.5. (author)

  16. An Electron-Beam Profile Monitor Using Fresnel Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Iida, Kensuke; Shinoe, Kenji; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masami; Hayano, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Nomura, Masaharu; Kamiya, Yukihide; Koseki, Tadashi; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Nakayama, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a beam profile monitor using two Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) at the KEK-ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring to measure small electron-beam sizes for low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources. The monitor has a structure of an X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. In the monitor system, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized to 3.235-keV X-rays by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron-beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. This monitor has the following advantages: (1) high spatial resolution, (2) non-destructive measurement, (3) real-time monitoring, and (4) direct electron-beam imaging. With the beam profile monitor, we have succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the imaging optics was in good agreement with the design value

  17. Instantaneous characterization of vegetable oils via TAG and FFA profiles by easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Rosineide C; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Cunha, Ildenize B S; Cabral, Elaine C; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Eberlin, Marcos N; Alberici, Rosana M

    2010-04-01

    A fast and reliable method is presented for the analysis of vegetable oils. Easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) is shown to efficiently desorb and ionize the main oil constituents from an inert surface under ambient conditions and to provide comprehensive triacylglyceride (TAG) and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles detected mainly as either [TAG + Na](+) or [FFA-H](-) ions. EASI(+/-)-MS analysis is simple, easily implemented, requires just a tiny droplet of the oil and is performed without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation. It also causes no fragmentation of TAG ions hence diacylglyceride (DAG) and monoacylglyceride (MAG) profiles and contents can also be measured. The EASI(+/-)-MS profiles of TAG and FFA permit authentication and quality control and can be used, for instance, to access levels of adulteration, acidity, oxidation or hydrolysis of vegetable oils in general.

  18. Ti(r) profiles from the JET neutron profile monitor for ohmic discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, B. (ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia); Marcus, F.B.; Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van (Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking); Adams, J.M.; Watkins, N. (AEA Industrial Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1991-01-01

    A study has been made of the neutron emissivity, using the JET neutron profile monitor, obtained for ohmically heated deuterium discharges. Both one-dimensional (1-D) best-fit inversion procedures and 2-D tomography have been used to deduce the radial profile of the neutron emission from the line-integral data. The profiles of ion temperature and ion thermal conductivity are then derived. The scaling of the ion thermal conductivity with plasma current is found to be opposite to that of neoclassical theory. (author) 4 refs., 5 figs.

  19. 26kDa endochitinase from barley seeds: real-time monitoring of the enzymatic reaction and substrate binding experiments using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dennhart, Nicole; Weigang, Linda M M; Fujiwara, Maho

    2009-01-01

    A 26 kDa endochitinase from barley seeds was enzymatically characterized exclusively by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). At first, oligosaccharide hydrolysis catalyzed by the barley chitinase was monitored in real-time by ESI-MS. The reaction time-course obtained by ESI......-MS monitoring was found to be consistent with the data obtained earlier by HPLC, and the quantitative profile was successfully simulated by kinetic modeling of the enzymatic hydrolysis. It is obvious that the real-time monitoring method by ESI-MS allows a faster and cheaper determination of the chitinase...... of the enzymatic activity in E67Q is definitely caused by a point mutation of Glu67 but not due to partial unfolding of the mutated enzyme. Finally, association constants of enzyme-oligosaccharide complexes were calculated from Scatchard plots obtained by mass spectra. The binding free energy values obtained for E...

  20. A beam profile monitor for a tagged photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arends, J.; Breuer, M.; Dahmen, H.D.; Detemple, P.; Noeldeke, G.; Schneider, W.; Zucht, B.

    1990-10-01

    A beam profile monitor for electron and photon beams is described, which operates at the low intensities encountered in a tagged bremsstrahlung beam environment, typically 10 10 electrons/s and 10 7 photons/s. The method is based on a wire scanner and utilizes the presence of a tagging spectrometer. The accuracy of the measurements can be tuned in a wide range (at the expense of measuring time) to meet the requirements set by the actual beam size. Examples of measured electron and photon beam profiles at the tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ring ELSA are given. (orig.)

  1. A beam profile monitor for a tagged photon beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Breuer, M.; Dahmen, H.D.; Detemple, P.; Noeldeke, G.; Schneider, W.; Zucht, B.

    1990-10-01

    A beam profile monitor for electron and photon beams is described, which operates at the low intensities encountered in a tagged bremsstrahlung beam environment, typically 10{sup 10} electrons/s and 10{sup 7} photons/s. The method is based on a wire scanner and utilizes the presence of a tagging spectrometer. The accuracy of the measurements can be tuned in a wide range (at the expense of measuring time) to meet the requirements set by the actual beam size. Examples of measured electron and photon beam profiles at the tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ring ELSA are given. (orig.).

  2. Beam profile monitors for a tagged photon beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arends, J.; Breuer, M.; Dahmen, H.D.; Detemple, P.; Schneider, W.; Urban, D.; Zucht, B.

    1991-01-01

    A beam profile monitor for electron and photon beams is described, which operates at the low intensities encountered in a tagged bremsstrahlung beam environment, typically 10 10 electrons/s and 10 7 photons/s. The method is based on a wire scanner and utilizes the presence of a tagging spectrometer. The accuracy of the measurements can be tuned in a wide range to meet the requirements set by the actual beam parameters. Examples of measured electron and photon beam profiles at the tagged photon beam of the PHOENICS experiment at the electron stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn are given. (orig.)

  3. MicroRNA expression profiles in human cancer cells after ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemoeller, Olivier M; Niyazi, Maximilian; Corradini, Stefanie; Zehentmayr, Franz; Li, Minglun; Lauber, Kirsten; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are regulators of central cellular processes and are implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of human cancers. MicroRNAs also modulate responses to anti-cancer therapy. In the context of radiation oncology microRNAs were found to modulate cell death and proliferation after irradiation. However, changes in microRNA expression profiles in response to irradiation have not been comprehensively analyzed so far. The present study's intend is to present a broad screen of changes in microRNA expression following irradiation of different malignant cell lines. 1100 microRNAs (Sanger miRBase release version 14.0) were analyzed in six malignant cell lines following irradiation with clinically relevant doses of 2.0 Gy. MicroRNA levels 6 hours after irradiation were compared to microRNA levels in non-irradiated cells using the 'Geniom Biochip MPEA homo sapiens'. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed a pattern, which significantly (p = 0.014) discerned irradiated from non-irradiated cells. The expression levels of a number of microRNAs known to be involved in the regulation of cellular processes like apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, local immune response and radioresistance (e. g. miR-1285, miR-24-1, miR-151-5p, let-7i) displayed 2 - 3-fold changes after irradiation. Moreover, several microRNAs previously not known to be radiation-responsive were discovered. Ionizing radiation induced significant changes in microRNA expression profiles in 3 glioma and 3 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The functional relevance of these changes is not addressed but should by analyzed by future work especially focusing on clinically relevant endpoints like radiation induced cell death, proliferation, migration and metastasis

  4. Metabolic Profiling Directly from the Petri Dish Using Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watrous, Jeramie D.; Roach, Patrick J.; Heath, Brandi S.; Alexandrov, Theodore; Laskin, Julia; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2013-11-05

    Understanding molecular interaction pathways in complex biological systems constitutes a treasure trove of knowledge that might facilitate the specific, chemical manipulation of the countless microbiological systems that occur throughout our world. However, there is a lack of methodologies that allow the direct investigation of chemical gradients and interactions in living biological systems, in real time. Here, we report the use of nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) imaging mass spectrometry for in vivo metabolic profiling of living bacterial colonies directly from the Petri dish with absolutely no sample preparation needed. Using this technique, we investigated single colonies of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Bacillus subtilis 3610, and Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as well as a mixed biofilm of S. oneidensis MR-1 and B. subtilis 3610. Data from B. subtilis 3610 and S. coelicolor A3(2) provided a means of validation for the method while data from S. oneidensis MR-1 and the mixed biofilm showed a wide range of compounds that this bacterium uses for the dissimilatory reduction of extracellular metal oxides, including riboflavin, iron-bound heme and heme biosynthetic intermediates, and the siderophore putrebactin.

  5. Non-destructive beam profile monitor at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Araki, N.; Hosaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-destructive profile monitors (NDPM), based on micro-channel plate (MCP), have been developed and installed in both the synchrotron ring and high-energy beam transport (HEBT) line at HIMAC. Beam test using these monitors have been carried out since April of 1995 to investigate a change of vertical beam size in synchrotron and a possibility of observing beam with high energy by one pass. In this paper the measurement system is mainly reported, and the preliminary results are also briefly presented. (author)

  6. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  8. HYPERION NET - a distributed measurement system for monitoring background ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saponjic, Dj.; Zigic, A.; Arandjelovic, V.

    2003-01-01

    The distributed measurement system - HYPERION NET, based on the concept of FieldBus technology, has been developed, implemented, and tested as a pilot project, the first WEB enabled on-line networked ionizing radiation monitoring and measurement system. The Net has layered the structure, tree topology, and is based on the Internet infrastructure and TCP/IP communication protocol. The Net's core element is an intelligent GM transmitter, based on GM tube, used for measuring the absorbed dose in air, in the range of 0.087 to 720 μGy/h. The transmitter makes use of an advanced count rate measurement algorithm capable of suppressing the statistical fluctuations of the measured quantity, which significantly improves its measurement performance mailing it suitable for environmental radiation measurements. (author)

  9. Analytical & Experimental Study of Radio Frequency Cavity Beam Profile Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2017-10-22

    The purpose of this analytical and experimental study is multifold: 1) To explore a new, radiation-robust, hadron beam profile monitor for intense neutrino beam applications; 2) To test, demonstrate, and develop a novel gas-filled Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to use in this monitoring system. Within this context, the first section of the study analyzes the beam distribution across the hadron monitor as well as the ion-production rate inside the RF cavity. Furthermore a more effecient pixel configuration across the hadron monitor is proposed to provide higher sensitivity to changes in beam displacement. Finally, the results of a benchtop test of the tunable quality factor RF cavity will be presented. The proposed hadron monitor configuration consists of a circular array of RF cavities located at a radial distance of 7cm { corresponding to the standard deviation of the beam due to scatering { and a gas-filled RF cavity with a quality factor in the range 400 - 800.

  10. A multiwire secondary emission profile monitor for small emittance beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Bonnard, J.; Humbert, G.; Leblond, B.; Saury, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary emission monitor using two multiwire grids separated by a positively biased collector has been constructed and tested with a 1 GeV electron beam at the Orsay Linac. The monitor installed just before the electron-positron converter has 8 gold-plated-tungsten wires of 0.1 mm diameter equally spaced 0.2 mm apart in each plane. Each wire is connected with an integrator using a low-bias current operational amplifier. The wire planes and the collector are moved into the beam by a stepping motor : that allows beam-position verification. We measured narrow profiles for 1 Amp peak current pulses of 30 nanoseconds width. Profiles are displayed on a scope and allow emittance determination by the three gradient method. Such a monitor is very useful to control the electron beam position and dimensions on the converter, because the positron source dimensions are rather bigger than those of the incident beam and the geometrical acceptance of the positron Linac is limited

  11. Receipts Assay Monitor: deadtime correction model and efficiency profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingardt, J.J.; Stewart, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Experiments were performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to characterize the operating parameters and flatten the axial efficiency profile of a neutron coincidence counter called the Receipts Assay Monitor (RAM). Optimum electronic settings determined by conventional methods included operating voltage (1680 V) and gate width (64 μs). Also determined were electronic characteristics such as bias and deadtime. Neutronic characteristics determined using a 252 Cf neutron source included axial efficiency profiles and axial die-away time profiles. The RAM electronics showed virtually no bias for coincidence count rate; it was measured as -4.6 x 10 -5 % with a standard deviation of 3.3 x 10 -4 %. Electronic deadtime was measured by two methods. The first method expresses the coincidence-rate deadtime as a linear function of the measured totals rate, and the second method treats deadtime as a constant. Initially, axial coincidence efficiency profiles yielded normalized efficiencies at the bottom and top of a 17-in. mockup UF 6 sample of 68.9% and 40.4%, respectively, with an average relative efficiency across the sample of 86.1%. Because the nature of the measurements performed with the RAM favors a much flatter efficiency profile, 3-mil cadmium sheets were wrapped around the 3 He tubes in selected locations to flatten the efficiency profile. Use of the cadmium sheets resulted in relative coincidence efficiencies at the bottom and top of the sample of 82.3% and 57.4%, respectively, with an average relative efficiency of 93.5%

  12. Online monitoring of chemical reactions by polarization-induced electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-09-21

    Polarization-induced electrospray ionization (PI-ESI) is a simple technique for instant generation of gas-phase ions directly from a microliter-sized droplet for mass spectrometric analysis. A sample droplet was placed over a dielectric substrate and in proximity (2-3 mm) to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. Owing to the polarization effect induced by the high electric field provided by the mass spectrometer, the droplet was polarized and the electrospray was generated from the apex of the droplet. The polarization-induced electrospray could last for tens of seconds, which was sufficiently long to monitor fast reactions occurring within few seconds. Thus, we demonstrated the feasibility of using the droplet-based PI-ESI MS for the online monitoring of fast reactions by simply mixing two droplets (5-10 μL) containing reactants on a dielectric substrate placed in front of a mass spectrometer applied with a high voltage (-4500 V). Schiff base reactions and oxidation reactions that can generate intermediates/products within a few seconds were selected as the model reactions. The ionic reaction species generated from intermediates and products can be simultaneously monitored by PI-ESI MS in real time. We also used this approach to selectively detect acetone from a urine sample, in which acetone was derivatized in situ. In addition, the possibility of using this approach for quantitative analysis of acetone from urine samples was examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ionizing Radiation Deregulates the MicroRNA Expression Profile in Differentiated Thyroid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Ricardo Cortez Cardoso; Pellecchia, Simona; Pacelli, Roberto; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro; Fusco, Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known risk factor for papillary thyroid cancer, and it has been reported to deregulate microRNA expression, which is important to thyroid carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of IR on microRNA expression profile of the normal thyroid cell line (FRTL-5 CL2), as well as its effect on radiosensitivity of thyroid cancer cell lines, especially the human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line (8505c). The global microRNA expression profile of irradiated FRTL-5 CL2 cells (5 Gy X-ray) was characterized, and data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluating the expression of rno-miR-10b-5p, rno-miR-33-5p, rno-miR-128-1-5p, rno-miR-199a-3p, rno-miR-296-5p, rno-miR-328a-3p, and rno-miR-541-5p in irradiated cells. The miR-199a-3p and miR-10b-5p targets were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and luciferase target assays. The effects of miR-199a-3p and miR-10b-5p on DNA repair were determined by evaluating the activation of the protein kinases ataxia-telangiectasia mutated, ataxia telangiectasia, and Rad3-related and the serine 39 phosphorylation of variant histone H2AX as an indirect measure of double-strand DNA breaks in irradiated FRTL-5 CL2 cells. The impact of miR-10b-5p on radiosensitivity was analyzed by cell counting and MTT assays in FRTL-5 CL2, Kras-transformed FRTL-5 CL2 (FRTL KiKi), and 8505c cell lines. The results reveal that miR-10b-5p and miR-199a-3p display the most pronounced alterations in expression in irradiated FRTL-5 CL2 cells. Dicer1 and Lin28b were validated as targets of miR-10b-5p and miR-199a-3p, respectively. Functional studies demonstrate that miR-10b-5p increases the growth rate of FRTL-5 CL2 cells, while miR-199a-3p inhibits their proliferation. Moreover, both of these microRNAs negatively affect homologous recombination repair, reducing activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related protein levels

  14. Quantitative Profiling of Major Neutral Lipid Classes in Human Meibum by Direct Infusion Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Green, Kari B.; Nichols, Kelly K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to better understand lipid composition in human meibum. Methods. Intact lipids in meibum samples were detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis in positive detection mode using sodium iodide (NaI) as an additive. The peak intensities of all major types of lipid species, that is, wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs) were corrected for peak overlapping and isotopic distribution; an additional ionization efficiency correction was performed for WEs and CEs, which was simplified by the observation that the corresponding ionization efficiency was primarily dependent on the specific lipid class and saturation degree of the lipids while independent of the carbon chain length. A set of WE and CE standards was spiked in meibum samples for ionization efficiency determination and absolute quantitation. Results. The absolute amount (μmol/mg) for each of 51 WEs and 31 CEs in meibum samples was determined. The summed masses for 51 WEs and 31 CEs accounted for 48 ± 4% and 40 ± 2%, respectively, of the total meibum lipids. The mass percentages of saturated and unsaturated species were determined to be 75 ± 2% and 25 ± 1% for CEs and 14 ± 1% and 86 ± 1% for WEs. The profiles for two types of DEs were also obtained, which include 42 α,ω Type II DEs, and 21 ω Type I-St DEs. Conclusions. Major neutral lipid classes in meibum samples were quantitatively profiled by ESI-MS analysis with NaI additive. PMID:23847307

  15. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This is an update about the radiological monitoring in base nuclear installations. A departmental order of the 23. march 1999 (J.O.28. april, p.6309) determines the enabling rules by the Office of Protection against Ionizing Radiations of person having at one's disposal the results with names of individual exposure of workers put through ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  16. High power beam profile monitor with optical transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denard, J.C.; Piot, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple monitor has been built to measure the profile of the high power beam (800 kW) delivered by the CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab. The monitor uses the optical part of the forward transition radiation emitted from a thin carbon foil. The small beam size to be measured, about 100 μm, is challenging not only for the power density involved but also for the resolution the instrument must achieve. An important part of the beam instrumentation community believes the radiation being emitted into a cone of characteristic angle 1/γ is originated from a region of transverse dimension roughly λγ; thus the apparent size of the source of transition radiation would become very large for highly relativistic particles. This monitor measures 100 μm beam sizes that are much smaller than the 3.2 mm λγ limit; it confirms the statement of Rule and Fiorito that optical transition radiation can be used to image small beams at high energy. The present paper describes the instrument and its performance. The authors tested the foil in, up to 180 μA of CW beam without causing noticeable beam loss, even at 800 MeV, the lowest CEBAF energy

  17. The magic cube and the pixel ionization chamber: detectors for monitor and dosimetry of radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerio, S.; Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Madon, E.; Marchetto, F.; Nastasi, U.; Peroni, C.; Sanz Freire, C.J.; Sardo, A.; Trevisiol, E.

    2003-01-01

    Tumor therapy takes advantage of the energy deposition of radiation to concentrate high doses in the target while sparing healthy tissue. Elective pathologies for highly conformal radiotherapies such as photon Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and radiotherapy with hadrons are head and neck, eye, prostate and in general all tumors that are either deep or located close to critical organs. In the world there are several centers that are using such techniques and a common problem that is being experienced is the verification of treatment plans and monitoring of the beam. We have designed and built two detectors that allow 2D and 3D measurements of dose and fluence of such beams. The detectors allow measurements on big surfaces, up to 25*25 cm 2 . The active media are parallel plate, strip and pixel segmented ionization chambers with front-end Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) readout and PC based data acquistion. The description of dosimeter, chamber and electronics will be given with results from beam tests and therapy plan verification

  18. X-ray and γ-radiation personnel monitoring by means of ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovskij, L.P.; Nikitin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Several sets of condensator ionization chambers for measuring a dose of short-wave X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 0.005-50 R is described in short. In particular the following sets for personnel monitoring are described: the KID-2 set intended for determining an exposure dose of roentgen and gamma radiations of 150 keV - 2 MeV energy within the limits of 0.005-1R; the DK-02 set providing the measurement of personnel exposure doses of X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 0.02-200 mR in the energy range of 100 keV-2 MeV; the DP-22 V, DP-24 sets providing the measurement of an exposure dose of X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 1-50 R at a power of 0.5-200 R/h in the energy range of 0.1-2 MeV. An order of work with the sets is described [ru

  19. Theory for the asymmetry in the auroral ionization density profile for the generation of auroral infrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Traveling pressure waves with periods from 10 to 100 seconds are generated in the lower ionosphere by auroral electrojet current filaments as they move supersonically in an equatorward direction. The infrasonic waves produced by the auroral motions propagate to the ground as highly directional bow waves that can be detected by infrasonic microphones on the surface. There is an asymmetry in the reception of auroral infrasonic waves (AIW) with respect to whether the auroral arcs are moving equatorward to poleward. In the literature it is suggested that the asymmetry may be due to anisotropic propagation conditions along the acoustic ray path from the E-region, where AIW are produced, to the surface. Some intrinsic property of the AIW generation mechanism itself has also been suggested as a possible explanation. In this thesis anisotropic propagation is eliminated as the cause of the AIW reception asymmetry. Theoretical calculations, beginning with a model of an auroral precipitation region, are presented to show that there can be a significant difference in the transverse ionization density profiles between an auroral arc that is moving equatorward and an arc that is moving poleward, for a given equatorward-directed E-region ambient electric field. The calculation has been accomplished by solving the equations of motion and continuity for the cross-sectional ionization density profile associated with the transverse motion of a filamentary auroral electrojet. Thus, it is shown that there is an asymmetry in the ionization profiles associated with moving arcs, and in their coupling, that is related to the relative direction of motion of the arc with respect to the ambient electric field, and that it is this asymmetry that is probably the cause of the observed AIW reception asymmetry

  20. Very low intensity storage-ring profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.; Kells, W.; Lai, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Fermilab Colliding Beams Group has now accomplished several cooling experiments (electron and stochastic methods) on proton beams in the ''electron cooling'' synchrotron ring built for this purpose. A key to analyzing the performance of any test cooling system is a complete set of beam diagnostics to measure the beam emittances in all three planes. For longitudinal emittance the authors use Schottky scans (although very low intensities make this difficult, necessitating a departure from the conventional method by bunching the beams). A description is given of the MCP telescope and readout which evolved independently as a complete monitor system using residual gas in lieu of Mg vapor. To date all transverse measurements of coasting beam profiles have been obtained in this mode. 2 refs

  1. Depth profiling of inks in authentic and counterfeit banknotes by electrospray laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yi-Ying; Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Cheng, Chu-Nian; Shiea, Jentaie

    2016-01-01

    Electrospray laser desorption ionization is an ambient ionization technique that generates neutrals via laser desorption and ionizes those neutrals in an electrospray plume and was utilized to characterize inks in different layers of copy paper and banknotes of various currencies. Depth profiling of inks was performed on overlapping color bands on copy paper by repeatedly scanning the line with a pulsed laser beam operated at a fixed energy. The molecules in the ink on a banknote were desorbed by irradiating the banknote surface with a laser beam operated at different energies, with results indicating that different ions were detected at different depths. The analysis of authentic $US100, $100 RMB and $1000 NTD banknotes indicated that ions detected in 'color-shifting' and 'typography' regions were significantly different. Additionally, the abundances of some ions dramatically changed with the depth of the aforementioned regions. This approach was used to distinguish authentic $1000 NTD banknotes from counterfeits. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Overview of the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment monitoring by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Spurny, Frantisek; Ploc, Ondrej; Uchihori, Yukio; Flueckiger, Erwin; Kudela, Karel; Benton, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Humans are exposed to ionizing radiation all the time, and it is known that it can induce a variety of harmful biological effects. Consequently, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the level of exposure to this radiation as the basis for estimating risks for their health. Spacecraft and aircraft crews are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the vehicle structure and its contents. The aircraft crew monitoring is required by the following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP 1990), the European Union (EU) introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive (EC 1997) which, inter alia, included the exposure to cosmic radiation. This approach has been also adopted in other official documents (NCRP 2002). In this overview we present the results of ground based, mountain peaks, aircraft, balloon and rocket radiation environment monitoring by means of a Si-diode energy deposition spectrometer Liulin type developed first in Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) for the purposes of the space radiation monitoring at MIR and International Space Station (ISS). These spectrometers-dosemeters are further developed, calibrated and used by scientific groups in different countries. Calibration procedures of them are performed at different accelerators including runs in the CERN high-energy reference field, simulating the radiation field at 10 km altitude in the atmosphere and with heavy ions in Chiba, Japan HIMAC accelerator were performed also. The long term aircraft data base were accumulated using specially developed battery operated instrument in 2001-2009 years onboard of A310-300 aircrafts of Czech Air Lines, during 24 about 2 months runs with more than 2000 flights and 13500 flight hours on routes over the Atlantic Ocean mainly. The obtained experimental data are compared with computational models like CARI and EPCARD. The

  3. Electron spray ionization mass spectrometry and 2D 31P NMR for monitoring 18O/16O isotope exchange and turnover rates of metabolic oligophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Juranic, Nenad; Macura, Slobodan; Zhang, Song; Terzic, Andre; Dzeja, Petras P.; Ward, Lawrence E.; Dutta, Tumpa; Nair, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    A new method was here developed for the determination of 18 O-labeling ratios in metabolic oligophosphates, such as ATP, at different phosphoryl moieties (α-, β-, and γ-ATP) using sensitive and rapid electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The ESI-MS-based method for monitoring of 18 O/ 16 O exchange was validated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 2D 31 P NMR correlation spectroscopy, the current standard methods in labeling studies. Significant correlation was found between isotopomer selective 2D 31 P NMR spectroscopy and isotopomer less selective ESI-MS method. Results demonstrate that ESI-MS provides a robust analytical platform for simultaneous determination of levels, 18 O-labeling kinetics and turnover rates of α-, β-, and γ-phosphoryls in ATP molecule. Such method is advantageous for large scale dynamic phosphometabolomic profiling of metabolic networks and acquiring information on the status of probed cellular energetic system. (orig.)

  4. A high resolution, single bunch, beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient linear colliders require very small beam spots to produce high luminosities with reasonable input power, which limits the number of electrons which can be accelerated to high energies. The small beams, in turn, require high precision and stability in all accelerator components. Producing, monitoring and maintaining beams of the required quality has been, and will continue to be, difficult. A beam monitoring system which could be used to measure beam profile, size and stability at the final focus of a beamline or collider has been developed and is described here. The system uses nonimaging bremsstrahlung optics. The immediate use for this system would be examining the final focus spot at the SLAC/FFTB. The primary alternatives to this technique are those proposed by P. Chen / J. Buon, which analyses the energy and angular distributions of ion recoils to determine the aspect ratio of the electron bunch, and a method proposed by Shintake, which measures intensity variation of compton backscattered photons as the beam is moved across a pattern of standing waves produced by a laser

  5. Monitoring upstream sinkhole development by detailed sonar profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigbey, S. [Acres International Ltd., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the development and use of a simple sonar system that has been used by engineers for routine monitoring of small sinkholes on the upstream face of a distressed earth dam. Improper construction of the dam led to the development of several sinkholes measuring 10 to 20 m in diameter upstream from the dam which is founded on deep alluvial sands and gravels. The dam has a central core of silt and leakage varies between 200 and 500 l/s, depending on the water level of the reservoir. The main issues with the upstream blanket are: improper fill placement due to the inability to dewater the area properly; omission of a filter material between the blanket and the alluvium foundation; thin placement of fill and runnelling of the blanket prior to impoundment; and, short upstream extent of the blanket. A downstream weighting toe of material was placed to address the seepage and piping that developed immediately following impounding. Other incidents continued over the years, such as downstream sinkholes, slumping of the crest and repairs about 12 years after construction. An inverter filter was also constructed to better control the seepage. Simple bathymetric surveys conducted by sounding the bottom of the reservoir from the ice surface each winter revealed the presence of several large sinkholes. Although infilling programs were conducted, sinkholes redeveloped after each program. The bathymetric surveys were found to be limited in accuracy and repeatability. Therefore, it was not possible to monitor small developments on a yearly basis. A 3-dimensional seepage model was developed to reconcile some of the unexplained piezometric patterns and to better understand the seepage patterns. However, this was also unsuccessful on its own. A trial sonar survey was then undertaken in 2002 by a Vancouver-based sonar company using an Imagenix profiling sonar head. It was successful in locating a small, previously unknown sinkhole measuring a few metres in diameter at

  6. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct profiling and imaging of small molecules from raw biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Sangwon [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization(MALDI) mass spectrometry(MS) has been widely used for analysis of biological molecules, especially macromolecules such as proteins. However, MALDI MS has a problem in small molecule (less than 1 kDa) analysis because of the signal saturation by organic matrixes in the low mass region. In imaging MS (IMS), inhomogeneous surface formation due to the co-crystallization process by organic MALDI matrixes limits the spatial resolution of the mass spectral image. Therefore, to make laser desorption/ionization (LDI) MS more suitable for mass spectral profiling and imaging of small molecules directly from raw biological tissues, LDI MS protocols with various alternative assisting materials were developed and applied to many biological systems of interest. Colloidal graphite was used as a matrix for IMS of small molecules for the first time and methodologies for analyses of small metabolites in rat brain tissues, fruits, and plant tissues were developed. With rat brain tissues, the signal enhancement for cerebroside species by colloidal graphite was observed and images of cerebrosides were successfully generated by IMS. In addition, separation of isobaric lipid ions was performed by imaging tandem MS. Directly from Arabidopsis flowers, flavonoids were successfully profiled and heterogeneous distribution of flavonoids in petals was observed for the first time by graphite-assisted LDI(GALDI) IMS.

  7. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Barnat, E. V.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 × 10 9  cm s −1 , depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  8. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  9. High concentration tritium gas measurement with small volume ionization chambers for fusion fuel gas monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, Tatsuhiko; Okuno, Kenji; Matsuda, Yuji; Naruse, Yuji

    1991-01-01

    To apply ionization chambers to fusion fuel gas processing systems, high concentration tritium gas was experimentally measured with small volume 0.16 and 21.6 cm 3 ionization chambers. From plateau curves, the optimum electric field strength was obtained as 100∼200 V/cm. Detection efficiency was confirmed as dependent on the ionization ability of the filled gas, and moreover on its stopping power, because when the range of the β-rays was shortened, the probability of energy loss by collisions with the electrode and chamber wall increased. Loss of ions by recombination was prevented by using a small volume ionization chamber. For example the 0.16 cm 3 ionization chamber gave measurement with linearity to above 40% tritium gas. After the tritium gas measurements, the concentration levels inside the chamber were estimated from their memory currents. Although more than 1/4,000 of the maximum, current was observed as a memory effect, the smaller ionization chamber gave a smaller memory effect. (author)

  10. Protocol of specific health monitoring: ionizing radiation, 11 years later; Protocolo de vigilancia sanitaria especifica: radiaciones ionizantes, 11 anos despues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillejo Puertas, F. M.

    2016-08-01

    Since the approval on November 11{sup t}h 2003 of the Protocol of Specific Health Monitoring for Workers Exposed to Ionizing Radiation a study has been carried out to discover its effectiveness. These areas were examined: the daily practice od accupational medicine and, in particular, its specific task in the application of the different clinical/labour criteria for workers exposed to ionizing radiation or at risk of radioactive contamination; the degree of its uses as well as the updates and improvements. For that purpose, a descriptive bibliographic revision has been used for the last 11 years. The results revealed the lack of updates of the Protocol as well as the few usable objective criteria, when the clinical/labour aptitudes are reflected upon. (Author)

  11. Initial test results of an ionization chamber shower detector for a LHC luminosity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beche, J.-F.; Haguenauer, M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manghisoni, M.; Millaud, J.; Placidi, M.; Ratti, L.; Riot, V.; Schmickler, H.; Speziali, V.; Turner, W.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, segmented, multi-gap, pressurized gas ionization chamber is being developed for optimization of the luminosity of the LHC. The ionization chambers are to be installed in the front quadrupole and zero degree neutral particle absorbers in the high luminosity IRs and sample the energy deposited near the maxima of the hadronic/electromagnetic showers in these absorbers. The ionization chambers are instrumented with low noise, fast, pulse shaping electronics to be capable of resolving individual bunch crossings at 40 MHz. In this paper we report the initial results of our second test of this instrumentation in an SPS external proton beam. Single 300 GeV protons are used to simulate the hadronic/electromagnetic shower produced by the forward collision products from the interaction regions of the LHC. The capability of instrumentations to measure the luminosity of individual bunches in a 40 MHz bunch train is demonstrated

  12. The system of personal monitoring and the evaluation of occupational exposure to external ionizing radiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Daniel; Castro, Ailza; Martinez, Ernesto; Pernas, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Personal monitoring of workers is recommended or required by the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. In our country the personal monitoring of external exposure to ionizing radiation is carried out by External Dosimetry Laboratory (LDE) of the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR). We have implemented an individual monitoring service based on thermoluminescence dosimetry system. The service includes whole body and extremity dosimeters. We have two systems; one is base on a manual Toledo TLD reader and the other on an automatic RADOS TLD system. This service is recognized by the National Regulatory Authority in the field of radiation protection and safety. We have implemented a quality assurance (QA) programme designed according to the recommendations of the ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The papers deals with the presentation of these QA programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new dosimeters and equipment, issuing and processing of the dosimeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits. The papers also describe the results of occupational exposure for the different practices during 2006-2007 period. (author)

  13. Regulatory control of natural ionizing sources in Lithuania: Experience based on indoor radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Morkunas, G.

    1997-01-01

    The situation in legislation of protection against risks from natural sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania is described. The requirements of new standards came into conflict with the real situation which has not been evaluated before implementation of these standards. On the basis of recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 and results of indoor radon survey new action levels are being established. (author)

  14. Radiation monitoring in a synchrotron light source facility using magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Hirofumi; Kawaguchi, Toshirou; Utsunomiya, Yoshitomo; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ikeda, Nobuo; Korenaga, Kazuhito

    2009-01-01

    We developed a highly accurate differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter to measure very low radiation doses. The dosimeter had two ionization chambers, each of which had a magnetically levitated electrode and it was operated in a repetitive-time integration mode. We first installed the differential-type automatic radiation dosimeter with MALICs at a high-energy electron accelerator facility (Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center Facility) and measured the background and ionizing radiations in the facility as well as the gaseous radiation in air. In the background dose measurements, the accuracy of the repetitive-time integration-type dosimeter was three times better than that of a commercial ionization chamber. When the radiation dose increased momentarily at the electron injection from the linac to the operating storage ring, the dosimeter with repetitive-time integral mode gave a successful response to the actual dose variation. The gaseous radiation dose in the facility was at the same level as that in Fukuoka City. We confirmed that the dosimeter with magnetically levitated electrode ionization chambers was usable in the accelerator facility, in spite of its limited response when operated in the repetitive-time integration mode. (author)

  15. The proper calibration and use of pocket ionization chamber in personnel radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The PIC (pocket ionization chambers) has often been criticized for its lack of precision and accuracy and its tendency to produce false readings. The direct-reading PICs and other dosimeters have numerous characteristics which influence the dosimetric response in a radiation environment

  16. Ambient Profiling of Phenolic Content in Tea Infusions by Matrix-Assisted Ionization in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, Robert B.

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum (MAIV) was used to analyze the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions. Nine different Camellia sinensis infusions were analyzed including three green teas, two black teas, two oolong teas, jasmine tea, and white tea. An infusion of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea was also analyzed. Each freshly brewed tea was diluted 1:1 with methanol, and 100 ppm of phenolphthalein was added as an internal standard. An excess of 3-nitrobenzonitrile (NBN) was added to each vial, and the solution containing NBN crystals was analyzed by aspiration directly into the mass spectrometer sampling orifice. A working curve constructed for dilutions of catechin with phenolphthalein internal standard showed good linearity for five replicates of each concentration. The measured relative abundances of flavonoid polyphenols in each tea were in good agreement with previously reported values. Polyphenol content in tea infusions varied from 19.2 to 108.6 mg 100 mL-1. In addition to the expected catechin flavonoids, abundant quinic acid and gallic acid was detected in the C. sinensis infusions. Characteristic A. linearis flavonoids were detected in the rooibos tea.

  17. Alkaloid profiling of the Chinese herbal medicine Fuzi by combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Heijden, R. van der; Spijksma, G.; Reijmers, T.; Wang, M.; Xu, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2009-01-01

    A matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method was developed for the high throughput and robust qualitative profiling of alkaloids in Fuzi-the processed lateral roots of the Chinese herbal medicine Aconitum carmichaeli Debx (A. carmichaeli). After optimization,

  18. Experimental comparison of profiles of acquired small fields with ionization chambers, diodes, radiochromic s and TLD films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venencia, D.; Garrigo, E.; Filipuzzi, M.; Germanier, A.

    2014-08-01

    The use of radiation small fields, introduced by new techniques, can bring a considerable uncertainty in the precision of the acquired profiles, due to the conditions of lateral electronic non-equilibrium and the perturbations introduced by the detectors (volume effect and alteration of the charged particles flowing) [Das et al., 2007]. The development of new miniature detectors looks to diminish the uncertainty created by the material and the size of the sensitive volume of the dosimeter. For this reason, comparative measurements for three sizes of square field were carried out (20 mm, 10 mm and 5 mm, of side) using a detectors series: 3 ionization chambers (PTW-31003, IBA-CC04, PTW-31016), 2 diodes (PTW-60012, IBA-Sfd), thermoluminescent detectors micro-cubes of 1 mm of edge (TLD-700) and radiochromic s films EBT-3. These last two were used as reference detectors, due to their spatial high resolution and similar performance with Monte Carlo simulations [Francescon et al., 1998]. So much the thermoluminescent detectors as the radiochromic films resolved the profiles in a similar way. Both diodes responded correctly, but the rest of the detectors overestimated the gloom of the fields, which allows conclude that the used TLD (and both diodes) can resolve field sizes correctly, usually utilized in radio-surgery, without producing significant alterations in the acquired data. (author)

  19. Studies on the profile measurement of hadron beams by means of residual-gas luminescence and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, Christian Gerhard Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Modern particle accelerators are applied for a long time no more only in the fundamental physical research but in ever larger extent also in the concrete application for instance in the tumor irradiation or the microprocessor fabrication. The precise knowledge of the beam profile is thereby of great importance for the success. But in intermediate-energy hadron accelerators it hitherto not satisfyingly succeeds to measure the beam profiles not disturbingly. These study presents two not beam-disturbing measuring methods, which are based on the ion beam-residual gas interactions of luminescence and ionization. They were developed for different framework conditions at the JESSICA beam place of the COSY accelerator of the Juelich research center, an advance experiment of the planned European Spallation Source (ESS), as well at the proton synchrotron COSY itself, and the iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science, Somerset West, South Africa. Thereby the studies consider a large range of possible configuration parameters: Particle momenta from 3 MeV/c to 3 GeV/c, pressures from 1 mbar to 10 -11 mbar and time structures from DC beam to beam bunches of 100 ns length. The experimental arrangement, the application ranges, and the advantages and disadvantages of both methods are explained in this book.

  20. Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Suk Chul [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yu Mi [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwanghee [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Jin, Young-Woo [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan 612-030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Sun, E-mail: hskimdvm@khnp.co.kr [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., 388-1, Ssangmun-dong, Dobong-gu, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7 mGy/h) and low (3.95 mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2 Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4{sup +} T, CD8{sup +} T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1{alpha}, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-{gamma}. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of naive T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose {gamma}-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

  1. Characterization and performances of a monitoring ionization chamber dedicated to IBA-universal irradiation head for Pencil Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, C. [LPC (IN2P3-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Boissonnat, G., E-mail: boissonnat@lpccaen.in2p3.fr [LPC (IN2P3-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Brusasco, C. [IBA, 3 Chemin du Cyclotron, 31348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Fontbonne, J.M. [LPC (IN2P3-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France); Marchand, B.; Mertens, T.; Neuter, S. de [IBA, 3 Chemin du Cyclotron, 31348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Peronnel, J. [LPC (IN2P3-ENSICAEN-UNICAEN), 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen (France)

    2014-02-01

    Every radiotherapy center has to be equipped with real-time beam monitoring devices. In 2008, we developed an ionization chamber in collaboration with the IBA (Ion Beam Applications) company. This monitoring device called IC2/3 was developed to be used in IBA universal irradiation head for Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS). Here we present the characterization of the IC2/3 monitor in the energy and flux ranges used in protontherapy. The equipment has been tested with an IBA cyclotron able to deliver proton beams from 70 to 230 MeV. This beam monitoring device has been validated and is now installed at the Westdeutsches Protonentherapiezentrum Essen protontherapy center (WPE, Germany). The results obtained in both terms of spatial resolution and dose measurements are at least equal to the initial specifications needed for PBS purposes. The detector measures the dose with a relative uncertainty lower than 1% in the range from 0.5 Gy/min to 8 Gy/min while the spatial resolution is better than 250μm. The technology has been patented and five IC2/3 chambers were delivered to IBA. Nowadays, IBA produces the IC2/3 beam monitoring device as a part of its Proteus 235 product.

  2. Evaluation of Medical and Dosimetric Monitoring of the Personnel Exposed to Ionizing Radiations in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammou, A.; Ben Hariz, N.; Ben Omrane, L.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing use of the ionizing radiations in industry, in particular in the field of the non destructive testing (NDT) exposes the operators to low radiation doses. Therefore Radiation protection measures in this field are needed. We report the results of a survey carried out on a sample of 50 workers in NDT in Tunisia; Our purpose is to evaluate the professional training levels in radiation protection of the operators, to determine their exposure dose rate. In case of over-exposure, to determine the causes, to evaluate the medical follow-up, and to propose adequate recommendations

  3. Flying wire beam profile monitor at the J-PARC MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Arakawa, Dai; Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Teshima, Masaki; Toyama, Takeshi; Hanamura, Kotoku

    2008-01-01

    A flying wire beam profile monitor has been assembled and installed at the main ring of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The monitor is to measure the horizontal beam profile using a carbon fiber of 7 μmφ. The fiber crosses the beam with the speed of 10 m/s. Secondary particles from the beam-wire scattering is detected using a scintillation counter. The scintillator signal as a function of the wire position is to be reconstructed as a beam profile. The high scanning speed and the minimum material are necessary for the accurate beam profile measurement. The monitor has been operated in the beam commissioning run of the main ring. The beam profile data have been successfully acquired after the reduction of the beam background. (author)

  4. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: characteristics of ionizing radiations; biological effects; comparison of radiation and other industrial risks; principles of protection; cost-benefit analysis; dose limits; the control and monitoring of radiation; reference levels; emergency reference levels. (U.K.)

  5. A real-time intercepting beam-profile monitor for a medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Cameron, D.; Kellogg, S.; Gray, D.; Buckley, K.; Schaffer, P.; Verzilov, V.; Hoehr, C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2013-11-15

    There is a lack of real-time continuous beam-diagnostic tools for medical cyclotrons due to high power deposition during proton irradiation. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a profile monitor that is capable of providing continuous feedback about beam shape and current in real time while it is inserted in the beam path. This enables users to optimize the beam profile and observe fluctuations in the beam over time with periodic insertion of the monitor.

  6. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the CERN IRRAD Proton Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ravotti, F; Glaser, M; Matli, E; Pezzullo, G; Gan, K K; Kagan, H; Smith, S; Warner, J D

    2017-01-01

    GeV/c proton beam is used. During beam steering and irradiation, the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam are monitored online with custom-made Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) devices. In this work, we present the design and the architecture of the IRRAD BPM system, some results on its performance with the proton beam, as well as its planned grades.

  7. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vieira Neto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS of umbilical cord blood (CB and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r £ 0.20 or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  8. Analysis of acylcarnitine profiles in umbilical cord blood and during the early neonatal period by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Neto, E. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, A.A.; Almeida, R.F. [Laboratório Diagnósticos Laboratoriais Especializados, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Figueiredo, M.P.; Porto, M.A.S. [Maternidade Escola, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, M.G. [Serviço de Genética Médica, Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-13

    Acylcarnitine profiling by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) is a potent tool for the diagnosis and screening of fatty acid oxidation and organic acid disorders. Few studies have analyzed free carnitine and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots (DBS) of umbilical cord blood (CB) and the postnatal changes in the concentrations of these analytes. We have investigated these metabolites in healthy exclusively breastfed neonates and examined possible effects of birth weight and gestational age. DBS of CB were collected from 162 adequate for gestational age neonates. Paired DBS of heel-prick blood were collected 4-8 days after birth from 106 of these neonates, the majority exclusively breastfed. Methanol extracts of DBS with deuterium-labeled internal standards were derivatized before analysis by ESI-MS/MS. Most of the analytes were measured using a full-scan method. The levels of the major long-chain acylcarnitines, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine, and oleoylcarnitine, increased by 27, 12, and 109%, respectively, in the first week of life. Free carnitine and acetylcarnitine had a modest increase: 8 and 11%, respectively. Propionylcarnitine presented a different behavior, decreasing 9% during the period. The correlations between birth weight or gestational age and the concentrations of the analytes in DBS were weak (r ≤ 0.20) or nonsignificant. Adaptation to breast milk as the sole source of nutrients can explain the increase of these metabolites along the early neonatal period. Acylcarnitine profiling in CB should have a role in the early detection of metabolic disorders in high-risk neonates.

  9. Autonomous profiling device to monitor remote water bodies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.A.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.; Afzulpurkar, S.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Prabhudesai, S.P.

    implications to human health, and requires frequent and effective monitoring, particularly during summer months (March–May) when water consumption is highest. These water bodies are frequently located in remote areas away from human habitation, making...

  10. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  11. Protein profiling of single epidermal cell types from Arabidopsis thaliana using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Berit; Melle, Christian; Lieckfeldt, Elke; Zöller, Daniela; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Fisahn, Joachim

    2008-08-25

    Here, we describe a novel approach for investigating differential protein expression within three epidermal cell types. In particular, 3000 single pavement, basal, and trichome cells from leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana were harvested by glass micro-capillaries. Subsequently, these single cell samples were joined to form pools of 100 individual cells and analyzed using the ProteinChip technology; SELDI: surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization. As a result, numerous protein signals that were differentially expressed in the three epidermal cell types could be detected. One of these proteins was characterized by tryptical digestion and subsequent identification via tandem quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. Down regulation of this sequenced small subunit precursor of ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase(C) oxygenase(O) (RuBisCo) in trichome and basal cells indicates the sink status of these cell types that are located on the surface of A. thaliana source leaves. Based on the obtained protein profiles, we suggest a close functional relationship between basal and trichome cells at the protein level.

  12. Longitudinal profile monitors using Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.L.; Bakkali Taheri, F.; Barros, J.; Bartolini, R.; Cassinari, L.; Clarke, C.; Le Corre, S.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Fuster-Martinez, N.; Konoplev, I.; Labat, M.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Stevenson, S.; Vieille Grosjean, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation has the potential of providing information on the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch. The E-203 experiment at the FACET User Facility measures bunch profiles from the SLAC linac in the hundreds of femtoseconds range and the SPESO collaboration at Synchrotron SOLEIL is planning to make an accurate 2D map of the Coherent Smith–Purcell Radiation emission. - Highlights: • Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation can be used to measure longitudinal profiles in the hundred femtoseconds range. • The current setup used by the E-203 collaboration require integration over several shots and gratings. • Reducing the integration over a single shot and a single grating still yields a meaning full result. • The SPESO experiment at SOLEIL will make a systematic study of Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation

  13. Two-dimensional beam-profile monitor using the Reticon MC510A array camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, B.

    1981-08-01

    A quantitative two-dimensional beam profile may be obtained from a scintillator viewed by a Reticon camera which uses a 32 x 32 array of photodiodes as its sensing element. In this note, CAMAC-oriented data acquisition electronics which allow one either to transmit the profile to a computer, or to use the monitor in a stand-alone mode are described

  14. Evaluation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone profiles from nine different algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Y.J.; Swart, D.P.J.; Baier, F.; Bhartia, P.K.; Bodeker, G.E.; Casadio, S.; Chance, K.; Frate, Del F.; Erbertseder, T.; Felder, M.D.; Flynn, L.E.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Hansen, G.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Kaifel, A.; Kelder, H.M.; Kerridge, B.J.; Lambert, J.-C.; Landgraf, J.; Latter, B.G.; Liu, X.; McDermid, I.S.; Pachepsky, Y.; Rozanov, V.; Siddans, R.; Tellmann, S.; A, van der R.J.; Oss, van R.F.; Weber, M.; Zehner, C.

    2006-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ozone profiles retrieved from measurements of the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instrument. Currently, four different approaches are used to retrieve ozone profile information from GOME measurements, which differ in the use of external information

  15. Monitoring the genetic health of humans accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation of Cesium-137 in Goiania (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A. da; Glickman, B.W. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Biology. Centre for Environmental Health

    1997-12-31

    A long-term genetic monitoring of the Goiania population exposed to ionizing radiation of Cesium-137 is described using cytogenetic and molecular endpoints. Two molecular methods were employed: the hprt clonal assay, involving in vitro selection of 6-thioguanine-resistant hprt mutant clones which were characterized at the molecular level using RT-PCR and genomic analysis. Ionizing radiation exposure initially elevated hprt mutation frequency which gradually diminished, so that no significant increase was observed 4.5 years after original exposure. The spectrum of hprt mutation recovered from 10 individuals exposed to relatively high doses of radiation revealed a 4-fold increase in the frequency of A:T{yields}G:C transitions. Additionally, a two-fold increase in the frequency of deletions was observed which may reflect radiation-induced DNA strand breakage; determination of micro satellite instability using fluorescent PCR and genomic DNA from mononuclear cells. The frequency distribution of somatic micro satellite alterations in exposed and non-exposed populations were not different. We estimated the risk associated with radiation exposure for the exposed Goiania population. The estimated genetic risk of dominant disorders in the first post-exposure generation was increased by approximately a 24-fold. The risk of carcinogenesis was increased by a factor of 1.5 13 refs.; e-mail: acruz at uvic.ca.; bwglick at uvic.ca

  16. Cytogenetic monitoring of hospital workers exposed to low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigatti, P.; Lamberti, L.; Ardito, G.; Armellino, F.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study the cytogenetic effects in hospital workers exposed to low-level radiation were evaluated. Samples of peripheral blood were collected from 63 subjects working in radiodiagnostics and from 30 subjects, working in the same hospitals, who were used as controls. A higher number of cells with chromosome-type aberrations (CA) was observed in the exposed workers vs. the controls and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). No correlation was, on the contrary, found between CA and years of exposure. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of cells with CA between smokers and non-smokers, but in the control group only. In contrast, in the workers exposed to ionizing radiation, the frequency of cells with CA was very similar in smokers and non-smokers. 13 refs.; 4 tabs

  17. Device for monitoring the position, intensity, uniformity, and directivity of an ionizing radiation beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boux, R.

    1976-01-01

    An ionization chamber is peripherally bounded by a stack of four coaxial annular frames with rabbeted confronting faces forming three annular recesses on the peripheral chamber wall, the middle recess receiving a transverse partition whereas the other two recesses form seats for peripheral zones of two dielectric disks with discontinuous metallic coatings constituting mutually insulated segmental electrode elements. The segmental elements terminate short of the peripheral chamber wall, except for a tab extending from each element onto the peripheral disk zone received in the corresponding recess within which that tab is connected to an external lead. The tabs of the two disks are angularly offset from one another, as are the segmental boundaries of their conductive elements. 11 claims, 4 figures

  18. Monitoring the beam flux in molecular beam epitaxy using laser multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, R.; Sogard, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe a method using laser nonresonant multiphoton ionization to measure beam flux in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) systems. The results were obtained in a test chamber where a focused excimer laser beam was used to photoionize a small fraction of the atomic and molecular beams. The constituents of the beams were identified by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Ion signal strength was found to be directly correlated to the temperature of the atomic beam oven. Good stability and sensitivity on gallium, aluminum, and silicon atomic beams was demonstrated. Arsenic was also detected. We demonstrated very sensitive detection of contaminant atomic and molecular constituents of our system. We have also detected the presence of short-term fluctuations in the gallium flux from an effusion source. These fluctuations, previously suspected, can be in excess of ±10%

  19. Chemical profile of pineapple cv. Vitória in different maturation stages using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Elizângela M; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Caetano, Luiz Cs; Pinto, Fernanda E; Oliveira, Bruno G; Barroso, Maria Eduarda S; Scherer, Rodrigo; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2018-02-01

    Pineapple is the fruit of Ananas comosus var. comosus plant, being cultivated in tropical areas and has high energy content and nutritional value. Herein, 30 samples of pineapple cv. Vitória were analyzed as a function of the maturation stage (0-5) and their physico-chemical parameters monitored. In addition, negative-ion mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [ESI(-)FT-ICR MS] was used to identify and semi-quantify primary and secondary metabolites present in the crude and phenolic extracts of pineapple, respectively. Physico-chemical tests show an increase in the total soluble solids (TSS) values and in the TSS/total titratable acidity ratio as a function of the maturity stage, where a maximum value was observed in stage 3 (¾ of the fruit is yellow, which corresponds to the color of the fruit peel). ESI(-)FT-ICR MS analysis for crude extracts showed the presence mainly of sugars as primary metabolites present in deprotonated molecule form ([M - H] - and [2 M - H] - ions) whereas, for phenolic fractions, 11 compounds were detected, being the most abundant in the third stage of maturation. This behavior was confirmed by quantitative analysis of total polyphenols. ESI-FT-ICR MS was efficient in identifying primary (carbohydrates and organic acids) and secondary metabolites (13 phenolic compounds) presents in the crude and phenolic extract of the samples, respectively. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. On the use of horizontal acoustic doppler profilers for continuous bed shear stress monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of bed shear stress in large river systems may serve to better estimate alluvial sediment transport to the coastal ocean. Here we explore the possibility of using a horizontally deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to monitor bed shear stress, applying a prescribed

  1. Profiles of Gene Expression Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Different Human Cell Types. Doctoral thesis prepared at SCK-CEN and defended in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, M.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiation disrupts chemical bonds in biomolecules, such as proteins and DNA, which result in important cellular damage. Exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation such as those delivered to the tumor in a radiotherapy protocol is generally lethal for the cell. However, non-lethal dose of ionizing radiation can be delivered during radiotherapy to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. Although the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular level are quite well established (cell cycle arrest, senescence, apoptosis, mitotic catastrophe), questions remain concerning the molecular pathways regulating these cellular responses, including those differentiating the responses between tumor and normal cells. In normal cells, the p53 protein plays a central role. However, the efficacy of radiation treatments on tumor cells is often reduced because of the frequent inactivation of the p53 protein in those cells. Our study used the microarray technology to investigate the molecular pathways induced by irradiation in transformed and nontransformed human cells. Profiles of gene expression obtained with cDNA microarrays were regarded as steps to characterize the general response to ionizing radiation and, possibly also, differentiating the response between transformed and nontransformed cells. Possible implications of such research include the development of radiosensitizing (to maximize the effect of radiotherapeutic irradiation) and of radioprotecting strategies. Transcriptional profiles were investigated in transformed (Jurkat, HL60) and non-transformed (freshly isolated lymphocyte subpopulations) cells of hematopoietic origin. Also, because HeLa carcinoma-derived cells expressing human papilloma virus (HPV) 18 derived E2 protein represent a reliable model to study the p53 pathway, which is normally activated in response to radiation, molecular profiles were obtained to characterize this pathway in these cells

  2. Elaboration of a program for monitoring the ionizing radiations in a large hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreira, Mauricio Costa

    1996-11-01

    Personnel monitoring data collected in the Radiotherapy, Diagnostic Radiology and Hemodynamics Departments of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP during the interval from 1986 to 1995 were analyzed. The data were classified according to the profession of the workers and compared to those collected in a previous period (1973-1982). Internationally established criteria, published published in the ICRP 35 and 60 were used together with additional Brazilian criteria (CNEN NE 3.01) to optimize personnel monitoring such that the required radioprotection is provided. The results show that 80% of the workers need not be monitored because their doses will not exceed 3/10 the annual limits. An economy of about US$10,200 in monitoring cost per year could be realized as well as reduction in the hospital clerical costs expended to maintain the records. The improvements gaining by reducing the number of monitored persons will not compromise the safety standard required for radiation protection. (author)

  3. Spectrum monitoring: Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) profile for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was crucial to monitor the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in order to conduct the radio astronomical research with very minimum RFI. These RFI will be distorted the astronomical data. In this work, we have investigated the RFI strength (dBm) and presenting on how the nearby RFI affect to the OH lines window (1600 ...

  4. Developing a univariate approach to phase-I monitoring of fuzzy quality profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Noghondarian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In many real-world applications, the quality of a process or a particular product can be characterized by a functional relationship called profile. A profile builds the relationships between a response quality characteristic and one or more explanatory variables. Monitoring the quality of a profile is implemented to understand and to verify the stability of this functional relationship over time. In some real applications, a fuzzy linear regression model can represent the profile adequately where the response quality characteristic is fuzzy. The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach for monitoring process/product profiles in fuzzy environment. A model in fuzzy linear regression is developed to construct the quality profiles by using linear programming and then fuzzy individuals and moving-range (I-MR control charts are developed to monitor both intercept and slope of fuzzy profiles to achieve an in-control process. A case study in customer satisfaction is presented to show the application of our approach and to express the sensitivity analysis of parameters for building a fuzzy profile.

  5. Seconday-emission profile monitors at LEAR injection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    This is a view against the direction of the beams. Through the right, smaller, opening the beams (protons, antiprotons, H-, later Pb-ions) entered and, after being put on central orbit with septum and kicker, reappeared as circulating beam through the left, larger, opening. Horizontal and vertical position and density profile of the incoming beam were measured with secondary emission grids. The same measurements were made on the beam after it had completed the first turn in the machine. For this purpose it was prevented from circulating with a beam stopper, mounted through the port at left (not mounted at the time the picture was taken).

  6. Reproducibility of serum protein profiling by systematic assessment using solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Christensen, René Depont; Madsen, Jonna S

    2008-01-01

    for serum protein profiling we investigated a range of sample preparation techniques and developed a statistical method based on repeated analyses for evaluation of protein-profiling performance of MALDI MS. Two different solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods were investigated, namely custom......Protein profiling of human serum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is potentially a new diagnostic tool for early detection of human diseases, including cancer. Sample preparation is a key issue in MALDI MS and the analysis of complex samples such as serum......-made microcolumns and commercially available magnetic beads. Using these two methods, nineteen different sample preparation methods for serum profiling by MALDI MS were systematically tested with regard to matrix selection, stationary phase, selectivity, and reproducibility. Microcolumns were tested with regard...

  7. Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Späth, Jana; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 metabolome, caused by changes in diet and ii) responsiveness to a challenge meal for a subset of the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome. To summarize, we have shown proof-of-concept of our UPLC-ESI-MS/MS bioactive lipid protocols for the purpose of monitoring subtle shifts, and thereby useful to address lipid-mediated postprandial inflammation.

  8. Executive order no. 821 on dose monitoring of employees exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Order which entered into force on 1 January 1991, was made in implementation of the European Communities' Council Directive No. 80/836 Euratom amended by Directive No. 84/467 Euratom on radiation protection of 15 July 1980 and 3 September 1984 respectively. It lays down the technical standards to be observed regarding dosimetry and provides inter alia, for dosimetric control by thermoluminescent dosimetry for personal and environmental monitoring. (NEA) [fr

  9. Construction of a high resolution electron beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Novak, W.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.F.

    1993-01-01

    Bremsstrahlung from an electron beam on a heavy target can be used to image the beam profile using collimators and slits. The limiting resolution using this system is determined by Fresnel diffraction, and is ∼ √(λd/2), where λ is the photon wavelength and d is determined by the linear dimensions of the system. For linear colliders this resolution could be a few nm. The highest resolution requires detectors which see only high energy, (small λ), photons, and this is accomplished by converting photons to pairs, and detecting Cherenkov light in a nearly forward angle with a CCD detector or streak camera. Tests are planned at the Argonne APS and SLAC FFTB

  10. A high resolution beam profile monitor using Bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norem, J.

    1988-01-01

    The development of efficient high energy linear colliders in the 1 TeV range requires final focus systems capable of producing beam spot sizes on the order of 1--20 nm, about three orders of magnitude smaller than those produced at the SLC. Although beam line designs exist which can, in principle, produce the required optics, the construction of quadrupoles with the size and precision required will be challenging. Field errors in these quads must be small and should be verified experimentally, which is difficult with existing technology. This paper describes a proposal to use bremsstrahlung from heavy targets to measure high energy beam profiles and positions with a resolution approaching a few nm. The method is also applicable to tests of other final focus systems (flat beams, plasma lenses) at lower energies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Beam profile monitor system for the bevalac transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1985-01-01

    Incorporated in the current Bevalac transfer line upgrade project is a proposal for a new electronic beam monitoring system. It will be designed to amplify, convert, and transmit the signals of twelve 16 by 16 multi-wire grids to a central computer located in the Bevatron control room. Each station will contain interface amplifiers and a local microprocessor to convert wire grid currents into digitized values which will then be transmitted via a serial data channel to the main computer. The system will have a large dynamic range (1 nano to 1 milli-ampere of beam current), be designed for distributed operation, and will be easily expandable. This paper describes the basic electronic hardware and software components of the proposed system

  12. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  13. Characterization of the Li beam probe with a beam profile monitor on JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedzelskiy, I S; Korotkov, A; Brix, M; Morgan, P; Vince, J

    2010-10-01

    The lithium beam probe (LBP) is widely used for measurements of the electron density in the edge plasma of magnetically confined fusion experiments. The quality of LBP data strongly depends on the stability and profile shape of the beam. The main beam parameters are as follows: beam energy, beam intensity, beam profile, beam divergence, and the neutralization efficiency. For improved monitoring of the beam parameters, a beam profile monitor (BPM) from the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) has been installed in the Li beam line at JET. In the NEC BPM, a single grounded wire formed into a 45° segment of a helix is rotated by a motor about the axis of the helix. During each full revolution, the wire sweeps twice across the beam to give X and Y profiles. In this paper, we will describe the properties of the JET Li beam as measured with the BPM and demonstrate that it facilitates rapid optimization of the gun performance.

  14. Evolution of the Regular monitoring of workers using ionizing radiations in medical field in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biau, A.; Valero, M.; Dubuquoy, E.; Crescini, D.

    2002-01-01

    Among the 260000 workers surveyed by individual monitoring dosimetry in France, about 140000 work in medical field, in Radiodiagnostic. Radiotherapy or Nuclear Medicine. For the twenty last years the global exposure of these workers has decreased continuously like the number of doses over the regular limits of 50 millisieverts per year or even 20 millisieverts which will be included in the new regulations according to the European Directive 96/29 of 13 may 1996. To reinforce this evolution to lower exposures (ALARA) the french regulations have been completed in 1998 and 1999. These new regular prescriptions consist essentially in. - possibility of using another system of passive dosimetry than firm dosimeter (TLD, OSL, RPL...) - obligation of active dosimeter (real time reading) associated with the passive dosimeter for the workers affected in controlled area. - gathering of all the dosimetric results on a data base called SISERI accessible by computer only to the health physicians and the competent person specially authorized. This work is showing from statistical data on the levels of exposure in medical field: - which are the working conditions for which the two system of dosimetry are really necessary - how to delimit the controlled area on realistic basic rather than theoretical assumptions - how the data base SISERI is actually functioning and how it will evaluate from now to 2003. Finally, we propose a schedule to define the different forms of survey for internal and external risks of exposure and to select the best type of monitoring according to the working conditions. (Author)

  15. A high resolution wire scanner beam profile monitor with a microprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.I.; Mohr, D.L.; Whittaker, J.K.; Yoder, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    A beam profile monitor has been constructed for the NBS-LANL Racetrack Microtron. The monitor consists of two perpendicular 30 μm diameter carbon wires that are driven through an electron beam by a pneumatic actuator. A long-lifetime, electroformed nickel bellows is used for the linear-motion vacuum feedthrough. Secondary emission current from the wires and a signal from a transducer measuring the position of the wires are simultaneously digitized by a microprocessor to yield beam current density profiles in two dimensions. The wire scanner is designed for use with both pulsed and cw beams

  16. Monitoring hprt mutant frequency over time in T-lymphocytes of people accidentally exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A.D. da; Curry, J.; Glickman, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Modern technologies have provided the opportunity to monitor mutations in people in vivo. The subjects of this study were accidentally exposed to 137 Cesium in a radiological accident that occurred in September 1987 in Goiania, Brazil, during which more than 150 people received doses greater than 0.1 Gy and as high as 7 Gy. The objective of this study was to determine how long the hprt mutant T-cells in the peripheral blood contribute to mutant T-cells in the peripheral blood contribute to mutant frequency by examining the timecourse of the T-lymphocyte response to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results obtained over a period of 2.3 to 4.5 years subsequent to the accident, from 11 subjects with doses ranging from 1 to 7 Gy, and from nine control subjects selected from the same population. The mean In MF (±SE) of the control group was 2.5 (±0.2) + In10 -6 . The exposed group had a significantly increased mutant frequency; the mean ln MF (±SE) were 3.3 (±0.3) + In10 -6 , 2.8 (±0.2) + In10 -6 , and 2.3 (±0.2) + In10 -6 , in the years 1990-1992 respectively and using Buckton's models, we demonstrated that mutant T-cells have a short-term memory with a half-life of 2.1 years. This relatively short half-half limits the effective use of the hprt assay as the method of choice to monitor past exposure. The data also demonstrate a positive correlation with age, and an inverse correlation with plating efficiency. 77 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Monitoring Toxic Ionic Liquids in Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (DESI-MSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Consuelo J.; Tata, Alessandra; de Campos, Michel L.; Peng, Chun; Ifa, Demian R.

    2017-06-01

    Ambient mass spectrometry imaging has become an increasingly powerful technique for the direct analysis of biological tissues in the open environment with minimal sample preparation and fast analysis times. In this study, we introduce desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) as a novel, rapid, and sensitive approach to localize the accumulation of a mildly toxic ionic liquid (IL), AMMOENG 130 in zebrafish ( Danio rerio). The work demonstrates that DESI-MSI has the potential to rapidly monitor the accumulation of IL pollutants in aquatic organisms. AMMOENG 130 is a quaternary ammonium-based IL reported to be broadly used as a surfactant in commercialized detergents. It is known to exhibit acute toxicity to zebrafish causing extensive damage to gill secondary lamellae and increasing membrane permeability. Zebrafish were exposed to the IL in a static 96-h exposure study in concentrations near the LC50 of 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/L. DESI-MS analysis of zebrafish gills demonstrated the appearance of a dealkylated AMMOENG 130 metabolite in the lowest concentration of exposure identified by a high resolution hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer as the trimethylstearylammonium ion, [C21H46N]+. With DESI-MSI, the accumulation of AMMOENG 130 and its dealkylated metabolite in zebrafish tissue was found in the nervous and respiratory systems. AMMOENG 130 and the metabolite were capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier of the fish with significant accumulation in the brain. Hence, we report for the first time the simultaneous characterization, distribution, and metabolism of a toxic IL in whole body zebrafish analyzed by DESI-MSI. This ambient mass spectrometry imaging technique shows great promise for the direct analysis of biological tissues to qualitatively monitor foreign, toxic, and persistent compounds in aquatic organisms from the environment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. SiC detectors to monitor ionizing radiations emitted from nuclear events and plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cannavò, A.

    2016-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor detectors are increasingly employed in Nuclear Physics for their advantages with respect to traditional silicon (Si). Such detectors show an energy resolution, charge mobility, response velocity and detection efficiency similar to Si detectors. However, the higher band gap (3.26 eV), the lower leakage current (∼10 pA) maintained also at room temperature, the higher radiation hardness and the higher density with respect to Si represent some indisputable advantages characterizing such detectors. The devices can be employed at high temperatures, at high absorbed doses and in the case of high visible light intensities, for example, in plasma, for limited exposition times without damage. Generally SiC Schottky diodes are employed in reverse polarization with an active region depth of the order of 100 µm, purity below 1014 cm-3 and an active area lower than 1 cm2. Measurements in the regime of proportionality with the radiation energy released in the active region and measurements in time-of-flight configuration are employed for nuclear emission events produced at both low and high fluences. Alpha spectra demonstrated an energy resolution of about 1.3% at 5.8 MeV. Radiation emission from laser-generated plasma can be monitored in terms of detected photons, electrons and ions, using the laser pulse as a start signal and the radiation detection as a stop signal, enabling to measure the ion velocity by knowing the target-detector flight distance. SiC spectra acquired in the Messina University laboratories using radioactive ion sources and at the PALS laboratory facility in Prague (Czech Republic) are presented. A preliminary study of the use of SiC detectors, embedded in a water equivalent polymer, as a dosimeter is presented and discussed.

  19. Investigation of mechanisms for He-I emission radial profile broadening in a weakly ionized cylindrical helium plasma with recombining edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Brandt, C.; Hudson, B.; Nishijima, D.; Pigarov, A. Yu. [University of California–San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Kumar, D. [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N Charles St., Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Spatially resolved spectroscopic measurements of He-I line emission are used to study the causes of emission profile broadening radially across the cylinder of a weakly ionized helium plasma. The plasma consists of an ionizing core (r < 2 cm) surrounded by a recombining edge (r > 2 cm) plasma. The brightness profiles of low-n EUV He-I resonance lines are shown to be strongly radially broadened due to opacity. The brightness profiles of high-n visible lines are also found to be strongly radially broadened, but dominantly due to edge recombination. Visible low-n lines are less strongly radially broadened, apparently by a combination of both recombination and EUV opacity. The low-n visible He-I line ratio method with central opacity correction is found to calculate central electron density and temperature well, with poor agreement at the edge, as expected for recombining plasma. In the recombining edge, high-n Boltzmann analysis is found to accurately measure the cold (T{sub e} < 0.2 eV) edge temperature. Near the core, however, high-n Boltzmann analysis can be complicated by electron-impact excitation, giving incorrect (T{sub e}≈ 0.1 eV) apparent temperatures. Probe measurements were not able to capture the cold edge temperature accurately, probably due to large potential fluctuations, even when using fast triple probe measurements. Fast spectroscopic measurements show that this discrepancy is not explained by recombining plasma alternating with ionizing plasma in the edge region.

  20. Phase-I monitoring of standard deviations in multistage linear profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaei, Mahdiyeh; Soleimani, Paria; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Atashgar, Karim

    2018-03-01

    In most modern manufacturing systems, products are often the output of some multistage processes. In these processes, the stages are dependent on each other, where the output quality of each stage depends also on the output quality of the previous stages. This property is called the cascade property. Although there are many studies in multistage process monitoring, there are fewer works on profile monitoring in multistage processes, especially on the variability monitoring of a multistage profile in Phase-I for which no research is found in the literature. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to monitor the standard deviation involved in a simple linear profile designed in Phase I to monitor multistage processes with the cascade property. To this aim, an autoregressive correlation model between the stages is considered first. Then, the effect of the cascade property on the performances of three types of T 2 control charts in Phase I with shifts in standard deviation is investigated. As we show that this effect is significant, a U statistic is next used to remove the cascade effect, based on which the investigated control charts are modified. Simulation studies reveal good performances of the modified control charts.

  1. New fuzzy EWMA control charts for monitoring phase II fuzzy profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazale Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In many quality control applications, the quality of a process or product is explained by the relationship between response variable and one or more explanatory variables, called a profile. In this paper, a new fuzzy EWMA control chart for phase II fuzzy profile monitoring is proposed. To this end, we extend EWMA control charts to its equivalent Fuzzy type and then implement fuzzy ranking methods to determine whether the process fuzzy profile is under or out of control. The proposed method is capable of identifying small changes in process under condition of process profile explaining parameters vagueness, roughness and uncertainty. Determining the source of changes, this method provides us with the possibility of recognizing the causes of process transition from stable mode, removing these causes and restoring the process stable mode.

  2. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  3. Real time n/γ discrimination for the JET neutron profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M., E-mail: marco.riva@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Esposito, B.; Marocco, D.; Belli, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Syme, B. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Giacomelli, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, 20100 Milano (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Development of a pulse oriented acquisition system able for the JET neutron profile monitor to separate neutron and gamma pulses. ► Description of the FPGA hardware architecture. ► Comparison between the off-line and real time neutron count rates from the last JET experimental campaign. ► Estimate of the maximum sustainable count rate of the system. ► Statistical analysis of neutron measurements from JET neutron profile monitor and neutron monitors. -- Abstract: The JET neutron profile monitor provides the measurement of the neutron flux along 19 collimated lines of sight from which the neutron emissivity profile can be obtained through reconstruction based on inversion methods. The neutron detectors are liquid organic scintillators featuring n/γ pulse shape discrimination. A recent digital upgrade of the neutron profile monitor acquisition system (200 MSamples/s sampling rate per channel, 14 bit resolution) offers new real-time capabilities. An algorithm performing real-time n/γ discrimination by means of the charge comparison method is implemented in the acquisition system FPGA. The algorithm produces two distinct count rates (n and γ) that are sent to the JET real time network ready for control applications and are simultaneously stored into the JET archive together with all the samples of each pulse. The paper describes the architecture of the FPGA implementation and reports the analysis of data collected during the 2011–2012 JET campaigns. The comparison between the real-time and post-processed (off-line) neutron count rates shows an agreement within 5% for all 19 detectors. Moreover, it is shown that the maximum count rate sustainable by the acquisition system when storing raw data (∼900 kHz as evaluated in laboratory tests) can be extended up to 5 MHz when using the real-time implementation with no local data storage. Finally, a statistical analysis of the ratio between the line-integrated measurements from the neutron profile

  4. A cytogenetic bio-monitoring of industrial radiographers occupationally exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation by using CBMN assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakeri, Mahsa; Changizi, Vahid; Zakeri, Farideh; Rajabpour, Mohammad Reza; Farshidpour, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Industrial radiography is the process of using either gamma-emitting radionuclide sources or X-ray machines to examine the safety of industrial materials. The average annual effective dose in industrial radiography is one of the highest among radiation workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 60 industrial radiographers and 40 non-exposed individuals as the control group by using cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Totally, the frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) were significantly higher in the industrial radiographers than in the controls (p = 0.000). The mean MN frequency per 1000 binucleated cells in the industrial radiographers with last 5-y radiation dose of >100 mSv was significantly higher than those with ≤100 mSv (34.81 ± 12.70 vs. 26.33 ± 7.940, p = 0.024). The effect of age was observed in the control group and subjects with the age of >30 y showed significantly higher MN frequency compared with the subjects with the age of ≤30 y (9.45 ± 3.710 vs. 6.81 ± 3.050, p = 0.02). No obvious trend of increased MN as a function of either duration of employment or age or smoking status was observed in the industrial radiographers. The results show the increased levels of cytogenetic damages in the industrial radiographers. Even the workers exposed to the permissible doses are subjected to elevated frequencies of DNA damages. These findings confirm the importance of cytogenetic bio-monitoring program beside physical dosimetry, surveying radiation safety of equipment and periodic training of workers for improvement of safety and radiation protection. (authors)

  5. Fast-scan monitor examines neutral-beam ion-density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    All of the magnetic mirror confinement fusion experiments at LLL and at other laboratories depend on pulsed, energetic neutral-beam injection for fueling and imparting energy to the trapped plasma for density build-up and stability studies. It is vital to be able to monitor how well the injected ion beam is aimed and focused. To do this, we have designed an ion-beam current-density profile monitor that uses a commercial minimodular data acquisition system. Our prototype model monitors a single 20-kV, 50-A, 10-ms beam. However, the method is applicable to any number of beams with similar sampling target arrays. Also, the electronics can be switched to monitor any one of several target collectors

  6. Profile of Colombian entrepreneurs based on the data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J. Santiago Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the data obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor study through eight cycles of measurement, this work builds a profile of Colombian entrepreneurs considering the perspective of the entrepreneurial pipeline developed by Varela and Soler (2012, from 2006 to 2011. This research determines the profile of entrepreneurs in four points of the entrepreneurial pipeline: (1 intentional entrepreneurs, (2 nascent entrepreneurs, (3 new entrepreneurs and (4 established entrepreneurs. Gender, age, income level, and education level allowed longitudinal comparisons to identify prevailing characteristics. The relationship between these four variables and the four types of entrepreneurs in the pipeline was examined, in order to evaluate at what level one element explains the other.

  7. Measurement of an electron-beam size with a beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Nakamura, N.; Sakai, H.; Shinoe, K.; Takaki, H.; Fujisawa, M.; Hayano, H.; Nomura, M.; Kamiya, Y.; Koseki, T.; Amemiya, Y.; Aoki, N.; Nakayama, K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a non-destructive and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and the measurement of an electron-beam size with this monitor in the KEK-Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) damping ring. The monitor system has the structure of a long-distance X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. The synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is sufficiently high to measure the horizontal and vertical beam sizes of the ATF damping ring. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the X-ray imaging optics in the monitor system was in good agreement with the design value

  8. R & D of a Gas-Filled RF Beam Profile Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonehara, K. [Fermilab; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Moretti, A. [Fermilab; Tollestrup, A. V. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Abrams, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, M. A.; Dudas, A. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. P. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Liu, Q. [Case Western Reserve U.

    2017-05-01

    We report the R&D of a novel radiation-robust hadron beam profile monitor based on a gas-filled RF cavity for intense neutrino beam experiments. An equivalent RF circuit model was made and simulated to optimize the RF parameter in a wide beam intensity range. As a result, the maximum acceptable beam intensity in the monitor is significantly increased by using a low-quality factor RF cavity. The plan for the demonstration test is set up to prepare for future neutrino beam experiments.

  9. A LVDT conditioner for the beam profile monitors of the AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es, J.T. van; Trigt, J.H. van.

    1991-01-01

    A LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is a transducer for localization. Because of its applied materials, its construction and the absence of bearings etc. the instrument is suitable to be applied in locations where radioactive radiation is present. In order to obtain information about the position of the iron core in the transducer, a conditioner is needed. In 1977 by Digel a conditioner has been developed for the beam profile monitors (moving wire) of MEA because the 'market' could not meet the requirements then. Nowadays the 'market' offers i.c.'s which can take over the work of the Eurocard developed then. Digel has investigated them in order to see if they are applicable for the beam profile monitors of AmPS. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 13 tabs

  10. Gas dynamics considerations in a non-invasive profile monitor for charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Tzoganis, Vasilis; Welsch, Carsten P

    2014-01-01

    A non-invasive, gas jet-based, beam profile monitor has been developed in the QUASAR Group at the Cockcroft Institute, UK. This allows on-line measurement of the 2-dimensional transverse profile of particle beams with negligible disturbance to either primary beam or accelerator vacuum. The monitor is suitable for use with beams across a wide range of energies and intensities. In this setup a nozzle-skimmer system shapes a thin supersonic gas jet into a curtain. However, the small dimensions of the gas inlet nozzle and subsequent skimmers were shown to be the cause of many operational problems. In this paper, the dynamics of gas jet formation transport and shaping is discussed before an image-processing based alignment technique is introduced. Furthermore, experimental results obtained with a 5 keV electron beam are discussed and the effects of gas stagnation pressure on the acquired beam are presented.

  11. A laser-based beam profile monitor for the SLC/SLD interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, R.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Colocho, W.; Frisch, J.; Horton-Smith, S.; Inman, W.; Jobe, K.; Kotseroglou, T.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Scheeff, M.; Wagner, S.; Ross, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beam size estimates made using beam-beam deflections are used for optimization of the Stanford linear collider (SLC) electron-positron beam sizes. Typical beam sizes and intensities expected for 1996 operations are 2.1 x 0.6 μm (x, y) at 4.0.10 10 particles per pulse. Conventional profile monitors, such as scanning wires, fail at charge densities well below this. The laser-based profile monitor uses a finely-focused 350-nm wavelength tripled YLF laser pulse that traverses the particle beam path about 29 cm away from the e + /e - IP. Compton scattered photons and degraded e + /e - are detected as the beam is steered across the laser pulse. The laser pulse has a transverse size of 380 nm and a Rayleigh range of about 5 μm. (orig.)

  12. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  13. Dose profile monitoring with carbon ions by means of prompt-gamma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Le Foulher, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J.M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire de Controle Non-Destructif par Rayonnements Ionisants (France); Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Testa, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-03-15

    A key point in the quality control of ion therapy is real-time monitoring and imaging of the dose delivered to the patient. Among the possible signals that can be used to make such a monitoring, prompt gamma-rays issued from nuclear fragmentation are possible candidates, provided the correlation between the emission profile and the primary beam range can be established. By means of simultaneous energy and time-of-flight discrimination, we could measure the longitudinal profile of the prompt gamma-rays emitted by 73 MeV/u carbon ions stopping inside a PMMA target. This technique allowed us to minimize the shielding against neutrons and scattered gamma rays, and to find a good correlation between the prompt-gamma profile and the ion range. This profile was studied as a function of the observation angle. By extrapolating our results to higher energies and realistic detection efficiencies, we showed that prompt gamma-ray measurements make it feasible to control in real time the longitudinal dose during ion therapy treatments.

  14. CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES OF MONITORING OF THE QUALITY OF TRAINING OF WORKERS OF RAILWAY PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bondarenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of creating the system of monitoring of the quality of professional training of future workers of railway profile, the author puts forward a technology of using cloud services of the search system of Google. The article proves that the system provides a complex support of monitoring, from creating appropriate forms and storing of the results in cloud storage to the\\processing of results of the monitoring and management of the system of testing on the basis of using the service of Google-Calendar. In the article there has been considered the usage of the concept of BYOD for testing of students’ achievement. The article demonstrates the advantages of  the proposed approach to monitoring the quality of training of future workers of railway profile highlighting  the usage of the cloud services of the search system of Google as a means of  expanding the boundaries of research in space and time and making the procedure more flexible and systematic.

  15. Beam profile measurements on RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Michnoff, R.; Moore, T.; Shea, T.; Tepikian, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Lab was commissioned during the summer of 1999. Transverse beam profiles on RHIC are measured with ionization profile monitors (IPMs). An IPM measures beam profiles by collecting the electrons liberated by residual gas ionization by the beam. The detector is placed in the gap of a dipole magnet to force the electrons to travel in straight lines from the beamline center to the collector. One IPM was tested and it measured the profiles of a single gold bunch containing 10 8 ions on consecutive turns. We show an example of one of these profiles giving transverse emittance. Also several profiles are combined into a mountain-range plot which shows betatron oscillations at injection

  16. Abbreviated kinetic profiles in area-under-the-curve monitoring of cyclosporine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevel, J; Kahan, B D

    1991-11-01

    Abbreviated kinetic profiles can reduce the number of phlebotomies and drug assays, and thereby the cost of area-under-the-curve (AUC) monitoring. In the present investigation, we used two independent data sets: group 1, 101 AUC profiles from 77 stable renal-transplant patients, which included a 5-h sample in addition to the usual 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, 10-, 14-, and 24-h samples; and group 2, 100 profiles from 50 stable renal-transplant patients before and after a change in their daily oral dose of cyclosporine. Group I demonstrated a fair correlation between cyclosporine trough concentrations and the AUC calculated from a complete set of seven concentrations (r2 = 0.820 and 0.758 for the 24- and 0-h samples, respectively). Stepwise multiple linear-regression analysis revealed that the abbreviated set of three time points (2, 6, and 14 h) explained 96% of the variance in AUC values calculated from the full set of seven samples; additional time points increased the accuracy only slightly. For group 2, we examined the difference between the observed and the predicted concentrations by linear extrapolation; the error in the observed AUC value, compared with the predicted value calculated from seven time points (-13.2% to -1.2%), was similar to the error from just three time points (-11.5% to 4.5%). Abbreviated AUC profiles involving three time points used with a model equation seem to provide a reliable alternative to full seven-point profiles.

  17. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  18. Antipsychotic treatment dosing profile in patients with schizophrenia evaluated with electronic monitoring (MEMS®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Francisco J; Ramallo-Fariña, Yolanda; Bosch, Esperanza; Mayans, Teresa; Rodríguez, Carlos J; Caravaca, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Although the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS®) device offers accurate information on treatment dosing profile, such profile has never been studied in patients with schizophrenia. Enhancing our knowledge on this issue would help in developing intervention strategies to improve adherence to antipsychotic treatment in these patients. 74 outpatients with schizophrenia were monitored with the MEMS device for a 3-month period, for evaluation of antipsychotic treatment dosing profile, possible influence of medication schedule-related variables, adherence to treatment--considering dose intake within prescribed timeframes--and possible Hawthorne's effect of using the MEMS device. Dose-omission gaps occurred in 18.7% of monitoring days, most frequently during weekends, almost significantly. Almost one-third of prescribed doses were taken out of prescribed time. Neither the prescribed number of daily doses nor the indicated time of the day for dose intake (breakfast, dinner), were associated with correct antipsychotic dosing. Excess-dose was rare in general, and more frequent out of prescribed dose timeframe. No Hawthorne's effect was found for the MEMS device. Adherence reached only 35% according to a definition that included dose intake within prescribed timeframes. Antipsychotic treatment dosing was considerably irregular among patients with schizophrenia. Strategies to reduce dose-omission gaps and increase dosing within prescribed timeframes seem to be necessary. Gaining knowledge on precise oral antipsychotic dosing profiles or the influence of schedule-related variables may be useful to design strategies towards enhancing adherence. There appears to be no Hawthorne's effect associated with the use of MEMS devices in outpatients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development Of A Permanent Magnet Residual Gas Profile Monitor With Fast Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Barabin, S; Giacomini, T; Liakin, D; Orlov, A; Skachkov, V S

    2004-01-01

    The beam profile measurements at modern ion synchrotrons and storage rings require high timing performances on a turn-by-turn basis. On the other hand, high spatial resolutions are very desirable for cooled beams. We are developing a residual gas monitor to cover the wide range of beam intensities and dimensions. It supplies the needed high-resolution and high-speed tools for beam profiling. The new residual gas monitor will operate on scattered residual gas electrons whose trajectories are localized within 0.1 mm filaments by using appropriate magnetic field. The required magnetic field of 100 mT will be excited by either a permanent or an electromagnet. The high resolution mode of 0.1 mm is provided by a CCD camera with upstream MCP-phosphor screen assembly. In the fast turn-by-turn mode the beam profile will be read out with a resolution of 1 mm by a 100-channel photodiode-amplifier-digitizer, which will be explained in detail.

  20. Quality control of calibration system for area monitors at National Laboratory of Metrology from Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.M.O.; Freitas, L.C. de

    1992-01-01

    The quality control of equipment used in calibration from the National Laboratory of Metrology on Ionizing Radiations is presented, with results of standard measure systems and irradiation system. Tables and graphics with the quality of systems are also shown. (C.G.C.)

  1. Monitoring of monooctanoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) method was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML-type: L-long chain fatty acids; M-medium chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid....... It was found that the structured PC fractionated into 2-3 distinct bands on both plate thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These 3 bands represented PC of LL-type, ML-type and MM-type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage...

  2. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2005-01-01

    for translation of MALDI-MS based diagnostic methods to clinical applications. We have investigated a number of MALDI matrices and several miniaturized solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for serum protein concentration and desalting with the aim of generating reproducible, high-quality protein profiles by MALDI...

  3. Technical note: A new wedge-shaped ionization chamber component module for BEAMnrc to model the integral quality monitoring system®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderinde, Oluwaseyi Michael; du Plessis, FCP

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new component module (CM) namely IQM to accurately model the integral quality monitoring (IQM) system® to be used in the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo (MC) code. The IQM is essentially a double wedge ionization chamber with the central electrode plate bisecting the wedge. The IQM CM allows the user to characterize the double wedge of this ionization chamber and BEAMnrc can then accurately calculate the dose in this CM including its enclosed air regions. This has been verified against measured data. The newly created CM was added into the standard BEAMnrc CMs, and it will be made available through the NRCC website. The BEAMnrc graphical user interface (GUI) and particle ray-tracing techniques were used to validate the IQM geometry. In subsequent MC simulations, the dose scored in the IQM was verified against measured data over a range of square fields ranging from 1 × 1-30 × 30 cm2. The IQM system is designed for the present day need for a device that could verify beam output in real-time during treatment. This CM is authentic, and it can serve as a basis for researchers that have an interest in real-time beam delivery checking using wedge-shaped ionization chamber based instruments like the IQM.

  4. Beam-energy and laser beam-profile monitor at the BNL LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Briscoe, B.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    We are developing a non-interceptive beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. Electrons that are removed from the beam ions either by laser photodetachment or stripping by background gas are deflected into a Faraday cup. The beam profile is measured by stepping a narrow laser beam across the ion beam and measuring the electron charge vs. transverse laser position. There is a grid in front of the collector that can be biased up to 125kV. The beam energy spectrum is determined by measuring the electron charge vs. grid voltage. Beam electrons have the same velocity as the beam and so have an energy of 1/1836 of the beam protons. A 200MeV H{sup -} beam yields 109keV electrons. Energy measurements can be made with either laser-stripped or gas-stripped electrons.

  5. Carbon filament beam profile monitor for high energy proton-antiproton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.R.; Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of the evolution of the transverse profile of the stored beams in high energy proton storage rings such as the p-anti p colliders at CERN and at FNAL is of considerable importance. In the present note, a simple monitor is discussed which will allow almost non-destructive measurement of the profile of each individual proton and antiproton bunch separately. It is based on the flying wire technique first used at CEA and more recently at the CPS. A fine carbon filament is passed quickly through the beam, acting as a target for secondary particle production. The flux of secondary particles is measured by two scintillator telescopes, one for protons and one for antiprotons, having an angular acceptance between 30 and 100 mrad. Measurements of secondary particle production performed at FNAL in this angular range show that a very respectable flux can be expected

  6. Multi-channel electronics for secondary emission grid profile monitor of TTF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingardt-Nikoulin, P.; Gaidash, V.; Mirzojan, A.; Kocharyan, V.; Noelle, D.

    2004-01-01

    According to the TTF beam experimental program, a measurement f the time dependence of the energy spread within the bunch train should be done by means of a standard device for profile measurements, that is Secondary Emission Grid (SEMG). SEMG on the high-energy TTF beam is placed in the focal plane of the magnet spectrometer. It should measure the total energy spread in the range from 0.1% up to a few percents for any single or any group of electron bunches in the bunch train of TTF Linac. SEMG profile measurements with new high sensitive electronics are described. Beam results of SEMG Monitor test are given for two modifications of an electronic preamplifier

  7. [Usefulness of continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) in monitoring glycaemic profile in small children with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Peczyńska, Jadwiga; Florys, Bozena; Kowalewski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    Improved methods of diabetes therapy result in a near normoglycaemic state in many patients. This leads however unfortunately to more frequent hypoglycaemic incidents. Particularly small children, whose nervous system is not fully mature, are at high risk of central nervous system damage in case of hypoglycaemia. A new method of detail monitoring of glycaemia provides CGMS system. The aim of the study was to compare the glycaemic profile, with high attention to hypoglycaemia in groups of young and older children with diabetes type 1, using CGMS and routine glucose meter. We studied 32 children with diabetes type 1. Children were divided into groups: group I--small children, n=17 (10 years of age), mean age--12 years, with disease duration--3 years, with HbA1c level--7,21%. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS), by MiniMed, was applied in outpatient or hospital conditions, after short training of patient and parents; together with routine glucose meter measurements, 4-8 times/24 hours. In 9 patients from small children group CGMS was repeated after 2 months. Hypoglycaemic incidents detected with CGMS were similar in both groups: 4,6 in I group vs. 4,2 in II group (ns). Hypoglycaemic incidents found with meter were lower in I group--1,6 vs. 2,3 in II group (ns). Mean hypoglycaemic time/24 hour was longer in small children group: 101 min vs. 74 min in group II (p<00,05). In I group we found higher number of hypoglycaemic incidents during the night compared to group II--1,7 vs. 0,8 (p<00,05) and longer duration of night hypoglycaemia: in I group--56 min vs. 32 min in group II (p<00,05). Repeated CGMS study in 9 children from I group revealed decreased mean time of hypoglycaemia/24 hours from 134 min/24 h to 90 min/24 h (p<00,05) and decreased time of night hypoglycaemia from 65 min to 40 min (p<00,05), with a comparable number of hypoglycaemic incidents. Hypoglycaemic incidents found with routine meter measurements in small children were 1,6 vs. 4,6 hypoglycaemia

  8. Design of the beam profile monitor system for the RHIC injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    A video profile monitor (VPM) system will be used in the AGS-to-RHIC (ATR) transfer line to acquire single bunches transferred at 30 Hz. An array of 12 video cameras will be connected to 4 frame grabbers through a wide-band flux. Fast VME image processing boards will analyze a 120 x 120 subset of the image, generated by a 4 x 4 convolution or an ROI computation and sent over the network during the AGS recycle time. Details of the design, results of lab tests and studies with ion and proton beams will be presented

  9. A beam profile monitor for heavy ion beams at high impact energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, A.; Stiebing, K.E.; Bethge, K.; Froehlich, O.; Koehler, E.; Mueller, A.; Rueschmann, G.

    1994-01-01

    A beam profile monitor for heavy ion beams has been developed for the use in experiments at the Heavy Ion Synchrotron SIS at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt (GSI). Four thin scintillation fibres are mounted on one wheel and scan the ion beam sequentially in two linearly independent directions. They are read out via one single photomultiplier common to all four fibres into one time spectrum, which provides all information about beam position, beam extension, time structure and lateral homogeneity of the beam. The system operates in a wide dynamic range of beam intensities. ((orig.))

  10. A beam-profile monitor for the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.P.; McDonald, K.T.

    1989-01-01

    A beam-profile monitor has been designed to diagnose the 5-MeV high-brightness electron beam from the rf gun of the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The monitor consists of a phosphor screen viewed by a CCD camera. The video images are digitized and stored by a framegrabber and analyzed by an IBM PC-AT to extract the emittance. Details of the hardware configuration are presented, along with the spatial resolution of the system measured as a function of phosphor-screen thickness. The strategies which will be used to measure the transverse and longitudinal emittances are briefly mentioned. The system should be capable of measuring a transverse geometric emittance of around 1 mm-mrad, as will be typical of the ATF beam. 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. Heterotrophic monitoring at a drinking water treatment plant by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry after different drinking water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-Comorera, Laura; Blanch, Anicet R; Vilaró, Carles; Galofré, Belén; García-Aljaro, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the suitability of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for routine heterotrophic monitoring in a drinking water treatment plant. Water samples were collected from raw surface water and after different treatments during two campaigns over a 1-year period. Heterotrophic bacteria were studied and isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, the diversity index and the coefficient of population similarity were also calculated using biochemical fingerprinting of the populations studied. MALDI-TOF MS enabled us to characterize and detect changes in the bacterial community composition throughout the water treatment plant. Raw water showed a large and diverse population which was slightly modified after initial treatment steps (sand filtration and ultrafiltration). Reverse osmosis had a significant impact on the microbial diversity, while the final chlorination step produced a shift in the composition of the bacterial community. Although MALDI-TOF MS could not identify all the isolates since the available MALDI-TOF MS database does not cover all the bacterial diversity in water, this technique could be used to monitor bacterial changes in drinking water treatment plants by creating a specific protein profile database for tracking purposes.

  12. Early Effect of High Dose of Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Plasma Lipids Profile and Liver Fatty Acids Composition in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of acute gamma-irradiation on rats at supralethal doses of 20 Gy to determine the synthesis and amounts of free fatty acids, neutral lipids and phospholipids of plasma and liver after 24 and 48 h of gamma-irradiation. Male Wistar rats weighing 120+- 20 g were exposed to 20 Gy of gamma radiation (dose rate of 0.59 Gy/min). Exposure of rats to ionizing radiation resulted in significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating lipid metabolism disturbance. Plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels increased up to 71.3 and 71.5 %, respectively, after 24 h from radiation exposure and then returned to 28 and 27 % change in-compare with control values after 48 h post-irradiation. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations increased concomitantly with irradiation, but their values are less high than cholesterol and phospholipid levels recording significant changes at 19 and 9 % comparing with control rats. Lipid peroxidation measured as MDA recorded significant elevation after 24 and 48 h post irradiation. It was shown that the synthesis of free fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ethers and phospholipids was activated 48 h after irradiation at 20 Gy. The amount of free fatty acids of the rat liver decreased at 20 Gy exposures. This is assumed to be a result of the radioresistance to some degree in the system of free fatty acid synthesis of the rat to the gamma-irradiation in the lethal doses

  13. On-chip electromembrane extraction for monitoring drug metabolism in real time by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Pedersen, Jacob Sønderby; Poulsen, Nicklas Nørgård

    2012-01-01

    A temperature controlled (37 °C) metabolic reaction chamber with a volume of 1 mL was coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by the use of a 50 µm deep counter flow micro-chip electromembrane extraction (EME) system. The EME/ESI-MS system was used to study the in v......A temperature controlled (37 °C) metabolic reaction chamber with a volume of 1 mL was coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by the use of a 50 µm deep counter flow micro-chip electromembrane extraction (EME) system. The EME/ESI-MS system was used to study...

  14. Low-molecular weight protein profiling of genetically modified maize using fast liquid chromatography electrospray ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Anna; Cañuelo, Ana; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Diaz, Antonio; Trojanowicz, Marek

    2012-06-01

    In this work, the use of liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) has been evaluated for the profiling of relatively low-molecular weight protein species in both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize. The proposed approach consisted of a straightforward sample fractionation with different water and ethanol-based buffer solutions followed by separation and detection of the protein species using liquid chromatography with a small particle size (1.8 μm) C(18) column and electrospray-time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection in the positive ionization mode. The fractionation of maize reference material containing different content of transgenic material (from 0 to 5% GM) led to five different fractions (albumins, globulins, zeins, zein-like glutelins, and glutelins), all of them containing different protein species (from 2 to 52 different species in each fraction). Some relevant differences in the quantity and types of protein species were observed in the different fractions of the reference material (with different GM contents) tested, thus revealing the potential use of the proposed approach for fast protein profiling and to detect tentative GMO markers in maize. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling for biomarker discovery applied to human polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fernanda B; Ferreira, Christina R; Sobreira, Tiago Jose P; Yannell, Karen E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Cedenho, Agnaldo P; Lo Turco, Edson G; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-09-15

    We describe multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling, which provides accelerated discovery of discriminating molecular features, and its application to human polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis. The discovery phase of the MRM-profiling seeks molecular features based on some prior knowledge of the chemical functional groups likely to be present in the sample. It does this through use of a limited number of pre-chosen and chemically specific neutral loss and/or precursor ion MS/MS scans. The output of the discovery phase is a set of precursor/product transitions. In the screening phase these MRM transitions are used to interrogate multiple samples (hence the name MRM-profiling). MRM-profiling was applied to follicular fluid samples of 22 controls and 29 clinically diagnosed PCOS patients. Representative samples were delivered by flow injection to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set to perform a number of pre-chosen and chemically specific neutral loss and/or precursor ion MS/MS scans. The output of this discovery phase was a set of 1012 precursor/product transitions. In the screening phase each individual sample was interrogated for these MRM transitions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. To evaluate the method's performance, half the samples were used to build a classification model (testing set) and half were blinded (validation set). Twenty transitions were used for the classification of the blind samples, most of them (N = 19) showed lower abundances in the PCOS group and corresponded to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids. Agreement of 73% with clinical diagnosis was found when classifying the 26 blind samples. MRM-profiling is a supervised method characterized by its simplicity, speed and the absence of chromatographic separation. It can be used to rapidly isolate discriminating molecules in healthy/disease conditions by

  16. Chemical Profiling of Re-Du-Ning Injection by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization Tandem Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry through the Screening of Diagnostic Ions in MSE Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhong; Geng, Jianliang; Dai, Yi; Xiao, Wei; Yao, Xinsheng

    2015-01-01

    The broad applications and mechanism explorations of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCMPs) require a clear understanding of TCMP chemical constituents. In the present study, we describe an efficient and universally applicable analytical approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q/TOF-MS) with the MSE (E denotes collision energy) data acquisition mode, which allowed the rapid separation and reliable determination of TCMP chemical constituents. By monitoring diagnostic ions in the high energy function of MSE, target peaks of analogous compounds in TCMPs could be rapidly screened and identified. “Re-Du-Ning” injection (RDN), a eutherapeutic traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) that has been widely used to reduce fever caused by viral infections in clinical practice, was studied as an example. In total, 90 compounds, including five new iridoids and one new sesquiterpene, were identified or tentatively characterized by accurate mass measurements within 5 ppm error. This analysis was accompanied by MS fragmentation and reference standard comparison analyses. Furthermore, the herbal sources of these compounds were unambiguously confirmed by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) of RDN and ingredient herbal extracts. Our work provides a certain foundation for further studies of RDN. Moreover, the analytical approach developed herein has proven to be generally applicable for profiling the chemical constituents in TCMPs and other complicated mixtures. PMID:25875968

  17. The Study of a Beam Profile Monitor based on Faraday Cup Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. M.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S. G.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal can then be discharged to measure a small current equivalent to the number of impinging ions. The beam current can be measured and used to determine the number of ions or electrons hitting the cup. Recently, beam profile monitor (BPM) based on Faraday cup array (FCA), which represented beam position through the spatial and temporal distribution of the beam current, has been studied due to advantages of measure of wide-range ion beam current. FCA system is divided into a FC, an electrical circuit and display parts. We have studied FCA to monitor beam profile on an electrostatic accelerator with wide-range ion current. In this paper, we represented basic characteristics and designs for the fabricated FCA. FCA system, which consisted of FC system, electronic readout system, and output display, was suggested to measure ion beam current, efficiently. FC system consisted of a collimator, suppressor, tiny FC, insulator frame, and circuit board divided into elec PCB, cap PCB, and con PCB. FC size was 4 mm diameters and FCA system was considered as 8 x 8 array and whole size of 8 x 8 mm''2. FCA system was set-up in vacuum chamber and an integrator and output display parts were formed out of chamber to minimize number of feed-through.

  18. Measurement of position and profile of undulator radiation in Indus-2 using scanning wire monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Chander; Lal, Sohan; Raghuwanshi, V.K.; Prasad, Vijendra

    2015-01-01

    Two planar undulators (U1 and U2) for Atomic Molecular Spectroscopy (AMOS) beamline and Angle Resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARPES) beamline have been installed in Indus-2. The U1 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 6 eV to 250 eV and U2 undulator is designed to produce photons in the energy range of 30 eV to 600 eV. In order to measure the position and vertical profile of photon beams emitted from these undulators, one scanning wire monitor has been installed in each beamline front end. In these scanning wire monitors, a gold coated tungsten wire of 100 μm thickness, stretched between a fork shaped alumina ceramic holder, is scanned vertically perpendicular to the direction of propagation of photon beam by using a precisely controlled stepper motor. The photo-electron current generated in the wire is measured by an electrometer. A graphical user interface has been developed which facilitates the scanning as per the given range, plots the graphs and stores the scanned data in Excel file. This paper describes our experience and usefulness of these wire monitors during commissioning of planar undulators in Indus-2. (author)

  19. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  20. Application of the Alkaline comet assay in bio monitoring of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Graj-Vrhovac, V.

    2002-01-01

    Ionising radiation is a ubiquitous environmental physical agent whose DNA damaging effects are fairly well established. The effects of low-level exposure to ionizing radiation are of concern to large number of people, including workers receiving radiation exposure on the job. Medical radiation workers are employees of hospitals, clinics and private offices where radiation is used in the process of delivering health care to humans. These workers can be categorised into two groups exposed employees who receive at least a minimum detectable exposure during a one-year period, and potentially exposed employees who work in the vicinity of radiation but whose exposures are below detectable limits. The exposure of patients and workers to radiation in medicine is a direct consequence of the use of radiation to improve the health of the individuals. Trends in radiation exposure of both patients and workers are effected not only by developments in radiation protection, but also by dose in the practice of medicine. It is very important to estimate absorbed doses from individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation for carrying out radioprotection procedures and restrict the hazards to human health. The extent of health hazards is difficult to assess. Therefore, development of procedures that can be used to precisely identify health hazards in the exposed populations is a most significant approach towards establishing effective programs for disease prevention

  1. A new beam profile monitor and time of flight system for CologneAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascovici, G. [CologneAMS, University of Cologne (Germany); Dewald, A., E-mail: dewald@ikp.uni-koeln.de [CologneAMS, University of Cologne (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Heinze, S., E-mail: heinze@ikp.uni-koeln.de [CologneAMS, University of Cologne (Germany); Fink, L.; Mueller-Gatermann, C.; Schiffer, M.; Feuerstein, C. [CologneAMS, University of Cologne (Germany); Pfeiffer, M.; Jolie, J.; Thiel, S.; Zell, K.O.; Arnopolina, O. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne (Germany); Blanckenburg, F. von [GFZ, German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    A complex beam detector consisting of a high-resolution beam profile monitor (BPM) and a time of flight (TOF) spectrometer with tracking capabilities was designed especially for the special needs of the Cologne center for accelerator mass spectrometry (CologneAMS). The beam detector assembly is designed to match the beam specifications of the 6 MV Tandetron AMS setup and its data acquisition system. It will have a reconfigurable structure, either as a fast TOF subsystem with a ca. 10 cm{sup 2} equivalent active area, or as a more complex BPM-TOF detector with beam tracking capabilities and a larger active area (16 cm{sup 2}). The purpose of this detector is to suppress background during spectrometry of heavy ions (U, Cm, Pu, Am etc.) and to suppress isobaric interferences such as {sup 36}S in {sup 36}Cl spectra.

  2. High intensity beam profile monitors for the LAMPF primary beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; van Dyck, O.; Lee, D.; Harvey, A.; Bridge, J.; Cainet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitors are in use at LAMPF to measure the properties of the 800 MeV, 500 μA proton beam external to the linac. Both types use secondary electron emission from a wire to produce a current signal proportional to the amount of proton beam that intercepts the wire. The wire scanner system uses a pair of orthogonal wires which are passed through the beam and the harp system uses two fixed planes of parallel wires. Most of the harps are not retractable and are exposed continuously to the primary beam. The high beam intensities available lead to a number of technical problems for instruments that intercept the beam or are close to primary beam targets. The thermal, electrical, radiation-damage, and material selection problems encountered, and some solutions which have been implemented are discussed

  3. Investigation of the profile of phenolic compounds in the leaves and stems of Pandiaka heudelotii using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifeanacho, Mercy O; Ikewuchi, Catherine C; Ikewuchi, Jude C

    2017-05-01

    The profile of phenolic compounds in the leaves and stems of Pandiaka heudelotii was investigated using gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector. The leaves and stems had high flavonoids and benzoic acid derivatives content, and moderate levels of lignans and hydroxycinnamates. Twenty-eight known flavonoids were detected, which consisted mainly of kaempferol (41.93% in leaves and 47.97% in stems), (+)-catechin (17.12% in leaves and 16.11% in stems), quercetin (13.83% in leaves and 9.39% in stems), luteolin (7.34% in leaves and 7.71% in stems), and artemetin (6.53% in leaves and 4.83% in stems). Of the six known hydroxycinnamates detected, chlorogenic acid (80.79% in leaves and 87.56% in stems) and caffeic acid (18.98% in leaves and 12.30% in stems) were the most abundant, while arctigenin (77.81% in leaves and 83.40% in stems) and retusin (13.82% in leaves and 10.59% in stems) were the most abundant of the nine known lignans detected. Twelve known benzoic acid derivatives were detected, consisting mainly of ellagic acid (65.44% in leaves and 72.89% in stems), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (25.10% in leaves and 18.95% in stems), and vanillic acid (8.80% in leaves and 7.30% in stems). The rich phytochemical profile of the leaves and stems is an indication of their ability to serve as sources of nutraceuticals.

  4. Cluster-assisted multiple ionization of methyl iodide by a nanosecond laser: Influence of laser intensity on the kinetic energy and peak profile of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lihua; Li Haiyang; Luo Xiaolin; Niu Dongmei; Xiao Xue; Wang Bin; Liang Feng; Hou Keyong; Shao Shiyong

    2006-01-01

    The dependences of kinetic energies and peak profiles of multicharged ions of I q+ (q = 2-3) and C 2+ on the laser intensity have been studied in detail by time-of-flight mass spectrometry, those multicharged ions are produced by irradiation of methyl iodide cluster beam with a nanosecond 532 nm Nd-YAG laser. Our experiments show that the kinetic energies released of multicharged ions increase linearly with the laser intensity in the range of 3 x 10 9 -2 x 10 11 W/cm 2 . The peaks of multicharged ions are split to forward ions and backward ions, and the ratio of the backward ions to forward ions decreases exponentially with laser intensity. The decreasing of backward ions is probably due to Coulomb scattering by the heavier I + ions when they turn around through the laser focus point. The linear dependence of kinetic energy of multicharged ions on laser intensity is interpreted by the ionization mechanism, in which the laser induced inverse bremsstrahlung heating of electron is the rate-limiting step

  5. Optimization and evaluation of surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Mancilla Baltazar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF potentially carries an archive of peptides and small proteins relevant to pathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS and surrounding brain tissue. Proteomics is especially well suited for the discovery of biomarkers of diagnostic potential in CSF for early diagnosis and discrimination of several neurodegenerative diseases. ProteinChip surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS is one such approach which offers a unique platform for high throughput profiling of peptides and small proteins in CSF. In this study, we evaluated methodologies for the retention of CSF proteins m/z we found a high degree of overlap between the tested array surfaces. The combination of CM10 and IMAC30 arrays was sufficient to represent between 80–90% of all assigned peaks when using either sinapinic acid or α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the energy absorbing matrices. Moreover, arrays processed with SPA consistently showed better peak resolution and higher peak number across all surfaces within the measured mass range. We intend to use CM10 and IMAC30 arrays prepared in sinapinic acid as a fast and cost-effective approach to drive decisions on sample selection prior to more in-depth discovery of diagnostic biomarkers in CSF using alternative but complementary proteomic strategies.

  6. Association of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring parameters with the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Pikilidou, Maria; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon; Michas, Fotios; Lykka, Aikaterini; Zompola, Christina; Filippatou, Angeliki; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Zakopoulos, Nikolaos; Manios, Efstathios

    2017-09-15

    The Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) is a novel and reliable tool for estimating the 10-year probability for incident stroke in stroke-free individuals, while the predictive value of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for first-ever and recurrent stroke has been well established. We sought to evaluate cross-sectionally the association of ABPM parameters with FSRP score in a large sample of 2343 consecutive stroke-free individuals (mean age: 56.0±12.9, 49.1% male) who underwent 24-hour ABPM. True hypertensives showed significantly higher FSRP (11.2±5.0) compared to the normotensives (8.2±5.0, pbest fitting model for predicting FSRP (R 2 =24.6%) on multiple linear regression analyses after adjustment for vascular risk factors not included in FSRP comprised the following parameters in descending order: 24-hour PP (β=0.349, p<0.001), daytime SBP variability (β=0.124, p<0.001), 24-hour HR variability (β=-0.091, p<0.001), mean 24-hour HR (β=-0.107, p<0.001), BMI (β=0.081, p<0.001) and dipping percentage (β=-0.063, p=0.001). 24-hour PP and daytime SBP variability are the two ABPM parameters that were more strongly associated with FSRP-score. Reverse dippers had the highest FSRP among all dipping status profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A laser-wire beam-energy and beam-profile monitor at the BNL linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.

    2011-03-28

    In 2009 a beam-energy monitor was installed in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. This device measures the energies of electrons stripped from the 40mA H{sup -} beam by background gas. Electrons are stripped by the 2.0x10{sup -7}torr residual gas at a rate of {approx}1.5x10{sup -8}/cm. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is deduced by multiplying the electron energy by m{sub p}/m{sub e}=1836. A 183.6MeV H{sup -} beam produces 100keV electrons. In 2010 we installed an optics plates containing a laser and scanning optics to add beam-profile measurement capability via photodetachment. Our 100mJ/pulse, Q-switched laser neutralizes 70% of the beam during its 10ns pulse. This paper describes the upgrades to the detector and gives profile and energy measurements.

  8. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transport technology (2). CFD-simulated and experimental ion transport efficiencies for uranium-attached pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Aoyama, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    An innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection has been developed. This apparatus measures an ion current resulting from air ionization by alpha particles. Ions generated in the measurement chamber of about 1 m 3 in volume are transported by airflow to a sensor and measured. This paper presents computational estimation of ion transport efficiencies for two pipes with different lengths, the inner surfaces of which were covered with a thin layer of uranium. These ion transport efficiencies were compared with those experimentally obtained for the purpose of our model validation. Good agreement was observed between transport efficiencies from simulations and those experimentally estimated. Dependence of the transport efficiencies on the region of uranium coating was also examined, based on which anticipated errors arising from unclear positions of contamination are also discussed. (author)

  10. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The monograph is a small manual to get a knowledge of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations. The main chapters are: - Electromagnetic radiations - Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations - Non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations - Ionizing electromagnetic radiation - Other ionizing radiations - Ionizing radiation effects - The Nuclear Safety Conseil

  11. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  12. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  13. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  14. Monitoring pressure profiles across an airfoil with a fiber Bragg grating sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Karas, Andrew R.; Hansen, Kristy L.; Arkwright, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow over an airfoil section creates a pressure difference across the upper and lower surfaces, thus generating lift. Successful wing design is a combination of engineering design and experience in the field, with subtleties in design and manufacture having significant impact on the amount of lift produced. Current methods of airfoil optimization and validation typically involve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive wind tunnel testing with pressure sensors embedded into the airfoil to measure the pressure over the wing. Monitoring pressure along an airfoil in a wind tunnel is typically achieved using surface pressure taps that consist of hollow tubes running from the surface of the airfoil to individual pressure sensors external to the tunnel. These pressure taps are complex to configure and not ideal for in-flight testing. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensing arrays provide a highly viable option for both wind tunnel and inflight pressure measurement. We present a fiber optic sensor array that can detect positive and negative pressure suitable for validating CFD models of airfoil profile sections. The sensing array presented here consists of 6 independent sensing elements, each capable of a pressure resolution of less than 10 Pa over the range of 70 kPa to 120 kPa. The device has been tested with the sensor array attached to a 90mm chord length airfoil section subjected to low velocity flow. Results show that the arrays are capable of accurately detecting variations of the pressure profile along the airfoil as the angle of attack is varied from zero to the point at which stall occurs.

  15. Seasonal variations in the profile of main phospholipids in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels: A study by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Laura; Losito, Ilario; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Palmisano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    A systematic characterization of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in mussels of sp Mytilus galloprovincialis was performed by high-efficiency hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS), based on a quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid spectrometer. The FTMS/MS experiments under high collisional energy dissociation conditions, complemented by low-energy collisionally induced dissociation MS n (n = 2,3) experiments, performed in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, were exploited for structural elucidation purposes. The described approach led to an unprecedented characterization of the mussel phospholipidome, with 185 phosphatidylcholines and 131 phosphatidylethanolamines species recognized, distributed among diacylic, plasmanylic, and plasmenylic forms. This was the starting point for the evaluation of the effects of season (in particular, of sea temperature) on the profile of those phospholipids. To this aim, a set of mussel samples retrieved from commercial sources in different periods of the year was considered. Principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between samples collected in periods characterized by cold, intermediate, or warm sea temperatures, respectively. In particular, an enrichment in phospholipids containing unsaturated side chains was observed in mussels collected from cold seawaters (winter-early spring), thus confirming the general model previously elaborated to explain the adaptation of marine invertebrates, including some bivalve molluscs, to low temperatures. On the other hand, relevant levels of plasma(e)nylic and acylic phospholipids bearing either saturated or non-methylene-interrupted side chains were found in mussels collected in warm seawaters (typical of summer and early autumn, at Italian latitudes). This finding opened interesting perspectives towards the development of strategies able to prevent global warming-related mussel

  16. PROFESSIONAL FLASH CONTINUOUS GLUCOSE MONITORING WITH AMBULATORY GLUCOSE PROFILE REPORTING TO SUPPLEMENT A1C: RATIONALE AND PRACTICAL IMPLEMENTATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Irl B; Verderese, Carol A

    2017-11-01

    Recent consensus statements strongly advocate downloading and interpreting continuous glucose data for diabetes management in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes. Supplementing periodic glycated hemoglobin (A1C) testing with intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using a standardized report form known as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is an evolving standard of care. The rationale for this approach and its implementation with a recently approved novel monitoring technology are explored. Search of the medical literature, professional guidelines, and real-world evidence guided this introduction of an integrative practice framework that uses AGP in conjunction with intermittent flash continuous glucose monitoring (FCGM) as a supplement to A1C testing. The combination of intermittent continuous glucose pattern analysis, standardized glucose metrics, and a readily interpretable data report has the potential to practically extend the recognized benefits of CGM to more patients and clarify the relationship between A1C and average glucose levels in individual cases. Novel FCGM technologies portend greater use of continuous forms of glucose monitoring and wider adoption of AGP report analysis. Additional formal and empirical evidence is needed to more fully characterize best practice. A1C = glycated hemoglobin; AGP = ambulatory glucose profile; CGM = continuous glucose monitoring; FCGM = flash continuous glucose monitoring; IQR = interquartile range; SMBG = self-monitoring of blood glucose.

  17. Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles Highlights Alterations in Ionizing Radiation Response of Human Lymphocytes under Modeled Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casara, Silvia; Sales, Gabriele; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Celotti, Lucia; Mognato, Maddalena

    2012-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis initiation. Perturbations in DDR pathway can originate from alteration in the functionality of the microRNA-mediated gene regulation, being microRNAs (miRNAs) small noncoding RNA that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In this study we gained insight into the role of miRNAs in the regulation of DDR to IR under microgravity, a condition of weightlessness experienced by astronauts during space missions, which could have a synergistic action on cells, increasing the risk of radiation exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed miRNA expression profile of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) incubated for 4 and 24 h in normal gravity (1 g) and in modeled microgravity (MMG) during the repair time after irradiation with 0.2 and 2Gy of γ-rays. Our results show that MMG alters miRNA expression signature of irradiated PBL by decreasing the number of radio-responsive miRNAs. Moreover, let-7i*, miR-7, miR-7-1*, miR-27a, miR-144, miR-200a, miR-598, miR-650 are deregulated by the combined action of radiation and MMG. Integrated analyses of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, carried out on PBL of the same donors, identified significant miRNA-mRNA anti-correlations of DDR pathway. Gene Ontology analysis reports that the biological category of “Response to DNA damage” is enriched when PBL are incubated in 1 g but not in MMG. Moreover, some anti-correlated genes of p53-pathway show a different expression level between 1 g and MMG. Functional validation assays using luciferase reporter constructs confirmed miRNA-mRNA interactions derived from target prediction analyses. Conclusions/Significance On the whole, by integrating the transcriptome and microRNome, we provide evidence that modeled microgravity can affects the DNA-damage response to IR in human PBL. PMID:22347458

  18. Development of a Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor for Transmission Efficiency Improvement in an ECRH System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozuma T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high power Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH system, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system is required to realize effective heating of nuclear fusion-relevant plasmas. A millimeter-wave beam position and profile monitor, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam monitor consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array and a heat-sink. It was tested using simulated electric heater power or gyrotron output power. The data obtained from the monitor were well agreed with the heat source position and profile. The methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated wave-guide are proposed.

  19. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shiea, Jentaie, E-mail: jetea@fac.nsysu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-19

    Highlights: {yields} Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. {yields} We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. {yields} The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  20. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Min-Zong; Cheng, Sy-Chi; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Shiea, Jentaie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ambient ionization technique allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. → We sort ambient ionization techniques into three main analytical strategies, direct ionization, direct desorption/ionization, and two-step ionization. → The underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques are described and compared. - Abstract: Ambient ionization is a set of mass spectrometric ionization techniques performed under ambient conditions that allows the direct analysis of sample surfaces with little or no sample pretreatment. Using combinations of different types of sample introduction systems and ionization methods, several novel techniques have been developed over the last few years with many applications (e.g., food safety screening; detection of pharmaceuticals and drug abuse; monitoring of environmental pollutants; detection of explosives for antiterrorism and forensics; characterization of biological compounds for proteomics and metabolomics; molecular imaging analysis; and monitoring chemical and biochemical reactions). Electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization are the two main ionization principles most commonly used in ambient ionization mass spectrometry. This tutorial paper provides a review of the publications related to ambient ionization techniques. We describe and compare the underlying principles of operation, ionization processes, detecting mass ranges, sensitivity, and representative applications of these techniques.

  1. New developments in velocity profile measurement and pipe wall wear monitoring for hydrotransport lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Maron, R.J. [CiDRA Minerals Processing Inc., Wallingford, CT (United States); Fernald, M.; Bailey, T. [CiDRA Corporate Services, Wallingford, CT (United States); Van der Spek, A. [ZDOOR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Sonar array flow measurement technology was initially developed a decade ago with the goal of non-invasively measuring multi-phase flows in the petroleum industry. The same technology was later adapted to the mineral processing industry where it has been rapidly adopted. The specific sensor technology, based on piezoelectric film sensors, provides unique measurement capabilities, including the ability to non-invasively measure localized strains in the walls of pipes. Combined with sonar array processing algorithms, an axial array of such sensors can measure flow velocities within a pipe. The sensors are useful for monitoring and managing slurry flow in horizontal pipes since they provide real-time velocity profiles measurement. The information is useful in determining the approach and onset of solid deposition on the bottom of the pipe. The sensors also provide a non-invasive measurement of pipe wear on slurry lines. Such measurements are currently made by hand-held portable ultrasonic thickness gages. The shortfalls associated with this manual method are overcome with a set of permanently or semi-permanently installed transducers clamped onto the outside of the pipe, where sensors measure the thickness of the pipe. This system and approach results in better repeatability and accuracy compared to manual methods. It also decreases inspection labor costs and pipe access requirements. It was concluded that the potential impact on personnel safety and environmental savings will be significant. 3 refs., 20 figs.

  2. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  3. Imprint Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging for Monitoring Secondary Metabolites Production during Antagonistic Interaction of Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Alessandra; Perez, Consuelo; Campos, Michel L; Bayfield, Mark A; Eberlin, Marcos N; Ifa, Demian R

    2015-12-15

    Direct analysis of microbial cocultures grown on agar media by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is quite challenging. Due to the high gas pressure upon impact with the surface, the desorption mechanism does not allow direct imaging of soft or irregular surfaces. The divots in the agar, created by the high-pressure gas and spray, dramatically change the geometry of the system decreasing the intensity of the signal. In order to overcome this limitation, an imprinting step, in which the chemicals are initially transferred to flat hard surfaces, was coupled to DESI-MS and applied for the first time to fungal cocultures. Note that fungal cocultures are often disadvantageous in direct imaging mass spectrometry. Agar plates of fungi present a complex topography due to the simultaneous presence of dynamic mycelia and spores. One of the most devastating diseases of cocoa trees is caused by fungal phytopathogen Moniliophthora roreri. Strategies for pest management include the application of endophytic fungi, such as Trichoderma harzianum, that act as biocontrol agents by antagonizing M. roreri. However, the complex chemical communication underlying the basis for this phytopathogen-dependent biocontrol is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the metabolic exchange that takes place during the antagonistic interaction between M. roreri and T. harzianum. Using imprint-DESI-MS imaging we annotated the secondary metabolites released when T. harzianum and M. roreri were cultured in isolation and compared these to those produced after 3 weeks of coculture. We identified and localized four phytopathogen-dependent secondary metabolites, including T39 butenolide, harzianolide, and sorbicillinol. In order to verify the reliability of the imprint-DESI-MS imaging data and evaluate the capability of tape imprints to extract fungal metabolites while maintaining their localization, six representative plugs along the entire M. roreri/T. harzianum

  4. Multiple reaction monitoring assay based on conventional liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization for simultaneous monitoring of multiple cerebrospinal fluid biomarker candidates for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Seok; Lee, Kelvin H

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, but early and accurate diagnosis remains challenging. Previously, a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker candidates distinguishing AD and non-AD CSF accurately (>90 %) was reported. Furthermore, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay based on nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) was developed to help validate putative AD CSF biomarker candidates including proteins from the panel. Despite the good performance of the MRM assay, wide acceptance may be challenging because of limited availability of nLC-MS/MS systems in laboratories. Thus, here, a new MRM assay based on conventional LC-MS/MS is presented. This method monitors 16 peptides representing 16 (of 23) biomarker candidates that belonged to the previous AD CSF panel. A 30-times more concentrated sample than the sample used for the previous study was loaded onto a high capacity trap column, and all 16 MRM transitions showed good linearity (average R(2) = 0.966), intra-day reproducibility (average coefficient of variance (CV) = 4.78 %), and inter-day reproducibility (average CV = 9.85 %). The present method has several advantages such as a shorter analysis time, no possibility of target variability, and no need for an internal standard.

  5. Monitoring mutations in people: an in vivo study of people accidentally or occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, B.W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular biology and medicine now permit the monitoring of mutation in humans 'in vivo'. The most commonly used approach, and the main one reported in this paper, is the study of mutations at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in peripheral T-lymphocytes. This paper deals with evidence from the radiological accident in Goiania, Brazil (where several hundred people were accidentally exposed to cesium-137), from a study of Soviet cosmonauts, and from monozygotic twins. The conclusions from Brazil are: mutation at hprt increases with age and is higher in smokers; in adults a linear dose response was found; no radiation-induced mutational fingerprint was found; children are particularly sensitive; the level of mutation dropped over several years (probably reflecting natural T-cell turnover). The conclusions from cosmonauts are: each cosmonaut had a significantly above-average level of mutation, but this may not be due to radiation at all; no 'fingerprint' was found, and there was no apparent dependence on dose. The study of twins showed a very strong correlation of mutant frequencies between one twin and the other, but this correlation decreased with age, presumably due to environmental effects. 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. High-throughput identification of ionizing radiation-sensitive plant genes and development of radiation indicator plant and radiation sensing Genechip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jinbaek; Ha, Bokeun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sunhee

    2013-05-01

    Physiological analysis of monocot model plant (rice) in response to ionizing radiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - Identification of antioxidant characters through cytochemical analysis. - Comparison of antioxidant activities in response to ionizing irradiation. - Evaluation of anthocyanin quantity in response to ionizing irradiation. Ionization energy response gene family analysis via bioinformatic validation. - Expression analysis of monocot and dicot gene families. - In silico and bioinformatic approach to elucidate gene function. Characterization and functional analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing irradiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - High throughput trancriptomic analysis of plants under ionizing radiation using microarray. - Promotor and cis-element analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing radiation. - Validation and function analysis of candidate genes. - Elucidation of plant mechanism of sensing and response to ionization energy. Development of bioindicator plants detecting ionization energy. - Cloning and identification of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)'. - Development of Over-expression (O/E) or Knock-out (K/O) plant using RMG. Development of Genechip as an ionization energy detector. - Expression profiling analysis of genes specifically expression in response to ionization energy. - Prepare high-conserved gene specific oligomer. - Development of ionization energy monitoring Genechip and application

  7. High-throughput identification of ionizing radiation-sensitive plant genes and development of radiation indicator plant and radiation sensing Genechip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jinbaek; Ha, Bokeun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sunhee

    2013-05-15

    Physiological analysis of monocot model plant (rice) in response to ionizing radiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - Identification of antioxidant characters through cytochemical analysis. - Comparison of antioxidant activities in response to ionizing irradiation. - Evaluation of anthocyanin quantity in response to ionizing irradiation. Ionization energy response gene family analysis via bioinformatic validation. - Expression analysis of monocot and dicot gene families. - In silico and bioinformatic approach to elucidate gene function. Characterization and functional analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing irradiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - High throughput trancriptomic analysis of plants under ionizing radiation using microarray. - Promotor and cis-element analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing radiation. - Validation and function analysis of candidate genes. - Elucidation of plant mechanism of sensing and response to ionization energy. Development of bioindicator plants detecting ionization energy. - Cloning and identification of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)'. - Development of Over-expression (O/E) or Knock-out (K/O) plant using RMG. Development of Genechip as an ionization energy detector. - Expression profiling analysis of genes specifically expression in response to ionization energy. - Prepare high-conserved gene specific oligomer. - Development of ionization energy monitoring Genechip and application.

  8. Real-time algorithms for JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.; Pereira, R.C.; Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J.; Kiptily, V.; Correia, C.M.B.A.; Gonçalves, B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Real-time tools and mechanisms are required for data handling and machine control. • A new DAQ system, ATCA based, with embedded FPGAs, was installed at JET. • Different real-time algorithms were developed for FPGAs and MARTe application. • MARTe provides the interface to CODAS and to the JET real-time network. • The new DAQ system is capable to process and deliver data in real-time. - Abstract: The steady state operation with high energy content foreseen for future generation of fusion devices will necessarily demand dedicated real-time tools and mechanisms for data handling and machine control. Consequently, the real-time systems for those devices should be carefully selected and their capabilities previously established. The Joint European Torus (JET) is undertaking an enhancement program, which includes tests of relevant real-time tools for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a key experiment for future fusion devices. In these enhancements a new Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system is included, with real-time processing capabilities, for the JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor. The DAQ system is composed of dedicated digitizer modules with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The interface between the DAQ system, the JET control and data acquisition system and the JET real-time data network is provided by the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). This paper describes the real-time algorithms, developed for both digitizers’ FPGAs and MARTe application, capable of meeting the DAQ real-time requirements. The new DAQ system, including the embedded real-time features, was commissioned during the 2012 experiments. Results achieved with these real-time algorithms during experiments are presented

  9. Real-time algorithms for JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A., E-mail: anaf@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, R.C.; Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Correia, C.M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Dept. de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Real-time tools and mechanisms are required for data handling and machine control. • A new DAQ system, ATCA based, with embedded FPGAs, was installed at JET. • Different real-time algorithms were developed for FPGAs and MARTe application. • MARTe provides the interface to CODAS and to the JET real-time network. • The new DAQ system is capable to process and deliver data in real-time. - Abstract: The steady state operation with high energy content foreseen for future generation of fusion devices will necessarily demand dedicated real-time tools and mechanisms for data handling and machine control. Consequently, the real-time systems for those devices should be carefully selected and their capabilities previously established. The Joint European Torus (JET) is undertaking an enhancement program, which includes tests of relevant real-time tools for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a key experiment for future fusion devices. In these enhancements a new Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system is included, with real-time processing capabilities, for the JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor. The DAQ system is composed of dedicated digitizer modules with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The interface between the DAQ system, the JET control and data acquisition system and the JET real-time data network is provided by the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). This paper describes the real-time algorithms, developed for both digitizers’ FPGAs and MARTe application, capable of meeting the DAQ real-time requirements. The new DAQ system, including the embedded real-time features, was commissioned during the 2012 experiments. Results achieved with these real-time algorithms during experiments are presented.

  10. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes the clinical features and plasma profiles of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1, the main metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG metabolite and progesterone (P4 in heifers in which early abortions were induced. Methods Early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected and the plasma were analyzed for bPAG 1, P4 and PG metabolite. Results The foetal heartbeat rates varied from 170–186 beats per minute for all foetuses up to the date of cloprostenol treatment. Foetal death was confirmed within two days after cloprostenol treatment. Prior to cloprostenol injection, blood plasma concentrations of bPAG1, PG metabolite and P4 varied from 8.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, 158 – 275 pmol/L and 20.7 – 46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After the foetus expelled, the plasma level of bPAG1 began to decrease but the decrease was small and gradual. The estimated half-life of bPAG1 was 1.8 – 6.6 days. The plasma level of the PG metabolite started to have short lasting peaks (above 300 pmol/L within three hours after cloprostenol treatment. The plasma concentrations of P4 dropped sharply to less than 4 nmol/L after 24 hours of cloprostenol injection. Conclusion The current findings indicated that after early closprostenol-induced foetal death, the plasma concentration of bPAG1 decreased gradually and showed a tendency of variation with the stages of pregnancy.

  11. Monitoring of atomic metastable state lifetimes by the laser-enhanced ionization technique--A new method for probing local stoichiometric combustive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, Peter; Malmsten, Yvonne; Axner, Ove

    1995-01-01

    The lifetimes of atomic metastable states in an acetylene/air flame have been investigated using the laser-enhanced ionization technique. The lifetimes were found to be several orders of magnitude less than the natural ones, which clearly shows that they are fully determined by the surrounding environment. The lifetime of a specific state has been investigated as a function of flame conditions. It was found that the lifetime is strongly dependent on the local flame composition, with a distinct maximum for stoichiometric conditions. For fuel-lean local conditions, the excess of O2 acts as an effective quencher of the metastable state, while for fuel-rich conditions the quenching is dominated by unburned fuel components. An acetylene/air flame has been probed both as a function of height in the flame, as well as a function of fuel/air composition fed to the burner. The experiments show clearly for which heights and fuel/air compositions that lean, stoichiometric or rich conditions prevail. This makes a monitoring of metastable state lifetimes a useful technique for combustion analysis

  12. Tumor response to ionizing radiation and combined 2-deoxy-D-glucose application in EATC tumor bearing mice: monitoring of tumor size and microscopic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latz, D.; Thonke, A.; Jueling-Pohlit, L.; Pohlit, W.

    1993-01-01

    The present study deals with the changes induced by two fractionation schedules (5x9 Gy and 10x4.5 Gy; 30 MeV-electrons) of ionizing radiations and 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG) application on EATC tumor bearing swiss albino mice. The monitoring of tumor response was carried out by means of calliper measurement on the macroscopic level and by histopathological examination of tumor preparations stained with hematoxiline and eosine on the microscopic level. The tumor material was assessed at suitable intervals after treatment by killing the animals. The tumor response was analysed in the histological preparations and the thickness of the tumor band was determined quantitatively by an ocularmicrometric technique. Tumor damage was most extensive in the combined treated animals (5x9 Gy + 2-DG). Only in this group local tumor control was achievable. The histological analysis of tumor preparations revealed additional data about treatment-induced changes in the tumor compared to the measurement of the tumor volume with mechanical callipers. We also found that the treatment outcome could be predicted from the histopathological analysis. It is concluded that studies involving histopathological examinations may give some insight into the way cancer is controlled by radiotherapy and may be of value in prognosis and selection of treatment in patients. (orig.) [de

  13. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for determining multiple pesticide residues in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G C R M; Monteiro, S H; Francisco, J G; Figueiredo, L A; Botelho, R G; Tornisielo, V L

    2015-05-15

    A quick and sensitive liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry method, using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring and a 1.8-μm particle size analytical column, was developed to determine 57 pesticides in tomato in a 13-min run. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method for samples preparations and validations was carried out in compliance with EU SANCO guidelines. The method was applied to 58 tomato samples. More than 84% of the compounds investigated showed limits of detection equal to or lower than 5 mg kg(-1). A mild (50%) matrix effect was observed for 72%, 25%, and 3% of the pesticides studied, respectively. Eighty-one percent of the pesticides showed recoveries ranging between 70% and 120%. Twelve pesticides were detected in 35 samples, all below the maximum residue levels permitted in the Brazilian legislation; 15 samples exceeded the maximum residue levels established by the EU legislation for methamidophos; and 10 exceeded limits for acephate and four for bromuconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  15. Calcium - ionized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  16. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    A safe and reliable apparatus for detecting products of combustion and aerosols in the atmosphere was developed which uses a beta source. It is easy to adjust for optimum performance. The ionization detector comprises a double chamber; one of the chambers is the basic sensing chamber. The sensing chamber is ported to both the secondary chambers to account for slow ambient changes in the atmosphere outside of the chamber. The voltages from the ionization chamber are adjusted with electrodes in each chamber. The ionization chamber contains baffles to direct the air to be sensed as well as an electrostatic screen. A unique electronic circuit provides an inexpensive and reliable means for detecting the signal change which occurs in the ionization chamber. The decision level of the alarm circuit can be adjusted to allow for any desired sensitivity. (D.N.)

  17. Collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.

    1985-07-01

    In low density, thin plasmas (such as stellar coronae, interstellar medium, intracluster medium) the ionization process is governed by collision between electrons and ions in their ground state. In view of the recent improvements we thought an updating of ionization rates was really needed. The work is based on both experimental data and theoretical works and give separate estimates for the direct and autoionization rates

  18. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilbert, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    The invention concerns ionization chambers with particular reference to air-equivalent ionization chambers. In order to ensure that similar chambers have similar sensitivities and responses the surface of the chamber bounding the active volume carries a conducting material, which may be a colloidal graphite, arranged in the form of lines so that the area of the conducting material occupies only a small proportion of the area of said surface. (U.S.)

  19. Applications of aerospace technology in biomedicine. A technology transfer profile: Patient monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, D. M.

    1971-01-01

    NASA contributions to cardiovascular monitoring are described along with innovations in intracardiac blood pressure monitoring. A brief overview of the process of NASA technology transfer in patient monitoring is presented and a list of bioinstrumentation tech briefs and the number of requests for technical support is included.

  20. The low energy muon beam profile monitor for the muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuvaev, G. P.; Bae, S.; Choi, H.; Choi, S.; Ko, H. S.; Kim, B.; Kitamura, R.; Mibe, T.; Otani, M.

    2017-09-01

    The muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment with high precision by utilising an ultracold muon beam. The current muon g-2 discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the experimental value is about 3.5 standard deviations. This experiment requires a development of the muon LINAC to accelerate thermal muons to the 300 MeV/c momentum. Detectors for beam diagnostics play a key role in such an experiment. The beam profile monitoring system has been designed to measure the profile of the low energy muon beam. It was tested during two beam tests in 2016 at the MLF D2 line at J-PARC. The detector was used with positive muons, Mu-(μ+ e- e-), p and H-, e- and UV light. The system overview and preliminary results are given. Special attention is paid to the spatial resolution of the beam profile monitor and online monitor software used during data taking.

  1. Mathematical characterization of the milk progesterone profile as a leg up to individualized monitoring of reproduction status in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Ines; Huybrechts, Tjebbe; Geerinckx, Katleen; Daems, Devin; Lammertyn, Jeroen; De Ketelaere, Bart; Saeys, Wouter; Aernouts, Ben

    2017-11-01

    Reproductive performance is an important factor affecting the profitability of dairy farms. Optimal fertility results are often confined by the time-consuming nature of classical heat detection, the fact that high-producing dairy cows show estrous symptoms shorter and less clearly, and the occurrence of ovarian problems. Today's commercially available solutions for automatic estrus detection include monitoring of activity, temperature and progesterone. The latter has the advantage that, besides estrus, it also allows to detect pregnancy and ovarian problems. Due to the large variation in progesterone profiles, even between cycles within the same cow, the use of general thresholds is suboptimal. To this end, an intelligent and individual interpretation of the progesterone measurements is required. Therefore, an alternative solution is proposed, which takes individual and complete cycle progesterone profiles into account for reproduction monitoring. In this way, profile characteristics can be translated into specific attentions for the farmers, based on individual rather than general guidelines. To enable the use of the profile and cycle characteristics, an appropriate model to describe the milk progesterone profile was developed. The proposed model describes the basal adrenal progesterone production and the growing and regressing cyclic corpus luteum. To identify the most appropriate way to describe the increasing and decreasing part of each cycle, three mathematical candidate functions were evaluated on the increasing and decreasing parts of the progesterone cycle separately: the Hill function, the logistic growth curve and the Gompertz growth curve. These functions differ in the way they describe the sigmoidal shape of each profile. The increasing and decreasing parts of the P4 cycles were described best by the model based on respectively the Hill and Gompertz function. Combining these two functions, a full mathematical model to characterize the progesterone cycle

  2. Decrease in Ionized and Total Magnesium Blood Concentrations in Endurance Athletes Following an Exercise Bout Restores within Hours-Potential Consequences for Monitoring and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terink, Rieneke; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hopman, Maria T; Witkamp, Renger F; Mensink, Marco; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO 2max , 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO 2max ) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.

  3. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  4. III. Penning ionization, associative ionization and chemi-ionization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cermak, V.

    1975-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of three important ionization processes in a cold plasma and the methods of their experimental study are discussed. An apparatus for the investigation of the Penning ionization using ionization processes of long lived metastable rare gas atoms is described. Methods of determining interaction energies and ionization rates from the measured energy spectra of the originating electrons are described and illustrated by several examples. Typical associative ionization processes are listed and the ionization rates are compared with those of the Penning ionization. Interactions with short-lived excited particles and the transfer of excitation without ionization are discussed. (J.U.)

  5. PROFILE: Integrating Stressor and Response Monitoring into a Resource-Based Water-Quality Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROUX; KEMPSTER; KLEYNHANS; VAN; DU

    1999-01-01

    / South African water law as well as the country's water resource management policies are currently under review. The Water Law Principles, which were established as part of this review process, indicate a commitment to sustainable development of water resources and the protection of an ecological "reserve." Such policy goals highlight the limitations of traditional and current water-quality management strategies, which rely on stressor monitoring and associated regulation of pollution. The concept of an assimilative capacity is central to the implementation of the current water-quality management approach. Weaknesses inherent in basing water management on the concept of assimilative capacity are discussed. Response monitoring is proposed as a way of addressing some of the weaknesses. Following a global trend, the new policy goals emphasize the need to protect rather than to use the ability of ecosystems to recover from disturbances. This necessitates the adoption of response measurements to quantify ecological condition and monitor ecological change. Response monitoring focuses on properties that are essential to the sustainability of the ecosystem. These monitoring tools can be used to establish natural ranges of ecological change within ecosystems, as well as to quantify conceptually acceptable and unacceptable ranges of change. Through a framework of biological criteria and biological impairment standards, the results of response monitoring can become an integral part of future water resource management strategies in South Africa. KEY WORDS: Stressor monitoring; Response monitoring; Assimilative capacity; Ecosystem stability; Resilience; Biocriteria

  6. A 1290 MHZ profiler with RASS for monitoring wind and temperature in the boundary layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbart, D. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Steinhagen, H. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Goersdorf, U. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Lippmann, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.; Neisser, J. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Lindenberg (Germany). Meteorol. Obs.

    1996-02-01

    A boundary layer wind profiler with RASS is described operating at 1290 MHz in a quasi-operational mode at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg of the German Weather Service (DWD). It provides vertical profiles of wind and temperature from the lower atmosphere with a height resolution of 50 m to 400 m and a time resolution of about 1 to 60 minutes. For an estimation of the system reliability, the availability of the measurements for all different height levels is analyzed. With regard to the data quality, a comparison of wind profiler/RASS and rawinsonde data is presented based on 856 wind and 451 temperature profiles. It reveals reasonable conformity of both sounding systems. Finally, case studies are shown, demonstrating the system ability to analyze some characteristic phenomena in the lower troposphere, which are unresolved temporally and spatially by the routine rawinsonde network. (orig.)

  7. Application of Electromagnetic Induction to Monitor Changes in Soil Electrical Conductivity Profiles in Arid Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, K.Z.; McCabe, Matthew; Moghadas, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were conducted in a corn field to estimate variation in soil electrical conductivity profiles in the roots zone. Electromagnetic forward model based on the full

  8. Application of Electromagnetic Induction to Monitor Changes in Soil Electrical Conductivity Profiles in Arid Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, K.Z.

    2015-09-06

    In this research, multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were conducted in a corn field to estimate variation in soil electrical conductivity profiles in the roots zone. Electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equation was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer). Joint inversion of multi-configuration EMI measurements were performed to estimate the vertical soil electrical conductivity profiles. The inversion minimizes the misfit between the measured and modeled soil apparent electrical conductivity by DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is based on Bayesain approach. Results indicate that soil electrical conductivity profiles have low values close to the corn plants, which indicates loss of soil moisture due to the root water uptake. These results offer valuable insights into future potential and emerging challenges in the development of joint analysis of multi-configuration EMI measurements to retrieve effective soil electrical conductivity profiles.

  9. Real-time monitoring and chemical profiling of a cultivation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter P.; Bro, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    they are known to reflect important properties of the fermentation process. Focus is also on important sampling issues-mainly structurally sub-optimal primary sampling methods affecting the representativity obtainable relative to the lot characteristics. Several different calibration approaches are investigated....... An enzyme marker profile as well as a tryptophan (protein marker) profile is identified. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved....

  10. Ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  11. Liquid chromatography coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and post-column addition of metal salt solutions as a powerful tool for the metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirigliano, Adriana M; Rodriguez, M Alejandra; Gagliano, M Laura; Bertinetti, Brenda V; Godeas, Alicia M; Cabrera, Gabriela M

    2016-03-25

    Fusarium oxysporum L11 is a non-pathogenic soil-borne fungal strain that yielded an extract that showed antifungal activity against phytopathogens. In this study, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled to different atmospheric pressure ionization sources-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (API-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of the metabolites from the extract. The employed sources were electrospray (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Post-column addition of metal solutions of Ca, Cu and Zn(II) was also tested using ESI. A total of 137 compounds were identified or tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals, suggested molecular formulae and MS/MS analysis with previously reported data. Some compounds were isolated and identified by NMR. The extract was rich in cyclic peptides like cyclosporins, diketopiperazines and sansalvamides, most of which were new, and are reported here for the first time. The use of post-column addition of metals resulted in a useful strategy for the discrimination of compound classes since specific adducts were observed for the different compound families. This technique also allowed the screening for compounds with metal binding properties. Thus, the applied methodology is a useful choice for the metabolic profiling of extracts and also for the selection of metabolites with potential biological activities related to interactions with metal ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Monitoring soil bacteria with community-level physiological profiles using Biolog™ ECO-plates in the Netherlands and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Wouterse, Marja; Drost, Sytske M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples were analyzed with community-level physiological profiles (CLPP) using Biolog™ ECO-plates in the Netherlands Soil Monitoring Network (NSMN; 704 samples) and in a European-wide transect (73 samples). The selection of sites was based on a representative sample of major soil texture types...... of the bacterial inoculum. The CLPP in Dutch and European soil samples appeared to be reproducible and sensitive to land use and/or soil texture. Although the method is selective, CLPP based parameters correlated well with other microbial parameters and soil characteristics. Consistent patterns in CLPP and soil...... habitat characteristics are emerging, as brought about by environmental disturbances, land management and soil texture. The applicability of CLPP analysis in monitoring systems is discussed....

  13. Mechanical design control and implementation of a new movable intensity profile beamline monitor for the TRIUMF parity experiment 497

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Thomas C.

    1995-05-01

    Two new movable beam intensity profile monitors have been installed into the TRIUMF Parity Experiment 497 Beamlines. Each unit serves two functions. Firstly, the beam median position, in a plane normal to the beam, is detected by split plate Secondary Emission Monitors. This information is used to lock the beam into the position of the movable monitor to within a few μm's via high band width ferrite core steering magnets operating in tandem in a closed loop servo feedback control system. Secondly, the beam profile and intensity is detected via a multi-wire secondary emission non-movable monitor, where the data provides high precision values regarding centroidal positions and profiles. The centroid position of the beam is statistically determined to an accuracy of ±10 μm from a data record length of 1 second. The design of each device adheres to strict standards of mechanically rigid construction. The split plate SEM accuracy and repeatability is better than 15 μm with an absolute resolution limit of 0.4 μm. Maximum travel is 2 inches in the vertical plane. Since the device is mechanically modular and both degrees of freedom are combined into a single mechanical unit, fast and easy handling is possible for maintenance in radioactive areas. The actuators are dc servo motors with tachometers driven by linear servo power amplifiers. These amplifiers are used in lieu of pulse width modulated amps to eliminate noise produced by the switching circuits. Position sensing is done by variable reluctance type absolute rotary encoders providing 16 bit resolution over the full range of travel. Positioning is done manually using a self centring potentiometer on the control panel that provides a ± velocity command signal to the power amplifiers. This configuration ensures good controllability over a very large range of positioning speeds hence making 0.4 μm incremental positioning possible, as well as, fast relocations over large relative distances. The precision movement

  14. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  15. Overview of the neural network based technique for monitoring of road condition via reconstructed road profiles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngwangwa, HM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available on the road and driver to assess the integrity of road and vehicle infrastructure. In this paper, vehicle vibration data are applied to an artificial neural network to reconstruct the corresponding road surface profiles. The results show that the technique...

  16. Ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type X-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is placed next to the anode and is maintained at a voltage intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting towards the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  17. Assessment of radiological profile of Mumbai - Kota rail route using mobile monitoring methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saindane, Shashank S.; Anoj Kumar; Narsaiah, M.V.R.; Mishra, A.K.; Solase, Sachin; Murali, S.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Radiological mapping is useful for updates on the trend of the radiation level at various locations/routes. As a part of this, the radiation mapping of Mumbai - Kota rail route (∼ 1230 km) was carried out by using various state of the art monitoring systems/instruments to record the radiation level both on online and offline modes. The state of the art monitoring systems/instruments such as Compact Radiation monitoring system, Gamma Tracer, Field Spec and portable spectrometer equipped with Global Positioning System were installed inside the train compartment. The dose rate data were noted manually also at various stations using highly sensitive portable instruments like Micro R (μR) survey meter, Field spec, Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) etc. With the help of portable spectrometer, spectral data were continuously collected along the route

  18. Development of a non-destructive beam-profile monitor based on scintillating fibre planes and SIPMs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00401943; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is currently the largest particle accelerator in the world. To ensure particle energies at LHC's design values and enable collisions at high energies, the working settings and beam parameters are constantly monitored by the beam instrumentation division. The aim of this thesis is to present a new type of detector to monitor one such beam parameter, the transverse beam profile, and to present the results of an analysis of another beam attribute which reduces the luminosity of collider experiments. Part one of this thesis introduces a detector that uses beam-gas interactions to measure the transverse beam profile. The design of the detector is described in detail and the various components that ensure data quality are introduced. Tests that were conducted to investigate the performance of the detector, like timing and efficiency parameters, are presented as well. The first part is concluded with a summary of the work performed on the detector so far and an outlook of fut...

  19. Operating results for the beam profile monitor system currently in use at Bevalac Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.; Fowler, K.

    1987-03-01

    Three stations of a soon to be completed multi-station, multi-wire beam monitoring system have been installed in the Bevalac transfer line. The following article will provide a cursory analysis of the electronic circuitry, discuss new design additions and summarize the operating results obtained over the last year

  20. Systematic profiling to monitor and specify the software refactoring process of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Ben; Lohn, Stefan B

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade program implies a significant increase in data processing that will not be matched by additional computing resources. Furthermore, new architectures such as many-core platforms can currently not be fully exploited due to memory and I/O bandwidth limitations. A considerable refactoring effort will therefore be needed to vectorize and parallelize the LHCb software, to minimize hotspots and to reduce the impact of bottlenecks. It is crucial to guide refactoring with a profiling system that gives hints to regions in source-code for possible and necessary re-engineering and which kind of optimization could lead to final success. Software optimization is a sophisticated process where all parts, compiler, operating system, external libraries and chosen hardware play a role. Intended improvements can have different effects on different platforms. To obtain precise information of the general performance, to make profiles comparable, reproducible and to verify the progress of performance in the framewo...

  1. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2017-10-17

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  2. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS) , on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  3. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  4. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  5. Online AMR Domestic Load Profile Characteristic Change Monitor to Support Ancillary Demand Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Bruce; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn; Galloway, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    of small loads is presented. This would allow them to be assessed for their availability to provide demand services to the grid. In the method presented, significant changes in behavior are detected using Bayesian changepoint analysis which tracks a multivariate Gaussian representation of a residential...... in remote rural communities, are currently modeled with homogenous and coarse load profiles developed from aggregated data. An objective of AMR deployment is to clarify the nature and variability of the residential LV customer. In this paper, an algorithm for tracking the consistency of the behavior...

  6. Quantitative profiling of O-glycans by electrospray ionization- and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry after in-gel derivatization with isotope-coded 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sić, Siniša; Maier, Norbert M.; Rizzi, Andreas M.

    2016-01-01

    The potential and benefits of isotope-coded labeling in the context of MS-based glycan profiling are evaluated focusing on the analysis of O-glycans. For this purpose, a derivatization strategy using d_0/d_5-1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) is employed, allowing O-glycan release and derivatization to be achieved in one single step. The paper demonstrates that this release and derivatization reaction can be carried out also in-gel with only marginal loss in sensitivity compared to in-solution derivatization. Such an effective in-gel reaction allows one to extend this release/labeling method also to glycoprotein/glycoform samples pre-separated by gel-electrophoresis without the need of extracting the proteins/digested peptides from the gel. With highly O-glycosylated proteins (e.g. mucins) LODs in the range of 0.4 μg glycoprotein (100 fmol) loaded onto the electrophoresis gel can be attained, with minor glycosylated proteins (like IgAs, FVII, FIX) the LODs were in the range of 80–100 μg (250 pmol–1.5 nmol) glycoprotein loaded onto the gel. As second aspect, the potential of isotope coded labeling as internal standardization strategy for the reliable determination of quantitative glycan profiles via MALDI-MS is investigated. Towards this goal, a number of established and emerging MALDI matrices were tested for PMP-glycan quantitation, and their performance is compared with that of ESI-based measurements. The crystalline matrix 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) and the ionic liquid matrix N,N-diisopropyl-ethyl-ammonium 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (DIEA-THAP) showed potential for MALDI-based quantitation of PMP-labeled O-glycans. We also provide a comprehensive overview on the performance of MS-based glycan quantitation approaches by comparing sensitivity, LOD, accuracy and repeatability data obtained with RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, stand-alone nano-ESI-MS with a spray-nozzle chip, and MALDI-MS. Finally, the suitability of the isotope-coded PMP labeling strategy for

  7. Quantitative profiling of O-glycans by electrospray ionization- and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry after in-gel derivatization with isotope-coded 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sić, Siniša; Maier, Norbert M.; Rizzi, Andreas M., E-mail: Andreas.Rizzi@univie.ac.at

    2016-09-07

    The potential and benefits of isotope-coded labeling in the context of MS-based glycan profiling are evaluated focusing on the analysis of O-glycans. For this purpose, a derivatization strategy using d{sub 0}/d{sub 5}-1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) is employed, allowing O-glycan release and derivatization to be achieved in one single step. The paper demonstrates that this release and derivatization reaction can be carried out also in-gel with only marginal loss in sensitivity compared to in-solution derivatization. Such an effective in-gel reaction allows one to extend this release/labeling method also to glycoprotein/glycoform samples pre-separated by gel-electrophoresis without the need of extracting the proteins/digested peptides from the gel. With highly O-glycosylated proteins (e.g. mucins) LODs in the range of 0.4 μg glycoprotein (100 fmol) loaded onto the electrophoresis gel can be attained, with minor glycosylated proteins (like IgAs, FVII, FIX) the LODs were in the range of 80–100 μg (250 pmol–1.5 nmol) glycoprotein loaded onto the gel. As second aspect, the potential of isotope coded labeling as internal standardization strategy for the reliable determination of quantitative glycan profiles via MALDI-MS is investigated. Towards this goal, a number of established and emerging MALDI matrices were tested for PMP-glycan quantitation, and their performance is compared with that of ESI-based measurements. The crystalline matrix 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone (DHAP) and the ionic liquid matrix N,N-diisopropyl-ethyl-ammonium 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (DIEA-THAP) showed potential for MALDI-based quantitation of PMP-labeled O-glycans. We also provide a comprehensive overview on the performance of MS-based glycan quantitation approaches by comparing sensitivity, LOD, accuracy and repeatability data obtained with RP-HPLC-ESI-MS, stand-alone nano-ESI-MS with a spray-nozzle chip, and MALDI-MS. Finally, the suitability of the isotope-coded PMP labeling

  8. Identification of candidate biomarker mass (m/z) ranges in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, Amutha; Gopisetty, Gopal; Veluswami, Sridevi; Joyimallaya Subramanium, Malliga; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    To differentiate plasma from ovarian cancer and healthy individuals using MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. MALDI-TOF was used to generate profiles of immuno-depleted plasma samples (89 cancers and 199 healthy individuals) that were fractionated using three types of magnetic beads (HIC8, WCX and IMAC-Cu). Differentially expressed mass ranges showing >1.5-2-fold change in expression from HIC8 (30), WCX (12) and IMAC-Cu (6) fractions were identified. Cross validation and recognition capability scores for the models indicated discrimination between the classes. Spectral profiles can differentiate plasma samples of ovarian cancer patients from healthy individuals.

  9. [Profile of patients with diabetes type 1: insulinotherapy and self-monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Henriqueta Galvanin Guidio de; Campos, Joao Jose Batista; Kfouri, Christiane; Tanita, Marcos Toshiyuki; Dias, Adriana Espinosa; Souza, Marizia Marcos de

    2002-01-01

    A study carried out in Londrina - PR, with the cohort of local patients from Brazilian Study on the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (EDID). To know the insulin treatment and the plan for glycemic self-monitoring used by these patients; to verify their knowledge as for what they consider the optimization of these parameters and limitations of use. A survey was conducted with objective questions to 63 patients of the cohort. The average age was 13 years, without gender predominance. It was verified that most of the patients, 79.36%, (n=50) took at least 2 daily applications of insulin. All of them used insulin NPH in one (n=13) or two (n=50) doses. The use of regular insulin, in variable programs, was associated to the NPH in 41.27% (n=26) of the patients (The most frequent insulin type used was human 53.97% (n=34). Of the patients not making use of human insulin, 44.83% (n=13) considered it of high cost and 95.24% (n=60) would make use of it if it was distributed by the Government Unified Health System. As for the monitoring, 63.40% (n=40) took the tests up to 7 times a week, 20.63% (n=13) from 15 to 21 and only 1 patient from 29 to 35 tests. The high cost was the reason for 48.21% (n=27) not to take the tests; 58.73% (n=37) would take the test in the blood and 33.33% (n=21) either in the blood or in the urine if they were given the reactive ribbons. In this cohort of patients, although the human insulin is already adopted as the use of choice, the outline insulin treatment plan is still traditional and the monitoring is far behind the ideal.

  10. Monitoring of the current profile by using cyclotronic electron waves in tokamaks; Controle du profil de courant par ondes cyclotroniques electroniques dans les tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, R

    2001-08-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of the cyclotronic electron wave as a monitoring tool of the current profile. The first chapter is dedicated to basic notions concerning tokamak plasmas and current generation. The second chapter is centered on the use of fast electrons to generate current and on its modelling. The propagation and absorption of the cyclotronic electron wave require a specific polarization state whose characteristics must be carefully chosen according to some parameters of the discharge, the chapter 3 deals with this topic. The absorption of a wave in a plasma depends greatly on the velocity distribution of the particles that make up the plasma and this distribution is constantly modified by the energy of the wave, so this phenomenon is non-linear and its physical description is difficult. In a case of a fusion plasma, a sophisticated approximation called quasi-linear theory can be applied with some restrictions that are presented in chapter 4. Chapters 5 and 6 are dedicated to kinetics scenarios involving the low hybrid wave and the cyclotronic electron wave inside the plasma. Some experiments dedicated to the study of the cyclotronic electron wave have been performed in Tore-supra (France) and FTU (Italy) tokamaks, they are presented in the last chapter. (A.C.)

  11. Microservices for systematic profiling and monitoring of the refactoring process at the LHCb experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurov, Alexander; Couturier, Ben; Popov, Dmitry; Farley, Nathanael

    2017-10-01

    Any time you modify an implementation within a program, change compiler version or operating system, you should also do regression testing. You can do regression testing by rerunning existing tests against the changes to determine whether this breaks anything that worked prior to the change and by writing new tests where necessary. At LHCb we have a huge codebase which is maintained by many people and can be run within different setups. Such situations lead to the crucial necessity to guide refactoring with a central profiling system that helps to run tests and find the impact of changes. In our work we present a software architecture and tools for running a profiling system. This system is responsible for systematically running regression tests, collecting and comparing results of these tests so changes between different setups can be observed and reported. The main feature of our solution is that it is based on a microservices architecture. Microservices break a large project into loosely coupled modules, which communicate with each other through simple APIs. Such modular architectural style helps us to avoid general pitfalls of monolithic architectures such as hard to understand a codebase as well as maintaining a large codebase and ineffective scalability. Our solution also allows to escape a complexity of microservices deployment process by using software containers and services management tools. Containers and service managers let us quickly deploy linked modules in development, production or in any other environments. Most of the developed modules are generic which means that the proposed architecture and tools can be used not only in LHCb but adopted for other experiments and companies.

  12. Measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain types of building materials are known to be radioactive. Exposure to indoor ionizing radiation like exposure to any other type of ionizing radiation results in critical health challenges. Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of ...

  13. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  14. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  16. Automatic identification approach for high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring fatty acid global profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Cai; Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2015-08-18

    Fatty acids (FAs) are a group of lipid molecules that are essential to organisms. As potential biomarkers for different diseases, FAs have attracted increasing attention from both biological researchers and the pharmaceutical industry. A sensitive and accurate method for globally profiling and identifying FAs is required for biomarker discovery. The high selectivity and sensitivity of high-performance liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring (HPLC-MRM) gives it great potential to fulfill the need to identify FAs from complicated matrices. This paper developed a new approach for global FA profiling and identification for HPLC-MRM FA data mining. Mathematical models for identifying FAs were simulated using the isotope-induced retention time (RT) shift (IRS) and peak area ratios between parallel isotope peaks for a series of FA standards. The FA structures were predicated using another model based on the RT and molecular weight. Fully automated FA identification software was coded using the Qt platform based on these mathematical models. Different samples were used to verify the software. A high identification efficiency (greater than 75%) was observed when 96 FA species were identified in plasma. This FAs identification strategy promises to accelerate FA research and applications.

  17. Corrosion Resistant FBG-Based Quasi-Distributed Sensor for Crude Oil Tank Dynamic Temperature Profile Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Marques, Rogério; Prado, Adilson Ribeiro; da Costa Antunes, Paulo Fernando; de Brito André, Paulo Sérgio; Ribeiro, Moisés R. N.; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; Pontes, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a corrosion resistant, maneuverable, and intrinsically safe fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based temperature optical sensor. Temperature monitoring is a critical activity for the oil and gas industry. It typically involves acquiring the desired parameters in a hazardous and corrosive environment. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was proposed as a means of simultaneously isolating the optical fiber from the corrosive environment and avoiding undesirable mechanical tensions on the FBGs. The presented sensor head is based on multiple FBGs inscribed in a lengthy single mode fiber. The sensor presents an average thermal sensitivity of 8.82 ± 0.09 pm/°C, resulting in a typical temperature resolution of ~0.1 °C and an average time constant value of 6.25 ± 0.08 s. Corrosion and degradation resistance were verified by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy during 90 days exposure to high salinity crude oil samples. The developed sensor was tested in a field pilot test, mimicking the operation of an inland crude tank, demonstrating its abilities to dynamically monitor temperature profile. PMID:26690166

  18. Preliminary study on application of urine amino acids profiling for monitoring of renal tubular injury using GLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kazubek-Zemke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of the nephrotoxic effect of xenobiotics and drugs is still an unsolved problem. Recent studies suggest a correlation between the nephrotoxic activity of xenobiotics and increased concentration of amino acids in urine. The presented study was focused on the application of GLC-MS method for amino acids profiling in human urine as a noninvasive method for monitoring of kidney condition and tubular injury level.The analytic method is based on the conversion of the amino acids present in the sample to tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS derivatives and their analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The procedure of urine sample preparation for chromatographic analysis was optimized.The presence of 12 amino acids in most of the tested healthy human urine samples was detected. The significant differences in the levels of particular amino acids between patients with tubular injury and healthy controls were found, especially for lysine, valine, serine, alanine and leucine (on average 30.0, 7.5, 3.6, 2.9 and 0.5 fold respectively.We found that this approach based on GLC-MS detection can be used in nephrotoxicity studies for urine amino acids monitoring in exposure to xenobiotics and drugs.

  19. Preliminary study on application of urine amino acids profiling for monitoring of renal tubular injury using GLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazubek-Zemke, Maja; Rybka, Jacek; Marchewka, Zofia; Rybka, Wojciech; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Długosz, Anna

    2014-11-14

    The early diagnosis of the nephrotoxic effect of xenobiotics and drugs is still an unsolved problem. Recent studies suggest a correlation between the nephrotoxic activity of xenobiotics and increased concentration of amino acids in urine. The presented study was focused on the application of GLC-MS method for amino acids profiling in human urine as a noninvasive method for monitoring of kidney condition and tubular injury level. The analytic method is based on the conversion of the amino acids present in the sample to tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives and their analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS). The procedure of urine sample preparation for chromatographic analysis was optimized. The presence of 12 amino acids in most of the tested healthy human urine samples was detected. The significant differences in the levels of particular amino acids between patients with tubular injury and healthy controls were found, especially for lysine, valine, serine, alanine and leucine (on average 30.0, 7.5, 3.6, 2.9 and 0.5 fold respectively). We found that this approach based on GLC-MS detection can be used in nephrotoxicity studies for urine amino acids monitoring in exposure to xenobiotics and drugs.

  20. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the rapid phenolic profiling of red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunting; Seeram, Navindra P

    2018-03-07

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) species is economically important to North America because of its sap, which is used to produce maple syrup. In addition, various other red maple plant parts, including leaves, were used as a traditional medicine by the Native Americans. Currently, red maple leaves are being used for nutraceutical and cosmetic applications but there are no published analytical methods for comprehensive phytochemical characterization of this material. Herein, a rapid and sensitive method using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to characterize the phenolics in a methanol extract of red maple leaves and a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract (Maplifa™). Time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry experiments led to the identification of 106 phenolic compounds in red maples leaves with the vast majority of these compounds also detected in Maplifa™. The compounds included 68 gallotannins, 25 flavonoids, gallic acid, quinic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and nine other gallic acid derivatives among which 11 are potentially new and 75 are being reported from red maple for the first time. The developed method to characterize red maple leaves phenolics is rapid and highly sensitive and could aid in future standardization and quality control of this botanical ingredient. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Triacylglycerols profiling in plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal

    2008-07-11

    Optimized non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using acetonitrile-2-propanol gradient elution and the column coupling in the total length of 45 cm has been applied for the high resolution separation of plant oils important in food industry, dietetics and cosmetics. Positive-ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is used for the unambiguous identification and also the reliable quantitation with the response factors approach. Based on the precise determination of individual triacyglycerol concentrations, the calculation of average parameters important in the nutrition is performed, i.e. average carbon number, average double bond number, relative concentrations of essential, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Results are reported in the form of both chromatographic fingerprints and tables containing relative concentrations for all triacylglycerols and fatty acids in individual samples. In total, 264 triacylglycerols consisting of 28 fatty acids with the alkyl chain length from 6 to 26 carbon atoms and 0 to 4 double bonds have been identified in 26 industrial important plant oils.

  2. Experimental comparison of profiles of acquired small fields with ionization chambers, diodes, radiochromic s and TLD films; Comparacion experimental de perfiles de campos pequenos adquiridos con camaras de ionizacion, diodos, peliculas radiocromicas y TLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venencia, D.; Garrigo, E. [Instituto Privado de Radioterapia, Obispo Oro 423, X5000BFI Cordoba (Argentina); Filipuzzi, M. [Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche - Rio Negro (Argentina); Germanier, A., E-mail: devenencia@radioncologia-zunino.org [Centro de Excelencia en Productos y Procesos, Santa Maria de Punilla, 5164 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    The use of radiation small fields, introduced by new techniques, can bring a considerable uncertainty in the precision of the acquired profiles, due to the conditions of lateral electronic non-equilibrium and the perturbations introduced by the detectors (volume effect and alteration of the charged particles flowing) [Das et al., 2007]. The development of new miniature detectors looks to diminish the uncertainty created by the material and the size of the sensitive volume of the dosimeter. For this reason, comparative measurements for three sizes of square field were carried out (20 mm, 10 mm and 5 mm, of side) using a detectors series: 3 ionization chambers (PTW-31003, IBA-CC04, PTW-31016), 2 diodes (PTW-60012, IBA-Sfd), thermoluminescent detectors micro-cubes of 1 mm of edge (TLD-700) and radiochromic s films EBT-3. These last two were used as reference detectors, due to their spatial high resolution and similar performance with Monte Carlo simulations [Francescon et al., 1998]. So much the thermoluminescent detectors as the radiochromic films resolved the profiles in a similar way. Both diodes responded correctly, but the rest of the detectors overestimated the gloom of the fields, which allows conclude that the used TLD (and both diodes) can resolve field sizes correctly, usually utilized in radio-surgery, without producing significant alterations in the acquired data. (author)

  3. Monitoring of the microbiota profile in nukadoko, a naturally fermented rice bran bed for pickling vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shoko; Tsurii, Jun; Kawamoto, Tetsuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2014-11-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko depends on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Here, we monitored chemical and microbiological changes in the initial batch fermentation of nukadoko. Nukadoko samples were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of four different brands of rice bran, and microbiome dynamics were analyzed for 2 months. In the first week, non-Lactobacillales lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which differed among the samples, grew proportionally to pH decrease and lactate increase. Thereafter, Lactobacillus plantarum started growing and consumed residual sugars, causing further lactate increase in nukadoko. Finally, microbial communities in all tested nukadoko samples were dominated by L. plantarum. Taken together, our results suggest that the mixture of the fast-growing LAB species and slow-growing L. plantarum may be used as a suitable starter culture to promote the initial fermentation of nukadoko. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation of continuous glucose monitoring profiles with pregnancy outcomes in nondiabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joyce F; Kogut, Elizabeth A; Lee, Henry C; Mannan, Jana L; Navabi, Kasra; Taslimi, M Mark; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether hyperglycemic excursions detected by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) correlate with birth weight percentile and other pregnancy outcomes, and whether CGM correlates better with these outcomes than a single glucose value from a 1-hour glucose challenge test (GCT). This was a prospective observational study of 55 pregnant patients without preexisting diabetes, who wore a CGM device for up to 7 days, between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation. The area under the curve (AUC) of hyperglycemic excursions above various thresholds (110, 120, 130, 140, and 180 mg/dL) was calculated. These AUC values, and results from a standard 50-g GCT, were correlated with our primary outcome of birth weight percentile, and secondary outcomes of unplanned operative delivery, pregnancy complications, delivery complications, fetal complications, and neonatal complications. A consistent correlation was seen between all AUC thresholds and birth weight percentile (r = 0.29, p AUC-110, -120, -130, and -140; r = 0.25, p = 0.07 for AUC-180). This correlation was stronger than that of 1-hour oral GCT (r = -0.02, p = 0.88). There was no association between AUC values and other outcomes. Among nondiabetic pregnant patients, hyperglycemic excursions detected by CGM show a stronger correlation to birth weight percentile than blood glucose values obtained 1-hour after a 50-g oral GCT. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Capability of Raman lidar for monitoring the variation of atmospheric CO2 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peitao; Hu Shunxing; Su Jia; Cao Kaifa; Hu Huanling; Zhang Yinchao; Wang Lian; Zhao Yuefeng

    2008-01-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) has special capabilities for remote sensing of many different behaviours of the atmosphere. One of the techniques which show a great deal of promise for several applications is Raman scattering. The detecting capability, including maximum operation range and minimum detectable gas concentration is one of the most significant parameters for lidar remote sensing of pollutants. In this paper, based on the new method for evaluating the capabilities of a Raman lidar system, we present an evaluation of detecting capability of Raman lidar for monitoring atmospheric CO 2 in Hefei. Numerical simulations about the influence of atmospheric conditions on lidar detecting capability were carried out, and a conclusion can be drawn that the maximum difference of the operation ranges caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 0.4 to 0.5km with a measuring precision within 30ppmv. The range of minimum detectable concentration caused by the weather conditions alone can reach about 20 to 35 ppmv in vertical direction for 20000 shots at a distance of 1 km on the assumption that other parameters are kept constant. The other corresponding parameters under different conditions are also given. The capability of Raman lidar operated in vertical direction was found to be superior to that operated in horizontal direction. During practical measurement with the Raman lidar whose hardware components were fixed, aerosol scattering extinction effect would be a significant factor that influenced the capability of Raman lidar. This work may be a valuable reference for lidar system designing, measurement accuracy improving and data processing

  6. A Simultaneous Analytical Method to Profile Non-Volatile Components with Low Polarity Elucidating Differences Between Tobacco Leaves Using Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Naoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive analytical method using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry detector (LC/APCI-MSD was developed to determine key non-volatile components with low polarity elucidating holistic difference among tobacco leaves. Nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatography (NARPC using organic solvent ensured simultaneous separation of various components with low polarity in tobacco resin. Application of full-scan mode to APCI-MSD hyphenated with NARPC enabled simultaneous detection of numerous intense product ions given by APCI interface. Parameters for data processing to filter, feature and align peaks were adjusted in order to strike a balance between comprehensiveness and reproducibility in analysis. 63 types of components such as solanesols, chlorophylls, phytosterols, triacylglycerols, solanachromene and others were determined on total ion chromatograms according to authentic components, wavelength spectrum and mass spectrum. The whole area of identified entities among the ones detected on total ion chromatogram reached to over 60% and major entities among those identified showed favorable linearity of determination coefficient of over 0.99. The developed method and data processing procedure were therefore considered feasible for subsequent multivariate analysis. Data matrix consisting of a number of entities was then subjected to principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering analysis. Cultivars of tobacco leaves were distributed far from each cultivar on PCA score plot and each cluster seemed to be characterized by identified non-volatile components with low polarity. While fluecured Virginia (FCV was loaded by solanachromene, phytosterol esters and triacylglycerols, free phytosterols and chlorophylls loaded Burley (BLY and Oriental (ORI respectively. Consequently the whole methodology consisting of comprehensive method and data processing procedure proved useful to determine key

  7. Identification by Molecular Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and Antifungal Susceptibility Profiles of Clinically Significant Rare Aspergillus Species in a Referral Chest Hospital in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masih, Aradhana; Singh, Pradeep K; Kathuria, Shallu; Agarwal, Kshitij; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species cause a wide spectrum of clinical infections. Although Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus remain the most commonly isolated species in aspergillosis, in the last decade, rare and cryptic Aspergillus species have emerged in diverse clinical settings. The present study analyzed the distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility profiles of rare Aspergillus species in clinical samples from patients with suspected aspergillosis in 8 medical centers in India. Further, a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry in-house database was developed to identify these clinically relevant Aspergillus species. β-Tubulin and calmodulin gene sequencing identified 45 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level, except for a solitary isolate. They included 23 less common Aspergillus species belonging to 12 sections, mainly in Circumdati, Nidulantes, Flavi, Terrei, Versicolores, Aspergillus, and Nigri Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identified only 8 (38%) of the 23 rare Aspergillus isolates to the species level. Following the creation of an in-house database with the remaining 14 species not available in the Bruker database, the MALDI-TOF MS identification rate increased to 95%. Overall, high MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were noted for amphotericin B in 29% of the rare Aspergillus species, followed by voriconazole in 20% and isavuconazole in 7%, whereas MICs of >0.5 μg/ml for posaconazole were observed in 15% of the isolates. Regarding the clinical diagnoses in 45 patients with positive rare Aspergillus species cultures, 19 (42%) were regarded to represent colonization. In the remaining 26 patients, rare Aspergillus species were the etiologic agent of invasive, chronic, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, keratitis, and mycetoma. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Profiling of ornithine lipids in bacterial extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and multistage mass spectrometry (RPLC-ESI-MS(n)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granafei, Sara; Losito, Ilario; Trotta, Massimo; Italiano, Francesca; de Leo, Vincenzo; Agostiano, Angela; Palmisano, Francesco; Cataldi, Tommaso R I

    2016-01-15

    Ornithine lipids (OLs), a sub-group of the large (and of emerging interest) family of lipoamino acids of bacterial origin, contain a 3-hydroxy fatty acyl chain linked via an amide bond to the α-amino group of ornithine and via an ester bond to a second fatty acyl chain. OLs in extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (R. sphaeroides) were investigated by high-performance reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) in negative ion mode using a linear ion trap (LIT). The presence of OLs bearing both saturated (i.e, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 19:0 and 20:0) and unsaturated chains (i.e., 18:1, 19:1, 19:2 and 20:1) was ascertained and their identification, even for isomeric, low abundance and partially co-eluting species, was achieved by low-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n), n = 2-4). OLs signatures found in two R. sphaeroides strains, i.e., wild type 2.4.1 and mutant R26, were examined and up to 16 and 17 different OL species were successfully identified, respectively. OLs in both bacterial strains were characterized by several combinations of fatty chains on ester-linked and amide-linked 3-OH fatty acids. Multistage MS spectra of monoenoic amide-linked 3-OH acyl chains, allowed the identification of positional isomer of OL containing 18:1 (i.e. 9-octadecenoic) and 20:1 (i.e. 11-eicosenoic) fatty acids. The most abundant OL ([M-H](-) at m/z 717.5) in R. sphaeroides R26 was identified as OL 3-OH 20:1/19:1 (i.e., 3-OH-eicosenoic acid amide-linked to ornithine and esterified to a nonadecenoic chain containing a cyclopropane ring). An unusual OL (m/z 689.5 for the [M-H](-) ion), most likely containing a cyclopropene ester-linked acyl chain (i.e., OL 3-OH 18:0/19:2), was retrieved only in the carotenoidless mutant strain R26. Based on the biosynthetic pathways already known for cyclopropa(e)ne ring-including acyl chains, a plausible explanation was invoked for the enzymatic

  9. Flavor release measurement by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, construction of interface and mathematical modeling of release profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Anne-Mette; Madsen, Henrik; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    and the method can be used to measure breath from the nose. A mathematical model of the data was developed to give a quantitative method for description and characterization of the release of flavor compounds. The release profiles consisted of two sequences, one for a chewing period, and one for a phasing out...... process. The proposed method for modeling provided a reasonable description of the release process. In addition to flavor compounds, this new interface and mathematical application could provide information on chemicals in the human breath which could be interesting, for example, within medical diagnosis....... with that of the flavor detection threshold. An application study on the release of menthone and menthol from chewing gum by a group of six test persons was performed. Flavored chewing gum was used as a model matrix because of the long chewing periods and the simplicity of the system. It is concluded that the interface...

  10. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles : how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmikli, Sandor L.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Brink, Michel S.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). Design A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field

  11. First Clinical Experience with Retrospective Flash Glucose Monitoring (FGM) Analysis in South Africa: Characterizing Glycemic Control with Ambulatory Glucose Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distiller, Larry A; Cranston, Iain; Mazze, Roger

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, an innovative blinded continuous glucose monitoring system was introduced with automated ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) reporting. The clinical use and interpretation of this new technology has not previously been described. Therefore we wanted to understand its use in characterizing key factors related to glycemic control: glucose exposure, variability, and stability, and risk of hypoglycemia in clinical practice. Clinicians representing affiliated diabetes centers throughout South Africa were trained and subsequently were given flash glucose monitoring readers and 2-week glucose sensors to use at their discretion. After patient use, sensor data were collected and uploaded for AGP reporting. Complete data (sensor AGP with corresponding clinical information) were obtained for 50 patients with type 1 (70%) and type 2 diabetes (30%), irrespective of therapy. Aggregated analysis of AGP data comparing patients with type 1 versus type 2 diabetes, revealed that despite similar HbA1c values between both groups (8.4 ± 2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7%, respectively), those with type 2 diabetes had lower mean glucose levels (9.2 ± 3 vs 10.3 mmol/l [166 ± 54 vs 185 mg/dl]) and lower indices of glucose variability (3.0 ± 1.5 vs 5.0 ± 1.9 mmol/l [54 ± 27 vs 90 ± 34.2 mg/dl]). This highlights key areas for future focus. Using AGP, the characteristics of glucose exposure, variability, stability, and hypoglycemia risk and occurrence were obtained within a short time and with minimal provider and patient input. In a survey at the time of the follow-up visit, clinicians indicated that aggregated AGP data analysis provided important new clinical information and insights. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Ring magnetron ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A ring magnetron D - charge exchange ionizer has been built and tested. An H - current of 500 μA was extracted with an estimated H 0 density in the ionizer of 10 12 cm -3 . This exceeds the performance of ionizers presently in use on polarized H - sources. The ionizer will soon be tested with a polarized atomic beam

  13. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  14. Monitoring gradient profile on-line in micro- and nano-high performance liquid chromatography using conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Apeng; Lu, Joann J; Cao, Chengxi; Liu, Shaorong

    2016-08-19

    In micro- or nano-flow high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), flow-splitters and gradient elutions are commonly used for reverse phase HPLC separations. When a flow splitter was used at a high split-ratio (e.g., 1000:1 or higher), the actual gradient may deviate away from the programmed gradient. Sometimes, mobile phase concentrations can deviate by as much as 5%. In this work, we noticed that the conductivity (σ) of a gradient decreased with the increasing organic-solvent fraction (φ). Based on the relationship between σ and φ, a method was developed for monitoring gradient profile on-line to record any deviations in these HPLC systems. The conductivity could be measured by a traditional conductivity detector or a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D). The method was applied for assessing the performance of an electroosmotic pump (EOP) based nano-HPLC. We also observed that σ value of the gradient changed with system pressure; a=0.0175ΔP (R(2)=0.964), where a is the percentage of the conductivity increase and ΔP is the system pressure in bar. This effect was also investigated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Parallel detection, quantification, and depth profiling of peptides with dynamic-secondary ion mass spectrometry (D-SIMS) ionized by C{sub 60}{sup +}-Ar{sup +} co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chi-Jen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hsun-Yun; You, Yun-Wen; Liao, Hua-Yang [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yu-Ting; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yen, Guo-Ji; Tsai, Meng-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Shyue, Jing-Jong, E-mail: shyue@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple peptides are detected and quantified at the same time without labeling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 60}{sup +} ion is responsible for generating molecular-specific ions at high mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The co-sputtering yielded more steady depth profile and more well defined interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fluence of auxiliary Ar{sup +} does not affect the quantification curve. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The damage from Ar{sup +} is masked by high sputtering yield of C{sub 60}{sup +}. - Abstract: Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) using pulsed C{sub 60}{sup +} primary ions is a promising technique for analyzing biological specimens with high surface sensitivities. With molecular secondary ions of high masses, multiple molecules can be identified simultaneously without prior separation or isotope labeling. Previous reports using the C{sub 60}{sup +} primary ion have been based on static-SIMS, which makes depth profiling complicated. Therefore, a dynamic-SIMS technique is reported here. Mixed peptides in the cryoprotectant trehalose were used as a model for evaluating the parameters that lead to the parallel detection and quantification of biomaterials. Trehalose was mixed separately with different concentrations of peptides. The peptide secondary ion intensities (normalized with respect to those of trehalose) were directly proportional to their concentration in the matrix (0.01-2.5 mol%). Quantification curves for each peptide were generated by plotting the percentage of peptides in trehalose versus the normalized SIMS intensities. Using these curves, the parallel detection, identification, and quantification of multiple peptides was achieved. Low energy Ar{sup +} was used to co-sputter and ionize the peptide-doped trehalose sample to suppress the carbon deposition associated with C{sub 60}{sup +} bombardment, which suppressed the ion intensities during the depth

  16. A multiwire ionization chamber readout circuit using current mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawnsley, W.R.; Smith, D.; Moskven, T.

    1997-01-01

    A circuit which utilizes current mirrors has been used to apply high voltage bias to the wires of a multiwire ionization chamber (MWIC) profile monitor while still allowing measurement of the beam-induced ion-electron currents collected on the wires. Bias voltages of up to 250 V have been used while wire currents over a range of 0.5 nA to 50 nA have been measured. The circuit is unipolar but can be designed for positive or negative bias. The mirrors also provide a current gain of 10, reducing the effects of transistor leakage and extending the useful range of the circuit to lower signal levels. A module containing 32 Wilson current mirrors has been constructed and is used with a MWIC monitor in TRIUMF close-quote s Parity experiment beamline. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. Reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a powerful tool for metabolic profiling of vegetables: Lactuca sativa as an example of its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Reidah, I M; Contreras, M M; Arráez-Román, D; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2013-10-25

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), a leafy vegetal widely consumed worldwide, fresh cut or minimally processed, constitutes a major dietary source of natural antioxidants and bioactive compounds. In this study, reversed-phase ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-UHPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS) was applied for the comprehensive profiling of polar and semi-polar metabolites from three lettuce cultivars (baby, romaine, and iceberg). The UHPLC systems allowed the use of a small-particle-size C18 column (1.8 μm), with very fine resolution for the separation of up to seven isomers, and the QTOF mass analyzer enabled sensitive detection with high mass resolution and accuracy in full scan. Thus, a total of 171 compounds were tentatively identified by matching their accurate mass signals and suggested molecular formula with those previously reported in family Asteraceae. Afterwards, their structures were also corroborated by the MS/MS data provided by the QTOF analyzer. Well-known amino acids, organic acids, sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids were characterized, e.g. lactucin, lactucopicrin, caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, chicoric acid, isochlorogenic acid A, luteolin, and quercetin glycosides. For this plant species, this is the first available report of several isomeric forms of the latter polyphenols and other types of components such as nucleosides, peptides, and tryptophan-derived alkaloids. Remarkably, 10 novel structures formed by the conjugation of known amino acids and sesquiterpene lactones were also proposed. Thus, the methodology applied is a useful option to develop an exhaustive metabolic profiling of plants that helps to explain their potential biological activities and folk uses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elaboration of a program for monitoring the ionizing radiations in a large hospital; Elaboracao de um programa de monitoracao das radiacoes ionizantes num hospital de grande porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreira, Mauricio Costa

    1996-11-01

    Personnel monitoring data collected in the Radiotherapy, Diagnostic Radiology and Hemodynamics Departments of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP during the interval from 1986 to 1995 were analyzed. The data were classified according to the profession of the workers and compared to those collected in a previous period (1973-1982). Internationally established criteria, published published in the ICRP 35 and 60 were used together with additional Brazilian criteria (CNEN NE 3.01) to optimize personnel monitoring such that the required radioprotection is provided. The results show that 80% of the workers need not be monitored because their doses will not exceed 3/10 the annual limits. An economy of about US$10,200 in monitoring cost per year could be realized as well as reduction in the hospital clerical costs expended to maintain the records. The improvements gaining by reducing the number of monitored persons will not compromise the safety standard required for radiation protection. (author)

  19. Graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite based solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for lipidomic profiling of avocado (Persea americana Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qing; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2014-12-10

    Phospholipids possess important physiological, structural and nutritional functions in biological systems. This study described a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, employing graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2) nanocomposite as sorbent, for the selective isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado (Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the phosphoryl group in the phospholipid can interact with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be efficiently extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were enhanced while the noise was reduced. Some minor peaks became more obvious. In conclusion, the nanocomposite material of G/TiO2 was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid extract. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology for large size uranium waste (2). Simulation model reinforcement for practical apparatus design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Takatoshi; Hirata, Yosuke; Naito, Susumu; Izumi, Mikio; Yoshimura, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    In alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation (AMAT), conversion from ion currents to radioactivity accurate is required. An ion transport simulation provides ways of complementarily determining conversion factors. We have developed an ion transport simulation model. Simulation results were compared with experiments with air speeds, faster than 1 m/s, achieving good agreement. In a practical AMAT apparatus, the air-flow at the alpha source may be slower than 1 m/s, and ion loss is likely to be large. Reinforcement of the ion transport model to cover the lower air speed region is effective. Ions are generated by an alpha particle in a very thin column. Since the ion density at this temporal stage is high, the recombination loss, proportional to the square of ion density, is dominant within a few milli-seconds. The spatial and temporal scales of this columnar recombination are too small for CFD simulation. We solve an ion transport equation during the period of columnar recombination with diffusion and recombination terms and incorporated the relation between ion loss and turbulent parameters into CFD. Using this model, simulations have been done for various air speeds and targets. Those for simulation results agree with experiments, showing improvement of simulation accuracy. (author)

  1. Measurement system of bubbly flow using Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor and Video Data Processing Unit. 3. Comparison of flow characteristics between bubbly cocurrent and countercurrent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shirong; Suzuki, Yumiko; Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a new measurement system which consisted of an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor (UVP) and a Video Data Processing Unit (VDP) in order to clarify the two-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for two-dimensional two-phase flow. In the present paper, the proposed measurement system is applied to fully developed bubbly cocurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. In addition, the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity, which was defined as a ratio of the standard deviation of velocity fluctuation in a bubbly flow to that in a water single phase flow, were examined. Next, these flow characteristics were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows reported in our previous paper. Finally, concerning the drift flux model, the distribution parameter and drift velocity were obtained directly from both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles, and their results were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  2. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit. 2. Flow characteristics of bubbly countercurrent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a measurement system which is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and a video data processing unit in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system was applied for bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. Next, turbulence intensity in a continuous liquid phase was defined as a standard deviation of velocity fluctuation, and the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity in the channel was clarified as a ratio of the standard deviation of flow fluctuation in a bubbly countercurrent flow to that in a water single phase flow. Finally, the distribution parameter and drift velocity used in the drift flux model for bubbly countercurrent flows were calculated from the obtained velocity profiles of both phases and void fraction profile, and were compared with the correlation proposed for bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  3. Reconstruction of fiber Bragg grating strain profile used to monitor the stiffness degradation of the adhesive layer in carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint

    OpenAIRE

    Song Chunsheng; Zhang Jiaxiang; Yang Mo; Shang Erwei; Zhang Jinguang

    2017-01-01

    The adhesive-bonded joint of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic is one of the core components in aircraft structure design. It is an effective guarantee for the safety and reliability of the aerospace aircraft structure to use effective methods for monitoring and early warning of internal failure. In this article, the mapping relation model between the strain profiles of the adherend of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap adhesive joint and the stiffness degradation evolution of adhes...

  4. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  5. Reconstruction of fiber Bragg grating strain profile used to monitor the stiffness degradation of the adhesive layer in carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adhesive-bonded joint of carbon fiber–reinforced plastic is one of the core components in aircraft structure design. It is an effective guarantee for the safety and reliability of the aerospace aircraft structure to use effective methods for monitoring and early warning of internal failure. In this article, the mapping relation model between the strain profiles of the adherend of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap adhesive joint and the stiffness degradation evolution of adhesive layer was achieved by finite element software ABAQUS. The fiber Bragg grating was embedded in the adherend between the first and second layers at the end of the adhesive layer to calculate the reflection spectrum of fiber Bragg grating sensor region with improved T-matrix method for reconstruction of the adherend strain profile of fiber Bragg grating sensing area with the help of genetic algorithm. According to the reconstruction results, the maximum error between the ideal and reconstructed strain profile under different tension loads did not exceed 7.43%, showing a good coincidence degree. The monitoring method of the stiffness degradation evolution of adhesive layer of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic single-lap joint based on the reconstruction of the adherend strain profile of fiber Bragg grating sensing area thus was figured out.

  6. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  7. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung. © 2014 The Authors.

  8. Biomarker discovery in biological specimens (plasma, hair, liver and kidney) of diabetic mice based upon metabolite profiling using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Haruhito; Maeda, Toshio; Min, Jun Zhe; Inagaki, Shinsuke; Higashi, Tatsuya; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2011-05-12

    The number of diabetic patients has recently been increasing worldwide. Diabetes is a multifactorial disorder based on environmental factors and genetic background. In many cases, diabetes is asymptomatic for a long period and the patient is not aware of the disease. Therefore, the potential biomarker(s), leading to the early detection and/or prevention of diabetes mellitus, are strongly required. However, the diagnosis of the prediabetic state in humans is a very difficult issue, because the lifestyle is variable in each person. Although the development of a diagnosis method in humans is the goal of our research, the extraction and structural identification of biomarker candidates in several biological specimens (i.e., plasma, hair, liver and kidney) of ddY strain mice, which undergo naturally occurring diabetes along with aging, were carried out based upon a metabolite profiling study. The low-molecular-mass compounds including metabolites in the biological specimens of diabetic mice (ddY-H) and normal mice (ddY-L) were globally separated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) using different reversed-phase columns (i.e., T3-C18 and HS-F5) and detected by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). The biomarker candidates related to diabetes mellitus were extracted from a multivariate statistical analysis, such as an orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), followed by a database search, such as ChemSpider, KEGG and HMDB. Many metabolites and unknown compounds in each biological specimen were detected as the biomarker candidates related to diabetic mellitus. Among them, the elucidation of the chemical structures of several possible metabolites, including more than two biological specimens, was carried out along with the comparison of the tandem MS/MS analyses using authentic compounds. One metabolite was clearly identified as N-acetyl-L-leucine based upon the MS/MS spectra and the retention time on

  9. Monitoring your baby before labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring ... A biophysical profile (BPP) is a NST with an ultrasound. If the NST results are not reactive, a BPP may be done. The ...

  10. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, K.; Ginkel, G. van; Leun, K. van der; Muller, H.; Oude Elferink, J.; Vesseur, A.

    1985-10-01

    This booklet dels with the risks of the use of ionizing radiation for people working in a hospital. It is subdivided in three parts. Part 1 treats the properties of ionizing radiation in general. In part 2 the various applications are discussed of ionizing radiation in hospitals. Part 3 indicates how a not completely safe situation may be improved. (H.W.). 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  12. A neutral-beam profile monitor with a phosphor screen and a high-sensitivity camera for the J-PARC KOTO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T.; Kamiji, I.; Nakagiri, K.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Sasao, N.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a beam-profile monitor (BPM) system to align the collimators for the neutral beam-line at the Hadron Experimental Facility of J-PARC. The system is composed of a phosphor screen and a CCD camera coupled to an image intensifier mounted on a remote control X- Y stage. The design and detailed performance studies of the BPM are presented. The monitor has a spatial resolution of better than 0.6 mm and a deviation from linearity of less than 1%. These results indicate that the BPM system meets the requirements to define collimator-edge positions for the beam-line tuning. Confirmation using the neutral beam for the KOTO experiment is also presented.

  13. Levelling Profiles and a GPS Network to Monitor the Active Folding and Faulting Deformation in the Campo de Dalias (Betic Cordillera, Southeastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Gil, Antonio José; Borque, María Jesús; de Lacy, María Clara; Pedrera, Antonio; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Alfaro, Pedro; García-Tortosa, Francisco; Ramos, Maria Isabel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; de Galdeano-Equiza, Carlos Sanz

    2010-01-01

    The Campo de Dalias is an area with relevant seismicity associated to the active tectonic deformations of the southern boundary of the Betic Cordillera. A non-permanent GPS network was installed to monitor, for the first time, the fault- and fold-related activity. In addition, two high precision levelling profiles were measured twice over a one-year period across the Balanegra Fault, one of the most active faults recognized in the area. The absence of significant movement of the main fault surface suggests seismogenic behaviour. The possible recurrence interval may be between 100 and 300 y. The repetitive GPS and high precision levelling monitoring of the fault surface during a long time period may help us to determine future fault behaviour with regard to the existence (or not) of a creep component, the accumulation of elastic deformation before faulting, and implications of the fold-fault relationship. PMID:22319309

  14. Method of modifying conveyor belt profile for monitoring ask content of coarse grain coal by radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taborsky, J.; Tryzna, P.; Formanek, Z.; Vales, J.

    1982-01-01

    The conveyor belt is gripped in the chosen place with benches to form a V shape with a constant cross section independent of the immediate amount of transported coal. At this point the source and the radiation intensity monitor are placed in horizontal plane on the sides of the conveyor belt. Their connecting line is perpendicular to the direction of the movement of the conveyor belt. Thus, monitoring of the ash content of mined coal and operative control of mining according to measured values are made possible. (Ha)

  15. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  16. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  17. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles: how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg

    2012-11-01

    To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.

  18. High-performance metabolic profiling of plasma from seven mammalian species for simultaneous environmental chemical surveillance and bioeffect monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngja H.; Lee, Kichun; Soltow, Quinlyn A.; Strobel, Frederick H.; Brigham, Kenneth L.; Parker, Richard E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Sutliff, Roy L.; Mansfield, Keith G.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2012-01-01

    High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses,...

  19. Practical Correlation Analysis between Scan and Malware Profiles against Zero-Day Attacks Based on Darknet Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Koji; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Yoshioka, Katsunari

    Considering rapid increase of recent highly organized and sophisticated malwares, practical solutions for the countermeasures against malwares especially related to zero-day attacks should be effectively developed in an urgent manner. Several research activities have been already carried out focusing on statistic calculation of network events by means of global network sensors (so-called macroscopic approach) as well as on direct malware analysis such as code analysis (so-called microscopic approach). However, in the current research activities, it is not clear at all how to inter-correlate between network behaviors obtained from macroscopic approach and malware behaviors obtained from microscopic approach. In this paper, in one side, network behaviors observed from darknet are strictly analyzed to produce scan profiles, and in the other side, malware behaviors obtained from honeypots are correctly analyzed so as to produce a set of profiles containing malware characteristics. To this end, inter-relationship between above two types of profiles is practically discussed and studied so that frequently observed malwares behaviors can be finally identified in view of scan-malware chain.

  20. Introduction to ionizing radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1979-01-01

    Basic properties are described of the atom, atomic nucleus and of ionizing radiation particles; nuclear reactions, ionizing radiation sources and ionizing radiation interaction with matter are explained. (J.P.)

  1. A Tradescantia como bioindicador vegetal na monitoração dos efeitos clastogênicos das radiações ionizantes Use of Tradescantia to monitor the clastogenic effects of ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência de agentes químicos e físicos (em especial a radiação sobre a freqüência de mutações tem sido amplamente estudada por meio da análise de alterações observadas na Tradescantia, uma planta utilizada como bioindicador dessas alterações. A avaliação das alterações genéticas da Tradescantia pode ser feita tanto pela detecção de mutações somáticas quanto de aberrações cromossômicas induzidas por mutágenos presentes no ar, solo e água. Os resultados apresentados por diversos estudos estimulam o uso da Tradescantia na avaliação dos efeitos das radiações ionizantes. Estudos futuros de mutagenicidade e aberrações cromossômicas também podem ser feitos, por meio da comparação com os efeitos produzidos por outros tipos de radiações, avaliação do efeito da associação da radiação com drogas ou outros agentes químicos, além da biomonitoração de ambientes de alto risco.The influence of chemical and physical agents (specially radiation on the frequency of mutations has been widely studied by means of the analysis of changes observed in Tradescantia, a plant used as a bioindicator. The evaluation of these genetic changes may be performed both by detection of somatic mutations or chromosome abnormalities induced by mutagens that are present in the air, soil, or water. The results obtained from several studies support the use of Tradescantia for monitoring the effects of ionizing radiation. Studies of mutagenicity and chromosomal abnormalities may be carried out in future to compare the effects of other types of radiation, evaluation of the effects of the combined use of radiation and drugs or other chemical agents, and to monitor high risk environments.

  2. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  3. 11. National congress on ionizing radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theme of the Congress was centred on 'the development of radioprotection confronted with the progress of techniques using ionising radiations' in industry, energy, medicine and reseach. The 32 communications were distributed over the following 6 sessions: radioprotection and preventive medicine, radioprotection in a medical environment, radioprotection and energy, practical aspects of radioprotection, training and legislation in radioprotection [fr

  4. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array near a Highway for Traffic Monitoring and Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Ak, E. Ms; Lord, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring traffic is important for many technical reasons. It allows for better design of future roads and assessment of the state of current roads. The number, size, weight, and speed of vehicles control deterioration rate. Also, real-time information supplies data to intelligent information systems to help control traffic. Recently there have been studies looking at monitoring traffic seismically as vibrations from traffic are not sensitive to weather and poor visibility. Furthermore, traffic noise can be used to image S-wave velocity distribution in the near surface by capturing and interpreting Rayleigh and Love waves (Nakata, 2016; Zeng et al. 2016). The capability of DAS for high spatial sampling (1 m), temporal sampling (up to 10 kHz), and distributed nature (tens of kilometers) allows for a closer look at the traffic as it passes and how the speed of the vehicle may change over the length of the array. The potential and difficulties of using DAS for these objectives were studied using two DAS arrays. One at Garner Valley in Southern California (a 700-meter array adjacent to CA Highway 74) and another in Brady Hot Springs, Nevada (an 8700-meter array adjacent to Interstate 80). These studies experimentally evaluated the use of DAS data for monitoring traffic and assessing the use of traffic vibration as non-localized sources for seismic imaging. DAS arrays should also be resilient to issues with lighting conditions that are problematic for video monitoring and it may be sensitive to the weight of a vehicle. This study along a major interstate provides a basis for examining DAS' potential and limitations as a key component of intelligent highway systems.

  5. Noninteractive beam position and size monitor for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Ion Beam Fusion development program at Argonne National Laboratory requires noninteractive size measurements of a pulsed, 30 mA, Xe +1 particle beam. Pulses of 100 μs duration will be produced by the 1.5 MV preaccelerator; therefore, fast response diagnostics are required. Techniques of utilizing residual gas ionization to profile particle beams have been reported before. This paper discusses the development of vertical and horizontal beam profile monitors that are synchronously clocked to interface with oscilloscopes and computers. Modern integrated circuitry is utilized which boosts performance to a point where pulses as short as 20 μs can be analyzed. A small, simple ionization chamber is shown which provides sixteen channels of position resolution over 12 cm of aperture

  6. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  7. What is ''ionizing radiation''?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschurlovits, M.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific background of radiation protection and hence ''ionizing radiation'' is undergoing substantial regress since a century. Radiations as we are concerned with are from the beginning defined based upon their effects rather than upon the physical origin and their properties. This might be one of the reasons why the definition of the term ''ionizing radiation'' in radiation protection is still weak from an up to date point of view in texts as well as in international and national standards. The general meaning is unambiguous, but a numerical value depends on a number of conditions and the purpose. Hence, a clear statement on a numerical value of the energy threshold beyond a radiation has to be considered as ''ionizing'' is still missing. The existing definitions are, therefore, either correct but very general or theoretical and hence not applicable. This paper reviews existing definitions and suggests some issues to be taken into account for possible improvement of the definition of ''ionizing radiation''. (author)

  8. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  9. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  10. Monitoring Soil Bacteria with Community-Level Physiological Profiles Using Biolog™ ECO-Plates in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieva, G. Sh; Gilmutdinova, I. M.; Fomin, V. P.; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu; Galitskaya, P. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Conservation of soil fertility is one of the most important tasks of the present time. As microorganisms are among the key factors in forming soil fertility, monitoring their state in natural and anthropogenically changed soils is an important component of compulsory environmental monitoring. Modern methods make it possible to evaluate the diversity and the functions of soil microorganisms, however, unfortunately, not all the soils are analyzed with their help up to the present moment. The present investigation is aimed to evaluate the functional diversity of five natural soil samples in the Republic of Tatarstan (belonging to sod-podzol, sod-carbonate, alluvial, and gray types) using the method of Biolog EcoPlate according to the index of average well color development, alpha-biodiversiry Shannon index (H), amount of substrates consumed ®, and strategy of consumption of various carbon substrate groups. It was shown that the highest AWCD index was found in sample No 3 - alluvial soil type (3.159±0.460), the lowest one - in sample No 5 - gray soil type (0.572±0.230). Correlation of biological activity of microorganisms with organic matter content in soil was shown.

  11. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE AND HABITS OF LIFE OF PREGNANT WOMEN FOR CONDUCTING THE PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC MONITORING OF A PREGNANT WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly Perfil de gestantes e acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care.

  12. Sociodemographic profile and habits of life of pregnant women for conducting the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivelilson Mendes de Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main activity of pharmaceutical care is to detect drug related problems (DRP. The gestation by their biological peculiarities, makes the woman and fetus at particular exposed to DRPs, among which stand out the ones associated with consumption of drugs. The aim of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring (PTM of a pregnant women hypertensive service users prenatal Institute of Perinatology Social as well as identify, record and solve DRPs. A study was conducted an exploratory quantitative approach, using the Dáder methodology. During the first phase, we interviewed 62 woman. At this phase was observed predominantly of women in the age group 21-30 years and living with her husband and son that do not consume alcohol, do not smoke and do not perform physical activity. Of these, 99% used at least one drug, and the drugs most commonly used prescription vitamins, minerals and antianemics and medications used by self-medication, dipyrone. Already during the second phase of the study was the pharmacotherapeutic monitoring of a pregnant woman hypertensive selected between interviewed and identified four Negative Outcomes Associated of Drug (NOAD. After the process of pharmaceutical intervention, we obtained 100% efficiency, which demonstrates the need for pharmacist with the team of health service in prenatal care

  13. Ionizing radiation and wild birds: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Schultz, V.

    1975-01-01

    Since the first atomic explosion, 16 July 1945 at the Trinity Site in south-central New Mexico, the impact of ionizing radiation on bird populations has been of concern to a few individuals. The proliferation of nuclear power plants has increased public concern as to possible deleterious effects of nuclear power plant operation on resident and migratory bird populations. Literature involving wild birds and ionizing radiation is not readily available, and only a few studies have been anywhere near comprehensive, with most effort directed towards monitoring radionuclide concentration in birds. The objective of the paper is to document the literature on wild birds and ionizing radiation including a brief description of pertinent papers

  14. Status and test report on the LANL-Boeing APLE/HPO flying-wire beam-profile monitor. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, M.; Barlow, D.; Fortgang, C.; Gilpatrick, J.; Meyer, R.; Rendon, A.; Warren, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Greegor, R. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The High-Power Oscillator (HPO) demonstration of the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE) is a collaboration by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Boeing to demonstrate a 10 kW average power, 10 {mu}m free electron laser (FEL). As part of the collaboration, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for many of the electron beam diagnostics in the linac, transport, and laser sections. Because of the high duty factor and power of the electron beam, special diagnostics are required. This report describes the flying wire diagnostic required to monitor the beam profile during high-power, high-duty operation. The authors describe the diagnostic and prototype tests on the Los Alamos APLE Prototype Experiment (APEX) FEL. They also describe the current status of the flying wires being built for APLE.

  15. Seventy two-hour glucose monitoring profiles in mild gestational diabetes mellitus: differences from healthy pregnancies and influence of diet counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiro, Marina Pimenta; Lauria, Márcio W; Naves, Gabriel Nino T; Miranda, Paulo Augusto C; Leite, Ricardo Barsaglini; Rajão, Kamilla Maria Araújo Brandão; de Aguiar, Regina Amélia Lopes Pessoa; Nogueira, Anelise Impeliziere; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    2016-09-01

    To study glucose profiles of gestational diabetes (GDM) patients with 72 h of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) either before (GDM1) or after (GDM2) dietary counseling, comparing them with nondiabetic (NDM) controls. We performed CGM on 22 GDM patients; 11 before and 11 after dietary counseling and compared them to 11 healthy controls. Several physiological and clinical characteristics of the glucose profiles were compared across the groups, including comparisons for pooled 24-h measures and hourly median values, summary measures representing glucose exposure (area under the median curves) and variability (amplitude, standard deviation, interquartile range), and time points related to meals. Most women (81.8%) in the GDM groups had fasting glucose 0.05). Both GDM groups spent more time with glucose levels above 140mg/dL when compared with the NDM group. No differences among the groups were found for: pooled measurements and hourly comparisons, exposure, nocturnal, fasting, between lunch and dinner and before meals, as well as after lunch (P>0.05 for all). The main differences between the mild GDM1 group and healthy controls were related to glucose variability and excursions above 140mg/dL, while glucose exposure was similar. Glucose levels after breakfast and dinner also discerned the GDM1 group. Dietary counseling was able to keep glucose levels to those of healthy patients. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Strategies for the Assessment of Metabolic Profiles of Steroid Hormones in View of Diagnostics and Drug Monitoring: Analytical Problems and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Oledzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a growing interest in research focused on the metabolism of steroid hormones despite that the study of metabolic hormone pathways is still a difficult and demanding task because of low steroid concentrations and a complexity of the analysed matrices. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new, more selective and sensitive methods for monitoring these compounds in biological samples. A lot of bibliographic databases for world research literature were structurally searched using selected review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Next, the reports of the highest quality were selected using standard tools (181) and they were described to evaluate the advantages and limitations of different approaches in the measurements of the steroids and their metabolites. The overview of the analytical challenges, development of methods used in the assessment of the metabolic pathways of steroid hormones, and the priorities for future research with a special consideration for liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been presented. Moreover, many LC and CE applications in pharmacological and psychological studies as well as endocrinology and sports medicine, taking into account the recent progress in the area of the metabolic profiling of steroids, have been critically discussed. The latest reports show that LC systems coupled with mass spectrometry have the predominant position in the research of steroid profiles. Moreover, CE techniques are going to gain a prominent position in the diagnosis of hormone levels in the near future.

  17. Analysis of a Novel Diffractive Scanning-Wire Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for Discriminative Profiling of Electron Vs. X Ray Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent numerical studies of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) operating in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime indicate a large sensitivity of the gain to the degree of transverse overlap (and associated phase coherence) between the electron and photon beams traveling down the insertion device. Simulations of actual systems imply that accurate detection and correction for this relative loss of overlap, rather than correction for the absolute departure of the electron beam from a fixed axis, is the preferred function of an FEL amplifier's Beam Position Monitor (BPM) and corrector systems. In this note we propose a novel diffractive BPM with the capability of simultaneously detecting and resolving the absolute (and relative) transverse positions and profiles of electron and x-ray beams co-propagating through an undulator. We derive the equations governing the performance of the BPM and examine its predicted performance for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), viz., for profiling multi-GeV electron bunches co-propagating with one-to-several-hundred keV x-ray beams. Selected research and development (r and d) tasks for fabricating and testing the proposed BPM are discussed.

  18. Pressing problems of measurement of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.I.; Yudin, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    The current system for ensuring the unity of measurements in the Russian Federation and countries of the former Soviet Union ensures a high quality of dosimetric, radiometric, and spectrometric measurements in accordance with the recommendations of the Consulative Committee on Standards for Measurements of Ionizing Radiations of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (IBWM), International Organization on Radiological Units (ICRU), International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Organization on Legislative Metrology (IOLM), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Health Organization (WHO), etc. Frequent collation of the national primary and secondary standards of Russia with those of IBWM and the leading national laboratories of the world facilitate mutual verification of the measurements of ionizing radiations. The scope of scientific and scientific-technical problems that can be solved by using ionizing radiations has expanded significantly in recent years. In this paper the authors consider some pressing problems of the metrology of ionizing radiations which have arisen as a result of this expansion. These include the need for unity and reliability of measurements involved in radiation protection, the measurement of low doses involving low dose rates, ensuring the unity of measurements when monitoring the radiological security of the population, the need for more uniformity on an international scale regarding the basic physical quantities and their units for characterizing radiation fields, determination of the accuracy of measurement of the radiation dose absorbed by an irradiated tissue or organ, and the development of complex standards for ionizing radiations. 5 refs., 1 tab

  19. Using a 3D profiler and infrared camera to monitor oven loading in fully cooked meat operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; Giorges, Aklilu

    2009-05-01

    Ensuring meat is fully cooked is an important food safety issue for operations that produce "ready to eat" products. In order to kill harmful pathogens like Salmonella, all of the product must reach a minimum threshold temperature. Producers typically overcook the majority of the product to ensure meat in the most difficult scenario reaches the desired temperature. A difficult scenario can be caused by an especially thick piece of meat or by a surge of product into the process. Overcooking wastes energy, degrades product quality, lowers the maximum throughput rate of the production line and decreases product yield. At typical production rates of 6000lbs/hour, these losses from overcooking can have a significant cost impact on producers. A wide area 3D camera coupled with a thermal camera was used to measure the thermal mass variability of chicken breasts in a cooking process. Several types of variability are considered including time varying thermal mass (mass x temperature / time), variation in individual product geometry and variation in product temperature. The automatic identification of product arrangement issues that affect cooking such as overlapping product and folded products is also addressed. A thermal model is used along with individual product geometry and oven cook profiles to predict the percentage of product that will be overcooked and to identify products that may not fully cook in a given process.

  20. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  1. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  2. Monitoring Metabolite Profiles of Cannabis sativa L. Trichomes during Flowering Period Using 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happyana, Nizar; Kayser, Oliver

    2016-08-01

    Cannabis sativa trichomes are glandular structures predominantly responsible for the biosynthesis of cannabinoids, the biologically active compounds unique to this plant. To the best of our knowledge, most metabolomic works on C. sativa that have been reported previously focused their investigations on the flowers and leaves of this plant. In this study, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR analysis were applied for monitoring the metabolite profiles of C. sativa trichomes, variety Bediol, during the last 4 weeks of the flowering period. Partial least squares discriminant analysis models successfully classified metabolites of the trichomes based on the harvest time. Δ (9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (1) and cannabidiolic acid (2) constituted the vital differential components of the organic preparations, while asparagine, glutamine, fructose, and glucose proved to be their water-extracted counterparts. According to RT-PCR analysis, gene expression levels of olivetol synthase and olivetolic acid cyclase influenced the accumulation of cannabinoids in the Cannabis trichomes during the monitoring time. Moreover, quantitative (1)H NMR and RT-PCR analysis of the Cannabis trichomes suggested that the gene regulation of cannabinoid biosynthesis in the C. sativa variety Bediol is unique when compared with other C. sativa varieties. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Review Ionizing Radiation In The Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Our environment is pervaded by ionizing radiation of natural origin including terrestrial radionuclides and extra-terrestrial sources but man's activities can increase radiation levels by acting on natural sources or by producing artificial radionuclides. The energy released by radionuclides can be measured. The amount of energy generated in our bodies from the radioactive decay of within- body radionuclides is called internal dose. External dose results from gamma rays emitted by terrestrial sources such as the ground, building materials and from extraterrestrial sources. The major contributors to human exposure are radon and its daughters in the air that we breathe. Ionizing radiation can penetrate into matter and thus, causing damage by interacting with the atoms and molecules of the medium. If the medium is living tissue, damage to cells can take place. Very large doses of radiation will result in serious tissue, damage that may lead to death of the organism. Lower doses may also be harmful and do not cause the immediate damage of high doses but instead act to increase the likelihood of developing cancer. So, exposure to ionizing radiation can have health consequences, which is why we are concerned about and, to a large extent, is why this review paper was written. Exposure to ionizing radiation should be kept as minimum as practically possible. People are advised to monitor the concentrations of radon in their houses. In addition, the levels of radionuclides in drinking water should also be monitored in accordance with the guidelines used in the USA

  4. Re-ionization of a partially ionized plasma by an Alfven wave of moderate amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, M.H.; Sawley, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    The use of forced magnetic-acoustic oscillations to investigate the effect of a torsional hydromagnetic (Alfven) wave pulse of moderate amplitude on the properties of a partially ionized afterglow helium plasma is reported. Observations of the magnetic flux associated with the oscillations, measured at a number of frequencies are used to determine radial density profiles and to provide estimates of plasma temperature. The torsional wave is shown to cause significant re-ionization of the plasma with no corresponding increase in the plasma temperature. The presence of a number of energetic particles is evidenced by the production of a significant number of doubly charged helium ions. (author)

  5. MICROWAVE INTERACTIONS WITH INHOMOGENEOUS PARTIALLY IONIZED PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritz, A. H.

    1962-11-15

    Microwave interactions with inhomogeneous plasmas are often studied by employing a simplified electromagnetic approach, i.e., by representing the effects of the plasma by an effective dielectric coefficient. The problems and approximations associated with this procedure are discussed. The equation describing the microwave field in an inhomogeneous partially ionized plasma is derived, and the method that is applied to obtain the reflected, transmitted, and absorbed intensities in inhomogeneous plasmas is presented. The interactions of microwaves with plasmas having Gaussian electron density profiles are considered. The variation of collision frequency with position is usually neglected. In general, the assumption of constant collision frequency is not justified; e.g., for a highly ionized plasma, the electron density profile determines, in part, the profile of the electron-ion collision frequency. The effect of the variation of the collision frequency profile on the interaction of microwaves with inhomogeneous plasmas is studied in order to obtain an estimate of the degree of error that may result when constant collision frequency is assumed instead of a more realistic collision frequency profile. It is shown that the degree of error is of particular importance when microwave analysis is used as a plasma diagnostic. (auth)

  6. High-performance metabolic profiling of plasma from seven mammalian species for simultaneous environmental chemical surveillance and bioeffect monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja H; Lee, Kichun; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Strobel, Frederick H; Brigham, Kenneth L; Parker, Richard E; Wilson, Mark E; Sutliff, Roy L; Mansfield, Keith G; Wachtman, Lynn M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2012-05-16

    High-performance metabolic profiling (HPMP) by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography gives relative quantification of thousands of chemicals in biologic samples but has had little development for use in toxicology research. In principle, the approach could be useful to detect complex metabolic response patterns to toxicologic exposures and to detect unusual abundances or patterns of potentially toxic chemicals. As an initial study to develop these possible uses, we applied HPMP and bioinformatics analysis to plasma of humans, rhesus macaques, marmosets, pigs, sheep, rats and mice to determine: (1) whether more chemicals are detected in humans living in a less controlled environment than captive species and (2) whether a subset of plasma chemicals with similar inter-species and intra-species variation could be identified for use in comparative toxicology. Results show that the number of chemicals detected was similar in humans (3221) and other species (range 2537-3373). Metabolite patterns were most similar within species and separated samples according to family and order. A total of 1485 chemicals were common to all species; 37% of these matched chemicals in human metabolomic databases and included chemicals in 137 out of 146 human metabolic pathways. Probability-based modularity clustering separated 644 chemicals, including many endogenous metabolites, with inter-species variation similar to intra-species variation. The remaining chemicals had greater inter-species variation and included environmental chemicals as well as GSH and methionine. Together, the data suggest that HPMP provides a platform that can be useful within human populations and controlled animal studies to simultaneously evaluate environmental exposures and biological responses to such exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (Pwhite hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all Pwhite hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  8. Ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamics services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronchi, Claudia Carla

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the ionizing radiation occupational exposure in the hemodynamic services of two large scale hospitals (Hospital A and Hospital B) of the Sao Paulo city. The research looked into annual doses that 279 professionals of the hemodynamic services were exposed to between 1991 and 2002. The data analyzed was collected from the database of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) for Hospital A, and from the Radiological Protection Department of Hospital B. Besides this, measures of hands and crystalline lens equivalent doses were performed during hemodynamic procedures of the physicians, assistant physicians and nursing assistants with TL dosimeters (CaSO 4 :Dy + Teflon R) produced at IPEN. The safety procedures adopted by the hospitals were verified with the aid of a specific questionnaire for the hemodynamic services. Finally, a profile of the professionals that work in cardiac catheterism laboratories of the hemodynamic services was delineated, considering the variables of individual monitoring time, age and sex. This study allowed for observation of the behavior of the professionals' annual doses of these hemodynamic services in relation to the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear and the Secretaria de Vigilancia Sanitaria limits. It showed that the annual doses of the same specialized occupations would vary from one hospital to another. It further showed the need of individual monitoring of the physicians' unprotected body parts (hands and crystalline lens) during the hemodynamic procedures. (author)

  9. Monitoring expression profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes under abiotic stresses using cDNA Microarray Analysis (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Transcript regulation in response to cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application was investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L., Nipponbare) with microarray analysis including approx. 1700 independent DNA elements derived from three cDNA libraries constructed from 15-day old rice seedlings stressed with drought, cold and high salinity. A total of 141 non-redundant genes were identified, whose expression ratios were more than three-fold compared with the control genes for at least one of stress treatments in microarray analysis. However, after RNA gel blot analysis, a total of 73 genes were identified, among them the transcripts of 36, 62, 57 and 43 genes were found increased after cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application, respectively. Sixteen of these identified genes have been reported previously to be stress inducible in rice, while 57 of which are novel that have not been reported earlier as stress responsive in rice. We observed a strong association in the expression patterns of stress responsive genes and found 15 stress inducible genes that responded to all four treatments. Based on Venn diagram analysis, 56 genes were induced by both drought and high salinity, whereas 22 genes were upregulated by both cold and high salinity stress. Similarly 43 genes were induced by both drought stress and ABA application, while only 17 genes were identified as cold and ABA inducible genes. These results indicated the existence of greater cross talk between drought, ABA and high salinity stress signaling processes than those between cold and ABA, and cold and high salinity stress signaling pathways. The cold, drought, high salinity and ABA inducible genes were classified into four gene groups from their expression profiles. Analysis of data enabled us to identify a number of promoters and possible cis-acting DNA elements of several genes induced by a variety of abiotic stresses by combining expression data with genomic sequence data of rice. Comparative analysis of

  10. The critical ionization velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1980-06-01

    The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)

  11. Ionization front accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    In a recently proposed linear collective accelerator, ions are accelerated in a steep, moving potential well created at the head of an intense relativistic electron beam. The steepness of the potential well and its motion are controlled by the external ionization of a suitable background gas. Calculations concerning optimum choices for the background gas and the ionization method are presented; a two-step photoionization process employing Cs vapor is proposed. In this process, a super-radiant light source is used to excite the gas, and a UV laser is used to photoionize the excited state. The appropriate line widths and coupled ionization growth rate equations are discussed. Parameter estimates are given for a feasibility experiment, for a 1 GeV proton accelerator, and for a heavy ion accelerator (50 MeV/nucleon uranium). (auth)

  12. The ionizing treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This book of proceedings contains the talks given by the members of the Society of chemical experts of France (SECF) and by various specialists of the ionizing treatment during the scientific days of September 25-26, 1997. The aim of this meeting was to reconsider the effects of ionization from a scientific point of view and apart from the polemics generated by this domain. The following topics were discussed successively: source and characterization of a ionizing treatment, biological effects of ionization on food and the expected consequences, the ionizing treatment and the reduction of the vitamin C content of fruits and vegetables, is it safe to eat irradiated food?, the organoleptic modifications of food after ionization, quality assurance of dosimetry measurements in an industrial installation of food ionization, the French and European regulations in food ionization, the detection of irradiated foodstuffs, processed food and complex lipid matrices, sterilization of dishes for immuno-depressed patients using ionization. (J.S.)

  13. Cohort profile: the TrueNTH Global Registry - an international registry to monitor and improve localised prostate cancer health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sue M; Millar, Jeremy L; Moore, Caroline M; Lewis, John D; Huland, Hartwig; Sampurno, Fanny; Connor, Sarah E; Villanti, Paul; Litwin, Mark S

    2017-11-28

    Globally, prostate cancer treatment and outcomes for men vary according to where they live, their race and the care they receive. The TrueNTH Global Registry project was established as an international registry monitoring care provided to men with localised prostate cancer (CaP). Sites with existing CaP databases in Movember fundraising countries were invited to participate in the international registry. In total, 25 Local Data Centres (LDCs) representing 113 participating sites across 13 countries have nominated to contribute to the project. It will collect a dataset based on the International Consortium for Health Outcome Measures (ICHOM) standardised dataset for localised CaP. A governance strategy has been developed to oversee registry operation, including transmission of reversibly anonymised data. LDCs are represented on the Project Steering Committee, reporting to an Executive Committee. A Project Coordination Centre and Data Coordination Centre (DCC) have been established. A project was undertaken to compare existing datasets, understand capacity at project commencement (baseline) to collect the ICHOM dataset and assist in determining the final data dictionary. 21/25 LDCs provided data dictionaries for review. Some ICHOM data fields were well collected (diagnosis, treatment start dates) and others poorly collected (complications, comorbidities). 17/94 (18%) ICHOM data fields were relegated to non-mandatory fields due to poor capture by most existing registries. Participating sites will transmit data through a web interface biannually to the DCC. Recruitment to the TrueNTH Global Registry-PCOR project will commence in late 2017 with sites progressively contributing reversibly anonymised data following ethical review in local regions. Researchers will have capacity to source deidentified data after the establishment phase. Quality indicators are to be established through a modified Delphi approach in later 2017, and it is anticipated that reports on

  14. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  15. Liquid ionizing radiaion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGaston, A.N.

    1979-01-01

    A normally nonconducting liquid such as liquid hydrocarbon is encased between a pair of electrodes in an enclosure so that when the liquid is subjected to ionizing radiation, the ion pairs so created measurably increase the conductivity of the fluid. The reduced impedance between the electrodes is detectable with a sensitive ohm-meter and indicates the amount of ionizing radiation. The enclosure, the electrodes and the fluid can be constructed of materials that make the response of the detector suitable for calibrating a large range of radiation energy levels. The detector is especially useful in medical applications where tissue equivalent X ray detectors are desired

  16. Radiation dependent ionization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busquet, M.

    1991-01-01

    For laser created plasma simulation, hydrodynamics codes need a non-LTE atomic physics package for both EOS and optical properties (emissivity and opacity). However in XRL targets as in some ICF targets, high Z material can be found. In these cases radiation trapping can induce a significant departure from the optically thin ionization description. The authors present a method to change an existing LTE code into a non-LTE code with coupling of ionization to radiation. This method has very low CPU cost and can be used in 2D simulations

  17. Ionizing Radiation Processing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Kamarudin Hashim; Jamaliah Sharif; Ratnam, C.T.; Keong, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    This book completely brief on the basic concept and theory of ionizing radiation in polymers material processing. Besides of that the basic concept of polymerization addition, cross-linking and radiation degradation also highlighted in this informative book. All of the information is from scientific writing based on comprehensive scientific research in polymerization industry which using the radiation ionizing. It is very useful to other researcher whose study in Nuclear Sciencea and Science of Chemical and Material to use this book as a guideline for them in future scientific esearch.

  18. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of ionization in a magnetron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.E.; Goeckner, M.J.; Goree, J.; Sheridan, T.E.

    1990-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation of electrons emitted from the cathode of a planar magnetron is tested against experiments that were reported by Wendt, Lieberman, and Meuth [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1827 (1988)] and by Gu and Lieberman [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 2960 (1988)]. Comparing their measurements of the radial profile of current and the axial profile of optical emission to the ionization profiles predicted by the model, we find good agreement for a typical magnetic field strength of 456 G. We also find that at 456 G the product of the average number of ionizations left-angle N i right-angle and the secondary electron emission coefficient γ is ∼1. This indicates that secondary emission contributes significantly to the ionization that sustains the discharge. At 171 G, however, left-angle N i right-angle γ much-lt 1, revealing that cathode emission is inadequate to sustain a discharge at a low magnetic field

  20. Comparison between radiological protection against ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The comparison of doctrines concerning protection against ionizing and non-ionizing radiation is a difficult task, because of the many areas in which it is applied. Radiological pollution has grown during the century, but its evolution has not been concomitant. This has resulted in a distortion that can be identified in the successive steps of the evaluation and protection against such radiation. For a better understanding, this discussion deals with the differences in interaction with matter and the induction of the related risks, on the varieties of protection systems and monitoring procedures

  1. Monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas using temporal profiles of spectral signal from time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Danai; Koutsias, Nikos

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation phenology is an important element of vegetation characteristics that can be useful in vegetation monitoring especially when satellite remote sensing observations are used. In that sense temporal profiles extracted from spectral signal of time series MODIS and LANDSAT satellite images can be used to characterize vegetation phenology and thus to be helpful for monitoring vegetation recovery in fire-affected areas. The aim of this study is to explore the vegetation recovery pattern of the catastrophic wildfires that occurred in Peloponnisos, southern Greece, in 2007. These fires caused the loss of 67 lives and were recognized as the most extreme natural disaster in the country's recent history. Satellite remote sensing data from MODIS and LANDSAT satellites in the period from 2000 to 2014 were acquired and processed to extract the temporal profiles of the spectral signal for selected areas within the fire-affected areas. This dataset and time period analyzed together with the time that these fires occurred gave the opportunity to create temporal profiles seven years before and seven years after the fire. The different scale of the data used gave us the chance to understand how vegetation phenology and therefore the recovery patterns are influenced by the spatial resolution of the satellite data used. Different metrics linked to key phenological events have been created and used to assess vegetation recovery in the fire-affected areas. Our analysis was focused in the main land cover types that were mostly affected by the 2007 wildland fires. Based on CORINE land-cover maps these were agricultural lands highly interspersed with large areas of natural vegetation followed by sclerophyllous vegetation, transitional woodland shrubs, complex cultivation patterns and olive groves. Apart of the use of the original spectral data we estimated and used vegetation indices commonly found in vegetation studies as well as in burned area mapping studies. In this study we

  2. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  3. Nonproliferation and safeguarding via ionization detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; Johnson, J.P.; Steadman, P.

    1995-01-01

    A significant signature of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) is ionizing radiation. SNM naturally decays with the emission of alpha particles, gamma rays, and neutrons. Detecting and monitoring these emissions is an important capability for international safeguards. A new detection method collects the ions produced by such radiation in ambient air. Alpha particles in particular are specific to heavy nuclei but have very short range. The ions produced by an alpha, however, can be transported tens of meters to an ion detector. These new monitors are rugged, very sensitive, respond in real time, and in most cases are quite portable

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of gram-negative bacteria causing infections collected across India during 2014–2016: Study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trend report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents. This study aims to monitor the distribution of bacterial pathogen and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: This study includes Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during 2014–2016. Isolates were collected from seven hospitals across India. All the study isolates were characterised up to species level, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for a wide range of antimicrobials included in the study panel. The test results were interpreted as per standard Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 2731 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were tested during study period. The most frequently isolated pathogens were 44% of Escherichia coli (n = 1205 followed by 25% of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 676 and 11% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 308. Among the antimicrobials tested, carbapenems were the most active, followed by amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive isolates were ranged from 66%–77% in E. coli to 61%–72% in K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall, colistin retains its activity in > 90% of the isolates tested and appear promising. Conclusion: Increasing rates of ESBL producers have been noted, which is alarming. Further, carbapenem resistance was also gradually increasing, which needs much attention. Overall, this study data show that

  5. Detection of ionized foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerens, H.

    1986-01-01

    Irradiated foods and feed might be identified with two kinds of tests: 1. biochemical: detection of specific products are not yet available 2. microbiological: when a microbial species dissapears from a sample of food i.e. it is not detectable after enrichment (for instance Coliforms in hamburgers) it is likely that the sample has been ionized [fr

  6. Ionization loss in BGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, J.A.; Denes, P.; Piroue, P.A.; Stickland, D.P.; Sumner, R.L.; Taylor, C.; Barone, L.; Borgia, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dionisi, C.; Falciano, S.; Ferroni, F.; Gratta, G.; Longo, E.; Luminari, L.; Morganti, S.; Valente, E.; Blaising, J.J.; Boutigny, D.; Coignet, G.; Karyotakis, Y.; Sauvage, G.; Schneegans, M.; Vivargent, M.; Extermann, P.; Morand, G.; Ossmann, J.; Ruckstuhl, W.; Schaad, T.P.; Lecoq, P.; Walk, W.; Li, P.J.; Micke, M.; Micke, U.; Schmitz, D.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a precise measurement of the energy loss through ionization by pions in bismuth germanate performed at several values of the incident particles momentum with a prototype of the L3 electromagnetic calorimeter. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions showing the relativistic rise modified by density effect. (orig.)

  7. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  8. Ionization beam scanner

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Inner structure of an ionization beam scanner, a rather intricate piece of apparatus which permits one to measure the density distribution of the proton beam passing through it. On the outside of the tank wall there is the coil for the longitudinal magnetic field, on the inside, one can see the arrangement of electrodes creating a highly homogeneous transverse electric field.

  9. Basic ionizing radiation symbol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A description is given of the standard symbol for ionizing radiation and of the conditions under which it should not be used. The Arabic equivalent of some English technical terms in this subject is given in one page. 1 ref., 1 fig

  10. Ionizing radiation and life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  11. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  12. MALDI-TOF MS Profiling-Advances in Species Identification of Pests, Parasites, and Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaseelan Murugaiyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate pests and parasites of humans, animals, and plants continue to cause serious diseases and remain as a high treat to agricultural productivity and storage. The rapid and accurate species identification of the pests and parasites are needed for understanding epidemiology, monitoring outbreaks, and designing control measures. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS profiling has emerged as a rapid, cost effective, and high throughput technique of microbial species identification in modern diagnostic laboratories. The development of soft ionization techniques and the release of commercial pattern matching software platforms has resulted in the exponential growth of applications in higher organisms including parasitology. The present review discusses the proof-of-principle experiments and various methods of MALDI MS profiling in rapid species identification of both laboratory and field isolates of pests, parasites and vectors.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS Profiling-Advances in Species Identification of Pests, Parasites, and Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Roesler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Invertebrate pests and parasites of humans, animals, and plants continue to cause serious diseases and remain as a high treat to agricultural productivity and storage. The rapid and accurate species identification of the pests and parasites are needed for understanding epidemiology, monitoring outbreaks, and designing control measures. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiling has emerged as a rapid, cost effective, and high throughput technique of microbial species identification in modern diagnostic laboratories. The development of soft ionization techniques and the release of commercial pattern matching software platforms has resulted in the exponential growth of applications in higher organisms including parasitology. The present review discusses the proof-of-principle experiments and various methods of MALDI MS profiling in rapid species identification of both laboratory and field isolates of pests, parasites and vectors.

  14. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L; Bauer, Stuart J; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  15. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Watanabe

    Full Text Available A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD, or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3, including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4. Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30 and unhealthy (n = 13. A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for

  16. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Y. C.

    1996-09-01

    Interstellar hydrogen can penetrate through the heliopause, enter the heliosphere, and may become ionized by photoionization and by charge exchange with solar wind protons. A fluid model is introduced to study the flow of interstellar hydrogen in the heliosphere. The flow is governed by moment equations obtained from integration of the Boltzmann equation over the velocity space. Under the assumption that the flow is steady axisymmetric and the pressure is isotropic, we develop a method of solution for this fluid model. This model and the method of solution can be used to study the flow of neutral hydrogen with various forms of ionization rate β and boundary conditions for the flow on the upwind side. We study the solution of a special case in which the ionization rate β is inversely proportional to R2 and the interstellar hydrogen flow is uniform at infinity on the upwind side. We solve the moment equations directly for the normalized density NH/NN∞, bulk velocity VH/VN∞, and temperature TH/TN∞ of interstellar hydrogen as functions of r/λ and z/λ, where λ is the ionization scale length. The solution is compared with the kinetic theory solution of Lallement et al. The fluid solution is much less time-consuming than the kinetic theory solutions. Since the ionization rate for production of pickup protons is directly proportional to the local density of neutral hydrogen, the high-resolution solution of interstellar neutral hydrogen obtained here will be used to study the global distribution of pickup protons.

  17. Equipment for handling ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, J.

    1988-01-01

    The device consists of an ionization channel with an ionization chamber, of a support ring, axial and radial bearings, a sleeve, a screw gear and an electric motor. The ionization chamber is freely placed on the bottom of the ionization channel. The bottom part of the channel deviates from the vertical axis. The support ring propped against the axial bearing in the sleeve is firmly fixed to the top part of the ionization channel. The sleeve is fixed to the reactor lid. Its bottom part is provided with a recess for the radial bearing which is propped against a screw wheel firmly connected to the ionization channel. In measuring neutron flux, the screw wheel is rotated by the motor, thus rotating the whole ionization channel such that the ionization chamber is displaced into the reactor core.(J.B.). 1 fig

  18. Interoperable End-to-End Remote Patient Monitoring Platform Based on IEEE 11073 PHD and ZigBee Health Care Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Malcolm; de Folter, Joost; Verma, Vivek; Gokalp, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the implementation of an end-to-end remote monitoring platform based on the IEEE 11073 standards for personal health devices (PHD). It provides an overview of the concepts and approaches and describes how the standard has been optimized for small devices with limited resources of processor, memory, and power that use short-range wireless technology. It explains aspects of IEEE 11073, including the domain information model, state model, and nomenclature, and how these support its plug-and-play architecture. It shows how these aspects underpin a much larger ecosystem of interoperable devices and systems that include IHE PCD-01, HL7, and BlueTooth LE medical devices, and the relationship to the Continua Guidelines, advocating the adoption of data standards and nomenclature to support semantic interoperability between health and ambient assisted living in future platforms. The paper further describes the adaptions that have been made in order to implement the standard on the ZigBee Health Care Profile and the experiences of implementing an end-to-end platform that has been deployed to frail elderly patients with chronic disease(s) and patients with diabetes.

  19. Distributed Optical Fiber Sensors with Ultrafast Laser Enhanced Rayleigh Backscattering Profiles for Real-Time Monitoring of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aidong; Huang, Sheng; Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Ohodnicki, Paul; Buric, Michael; Lee, Shiwoo; Li, Ming-Jun; Chen, Kevin P

    2017-08-24

    This paper reports a technique to enhance the magnitude and high-temperature stability of Rayleigh back-scattering signals in silica fibers for distributed sensing applications. With femtosecond laser radiation, more than 40-dB enhancement of Rayleigh backscattering signal was generated in silica fibers using 300-nJ laser pulses at 250 kHz repetition rate. The laser-induced Rayleigh scattering defects were found to be stable from the room temperature to 800 °C in hydrogen gas. The Rayleigh scatter at high temperatures was correlated to the formation and modification of nanogratings in the fiber core. Using optical fibers with enhanced Rayleigh backscattering profiles as distributed temperature sensors, we demonstrated real-time monitoring of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operations with 5-mm spatial resolution at 800 °C. Information gathered by these fiber sensor tools can be used to verify simulation results or operated in a process-control system to improve the operational efficiency and longevity of SOFC-based energy generation systems.

  20. Ionization Processes in the Atmosphere of Titan (Research Note). III. Ionization by High-Z Nuclei Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronoff, G.; Mertens, C.; Lilensten, J.; Desorgher, L.; Fluckiger, E.; Velinov, P.

    2011-01-01

    Context. The Cassini-Huygens mission has revealed the importance of particle precipitation in the atmosphere of Titan thanks to in-situ measurements. These ionizing particles (electrons, protons, and cosmic rays) have a strong impact on the chemistry, hence must be modeled. Aims. We revisit our computation of ionization in the atmosphere of Titan by cosmic rays. The high-energy high-mass ions are taken into account to improve the precision of the calculation of the ion production profile. Methods. The Badhwahr and O Neill model for cosmic ray spectrum was adapted for the Titan model. We used the TransTitan model coupled with the Planetocosmics model to compute the ion production by cosmic rays. We compared the results with the NAIRAS/HZETRN ionization model used for the first time for a body that differs from the Earth. Results. The cosmic ray ionization is computed for five groups of cosmic rays, depending on their charge and mass: protons, alpha, Z = 8 (oxygen), Z = 14 (silicon), and Z = 26 (iron) nucleus. Protons and alpha particles ionize mainly at 65 km altitude, while the higher mass nucleons ionize at higher altitudes. Nevertheless, the ionization at higher altitude is insufficient to obscure the impact of Saturn s magnetosphere protons at a 500 km altitude. The ionization rate at the peak (altitude: 65 km, for all the different conditions) lies between 30 and 40/cu cm/s. Conclusions. These new computations show for the first time the importance of high Z cosmic rays on the ionization of the Titan atmosphere. The updated full ionization profile shape does not differ significantly from that found in our previous calculations (Paper I: Gronoff et al. 2009, 506, 955) but undergoes a strong increase in intensity below an altitude of 400 km, especially between 200 and 400 km altitude where alpha and heavier particles (in the cosmic ray spectrum) are responsible for 40% of the ionization. The comparison of several models of ionization and cosmic ray spectra (in

  1. Electronegative Plasma Equilibria with Spatially-Varying Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, M. A.; Kawamura, E.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

    2012-10-01

    Electronegative inductive discharges in higher pressure ranges typically exhibit localized ionization near the coil structure, with decay of the ionization into the central discharge. We use a two-dimensional fluid code [1] with chlorine feedstock to determine the spatial profiles of the plasma parameters in a cylindrical transformer-coupled plasma device excited by a planar coil. To compare with one-dimensional (1D) analytic modeling, the results are area-averaged. The ionization is found to decay roughly exponentially along the axial direction, allowing the ansatz of an exponentially decaying ionization to be used in a 1D computational model. The model captures the main features of the axial variations of the area-averaged fluid simulation, indicating that the main diffusion mechanisms act along the axial direction. A simple analytic global discharge model is developed, accounting for the asymmetric density and ionization profiles. The global model gives the scalings with power and pressure of volume-averaged densities, electron temperature, and ionization decay rate, also in reasonable agreement with the scalings obtained by averaging the simulation results. [4pt] [1] E. Kawamura, D.B. Graves, and M.A. Lieberman, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 20, 035009 (2012)

  2. Epidemiology and ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguignon, M.; Masse, R.; Slama, R.; Spira, A.; Timarche, M.; Laurier, D.; Billon, S.; Rogel, A.; Telle Lamberton, M.; Catelinois, O.; Thierry, I.; Grosche, B.; Ron, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Cherie Challine, L.; Donadieu, J.; Pirard, Ph.; Bloch, J.; Setbon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The ionizing radiations have effects on living being. The determinist effects appear since a threshold of absorbed dose of radiation is reached. In return, the stochastic effects of ionizing radiations are these ones whom apparition cannot be described except in terms of probabilities. They are in one hand, cancers and leukemia, on the other hand, lesions of the genome potentially transmissible to the descendants. That is why epidemiology, defined by specialists as the science that studies the frequency and distribution of illness in time and space, the contribution of factors that determine this frequency and this distribution among human populations. This issue gathers and synthesizes the knowledge and examines the difficulties of methodologies. It allows to give its true place to epidemiology. (N.C.)

  3. Gridded ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved ionization chamber type x-ray detector comprises a heavy gas at high pressure disposed between an anode and a cathode. An open grid structure is disposed adjacent the anode and is maintained at a voltsge intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials. The electric field which is produced by positive ions drifting toward the cathode is thus shielded from the anode. Current measuring circuits connected to the anode are, therefore, responsive only to electron current flow within the chamber and the recovery time of the chamber is shortened. The grid structure also serves to shield the anode from electrical currents which might otherwise be induced by mechanical vibrations in the ionization chamber structure

  4. Now day methods for heavy ion monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, S.M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.; Chubaryan, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Up-to-date methods for identification of products yield as a result of heavy ion interaction with nuclei are described. Monitoring of total ionization has been realized by gas-filled ionization chambers semiconductor detectors, scintillators. A method for specific ionization loss monitoring and time-of-flight technique for heavy-ion mass identification are considered. Advantages of the method for identification of nuclear reaction prodUcts by means of a magnetic analyzer are displayed

  5. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  6. Gridded Ionization Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manero Amoros, F.

    1962-01-01

    In the present paper the working principles of a gridded ionization chamber are given, and all the different factors that determine its resolution power are analyzed in detail. One of these devices, built in the Physics Division of the JEN and designed specially for use in measurements of alpha spectroscopy, is described. finally the main applications, in which the chamber can be used, are shown. (Author) 17 refs

  7. Pregnancy and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plataniotis, Th.N.; Nikolaou, K.I.; Syrgiamiotis, G.V.; Dousi, M.; Panou, Th.; Georgiadis, K.; Bougias, C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this report there will be presented the effects of ionizing radiation at the fetus and the necessary radioprotection. The biological results on the fetus, caused by the irradiation, depend on the dose of ionizing radiation that it receives and the phase of its evolution. The imminent effects of the irradiation can cause the fetus death, abnormalities and mental retardation, which are the result of overdose. The effects are carcinogenesis and leukemia, which are relative to the acceptable irradiating dose at the fetus and accounts about 0,015 % per 1 mSv. The effects of ionizing radiation depend on the phase of the fetus evolution: 1 st phase (1 st - 2 nd week): presence of low danger; 2 nd phase (3 rd - 8 th week): for doses >100 mSv there is the possibility of dysplasia; 3 rd phase (8 th week - birth): this phase concerns the results with a percentage 0,015 % per 1 mSv. We always must follow some rules of radioprotection and especially at Classical radiation use of necessary protocols (low dose), at Nuclear Medicine use of the right radioisotope and the relative field of irradiation for the protection of the adjacent healthy tissues and at Radiotherapy extreme caution is required regarding the dose and the treatment. In any case, it is forbidden to end a pregnancy when the pregnant undergoes medical exams, in which the uterus is in the beam of irradiation. The radiographer must always discuss the possibility of pregnancy. (author)

  8. Non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    The still growing use of non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet radiation laser light, ultrasound and infrasound, has induced growing interest in the effects of these types of radiation on the human organism, and in probable hazards emanating from their application. As there are up to now no generally approved regulations or standards governing the use of non-ionizing radiation and the prevention of damage, it is up to the manufacturers of the relevant equipment to provide for safety in the use of their apparatus. This situation has led to a feeling of incertainty among manufacturers, as to how which kind of damage should be avoided. Practice has shown that there is a demand for guidelines stating limiting values, for measuring techniques clearly indicating safety thresholds, and for safety rules providing for safe handling. The task group 'Non-ionizing radiation' of the Radiation Protection Association started a programme to fulfill this task. Experts interested in this work have been invited to exchange their knowledge and experience in this field, and a collection of loose leaves will soon be published giving information and recommendations. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Ionization waves of arbitrary velocity driven by a flying focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palastro, J. P.; Turnbull, D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Follett, R. K.; Shaw, J. L.; Haberberger, D.; Bromage, J.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    A chirped laser pulse focused by a chromatic lens exhibits a dynamic, or flying, focus in which the trajectory of the peak intensity decouples from the group velocity. In a medium, the flying focus can trigger an ionization front that follows this trajectory. By adjusting the chirp, the ionization front can be made to travel at an arbitrary velocity along the optical axis. We present analytical calculations and simulations describing the propagation of the flying focus pulse, the self-similar form of its intensity profile, and ionization wave formation. The ability to control the speed of the ionization wave and, in conjunction, mitigate plasma refraction has the potential to advance several laser-based applications, including Raman amplification, photon acceleration, high-order-harmonic generation, and THz generation.

  10. measurement of indoor background ionizing radiation in some

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Measurement of the background ionizing radiation profile within the. Chemistry Research Laboratory and Physics Laboratory III all of the. University of Jos and their immediate neighbourhood were carried out. These science laboratories also harbour a number of active radiation sources. The radiation levels were measured ...

  11. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for soft ionization and their mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Sebastian; Klute, Felix David; Schütz, Alexander; Franzke, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.franzke@isas.de

    2017-01-25

    Dielectric barrier discharges are used for analytical applications as dissociative source for optical emission spectrometry and for ambient-ionization techniques. In the range of ambient-ionization techniques it has attracted much attention in fields like food safety, biological analysis, mass spectrometry for reaction monitoring and imaging forensic identification. In this review some examples are given for the application as desorption/ionization source as well as for the sole application as ionization source with different sample introductions. It will be shown that the detection might depend on the certain distance of the plasma in reference to the sample or the kind of discharge which might be produced by different shapes of the applied high voltage. Some attempts of characterization are presented. A more detailed characterization of the dielectric barrier discharge realized with two ring electrodes, each separately covered with a dielectric layer, is described. - Highlights: • Dielectric barrier discharge applied as desorption/ionization source. • Dielectric barrier discharge applied solely as ionization source. • Different geometries in order to maintain soft ionization. • Characterization of the LTP probe. • Dielectric barrier discharges with two dielectric barriers (ring-ring shape).

  12. Ionization signals from diamond detectors in fast-neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); CIVIDEC Instrumentation, Wien (Austria); Frais-Koelbl, H. [University of Applied Sciences, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Griesmayer, E.; Kavrigin, P. [CIVIDEC Instrumentation, Wien (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Wien (Austria)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper we introduce a novel analysis technique for measurements with single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (sCVD) diamond detectors in fast-neutron fields. This method exploits the unique electronic property of sCVD diamond sensors that the signal shape of the detector current is directly proportional to the initial ionization profile. In fast-neutron fields the diamond sensor acts simultaneously as target and sensor. The interaction of neutrons with the stable isotopes {sup 12}C and {sup 13}C is of interest for fast-neutron diagnostics. The measured signal shapes of detector current pulses are used to identify individual types of interactions in the diamond with the goal to select neutron-induced reactions in the diamond and to suppress neutron-induced background reactions as well as γ-background. The method is verified with experimental data from a measurement in a 14.3 MeV neutron beam at JRC-IRMM, Geel/Belgium, where the {sup 13}C(n, α){sup 10}Be reaction was successfully extracted from the dominating background of recoil protons and γ-rays and the energy resolution of the {sup 12}C(n, α){sup 9}Be reaction was substantially improved. The presented analysis technique is especially relevant for diagnostics in harsh radiation environments, like fission and fusion reactors. It allows to extract the neutron spectrum from the background, and is particularly applicable to neutron flux monitoring and neutron spectroscopy. (orig.)

  13. Methods of direct (non-chromatographic) quantification of body metabolites utilizing chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, J.M.L.

    1978-01-01

    For quantitative determination of known metabolites from the biological sample by direct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI-MS), the method of internal standard using stable isotopically labelled analogs appears to be the method of choice. In the case where stable isotope ratio determinations could not be applied, and alternative quantification can be achieved using non-labelled external or internal standards and a calibration curve (sum of peak height per a given number of scans versus concentration). The technique of computer monitoring permits display and plotting of ion current profiles (TIC and SIC) or spectra per a given number of scans or a given range of mass per charge. Examples are given in areas of clinical application and the quantitative data show very good agreement with the conventional chromatographic measurements. (Auth.)

  14. Comet assay as a procedure for detecting possible genotoxicity induced by non-ionizing radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsanna Nemeth

    2015-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation (NIR) is the term given to radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that does not have enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules directly. The NIR includes electric and magnetic fields up to 300 GHz, infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation (UV). People are exposed to non-ionizing radiation by several man-made sources every day. From highest to lowest energy, this includes for example microwave ovens, cell phones, baby monitors, cordless phones, ga...

  15. Ionization of anisothermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    During this last mid-century, only the temperature of electrons has been involved in the Saha's mass action law, whatever be the other ionic and neutral ones in any isothermal or anisothermal plasma. In order to set aside this underlying paradox in the case of argon ionization, it is necessary to improve this equation of partial equilibrium after having defined: - the basic Gibbs-Duhem's relations for such a polythermal mixture, - the inhomogeneous equilibrium issued from chemical reactions according to Le Chatelier's principle. (author). 3 refs

  16. Ionization detectors, ch. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevcik, J.

    1976-01-01

    Most measuring devices used in gas chromatography consist of detectors that measure the ionization current. The process is based on the collision of a moving high-energy particle with a target particle that is ionised while an electron is freed. The discussion of the conditions of the collision reaction, the properties of the colliding particles, and the intensity of the applied field point to a unified classification of ionisation detectors. Radioactive sources suitable for use in these detectors are surveyed. The slow-down mechanism, recombination and background current effect are discussed

  17. Multiple chamber ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector employs a single radiation source in a construction comprising at least two chambers with a center or node electrode. The radioactive source is associated with this central electrode, and its positioning may be adjusted relative to the electrode to alter the proportion of the source that protrudes into each chamber. The source may also be mounted in the plane of the central electrode, and positioned relative to the center of the electrode. The central electrode or source may be made tiltable relative to the body of the detector

  18. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  19. Doubly resonant multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crance, M.

    1978-01-01

    A particular case of doubly resonant multiphoton ionization is theoretically investigated. More precisely, two levels quasi-resonant with two successive harmonics of the field frequency are considered. The method used is based on the effective operator formalism first introduced for this problem by Armstrong, Beers and Feneuille. The main result is to show the possibility of observing large interference effects on the width of the resonances. Moreover this treatment allows us to make more precise the connection between effective operator formalism and standard perturbation theory

  20. Promising markers for the detection of premature senescence tumor cells induced by ionizing radiation: Cathepsin D and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Han, Na-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Seon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    Recently, it has been proved that induction of senescence could be a promising way of tumor treatment. Senescence was originally described in normal human cells undergoing a finite number of divisions before permanent growth arrest. It has now become regarded more broadly as a general biological program of terminal growth arrest. A variety of stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), oxidative stress, oncogenic transformation, DNA damaging agents triggers stress-induced premature senescence, i.e. rapid and permanent cell growth arrest. Therefore, premature senescence is bona fide barrier to tumorigenesis and hallmark of premalignant tumors. However, there is lack of obvious markers for senescent tumor cells. To identify useful premature senescence markers for tumor cells, we monitored the changes of protein expression profile in IR-induced premature senescence MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We identified biomarkers which evidently changed their expression levels in ionizing radiation-induced senescenct tumor cells.

  1. Promising markers for the detection of premature senescence tumor cells induced by ionizing radiation: Cathepsin D and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Han, Na-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2008-01-01

    Recently, it has been proved that induction of senescence could be a promising way of tumor treatment. Senescence was originally described in normal human cells undergoing a finite number of divisions before permanent growth arrest. It has now become regarded more broadly as a general biological program of terminal growth arrest. A variety of stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), oxidative stress, oncogenic transformation, DNA damaging agents triggers stress-induced premature senescence, i.e. rapid and permanent cell growth arrest. Therefore, premature senescence is bona fide barrier to tumorigenesis and hallmark of premalignant tumors. However, there is lack of obvious markers for senescent tumor cells. To identify useful premature senescence markers for tumor cells, we monitored the changes of protein expression profile in IR-induced premature senescence MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We identified biomarkers which evidently changed their expression levels in ionizing radiation-induced senescenct tumor cells

  2. Plasma production via field ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. O’Connell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch, or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam’s bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  3. Kinematics of 3-body in Ionization Collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della Picca, Renata

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we study three body problems in the frame of the collision theory. First, we deal with the process of autoionization by ion impact where the line profile of the electron emitted is strongly affected by the post-collision interaction with the Coulomb field of the outgoing projectile.Here we analyze how these effects are modified when the projectile velocity is in the close vicinity of the resonant electron velocity.In this energy range, the analysis of the resonance contribution is hindered by the characteristic 'electron capture to the continuum' divergence in the direct term.Here we present a detailed theoretical study of the interplay between both contributions, based on a generalization of the Final-State Interaction model.Finally we propose a modified parameterization of the autoionization line shape in the vicinity of the ECC cusp.Secondly, we study the direct ionization of an atomic target by the impact of a charge projectile, through analysis of the quintuple differential cross section (QDCS) which gives the most complete information about a ionization collision.Its study, without any approximation on the mass ratios can unveil new, not previously observed, structures.In particular, in this work the ionization of Hydrogen molecules by the impact of positrons and muons was studied and a new structure that has not been identified until now was found. Its main characteristics and a possible explanation are presented

  4. Biology of ionizing radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present trends in biology of ionizing radiation are reviewed. The following topics are investigated: interaction of ionizing radiations with matter; the radiolysis of water and aqueous solutions; properties of the free radicals intervening in the couples O 2 /H 2 O and H 2 O/H 2 ; radiation chemistry of biological compounds; biological effects of ionizing radiations; biochemical mechanisms involving free radicals as intermediates; applications (biotechnological applications, origins of life) [fr

  5. News about ionized food identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, J.

    1995-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are used to clean food and increase their preservation life. If a lot of countries permits ionized products commercialization, others are opposed to it. To control the commercial exchanges, check the applied treatment aim and give to the consumers a better information, several ionized food identification methods were perfected and several are about to be recognized as european standards. 4 refs. 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Resonance ionization spectroscopy 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, J.E.; Omenetto, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Fifth International Symposium on Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) and its Applications was held in Varese, Italy, 16-21 September 1990. Interest in RIS and its applications continues to grow, and RIS is expanding into a more diverse and mature field of study. This maturity was evident in this meeting both in the basic science and understanding of RIS processes and in the number of new and improved applications and techniques. The application of RIS techniques to molecular detection problems made remarkable progress since the last meeting two years ago. Subtle effects pertaining to isotopic discrimination received more theoretical attention, and there now seems to be good understanding of these effects, which can lead to correction procedures and/or methods to avoid isotopic effects. RIS applications were presented in which significant, real world problems were addressed, demonstrating its capability to solve problems that previously could not be accurately solved by other more traditional techniques. The contributions to the conference are grouped under the following major topic headings: physics applications of rare atoms; laser ionization mechanisms - spectroscopy; atomic, molecular and ion sources; molecular RIS; atomic RIS - Rydberg states; environmental trace analysis; biological and medical applications; state selected chemistry; new laser sources and techniques; ultra-high resolution and isotopic selectivity; surface and bulk analysis. (Author)

  7. Hygiene of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legare, I.-M.; Conceicao Cunha, M. da

    1976-01-01

    The concepts of quality factor and rem are introduced and a table of biological effects of external ionizing radiation sources is presented. Natural exposures, with tables of background radiation sources and of doses due to cosmic rays on high altitude areas and their populations are treated, as well as medical exposures; artificial background; fallout; scientific, industrial and other sources. The maximum and limit doses for man are given and tables of maximum admissible doses of ionizing radiations for 16-18 year old workers professionaly exposed, for professionals eventually subjected to radiation in their work and for people eventually exposed. Professional protection is discussed and tables are given of half-value layer of water, concrete, iron and lead for radiations of different energies, as well as the classification of exposure zones to the radiations and of maximum acceptable contamination for surfaces. The basic safety standards for radiation protection are summarized; tables are given also with emergency references for internal irradiation. Procedures with patients which received radioisotopes are discussed. At last, consideration is given to the problem of radioactive wastes in connection with the medical use of radionuclides [pt

  8. Foundations of ionizing radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisenko, O.N.; Pereslegin, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    Foundations of dosimetry in application to radiotherapy are presented. General characteristics of ionizing radiations and main characteristics of ionizing radiation sources, mostly used in radiotherapy, are given. Values and units for measuring ionizing radiation (activity of a radioactive substance, absorbed dose, exposure dose, integral dose and dose equivalent are considered. Different methods and instruments for ionizing radiation dosimetry are discussed. The attention is paid to the foundations of clinical dosimetry (representation of anatomo-topographic information, choice of radiation conditions, realization of radiation methods, corrections for a configuration and inhomogeneity of a patient's body, account of biological factors of radiation effects, instruments of dose field formation, control of irradiation procedure chosen)

  9. Development of decision tree software and protein profiling using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) in papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil; Park, Bok Nam; Yoon, Seok Nam; Lee, Jun

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioinformatics software and to test it in serum samples of papillary thyroid cancer using mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Development of 'Protein analysis' software performing decision tree analysis was done by customizing C4.5. Sixty-one serum samples from 27 papillary thyroid cancer, 17 autoimmune thyroiditis, 17 controls were applied to 2 types of protein chips, CM10 (weak cation exchange) and IMAC3 (metal binding - Cu). Mass spectrometry was performed to reveal the protein expression profiles. Decision trees were generated using 'Protein analysis' software, and automatically detected biomarker candidates. Validation analysis was performed for CM10 chip by random sampling. Decision tree software, which can perform training and validation from profiling data, was developed. For CM10 and IMAC3 chips, 23 of 113 and 8 of 41 protein peaks were significantly different among 3 groups (ρ < 0.05), respectively. Decision tree correctly classified 3 groups with an error rate of 3.3% for CM10 and 2.0% for IMAC3, and 4 and 7 biomarker candidates were detected respectively. In 2 group comparisons, all cancer samples were correctly discriminated from non-cancer samples (error rate = 0%) for CM10 by single node and for IMAC3 by multiple nodes. Validation results from 5 test sets revealed SELDI-TOF-MS and decision tree correctly differentiated cancers from non-cancers (54/55, 98%), while predictability was moderate in 3 group classification (36/55, 65%). Our in-house software was able to successfully build decision trees and detect biomarker candidates, therefore it could be useful for biomarker discovery and clinical follow up of papillary thyroid cancer

  10. Development of decision tree software and protein profiling using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) in papillary thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee; An, Young Sil; Park, Bok Nam; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a bioinformatics software and to test it in serum samples of papillary thyroid cancer using mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Development of 'Protein analysis' software performing decision tree analysis was done by customizing C4.5. Sixty-one serum samples from 27 papillary thyroid cancer, 17 autoimmune thyroiditis, 17 controls were applied to 2 types of protein chips, CM10 (weak cation exchange) and IMAC3 (metal binding - Cu). Mass spectrometry was performed to reveal the protein expression profiles. Decision trees were generated using 'Protein analysis' software, and automatically detected biomarker candidates. Validation analysis was performed for CM10 chip by random sampling. Decision tree software, which can perform training and validation from profiling data, was developed. For CM10 and IMAC3 chips, 23 of 113 and 8 of 41 protein peaks were significantly different among 3 groups ({rho} < 0.05), respectively. Decision tree correctly classified 3 groups with an error rate of 3.3% for CM10 and 2.0% for IMAC3, and 4 and 7 biomarker candidates were detected respectively. In 2 group comparisons, all cancer samples were correctly discriminated from non-cancer samples (error rate = 0%) for CM10 by single node and for IMAC3 by multiple nodes. Validation results from 5 test sets revealed SELDI-TOF-MS and decision tree correctly differentiated cancers from non-cancers (54/55, 98%), while predictability was moderate in 3 group classification (36/55, 65%). Our in-house software was able to successfully build decision trees and detect biomarker candidates, therefore it could be useful for biomarker discovery and clinical follow up of papillary thyroid cancer.

  11. Personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Sources of ionizing radiation have innumerable applications in the workplace. The potential exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with personal monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Module can only be provided by qualified experts

  12. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  13. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of cyanoacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Sydney; Champion, Norbert; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Fray, Nicolas; Gaie-Levrel, François; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Schwell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Photoionization of cyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the non-dissociative ionization excitation range 11–15.6 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of cyanoacetylene was measured as 11.573 ± 0.010 eV. A detailed analysis of photoelectron spectra of HC 3 N involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the A 2 Σ + and B 2 Π states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 11.94 to 15.5 eV region of the total ion yield (TIY) spectrum were assigned to two Rydberg series converging to the B 2 Π state of HC 3 N + . A number of the measured TIY features are suggested to be vibrational components of Rydberg series converging to the C 2 Σ + state of HC 3 N + at ≈17.6 eV and others to valence shell transitions of cyanoacetylene in the 11.6–15 eV region. The results of quantum chemical calculations of the cation electronic state geometries, vibrational frequencies and energies, as well as of the C–H dissociation potential energy profiles of the ground and electronic excited states of the ion, are compared with experimental observations. Ionization quantum yields are evaluated and discussed and the problem of adequate calibration of photoionization cross-sections is raised

  14. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of cyanoacetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Sydney; Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Fray, Nicolas; Gaie-Levrel, François [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mahjoub, Ahmed; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Schwell, Martin [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)

    2014-05-07

    Photoionization of cyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the non-dissociative ionization excitation range 11–15.6 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of cyanoacetylene was measured as 11.573 ± 0.010 eV. A detailed analysis of photoelectron spectra of HC{sub 3}N involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the A{sup 2}Σ{sup +} and B{sup 2}Π states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 11.94 to 15.5 eV region of the total ion yield (TIY) spectrum were assigned to two Rydberg series converging to the B{sup 2}Π state of HC{sub 3}N{sup +}. A number of the measured TIY features are suggested to be vibrational components of Rydberg series converging to the C{sup 2}Σ{sup +} state of HC{sub 3}N{sup +} at ≈17.6 eV and others to valence shell transitions of cyanoacetylene in the 11.6–15 eV region. The results of quantum chemical calculations of the cation electronic state geometries, vibrational frequencies and energies, as well as of the C–H dissociation potential energy profiles of the ground and electronic excited states of the ion, are compared with experimental observations. Ionization quantum yields are evaluated and discussed and the problem of adequate calibration of photoionization cross-sections is raised.

  15. [Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (comparative risk estimations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2012-01-01

    The population has widely used mobile communication for already more than 15 years. It is important to note that the use of mobile communication has sharply changed the conditions of daily exposure of the population to EME We expose our brain daily for the first time in the entire civilization. The mobile phone is an open and uncontrollable source of electromagnetic radiation. The comparative risk estimation for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation was carried out taking into account the real conditions of influence. Comparison of risks for the population of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation leads us to a conclusion that EMF RF exposure in conditions of wide use of mobile communication is potentially more harmful than ionizing radiation influence.

  16. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI- photoelectron ionization (PEI portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1 with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear.

  17. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, Andrew; Venkatesan, Aparna; Shull, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  18. THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION FROM GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, Andrew [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Venkatesan, Aparna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States); Shull, J. Michael, E-mail: abenson@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: avenkatesan@usfca.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The escape of ionizing radiation from galaxies plays a critical role in the evolution of gas in galaxies, and the heating and ionization history of the intergalactic medium. We present semi-analytic calculations of the escape fraction of ionizing radiation for both hydrogen and helium from galaxies ranging from primordial systems to disk-type galaxies that are not heavily dust-obscured. We consider variations in the galaxy density profile, source type, location, and spectrum, and gas overdensity/distribution factors. For sufficiently hard first-light sources, the helium ionization fronts closely track or advance beyond that of hydrogen. Key new results in this work include calculations of the escape fractions for He I and He II ionizing radiation, and the impact of partial ionization from X-rays from early active galactic nuclei or stellar clusters on the escape fractions from galaxy halos. When factoring in frequency-dependent effects, we find that X-rays play an important role in boosting the escape fractions for both hydrogen and helium, but especially for He II. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for recent observations of the He II reionization epoch at low redshifts, as well as the UV data and emission-line signatures from early galaxies anticipated from future satellite missions.

  19. Ionizing radiation and lipid peroxidation in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    1997-07-01

    Lipids are organic compounds constituting the living cells. Lipid molecules can be disassembled through peroxidative pathways and hydrocarbons can be bred as end-product of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Lipid peroxidation can be started by an indirect effect of ionizing radiation. So a radioinduced cellular damage in human body can be detected by monitoring the production of specific hydrocarbons

  20. National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology - Brazilian CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The activities of the Brazilian National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations Metrology are described. They include research and development of metrological techniques and procedures, the calibration of area radiation monitors, clinical dosemeters and other instruments and the preparation and standardization of reference radioactive sources. 4 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Ionization chamber for high dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de Araujo

    2005-01-01

    Industrial gamma irradiators facilities are designed for processing large amounts of products, which are exposed to large doses of gamma radiation. The irradiation, in industrial scale, is usually carried out in a dynamic form, where the products go through a 60 Co gamma source with activity of TBq to P Bq (k Ci to MCi). The dose is estimated as being directly proportional to the time that the products spend to go through the source. However, in some situations, mainly for research purposes or for validation of customer process following the ISO 11137 requirements, it is required to irradiate small samples in a static position with fractional deliver doses. The samples are put inside the irradiation room at a fixed distance from the source and the dose is usually determined using dosimeters. The dose is only known after the irradiation, by reading the dosimeter. Nevertheless, in the industrial irradiators, usually different kinds of products with different densities go through between the source and the static position samples. So, the dose rate varies in function of the product density. A suitable methodology would be to monitor the samples dose in real time, measuring the dose on line with a radiation detector, which would improve the dose accuracy and avoid the overdose. A cylindrical ionization chamber of 0.9 cm 3 has been developed for high-doses real-time monitoring, during the sample irradiation at a static position in a 60 Co gamma industrial plant. Nitrogen and argon gas at pressure of 10 exp 5 Pa (1 bar) was utilized to fill the ionization chamber, for which an appropriate configuration was determined to be used as a detector for high-dose measurements. To transmit the signal generated in the ionization chamber to the associated electronic and processing unit, a 20 m mineral insulated cable was welded to the ionization chamber. The signal to noise ratio produced by the detector was about 100. The dosimeter system was tested at a category I gamma

  2. Applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques

  3. Reference ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Zielczynski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of ionization chamber devoted for the determination of the absolute value of the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent material. The special attention was paid to ensure that the volume of the active gas cavity was constant and well known. A specific property of the chamber design is that the voltage insulators are 'invisible' from any point of the active volume. Such configuration ensures a very good time stability of the electrical field and defines the active volume. The active volume of the chamber was determined with accuracy of 0.3%. This resulted in accuracy of 0.8% in determination of the absorbed dose in the layer of material adherent to the gas cavity. The chamber was applied for calibration purposes at radiotherapy facility in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna (Russia) and in the calibration laboratory of the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk. (author)

  4. Applications of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Developments in standard applications and brand new nuclear technologies, with high impact on the future of the agriculture, medicine, industry and the environmental preservation. The Radiation Technology Center (CTR) mission is to apply the radiation and radioisotope technologies in Industry, Health, Agriculture, and Environmental Protection, expanding the scientific knowledge, improving human power resources, transferring technology, generating products and offering services for the Brazilian society. The CTR main R and D activities are in consonance with the IPEN Director Plan (2011-2013) and the Applications of Ionizing Radiation Program, with four subprograms: Irradiation of Food and Agricultural Products; Radiation and Radioisotopes Applications in Industry and Environment; Radioactive Sources and Radiation Applications in Human Health; and Radioactive Facilities and Equipment for the Applications of Nuclear Techniques.

  5. Ionizing radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  6. Transport processes in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Based on kinetic theory of gases and on the combined of Chapman-Enskog and Grad, the laws of Ohm, Fourier and Navier-Stokes are derived for a non-relativistic fully ionized gas. Moreover, the combined method is applied to the BGK model of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the Ohm's law is derived for a relativistic fully ionized gas. (author)

  7. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  8. Worldwide exposures to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    All of mankind is exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources, from human practices that release natural and artificial radionuclides to the environment, and from medical radiation procedures. This paper reviews the assessment in the UNSCEAR 1993 Report of the exposures of human populations worldwide to the various sources of ionizing radiation

  9. Food ionizing treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strasser, A.; Raffi, J.; Hasselmann, C.

    1997-01-01

    Treatment of food with ionizing radiation is increasingly being recognized as a means of reducing food-borne illnesses and associated medical and other costs. In addition, the process may contribute to food security by preventing post-harvest losses, thereby making more food available to more people, eventually at lower cost. An ever increasing number of countries has approved the irradiation of a long and growing list of different food items, groups of classes, ranging from spices to grains to fruit and vegetables to meats and poultry and seafood. However, perception by consumers has been controversial and concerns have been expressed, particularly related to the safety of irradiated food. Therefore, the toxicological aspects of irradiated food are addressed in this dossier. It should be recognized that food irradiation is perhaps the most thoroughly investigated food processing technology. According to the World Health Organization 'irradiated food produced in accordance with established Good Manufacturing Practice can be considered safe and nutritionally adequate'. A recent evaluation by a WHO/FAO/IAEA study group (Geneva, Sept. 1997) even came to the conclusion, 'that as long as sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration'. Thus, also treatment of food with doses greater than the currently recommended upper level of 10 kGy by the Codex Alimentarius Commission will not lead to changes in the composition of the food that, from a toxicological point of view, would have an adverse effect on human health. (author)

  10. Incore monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Ichiro; Shirayama, Shin-pei; Nozaki, Shin-ichi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an incore monitoring device wherein both radiation monitoring and acoustic monitoring are carried out simultaneously by one detector, whereby installation of the device and signal pick-up are facilitated. Incore conditions are accurately grasped. Constitution: When a neutron is irradiated in a state where a DC voltage is applied between the electrode and the vessel in the device, an ionization current is occured by (n.γ) reaction of the transformed substance as in an ionization chamber, Accordingly, a voltage drop occurs at both ends of the resistor of the radiation signal processing system, as a result of which a neutron flux can be detected. Further, when a sound is generated in the reactor, the monitoring device bottom wall which formed by a piezoelectric element detects the sound-waves. This output signal is picked up by the acoustic signal processing system to judge the generation of sound. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber. 8 claims, 7 figures

  12. Tropospheric Ozonesonde Profiles at Long-term U.S. Monitoring Sites: 1. A Climatology Based on Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Young, George S.

    2016-01-01

    Sonde-based climatologies of tropospheric ozone (O3) are vital for developing satellite retrieval algorithms and evaluating chemical transport model output. Typical O3 climatologies average measurements by latitude or region, and season. A recent analysis using self-organizing maps (SOM) to cluster ozonesondes from two tropical sites found that clusters of O3 mixing ratio profiles are an excellent way to capture O3variability and link meteorological influences to O3 profiles. Clusters correspond to distinct meteorological conditions, e.g., convection, subsidence, cloud cover, and transported pollution. Here the SOM technique is extended to four long-term U.S. sites (Boulder, CO; Huntsville, AL; Trinidad Head, CA; and Wallops Island, VA) with4530 total profiles. Sensitivity tests on k-means algorithm and SOM justify use of 3 3 SOM (nine clusters). Ateach site, SOM clusters together O3 profiles with similar tropopause height, 500 hPa height temperature, and amount of tropospheric and total column O3. Cluster means are compared to monthly O3 climatologies.For all four sites, near-tropopause O3 is double (over +100 parts per billion by volume; ppbv) the monthly climatological O3 mixing ratio in three clusters that contain 1316 of profiles, mostly in winter and spring.Large midtropospheric deviations from monthly means (6 ppbv, +710 ppbv O3 at 6 km) are found in two of the most populated clusters (combined 3639 of profiles). These two clusters contain distinctly polluted(summer) and clean O3 (fall-winter, high tropopause) profiles, respectively. As for tropical profiles previously analyzed with SOM, O3 averages are often poor representations of U.S. O3 profile statistics.

  13. Technical Note: Scanning of parallel-plate ionization chamber and diamond detector for measurements of water-dose profiles in the vicinity of a narrow x-ray microbeam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariyama, Nobuteru

    2017-12-01

    Scanning of dosimeters facilitates dose distribution measurements with fine spatial resolutions. This paper presents a method of conversion of the scanning results to water-dose profiles and provides an experimental verification. An Advanced Markus chamber and a diamond detector were scanned at a resolution of 6 μm near the beam edges during irradiation with a 25-μm-wide white narrow x-ray beam from a synchrotron radiation source. For comparison, GafChromic films HD-810 and HD-V2 were also irradiated. The conversion procedure for the water dose values was simulated with Monte Carlo photon-electron transport code as a function of the x-ray incidence position. This method was deduced from nonstandard beam reference-dosimetry protocols used for high-energy x-rays. Among the calculated nonstandard beam correction factors, P wall , which is the ratio of the absorbed dose in the sensitive volume of the chamber with water wall to that with a polymethyl methacrylate wall, was found to be the most influential correction factor in most conditions. The total correction factor ranged from 1.7 to 2.7 for the Advanced Markus chamber and from 1.15 to 1.86 for the diamond detector as a function of the x-ray incidence position. The water dose values obtained with the Advanced Markus chamber and the HD-810 film were in agreement in the vicinity of the beam, within 35% and 18% for the upper and lower sides of the beam respectively. The beam width obtained from the diamond detector was greater, and the doses out of the beam were smaller than the doses of the others. The comparison between the Advanced Markus chamber and HD-810 revealed that the dose obtained with the scanned chamber could be converted to the water dose around the beam by applying nonstandard beam reference-dosimetry protocols. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  14. Laser-enhanced ionization spectroscopy around the ionization limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axner, O.; Berglind, T.; Sjoestroem, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laser-induced photoionization and Laser-Enhanced collision Ionization (LEI) of Na, Tl, and Li in flames are detected by measuring the production of charges following a laser excitation. The ionization signal is investigated for excitations of the atoms from lower lying states both to Rydberg states close to the ionization limit, as well as to continuum states, i.e. the process of collision ionization is compared with that of photoionization. The qualitative behaviour of the ionization signal when scanning across the ionization limit is studied. It is shown that the ionization signal has a smooth behaviour when passing from bound states into continuum states. The laser-induced photoionization signal strength of atoms in flames is both calculated and measured and a good agreement is obtained. A calculation of wavelength dependent photoionization signal strengths for a number of elements is also presented. Photoionization is used to determine flame- and geometry-dependent parameters. An implication of photoionization in connection with LEI spectrometry for trace element analysis is that there will be a significant increase in background noise if the sample contains high concentrations of easily photoionizing elements and short wavelength light is used. (orig.)

  15. Ionization effects in electronic inner-shells of ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the atomic physics of ionization atoms has been presented. Interaction and structure effects in atomic shells, correlated to the occurrence of vacancies in several subshells of the atom have been considered. The methods of calculations of atomic states and wave functions have been reviewed. The energy shift of characteristic X-rays is discussed as a function of the ionization stage of the atom. The influence of inner and outer-shell vacancies on the energy of the X-rays is shown in detail. The influence of chemical effects on the parameters of X-rays is also taken into account. Further on, the change of transition probabilities in radiative and non-radiative transitions by changing stage of ionization is discussed; and among them the leading part of Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions by the arearrangement of the atomic states is shown. The influence of non-radiative electronic transitions on ionization cross-sections for multiple ionization is discussed. Using these results, ionization cross-sections for direct and indirect processes for several ionization stages are given

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0161327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the OLEANDER as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1982-06-11 (NODC Accession 8200127)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the OLEANDER from 11 June 1982. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  2. Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Protection in handling ionizing radiation sources in national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The collection of study texts is divided into 13 chapters giving an explanation of the structure of the atom, the properties of ionizing radiation and its interactions, quantities and units used, basic dosimetric methods, biological radiation effects, the sources of population exposure, the principles of radiation protection, technological applications of ionizing radiation, the monitoring of personnel and environment, the method of recording and filing, the method of protection from external radiation and internal contamination, health care, and requirements for protection in handling nonsealed sources. (M.D.)

  4. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, Manuel; Fontelos, Marco A; Trueba, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work

  5. Photoionization effects in ionization fronts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, Manuel [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Fontelos, Marco A [Departamento de Matematicas, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, C/Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Trueba, Jose L [Departamento de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipan s/n, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-21

    In this paper we study the effects of photoionization processes on the propagation of both negative and positive ionization fronts in streamer discharge. We show that negative fronts accelerate in the presence of photoionization events. The appearance and propagation of positive ionization fronts travelling with constant velocity is explained as the result of the combined effects of photoionization and electron diffusion. The photoionization range plays an important role in the selection of the velocity of the ionization front as we show in this work.

  6. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism

  7. Nonlinear modulation of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Naoaki

    1981-01-01

    In order to investigate the nonlinear characteristics of ionization waves (moving-striations) in the positive column of glow discharge, a nonlinear modulation of ionization waves in the region of the Pupp critical current is analysed by means of the reductive perturbation method. The modulation of ionization waves is described by a nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. The coefficients of the equation are evaluated using the data of the low pressure Argon-discharge, and the simple solutions (plane wave and envelope soliton type solutions) are presented. Under a certain condition an envelope soliton is propagated through the positive column. (author)

  8. Protection during work with ionizing radiation sources; Ochrana pri praci se zdroji ionizujiciho zareni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for training courses dealing with health protection during work with ionizing radiation, designed for supervisory staff and persons directly responsible for activities which involve the handling of ionizing radiation sources. The book consists of a preface and the following chapters: (1) Fundamentals of ionizing radiation physics; (2) Quantities and units used in ionizing radiation protection; (3) Principles of ionizing radiation dosimetry; (4) Biological effects of ionizing radiation; (5) An overview of sources of public irradiation; (6) Principles and methods of health protection against ionizing radiation; (7) Examples of technical applications of sources of ionizing radiation; (8) Personnel and working environment monitoring; (9) Documentation maintained at sites with ionizing radiation sources; (10) Methods of personnel protection against external irradiation and internal radionuclide contamination; (11) Radiation incidents and accidents; (12) Health care of personnel exposed to the ionizing radiation risk; (12) Additional radiation protection requirements in handling radioactive substances other than sealed sources; (13) Measurement and metrology. (P.A.).

  9. Ionization of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, E.C.; Bakale, G.

    1976-01-01

    Application of pulsed-conductivity techniques to ionization phenomena in liquids has yielded new results on electron transport and electron reactions in nonpolar liquids which we have extrapolated to biological systems to develop a novel model of direct radiation damage to mammalian cells that involves the unsolvated electron as the key reactant. Among these new results are electron attachment rate constants of thirty-five substituted nitrobenzene compounds measured in nonpolar solvents which when combined with product anion lifetimes are correlated with cellular radiosensitization efficiencies. From this study we found that electron attachment rates are dependent upon the electron mobility in the solvents and upon the dipole moment of the electron-accepting nitrobenzene compounds. The model also drawn upon energy-dependent electron attachment rates which we have measured in cryogenic liquids, and we have measured in the same solvents associative detachment rate constants and electron momentum transfer cross sections. In addition to these studies of electronic processes in liquids, we have measured ion mobilities of lecithin and chlorophyll in nonpolar solvents and conclude that these solutes form inverse micelles under certain conditions. Formation of these micelles permits electron transport through the lipid micellar walls and electron attachment to electron-accepting polar solutes inside the lipid vesicles to be studied

  10. Ionization in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakale, G.

    1990-01-01

    During the 1987--1990 reporting period, studies were conducted that entailed the direct measurement of the transport and reaction properties of excess electrons in nonpolar liquids through the use of pulse-conductivity techniques. The results obtained from these studies should be applicable toward the development of a better understanding of the primary ionizing event in liquids as well as to providing physico-chemical information that is pertinent to electron-transfer processes that are ubiquitous in biological systems. Progress was also made in developing a better understanding of electron attachment reactions in liquids through measurements of the electron attachment rate constants, k e s, of a variety of electron-attaching solutes. The effects of several functional groups substituted at different positions on benzene were studied in liquid cyclohexane and isooctane. The electron-attaching properties of chemicals having well characterized carcinogenic properties were studied in cyclohexane to determine if the measure of electron-accepting potential that k e provides can elucidate the role that electrons play in the initiation step of carcinogenesis. The k e s that were measured indicate that the k e -carcinogenicity correlation that was observed can be used to complement short-term carcinogen-screening bioassays to identify potential carcinogens. 115 refs., 6 tabs

  11. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  12. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  13. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  14. Monitoring of tritium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1981-01-01

    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  15. Safe use of ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-01-01

    Based on the ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), this handbook shows how hospital staff can avoid exposing themselves and others to these hazards. It is designed particularly for junior and student nurses. Contents: ionizing radiations, their types and characteristics; their uses and dangers; basic principles in their safe use; safe use in practice; explanation of terms.

  16. Biomedical applications of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.M.; Pietrzak, M.

    1997-01-01

    Application of ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical devices, hygienization of cosmetics products as well as formation of biomaterials have been discussed. The advantages of radiation sterilization over the conventional methods have been indicated. The properties of modern biomaterials, hydrogels as well as some ways of their formation and modification under action of ionizing radiation were presented. Some commercial biomaterials of this kind produced in accordance with original Polish methods by means of radiation technique have been pointed out. (author)

  17. Modeling ionization by helicon waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeling, A.W.; Boswell, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The response of the electron distribution function in one dimension to a traveling wave electric field is modeled for parameters relevant to a low-pressure helicon wave plasma source, and the resulting change in the ionization rate calculated. This is done by calculating the trajectories of individual electrons in a given wave field and assuming no collisions to build up the distribution function as the distance from the antenna is increased. The ionization rate is calculated for argon by considering the ionization cross section and electron flux at a specified position and time relative to the left-hand boundary, where the distribution function is assumed to be Maxwellian and the wave travels to the right. The simulation shows pulses in the ionization rate that move away from the antenna at the phase velocity of the wave, demonstrating the effect of resonant electrons trapped in the wave close-quote s frame of reference. It is found that the ionization rate is highest when the phase velocity of the wave is between 2 and 3x10 6 m/s, where the electrons interacting strongly with the wave (i.e., electrons with velocities inside the wave close-quote s open-quotes trapping widthclose quotes) have initial energies just below the ionization threshold. Results from the model are compared with experimental data and show reasonable qualitative agreement. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Radioprotection in the medical applications of the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents information about of the radiological safety in the medical application of the ionizing radiation compiled in 11 chapter and 1 annex. The first four chapters are principally dedicated to technical uses in radioprotection, the external and internal irradiation and the biological radiation effects. The radioprotection principles, the individual monitoring techniques, and the radioprotection systems are developed afterwards in the followings three chapters. The second half of the document is dedicated entirely to the medical practices using ionizing radiations, specially to the radioprotection aspects in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The final chapter is dedicated to radiological accidents happened worldwide in the field of the medical applications of the ionizing radiations. The annex, about of the regulatory area, established a set of standards, laws, decrees and other force regulations in radiological safety, related in radiodiagnosis, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy

  19. Transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathers, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of transverse MHD shock waves in a partly ionized hydrogen plasma is studied using a three-fluid model with collisional transport coefficients. The morphology of the various sublayers in the shock front is analyzed in detail and it is shown that strong shock waves have a characteristic viscous structure. Weak to moderate strength shock waves display a resistive structure in which the enhanced transverse resistivity due to ion-slip plays a significant role, leading to a pronounced peak in the ion temperature profile. Calculated shock structure profiles are also compared with experimental temperature data. Results in the form of tables and figures are presented for shock waves with fast Mach number ranging from 1-10 in hydrogen plasma with initial degree of ionization ranging from 5-100%. (author)

  20. Simultaneous determination of ten antiepileptic drugs in human plasma by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization and its application in therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Shi, Meiyun; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Xiaojun; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai

    2016-03-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantitation of ten antiepileptic drugs in human plasma has been developed and validated. The method required only 10 μL of plasma. After simple protein precipitation using acetonitrile, the analytes and internal standard diphenhydramine were separated on a Zorbax SB-C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm) using acetonitrile/water as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The total run time was 6 min for each sample. The validation results of specificity, matrix effects, recovery, linearity, precision, and accuracy were satisfactory. The lower limit of quantification was 0.04 μg/mL for carbamazepine, 0.02 μg/mL for lamotrigine, 0.01 μg/mL for oxcarbazepine, 0.4 μg/mL for 10-hydroxycarbazepine, 0.1 μg/mL for carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, 0.15 μg/mL for levetiracetam, 0.06 μg/mL for phenytoin, 0.3 μg/mL for valproic acid, 0.03 μg/mL for topiramate, and 0.15 μg/mL for phenobarbital. The intraday precision and interday precision were less than 7.6%, with the accuracy ranging between -8.1 and 7.9%. The method was successfully applied to therapeutic drug monitoring of 1237 patients with epilepsy after administration of standard antiepileptic drugs. The method has been proved to meet the high-throughput requirements in therapeutic drug monitoring. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Resonance ionization scheme development for europium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrysalidis, K., E-mail: katerina.chrysalidis@cern.ch; Goodacre, T. Day; Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A. [CERN (Switzerland); Naubereit, P. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany); Rothe, S.; Seiffert, C. [CERN (Switzerland); Kron, T.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institiut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Odd-parity autoionizing states of europium have been investigated by resonance ionization spectroscopy via two-step, two-resonance excitations. The aim of this work was to establish ionization schemes specifically suited for europium ion beam production using the ISOLDE Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS). 13 new RILIS-compatible ionization schemes are proposed. The scheme development was the first application of the Photo Ionization Spectroscopy Apparatus (PISA) which has recently been integrated into the RILIS setup.

  2. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  3. Instrumentation for environmental monitoring in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.M.; Graven, R.M.; Budnitz, R.J.; Mack, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review of the status of instrumentation for monitoring environmental pollutants is given. Pollutants are divided into six broad categories: trace elements, pesticides and herbicides, ionizing radiation and radionuclides, asbestos and other microparticulates, and gaseous pollutants. (U.S.)

  4. Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Flurin; Gloess, Alexia N; Keller, Marco; Wetzel, Andreas; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2012-03-01

    A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.

  5. Ionization cell for sensing and measuring gaseous impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelman, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    An improved gas ionization cell is described with compensation for variations in flow rate of the gas and variations in radioactive source intensity. A gas sample is directed past a source of ionizing radiation and through a recombination region to an ion collection screen, where output current is monitored to give an indication of trace gases or vapors present in the gas under surveillance. Compensation for changes in gas flow rate and source intensity is provided by taking a portion of the gas subjected to the ionizing radiation and directing that portion of the gas through a channel by-passing the recombination region of the cell and past a pair of conductive probes. The first probe of the pair is biased at a predetermined voltage, while electric current is monitored at the second probe spaced downstream from the first probe. The current generated at the second probe, which is for all practical purposes a function of only the rate of gas flow and the source intensity, provides the compensation signal for the ionization cell. 4 claims, 8 figures

  6. Measuring ionizing radiation with a mobile device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsburg, Matthias; Fehrenbach, Thomas; Puente León, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    In cases of nuclear disasters it is desirable to know one's personal exposure to radioactivity and the related health risk. Usually, Geiger-Mueller tubes are used to assess the situation. Equipping everyone with such a device in a short period of time is very expensive. We propose a method to detect ionizing radiation using the integrated camera of a mobile consumer device, e.g., a cell phone. In emergency cases, millions of existing mobile devices could then be used to monitor the exposure of its owners. In combination with internet access and GPS, measured data can be collected by a central server to get an overview of the situation. During a measurement, the CMOS sensor of a mobile device is shielded from surrounding light by an attachment in front of the lens or an internal shutter. The high-energy radiation produces free electrons on the sensor chip resulting in an image signal. By image analysis by means of the mobile device, signal components due to incident ionizing radiation are separated from the sensor noise. With radioactive sources present significant increases in detected pixels can be seen. Furthermore, the cell phone application can make a preliminary estimate on the collected dose of an individual and the associated health risks.

  7. Quantitative detection of nitric oxide in exhaled human breath by extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Susu; Tian, Yong; Li, Ming; Zhao, Jiuyan; Zhu, Lanlan; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Haiwei; Wang, Haidong; Shi, Jianbo; Fang, Xiang; Li, Penghui; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-03-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a useful biomarker of various physiological conditions, including asthma and other pulmonary diseases. Herein a fast and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the quantitative detection of eNO based on extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EESI-MS). Exhaled NO molecules selectively reacted with 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) reagent, and eNO concentration was derived based on the EESI-MS response of 1-oxyl-2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline (PTI) product. The method allowed quantification of eNO below ppb level (~0.02 ppbv) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 11.6%. In addition, eNO levels of 20 volunteers were monitored by EESI-MS over the time period of 10 hrs. Long-term eNO response to smoking a cigarette was recorded, and the observed time-dependent profile was discussed. This work extends the application of EESI-MS to small molecules (mass spectrometers. Long-term quantitative profiling of eNO by EESI-MS opens new possibilities for the research of human metabolism and clinical diagnosis.

  8. Down syndrome and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, P

    1997-12-01

    This review examines the epidemiologic and experimental studies into the possible role ionizing radiation might play in Down Syndrome (trisomy 21). It is prompted by a report of a temporal cluster of cases of this chromosomal disorder observed in West Berlin exactly 9 mo after the radioactive cloud from Chernobyl passed. In approximately 90% of cases, Down Syndrome is due to the nondisjunction of chromosome 21, most often in the oocyte, which may be exposed to ionizing radiation during two separate periods: before the completion of the first meiosis or around the time of ovulation. Most epidemiologic studies into trisomies and exposure to ionizing radiation examine only the first period; the Chernobyl cluster is related to the second. Analysis of these epidemiologic results indicates that the possibility that ionizing radiation might be a risk factor in Down Syndrome cannot be excluded. The experimental results, although sometimes contradictory, demonstrate that irradiation may induce nondisjunction in oogenesis and spermatogenesis; they cannot, however, be easily extrapolated to humans. The weaknesses of epidemiologic studies into the risk factors for Down Syndrome at birth (especially the failure to take into account the trisomy cases leading to spontaneous abortion) are discussed. We envisage the utility and feasibility of new studies, in particular among women exposed to prolonged or repeated artificially-produced ionizing radiation.

  9. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.

    1989-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  10. Ionization equilibrium in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, R.

    1987-01-01

    The average degree of ionization for a strongly coupled plasma is investigated and calculated. Two widely used approaches: the Saha equation method and the Thomas-Fermi (TF) statistical atomic model are adopted to determine the degree of ionization. Both methods are modified in a number of ways to include the strong-coupling effect in the plasma. In the Saha equation approach, the strong-coupling effects are introduced through: (i) a replacement of the Coulomb potential by a screened Debye potential; (ii) adoption of the Planck-Larkin partition function; (iii) description of the electron component by Fermi-Dirac statistics. The calculated degree of ionization exceeds that obtained from the original Saha equation, exhibits a minimum as a function of the density and shows an abrupt phase transition from weakly ionized to a fully ionized state. The zero-temperature TF model for compressed ions and the finite-temperature TF model for ions are investigated for the first time. In order to take into account the strong-coupling effect in a systematic way, a strong-coupling TF model is set up. Favorable results with the relatively simple approximations indicate that the newly established strong-coupling TF model is a more systematic and physically consistent approach

  11. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  12. Technical sheets of ionizing radiations. 2. Non-ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of different non-ionizing radiations are studied: ultra-violet radiation, visible radiation, infrared radiation, micrometric waves, ultrasonics. In spite of their apparent diversity these radiations are similar in their physico-chemical effects, but in view of their widely varying production methods and types of application each type is considered separately. It is pointed out that no organization resembling the CIPR exists in the field of non-ionizing radiations, the result being a great disparity amongst the different legislations in force [fr

  13. Ionizing radiation post-curing of objects produced by stereolithography and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David H.; Eberle, Claude C.; Janke, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    An object comprised of a curable material and formed by stereolithography or another three-dimensional prototyping method, in which the object has undergone initial curing, is subjected to post-curing by ionizing radiation, such as an electron beam having a predetermined beam output energy, which is applied in a predetermined dosage and at a predetermined dose rate. The post-cured object exhibits a property profile which is superior to that which existed prior to the ionizing radiation post-curing.

  14. Statistical methods to evaluate thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, Nadia; Matoso, Erika; Fagundes, Rosane Correa

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation levels, evaluated through the exposure of CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD- 200), have been monitored at Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA), located at Ipero in Sao Paulo state, Brazil, since 1991 resulting in a large amount of measurements until 2009 (more than 2,000). The data amount associated with measurements dispersion, since every process has deviation, reinforces the utilization of statistical tools to evaluate the results, procedure also imposed by the Brazilian Standard CNEN-NN-3.01/PR- 3.01-008 which regulates the radiometric environmental monitoring. Thermoluminescence ionizing radiation dosimetry data are statistically compared in order to evaluate potential CEA's activities environmental impact. The statistical tools discussed in this work are box plots, control charts and analysis of variance. (author)

  15. Ionizing energy treatment of poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.W.A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an ionizing energy treatment to poultry carcasses results in a decrease of the number of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, e.g. Salmonellae. At the same time the refrigerated shelf life of treated poultry products is considerably increased. To achieve these beneficial effects doses ranging from 2.00 to 9.00 kGy are needed, but in poultry doses over 5.00 kGy may cause undesirable side-effects. To asses the microbiological quality of ionizing radiation treated end-products adequate isolation methods should be used to include all sublethally injured microorganisms in the colony counts. The assessment of the required lethality of an ionizing energy treatment is difficult as D 10 (decimal reduction) - values depend greatly on several parameters

  16. Ionization of nitrogen cluster beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Katsuki; Be, S.H.; Enjoji, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Kosuke

    1975-01-01

    A nitrogen cluster beam (neutral particle intensity of 28.6 mAsub(eq)) is ionized by electron collisions in a Bayard-Alpert gauge type ionizer. The extraction efficiency of about 65% is obtained at an electron current of 10 mA with an energy of 50 eV. The mean cluster size produced at a pressure of 663 Torr and temperature of 77.3 K is 2x10 5 molecules per cluster. By the Coulomb repulsion force, multiply ionized cluster ions are broken up into smaller fragments and the cluster ion size reduces to one-fourth at an electron current of 15 mA. Mean neutral cluster sizes depend strongly on the initial degree of saturation PHI 0 and are 2x10 5 , 7x10 4 and 3x10 4 molecules per cluster at PHI 0 's of 0.87, 0.66 and 0.39, respectively. (auth.)

  17. Spectroscopy of highly ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic structure and decay characteristics of excited states in multiply ionized atoms represent a fertile testing ground for atomic calculations ranging from accurate ab initio theory for few-electron systems to practical semi-empirical approaches for many-electron species. Excitation of fast ions by thin foils generally produces the highest ionization stages for heavy ions in laboratory sources. The associated characteristics of spectroscopic purity and high time resolution provide unique capabilities for studying the atomic properties of highly-ionized atoms. This report is limited to a brief discussion of three classes of atomic systems that are experiencing current theoretical and experimental interest: precision structure of helium-like ions, fine structure of doubly-excited states, and lifetimes of metastable states. Specific measurements in each of these types of systems are mentioned, with emphasis on the relation to studies involving slow, highly-charged ions

  18. A fission ionization detector for neutron flux measurements at a spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Balestrini, S. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Brown, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Haight, R.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Laymon, C.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Lee, T.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Lisowski, P.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); McCorkle, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Nelson, R.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Parker, W. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1993-11-15

    The construction of a neutron flux monitor that can measure absolute neutron intensities in the neutron energy range from below 1 MeV to over 500 MeV is described. The detector consists of an ionization chamber with several thin deposits of fissionable material. The ionization chamber is thin enough that it does not significantly affect the neutron beam and may be left in the neutron flight path during experimental measurements to continuously monitor the beam flux. The use of this monitor at the continuous-energy spallation neutron source at the WNR target area at LAMPF is described. (orig.)

  19. A fission ionization detector for neutron flux measurements at a spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wender, S.A.; Balestrini, S.; Brown, A.; Haight, R.C.; Laymon, C.M.; Lee, T.M.; Lisowski, P.W.; McCorkle, W.; Nelson, R.O.; Parker, W.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a neutron flux monitor that can measure absolute neutron intensities in the neutron energy range from below 1 MeV to over 500 MeV is described. The detector consists of an ionization chamber with several thin deposits of fissionable material. The ionization chamber is thin enough that it does not significantly affect the neutron beam and may be left in the neutron flight path during experimental measurements to continuously monitor the beam flux. The use of this monitor at the continuous-energy spallation neutron source at the WNR target area at LAMPF is described. (orig.)

  20. School Health Profiles 2014: West Virginia Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia Department of Education Office of Research, Accountability, and Data Governance, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The School Health Profiles (Profiles) is a system of surveys assessing school health policies and practices in states, large urban school districts, and territories. Profiles surveys are conducted biennially by education and health agencies among middle and high school principals and lead health education teachers. Profiles monitors the current…

  1. Prenatal exposition on ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Sessions on Prenatal Exposition on Ionizing Radiations was organized by the Argentine Radioprotection Society, in Buenos Aires, between 8 and 9, November 2001. In this event, were presented papers on: biological effects of ionizing radiation; the radiation protection and the pregnant woman; embryo fetal development and its relationship with the responsiveness to teratogens; radioinduced delayed mental; neonatal irradiation: neurotoxicity and modulation of pharmacological response; pre implanted mouse embryos as a model of uranium toxicity studies; hereditary effects of the radiation and new advances from the UNSCEAR 2001; doses estimation in embryo

  2. Ionization chambers for LET determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Franz-Joachim; Bassler, Niels; Tölli, Heikki

    2010-01-01

    resolution and high sensitivity are necessary. For exact dosimetry which is done using ionization chambers (ICs), the recombination taking place in the IC has to be known. Up to now, recombination is corrected phenomenologically and more practical approaches are currently used. Nevertheless, Jaff´e's theory...... of columnar recombination was designed to model the detector efficiency of an ionization chamber. Here, we have shown that despite the approximations and simplification made, the theory is correct for the LETs typically found in clinical radiotherapy employing particles from protons to carbon ions...

  3. Improving N-Glycan Coverage using HPLC-MS with Electrospray Ionization at Subambient Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marginean, Ioan; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Slysz, Gordon W.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2012-10-01

    Human serum glycan profiling with mass spectrometry (MS) has been employed to study several disease conditions and is demonstrating promise for e.g. clinical biomarker discovery. However, the poor glycan ionization efficiency and the large dynamic range of glycan concentrations in human sera hinder comprehensive profiling. In particular, large glycans are problematic because they are present at low concentrations and prone to fragmentation. Here we show that the sub-ambient pressure ionization with nanoelectrospray (SPIN)-MS can expand the serum glycome profile when compared with the conventional atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS with a heated capillary inlet. Notably, the ions generated by the SPIN interface were observed at higher charge states for 50% of the annotated glycans. Out of a total of 130 detected glycans, 34 were only detected with the SPIN-MS, resulting in improved coverage of glycan families as well as of glycans with larger numbers of labile monosaccharides.

  4. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Toru; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼10 3 -10 5 cm –3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  5. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Food irradiation with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudkova, A.; Pohlova, M.; Sedlackova, J.

    1974-01-01

    Application possibilities are discussed of ionizing radiation in inhibiting plant germination, in radiopasteurization and radiosterilization of food. Also methods of combining radiation with thermal food sterilization are discussed. The problems of radiation doses and of hygienic purity of irradiated foodstuffs are dealt with. (B.S.)

  7. Trends in resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    The author reviews the history of resonance ionization spectroscopy and then comments on the delineations of RIS with reference to many related laser processes. The substance of the paper deals with the trends in RIS and especially how the needs for sensitive analytical methods have overshadowed the orginal plan to study excited species. 9 refs., 1 fig

  8. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photo-electron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photo-ionization signal. For both ns and np states the ''field induced'' MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength

  9. Resonance ionization spectroscopy in dysprosium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, D., E-mail: dstuder@uni-mainz.de; Dyrauf, P.; Naubereit, P.; Heinke, R.; Wendt, K. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) of high-lying energy levels in dysprosium. We developed efficient excitation schemes and re-determined the first ionization potential (IP) via analysis of Rydberg convergences. For this purpose both two- and three-step excitation ladders were investigated. An overall ionization efficiency of 25(4) % could be demonstrated in the RISIKO mass separator of Mainz University, using a three-step resonance ionization scheme. Moreover, an extensive analysis of the even-parity 6sns- and 6snd-Rydberg-series convergences, measured via two-step excitation was performed. To account for strong perturbations in the observed s-series, the approach of multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) was applied. Considering all individual series limits we extracted an IP-value of 47901.76(5) cm{sup −1}, which agrees with the current literature value of 47901.7(6) cm{sup −1}, but is one order of magnitude more precise.

  10. Ionizing radiation accidents. Data interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascon, Adriana S.

    2003-01-01

    After a general outlook of the biological effects at the cellular and molecular level, the somatic effects of the ionizing radiation are described. Argentine regulations and the ICRP recommendations on radiological protection of professionally exposed workers are also summarized. The paper includes practical advices for the physician that has to take care of an irradiated patient

  11. Atomic and molecular resonance ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter, R.; Petit, A.

    1990-01-01

    Published in summary form only the paper recalls the principle of resonance photoionization, transition probability, selectivity and critical parameters. Examples of applications are briefly treated: Trace analysis by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy for detection of Fe in Zr F 4 for fabrication of optical fibers and laser isotopic separation of U 235 and Gd 157 [fr

  12. Natural sources of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiations are described in detail. The sources are subdivided into sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic radiation) and sources of terrestrial origin. Data on the concentration of different nuclides in rocks, various soils, ground waters, atmospheric air, tissues of plants and animals, various food stuffs are presented. The content of natural radionuclides in environmental objects, related to human activities, is discussed

  13. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  14. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photoelectron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photoionization signal. For both ns and np states the field induced MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength. Finally, we note that the classical two-photon field-ionization threshold is lower for the case in which the laser polarization and the electric field are parallel than it is when they are perpendicular. 22 references, 11 figures

  15. Biopositive Effects of Ionizing Radiation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1972-01-01

    This paper was written for a talk given by E. Broda in Vienna for an event organised by the chemical physical society, the Austrian biochemical society and the Austrian biophysical society in December 1972. In this paper Broda analyses the question of biopositive effects of ionizing radiation. (nowak)

  16. Ionizing radiations: effects and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, S.; Nenot, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Having first mentioned the effects of ionizing radiations in cancerogenisis, pre-natal, and genetic fields, the authors present the different sources of radiations and estimate their respective contributions to the total irradiation dose. Their paper makes reference to the main elements of a report issued by the United Nations Scientific Committee in 1977 [fr

  17. Ionizing radiations, detection, dosimetry, spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.

    1997-10-01

    A few works in French language are devoted to the detection of radiations. The purpose of this book is to fill a gap.The five first chapters are devoted to the properties of ionizing radiations (x rays, gamma rays, leptons, hadrons, nuclei) and to their interactions with matter. The way of classification of detectors is delicate and is studied in the chapter six. In the chapter seven are studied the statistics laws for counting and the spectrometry of particles is treated. The chapters eight to thirteen study the problems of ionization: charges transport in a gas, ionization chambers (theory of Boag), counters and proportional chambers, counters with 'streamers', chambers with derive, spark detectors, ionization chambers in liquid medium, Geiger-Mueller counters. The use of a luminous signal is the object of the chapters 14 to 16: conversion of a luminous signal in an electric signal, scintillators, use of the Cerenkov radiation. Then, we find the neutron detection with the chapter seventeen and the dosimetry of particles in the chapter eighteen. This book does not pretend to answer to specialists questions but can be useful to physicians, engineers or physics teachers. (N.C.)

  18. On the Saha Ionization Equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We revisit the Saha Ionization Equation in order to highlightthe rich interdisciplinary content of the equation thatstraddles distinct areas of spectroscopy, thermodynamics andchemical reactions. In a self-contained discussion, relegatedto an appendix, we delve further into the hidden message ofthe equation in terms ...

  19. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L.; Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M.; Castruita D, J. P.; Barbosa S, G.

    2015-10-01

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H 2 O 2 /1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  20. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)