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Sample records for ionisation profile monitor

  1. First Results from the LEIR Ionisation Profile Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Sautier, R; Tranquille, G

    2008-01-01

    The role of the Low Energy Ion Ring, LEIR, is to transform long pulses of lead ions from the Linac 3 to short dense bunches for transfer to the LHC. This is accomplished by the accumulation of up to 4 Linac pulses by electron cooling. In order to non-destructively monitor the cooling performance and determine the accumulated beam characteristics, two prototype ionisation profile monitors have been built and were tested during the LEIR commissioning runs with O4+ and Pb54+ ions in 2006. In this paper we present the results obtained with the prototype monitors, the problems encountered and describe the modifications made for the final design. The modified monitors have been installed on the LEIR machine and are waiting for the next ion run planned in August.

  2. International conference on individual monitoring of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, Filip

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Radiation Protection Dosimetry is dedicated to the Proceedings of the International Conference on Individual Monitoring of Ionising Radiation (IM2015), which is the fifth of a series of conferences dealing with individual monitoring. This conference series is initiated by EURADOS, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group, and is organised every 5 years. In 2015, the conference was jointly organised by the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), AV Controlatom, and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. It brought together scientists from regulatory authorities, individual monitoring services (IMS), research bodies, European networks and companies, for the purpose of facilitating the dissemination of knowledge, exchanging experiences and promoting new ideas in the field of individual monitoring. After the conference, 124 papers were submitted for publication in these peer-reviewed proceedings. From these, 103 were finally accepted for publication. The help of the numerous referees and the guest editors is very much appreciated. These proceedings provide a full image of the IM2015 conference. The high-level publications will be useful to improve the state of individual monitoring all over the world and aim to inspire many scientists to continue their work on a better monitoring of radiologically exposed workers

  3. Education and training issues in individual monitoring of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, P.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2011-01-01

    The present article deals with the education and training (E and T) issues of individual monitoring (IM) of ionising radiation, based on the requirements provided by the Basic Safety Standards EURATOM Directive and the European Commission Technical Recommendations for IM of external radiation. The structure and the objectives of E and T programmes addressed to the staff of dosimetry services, in order to allow the recognition and ensure the continuity of expertise are discussed. The necessity for the establishment of a national strategy for building competence in IM through information, education, training and retraining programmes, addressed to the individually monitored personnel is underlined. The train the trainers' concept is recognised as being an important tool for optimising resources and transferring the skills necessary for building competence. The conditions under which an efficient train the trainers' approach can be established are discussed. Examples of curricula concerning the key persons involved in the provision of E and T in occupational radiation protection are also given. (authors)

  4. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  5. Ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The law covering ionising radiations in Belgium is summarised under the headings: the outline law of 19 March 1958; the General Regulation for the protection of the population and workers against the danger of ionising radiation (introduction; application; the control of classified establishments; organisation of general protection; importation, transit and distribution of radioactive substances; transport of radioactive substances; nuclear propulsion; ionising radiation in human or veterinary medicine; prohibitions and authorisations; exceptional measures; monitoring of the national territory and of the population as a whole; the approval of experts, organisations and doctors; monitoring; the public company for the management of radioactive waste and fissile materials); the law of 4 August 1955 concerning state security in the field of nuclear energy; civil responsibility; the Interministerial Commission on Nuclear Safety and State Security in the Nuclear Field; the non-proliferation of nuclear arms. (U.K.)

  6. A self-calibrating ionisation chamber for the precise intensity calibration of high-energy heavy-ion beam monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junghans, A.

    1996-01-01

    The intensity of a 136 Xe(600 A MeV) beam has been determined by simultaneously measuring the particle rate and the corresponding ionisation current with an ionisation chamber. The ionisation current of this self-calibrating device was compared at higher intensities with the current of a secondary-electron monitor and a calibration of the secondary-electron current was achieved with a precision of 2%. This method can be applied to all high-energy heavy-ion beams. (orig.)

  7. A front-end ASIC for ionising radiation monitoring with femto-amp capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voulgari, E.; Noy, M.; Anghinolfi, F.; Perrin, D.; Krummenacher, F.; Kayal, M.

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-low leakage current Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) called Utopia (Ultralow Picoammeter) has been designed and fabricated in AMS 0.35 μm CMOS, in order to be used as the front-end for ionising radiation monitoring at CERN. It is based on the topology of a Current to Frequency Converter (CFC) through charge balancing and demonstrates a wide dynamic range of 8.5 decades without range changing. Due to a design aimed at minimising input leakage currents, input currents as low as 01 fA can be measured

  8. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emissions and doses from sources of ionising radiation in the Netherlands: radiation policy monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleveld, H.; Pruppers, M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment requested RIVM to develop an information system for policy monitoring. One of the motives was that the European Union requires that the competent authorities of each member state ensure that dose estimates due to practices involving exposure to ionising radiation are made as realistic as possible for the population as a whole and for reference groups in all places where such groups may occur. Emissions of radionuclides and radiation to the environment can be classified as follows: (1) emissions to the atmosphere, (2) emissions to the aquatic system and (3) emission of external radiation from radioactive materials and equipment that produces ionising radiation. Released radioactivity is dispersed via exposure pathways, such as the atmosphere, deposition on the ground and farmland products, drinking water, fish products, etc. This leads to radiation doses due to inhalation, ingestion and exposure to external radiation. To assess the possible radiation doses different kinds of models are applied, varying from simple multiplications with dispersion coefficients, transfer coefficients and dose conversion coefficients to complex dispersion models. In this paper an overview is given of the human-induced radiation doses in the Netherlands. Also, trends in and the effect of policy on the radiation dose of members of the public are investigated. This paper is based on an RIVM report published recently. A geographical distribution of radiation risks due to routine releases for a typical year in the Netherlands was published earlier

  10. Beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.J.; Gram, P.A.M.

    1978-05-01

    A system used to monitor secondary beam profiles at the LAMPF Linac for channel tune-up and diagnostics is described. The multiwire proportional chamber design is discussed, and descriptions and drawings of the gate card, the amplifier/multiplexer card, the output amplifier card, and the overall system are given

  11. Chemically modified carbon nanotubes as material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI) material in protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najam-ul-Haq, M.; Rainer, M.; Schwarzenauer, T.; Huck, C.W.; Bonn, G.K.

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers play a potential role in the early detection and diagnosis of a disease. Our aim is to derivatize carbon nanotubes for exploration of the differences in human body fluids e.g. serum, through matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) that can be related to disease and subsequently to be employed in the biomarker discovery process. This application we termed as the material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI). The versatility of this technology is meant to increase the amount of information from biological samples on the protein level, which will have a major impact to serve the cause of diagnostic markers. Serum peptides and proteins are immobilized on derivatized carbon nanotubes, which function as binding material. Protein-loaded suspension is placed on a stainless steel target or buckypaper on aluminum target for direct analysis with MALDI-MS. The elution method to wash the bound proteins from carbon nanotubes was employed to compare with the direct analysis procedure. Elution is carried out by MALDI matrix solution to get them out of the entangled nanotubes, which are difficult to desorb by laser due to the complex nanotube structures. The advantage of these optimized methods compared to the conventional screening methods is the improved sensitivity, selectivity and the short analysis time without prior albumin and immunoglobulin depletion. The comparison of similarly modified diamond and carbon nanotubes exhibit differences in their nature to bind the proteins out of serum due to the differences in their physical characteristics. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provided hint for the presence of tertiary amine peak at the crucial chemical step of iminodiacetic acid addition to acid chloride functionality on carbon nanotubes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was utilized to quantitatively measure the copper capacity of these derivatized carbon nanotubes which is a direct measure of capacity of

  12. Fourth IRMF comparison of calibrations of portable gamma-ray dose- rate monitors 2001-2002 Ionising radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, V E

    2002-01-01

    The Ionising Radiations Metrology Forum (IRMF) organised a fourth comparison of calibrations of gamma-ray dose-rate monitors in which fifteen establishments in the UK participated. The exercise involved the circulation of three gamma-ray monitors for calibration in the fields produced using sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am and sup 6 sup 0 Co. The instruments used were an Electra with MC 20 probe, a Mini-Instruments Mini-rad 1000 and a Siemens electronic personal dosemeter Mk 2 (EPD). The responses relative to 'true' dose equivalent rate were calculated by the individual participants and submitted to the for analysis along with details of the facilities and fields employed. Details of the estimated uncertainties were also reported. The results are compared and demonstrate generally satisfactory agreement between the participating establishments. However, the participants' treatment of uncertainties needs improvement and demonstrates a need for guidance in this area.

  13. Direct Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionisation (MALDI) Mass-Spectrometry Bacteria Profiling for Identifying and Characterizing Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, E N

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the features and limitations of direct Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionisation (MALDI) mass-spectrometry profiling of bacterial cells for investigating a microbial population. The optimal laboratory protocol, including crude bacteria lyses by a solution of 50% acetonitrile, 2.5% trifluoroacetic acid, and using α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid as the MALDI matrix, has been developed. Two different bacteria species were under investigation, and representative mass spectra from 278 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 22 strains of Helicobacter pylori have been analyzed. It's known that both bacteria demonstrate a variable degree of polymorphism. For N. gonorrhoeae, the MALDI mass spectra that was collected possessed about 70 peaks, 20 of which were good reproducible ones. In spite of the fact that three peaks were found with differing spectra in some strains, little diversity in the N. gonorrhoeae population was revealed. This fact indicates the prospects in using direct MALDI mass-spectrometry profiling for gonococcus identification. In the case of H. pylori strains, the variety in the collected mass-spectra was shown to be essential. Only five peaks were present in more than 70% of strains, and a single mass value was common for all spectra. While these data call into question the possibility of the reliable species identification of H. pylori using this approach, the intraspecies differentiation of strains was offered. Good association between MALDI profile distributions and the region of strain isolation have been found. Thus, the suggested direct MALDI mass-spectrometry profiling strategy, coupled with special analysis software, seems promising for the species identification of N. gonorrhoeae but is assumed insufficient for H. pylori species determination. At the same time, this would create a very good chance for an epidemiological study of such variable bacteria as H. pylori.

  14. Single Pass Optical Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, R; Hutchins, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Beam profiles are acquired in transfer lines to monitor extracted beams and compute their emittance. Measurements performed on the first revolutions of a ring will evaluate the matching of a chain of accelerators. Depending on the particle type and energy, these measurements are in general performed with screens, making either use of Luminescence or Optical Transition Radiation [OTR], and the generated beam images are acquired with sensors of various types. Sometimes the beam position is also measured this way. The principle, advantages and disadvantages of both families of screens will be discussed in relation with the detectors used. Test results with beam and a possible evaluation method for luminescent screens will be presented. Finally other optical methods used will be mentioned for completeness.

  15. Working safely with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A small leaflet provides information on working safely with ionizing radiation. Topics covered include the types of radiation, radiological units, external radiation, contamination and internal radiation, methods of protection form radiation, radiation monitors, protective clothing for contamination, personal dosemeters, radiation dose limits for classified workers and finally the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. (UK)

  16. Monitor of SC beam profiles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    A high-resolution secondary emission grid for the measurement of SC beam profiles. Modern techniques of metal-ceramic bonding, developed for micro-electronics, have been used in its construction. (See Annual Report 1977 p. 105 Fig. 12.)

  17. Rotating scanning polarization profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukup, J.; Green, P.W.; Holm, L.; Korkmaz, E.; Mullin, S.; Roy, G.; Stocki, a.T. [Dept. of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2N5 (Canada); Berdoz, A.R.; Birchal, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Hamian, A.A.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Reitzner, S.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; van Oers, a.W.T.H. [Dept. of Physics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Bowman, J.D.; Mischke, R.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Davis, C.A.; Healey, D.C.; Helmer, R.; Levy, C.D.P.; Schmor, a.P.W. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Titov, N.A.; Zelenskii, A.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, SU 117312 (Russian Federation)

    1995-05-05

    A polarimeter capable of determining transverse component polarization profile of the 222 MeV proton beam both in horizontal ({ital x}) and vertical ({ital y}) directions with faster than 1 Hz scanning frequency has been developed and built as part of the preparations in the TRIUMF Experiment 497 measuring the flavour conserving hadronic weak interaction (parity violation measurement). The design features and test performance results are presented. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  18. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W.

    1997-01-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM's). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests

  19. A prototype ionization profile monitor for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Cameron, P.; Ryan, W. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Transverse beam profiles in the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) will be measured with ionization profile monitors (IPM`s). Each IPM collects and measures the distribution of electrons in the beamline resulting from residual gas ionization during bunch passage. The electrons are swept transversely from the beamline and collected on strip anodes oriented parallel to the beam axis. At each bunch passage the charge pulses are amplified, integrated, and digitized for display as a profile histogram. A prototype detector was tested in the injection line during the RHIC Sextant Test. This paper describes the detector and gives results from the beam tests.

  20. About the contribution of occupational health's services for risk factors evaluation, medical and dosimetric follow-up in the workers monitoring exposed to ionising radiations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailloeuil, C.; Gonin, M.; Gerondal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: French national regulation (31/03/2003) indicates principles of a global approach about the medical and dosimetric follow-up in the workers monitoring. Legislator insists on risks and expositions trace ability along all professional career and after. The aim of this French specific system is to institute medical clinic aspects in accordance with dosimetry and professional risks. The occupational practitioners are approved practitioners who have followed a specific training. The organisation guarantees that a worker will be followed by one specific practitioner in order to reinforce the quality and the traceability of follow up. Medical supervision is done at taking on and at least once a year. It means to identify and take care of risks and expositions at work stations. If necessary, biological measurements and recommendations about collective and individual protection equipments complete the estimation of risks. On the subject of emergency, first aid is delivered on sites by occupational health personnel, either for classic medical problem or for radiological accident. Furthermore, occupational health personnel assist outside emergency services with whom we have specific conventions. External dosimetric follow-up is done with radiation protection qualified expert of the company. The internal contamination supervision and internal dose evaluation are done by the occupational health services. Measurements either whole body counts or radio-toxicologic analysis are submitted to technical quality process. Beyond the respect of regulatory dose limits, the aim of the dosimetric follow-up is the contribution to the preparation of work places with strong dosimetric focus. Informations at workers are dispensed about every risks and every kinds of risks: ionising radiation health effects, ionising radiation and pregnancy, high exposition, chemical risks, work at heat, asbestos. All data are conserved 50 years after the exposure These data

  1. On-line process monitoring of coffee roasting by resonant laser ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: bridging the gap from industrial batch roasting to flavour formation inside an individual coffee bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, R; Dorfner, R; Yeretzian, C; Streibel, T; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) enables the fast and sensitive on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during coffee roasting. On the one hand, REMPI-TOFMS was applied to monitor roasting gases of an industrial roaster (1500 kg/h capacity), with the aim of determining the roast degree in real-time from the transient chemical signature of VOCs. On the other hand, a previously developed μ-probe sampling device was used to analyse roasting gases from individual coffee beans. The aim was to explore fundamental processes at the individual bean level and link these to phenomena at the batch level. The pioneering single-bean experiments were conducted in two configurations: (1) VOCs formed inside a bean were sampled in situ, i.e. via a drilled μ-hole, from the interior, using a μ-probe (inside). (2) VOCs were sampled on-line in close vicinity of a single coffee bean's surface (outside). The focus was on VOCs originating from hydrolysis and pyrolytic degradation of chlorogenic acids, like feruloyl quinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid. The single bean experiments revealed interesting phenomena. First, differences in time-intensity profiles between inside versus outside (time shift of maximum) were observed and tentatively linked to the permeability of the bean's cell walls material. Second, sharp bursts of some VOCs were observed, while others did exhibit smooth release curves. It is believed that these reflect a direct observation of bean popping during roasting. Finally, discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora was demonstrated based on high-mass volatile markers, exclusively present in spectra of Coffea arabica. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Comparison of pre-filter and post-filter ionised calcium monitoring in continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F with citrate anti-coagulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Brain

    Full Text Available It is widespread practice during citrate anticoagulated renal replacement therapy to monitor circuit ionised calcium (iCa2+ to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoagulation. Whether the optimal site to sample the blood path is before or after the haemofilter is a common question.Using a prospectively collected observational dataset from intensive care patients receiving pre-dilution continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHD-F with integrated citrate anticoagulation we compared paired samples of pre and post filter iCa2+ where the target range was 0.3-0.5 mmol.L-1 as well as concurrently collected arterial iCa2+. Two nested mixed methods linear models were fitted to the data describing post vs pre filter iCa2+, and the relationship of pre, post and arterial samples.An 11 bed general intensive care unit.450 grouped samples from 152 time periods in seven patients on CRRT with citrate anticoagulation.The relationship of post to pre-filter iCa2+ was not 1:1 with post = 0.082 + 0.751 x pre-filter iCa2+ (95% CI intercept: 0.015-0.152, slope 0.558-0.942. Variation was greatest between patients rather than between circuits within the same patient or citrate dose. Compared to arterial iCa2+ there was no significant difference between pre and post-filter sampling sites (F-value 0.047, p = 0.827.These results demonstrate that there is minimal difference between pre and post filter samples for iCa2+ monitoring of circuit anticoagulation in citrate patients relative to the arterial iCa2+ in CVVHD-F however compared to pre-filter sampling, post filter sampling has a flatter response and greater variation.

  3. Sensitive monitoring of monoterpene metabolites in human urine using two-step derivatisation and positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Lukas [Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schillerstrasse 25/29, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Belov, Vladimir N. [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Facility for Synthetic Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Göen, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Goeen@ipasum.med.uni-erlangen.de [Institute and Outpatient Clinic of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schillerstrasse 25/29, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-09-02

    Highlights: •Sensitive monitoring of 10 metabolites of (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene in human urine samples. •Fast and simple sample preparation and derivatisation procedure using two-step silylation for unreactive tertiary hydroxyl groups. •Synthesis of reference substances and isotopically labelled internal standards of (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene metabolites. •Study on (R)-limonene, α-pinene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene metabolite background exposure of 36 occupationally unexposed volunteers. -- Abstract: A gas chromatographic–positive chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometric (GC–PCI-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 10 oxidative metabolites of the monoterpenoid hydrocarbons α-pinene, (R)-limonene, and Δ{sup 3}-carene ((+)-3-carene) in human urine was developed and tested for the monoterpene biomonitoring of the general population (n = 36). The method involves enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides followed by solid-supported liquid–liquid extraction and derivatisation using a two-step reaction with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide and N-(trimethylsilyl)imidazole. The method proved to be both sensitive and reliable with detection limits ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 μg L{sup −1}. In contrast to the frequent and distinct quantities of (1S,2S,4R)-limonene-1,2-diol, the (1R,2R,4R)-stereoisomer could not be detected. The expected metabolite of (+)-3-carene, 3-caren-10-ol was not detected in any of the samples. All other metabolites were detected in almost all urine samples. The procedure enables for the first time the analysis of trace levels of a broad spectrum of mono- and bicyclic monoterpenoid metabolites (alcohols, diols, and carboxylic acids) in human urine. This analytical procedure is a powerful tool for population studies as well as for the discovery of human metabolism and toxicokinetics of monoterpenes.

  4. Counterstreaming electron beam profile and position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.; Hohban, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Individual profiles and positions of two counterstreaming 10 MeV electron beams were measured using the strongly forward directed bremsstrahlung radiation produced when a small fraction of the beam impinges on a tantalum foil. The 0.02 mm wide foil is driven through the electron beams by an external motor connected to the foil by a linear vacuum feedthrough. Bremsstrahlung radiation is detected by a series of ordinary semiconductor diodes spaced around the circumference of the beam vacuum pipe in two planes. The planes are on opposite sides of the foil and are equidistant and parallel to the plane of motion of the foil. The diodes produce output currents proportional to the bremsstrahlung radiation intensity and require no biasing voltages. Design and operational features of the beam monitor for electron beams up to 100 MeV are described. Measurements on counterstreaming 10 MeV pulsed electron beams are presented. Spatial resolutions of 0.3 mm are easily discernable

  5. Profile Monitors Based on Residual Gas Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Forck, P; Giacomini, T; Peters, A

    2005-01-01

    The precise determination of transverse beam profiles at high current hadron accelerators has to be performed non-interceptingly. Two methods will be discussed based on the excitation of the residual gas molecules by the beam particles: Firstly, by beam induced fluorescence (BIF) light is emitted from the residual gas molecules and is observed with an image intensified CCD camera. At most laboratories N2 gas is inserted, which has a large cross section for emission in the blue wave length region. Secondly, a larger signal strength is achieved by detecting the ionization products in an Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM). By applying an electric field all ionization products are accelerated toward a spatial resolving Micro-Channel Plate. The signal read-out can either be performed by observing the light from a phosphor screen behind the MCP or electronically by a wire array. Methods to achieve a high spatial resolution and a fast turn-by-turn readout capability are discussed. Even though various approaches at dif...

  6. Genetic effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of ionising radiation on germ cells with resulting genetic abnormalities in subsequent generations, are considered. Having examined a simple model to explain the interaction of ionising radiation with genetic material and discussed its limitations, the methods whereby mutations are transmitted are discussed. Methods of estimating genetic risks and the results of such studies are examined. (U.K.)

  7. CloudMonitor: Profiling Power Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James William; Khajeh-Hosseini, Ali; Ward, Jonathan Stuart; Sommerville, Ian

    2012-01-01

    In Cloud Computing platforms the addition of hardware monitoring devices to gather power usage data can be impractical or uneconomical due to the large number of machines to be metered. CloudMonitor, a monitoring tool that can generate power models for software-based power estimation, can provide insights to the energy costs of deployments without additional hardware. Accurate power usage data leads to the possibility of Cloud providers creating a separate tariff for power and therefore incen...

  8. A fluorescent screen beam profile monitor for INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Banerji, Anil; Puntambekar, T.A.; Kotaiah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring under construction at CAT Indore. One important diagnostic the element of such a ring is the destructive type fluorescent screen beam profile monitor (BPM). It will help to visualize the position and profile (size and shape) of electron beam circulating in the ring, in a qualitative manner. In this monitor the electron beam is intercepted by chromium activated ceramic scintillator screen placed at 45 degrees to the beam path. The ceramic fluorescent screen can be brought in the beam path at the time of observation and then taken out. The fluorescent spot is observed through a CCD camera. A prototype of this monitor has been developed in CAT. This paper describes mechanical aspects of design and development of beam profile monitor. Remote operation of monitor from Indus-2 control room is also discussed

  9. Monitoring the beam profile in HLS with synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zhigao; Wang Guicheng; Yan Xiufen; Wang Jihong; Zhang Danhong; Zhou Yuehua; Zhao Feng; Xie Rongsheng; Sun Baogen; Wu Jinqi

    1996-01-01

    The beam profile monitor built for HLS (Hefei Light Source) is presented. The monitor is composed of an imaging optical system, a commercial CCD TV camera as a detector, an electronic circuit, and a computer to calculate the beam dimensions. This technique has the ability to get the emittance of HLS with the superior resolution, to monitor the beam orbit and beam instability as well. (orig.)

  10. Performance Monitoring Based on UML Performance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Chul Jin; Cho, Eun Sook

    In this paper we propose a way of measuring software performance metrics such as response time, throughput, and resource utilization. It is obvious that performance-related Quality of Service (QoS) is one of the important factors which are satisfied for users' needs. The proposed approach uses UML performance profile for the performance specification and aspect-oriented paradigm for the performance measurement. Code instrumentation in AOP is a mechanism to insert source code for performance measurement into business logic code. We used AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension to the Java. AspectJ code for performance measurement is separated from Java code for functional requirements. Both AspectJ and Java code can be woven together for the performance measurement. The key component of the proposed approach is an AspectJ code generator. It creates AspectJ code for the performance measurement from the UML [1] models containing performance profile.

  11. Use of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The Committee has inquired into and reported on the use of ionising radiation for commercial sterilisation, disinfestation, food preservation and other purposes with particular reference to human health and safety; environmental impacts, and adequacy of assessment and regulatory procedures. While food irradiation is apparently commercially successful overseas the application to Australia seems extremely limited - it would be used primarily for disinfestation of insect pests and perhaps to reduce levels of harmful bacteria in a limited range of foods. For other applications there are effective and more economic alternatives. The report reviews other studies of food irradiation and the policies and practices governing its use in other countries. The safety of irradiated food, the radiological safety issues and the regulations which would be required in Australia are dealt with in detail. The Committee recommends, inter alia, that the Australian Government should not approve the irradiation of food in Australia until such time as a routine commercial method of detection has been developed and that the import of caesium 137 for use as an irradiation source in commercial irradiation facilities be prohibited

  12. Profile of phenolic compounds of Brazilian virgin olive oils by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-ESI-TOF-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballus, Cristiano Augusto; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; da Silva, Luiz Fernando de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Adelson Francisco; Coutinho, Enilton Fick; da Croce, Dorli Mario; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Godoy, Helena Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, agronomical researchers began to cultivate several olive varieties in different regions of Brazil to produce virgin olive oil (VOO). Because there has been no reported data regarding the phenolic profile of the first Brazilian VOO, the aim of this work was to determine phenolic contents of these samples using rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. 25 VOO samples from Arbequina, Koroneiki, Arbosana, Grappolo, Manzanilla, Coratina, Frantoio and MGS Mariense varieties from three different Brazilian states and two crops were analysed. It was possible to quantify 19 phenolic compounds belonging to different classes. The results indicated that Brazilian VOOs have high total phenolic content because the values were comparable with those from high-quality VOOs produced in other countries. VOOs from Coratina, Arbosana and Grappolo presented the highest total phenolic content. These data will be useful in the development and improvement of Brazilian VOO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid characterisation and comparison of saponin profiles in the seeds of Korean Leguminous species using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tae Joung; Lee, Byong Won; Park, Ki Hun; Jeong, Seong Hun; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Ko, Jong-Min; Baek, In-Youl; Lee, Jin Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The present work was reported on investigation of saponin profiles in nine different legume seeds, including soybean, adzuki bean, cowpea, common bean, scarlet runner bean, lentil, chick pea, hyacinth bean, and broad bean using ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-ESI/MS) technique. A total of twenty saponins were characterised under rapid and simple conditions within 15min by the 80% methanol extracts of all species. Their chemical structures were elucidated as soyasaponin Ab (1), soyasaponin Ba (2), soyasaponin Bb (3), soyasaponin Bc (4), soyasaponin Bd (5), soyasaponin αg (6), soyasaponin βg (7), soyasaponin βa (8), soyasaponin γg (9), soyasaponin γa (10), azukisaponin VI (11), azukisaponin IV (12), azukisaponin II (13), AzII (14), AzIV (15), lablaboside E (16), lablaboside F (17), lablaboside D (18), chikusetusaponin IVa (19), and lablab saponin I (20). The individual and total saponin compositions exhibited remarkable differences in all legume seeds. In particular, soyasaponin βa (8) was detected the predominant composition in soybean, cowpea, and lentil with various concentrations. Interestingly, soybean, adzuki bean, common bean, and scarlet runner bean had high saponin contents, while chick pea and broad bean showed low contents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    Beam-profile monitor using a sodium-vapour curtain at 45 degrees to the ISR beam in Ring I (sodium generator is in white cylinder just left of centre). Electrons produced by ionization of the sodium vapour give an image of the beam on a fluorescent screen that is observed by a TV camera (at upper right).

  15. Food ionisation. Realities and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, G.

    1994-06-01

    The ionisation of food is a treatment using a certain type of energy. the radiations used in the industrial treatments are limited to three sources. The gamma radiations, the x radiations and the electrons beams emitted with accelerators. The physical treatments by ionizing radiations have for aim to cleanse and to increase the conservation time of food. Now, the applications in agriculture and food industry, are still marginal. The industrial using ionisation are these ones that did not find any alternative decontamination method. The barriers are more scientific or technical or economical than a question of regulation or behaviour. (N.C.)

  16. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  17. RESIDUAL-GAS-IONIZATION BEAM PROFILE MONITORS IN RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNOLLY, R.; MICHNOFF, R.; TEPIKIAN, S.

    2005-05-16

    Four ionization profile monitors (IPMs) in RHIC measure vertical and horizontal beam profiles in the two rings by measuring the distribution of electrons produced by beam ionization of residual gas. During the last three years both the collection accuracy and signal/noise ratio have been improved. An electron source is mounted across the beam pipe from the collector to monitor microchannel plate (MCP) aging and the signal electrons are gated to reduce MCP aging and to allow charge replenishment between single-turn measurements. Software changes permit simultaneous measurements of any number of individual bunches in the ring. This has been used to measure emittance growth rates on six bunches of varying intensities in a single store. Also the software supports FFT analysis of turn-by-turn profiles of a single bunch at injection to detect dipole and quadrupole oscillations.

  18. Description of a radiation monitoring system with centralized data processing, industrial application to the 'Departement des Rayonnements Ionisants' (DRIS-CEN/Saclay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busson, D.; Hulot, J.P.; Perotin, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    A radiation monitoring board is described for a basic nuclear facility, the role of which is the development, processing, testing, packaging and marketing of radioelements for medical, radio-pharmaceutical and industrial use. The area being monitored covers 2080 square metres of which 980 m 2 of laboratories and 1100 m 2 of active premises. Close on 300 persons work there every day. It is therefore necessary to have a very reliable and highly sensitive radiation monitoring system to guard against any radioactive incident. This central data processing type radiation monitoring board has 120 measuring channels. It is noted that this type of equipment did not pose any problems for the health physics personnel operating it [fr

  19. An Electron-Beam Profile Monitor Using Fresnel Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Iida, Kensuke; Shinoe, Kenji; Takaki, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masami; Hayano, Hitoshi; Muto, Toshiya; Nomura, Masaharu; Kamiya, Yukihide; Koseki, Tadashi; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Nobutada; Nakayama, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a beam profile monitor using two Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) at the KEK-ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring to measure small electron-beam sizes for low-emittance synchrotron radiation sources. The monitor has a structure of an X-ray microscope, where two FZPs constitute an X-ray imaging optics. In the monitor system, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized to 3.235-keV X-rays by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron-beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. This monitor has the following advantages: (1) high spatial resolution, (2) non-destructive measurement, (3) real-time monitoring, and (4) direct electron-beam imaging. With the beam profile monitor, we have succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. The measured magnification of the imaging optics was in good agreement with the design value

  20. Dose limits for ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, D.

    1989-01-01

    Dose limits for exposure to ionising radiation are assessed to see if they give sufficient protection both for the occupationally exposed and for the general public. It is concluded that current limits give a level of safety that satisfies the necessary criteria in the light of present knowledge and further reductions would be unlikely to improve standards of safety. (author)

  1. Non-destructive beam profile monitor at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Araki, N.; Hosaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-destructive profile monitors (NDPM), based on micro-channel plate (MCP), have been developed and installed in both the synchrotron ring and high-energy beam transport (HEBT) line at HIMAC. Beam test using these monitors have been carried out since April of 1995 to investigate a change of vertical beam size in synchrotron and a possibility of observing beam with high energy by one pass. In this paper the measurement system is mainly reported, and the preliminary results are also briefly presented. (author)

  2. Design of the AGS Booster Ionization Profile Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.N.; Thern, R.E.; Witkover, R.L.; Van Zwienen, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM) must operate in a vacuum of about 3 x 10 -11 Torr. The ultra-high vacuum imposes certain requirements on detector gain and restrictions on construction techniques. Each detector is a two-stage microchannel plate with an integral substrate containing sixty-four printed anodes. Formed electrodes provide uniform collection fields without the use of resistors, which would be unacceptable in these vacuum conditions. An ultra-violet light calibrates the detector in its permanent mounting. An extra set of electrodes performs a first order correction to the perturbations imposed by the horizontal and vertical collection electrodes. This paper will present details of the design of the profile monitor. 4 refs., 2 figs

  3. Sensitivity Studies with the SPS Rest Gas Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Koopman, J; Sillanoli, M

    2001-01-01

    During the SPS run in the year 2000 further test measurements were performed with the rest gas monitor. First, profiles of single circulating proton bunches were measured and the bunch charge progressively reduced, in order to determine the smallest bunch intensity which can be scanned under the present operating conditions. The image detector in this case was a CMOS camera. Using a multi-anode strip photo-multiplier with fast read-out electronics, the possibility to record profiles on a single beam passage and on consecutive turns was also investigated. This paper presents the results of these tests and discusses the expected improvements for the operation in 2001. Moreover, the issue of micro channel plate ageing effects was tackled and a calibration system based on electron emission from a heating wire is proposed. The gained experience will be used for the specification of a new monitor with optimised design, to be operated both in the SPS and in the LHC.

  4. Design and operation of the AGS Booster Ionization Profile Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillman, A.N.; Thern, R.E.; Van Zwienen, W.H.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The AGS Booster Ionization Profile Monitor (IPM) must operate in a vacuum of about 3 x 10 -11 Torr. The ultra-high vacuum imposes certain requirements on detector gain and restrictions on construction techniques. Each detector is a two-stage micro-channel plate with an integral substrate containing sixty-four printed anodes. Formed electrodes provide uniform collection fields without the use of resistors, which would be unacceptable in these vacuum conditions. An ultra-violet light calibrates the detector in its permanent mounting. An extra set of electrodes performs a first order correction to the perturbations imposed by the horizontal and vertical collection electrodes. This paper will present details of the design of the profile monitor and recent operational results. 4 refs., 6 figs

  5. Neutron flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Manfred K.; Valentine, Kenneth H.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occured. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  6. GEM-based beam profile monitors for the antiproton decelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte Pinto, S.; Ropelewski, L.; Spanggaard, J.; Tranquille, G.

    2012-01-01

    The new beam profile measurement for the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN is based on a single Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) with a 2D readout structure. This detector is very light, ~0.4% X0, as required by the low energy of the antiprotons, 5.3 MeV. This overcomes the problems previously encountered with multi-wire proportional chambers (MWPC) for the same purpose, where beam interactions with the detector severely affect the obtained profiles. A prototype was installed and successfully tested in late 2010, with another five detectors now installed in the ASACUSA and AEGIS beam lines. We will provide a detailed description of the detector and discuss the results obtained. The success of these detectors in the AD makes GEM-based detectors likely candidates for upgrade of the beam profile monitors in all experimental areas at CERN. The various types of MWPC currently in use are aging and becoming increasingly difficult to maintain.

  7. Exploration of ion temperature profile measurements at JET using the upgraded neutron profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marocco, D.; Esposito, B.; Riva, M.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron profile monitor (NPM), routinely used at the Joint European Torus for neutron emissivity profile measurements, consists of two fan-shaped arrays of collimators and each line of sight (LOS) is equipped with a NE213 liquid organic scintillator for simultaneous measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutrons. A digital system developed in ENEA has replaced the analog acquisition electronics and now enables the NPM to perform spatially resolved neutron spectrometry by providing neutron pulse height spectra (PHS) for each LOS. However, the NPM was not originally designed as a spectrometer and, therefore, lacks several key features, such as detailed measurements of the detector response functions and the presence of detector stability monitors. We present a proof of principle of ion temperature profile measurements derived from the NPM PHS in high plasma current discharges using simulated detector response functions.

  8. Advisory group on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advisory Group on Ionising Radiation has a busy and challenging work programme. Its reports will be published in the Documents of the NRPB series. These may advise further research or could form the basis of formal NRPB advice. Covering the full spectrum of radiation issues at work, in public health and clinical medicine, and the environment, it should enhance the radiation advice available to NRPB. (author)

  9. Occupational exposure in radiology and nuclear medicine departments. Categorization and dosimetric monitoring; Exposition aux rayonnements ionisants des personnels medicaux. Pour une categorisation et une surveillance dosimetrique rationnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordoliani, Y.S. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, Service d' Imagerie Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Aubert, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Service de Physique 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2003-12-01

    Currently, the radiation exposure of the huge majority of radiologic staff in radiology or nuclear medicine departments is very low. These workers are no longer in the 'A category' of the French regulations, which implies annual exposure ranged from 6 to 20 mSv. Most workers of the staff would be categorized into B category (annual exposure ranged from 1 to 6 mSv). In radiology departments, only the interventional radiologists must be categorized 'A' and in nuclear medicine department, only the technicians regularly assigned to injection of radiopharmaceuticals must be categorized 'A'. The modification of the categorization from 'B' to 'A' provides a best dosimetric monitoring: the electronic dosimeters are allocated to a few, really exposed, workers, while passive, three-month-read dosimeters record the very low exposures of the majority of workers. A dosimetric survey of each post, working out the maximal exposure of a permanent worker at this post is the prerequisite of the establishment of this categorization. (author)

  10. Analytical & Experimental Study of Radio Frequency Cavity Beam Profile Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2017-10-22

    The purpose of this analytical and experimental study is multifold: 1) To explore a new, radiation-robust, hadron beam profile monitor for intense neutrino beam applications; 2) To test, demonstrate, and develop a novel gas-filled Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to use in this monitoring system. Within this context, the first section of the study analyzes the beam distribution across the hadron monitor as well as the ion-production rate inside the RF cavity. Furthermore a more effecient pixel configuration across the hadron monitor is proposed to provide higher sensitivity to changes in beam displacement. Finally, the results of a benchtop test of the tunable quality factor RF cavity will be presented. The proposed hadron monitor configuration consists of a circular array of RF cavities located at a radial distance of 7cm { corresponding to the standard deviation of the beam due to scatering { and a gas-filled RF cavity with a quality factor in the range 400 - 800.

  11. A multiwire secondary emission profile monitor for small emittance beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.; Bonnard, J.; Humbert, G.; Leblond, B.; Saury, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    A secondary emission monitor using two multiwire grids separated by a positively biased collector has been constructed and tested with a 1 GeV electron beam at the Orsay Linac. The monitor installed just before the electron-positron converter has 8 gold-plated-tungsten wires of 0.1 mm diameter equally spaced 0.2 mm apart in each plane. Each wire is connected with an integrator using a low-bias current operational amplifier. The wire planes and the collector are moved into the beam by a stepping motor : that allows beam-position verification. We measured narrow profiles for 1 Amp peak current pulses of 30 nanoseconds width. Profiles are displayed on a scope and allow emittance determination by the three gradient method. Such a monitor is very useful to control the electron beam position and dimensions on the converter, because the positron source dimensions are rather bigger than those of the incident beam and the geometrical acceptance of the positron Linac is limited

  12. A beam intensity profile monitor based on secondary electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdoz, A.R.; Birchall, J.; Campbell, J.R.; Davis, C.A.; Davison, N.E.; Mosscrop, D.R.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; Sekulovich, A.M.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; MIschke, R.E.

    1991-03-01

    Two dual function intensity profile monitors have been designed for a measurement of parity violation in antiproton-proton scattering at about 230 MeV using longitudinally polarized protons. Each device contains a set of split secondary electron emission (SEM) foils to determine the median of the beam current distribution (in x and y). The split foils, coupled through servoamplifiers and operational amplifiers to upstream air core steering magnets, have demonstrated the ability to hold the beam position stable to within ± 3 μm after one hour of data taking with a 100 nA, 15 mm FWHM Gaussian beam. (Author) 16 refs., 10 figs., tab

  13. Coherent Diffraction Radiation Longitudinal Beam Profile Monitor for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Micheler, Maximilian; Boorman, Gary; Karataev, Pavel; Lekomtsev, Konstantin; Molloy, Stephen; Corsini, Roberto; Dabrowski, Anne; Lefevre, Thibaut

    2010-01-01

    A setup for the investigation of Coherent Diffraction Radiation (CDR) from a conducting screen as a tool for noninvasive longitudinal electron beam profile diagnostics has been designed and installed in the Combiner Ring Measurement (CRM) line of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3, CERN). In this report the status of the monitor development and results on the interferometric measurements of CDR spectra are presented. The CDR signal correlation with an RF pickup and a streak camera is reported. The future plans for the system improvements are also discussed

  14. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. McColl (Neil); A. Auvinen (Anssi); A. Kesminiene (Ausrele); C. Espina (Carolina); F. Erdmann (Friederike); E. de Vries (Esther); R. Greinert (Rüdiger); J. Harrison (John); J. Schüz (Joachim)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIonising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other

  15. Profile Monitors for Wide Multiplicity Range Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buonomo, B; Quintieri, L

    2005-01-01

    The DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) provides electron and positron beams in a wide range of intensity, from single particle up to 1010 particles per pulse, and energy, from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The pulse time width can be adjusted between 1 and 10 ns and the maximum repetition rate is 50 Hz. The large range of operation of the facility requires the implementation of different beam profile and multiplicity monitors. In the single particle operation mode the beam spot profile and position are measured by a x-y scintillating fiber system with millimetric resolution and multi-anode PMT readout. From a few tens up to 106-107 particles per pulse, a silicon chamber made of two 9.5x9.5 cm2 wide 400μm thick silicon strip detectors organized in a x-y configuration with a pitch of 121μm has been developed. Once calibrated, the system can be used also as an intensity monitor. The description of the devices and the results obtained during the data taking periods of several experiments at the...

  16. Diseases induced by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    An interim report is presented by the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council in accordance with Section 141 of the Social Security Act 1975 on the question whether the terms of prescription for occupational diseases induced by ionising radiation should be amended to cover a wider range of conditions. A lack of persuasive statistical data has prevented reliable estimates of health risks of radiation workers in the UK to be made. However the report gives details of the progress made so far and the difficulties encountered. (U.K.)

  17. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    CERN Document Server

    Variola, A; Ferioli, G

    2007-01-01

    The LHC (large hadron collider) [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS), and super proton synchrotron (SPS) accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV) ...

  18. Characterization of a nondestructive beam profile monitor using luminescent emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Variola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The LHC (large hadron collider [LHC study group: LHC. The large hadron collider conceptual design; CERN/AC/95-05] is the future p-p collider under construction at CERN, Geneva. Over a circumference of 26.7 km a set of cryogenic dipoles and rf cavities will store and accelerate proton and ion beams up to energies of the order of 7 TeV. Injection in LHC will be performed by the CERN complex of accelerators, starting from the source and passing through the linac, the four booster rings, the proton synchrotron (PS, and super proton synchrotron (SPS accelerators. One of the main constraints on LHC performance is emittance preservation along the whole chain of CERN accelerators. The accepted relative normalized emittance blowup after filamentation is ±7%. To monitor the beam and the emittance blowup process, a study of different prototypes of nonintercepting beam profile monitors has been performed. In this context a monitor using the luminescent emission of gases excited by ultrarelativistic protons (450 GeV was developed and tested in the SPS ring. The results of beam size measurements and their evolution as a function of the machine parameters are presented. The image quality and resolution attainable in the LHC case have been assessed. A first full characterization of the luminescence cross section, spectrum, decay time, and afterglow effect for an ultrarelativistic proton beam is provided. Some significant results are also provided for lead ion beams.

  19. Food preservation by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The process of food preservation by ionising radiation is an alternative, or a complement, to the traditional methods of heating, refrigerating, freezing or using chemical additives. The study and development of this technique has started on the beginning of the fifties but it is based on the radiation killing effect on micro-organisms discovered by the end of last century. Foodstuffs are treated in appropriate plants: isotopic facilities (gamma radiation) and accelerated electron beams produced by machines called accelerators. The FAO and WHO in close cooperation with the IAEA have played an important role on the development of the process and on the increment of the industrial application of food irradiation. Over the world there are about 37 countries trading foods treated by ionising radiation. However, governments have been slow to clear the utilization of this process. The main reason of this attitude is in general due to the fact that the advantages of the technique are not clearly understood. Therefore, the dissemination of the information could on one hand clarify who has to take decisions and on the other hand support the choice of those foods by the consumers. This is the unique way to dynamize the application of this process

  20. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    CERN Document Server

    Rubbia, Carlo; Kadi, Y; Vlachoudis, V

    2006-01-01

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more ...

  1. Ionising radiation safety training in the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenks, G.J.; O'Donovan, E.J.B.; Wood, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    Training personnel in ionising radiation safety within the Australian Defence Organisation (ADO) requires addressing some unique features of an organisation employing both military and civilian personnel. Activities may include those of a civil nature (such as industrial and medical radiography), specific military requirements (for training and emergency response) and scientific research and development. Some personnel may be assigned to full-time duties associated with radiation. However, most are designated as radiation protection officers as a secondary duty. A further complication is that most military personnel are subjected to postings at regular intervals. The ADO's Directorate of Defence Occupational Health and Safety has established an Ionising Radiation Safety Subcommittee to monitor not only the adequacy of the internal Ionising Radiation Safety Manual but also the training requirements. A Training Course, responding to these requirements, has been developed to emphasize, basic radiation theory and protection, operation of radiation monitors available in the ADO, an understanding of the Ionising Radiation Safety Manual, day-to-day radiation safety in units and establishments, and appropriate responses to radiation accidents and emergencies. In addition, students are briefed on a limited number of peripheral topics and participate in some site visits. Currently, two Courses are held annually, each with about twenty students. Most of the material is presented by ADO personnel with external contractor support. The three Courses held to date have proved successful, both for the students and the ADO generally. To seek national accreditation of the course through the Australian National Training Authority, as a first step, competency standards have been proposed. (authors)

  2. Profile distortion by beam space-charge in Ionization Profile Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vilsmeier, D; Wettig, T

    Measuring the transverse beam size in the Large Hadron Collider by using Ionization Profile Monitors is a difficult task for energies above injection during the energy ramp from 450 GeV to 6.5TeV. The beam size decreases from around 1mm to 200um and the brightness of the beam is high enough to destroy the structure of any form of interacting matter. While the electron trajectories are confined by an external electro-magnetic field which forces the electrons accordingly on helix paths with certain gyroradii, this gyration is heavily increased under the influence of the electric field of the beam. Smaller beam sizes, which go hand in hand with increased bunch electric fields, lead to larger gyroradii of the ionized electrons, which results in strongly distorted profiles. In addition, this distortion becomes more visible for smaller beam sizes as the extent of gyration grows compared to the actual beam size. Depending on the initial momentum distribution of the electrons, emerging from the ionization process wit...

  3. A Discussion about Ionising and Non-Ionising Radiation and the Critical Issue of Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontomaris, Stylianos-Vasileios; Malamou, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is one of the most important issues affecting peoples' lives today. The misunderstanding of students and the general population of the effects of electromagnetic radiation is a problem which must be eliminated. Thus, a discussion about ionising and non-ionising radiation focusing on the crucial issue of radiation emitted…

  4. Impact assessment of ionising radiation in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This R and D project was commissioned by the Environment Agency and English Nature in January 2001 to provide up-to-date information on ionising radiation impact to wildlife, upon which a robust assessment approach may be developed. The methodology will provide an interim approach, whilst awaiting the outcome of the European Commission funded project 'Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact' (FASSET) due to end in October 2003. The aims of the report were: to summarise the latest research on the behaviour, transfer and impact of ionising radiation effects on wildlife; to outline and review relevant European Directives which have impacted on the requirements to assess the impact to wildlife from ionising radiation in the UK; to consider the role of regulatory bodies in assessing the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife with respect to England and Wales; to make recommendations on the relative biological effectiveness of different types of radiation with respect to wildlife; and to recommend an approach with which to assess the 'scale of risk' to wildlife from the effects of ionising radiation, with spreadsheets to support the methodology. The report describes the behaviour and transfer of radionuclides in a number of different ecosystem types. Particular emphasis is placed on those ecosystems most likely to be impacted by the authorised discharges of radioactivity within the UK. As there is no international consensus on the approach to be taken to assess the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife, some countries have adopted their own legislation. The report evaluates these regulatory frameworks and describe the current UK position

  5. Impact assessment of ionising radiation on wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Bielby, S.; Jones, S.

    2001-01-01

    This R and D project was commissioned by the Environment Agency and English Nature in January 2001 to provide up-to-date information on the impacts of ionising radiation on wildlife, upon which a robust assessment approach may be developed. This approach will also feed into the European Commission funded project 'Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact' (FASSET), due to complete in October 2003. This report describes the behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the environment, considers the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife, and makes recommendations on an approach for the impact assessment of ionising radiation on wildlife for England and Wales. The assessment approach focuses on three ecosystems representative of those considered potentially most at risk from the impact of authorised radioactive discharges, namely a coastal grassland (terrestrial ecosystem); estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. The likely scale of the impact on wildlife is also assessed in light of a preliminary analysis based on this assessment approach. The aims of the report are: to summarise the latest research on the behaviour, transfer and impact of ionising radiation effects on wildlife; an outline and review of the relevant European and national legislation which has impacts on the requirements for assessments of the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife in the UK; to consider the role of regulatory bodies in assessing the impact of ionising radiation on wildlife with respect to England and Wales; to make recommendations on the relative biological effectiveness of different types of radiation with respect to wildlife; and to recommend an approach to assess the impacts to wildlife from ionising radiation from authorised discharges in England and Wales, with spreadsheets to support the methodology. The report demonstrates the behaviour and transfer of radionuclides in a number of different ecosystem types. Particular emphasis is placed on exposure pathways in those

  6. Wave operators for atomic photo-ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, H.G.; Tip, A.

    1983-01-01

    The time development of a system consisting of an atom in an external electromagnetic field with fixed propagation direction is studied (vector potential A(x,t)=A(x 3 -ct)). It is shown that the Moeller wave-operators, relevant for photo-ionisation, exist, provided the components Asub(σ)(u) of A decay as |u|sup(-1-epsilon), epsilon>O, for large argument u. Since A(x,t) is not necessarily spatially homogeneous, the above results can serve as a starting point for an investigation of field-gradient effects on photo-ionisation processes. (author)

  7. Development of a high-resolution electron-beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Norio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Muto, Toshiya; Hayano, Hitoshi

    2004-01-01

    We present a high-resolution and real-time beam profile monitor using Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) developed in the KEK-ATF damping ring. The monitor system has an X-ray imaging optics with two FZPs. In this monitor, the synchrotron radiation from the electron beam at the bending magnet is monochromatized by a crystal monochromator and the transverse electron beam image is twenty-times magnified by the two FZPs and detected on an X-ray CCD camera. The expected spatial resolution for the selected photon energy of 3.235 keV is less than 1 μm. With the beam profile monitor, we succeeded in obtaining a clear electron-beam image and measuring the extremely small beam size less than 10 μm. It is greatly expected that the beam profile monitor will be used in high-brilliance light sources and low-emittance accelerators. (author)

  8. Two-dimensional beam-profile monitor using the Reticon MC510A array camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, B.

    1981-08-01

    A quantitative two-dimensional beam profile may be obtained from a scintillator viewed by a Reticon camera which uses a 32 x 32 array of photodiodes as its sensing element. In this note, CAMAC-oriented data acquisition electronics which allow one either to transmit the profile to a computer, or to use the monitor in a stand-alone mode are described

  9. Longitudinal profile monitors using Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.L.; Bakkali Taheri, F.; Barros, J.; Bartolini, R.; Cassinari, L.; Clarke, C.; Le Corre, S.; Delerue, N.; Doucas, G.; Fuster-Martinez, N.; Konoplev, I.; Labat, M.; Perry, C.; Reichold, A.; Stevenson, S.; Vieille Grosjean, M.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation has the potential of providing information on the longitudinal profile of an electron bunch. The E-203 experiment at the FACET User Facility measures bunch profiles from the SLAC linac in the hundreds of femtoseconds range and the SPESO collaboration at Synchrotron SOLEIL is planning to make an accurate 2D map of the Coherent Smith–Purcell Radiation emission. - Highlights: • Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation can be used to measure longitudinal profiles in the hundred femtoseconds range. • The current setup used by the E-203 collaboration require integration over several shots and gratings. • Reducing the integration over a single shot and a single grating still yields a meaning full result. • The SPESO experiment at SOLEIL will make a systematic study of Coherent Smith–Purcell radiation

  10. Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation and Countermeasures (Les effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants et leurs contre-mesures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    blood of pet dogs living in areas highly contaminated by organochlorine pesticides [10]. Aim: • To evaluate the effectiveness of using military...REPORT TR-HFM-222 Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation and Countermeasures (Les effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants et leurs contre...REPORT TR-HFM-222 Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation and Countermeasures (Les effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants et leurs contre

  11. Nucleation in an ultra low ionisation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker

    In this work we have studied aerosol formation at ultra-low ionisation levels, using the existing deep underground science facility at Boulby mine, UK. At 1100 m depth, with a corresponding factor 106 reduction in cosmic ray muon flux, the Boulby facility is an ideal place to study the role of ions...

  12. On the use of horizontal acoustic doppler profilers for continuous bed shear stress monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, B.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Sassi, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of bed shear stress in large river systems may serve to better estimate alluvial sediment transport to the coastal ocean. Here we explore the possibility of using a horizontally deployed acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to monitor bed shear stress, applying a prescribed

  13. Spectrum monitoring: Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) profile for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was crucial to monitor the Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) in order to conduct the radio astronomical research with very minimum RFI. These RFI will be distorted the astronomical data. In this work, we have investigated the RFI strength (dBm) and presenting on how the nearby RFI affect to the OH lines window (1600 ...

  14. Seconday-emission profile monitors at LEAR injection

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    This is a view against the direction of the beams. Through the right, smaller, opening the beams (protons, antiprotons, H-, later Pb-ions) entered and, after being put on central orbit with septum and kicker, reappeared as circulating beam through the left, larger, opening. Horizontal and vertical position and density profile of the incoming beam were measured with secondary emission grids. The same measurements were made on the beam after it had completed the first turn in the machine. For this purpose it was prevented from circulating with a beam stopper, mounted through the port at left (not mounted at the time the picture was taken).

  15. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  16. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  17. Monitoring structure development in milk acidification using diffuse reflectance profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Andersen, Ulf; Møller, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    The structure of dairy products is important for the consumer, and milk acidification plays a central role for structural development. To ensure the best possible consumer experience, it is important that a product’s structural properties are stable. Therefore process and quality control tools...... are needed so that the production can be carried out consistently, regardless of day-to-day variations in the raw materials. Casein micelles aggregate during milk acidification, which leads to formation of a gel network. This change of structure is important for the development of a range of dairy products....... It is therefore essential to monitor these structural changes and a variety of methods have been proposed to continuously follow this coagulation of milk [1]. Especially non-invasive methods for in situ production line application have been of interest. We propose a method for analyzing structural changes in milk...

  18. Beam profile monitor system for the bevalac transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1985-01-01

    Incorporated in the current Bevalac transfer line upgrade project is a proposal for a new electronic beam monitoring system. It will be designed to amplify, convert, and transmit the signals of twelve 16 by 16 multi-wire grids to a central computer located in the Bevatron control room. Each station will contain interface amplifiers and a local microprocessor to convert wire grid currents into digitized values which will then be transmitted via a serial data channel to the main computer. The system will have a large dynamic range (1 nano to 1 milli-ampere of beam current), be designed for distributed operation, and will be easily expandable. This paper describes the basic electronic hardware and software components of the proposed system

  19. Monitoring bioremediation of weathered diesel NAPL using oxygen depletion profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, G.B.; Johnston, C.D.; Patterson, B.M.; Barber, C.; Bennett, M.

    1995-01-01

    Semicontinuous logging of oxygen concentrations at multiple depths has been used to evaluate the progress of an in situ bioremediation trial at a site contaminated by weathered diesel nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL). The evaluation trial consisted of periodic addition of nutrients and aeration of a 100-m 2 trial plot. During the bioremediation trial, aeration was stopped periodically, and decreases in dissolved and gaseous oxygen concentrations were monitored using data loggers attached to in situ oxygen sensors placed at multiple depths above and within a thin NAPL-contaminated zone. Oxygen usage rate coefficients were determined by fitting zero- and first-order rate equations to the oxygen depletion curves. For nutrient-amended sites within the trial plot, estimates of oxygen usage rate coefficients were significantly higher than estimates from unamended sites. These rates also converted to NPL degradation rates, comparable to those achieved in previous studies, despite the high concentrations and weathered state of the NAPL at this test site

  20. Characterization of the Li beam probe with a beam profile monitor on JET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedzelskiy, I S; Korotkov, A; Brix, M; Morgan, P; Vince, J

    2010-10-01

    The lithium beam probe (LBP) is widely used for measurements of the electron density in the edge plasma of magnetically confined fusion experiments. The quality of LBP data strongly depends on the stability and profile shape of the beam. The main beam parameters are as follows: beam energy, beam intensity, beam profile, beam divergence, and the neutralization efficiency. For improved monitoring of the beam parameters, a beam profile monitor (BPM) from the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) has been installed in the Li beam line at JET. In the NEC BPM, a single grounded wire formed into a 45° segment of a helix is rotated by a motor about the axis of the helix. During each full revolution, the wire sweeps twice across the beam to give X and Y profiles. In this paper, we will describe the properties of the JET Li beam as measured with the BPM and demonstrate that it facilitates rapid optimization of the gun performance.

  1. Antioxidant Protection in Blood against Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Meszaros, G.; Koteles, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The quantities of the antioxidants in the human blood are important indicators of health status. The routine determinations of activities/capacities of antioxidant compounds would be of great importance in assessing individual sensitivities against oxidative effects. We have investigated the sensitivities of those antioxidant elements against various doses of ionising radiation tested by the RANDOX assays. Our results show dose-dependent decreases of antioxidant activities caused by the different doses. The total antioxidant status value linearly decreased up to 1 Gy, but further increase of dose (2 Gy) did not influence the respective values although the test system still indicated their presence. It means that the human blood retains 60-70% of its total antioxidant capacity. Radiation induced alterations of the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase have been also investigated. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased linearly upon the effects of various doses of ionising radiation till 1 Gy. Between 1 and 2 Gy only further mild decreases could be detected. In this case the human blood retained 40-60% of these two antioxidant enzymes. These observations suggest either the limited response of antioxidant system against ionising radiation, or the existence of protection system of various reactabilities. (author)

  2. A high resolution wire scanner beam profile monitor with a microprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.I.; Mohr, D.L.; Whittaker, J.K.; Yoder, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    A beam profile monitor has been constructed for the NBS-LANL Racetrack Microtron. The monitor consists of two perpendicular 30 μm diameter carbon wires that are driven through an electron beam by a pneumatic actuator. A long-lifetime, electroformed nickel bellows is used for the linear-motion vacuum feedthrough. Secondary emission current from the wires and a signal from a transducer measuring the position of the wires are simultaneously digitized by a microprocessor to yield beam current density profiles in two dimensions. The wire scanner is designed for use with both pulsed and cw beams

  3. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Design and Prototyping of an Ionization Profile Monitor for the SNS Accumulator Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartkoski, Dirk A [ORNL; Deibele, Craig E [ORNL; Polsky, Yarom [ORNL

    2014-12-01

    An ionization profile monitor (IPM) has been designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. Utilizing ionized electrons produced by beam-gas ionization, the SNS IPM uses a 120 kV bias potential to overcome beam space charge and accelerate electrons towards a movable particle detector. A 300 G magnetic field is used to confine the transverse electron motion, resulting in profile errors at the estimated 7% level. With a system bandwidth of 17.5 MHz. The SNS IPM is capable of measuring turn-by-turn beam profiles for a fully accumulated beam. This paper presents a description of the system and design.

  5. Food ionisation. Realities and perspectives; L'ionisation alimentaire. Realites et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G

    1994-06-01

    The ionisation of food is a treatment using a certain type of energy. the radiations used in the industrial treatments are limited to three sources. The gamma radiations, the x radiations and the electrons beams emitted with accelerators. The physical treatments by ionizing radiations have for aim to cleanse and to increase the conservation time of food. Now, the applications in agriculture and food industry, are still marginal. The industrial using ionisation are these ones that did not find any alternative decontamination method. The barriers are more scientific or technical or economical than a question of regulation or behaviour. (N.C.)

  6. Indigenous instruments for medical applications of ionising radiations and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, P.

    1980-01-01

    The Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, has developed and fabricated electronic instruments, such as various types of dosimeters, monitors and electronic circuits required in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and radiation protection monitoring of ionising radiations. They are grouped according to the purpose in charts. Their basic operating principles, circuits adopted for radiation measurement, and brief specifications such as range of measurements, accuracy, power supply, uses etc. are given. The design features of dosimetric instruments, which determine its reliability are shown in a chart. The vulnerable components such as ionisation chambers, amplifiers etc. require special attention during their design as they are affected by environmental conditions. Remedial measures to improve upon the overall system reliability are also given. (M.G.B.)

  7. A bipolar integrator for secondary emission profile monitors at the SSCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datte, P.; Beechy, D.; Webber, R.

    1994-01-01

    Many invasive techniques for monitoring beam profile and intensity require secondary emission signals in order to make the measurement. Signal acquisition and processing can take many forms. This paper describes a bipolar integration technique which uses the Burr-Brown ACF2101 Dual Switched Integrator chip and applications for accelerator beam instrumentation

  8. Phase-I monitoring of standard deviations in multistage linear profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaei, Mahdiyeh; Soleimani, Paria; Niaki, Seyed Taghi Akhavan; Atashgar, Karim

    2018-03-01

    In most modern manufacturing systems, products are often the output of some multistage processes. In these processes, the stages are dependent on each other, where the output quality of each stage depends also on the output quality of the previous stages. This property is called the cascade property. Although there are many studies in multistage process monitoring, there are fewer works on profile monitoring in multistage processes, especially on the variability monitoring of a multistage profile in Phase-I for which no research is found in the literature. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to monitor the standard deviation involved in a simple linear profile designed in Phase I to monitor multistage processes with the cascade property. To this aim, an autoregressive correlation model between the stages is considered first. Then, the effect of the cascade property on the performances of three types of T 2 control charts in Phase I with shifts in standard deviation is investigated. As we show that this effect is significant, a U statistic is next used to remove the cascade effect, based on which the investigated control charts are modified. Simulation studies reveal good performances of the modified control charts.

  9. Monitoring of temperature profiles and surface morphologies during laser sintering of alumina ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing of alumina by laser is a delicate process and small changes of processing parameters might cause less controlled and understood consequences. The real-time monitoring of temperature profiles, spectrum profiles and surface morphologies were evaluated in off-axial set-up for controlling the laser sintering of alumina ceramics. The real-time spectrometer and pyrometer were used for rapid monitoring of the thermal stability during the laser sintering process. An active illumination imaging system successfully recorded the high temperature melt pool and surrounding area simultaneously. The captured images also showed how the defects form and progress during the laser sintering process. All of these real-time monitoring methods have shown a great potential for on-line quality control during laser sintering of ceramics.

  10. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  11. Transition dynamics in two-photon ionisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Morgane; Gaillac, Romain; Maquet, Alfred; Taïeb, Richard; Caillat, Jérémie

    2017-11-01

    We review various aspects of photoemission dynamics in the case of two-photon ionisation. We first recall the definition of a transition phase specific to two-photon transitions. Numerical experiments on model atoms are used to show how the group delay associated with the transition phase is actually representative of the early dynamics of the detected photoelectron wave packets. Then we address the question of measuring these transition delays using a standard interferometric technique of experimental attosecond physics, so-called rabbit. Finally, we outline different reinterpretations of rabbit giving access to the more fundamental scattering dynamics affecting any photoemission processes.

  12. Beam profile measurement of ES-200 using secondary electron emission monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ebrahimi Basabi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Up to now, different designs have been introduced for measurement beam profile accelerators. Secondary electron emission monitors (SEM are one of these devices which have been used for this purpose. In this work, a SEM has been constructed to measure beam profile of ES-200 accelerator, a proton electrostatic accelerator which is installed at SBU. Profile grid for both planes designed with 16 wires which are insulated relative to each other. The particles with maximum energy of 200 keV and maximum current of 400 μA are stopped in copper wires. Each of the wires has an individual current-to-voltage amplifier. With a multiplexer, the analogue values are transported to an ADC. The ADCs are read out by a microcontroller and finally profile of beam shows by a user interface program

  13. Fast-scan monitor examines neutral-beam ion-density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    All of the magnetic mirror confinement fusion experiments at LLL and at other laboratories depend on pulsed, energetic neutral-beam injection for fueling and imparting energy to the trapped plasma for density build-up and stability studies. It is vital to be able to monitor how well the injected ion beam is aimed and focused. To do this, we have designed an ion-beam current-density profile monitor that uses a commercial minimodular data acquisition system. Our prototype model monitors a single 20-kV, 50-A, 10-ms beam. However, the method is applicable to any number of beams with similar sampling target arrays. Also, the electronics can be switched to monitor any one of several target collectors

  14. Real-time beam-profile monitor for a medical cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Hoehr, C.; Hendriks, C.; Uittenbosch, T.; Cameron, D.; Kellog, S.; Gray, D.; Buckley, K.; Verzilov, V.; Schaffer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Measuring the beam profile on a medical cyclo-tron in real time can aid in improved tuning of the cyclotron and give important information for a smooth operation. Typically the beam profile is measured by an autoradiography technique or even by a scintillator that can be viewed in real time [1, 2]. Another method is to use collimators in front of the target to assess the beam center-ing [3]. All these methods have potential draw-backs including; an inability to monitor the be...

  15. Profile of Colombian entrepreneurs based on the data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J. Santiago Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Using the data obtained from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor study through eight cycles of measurement, this work builds a profile of Colombian entrepreneurs considering the perspective of the entrepreneurial pipeline developed by Varela and Soler (2012, from 2006 to 2011. This research determines the profile of entrepreneurs in four points of the entrepreneurial pipeline: (1 intentional entrepreneurs, (2 nascent entrepreneurs, (3 new entrepreneurs and (4 established entrepreneurs. Gender, age, income level, and education level allowed longitudinal comparisons to identify prevailing characteristics. The relationship between these four variables and the four types of entrepreneurs in the pipeline was examined, in order to evaluate at what level one element explains the other.

  16. R & D of a Gas-Filled RF Beam Profile Monitor for Intense Neutrino Beam Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonehara, K. [Fermilab; Backfish, M. [Fermilab; Moretti, A. [Fermilab; Tollestrup, A. V. [Fermilab; Watts, A. [Fermilab; Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Abrams, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Cummings, M. A.; Dudas, A. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. P. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Neubauer, M. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Liu, Q. [Case Western Reserve U.

    2017-05-01

    We report the R&D of a novel radiation-robust hadron beam profile monitor based on a gas-filled RF cavity for intense neutrino beam experiments. An equivalent RF circuit model was made and simulated to optimize the RF parameter in a wide beam intensity range. As a result, the maximum acceptable beam intensity in the monitor is significantly increased by using a low-quality factor RF cavity. The plan for the demonstration test is set up to prepare for future neutrino beam experiments.

  17. Diamond pixel detector for beam profile monitoring in COMET experiment at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Cerv, M; Pernegger, H; Vageesvaran, P; Griesmayer, E

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and initial prototype results of a pixellized proton beam profile monitor for the COMET experiment at J-PARC. The goal of COMET is to look for charged lepton flavor violation by direct muon to electron conversion at a sensitivity of $0^{-19}$. An 8 GeV proton beam pulsed at 100 ns with $10^{10}$ protons/s will be used to create muons through pion production and decay. In the final experiment, the proton flux will be raised to $10^{14}$ protons/sec to increase the sensitivity. These requirements of harsh radiation tolerance and fast readout make diamond a good choice for constructing a beam profile monitor in COMET. We present first results of the characterization of single crystal diamond (scCVD) sourced from a new company, 2a systems Singapore. Our measurements indicate excellent charge collection efficiency and high carrier mobility down to cryogenic temperatures.

  18. A LVDT conditioner for the beam profile monitors of the AmPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es, J.T. van; Trigt, J.H. van.

    1991-01-01

    A LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) is a transducer for localization. Because of its applied materials, its construction and the absence of bearings etc. the instrument is suitable to be applied in locations where radioactive radiation is present. In order to obtain information about the position of the iron core in the transducer, a conditioner is needed. In 1977 by Digel a conditioner has been developed for the beam profile monitors (moving wire) of MEA because the 'market' could not meet the requirements then. Nowadays the 'market' offers i.c.'s which can take over the work of the Eurocard developed then. Digel has investigated them in order to see if they are applicable for the beam profile monitors of AmPS. (author). 5 refs.; 7 figs.; 13 tabs

  19. A laser-based beam profile monitor for the SLC/SLD interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, R.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Colocho, W.; Frisch, J.; Horton-Smith, S.; Inman, W.; Jobe, K.; Kotseroglou, T.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Scheeff, M.; Wagner, S.; Ross, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beam size estimates made using beam-beam deflections are used for optimization of the Stanford linear collider (SLC) electron-positron beam sizes. Typical beam sizes and intensities expected for 1996 operations are 2.1 x 0.6 μm (x, y) at 4.0.10 10 particles per pulse. Conventional profile monitors, such as scanning wires, fail at charge densities well below this. The laser-based profile monitor uses a finely-focused 350-nm wavelength tripled YLF laser pulse that traverses the particle beam path about 29 cm away from the e + /e - IP. Compton scattered photons and degraded e + /e - are detected as the beam is steered across the laser pulse. The laser pulse has a transverse size of 380 nm and a Rayleigh range of about 5 μm. (orig.)

  20. Neutron-flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-09-15

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occurred. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  1. Measurement of bubbly flows in vertical channels using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou Shirong; Takeda, Yasushi; Nakamura, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    The authors have been developing measurement technique, using the Ultrasonic Doppler effect and applicable for a bubbly flow in vertical channels in order to understand their multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. Our developed measurement system is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. In this paper, our proposed measurement system was applied to bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel the followings are discussed: (1) the measurement principle, (2) the data processing process, (3) measurement accuracy and (4) further problems. (author)

  2. Feature profile evolution in plasma processing using on-wafer monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Samukawa, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This book provides for the first time a good understanding of the etching profile technologies that do not disturb the plasma. Three types of sensors are introduced: on-wafer UV sensors, on-wafer charge-up sensors and on-wafer sheath-shape sensors in the plasma processing and prediction system of real etching profiles based on monitoring data. Readers are made familiar with these sensors, which can measure real plasma process surface conditions such as defect generations due to UV-irradiation, ion flight direction due to charge-up voltage in high-aspect ratio structures and ion sheath conditions at the plasma/surface interface. The plasma etching profile realistically predicted by a computer simulation based on output data from these sensors is described.

  3. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  4. Dose profile monitoring with carbon ions by means of prompt-gamma measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, E. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)], E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Bajard, M.; Chevallier, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Le Foulher, F. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Freud, N.; Letang, J.M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire de Controle Non-Destructif par Rayonnements Ionisants (France); Poizat, J.C.; Ray, C.; Testa, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, F-69003 Lyon, Universite Lyon 1 and IN2P3/CNRS, UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2009-03-15

    A key point in the quality control of ion therapy is real-time monitoring and imaging of the dose delivered to the patient. Among the possible signals that can be used to make such a monitoring, prompt gamma-rays issued from nuclear fragmentation are possible candidates, provided the correlation between the emission profile and the primary beam range can be established. By means of simultaneous energy and time-of-flight discrimination, we could measure the longitudinal profile of the prompt gamma-rays emitted by 73 MeV/u carbon ions stopping inside a PMMA target. This technique allowed us to minimize the shielding against neutrons and scattered gamma rays, and to find a good correlation between the prompt-gamma profile and the ion range. This profile was studied as a function of the observation angle. By extrapolating our results to higher energies and realistic detection efficiencies, we showed that prompt gamma-ray measurements make it feasible to control in real time the longitudinal dose during ion therapy treatments.

  5. High current CW beam profile monitors using transisiton radiation at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, P.; Denard, J.C.; Adderley, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1996-01-01

    One way of measuring the profile of CEBAF's low emittance and high power beam is to use the Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) emitted from a thin foil surface when the electron beam passes through it. We present the design of a monitor using the forward OTR emitted from a 0.25 μm carbon foil. We believe that the monitor will resolve three main issues: (i) whether the max temperature of the foil stays below the melting point, (ii) whether the beam loss remains below 0. 5%, in order not to trigger the machine protection system, and (iii) whether the monitor resolution (unlike that of synchrotron radiation monitors) is better than the product λγ. It seems that the most serious limitation for CEBAF is the beam loss due to beam scattering. We present results from Keil's theory and simulations from the computer code GEANT as well as measurements with Al foils with a 45 MeV electron beam. We also present a measurement of a 3.2 GeV beam profile that is much smaller than λγ, supporting Rule ampersand Fiorito's calculations of the OTR resolution limit due to diffraction

  6. CLOUD TECHNOLOGIES OF MONITORING OF THE QUALITY OF TRAINING OF WORKERS OF RAILWAY PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Bondarenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of creating the system of monitoring of the quality of professional training of future workers of railway profile, the author puts forward a technology of using cloud services of the search system of Google. The article proves that the system provides a complex support of monitoring, from creating appropriate forms and storing of the results in cloud storage to the\\processing of results of the monitoring and management of the system of testing on the basis of using the service of Google-Calendar. In the article there has been considered the usage of the concept of BYOD for testing of students’ achievement. The article demonstrates the advantages of  the proposed approach to monitoring the quality of training of future workers of railway profile highlighting  the usage of the cloud services of the search system of Google as a means of  expanding the boundaries of research in space and time and making the procedure more flexible and systematic.

  7. Abbreviated kinetic profiles in area-under-the-curve monitoring of cyclosporine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevel, J; Kahan, B D

    1991-11-01

    Abbreviated kinetic profiles can reduce the number of phlebotomies and drug assays, and thereby the cost of area-under-the-curve (AUC) monitoring. In the present investigation, we used two independent data sets: group 1, 101 AUC profiles from 77 stable renal-transplant patients, which included a 5-h sample in addition to the usual 0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, 10-, 14-, and 24-h samples; and group 2, 100 profiles from 50 stable renal-transplant patients before and after a change in their daily oral dose of cyclosporine. Group I demonstrated a fair correlation between cyclosporine trough concentrations and the AUC calculated from a complete set of seven concentrations (r2 = 0.820 and 0.758 for the 24- and 0-h samples, respectively). Stepwise multiple linear-regression analysis revealed that the abbreviated set of three time points (2, 6, and 14 h) explained 96% of the variance in AUC values calculated from the full set of seven samples; additional time points increased the accuracy only slightly. For group 2, we examined the difference between the observed and the predicted concentrations by linear extrapolation; the error in the observed AUC value, compared with the predicted value calculated from seven time points (-13.2% to -1.2%), was similar to the error from just three time points (-11.5% to 4.5%). Abbreviated AUC profiles involving three time points used with a model equation seem to provide a reliable alternative to full seven-point profiles.

  8. Antipsychotic treatment dosing profile in patients with schizophrenia evaluated with electronic monitoring (MEMS®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Francisco J; Ramallo-Fariña, Yolanda; Bosch, Esperanza; Mayans, Teresa; Rodríguez, Carlos J; Caravaca, Ana

    2013-05-01

    Although the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS®) device offers accurate information on treatment dosing profile, such profile has never been studied in patients with schizophrenia. Enhancing our knowledge on this issue would help in developing intervention strategies to improve adherence to antipsychotic treatment in these patients. 74 outpatients with schizophrenia were monitored with the MEMS device for a 3-month period, for evaluation of antipsychotic treatment dosing profile, possible influence of medication schedule-related variables, adherence to treatment--considering dose intake within prescribed timeframes--and possible Hawthorne's effect of using the MEMS device. Dose-omission gaps occurred in 18.7% of monitoring days, most frequently during weekends, almost significantly. Almost one-third of prescribed doses were taken out of prescribed time. Neither the prescribed number of daily doses nor the indicated time of the day for dose intake (breakfast, dinner), were associated with correct antipsychotic dosing. Excess-dose was rare in general, and more frequent out of prescribed dose timeframe. No Hawthorne's effect was found for the MEMS device. Adherence reached only 35% according to a definition that included dose intake within prescribed timeframes. Antipsychotic treatment dosing was considerably irregular among patients with schizophrenia. Strategies to reduce dose-omission gaps and increase dosing within prescribed timeframes seem to be necessary. Gaining knowledge on precise oral antipsychotic dosing profiles or the influence of schedule-related variables may be useful to design strategies towards enhancing adherence. There appears to be no Hawthorne's effect associated with the use of MEMS devices in outpatients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiative transfer calculations of the diffuse ionised gas in disc galaxies with cosmic ray feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Bert; Wood, Kenneth; Girichidis, Philipp; Hill, Alex; Peters, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    The large vertical scale heights of the diffuse ionised gas (DIG) in disc galaxies are challenging to model, as hydrodynamical models including only thermal feedback seem to be unable to support gas at these heights. In this paper, we use a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiation transfer code to post-process disc simulations of the Simulating the Life-Cycle of Molecular Clouds (SILCC) project that include feedback by cosmic rays. We show that the more extended discs in simulations including cosmic ray feedback naturally lead to larger scale heights for the DIG which are more in line with observed scale heights. We also show that including a fiducial cosmic ray heating term in our model can help to increase the temperature as a function of disc scale height, but fails to reproduce observed DIG nitrogen and sulphur forbidden line intensities. We show that, to reproduce these line emissions, we require a heating mechanism that affects gas over a larger density range than is achieved by cosmic ray heating, which can be achieved by fine tuning the total luminosity of ionising sources to get an apropriate ionising spectrum as a function of scale height. This result sheds a new light on the relation between forbidden line emissions and temperature profiles for realistic DIG gas distributions.

  10. Disposal regulations and techniques applicable to devices using ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    L'office de Protection contre les rayonnement ionisants, being a government body under the supervision of Ministry of Health and Labour, among other different missions controls the compliance of radiation protection laws with the aim to guarantee the safe operation of equipment using ionising radiation sources. These regulations concerning competence of personnel, especially in the field of medicine or application of ionising radiation on humans, are restricted only to medical doctors (or dentists in their domain) by technical constraints dealing with design of equipment and its exploitation. At the same time regulations define conditions of permanent control in order to verify compliance of radiation protection laws

  11. Innershell ionisation at small impactparameters in proton-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duinker, W.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on innershell ionisation in proton-atom collisions. An experiment on K-shell ionisation of argon is described, performed in a gasfilled collision chamber under single collision conditions. Further experiments with carbon and aluminium were performed, the K-shell vacancy production in the collision of protons with these atoms being detected through the measurement of Auger-electrons. A spectrometer with a large solid angle was specially constructed for this and its performance is described. K-shell ionisation accompanying nuclear (p,γ) reactions has also been measured using 26 Mg and 27 Al. (Auth./C.F.)

  12. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitfils, A.

    2007-09-01

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  13. Nonlinear shock structure in a weakly ionised magnetoplasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Dwivedi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of a neutral induced weak nonlinear shock structure in a weakly ionised magnetoplasma has been analytically investigated. Using the reductive perturbation method, basic dynamical equations of a three-component (electron, ion and neutral plasma have been reduced to a well-known Burger equation which can support a weak shock solution. Its stationary and initial value solutions have been derived to describe the characteristics of the weak shock profile. Asymptotic behaviour of the Burger solution results in a saw-tooth structure which has a practical implication to predict the nonlinear steepened structure of the nighttime irregularity in the lower portion of the Earth's ionosphere. Accordingly, it is suggested that the observation of saw-tooth shape of nighttime irregularity at 92 km could be attributed to the nonlinear saturation of the NILF mode instability as proposed by Dwivedi and Das in 1992. However, exact experimental verification of this suggestion requires more data on nighttime irregularity in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (80-95 km for a wide range of scale sizes extending up to about 1 km and above.

  14. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  15. Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations in radiologists and medical radiographers chronically exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuba, V.; Rozgaj, R.; Jazbec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations are fairly reliable indicators of damage induced by ionising radiation. This study included 180 radiologists and medical radiographers (technicians) and 90 controls who were not occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. All exposed subjects were routinely monitored with film badge, and none was exposed to a radiation dose exceeding the limit for occupational exposure recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Two hundred metaphases for each person were scored. The frequencies of acentric fragments, dicentrics, ring chromosomes and chromosomal exchanges were determined and compared to those obtained in the control group. Chromosome aberrations were analysed using Poisson regression for profession, age, sex, smoking and years of exposure. Age, smoking, diagnostic exposure to X-rays and occupation were found to correlate with the occurrence of acentric fragments. The influence of exposure duration on the frequency of acentric fragments was greater in medical radiographers than in radiologists. Smoking and sex were found to correlate with the occurrence of dicentric chromosomes, which were more common in men than in women. As chromosome aberrations exceeded the expected level with respect to the absorbed dose, our findings confirm the importance of chromosome analysis as a part of regular medical check-up of subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation.(author)

  16. Monitoring suspended sediment transport in an ice-affected river using acoustic Doppler current profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment transport is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment transport. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment transport and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment transport measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that

  17. Effects of bispectral index monitoring on isoflurane consumption and recovery profiles for anesthesia in an elderly asian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Shafiq

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The use of BIS in an elderly Asian population resulted in 40% reduction of isoflurane usage. The patients having BIS monitoring awoke earlier and had better recovery profiles at the end of anesthesia.

  18. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the IRRAD Proton Facility at the CERN PS East Area

    CERN Document Server

    Gkotse, Blerina; Matli, Emanuele; Ravotti, Federico; Gan, Kock Kiam; Kagan, Harris; Smith, Shane; Warner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    In High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, devices are frequently required to withstand a certain radiation level. As a result, detectors and electronics must be irradiated to determine their level of radiation tolerance. To perform these irradiations, CERN built a new irradiation facility in the East Area at the Proton Synchrotron (PS) accelerator. At this facility, named IRRAD, a high-intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam is used. During irradiation, it is necessary to monitor the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam. The Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) for IRRAD uses 39-channel pixel detectors to monitor the beam position. These pixel detectors are constructed using thin foil copper pads positioned on a flex circuit. When protons pass through the copper pads, they induce a measurable current. To measure this current and determine the total flux of protons passing through the thin foil copper detectors, a new data acquisition system was designed as well as a new database and on-line display system. In...

  19. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  20. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-01-01

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  1. Occupational Exposure to Ionising Radiation in Greece (1994-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenopoulou, V.; Drikos, G.; Dimitriou, P.

    2000-01-01

    This study was scheduled in order to analyse the individual annual dose information on classified workers in Greece, monitored and assessed by the central dosimetry service at the Greek Atomic Energy Commission for the years 1994-98. This service provides film badges to about 7500 workers all over the country on a monthly basis. Dose summaries were recorded and processed by the Dose Registry Information System, the database of which has been totally renewed since 1994. The statistical analysis provided refers to and deals with the mean annual dose, the collective dose, the distribution of the dose over the different specialities and the number of workers that have exceeded any of the established dose levels. Results concerning the annual dose summaries demonstrate a decrease in the collective and the mean individual dose to workers in the year 1995 and a slight but steady year-by-year increase thereafter during the period under consideration. This increasing tendency is discussed along with the increase in the ionising radiation applications, especially those in the medical sector, the change of the positioning of the film badge and the quality control measures provided by Greek law for radiation laboratories. (author)

  2. DNA profiling, telomere analysis and antioxidant properties as tools for monitoring ex situ seed longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donà, M; Balestrazzi, A; Mondoni, A; Rossi, G; Ventura, L; Buttafava, A; Macovei, A; Sabatini, M E; Valassi, A; Carbonera, D

    2013-05-01

    The germination test currently represents the most used method to assess seed viability in germplasm banks, despite the difficulties caused by the occurrence of seed dormancy. Furthermore, seed longevity can vary considerably across species and populations from different environments, and studies related to the eco-physiological processes underlying such variations are still limited in their depth. The aim of the present work was the identification of reliable molecular markers that might help in monitoring seed deterioration. Dry seeds were subjected to artificial ageing and collected at different time points for molecular/biochemical analyses. DNA damage was measured using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) approach while the seed antioxidant profile was obtained using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl, 2-picrylhydrazyl) assay and the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) provided profiles of free radicals. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to assess the expression profiles of the antioxidant genes MT2 (type 2 metallothionein) and SOD (superoxide dismutase). A modified QRT-PCR protocol was used to determine telomere length. The RAPD profiles highlighted different capacities of the two Silene species to overcome DNA damage induced by artificial ageing. The antioxidant profiles of dry and rehydrated seeds revealed that the high-altitude taxon Silene acaulis was characterized by a lower antioxidant specific activity. Significant upregulation of the MT2 and SOD genes was observed only in the rehydrated seeds of the low-altitude species. Rehydration resulted in telomere lengthening in both Silene species. Different seed viability markers have been selected for plant species showing inherent variation of seed longevity. RAPD analysis, quantification of redox activity of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds and gene expression profiling provide deeper insights to study seed viability during storage

  3. Ionisation of highly excited atoms by electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopold, J.G.; Percival, I.C.

    1979-01-01

    The Monte-Carlo classical trajectory method is used to obtain the probability for microwave ionisation of atoms in states n = approximately 66 in agreement with the experiments of Bayfield and Koch (Phys. Rev. Lett.; 33: 258 (1974)). In addition the method displays the time evolution of excitation and ionisation processes and shows that the latter may proceed through a great variety of intermediate excitation processes. The mechanism is discussed. An expression for the probability of ionisation at a certain time is given in terms of the probability of orbits which lie in invariant tori. Quantal effects are not significant for comparison with the Bayfield-Koch experiment, but they are discussed in connection with implications of the results for multiphoton laser ionisation of low n states. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi North Central Nigeria. H Mohammad, J T Iortile, J E Ekediwe, L Alumuku, E A Okon, D M Chia, E Ejeh, F U Ugbo ...

  5. Carbon filament beam profile monitor for high energy proton-antiproton storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.R.; Shafer, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of the evolution of the transverse profile of the stored beams in high energy proton storage rings such as the p-anti p colliders at CERN and at FNAL is of considerable importance. In the present note, a simple monitor is discussed which will allow almost non-destructive measurement of the profile of each individual proton and antiproton bunch separately. It is based on the flying wire technique first used at CEA and more recently at the CPS. A fine carbon filament is passed quickly through the beam, acting as a target for secondary particle production. The flux of secondary particles is measured by two scintillator telescopes, one for protons and one for antiprotons, having an angular acceptance between 30 and 100 mrad. Measurements of secondary particle production performed at FNAL in this angular range show that a very respectable flux can be expected

  6. Beam-energy and laser beam-profile monitor at the BNL LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Briscoe, B.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    We are developing a non-interceptive beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. Electrons that are removed from the beam ions either by laser photodetachment or stripping by background gas are deflected into a Faraday cup. The beam profile is measured by stepping a narrow laser beam across the ion beam and measuring the electron charge vs. transverse laser position. There is a grid in front of the collector that can be biased up to 125kV. The beam energy spectrum is determined by measuring the electron charge vs. grid voltage. Beam electrons have the same velocity as the beam and so have an energy of 1/1836 of the beam protons. A 200MeV H{sup -} beam yields 109keV electrons. Energy measurements can be made with either laser-stripped or gas-stripped electrons.

  7. First Results of the Beam Gas Ionization Profile Monitor (BGIP) Tested in the SPS Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Arauzo-Garcia, A; Koopman, J; Variola, A

    2000-01-01

    The BGIP is a proposal for a new, non-destructive beam profile monitor for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This device provides the rms beam size value by means of the analysis of the velocity spectrum of the rest gas ions created and accelerated by the beam itself. After a thorough computer simulation study of the related physics, a first prototype of the BGIP has been conceived, built up and installed in the SPS main ring during 1999. This paper contains a short presentation of the simulation work and a description of the test set-up. The first experimental results are presented and compared with theoretical computations.

  8. Order and disorder in weakly ionised plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, T.L.; Dhar, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    The observation of some unusual radial structures in discharges in pure He and Ar in a magnetic field is reported. The structures depended on the angle between the discharge tube axis and the magnetic field direction, and support the previously proposed idea that gaseous plasma energised under certain conditions can have regions in which the electrons have an ordered spatial distribution. The weakly ionised high frequency electrodeless discharges were energised at powers between 500 W and 1 kW, coupled to the discharge from an amplifier by a 143 cm quarter-wavelength twin transmission line, connected to two copper bands, 14 cm apart, placed closely around the outside of the discharge tube. The discharge was maintained continuously between the bands in a position centrally between a pair of Helmholtz coils in a horizontal uniform magnetic field. Optical flats sealed to each end of the hard glass tubes made it possible to view the discharges axially. The tubes were 70 cm long and of internal radius 1.84 cm. A pattern of luminous and non-luminous plasma regions was observed, arranged in coaxial symmetry, the complexity of the pattern depending on the magnitude of the magnetic field. Patterns for He are shown and discussed, and comparisons are made with the patterns for Ar. Significant evidence was obtained for the presence of order in the non-luminous regions. It is thought that stationary states are formed under certain conditions, and conditions for their formation are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling for biomarker discovery applied to human polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Fernanda B; Ferreira, Christina R; Sobreira, Tiago Jose P; Yannell, Karen E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Cedenho, Agnaldo P; Lo Turco, Edson G; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-09-15

    We describe multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-profiling, which provides accelerated discovery of discriminating molecular features, and its application to human polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis. The discovery phase of the MRM-profiling seeks molecular features based on some prior knowledge of the chemical functional groups likely to be present in the sample. It does this through use of a limited number of pre-chosen and chemically specific neutral loss and/or precursor ion MS/MS scans. The output of the discovery phase is a set of precursor/product transitions. In the screening phase these MRM transitions are used to interrogate multiple samples (hence the name MRM-profiling). MRM-profiling was applied to follicular fluid samples of 22 controls and 29 clinically diagnosed PCOS patients. Representative samples were delivered by flow injection to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer set to perform a number of pre-chosen and chemically specific neutral loss and/or precursor ion MS/MS scans. The output of this discovery phase was a set of 1012 precursor/product transitions. In the screening phase each individual sample was interrogated for these MRM transitions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used for statistical analysis. To evaluate the method's performance, half the samples were used to build a classification model (testing set) and half were blinded (validation set). Twenty transitions were used for the classification of the blind samples, most of them (N = 19) showed lower abundances in the PCOS group and corresponded to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids. Agreement of 73% with clinical diagnosis was found when classifying the 26 blind samples. MRM-profiling is a supervised method characterized by its simplicity, speed and the absence of chromatographic separation. It can be used to rapidly isolate discriminating molecules in healthy/disease conditions by

  10. Cytogenetic monitoring of nuclear workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griciene, B.; Slapsyte, G.; Mierauskiene, J.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome aberration (CA) analysis using Giemsa techniques was performed in blood lymphocytes of 84 nuclear workers with cumulative doses of 1-632 mSv during employment periods of 1-25 y. The control group comprised 82 healthy male donors. An estimated CA frequency in the total radiation-exposed group was significantly higher when compared with the controls (2.27 vs. 1.76 CA/100 cells, p 0.05). However, significant increase in the total CA frequency was determined in workers with additional internal exposure (2.54 CA/100 cells, p < 0.05) and those with registered neutron doses (2.95 CA/100 cells, p < 0.01). No correlation was found between CA frequency and occupational exposure dose. Borderline significant correlation was found between duration of employment and total CA (r = 0.218, p = 0.046, Fig. 2) and chromosome-type aberration (r = 0.265, p = 0.015) frequency. (authors)

  11. Temporal profile monitor based on electro-optic spatial decoding for low-energy bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of electron bunch temporal profile is one of the key diagnostics in accelerators, especially for ultrashort bunches. The electro-optic (EO technique enables the precise longitudinal characterization of bunch electric field in a single-shot and nondestructive way, which can simultaneously obtain and analyze the time jitter between the electron bunch and the synchronized laser. An EO monitor based on spatial decoding for temporal profile measurement and timing jitter recoding has recently been demonstrated and analyzed in depth for low-energy bunches at the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source. A detailed description of the experimental setup and measurement results are presented in this paper. An EO signal as short as 82 fs (rms is observed with 100  μm gallium phosphide for a 40 MeV electron bunch, and the corresponding length is 106 fs (rms with 300  μm zinc telluride. Owing to the field-opening angle, we propose a method to eliminate the influence of energy factor for bunches with low energy, resulting in a bunch length of ∼60  fs (rms. The monitor is also successfully applied to measure time jitter with approximately 10 fs accuracy. The experiment environment is proved to be the main source of the slow drift, which is removed using feedback control. Consequently, the rms time jitter decreases from 430 fs to 320 fs.

  12. Monitoring mental healthcare on a system level: Country profiles and status from EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramesfeld, Anke; Amaddeo, Francesco; Caldas-de-Almeida, José; Cardoso, Graça; Depaigne-Loth, Anne; Derenne, Rose; Donisi, Valeria; Jørgensen, Mette; Lindelius, Birgitta; Lora, Antonio; Mainz, Jan; Mulder, Cornelis Lambert; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Killaspy, Helen

    2016-06-01

    Routinely collected data can be used to monitor the performance and improve the quality of mental healthcare systems. Data-based and system-level Quality Monitoring Programmes in Mental Health Care (QMP-MHC) are increasingly being implemented in EU countries. They are believed to be indispensable for the sustainable improvement of the quality of mental healthcare. However, there is a paucity of comparative research on national strategies in quality monitoring. This study explores the status of system-level Quality Monitoring Programmes in Mental Health Care (QMP-MHC) in EU countries. It aims to provide a descriptive overview, which is intended to be the first step for comparative research in this field. Case studies of system-level QMP-MHCs were gathered from eight EU countries. Experts from each country were asked to describe their approach using a template. These experts were all members of a Europe-wide network of researchers and members of public institutions involved in quality assessment and performance monitoring of mental healthcare. Country profiles were gathered from England, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Sweden. All these countries have - or are in the process of implementing - system-level QMP-MHCs. Implementation seems to be facilitated when a national performance monitoring programme for general healthcare is already in place, although in the Netherlands, a QMP-MHC was established without being attached to a general monitoring programme. All the monitoring programmes described use various quality and performance indicators; some systems enhance this methodology with the addition of qualitative assessment methods such as peer reviews linked to accreditation processes. Research is needed to better understand the historical, political and technical backgrounds of the different national cases and to explore the effectiveness of different improvement mechanisms on the actual quality of healthcare. Policy makers and those

  13. Determining Parameters of Photodiodes which are Characteristics from Ionisation Chambers Following IEC 731-1982 Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, R.A.; Lopes, R.T.; Tauhata, L.; Poledna, R.

    1999-01-01

    A dosemeter is presented with a photodiode base, characterised as a field class instrument. The performance of three photodiode models, a commercially available (Siemens) and two others (Hamamatsu), were compared with the performance of the ionisation chamber, using the limits established in the IEC 731 Standard as requirement. The long-term stability and the energy dependence tests have shown results outside the limits but, in special situations such as X ray beam monitoring, these deficiencies have no influence on the dosemeter performance. The rotation test results have shown the possibility of using a photodiode to determine the field uniformity. (author)

  14. Small-sized monitor of beam current and profile for the proton pulse electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    Design and principle of operation of current monitor and beam profile of range-coordinate type are described. Monitor operation peculiarities are discussed using diagnostics of a beam of 330-420 keV electrostatic pulse proton accelerator with a beam current of up to 20 mA, at a current density of up to 23 mA x cm -2 and wth pulse duraton of about 20 μs. The monitor consists of a vacuum-dense foil of 3.0+-0.1 μm in thickness (or 0.81+-0.0x- mg x cm -2 ) two grid electrodes, each containing 12 wires, and as solid copper bottom. Foil serves for chopping off background particles with a path lesser 3.0 μm and stands thermal pulse load up to 0.5 J/cm -2 . Grid electrode wires are oriented perpendicularly to lach other and form a two-coordinate secondary-emisson roughness indicator. The bothhom is used for measuring an absolute value of beam current

  15. High intensity beam profile monitors for the LAMPF primary beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.W.; Macek, R.J.; van Dyck, O.; Lee, D.; Harvey, A.; Bridge, J.; Cainet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two types of beam profile monitors are in use at LAMPF to measure the properties of the 800 MeV, 500 μA proton beam external to the linac. Both types use secondary electron emission from a wire to produce a current signal proportional to the amount of proton beam that intercepts the wire. The wire scanner system uses a pair of orthogonal wires which are passed through the beam and the harp system uses two fixed planes of parallel wires. Most of the harps are not retractable and are exposed continuously to the primary beam. The high beam intensities available lead to a number of technical problems for instruments that intercept the beam or are close to primary beam targets. The thermal, electrical, radiation-damage, and material selection problems encountered, and some solutions which have been implemented are discussed

  16. Monitoring of atmospheric ozone profile over Siberian Region using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutin, Anatoly A.; Nikulin, Yury A.; Zuev, Vladimir V.; Dolgii, Sergey I.; Borisov, Yury A.; Gumley, Liam E.

    2006-02-01

    First results of operational retrieval of atmospheric ozone profile from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared radiances over Siberian Region are presented. Nearly identical copies of MODIS are operating onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Tena and Aqua satellites. MODIS images have been collected using EOScan receiving station located in Barnaul. The modified Product Generation Executable (PGE) 03 code, including synthetic regression retrieval algorithm, PGE 02 and the International MODIS/AIRS Processing Package (IMAPP) have been used to retrieve the vertical ozone distributions under clear-sky conditions. Evaluation of retrieved ozone profiles is performed by a comparison with retrievals from lidar observations, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE 111)/Meteor-3M and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Aqua sensors. We demonstrate, that the MODIS mixing ozone ratio (in ppmv) and additionally measured temperature information will be useful tools in regional stratospheric ozone studies. The main role of MODIS will be the monitoring of the ozone trends in the stratosphere at the scale with 5 km x 5 km resolutions.

  17. A laser-wire beam-energy and beam-profile monitor at the BNL linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.

    2011-03-28

    In 2009 a beam-energy monitor was installed in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. This device measures the energies of electrons stripped from the 40mA H{sup -} beam by background gas. Electrons are stripped by the 2.0x10{sup -7}torr residual gas at a rate of {approx}1.5x10{sup -8}/cm. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is deduced by multiplying the electron energy by m{sub p}/m{sub e}=1836. A 183.6MeV H{sup -} beam produces 100keV electrons. In 2010 we installed an optics plates containing a laser and scanning optics to add beam-profile measurement capability via photodetachment. Our 100mJ/pulse, Q-switched laser neutralizes 70% of the beam during its 10ns pulse. This paper describes the upgrades to the detector and gives profile and energy measurements.

  18. Sputum is a surrogate for bronchoalveolar lavage for monitoring Mycobacterium tuberculosis transcriptional profiles in TB patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Benjamin J; Loxton, Andre G; Dolganov, Gregory M; Van, Tran T; Davis, J Lucian; de Jong, Bouke C; Voskuil, Martin I; Leach, Sonia M; Schoolnik, Gary K; Walzl, Gerhard; Strong, Michael; Walter, Nicholas D

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen-targeted transcriptional profiling in human sputum may elucidate the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) during infection and treatment. However, whether M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum recapitulates transcription in the lung is uncertain. We therefore compared M. tuberculosis transcription in human sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 11 HIV-negative South African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. We additionally compared these clinical samples with in vitro log phase aerobic growth and hypoxic non-replicating persistence (NRP-2). Of 2179 M. tuberculosis transcripts assayed in sputum and BAL via multiplex RT-PCR, 194 (8.9%) had a p-value <0.05, but none were significant after correction for multiple testing. Categorical enrichment analysis indicated that expression of the hypoxia-responsive DosR regulon was higher in BAL than in sputum. M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum was distinct from both aerobic growth and NRP-2, with a range of 396-1020 transcripts significantly differentially expressed after multiple testing correction. Collectively, our results indicate that M. tuberculosis transcription in sputum approximates M. tuberculosis transcription in the lung. Minor differences between M. tuberculosis transcription in BAL and sputum suggested lower oxygen concentrations or higher nitric oxide concentrations in BAL. M. tuberculosis-targeted transcriptional profiling of sputa may be a powerful tool for understanding M. tuberculosis pathogenesis and monitoring treatment responses in vivo. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Monitoring the Modifications of the Vitreous Humor Metabolite Profile after Death: An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francesca Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied a metabolomic approach to monitor the modifications occurring in goat vitreous humor (VH metabolite composition at different times (0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after death. The 1H-NMR analysis of the VH samples was performed for the simultaneous determination of several metabolites (i.e., the metabolite profile representative of the VH status at different times. Spectral data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and by Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OPLS regression technique. PCA and OPLS suggested that different spectral regions were involved in time-related changes. The major time-related compositional changes, here detected, were the increase of lactate, hypoxanthine, alanine, total glutathione, choline/phosphocholine, creatine, and myo-inositol and the decrease of glucose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. We attempted a speculative interpretation of the biological mechanisms underlying these changes. These results show that multivariate statistical approach, based on 1H NMR metabolite profiling, is a powerful tool for detecting ongoing differences in VH composition and may be applied to investigate several physiological and pathological conditions.

  20. Genome profiling (GP) as an effective tool for monitoring culture collections: a case study with Trichosporon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Keiichi; Ueno-Tsuji, Sachika; Tanaka, Reiko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Nishimura, Kazuko; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2012-05-01

    Species identification and classification of a large number of microbes are essential and heavy workloads in culture collections and relevant laboratories. The identification of species usually requires different methods depending on species. Therefore, the development of a method which is simple and applicable to any organisms will lessen the burdens, increase the reliability of databases and thus enhance the science on microbes. The genome profiling (GP) method, developed previously, was found effective in monitoring authenticities of all strains/species tested in culture collections and expectedly various species, which was shown by applying the GP and the conventional sequencing methods to identifying and classifying species/strains belonging to the genus Trichosporon (38 strains; 16 species). Small differences between strains (11 strains of Trichosporon asahii and 4 strains of Trichosporon coremiiforme) can be reliably discriminated by GP, which was unsuccessful in the conventional sequencing approach. Importantly, seven possible false-assignments contained in the database were all pointed out by the GP method with near-perfect correctness, showing the power of the GP method.GP was shown to be a potent tool for rapidly and correctly monitoring species and strains of fungi in culture collections owing to its simple and informative natures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of bispectral index monitoring on isoflurane consumption and recovery profiles for anesthesia in an elderly asian population

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq, Faraz; Naqvi, Hamid Iqil; Ahmed, Aliya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Age related limited physiological reserves and associated co-morbidities in elderly patients require careful titration of inhalational anesthetic agents to minimize their side effects. The use of Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may be helpful in this regard. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of BIS monitoring on Isoflurane consumption during maintenance and recovery profile at the end of anesthesia. This Quasi experimental study was conducted for a 1 year ...

  2. Connecting stars and ionised gas with integral-field spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Emsellem, Eric; Shapiro, Kristen L.; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    Using integral-field spectroscopy, the SAURON survey has shown that early-type galaxies, once thought to be essentially devoid of gas, commonly show ionised gas emission. This emission is found with a rich variety of distributions and kinematics, ranging from very uniform disks or rings, and

  3. Cost considerations for an ionising energy treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culpitt, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Variables influencing the cost of food irradiation can be included under three broad headings: the physical characteristics of products to be treated; the operational characteristics of the plant to be used; costs of establishment and operation of an ionising energy treatment

  4. The case against protecting the environment from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the (rarely heard) argument in favour of retention of the present system of radiation protection of the environment. There has been a recent trend in the radioecological and radiation protection community towards greater regulation of the effects of ionising radiations on biota. In particular, the often quoted International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) hypothesis that: If humans are protected from the effects of ionising radiation, then flora and fauna are also adequately protected has been criticised as being too anthropocentric and not adequate for protection of the environment. In this paper I will challenge this view, arguing firstly that this statement is almost always quoted out of its proper context, and secondly that the ICRP hypothesis does adequately protect the environment from the effects of ionising radiations. In view of the relatively insignificant effect of regulated releases of ionising radiation on the environment, the economic cost of further regulation will not result in a significant environmental benefit. Whilst empirical research to test the ICRP hypothesis should continue, until there is clear evidence against it, this simple and cost-effective approach should be retained. This would benefit the environment by directing scarce resources to more urgent environmental problems. (author)

  5. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment ozone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, A.T.J.; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A

  6. Validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment zone profiles and evaluation of stratospheric transport in a global chemistry transport model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J.de; Landgraf, J.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Bregman, B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a validation of Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) ozone (O3) profiles which are used to evaluate stratospheric transport in the chemistry transport model (CTM) Tracer Model version 5 (TM5) using a linearized stratospheric O3 chemistry scheme. A comparison of GOME O3

  7. Monitoring soil bacteria with community-level physiological profiles using Biolog™ ECO-plates in the Netherlands and Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Wouterse, Marja; Drost, Sytske M.; Breure, Anton M.; Mulder, Christian; Stone, Dorothy; Creamer, Rachel E.; Winding, Anne; Bloem, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples were analyzed with community-level physiological profiles (CLPP) using Biolog™ ECO-plates in the Netherlands Soil Monitoring Network (NSMN; 704 samples) and in a European-wide transect (73 samples). The selection of sites was based on a representative sample of major soil texture

  8. The safety profiles of orlistat and sibutramine: results of prescription-event monitoring studies in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrio, Michael J; Wilton, Lynda V; Shakir, Saad A W

    2007-11-01

    Observational cohort studies were conducted using prescription-event monitoring (PEM) to examine the safety profiles of the anti-obesity agents orlistat and sibutramine. Adverse events reported as case reports were also evaluated to determine whether these events were also identified by PEM. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions written by general practitioners (GPs) in England for orlistat or sibutramine. Patient demographic and clinical event information, including reasons for stopping and adverse drug reactions, were requested on questionnaires posted to GPs at least 6 months after the first prescription for individual patients. Event incidence densities (IDs) (number of first reports of event/1000 patient-months treatment) were calculated for month 1 (ID(1)) and months 2-3 (ID(2-3)). Published case reports were identified by searching Medline and Embase. The cohorts comprised 16,021 and 12,336 patients prescribed orlistat and sibutramine, respectively. Both cohorts had a median age of 45 years, and approximately 80% were female. The most common reason for stopping orlistat within 3 months was diarrhea (332 patients; 2.1% cohort), and for stopping sibutramine it was hypertension (203 patients; 1.6%). Clinical events significantly associated with taking orlistat were mainly gastrointestinal and those for sibutramine included central nervous system effects, nausea/vomiting, palpitation, and sweating. We identified 8 published case reports for orlistat and 10 for sibutramine that had equivalent or similar events assessed as causally related in the PEM studies. The PEM studies highlighted different adverse event profiles for orlistat and sibutramine that were consistent with their distinct pharmacological mechanisms and other published information.

  9. Monitoring pressure profiles across an airfoil with a fiber Bragg grating sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Parkinson, Luke A.; Karas, Andrew R.; Hansen, Kristy L.; Arkwright, John W.

    2018-02-01

    Fluid flow over an airfoil section creates a pressure difference across the upper and lower surfaces, thus generating lift. Successful wing design is a combination of engineering design and experience in the field, with subtleties in design and manufacture having significant impact on the amount of lift produced. Current methods of airfoil optimization and validation typically involve computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and extensive wind tunnel testing with pressure sensors embedded into the airfoil to measure the pressure over the wing. Monitoring pressure along an airfoil in a wind tunnel is typically achieved using surface pressure taps that consist of hollow tubes running from the surface of the airfoil to individual pressure sensors external to the tunnel. These pressure taps are complex to configure and not ideal for in-flight testing. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) pressure sensing arrays provide a highly viable option for both wind tunnel and inflight pressure measurement. We present a fiber optic sensor array that can detect positive and negative pressure suitable for validating CFD models of airfoil profile sections. The sensing array presented here consists of 6 independent sensing elements, each capable of a pressure resolution of less than 10 Pa over the range of 70 kPa to 120 kPa. The device has been tested with the sensor array attached to a 90mm chord length airfoil section subjected to low velocity flow. Results show that the arrays are capable of accurately detecting variations of the pressure profile along the airfoil as the angle of attack is varied from zero to the point at which stall occurs.

  10. Burn-up determination of irradiated thoria samples by isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Jaison, P.G.; Telmore, V.M.; Shah, R.V.; Sant, V.L.; Sasibhushan, K.; Parab, A.R.; Alamelu, D.

    2010-03-01

    Burn-up was determined experimentally using thermal ionization mass spectrometry for two samples from ThO 2 bundles irradiated in KAPS-2. This involved quantitative dissolution of the irradiated fuel samples followed by separation and determination of Th, U and a stable fission product burn-up monitor in the dissolved fuel solution. Stable fission product 148 Nd was used as a burn-up monitor for determining the number of fissions. Isotope Dilution-Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ID-TIMS) using natural U, 229 Th and enriched 142 Nd as spikes was employed for the determination of U, Th and Nd, respectively. Atom % fission values of 1.25 ± 0.03 were obtained for both the samples. 232 U content in 233 U determined by alpha spectrometry was about 500 ppm and this was higher by a factor of 5 compared to the theoretically predicted value by ORIGEN-2 code. (author)

  11. Development of a Millimeter-Wave Beam Position and Profile Monitor for Transmission Efficiency Improvement in an ECRH System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimozuma T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a high power Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH system, a long-distance and low-loss transmission system is required to realize effective heating of nuclear fusion-relevant plasmas. A millimeter-wave beam position and profile monitor, which can be used in a high-power, evacuated, and cooled transmission line, is proposed, designed, manufactured, and tested. The beam monitor consists of a reflector, Peltier-device array and a heat-sink. It was tested using simulated electric heater power or gyrotron output power. The data obtained from the monitor were well agreed with the heat source position and profile. The methods of data analysis and mode-content analysis of a propagating millimeter-wave in the corrugated wave-guide are proposed.

  12. New developments in velocity profile measurement and pipe wall wear monitoring for hydrotransport lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, C.; Maron, R.J. [CiDRA Minerals Processing Inc., Wallingford, CT (United States); Fernald, M.; Bailey, T. [CiDRA Corporate Services, Wallingford, CT (United States); Van der Spek, A. [ZDOOR, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Sonar array flow measurement technology was initially developed a decade ago with the goal of non-invasively measuring multi-phase flows in the petroleum industry. The same technology was later adapted to the mineral processing industry where it has been rapidly adopted. The specific sensor technology, based on piezoelectric film sensors, provides unique measurement capabilities, including the ability to non-invasively measure localized strains in the walls of pipes. Combined with sonar array processing algorithms, an axial array of such sensors can measure flow velocities within a pipe. The sensors are useful for monitoring and managing slurry flow in horizontal pipes since they provide real-time velocity profiles measurement. The information is useful in determining the approach and onset of solid deposition on the bottom of the pipe. The sensors also provide a non-invasive measurement of pipe wear on slurry lines. Such measurements are currently made by hand-held portable ultrasonic thickness gages. The shortfalls associated with this manual method are overcome with a set of permanently or semi-permanently installed transducers clamped onto the outside of the pipe, where sensors measure the thickness of the pipe. This system and approach results in better repeatability and accuracy compared to manual methods. It also decreases inspection labor costs and pipe access requirements. It was concluded that the potential impact on personnel safety and environmental savings will be significant. 3 refs., 20 figs.

  13. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  14. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  15. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  16. Effects of bispectral index monitoring on isoflurane consumption and recovery profiles for anesthesia in an elderly asian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Faraz; Naqvi, Hamid Iqil; Ahmed, Aliya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Age related limited physiological reserves and associated co-morbidities in elderly patients require careful titration of inhalational anesthetic agents to minimize their side effects. The use of Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring may be helpful in this regard. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of BIS monitoring on Isoflurane consumption during maintenance and recovery profile at the end of anesthesia. This Quasi experimental study was conducted for a 1 year period at the main operating units of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Total 60 patients of age 60 years and above were enrolled in either standard practice (SP) or (BIS) group. In the SP group, the anesthesia depth was maintained as a routine clinical practice, while in BIS group it was maintained by monitoring the BIS score between 45 and 55. Standard anesthesia care was provided to all of the patients. Data including demographics, isoflurane consumption, hemodynamic variables and recovery profiles were recorded in both groups. Results: The mean isoflurane consumption was lower (P = 0.001) in the BIS group. The time to eye opening, extubation and ready to shift was shorter (P = 0.0001) in BIS group. The patients in BIS group had higher Post anesthesia recovery score (P = 0.0001) than the SP group. Conclusion: The use of BIS in an elderly Asian population resulted in 40% reduction of isoflurane usage. The patients having BIS monitoring awoke earlier and had better recovery profiles at the end of anesthesia. PMID:22869943

  17. Simulation and measurements of the response of an air ionisation chamber exposed to a mixed high-energy radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincke, H.; Forkel-Wirth, D.; Perrin, D.; Theis, C.

    2005-01-01

    CERN's radiation protection group operates a network of simple and robust ionisation chambers that are installed inside CERN's accelerator tunnels. These ionisation chambers are used for the remote reading of ambient dose rate equivalents inside the machines during beam-off periods. This Radiation Protection Monitor for dose rates due to Induced Radioactivity ('PMI', trade name: PTW, Type 34031) is a non-confined air ionisation plastic chamber which is operated under atmospheric pressure. Besides its current field of operation it is planned to extend the use of this detector in the Large Hadron Collider to measure radiation under beam operation conditions to obtain an indication of the machine performance. Until now, studies of the PMI detector have been limited to the response to photons. In order to evaluate its response to other radiation components, this chamber type was tested at CERF, the high-energy reference field facility at CERN. Six PMI detectors were installed around a copper target being irradiated by a mixed hadron beam with a momentum of 120 GeV c -1 . Each of the chosen detector positions was defined by a different radiation field, varying in type and energy of the incident particles. For all positions, detailed measurements and FLUKA simulations of the detector response were performed. This paper presents the promising comparison between the measurements and simulations and analyses the influence of the different particle types on the resulting detector response. (authors)

  18. Safety profile of orlistat: results of a prescription-event monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, N V; Wilton, L V; Shakir, S A W

    2006-11-01

    Orlistat, the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of obesity, was launched in the UK in December 1998. The prescribing information recommends that treatment with orlistat should be discontinued after 12 weeks if the patient has not achieved a specified loss of weight. To monitor the safety of orlistat prescribed in the primary care setting in England using prescription-event monitoring (PEM). A postmarketing surveillance study using the observational cohort technique of PEM. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by primary care physicians for orlistat between December 1998 and November 1999. The outcome data were event reports obtained by sending questionnaires (green forms) to the prescribing doctor at least 6 months after the first prescription for an individual patient. Incidence densities, expressed as number of first reports of an event/1000 patient-months of exposure, were calculated. Significant differences between incidence densities (IDs) for events reported in the 1st month (ID(1)) and months 2 and 3 (ID(2-3)) of exposure were regarded as potential signals. Reasons for stopping orlistat were analysed. Follow-up information was requested for selected events and used to assess the causal association with orlistat. Green forms containing clinically useful information on 16 021 patients (median age 45 years (interquartile range 35-54); 80.1% females) were received. The events reported most frequently during the 1st month of treatment were 'not effective' (639; 4.0% of cohort), diarrhoea (371; 2.3%) and weight loss (230; 1.4%). Twelve clinical adverse events were identified for which ID(1) was significantly greater than ID(2-3). These included non-specific events (e.g. intolerance, malaise/lassitude, unspecified side effects), weight loss and vaginitis/vulvitis. The remaining events were gastrointestinal in nature and included diarrhoea, pain abdomen, flatulence, nausea/vomiting, rectal discharge, faecal incontinence and

  19. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobago, Fikre; Gustafsson, Hans; Bekana, Merga; Beckers, Jean-François; Kindahl, Hans

    2006-11-23

    The present study describes the clinical features and plasma profiles of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1), the main metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha (PG metabolite) and progesterone (P4) in heifers in which early abortions were induced. Early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected and the plasma were analyzed for bPAG 1, P4 and PG metabolite. The foetal heartbeat rates varied from 170-186 beats per minute for all foetuses up to the date of cloprostenol treatment. Foetal death was confirmed within two days after cloprostenol treatment. Prior to cloprostenol injection, blood plasma concentrations of bPAG1, PG metabolite and P4 varied from 8.4-40.0 ng/mL, 158-275 pmol/L and 20.7-46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After the foetus expelled, the plasma level of bPAG1 began to decrease but the decrease was small and gradual. The estimated half-life of bPAG1 was 1.8-6.6 days. The plasma level of the PG metabolite started to have short lasting peaks (above 300 pmol/L) within three hours after cloprostenol treatment. The plasma concentrations of P4 dropped sharply to less than 4 nmol/L after 24 hours of cloprostenol injection. The current findings indicated that after early closprostenol-induced foetal death, the plasma concentration of bPAG1 decreased gradually and showed a tendency of variation with the stages of pregnancy.

  20. Clinical features and hormonal profiles of cloprostenol-induced early abortions in heifers monitored by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckers Jean-François

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study describes the clinical features and plasma profiles of bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (bPAG1, the main metabolite of prostaglandin F2α (PG metabolite and progesterone (P4 in heifers in which early abortions were induced. Methods Early abortions were induced in four heifers with cloprostenol and monitored by ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected and the plasma were analyzed for bPAG 1, P4 and PG metabolite. Results The foetal heartbeat rates varied from 170–186 beats per minute for all foetuses up to the date of cloprostenol treatment. Foetal death was confirmed within two days after cloprostenol treatment. Prior to cloprostenol injection, blood plasma concentrations of bPAG1, PG metabolite and P4 varied from 8.4 – 40.0 ng/mL, 158 – 275 pmol/L and 20.7 – 46.9 nmol/L, respectively. After the foetus expelled, the plasma level of bPAG1 began to decrease but the decrease was small and gradual. The estimated half-life of bPAG1 was 1.8 – 6.6 days. The plasma level of the PG metabolite started to have short lasting peaks (above 300 pmol/L within three hours after cloprostenol treatment. The plasma concentrations of P4 dropped sharply to less than 4 nmol/L after 24 hours of cloprostenol injection. Conclusion The current findings indicated that after early closprostenol-induced foetal death, the plasma concentration of bPAG1 decreased gradually and showed a tendency of variation with the stages of pregnancy.

  1. Real-time algorithms for JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A., E-mail: anaf@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, R.C.; Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Correia, C.M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Dept. de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Real-time tools and mechanisms are required for data handling and machine control. • A new DAQ system, ATCA based, with embedded FPGAs, was installed at JET. • Different real-time algorithms were developed for FPGAs and MARTe application. • MARTe provides the interface to CODAS and to the JET real-time network. • The new DAQ system is capable to process and deliver data in real-time. - Abstract: The steady state operation with high energy content foreseen for future generation of fusion devices will necessarily demand dedicated real-time tools and mechanisms for data handling and machine control. Consequently, the real-time systems for those devices should be carefully selected and their capabilities previously established. The Joint European Torus (JET) is undertaking an enhancement program, which includes tests of relevant real-time tools for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a key experiment for future fusion devices. In these enhancements a new Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system is included, with real-time processing capabilities, for the JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor. The DAQ system is composed of dedicated digitizer modules with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The interface between the DAQ system, the JET control and data acquisition system and the JET real-time data network is provided by the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). This paper describes the real-time algorithms, developed for both digitizers’ FPGAs and MARTe application, capable of meeting the DAQ real-time requirements. The new DAQ system, including the embedded real-time features, was commissioned during the 2012 experiments. Results achieved with these real-time algorithms during experiments are presented.

  2. Air crew monitoring in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, R.; Frasch, G.; Kammerer, L.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic radiation at high altitudes, especially high energetic neutrons, significantly increases exposure to man. Pilots and flight attendants may receive annual effective doses comparable to doses received in occupations, in which ionising radiation is used or radioactive sources are handled. For this reason, the European Council Directive 96/29 EURATOM requires that air-crew members also be monitored for radiation protection. Flight personnel, receiving an effective dose from cosmic radiation of more than 1 mSv per year are subject to monitoring i.e. radiation exposure has to be assessed, limited and minimized. As the physical conditions causing cosmic radiation doses are well established, it is possible to calculate the expected radiation dose with sufficient accuracy. Several codes for this purpose are available. Since August 2003, the operators of airlines in Germany are obliged to assess the doses of their air crew personnel from cosmic radiation exposure and to minimise radiation exposure by means of appropriate work schedules, flight routes and flight profiles. Approx. 31 000 persons of 45 airlines are monitored by the German Radiation Protection Register. Gender, age and 3 different occupational categories are used to characterise different groups and their doses. The presentation will give an overview about the legislation and organisation of air crew monitoring in Germany and will show detailed statistical results from the first year of monitoring. (authors)

  3. Airborne laser-spark for ambient desorption/ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    A novel direct sampling ionisation scheme for ambient mass spectrometry is presented. Desorption and ionisation are achieved by a quasi-continuous laser induced plasma in air. Since there are no solid or liquid electrodes involved the ion source does not suffer from chemical interferences or fatigue originating from erosive burning or from electrode consumption. The overall plasma maintains electro-neutrality, minimising charge effects and accompanying long term drift of the charged particles trajectories. In the airborne plasma approach the ambient air not only serves as the plasma medium but at the same time also slows down the nascent ions via collisional cooling. Ionisation of the analyte molecules does not occur in the plasma itself but is induced by interaction with nascent ionic fragments, electrons and/or far ultraviolet photons in the plasma vicinity. At each individual air-spark an audible shockwave is formed, providing new reactive species, which expands concentrically and, thus, prevents direct contact of the analyte with the hot region inside the plasma itself. As a consequence the interaction volume between plasma and analyte does not exceed the threshold temperature for thermal dissociation or fragmentation. Experimentally this indirect ionisation scheme is demonstrated to be widely unspecific to the chemical nature of the analyte and to hardly result in any fragmentation of the studied molecules. A vast ensemble of different test analytes including polar and non-polar hydrocarbons, sugars, low mass active ingredients of pharmaceuticals as well as natural biomolecules in food samples directly out of their complex matrices could be shown to yield easily accessible yet meaningful spectra. Since the plasma medium is humid air, the chemical reaction mechanism of the ionisation is likely to be similar to other ambient ionisation techniques. Wir stellen hier eine neue Ionisationsmethode für die Umgebungsionisation (ambient ionisation) vor. Sowohl die

  4. Experimental data on low energy electron impact ionisation of W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlummer, T.; Ertmer, S.; Brezinsek, S.; Eksaeva, A.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Kreter, A.; Linsmeier, Ch; Sergienko, G.; Unterberg, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present experimental data on the rate coefficient for electron impact ionisation of W atoms at electron temperatures between 5 and 10 eV. Our results undercut different theoretical data sets based on the Born approximation and the distorted wave approximation, respectively, by more than a factor of 3. Better agreement in absolute values is found with a more recent work by Goswami et al. The present data match well with earlier measurements by Steinbrink obtained with a different method.

  5. Medical use of ionising radiation - challenges for the third millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, W.

    2003-01-01

    From the very beginning after its discovery ionising radiation has been in beneficial use for health care. But even the drawbacks showed up very early: only a few months after Roentgens discovery reports were published on patients who got severe skin damage after fluoroscopy with x-rays. This finding of the adverse effects was soon turned into something positive: ionising radiation could be used for treatment of cancer. In 1928 radiologists took the initiative to the foundation of what later became the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. Medical use of ionising radiation is giving by far the largest contribution to the radiation burden of the global population from artificial sources, on average 0,3 mSv per year and inhabitant, excluding doses from radiation treatment. In the Nordic countries this dose is approximately 0,7 mSv. This isn't a problem by itself. The total benefit is exceeding the total radiation risk with large margins. But the margins could even be larger. Methods for examinations and treatments have often a potential for improvements, meaning that the medical effect can be obtained with a lower dose to the patient. In certain circumstances the examination does not contribute to the further treatment of the patient or to her/his well-being and is then regarded as not justified. The huge challenge we are facing depends among other things on the extreme fast technical development which enables exposures of a magnitude that we haven't seen before and applications we only could dream about. There is a risk that the motto 'do what is possible to do' is followed instead of 'do what the individual patient needs'. This presentation addresses the possibilities, but also the dangers that medical use of ionising radiation in medical care is facing in the new millennium, or at least in its first years. (orig.)

  6. Complex systems of biological interest stability under ionising radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maclot, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    This PhD work presents the study of stability of molecular systems of biological interest in the gas phase after interaction with ionising radiations. The use of ionising radiation can probe the physical chemistry of complex systems at the molecular scale and thus consider their intrinsic properties. Beyond the fundamental aspect, this work is part of the overall understanding of radiation effects on living organisms and in particular the use of ionizing radiation in radiotherapy. Specifically, this study focused on the use of low-energy multiply charged ions (tens of keV) provided by the GANIL (Caen), which includes most of the experiments presented. In addition, experiments using VUV photons were also conducted at synchrotron ELETTRA (Trieste, Italy). The bio-molecular systems studied are amino acids and nucleic acid constituents. Using an experimental crossed beams device allows interaction between biomolecules and ionising radiation leads mainly to the ionization and fragmentation of the system. The study of its relaxation dynamics is by time-of-flight mass spectrometry coupled to a coincidences measurements method. It is shown that an approach combining experiment and theory allows a detailed study of the fragmentation dynamics of complex systems. The results indicate that fragmentation is generally governed by the Coulomb repulsion but the intramolecular rearrangements involve specific relaxation mechanisms. (author) [fr

  7. Impact ionisation measurement and modelling of long wavelength avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, J S

    2003-01-01

    Impact ionisation coefficients are measured in In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As and excess noise characteristics are measured in sub-micron ln sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 2 Al sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 8 As. Photomultiplication measurements performed on a series of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As p-i-n diodes are reported. Taking careful account of factors which could give rise to erroneous results at low fields, ln sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 3 Ga sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 7 As ionisation coefficients are deduced at room temperature as a function of electric field. The results confirm the low field ionisation behaviour of alpha and the conventional field dependence of beta. Excess avalanche noise factors of In sub 0 sub . sub 5 sub 2 Al sub 0 sub . sub 4 sub 8 As p-i-n diodes, with i-region thicknesses ranging from 1.0 mu m to 0.1 mu m, are reported. The results indicate effective beta/alpha values lying between 0.15 and 0.23, comparable with or lower than the values reported in ...

  8. The low energy muon beam profile monitor for the muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuvaev, G. P.; Bae, S.; Choi, H.; Choi, S.; Ko, H. S.; Kim, B.; Kitamura, R.; Mibe, T.; Otani, M.

    2017-09-01

    The muon g-2/EDM experiment at J-PARC aims to measure the muon anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment with high precision by utilising an ultracold muon beam. The current muon g-2 discrepancy between the Standard Model prediction and the experimental value is about 3.5 standard deviations. This experiment requires a development of the muon LINAC to accelerate thermal muons to the 300 MeV/c momentum. Detectors for beam diagnostics play a key role in such an experiment. The beam profile monitoring system has been designed to measure the profile of the low energy muon beam. It was tested during two beam tests in 2016 at the MLF D2 line at J-PARC. The detector was used with positive muons, Mu-(μ+ e- e-), p and H-, e- and UV light. The system overview and preliminary results are given. Special attention is paid to the spatial resolution of the beam profile monitor and online monitor software used during data taking.

  9. LHC Transvers Profile Monitors studies (MD on May 6th, 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Lefevre, T; Gras, JJ; Jeff, A; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Kain, V; Pojer, M; Bartosik, H; Salvant, B

    2011-01-01

    This note contains the preliminary results of the LHC MD that took place on 6-May-2011 (from 2 to 10 a.m.), dedicated to study Wire Scanners (WS), Synchrotron Radiation Monitors (BSRT) and Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI). The MD aimed at performing different studies on the individual monitors as well as at cross calibrating them with beams composed of bunches with different transverse emittances in stable conditions. At the same time, it was possible to perform calibration studies with the Abort Gap Monitor (AGM) and Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) that share the extracted light with the BSRT.

  10. Semiclassical calculation of ionisation rate for Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang De-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The ionisation of Rydberg helium atoms in an electric field above the classical ionisation threshold has been examined using the semiclassical method, with particular emphasis on discussing the influence of the core scattering on the escape dynamics of electrons. The results show that the Rydberg helium atoms ionise by emitting a train of electron pulses. Unlike the case of the ionisation of Rydberg hydrogen atom in parallel electric and magnetic fields, where the pulses of the electron are caused by the external magnetic field, the pulse trains for Rydberg helium atoms are created through core scattering. Each peak in the ionisation rate corresponds to the contribution of one core-scattered combination trajectory. This fact further illustrates that the ionic core scattering leads to the chaotic property of the Rydberg helium atom in external fields. Our studies provide a simple explanation for the escape dynamics in the ionisation of nonhydrogenic atoms in external fields. (atomic and molecular physics)

  11. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations; Il centro di taratura per le radiazioni ionizzanti di Bologna. Parte 1: Fotoni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The report describes all the facilities available at the the service of the ENEA Calibration Service for Ionising Radiations at Bologna (Italy). It gives a detailed description of all equipment qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters. [Italian] Il presente lavoro descrive i servizi e le attivita' del Centro di Taratura dell'ENEA di Bologna, in particolare delle attrezzature qualificate per la metrologia fotonica, dei campioni di misura e delle procedure adottate per la taratura degli strumenti e dei dosimetri.

  12. Recent trends in utilising ionising radiations for nondestructive evaluation of materials (Preprint No. SP-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, Baldev; Venkatraman, B.

    1988-02-01

    The various NDT techniques based on the use of ionising radiations can be broadly classified into radiography, radiation gaging techniques and analytical techniques. This paper highlights the state of art of these techniques along with their applications. While an effort has been made to cover the major techniques based on ionising radiations, many techniques utilising ionising radiations as xeroradiography, laminography, ionography etc, have not been dealt with due to their restricted applications. (author). 23 refs., 4 figs

  13. Application of Electromagnetic Induction to Monitor Changes in Soil Electrical Conductivity Profiles in Arid Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, K.Z.

    2015-09-06

    In this research, multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements were conducted in a corn field to estimate variation in soil electrical conductivity profiles in the roots zone. Electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equation was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer). Joint inversion of multi-configuration EMI measurements were performed to estimate the vertical soil electrical conductivity profiles. The inversion minimizes the misfit between the measured and modeled soil apparent electrical conductivity by DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, which is based on Bayesain approach. Results indicate that soil electrical conductivity profiles have low values close to the corn plants, which indicates loss of soil moisture due to the root water uptake. These results offer valuable insights into future potential and emerging challenges in the development of joint analysis of multi-configuration EMI measurements to retrieve effective soil electrical conductivity profiles.

  14. Multidisciplinary approach to assess the sensitivity of dwarf tomato plants to low-LET ionising radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, Veronica; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Turano, Mimmo; Arena, Carmen

    Ionising radiation, acting alone or in interaction with microgravity and other environmental constraints, may affect plant at molecular, morpho-structural and physiological level. The intensity of the plant’s response depends on the properties of radiation and on the features of the plant itself. Indeed, different species are characterised by different susceptibility to radiation which may change during the life course. The aim of this research was to study the radiosensitivity to low-LET ionising radiation of plants of dwarf tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Microtom’) at two phenological phases (vegetative and reproductive), within the purpose of analysing plants for consideration as candidates for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) in Space. To pursue this objective, plants of the cultivar Microtom were irradiated with different doses of X-rays either at the stage of the second true leaf (VP - vegetative phase) or when at least one flower was blossomed (RP - reproductive phase). Plant’s response to ionising radiation was assessed through a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic analyses, ecophysiological measurements, morpho-anatomical characterisation of leaves and fruits, nutritional analyses of fruits. Growth, molecular and morpho-functional traits were measured during plant development up to fruiting in both VP and RP plant groups, and compared with non-irradiated control plants. Plant growth was monitored weekly recording parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, flowering and fruiting rate. Potential DNA alterations were explored through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by determining photosynthetic pigment composition, photochemistry and leaf gas exchanges. Leaf and fruit structure were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Leaf anatomical traits related to photosynthetic efficiency, and to structural radioprotection

  15. Ribosome profiling: a Hi-Def monitor for protein synthesis at the genome-wide scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Audrey M; Baranov, Pavel V

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome profiling or ribo-seq is a new technique that provides genome-wide information on protein synthesis (GWIPS) in vivo. It is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA fragments allowing the measurement of ribosome density along all RNA molecules present in the cell. At the same time, the high resolution of this technique allows detailed analysis of ribosome density on individual RNAs. Since its invention, the ribosome profiling technique has been utilized in a range of studies in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Several studies have adapted and refined the original ribosome profiling protocol for studying specific aspects of translation. Ribosome profiling of initiating ribosomes has been used to map sites of translation initiation. These studies revealed the surprisingly complex organization of translation initiation sites in eukaryotes. Multiple initiation sites are responsible for the generation of N-terminally extended and truncated isoforms of known proteins as well as for the translation of numerous open reading frames (ORFs), upstream of protein coding ORFs. Ribosome profiling of elongating ribosomes has been used for measuring differential gene expression at the level of translation, the identification of novel protein coding genes and ribosome pausing. It has also provided data for developing quantitative models of translation. Although only a dozen or so ribosome profiling datasets have been published so far, they have already dramatically changed our understanding of translational control and have led to new hypotheses regarding the origin of protein coding genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23696005

  16. Doubling potential of fibroblasts from different species after ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macieira-Coelho, A.; Diatloff, C.; Malaise, E.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that whereas chicken fibroblasts invariably die after a certain number of doublings in vitro, and this fact is never altered by chemical or physical agents, mouse fibroblasts invariably acquire spontaneously an infinite growth potential. In the human species fibroblasts never acquire spontaneously the capacity to divide for ever, although they can become permanent cell lines after treatment with certain viruses. This behaviour of fibroblasts in vitro has been attributed to different nutritional requirements. Experiments are described with human and mouse fibroblasts in which it was found that the response to ionising radiation matches the relative tendencies of the fibroblasts to yield permanent cell lines. Irradiation was commenced during the phase of active proliferation. Human fibroblast cultures irradiated with 100 R stopped dividing earlier than the controls, whereas cultures irradiated with 200, 300 and 500 R had the same lifespan as the control cultures. Cultures irradiated with 400 R showed the longest survival. With mouse fibroblasts the growth curves of the irradiated cells were of the same type as in the controls, but recovery occurred earlier. The results indicated that ionising radiation accelerates a natural phenomenon; in cells with a limited growth potential (chicken) it shortens the lifespan, whereas in cells that can acquire an unlimited growth potential (mouse) it accelerates acquisition of this potential; human fibroblasts showed an intermediate response, since ionising radiation neither established the cultures as with mouse cells nor reduced the number of cells produced as with chicken fibroblasts. Possible explanations for the different behaviour of the species are offered. (U.K.)

  17. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The advice in this guidance note is aimed at employers in control of equipment used for medical exposures to ionising radiation and ancillary equipment. This includes NHS trusts, health authorities or boards, private hospitals, clinics, surgeries, medical X-ray facilities in industry, dentists and chiropractors. The guidance should also be useful to radiation protection advisers appointed by such employers. The guidance provides advice on the requirements of regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85). In particular, it covers: (a) the selection, installation, maintenance, calibration and replacement of equipment to ensure that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended diagnostic or therapeutic purpose; (b) recommended procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy treatment; and (c) the need to investigate incidents involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which result in medical exposures much greater than intended and to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). 'Medical exposure' is defined in IRR85 as exposure of a person to ionising radiation for the purpose of his or her medical or dental examination or treatment which is conducted under the direction of a suitably qualified person and includes any such examination or treatment conducted for the purposes of research. For convenience, people undergoing medical exposure will be referred to as 'patients' in this guidance. Nothing in this publication is intended to indicate whether or not patients should be informed of any incident resulting from malfunction or defect in equipment used for medical exposure and the possible consequences of that exposure. As stated above, this guidance concerns medical exposures much greater than intended and although exposures much lower than intended can also have serious consequences, the incident would not

  18. Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, H; Sakai, Y; Koishihara, H; Abe, F; Bamba, T; Fukusaki, E

    2013-01-01

    We proposed an application methodology that combines metabolic profiling with multiple appropriate multivariate analyses and verified it on the industrial scale of the ripening process of Cheddar cheese to make practical use of hydrophilic low-molecular-weight compound profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to design optimal conditions and quality monitoring of the cheese ripening process. Principal components analysis provided an overview of the effect of sodium chloride content and kind of lactic acid bacteria starter on the metabolic profile in the ripening process of Cheddar cheese and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis unveiled the difference in characteristic metabolites. When the sodium chloride contents were different (1.6 and 0.2%) but the same lactic acid bacteria starter was used, the 2 cheeses were classified by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis from their metabolic profiles, but were not given perfect discrimination. Not much difference existed in the metabolic profile between the 2 cheeses. Compounds including lactose, galactose, lactic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, and phosphate were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. On the other hand, in the case of the same salt content of 1.6%, but different kinds of lactic acid bacteria starter, an excellent distinctive discrimination model was obtained, which showed that the difference of lactic acid bacteria starter caused an obvious difference in metabolic profiles. Compounds including lactic acid, lactose, urea, 4-aminobutyric acid, galactose, phosphate, proline, isoleucine, glycine, alanine, lysine, leucine, valine, and pyroglutamic acid were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. Then, a good sensory prediction model for "rich flavor," which was defined as "thick and rich, including umami taste and soy sauce-like flavor," was constructed based on the metabolic profile during ripening using partial least

  19. Use of ionising radiation for food processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninjoor, V.

    1989-01-01

    Food irradiation is a recently developed technique used to sterilize and preserve food. Food products are exposed to ionising radiations such as X-rays, gamma rays or high energy electrons which destroy food borne pathogens and parasites and inhibit sprouting. Shelf life of food is extended. The following aspects of radiation processing of food are discussed in the monograph: radiation sources, choice of dose for specific results, safety and nutritional quality of radiation processed food, international status of acceptance of food irradiation, and cost. (M.G.B.). 6 tabs

  20. Ionising radiation and cancer risk: software for risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siiskonen, T.

    2008-04-01

    Many authors, e.g. the BEIR (Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations) VII committee, have developed models for the risk of cancer resulting from an exposure to ionising radiation. This report describes a software, based on the BEIR VII risk models, which is used for the risk estimation. The risk models, calculation methods and the usage of the software are presented. Finally, illustrative examples are given. The software is developed in Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). (orig.)

  1. Ionisation constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, D D

    2013-01-01

    Ionisation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases in Aqueous Solution, Second Edition provides a compilation of tables that summarize relevant data recorded in the literature up to the end of 1980 for the ionization constants of inorganic acids and bases in aqueous solution. This book includes references to acidity functions for strong acids and bases, as well as details about the formation of polynuclear species. This text then explains the details of each column of the tables, wherein column 1 gives the name of the substance and the negative logarithm of the ionization constant and column 2

  2. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS): what, how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is one of the oldest mass spectrometric techniques, which has been used for determining the isotopic composition and concentration of different elements using isotope dilution. In spite of the introduction of many other inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the TIMS technique plays the role of a definitive analytical methodology and still occupies a unique position in terms of its capabilities with respect to precision and accuracy as well as sensitivity

  3. Gene expression following ionising radiation: identification of biomarkers for dose estimation and prediction of individual response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacik, Sylwia; Mackay, Alan; Tamber, Narinder; Manning, Grainne; Finnon, Paul; Paillier, Francois; Ashworth, Alan; Bouffler, Simon; Badie, Christophe

    2011-02-01

    To establish a panel of highly radiation responsive genes suitable for biological dosimetry and to explore inter-individual variation in response to ionising radiation exposure. Analysis of gene expression in response to radiation was carried out using three independent techniques (Microarray, Multiplex Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (MQRT- PCR) and nCounter® Analysis System) in human dividing lymphocytes in culture and peripheral blood leukocytes exposed ex vivo from the same donors. Variations in transcriptional response to exposure to ionising radiation analysed by microarray allowed the identification of genes which can be measured accurately using MQRT PCR and another technique allowing direct count of mRNA copies. We have identified genes which are consistently up-regulated following exposure to 2 or 4 Gy of X-rays at different time points, for all individuals in blood and cultured lymphocytes. Down-regulated genes including cyclins, centromeric and mitotic checkpoint genes, particularly those associated with chromosome instability and cancer could be detected in dividing lymphocytes only. The data provide evidence that there are a number of genes which seem suitable for biological dosimetry using peripheral blood, including sestrin 1 (SESN1), growth arrest and DNA damage inducible 45 alpha (GADD45A), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), cyclin G1 (CCNG1), ferredoxin reductase (FDXR), p53 up-regulated mediator of apoptosis (BBC3) and Mdm2 p53 binding protein homolog (MDM2). These biomarkers could potentially be used for triage after large-scale radiological incidents and for monitoring radiation exposure during radiotherapy.

  4. Thermoluminescent properties of CVD diamond: applications to ionising radiation dosimetry; Proprietes thermoluminescentes du diamant CVD: applications a la dosimetrie des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitfils, A

    2007-09-15

    Remarkable properties of synthetic diamond (human soft tissue equivalence, chemical stability, non-toxicity) make this material suitable for medical application as thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). This work highlights the interest of this material as radiotherapy TLD. In the first stage of this work, we looked after thermoluminescent (TL) and dosimetric properties of polycrystalline diamond made by Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) synthesis. Dosimetric characteristics are satisfactory as TLD for medical application. Luminescence thermal quenching on diamond has been investigated. This phenomenon leads to a decrease of dosimetric TL peak sensitivity when the heating rate increases. The second part of this work analyses the use of synthetic diamond as TLD in radiotherapy. Dose profiles, depth dose distributions and the cartography of an electron beam obtained with our samples are in very good agreement with results from an ionisation chamber. It is clearly shown that CVD) diamond is of interest to check beams of treatment accelerators. The use of these samples in a control of treatment with Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy underlines good response of synthetic diamond in high dose gradient areas. These results indicate that CVD diamond is a promising material for radiotherapy dosimetry. (author)

  5. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  6. Mechanical design control and implementation of a new movable intensity profile beamline monitor for the TRIUMF parity experiment 497

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Thomas C.

    1995-05-01

    Two new movable beam intensity profile monitors have been installed into the TRIUMF Parity Experiment 497 Beamlines. Each unit serves two functions. Firstly, the beam median position, in a plane normal to the beam, is detected by split plate Secondary Emission Monitors. This information is used to lock the beam into the position of the movable monitor to within a few μm's via high band width ferrite core steering magnets operating in tandem in a closed loop servo feedback control system. Secondly, the beam profile and intensity is detected via a multi-wire secondary emission non-movable monitor, where the data provides high precision values regarding centroidal positions and profiles. The centroid position of the beam is statistically determined to an accuracy of ±10 μm from a data record length of 1 second. The design of each device adheres to strict standards of mechanically rigid construction. The split plate SEM accuracy and repeatability is better than 15 μm with an absolute resolution limit of 0.4 μm. Maximum travel is 2 inches in the vertical plane. Since the device is mechanically modular and both degrees of freedom are combined into a single mechanical unit, fast and easy handling is possible for maintenance in radioactive areas. The actuators are dc servo motors with tachometers driven by linear servo power amplifiers. These amplifiers are used in lieu of pulse width modulated amps to eliminate noise produced by the switching circuits. Position sensing is done by variable reluctance type absolute rotary encoders providing 16 bit resolution over the full range of travel. Positioning is done manually using a self centring potentiometer on the control panel that provides a ± velocity command signal to the power amplifiers. This configuration ensures good controllability over a very large range of positioning speeds hence making 0.4 μm incremental positioning possible, as well as, fast relocations over large relative distances. The precision movement

  7. Documentation of Occupational Accidents and Diseases caused by Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.

    2004-01-01

    . One of the major goals of the institutions for statutory accident insurance is the prevention of occupational diseases. To perform a successful prevention work it is necessary not only to count the number of accidents or diseases in the various working fields but to look for details of the conditions of work and the human response to those conditions. The institutions for statutory accident insurance have engaged the institution for statutory accident insurance in the precision engineering and electrical industry to carry out documentation, in form of a data bank, for all cases of occupational diseases which could be caused by ionising radiation. Those are not only the cases which are accepted as occupational disease but also the cases where a suspicion of an occupational disease is announced but finally rejected. At the moment about 1700 cases are included in the data bank. For preserving the anonymity information to name and residence are deleted. Various data to one single case are linked by a case-specific key-number. Information to occupation and field of working, to details of a possible exposure to ionising radiation like kind of radiation, time and duration of radiation, exposure of the whole body or of parts of the body and whole body or organ doses are collected. Additional information refers to medical aspects like diagnosis and date of diagnosis. (Author)

  8. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Mauracher, Andreas; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Maihom, Thana; Probst, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We report electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron oxide molecules, FexOx and FexOx+1 with x = 1, 2, 3, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV, obtained with the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) methods. The maxima of the EICSs range from 3.10 to 9 . 96 × 10-16 cm2 located at 59-72 eV and 5.06 to 14.32 × 10-16 cm2 located at 85-108 eV for the DM and BEB approaches, respectively. The orbital and kinetic energies required for the BEB method are obtained by employing effective core potentials for the inner core electrons in the quantum chemical calculations. The BEB cross sections are 1.4-1.7 times larger than the DM cross sections which can be related to the decreasing population of the Fe 4s orbitals upon addition of oxygen atoms, together with the different methodological foundations of the two methods. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted excellently to a simple analytical expression used in modelling and simulation codes employed in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2017-80308-2.

  9. Investigation of damage mechanism by ionising radiation on biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau How Mooi

    1996-01-01

    Occupational radiation hazard is a very controversial subject. Effects from high radiation doses are well known from past experiences. However, hazard from low doses is still a subject that is hotly debated upon until now. The occupational dosimetry used now is based on a macroscopic scale. Lately, microdosimetry is fast gaining recognition as a more superior way of measuring hazard. More importantly, scientists are researching the basic damage mechanism that leads to biological effects by ionising radiation. In this report, a simulation study of the basic damage mechanism is discussed . This simulation is based upon Monte Carlo calculations and using polyuridylic acid (Poly-U) as the DNA model This simulation tries to relate the physics and chemistry of interactions of ionising radiation with biomolecules. The computer codes used in this simulation, OREC and RADLYS were created by Hamm et al. (1983) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The biological endpoints in this simulation are the strand break and base release of the DNA, which is the precursor of all biological effects. These results are compared with model studies that had been done experimentally to check the validity of this simulation. The G-values of strand break and base release from this simulation were -2.35 and 2.75 and compared well with results from irradiation experiments by von Sonntag (I 98 7) from Max Plank's Institute, Germany

  10. The ecological relevance of current approaches for environmental protection from exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, David; Howard, Brenda J.; Brechignac, Francois

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the current approaches to environmental protection from ionising radiation from an ecological perspective, highlighting the need to understand fully what we are trying to protect. Ecologically relevant endpoints for environmental protection are discussed along with the need to integrate protection from ionising radiation with the approaches adopted for non-radioactive contaminants. A possible integrated assessment approach is outlined

  11. Systematic profiling to monitor and specify the software refactoring process of the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Couturier, Ben; Lohn, Stefan B

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb upgrade program implies a significant increase in data processing that will not be matched by additional computing resources. Furthermore, new architectures such as many-core platforms can currently not be fully exploited due to memory and I/O bandwidth limitations. A considerable refactoring effort will therefore be needed to vectorize and parallelize the LHCb software, to minimize hotspots and to reduce the impact of bottlenecks. It is crucial to guide refactoring with a profiling system that gives hints to regions in source-code for possible and necessary re-engineering and which kind of optimization could lead to final success. Software optimization is a sophisticated process where all parts, compiler, operating system, external libraries and chosen hardware play a role. Intended improvements can have different effects on different platforms. To obtain precise information of the general performance, to make profiles comparable, reproducible and to verify the progress of performance in the framewo...

  12. Online AMR Domestic Load Profile Characteristic Change Monitor to Support Ancillary Demand Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Bruce; Isleifsson, Fridrik Rafn; Galloway, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    With conventional generation capacity being constrained on environmental grounds and renewable alternatives carrying capacity uncertainties, increasingly accurate forecasts of demand are likely to be required in future power systems: highly distributed renewable generation penetrating low voltage...... load profile on a day to day basis. A hypothetical single phase feeder, representative of an islanded rural power system, is used to illustrate the detected heterogeneity of load behavior consistency....

  13. Monitoring and predicting the soil water content in the deeper soil profile of Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijuan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil water content (SWC in deep soil profiles is of crucial importance for strategic management of water resource for sustainable land use in arid and semi-arid zones, as well as for soil and water conservation. Soil properties have a very important effect on SWC. This study aimed to analyze the influence of soil particle size on SWC, for the first time using soil particle size to estimate SWC in deep soil profiles. SWC was measured mainly in farmland, natural grasslands and plantations of Caragana from the surface to more than 20 m depth. The same soil samples were also tested for particle size. The results show that the soil desiccation is formed in the caragana forest in 3–18 m soil layers, but almost no formation in 18–24 m layers; water content of farmland and grassland is different in all soil profiles although they are both shallow rooted plants. Correlation analysis indicated that SWC could be well predicted by clay content and the close correlation between SWC and clay content yielded a coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.82 and 0.72, respectively, for farmland and grassland. After multiple regression analysis, a regression model was built using SWC, clay content and sand content data, giving R2=0.66. The model provided reliable estimates of SWC profile based on textural class. This can assist in estimating water depletion by vegetation, by comparing moisture of farmland and grassland soils with that of plantation forests, and in selecting sustainable land use of arid land.

  14. Real-time monitoring and chemical profiling of a cultivation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter P.; Bro, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    for predicting product quality (enzymatic activity). The fluorescence data are also modeled by a PARAFAC model, providing a chemically interpretable visualization of the process variation thereby enhancing the possibilities for gaining in-depth process understanding. The results of our investigations...... are that enzyme activity can be predicted directly from fluorescence measurements with an uncertainty comparable to the uncertainty of the chemical reference analysis for the enzyme activity. Chemical profiling of the cultivation process using PARAFAC verifies basic understanding of the cultivation process...

  15. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    KAUST Repository

    Moghadas, Davood

    2017-10-17

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS), on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  17. Autoantibodies, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum cytokine profiling in monitoring of early treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Brzustewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently used clinical scale and laboratory markers to monitor patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA seem to be not sufficient. It has been demonstrated that disease- related cytokines may be elevated very early in RA development and cytokines are considered as the biomarkers potentially useful for RA monitoring. Material and methods : The group of patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA developing RA (UA→RA was identified from a total of 121 people with arthralgia. UA→RA (n = 16 and healthy control (n = 16 subjects underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation, including acute phase reactants (APRs and autoantibodies. Cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1b, IL-2 in sera were assayed using flow cytometric bead array test. Results : 34.5% of patients with UA developed RA. DAS28 reduced as early as 3 months after initiation of treatment. No DAS28 difference between groups of autoantibody (RF, anti-CCP, ANA-HEp-2 -positive and -negative patients was observed, however, comparing groups of anti-CCP and RF-double negative and -double positive patients, the trend of sooner clinical improvement was visible in the second abovementioned group. After the treatment introduction, the ESR level reduced significantly, while CRP level reduction was not significant. Serum cytokine levels of IL-10, IL-6 and IL-17A reduced after 6 months since introduction of treatment. The positive correlations between ESR, CRP and specific cytokine levels were observed. Conclusions : The autoantibody and APR profile is poorly connected with the RA course. The serum cytokine profile change in the course of RA and may be potentially used for optimization of RA monitoring.

  18. Spatiotemporal monitoring of soil water content profiles in an irrigated field using probabilistic inversion of time-lapse EMI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring spatiotemporal variations of soil water content (θ) is important across a range of research fields, including agricultural engineering, hydrology, meteorology and climatology. Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems have proven to be useful tools in mapping soil apparent electrical conductivity (σa) and soil moisture. However, obtaining depth profile water content is an area that has not been fully explored using EMI. To examine this, we performed time-lapse EMI measurements using a CMD mini-Explorer sensor along a 10 m transect of a maize field over a 6 day period. Reference data were measured at the end of the profile via an excavated pit using 5TE capacitance sensors. In order to derive a time-lapse, depth-specific subsurface image of electrical conductivity (σ), we applied a probabilistic sampling approach, DREAM(ZS) , on the measured EMI data. The inversely estimated σ values were subsequently converted to θ using the Rhoades et al. (1976) petrophysical relationship. The uncertainties in measured σa, as well as inaccuracies in the inverted data, introduced some discrepancies between estimated σ and reference values in time and space. Moreover, the disparity between the measurement footprints of the 5TE and CMD Mini-Explorer sensors also led to differences. The obtained θ permitted an accurate monitoring of the spatiotemporal distribution and variation of soil water content due to root water uptake and evaporation. The proposed EMI measurement and modeling technique also allowed for detecting temporal root zone soil moisture variations. The time-lapse θ monitoring approach developed using DREAM(ZS) thus appears to be a useful technique to understand spatiotemporal patterns of soil water content and provide insights into linked soil moisture vegetation processes and the dynamics of soil moisture/infiltration processes.

  19. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance fo participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors

  20. RF System for the MICE Demonstration of Ionisation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald, K.; et al.

    2017-04-01

    Muon accelerators offer an attractive option for a range of future particle physics experiments. They can enable high energy (TeV+) high energy lepton colliders whilst mitigating the difficulty of synchrotron losses, and can provide intense beams of neutrinos for fundamental physics experiments investigating the physics of flavor. The method of production of muon beams results in high beam emittance which must be reduced for efficient acceleration. Conventional emittance control schemes take too long, given the very short (2.2 microsecond) rest lifetime of the muon. Ionisation cooling offers a much faster approach to reducing particle emittance, and the international MICE collaboration aims to demonstrate this technique for the first time. This paper will present the MICE RF system and its role in the context of the overall experiment.

  1. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Dedicated Trigger for Highly Ionising Particles at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Katre, Akshay; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, a novel strategy was designed to detect signatures of Highly Ionising Particles (HIPs) such as magnetic monopoles, dyons or Q-balls with ATLAS. A dedicated trigger was developed and deployed for proton-proton collisions at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV. It uses the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) system, applying an algorithm distinct from standard tracking ones. The high threshold (HT) readout capability of the TRT is used to distinguish HIPs from other background processes. The trigger requires significantly lower energy depositions in the electromagnetic calorimeters and is thereby capable of probing a larger range of HIP masses and charges. A description of the algorithm for this newly developed trigger is presented, along with a comparitive study of its performance during the 2012 data-taking period with respect to previous efforts.

  3. Ionisation of L subshells of heavy atoms by deuteron collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokhi, R.S.; Crumpton, D.; Trautmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    L i subshell ionisation cross sections for 1.2-3.0 MeV deuteron impact on thin targets of W, Au, Pb and Bi have been measured experimentally. Measurements were made with the Birmingham University's 3MV Dynamitron accelerator and the cross sections were deduced from the emitted L X-rays. These cross sections and their ratios have been compared graphically with the ECPSSR and RHSCA models. The ECPSSR model underestimates the measured L 2 subshell cross sections but shows very good agreement with the L 3 subshell values. The RHSCA theory in general exhibits good agreement with the measured cross sections for the L 1 and L 2 subshells but overestimates the L 3 cross sections by up to 60%. (orig.)

  4. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to provide guidance to those who have duties under the Health and Safety at Work Act and other relevant legislation. It gives guidance on the practical application of legislation, concerning radiotherapy equipment. Two particular issues arise out of the requirements of Regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) in relation to equipment which is used for medical exposures. These are the requirement to select, install and maintain this type of equipment in such a way that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person where this is compatible with the intended clinical purpose, including the need to ensure that equipment used for radiotherapy is properly calibrated, and the requirement to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) when an incident occurs involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which gives rise to a medical exposure that is much greater than intended. (author)

  5. Fitness of equipment used for medical exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides advice on two particular issues arising out of the requirements of Regulation 33 of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR85) in relation to equipment which is used for medical exposures. These issues are: (a) the requirement to select, install and maintain this type of equipment in such a way that it is capable of restricting, so far as reasonably practicable, the medical exposure of any person to the extent that this is compatible with the intended clinical purpose, including the need to ensure that equipment used for radiotherapy is properly calibrated; and (b) the requirement to notify the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) when an incident occurs involving a malfunction or defect in any 'radiation equipment' which gives rise to a medical exposure that is much greater then intended. (author)

  6. Environmental protection from ionising contaminants in the Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Stensrud, H.; Strand, P.; Jaworska, A.

    2003-01-01

    The traditional ICRP doctrine concerning environmental protection, in essence expressing that the dose limits in place for man ensure that flora and fauna are protected from the effects of ionising radiation, has been recently criticised. In its place, a system for the radiological protection of the environment has been promoted to include agreed quantities and units, selected reference organisms, reference dose models and tables of effects for reference organisms. The EC project 'Environmental Protection for Ionising Contaminants in the Arctic 'EPIC' adopts a practical perspective in developing a protection framework for the Arctic environment. The objectives of the project were:(1) collate the information about environmental transfer of selected radionuclides (2) identify reference Arctic biota; (3) model the uptake of radionuclides; (4) develop a reference set of dose models (5) compile data of dose-effects relationships for reference biota, and (6) integrate assessment of environmental impact from radionuclides with those for other contaminants. In the selection of reference organisms, several key criteria have been identified: ecological niche, radiosensitivity, radioecological sensitivity, distribution and amenability to further research. The application of these criteria has allowed an informed selection of suitable Arctic reference organisms to be made. Field studies were performed in the area of residual radioactive contamination in the Republic of Sakha, Yakutia. Biological material and soils were sampled, notes on plant morphology in elevated dose area were made, and seeds from high dose rate areas were sampled and tested for germination rate. A database on dose-effects relationships has been constructed. The database is subdivided into radiation effects on terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The database will help to establish dose-effect relationships for different end points. At present, effort has been concentrated on populating the database; In

  7. Monitoring of the current profile by using cyclotronic electron waves in tokamaks; Controle du profil de courant par ondes cyclotroniques electroniques dans les tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, R

    2001-08-01

    The subject of this thesis is the study of the cyclotronic electron wave as a monitoring tool of the current profile. The first chapter is dedicated to basic notions concerning tokamak plasmas and current generation. The second chapter is centered on the use of fast electrons to generate current and on its modelling. The propagation and absorption of the cyclotronic electron wave require a specific polarization state whose characteristics must be carefully chosen according to some parameters of the discharge, the chapter 3 deals with this topic. The absorption of a wave in a plasma depends greatly on the velocity distribution of the particles that make up the plasma and this distribution is constantly modified by the energy of the wave, so this phenomenon is non-linear and its physical description is difficult. In a case of a fusion plasma, a sophisticated approximation called quasi-linear theory can be applied with some restrictions that are presented in chapter 4. Chapters 5 and 6 are dedicated to kinetics scenarios involving the low hybrid wave and the cyclotronic electron wave inside the plasma. Some experiments dedicated to the study of the cyclotronic electron wave have been performed in Tore-supra (France) and FTU (Italy) tokamaks, they are presented in the last chapter. (A.C.)

  8. Phylogenetic and functional metagenomic profiling for assessing microbial biodiversity in environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisand, Veljo; Valente, Angelica; Lahm, Armin; Tanet, Gerard; Lettieri, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Decisions guiding environmental management need to be based on a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity and functional capability within ecosystems. Microbes are of particular importance since they drive biogeochemical cycles, being both producers and decomposers. Their quick and direct responses to changes in environmental conditions modulate the ecosystem accordingly, thus providing a sensitive readout. Here we have used direct sequencing of total DNA from water samples to compare the microbial communities of two distinct coastal regions exposed to different anthropogenic pressures: the highly polluted Port of Genoa and the protected area of Montecristo Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of the metagenomes revealed significant differences in both microbial diversity and abundance between the two areas, reflecting their distinct ecological habitats and anthropogenic stress conditions. Our results indicate that the combination of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and bioinformatics tools presents a new approach to monitor the diversity and the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Integration of metagenomics into environmental monitoring campaigns should enable the impact of the anthropogenic pressure on microbial biodiversity in various ecosystems to be better assessed and also predicted.

  9. Phylogenetic and functional metagenomic profiling for assessing microbial biodiversity in environmental monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljo Kisand

    Full Text Available Decisions guiding environmental management need to be based on a broad and comprehensive understanding of the biodiversity and functional capability within ecosystems. Microbes are of particular importance since they drive biogeochemical cycles, being both producers and decomposers. Their quick and direct responses to changes in environmental conditions modulate the ecosystem accordingly, thus providing a sensitive readout. Here we have used direct sequencing of total DNA from water samples to compare the microbial communities of two distinct coastal regions exposed to different anthropogenic pressures: the highly polluted Port of Genoa and the protected area of Montecristo Island in the Mediterranean Sea. Analysis of the metagenomes revealed significant differences in both microbial diversity and abundance between the two areas, reflecting their distinct ecological habitats and anthropogenic stress conditions. Our results indicate that the combination of next generation sequencing (NGS technologies and bioinformatics tools presents a new approach to monitor the diversity and the ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. Integration of metagenomics into environmental monitoring campaigns should enable the impact of the anthropogenic pressure on microbial biodiversity in various ecosystems to be better assessed and also predicted.

  10. Vison guidance of a laser profiler for monitoring refractory lining wear in steel mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailisto, Heikki J.; Mitikka, Risto S.; Moring, Ilkka; Jokinen, Hannu

    1995-09-01

    A laser rangefinder-based optical coordinate measurement system used for monitoring refractory lining wear in steel mills has been equipped with a vision system to improve its operative and performance characteristics. The 3D shape of the refractory lining is measured after renewal at the beginning of a campaign and these data are stored as a reference. During the campaign the lining is measured and the results are compared against the reference data in order to minimize risks and optimize lining life. To make the results measured at different times comparable, they must be accurately and reliably transformed to the same coordinate system. This makes the coordinate system setup phase critical for the success of the lining wear monitoring. Other important aspects are the amount of expensive process time taken up by the measurements and work safety aspects. The experimental vision system has been tesetd for automating the corrdinate system setup phase, and improved repeatability and faster operation compared with manual setup was achieved. Tentative tests at a steel mill proved promising, and further development of the vision system is going on.

  11. Microservices for systematic profiling and monitoring of the refactoring process at the LHCb experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurov, Alexander; Couturier, Ben; Popov, Dmitry; Farley, Nathanael

    2017-10-01

    Any time you modify an implementation within a program, change compiler version or operating system, you should also do regression testing. You can do regression testing by rerunning existing tests against the changes to determine whether this breaks anything that worked prior to the change and by writing new tests where necessary. At LHCb we have a huge codebase which is maintained by many people and can be run within different setups. Such situations lead to the crucial necessity to guide refactoring with a central profiling system that helps to run tests and find the impact of changes. In our work we present a software architecture and tools for running a profiling system. This system is responsible for systematically running regression tests, collecting and comparing results of these tests so changes between different setups can be observed and reported. The main feature of our solution is that it is based on a microservices architecture. Microservices break a large project into loosely coupled modules, which communicate with each other through simple APIs. Such modular architectural style helps us to avoid general pitfalls of monolithic architectures such as hard to understand a codebase as well as maintaining a large codebase and ineffective scalability. Our solution also allows to escape a complexity of microservices deployment process by using software containers and services management tools. Containers and service managers let us quickly deploy linked modules in development, production or in any other environments. Most of the developed modules are generic which means that the proposed architecture and tools can be used not only in LHCb but adopted for other experiments and companies.

  12. GE/NOMADICS IN-WELL MONITORING SYSTEM FOR VERTICAL PROFILING OF DNAPL CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Shaffer; Radislav Potyralio; Joseph Salvo; Timothy Sivavec; Lloyd Salsman

    2003-04-01

    This report describes the Phase I effort to develop an Automated In Well Monitoring System (AIMS) for in situ detection of chlorinated volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in groundwater. AIMS is composed of 3 primary components: (a) sensor probe, (b) instrument delivery system, and (c) communication/recharging station. The sensor probe utilizes an array of thickness shear mode (TSM) sensors coated with chemically-sensitive polymer films provides a low-cost, highly sensitive microsensor platform for detection and quantification. The instrument delivery system is used to position the sensor probe in 2 inch or larger groundwater monitoring wells. A communication/recharging station provides wireless battery recharging and communication to enable a fully automated system. A calibration curve for TCE in water was built using data collected in the laboratory. The detection limit of the sensor probe was 6.7 ppb ({micro}g/L) for TCE in water. A preliminary field test was conducted at a GE remediation location and a pilot field test was performed at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The AIMS system was demonstrated in an uncontaminated (i.e., ''clean'') 2-inch well and in a 4-inch well containing 163.5 ppb of TCE. Repeat measurements at the two wells indicated excellent day-to-day reproducibility. Significant differences in the sensor responses were noted between the two types of wells but they did not closely match the laboratory calibration data. The robustness of the system presented numerous challenges for field work and limited the scope of the SRS pilot field test. However, the unique combination of trace detection (detection limits near the MCL, minimum concentration level) and size (operations in 2-inch or larger groundwater wells) is demonstration of the promise of this technology for long-term monitoring (LTM) applications or rapid site characterization. Using the lessons learned from the

  13. Making ionising radiation a real experience for high school science students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.; Lang, P.; De La Matter, D.; Hinman, P.; White, B.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian public has little understanding of ionising radiation due in part to its treatment in popular media. In principle, students learn about ionising radiation in their school science classes. Developments in science curricula are providing more education opportunities for this subject. The Canadian Nuclear Society's program for introducing real, personal experience with ionising radiation in the classroom is starting to make a difference. The demand is expected to exceed the resources of the CNS and the program is being developed to facilitate external support. This paper summarizes the need, the history of this program development, and the path forward. (author)

  14. The business of self-monitoring of blood glucose: a market profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark D

    2009-09-01

    The market for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) approached $8.8 billion worldwide in 2008. Yet despite dramatic double-digit growth in sales of SMBG products since 1980, the business is now facing declining prices and slower dollar growth. Given that SMBG meters and test strips are viewed by consumers and insurers as essentially generic products, it will be extremely challenging for new market entrants to displace well-entrenched existing competitors without a truly innovative technology. Also, in the face of declining glucose test strip prices, market expansion can only occur through identification of more of the undiagnosed diabetes population and convincing existing diabetes patients to adopt glucose testing or to test more frequently. Ultimately, a combination of technology innovations, patient education, and economic incentives may be needed to significantly expand the SMBG market and build sustainable long-term dollar growth for SMBG vendors. 2009 Diabetes Technology Society.

  15. Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Späth, Jana; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome. To summarize, we have shown proof-of-concept of our UPLC-ESI-MS/MS bioactive lipid protocols for the purpose of monitoring subtle shifts, and thereby useful to address lipid-mediated postprandial inflammation.

  16. Simultaneous Profiling of Lysoglycerophospholipids in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Using Direct Infusion-Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Multiple Reaction Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-03-29

    White rice is the final product after the hull and bran layers have been removed during the milling process. Although lysoglycerophospholipids (lysoGPLs) only occupy a small proportion in white rice, they are essential for evaluating rice authenticity and quality. In this study, we developed a high-throughput and targeted lipidomics approach that involved direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring to simultaneously profile lysoGPLs in white rice. The method is capable of characterizing 17 lysoGPLs within 1 min. In addition, unsupervised and supervised analyses exhibited a considerably large diversity of lysoGPL concentrations in white rice from different origins. In particular, a classification model was built using identified lysoGPLs that can differentiate white rice from Korea, China, and Japan. Among the discriminatory lysoGPLs, for the lysoPE(16:0) and lysoPE(18:2) compositions, there were relatively small within-group variations, and they were considerably different among the three countries. In conclusion, our proposed method provides a rapid, high-throughput, and comprehensive format for profiling lysoGPLs in rice samples.

  17. Preliminary study on application of urine amino acids profiling for monitoring of renal tubular injury using GLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kazubek-Zemke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis of the nephrotoxic effect of xenobiotics and drugs is still an unsolved problem. Recent studies suggest a correlation between the nephrotoxic activity of xenobiotics and increased concentration of amino acids in urine. The presented study was focused on the application of GLC-MS method for amino acids profiling in human urine as a noninvasive method for monitoring of kidney condition and tubular injury level.The analytic method is based on the conversion of the amino acids present in the sample to tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS derivatives and their analysis by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GLC-MS. The procedure of urine sample preparation for chromatographic analysis was optimized.The presence of 12 amino acids in most of the tested healthy human urine samples was detected. The significant differences in the levels of particular amino acids between patients with tubular injury and healthy controls were found, especially for lysine, valine, serine, alanine and leucine (on average 30.0, 7.5, 3.6, 2.9 and 0.5 fold respectively.We found that this approach based on GLC-MS detection can be used in nephrotoxicity studies for urine amino acids monitoring in exposure to xenobiotics and drugs.

  18. On-line monitoring of Soxhlet extraction by chromatography and mass spectrometry to reveal temporal extract profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ssu-Ying; Urban, Pawel L

    2015-06-30

    Soxhlet extraction is a popular sample preparation technique used in chemical analysis. It enables liberation of molecules embedded in complex matrices (for example, plant tissues, foodstuffs). In most protocols, samples are analyzed after the extraction process is complete. However, in order to optimize extraction conditions and enable comparisons between different types of extraction, it would be desirable to monitor it in real time. The main development of this work is the design and construction of the interface between Soxhlet extractor and GC-MS as well as ESI-MS system. The temporal extract profiles, obtained in the course of real-time GC-MS monitoring, have been fitted with mathematical functions to analyze extraction kinetics of different analytes. For example, the mass transfer coefficients of pinene, limonene and terpinene in lemon sample, estimated using the first-order kinetic model, are 0.540h(-1), 0.507h(-1) and 0.722h(-1), respectively. On the other hand, the Peleg model provides the following extraction rates of pinene, limonene and terpinene: 0.370nMh(-1), 0.216nMh(-1) and 0.596nMh(-1), respectively. The results suggest that both first-order kinetic and Peleg equations can be used to describe the progress of Soxhlet extraction. On-line monitoring of Soxhlet extraction reveals extractability of various analytes present in natural samples (plant tissue), and can potentially facilitate optimization of the extraction process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring of the microbiota profile in nukadoko, a naturally fermented rice bran bed for pickling vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shoko; Tsurii, Jun; Kawamoto, Tetsuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2014-11-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko depends on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Here, we monitored chemical and microbiological changes in the initial batch fermentation of nukadoko. Nukadoko samples were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of four different brands of rice bran, and microbiome dynamics were analyzed for 2 months. In the first week, non-Lactobacillales lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which differed among the samples, grew proportionally to pH decrease and lactate increase. Thereafter, Lactobacillus plantarum started growing and consumed residual sugars, causing further lactate increase in nukadoko. Finally, microbial communities in all tested nukadoko samples were dominated by L. plantarum. Taken together, our results suggest that the mixture of the fast-growing LAB species and slow-growing L. plantarum may be used as a suitable starter culture to promote the initial fermentation of nukadoko. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping and Monitoring Delmarva Fox Squirrel Habitat Using an Airborne LiDAR Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Ratnaswamy, Mary; Keller, Cherry

    2004-01-01

    Twenty five hundred thirty nine kilometers of airborne laser profiling and videography data were acquired over the state of Delaware during the summer of 2000. The laser ranging measurements and video from approximately one-half of that data set (1304 km) were analyzed to identify and locate forested sites that might potentially support populations of Delmarva fox squirrel (DFS, Sciurus niger cinereus). The DFS is an endangered species previously endemic to tall, dense, mature forests with open understories on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. The airborne LiDAR employed in this study can measure forest canopy height and canopy closure, but cannot measure or infer understory canopy conditions. Hence the LiDAR must be viewed as a tool to map potential, not actual, habitat. Fifty-three potentially suitable DFS sites were identified in the 1304 km of flight transect data. Each of the 53 sites met the following criteria according to the LiDAR and video record: (1 ) at least 120m of contiguous forest; (2) an average canopy height greater than 20m; (3) an average canopy closure of >80%; and (4) no roofs, impervious surface (e.g., asphalt, concrete), and/or open water anywhere along the 120m length of the laser segment. Thirty-two of the 53 sites were visited on the ground and measurements taken for a DFS habitat suitability model. Seventy eight percent of the sites (25 of 32) were judged by the model to be suited to supporting a DFS population. Twenty-eight of the 32 sites visited in the field were in forest cover types (hardwood, mixed wood, conifer, wetlands) according to a land cover GIS map. Of these, 23 (82%) were suited to support DFS. The remaining 4 sites were located in nonforest cover types - agricultural or residential areas. Two of the four, or 50% were suited to the DFS. All of the LiDAR flight data, 2539 km, were analyzed to

  1. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation (note). A new European integrated project, 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, S.; Wright, E.G.; Hildebrandt, G.; Kadhim, M.; Little, M.P.; Prise, K.M.; Belyakov, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The general objectives of the NOTE project are: (1) to investigate the mechanisms of nontargeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to investigate if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to investigate if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) to investigate individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects. The NOTE brings together 19 major European and Canadian groups involved in the discovery, characterisation and mechanistic investigation of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation in cellular, tissue and animal models. The NOTE research activities are organised in six work packages. Four work packages (WPs 2-5) are problem-oriented, focussing on major questions relevant for the scientific basis of the system of radiation protection: WP2 Mechanisms of non-targeted effects, WP3 Non-cancer diseases, WP4 Factors modifying non-targeted responses, WP5 Modelling of non-targeted effects. The integration activities provided by WP6 strengthen the collaboration by supporting the access to infrastructures, mobility and training. WP7 provides dissemination and exploitation activities in the form of workshops and a public website. Managerial activities (WP1) ensure the organisation and structures for decision making, monitoring of progress, knowledge management and efficient flow of information and financing. Coordinator of the NOTE project is Prof

  2. Medical exposure to ionising radiation and the risk of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in the aetiology of brain tumours has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between medically or occupationally related exposure to ionising radiation and brain tumours. METHODS: We...... used self-reported medical and occupational data collected during the German part of a multinational case-control study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours (Interphone study) for the analyses. RESULTS: For any exposure to medical ionising radiation we found odds ratios (ORs) of 0.63 (95...... regions. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant increased risk of brain tumours for exposure to medical ionising radiation....

  3. Predicting outcome of depression using the depressive symptom profile: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Martijn S; van Fenema, Esther M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the predictive value of items for individual depressive symptoms measured with the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory-Revised (BDI-II) self-report scale on outcome in a large naturalistic cohort of depressive outpatients. We used a cohort of 1,489 adult patients aged 18-65 years with major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder established with the MINI-Plus diagnostic interview. All patients had a routine outcome monitoring baseline measurement in 2004-2009, with a maximum of 2 years follow-up. We used multivariable Cox regression models to predict remission (MADRS < 10; where MADRS stands for Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) and response (≥50% improvement), and adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics (i.e. marital status, level of education, working status, comorbid anxiety, avoidant and borderline personality traits, and suicidality) that were identified as predictors in earlier studies. Of the 21 BDI-II items, the items "pessimism" and "loss of energy" independently predicted for both remission and response. For pessimism, the hazard ratio (HR) for remission was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-0.89, P < .001) and for loss of energy, the HR was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92, P = .001). These findings of robust prediction of poor outcome by baseline items of "pessimism" and "loss of energy" in a naturalistic treatment setting may help clinicians to identify depressive patients in need for additional or alternative therapeutic approaches. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Monitoring of protein profiles for the optimization of recombinant fermentation processes using public domain databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrschmid, Karin; Marzban, Gorji; Dürrschmid, Eberhard; Striedner, Gerald; Clementschitsch, Franz; Cserjan-Puschmann, Monika; Bayer, Karl

    2003-01-01

    The expression of human superoxide dismutase in fed-batch fermentation of E. coli HMS174(DE3)(pET3ahSOD) was studied as model system. Due to the frequently used strong T7 promoter system a high metabolic load is exerted, which triggers stress response mechanisms and finally leads to the differentiation of the host cell. As a consequence, host cell metabolism is partly shifted from growth to survival accompanied by significant alterations of the protein pattern. In terms of process optimization two-dimensional electrophoresis deserves as a powerful tool to monitor these changes on protein level. For the analysis of samples derived from different states of recombinant protein production wide-range Immobiline Dry Strips pH 3-10 were used. In order to establish an efficient procedure for accelerated process optimization and to avoid costly and time-consuming analysis like mass spectrometry (MS), a database approach for the identification of significant changes of the protein pattern was evaluated. On average, 935 spots per gel were detected, whereby 50 are presumably stress-relevant. Out of these, 24 proteins could be identified by using the SWISS-2DPAGE database (www.expasy.ch/ch2d/). The identified proteins are involved in regulatory networks, energy metabolism, purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and translation. By this database approach, significant fluctuations of individual proteins in relation to recombinant protein production could be identified. Seven proteins show strong alterations (>100%) directly after induction and can therefore be stated as reliable marker proteins for the assessment of stress response. For distinctive interpretation of this highly specific information, a bioinformatic and statistic tool would be essential in order to perceive the role and contribution of individual proteins in stress response.

  5. The potential use of ionising energy treatment in Queensland's horticultural industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.; Sheehy, P.T.; Muirhead, I.F.; Brown, B.I.; Hassall, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    The potential application of ionising energy treatment technology in Queensland falls into three categories: insect disinfestation, disease control and quality improvement. The technology fulfils the requirements of a disinfestation treatment against Queensland fruit fly and other pests of quarantine importance in respect to efficacy, absence of phytotoxicity, absence of residues and, on technical considerations would be an ideal replacement for the fumigant EDB. The report examines the purposes of ionising energy treatment, economic and marketing aspects and research needs

  6. Proceedings. Protection of the natural environment. International symposium on ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.; Johansson, Gunnar; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Luening, M.

    1996-01-01

    The symposium was organised jointly by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. The programme was organised around six major topics: Biological effects of ionising radiation; Ecological effects of ionising radiation; Behaviour and transport of radionuclides in the natural environment; Criteria for environmental protection; Assessment methodology; and Social and economic aspects. All 86 contributions (excluding the opening addresses) have been separately indexed

  7. LHCB: A LHCb-VELO module as beam quality monitor for proton therapy beam at the Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology

    CERN Multimedia

    Casse, G; Patel, G D; Smith, N A; Kacperek, A; Marsland, B

    2010-01-01

    The progress in detector technology, driven by the needs of particle tracking and vertexing in the present LHC and its upgrade (sLHC), has led to the design of silicon sensors with low mass, high granularity, high speed and unprecedented radiation hardness. The sensors designed for such a harsh environment can be profitably used for instrumenting the control systems of therapeutic hadron beams. The high granularity and readout clock speed are well suited for monitoring continuous beam currents. The low mass allows reduced interference with the beam whilst monitoring its profile with high precision. The high resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionising particles allows monitoring of the beam spot position by measurement of the halo in real time, without any interference with the beam spot used in therapy.

  8. Medical effects and risks of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettler, Fred A

    2012-01-01

    Effects and risk from exposure to ionising radiation depend upon the absorbed dose, dose rate, quality of radiation, specifics of the tissue irradiated and other factors such as the age of the individual. Effects may be apparent almost immediately or may take decades to be manifest. Cancer is the most important stochastic effect at absorbed doses of less than 1 Gy. The risk of cancer induction varies widely across different tissues; however, the risk of fatal radiation-induced cancer for a general population following chronic exposure is about 5% Sv −1 . Quantification of cancer risk at doses of less than 0.1 Gy remains problematic. Hereditary risks from irradiation that might result in effects to offspring of humans appear to be much lower and any such potential risks can only be estimated from animal models. At high doses (over 1 Gy) cell killing and modification causes deterministic effects such as skin burns, and bone marrow depression, in which case immunosuppression becomes a critical issue. Acute whole body penetrating gamma irradiation at doses in excess of 2 Gy results in varying degrees of acute radiation sickness and doses over 10 Gy are usually lethal as a result of combined organ injury. (note)

  9. Ionisation and dissociation of water induced by swift multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, S.

    2006-02-01

    Ionization and dissociation of water molecules and water clusters induced by 11.7 MeV/A Ni 25+ ions were carried out by imaging techniques. Branching ratios, ionisation cross sections and Kinetic Energy Released distributions have been measured together with fragmentation dynamics studies. Multiple ionization represents approximately 30% of the ionizing events. Double ionization produces in significant way atomic oxygen, considered as a possible precursor of the large production of HO 2 radical in liquid water radiolysis by ions of high Linear Energy Transfer. We evidence a strong selectivity of bond breakage in the case of ion-induced HOD fragmentation. Once the molecule doubly ionized, the breakage of the O-H bond is found 6.5 times more probable than that of the O-D bond. A semi-classical calculation simulating the fragmentation dynamics on the potential energy surface of the ground-state of di-cation H 2 O 2+ makes possible to as well reproduce the preferential nature of the breakage of the O-H bond as the position and the shift of the kinetic energy distributions. First results concerning interaction with water clusters are also reported. Measurements in coincidence are carried out giving access to correlation, with the distributions in energy and angle of the emitted fragments. Mass spectrum points fast intra-cluster proton transfer, leading to the emission of protonated clusters. (author)

  10. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  11. Medical effects of low doses of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggle, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ionising radiation is genotoxic and causes biological effects via a chain of events involving DNA strand breaks and 'multiply damaged sites' as critical lesions that lead to cell death. The acute health effects of radiation after doses of a few gray, are due to such cell death and consequent disturbance of cell population kinetics. Because of cellular repair and repopulation there is generally a threshold dose of about 1-2 Gy below which such severe effects are not inducible. However, more subtle, sub-lethal mutational DNA damage in somatic cells of the body and the germ cells of the ovary and testis cause the two major low dose health risks -cancer induction and genetic (heritable) effects. This paper discusses some of the epidemiological and experimental evidence regarding radiation genetic effects, carcinogenesis and CNS teratogenesis. It concludes that current risk estimates imply that about 3% of all cancers; 1% of genetic disorders and between 0% and 0.3% of severe mental subnormality in the UK is attributable to the ubiquitous background radiation. The health risks associated with the medical uses of radiation are smaller, whilst the nuclear industry causes perhaps 1% of the health detriment attributable to background doses. (author)

  12. The application of ionising radiation in industrial wastewater treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos, L.; Perkowski, J.; Ledakowicz, S.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt was made to apply radiation techniques in the treatment of industrial wastewater from a dairy, brewery and sugar factory. For degradation of pollutants present in the wastewater, the following methods were used: irradiation, irradiation combined with aeration, ozonation, and combined irradiation and ozonation. For all three types of wastewater, the best method among these listed above appeared to be the method of irradiation combined with ozonation. Most degradable was the wastewater produced in sugar factories, and the least biodegradable appeared to be dairy wastewater. Depending on the dose of ozone and radiation, a maximum 60% reduction of COD was obtained. No effect of the wastewater aeration on its degradation by radiation was found. Changes in the content of mineral compounds were observed in none of the cases. The process of biological treatment of wastewater was carried out in a low-loaded, wetted bed. Pretreatment of the wastewater had no significant effect on the improvement of the biological step operation. Some effect was observed only in the case of the wastewater coming from a sugar factory. For medium concentrated wastewater from food industry, it is not economically justified to apply the pretreatment with the use of ionising radiation. (orig.)

  13. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles : how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmikli, Sandor L.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Brink, Michel S.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). Design A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field

  14. Fugitive coke oven gas emission profile by continuous line averaged open-path Fourier transform infrared monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chitsan; Liou, Naiwei; Chang, Pao-Erh; Yang, Jen-Chin; Sun, Endy

    2007-04-01

    Although most coke oven research is focused on the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, well-known carcinogens, little has been done on the emission of volatile organic compounds, some of which are also thought to be hazardous to workers and the environment. To profile coke oven gas (COG) emissions, we set up an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) system on top of a battery of coke ovens at a steel mill located in Southern Taiwan and monitored average emissions in a coke processing area for 16.5 hr. Nine COGs were identified, including ammonia, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, cyclohexane, and O-xylene. Time series plots indicated that the type of pollutants differed over time, suggesting that different emission sources (e.g., coke pushing, quench tower, etc.) were involved at different times over the study period. This observation was confirmed by the low cross-correlation coefficients of the COGs. It was also found that, with the help of meteorological analysis, the data collected by the OP-FTIR system could be analyzed effectively to characterize differences in the location of sources. Although the traditional single-point samplings of emissions involves sampling various sources in a coke processing area at several different times and is a credible profiling of emissions, our findings strongly suggest that they are not nearly as efficient or as cost-effective as the continuous line average method used in this study. This method would make it easier and cheaper for engineers and health risk assessors to identify and to control fugitive volatile organic compound emissions and to improve environmental health.

  15. First Clinical Experience with Retrospective Flash Glucose Monitoring (FGM) Analysis in South Africa: Characterizing Glycemic Control with Ambulatory Glucose Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distiller, Larry A; Cranston, Iain; Mazze, Roger

    2016-11-01

    In 2014, an innovative blinded continuous glucose monitoring system was introduced with automated ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) reporting. The clinical use and interpretation of this new technology has not previously been described. Therefore we wanted to understand its use in characterizing key factors related to glycemic control: glucose exposure, variability, and stability, and risk of hypoglycemia in clinical practice. Clinicians representing affiliated diabetes centers throughout South Africa were trained and subsequently were given flash glucose monitoring readers and 2-week glucose sensors to use at their discretion. After patient use, sensor data were collected and uploaded for AGP reporting. Complete data (sensor AGP with corresponding clinical information) were obtained for 50 patients with type 1 (70%) and type 2 diabetes (30%), irrespective of therapy. Aggregated analysis of AGP data comparing patients with type 1 versus type 2 diabetes, revealed that despite similar HbA1c values between both groups (8.4 ± 2 vs 8.6 ± 1.7%, respectively), those with type 2 diabetes had lower mean glucose levels (9.2 ± 3 vs 10.3 mmol/l [166 ± 54 vs 185 mg/dl]) and lower indices of glucose variability (3.0 ± 1.5 vs 5.0 ± 1.9 mmol/l [54 ± 27 vs 90 ± 34.2 mg/dl]). This highlights key areas for future focus. Using AGP, the characteristics of glucose exposure, variability, stability, and hypoglycemia risk and occurrence were obtained within a short time and with minimal provider and patient input. In a survey at the time of the follow-up visit, clinicians indicated that aggregated AGP data analysis provided important new clinical information and insights. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Spatial and temporal beam profile monitor with nanosecond resolution for CERN's Linac4 and Superconducting Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, M

    2008-01-01

    The Linac4, now being developed at CERN, will provide 160-MeV H- beams of high intensity . Before this beam can be injected into the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster or future Superconducting Proton Linac for further acceleration, some sequences of 500-ps-long micro-bunches must be removed from it, using a beam chopper. These bunches, if left in the beam, would fall outside the longitudinal acceptance of the accelerators and make them radioactive. We developed a monitor to measure the time structure and spatial profile of this chopped beam, with respective resolutions and . Its large active area and dynamic range also allows investigations of beam halos. The ion beam first struck a carbon foil, and secondary electrons emerging from the foil were accelerated by a series of parallel grid electrodes. These electrons struck a phosphor screen, and the resulting image of the scintillation light was guided to a thermoelectrically cooled, charge-coupled device camera. The time resolution was attained by applying high-...

  17. Linear Quantitative Profiling Method Fast Monitors Alkaloids of Sophora Flavescens That Was Verified by Tri-Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhifei; Sun, Guoxiang; Guo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The present study demonstrated the use of the Linear Quantitative Profiling Method (LQPM) to evaluate the quality of Alkaloids of Sophora flavescens (ASF) based on chromatographic fingerprints in an accurate, economical and fast way. Both linear qualitative and quantitative similarities were calculated in order to monitor the consistency of the samples. The results indicate that the linear qualitative similarity (LQLS) is not sufficiently discriminating due to the predominant presence of three alkaloid compounds (matrine, sophoridine and oxymatrine) in the test samples; however, the linear quantitative similarity (LQTS) was shown to be able to obviously identify the samples based on the difference in the quantitative content of all the chemical components. In addition, the fingerprint analysis was also supported by the quantitative analysis of three marker compounds. The LQTS was found to be highly correlated to the contents of the marker compounds, indicating that quantitative analysis of the marker compounds may be substituted with the LQPM based on the chromatographic fingerprints for the purpose of quantifying all chemicals of a complex sample system. Furthermore, once reference fingerprint (RFP) developed from a standard preparation in an immediate detection way and the composition similarities calculated out, LQPM could employ the classical mathematical model to effectively quantify the multiple components of ASF samples without any chemical standard.

  18. Unique biphasic progestagen profile in parturient and non-parturient giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) as determined by faecal hormone monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, David C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Snyder, Rebecca J; Huang, Yan; Monfort, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    The luteal phase of the giant panda has been exclusively assessed by studying urinary hormone patterns in a very few individuals. To better understand hormonal dynamics of protracted progestagen excretion in this endangered species, we monitored hormonal metabolites in the fibrous faeces of multiple females in the USA and China. Giant pandas that were anoestrual during the breeding season excreted baseline progestagen throughout the year. In contrast, there were two distinctive periods when progestagen excretion increased in females that experienced behavioural oestrus, the first being modest, lasting for 61-122 days, and likely reflecting presumptive ovulation. This increase was far surpassed by a secondary rise in progestagen excretion associated with a rejuvenated luteal capacity or hormone production from an extra-gonadal source. The duration of this 'secondary' rise in progestagen excretion averaged approximately 45 days and terminated in a decline to baseline coincident with parturition or the end of a non-parturient luteal interval. Data revealed that, even with a complex, biphasic progestagen profile, the longitudinal patterns produced by giant pandas were relatively consistent among animals and across years within individuals. However, progestagen excretion patterns throughout this period could not be used to discriminate among non-pregnant, pregnant or pseudopregnant states.

  19. The Ionising Radiations Advisory Committee Open Meeting 10 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    Full text: The Ionising Radiations Advisory Committee (IRAC) held its first open meeting on 10 October 2001 in response to a request from the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) that all its advisory committees should follow the Commission's example and hold such meetings. Some of the other advisory committees have already held open meetings and others are planning to do so shortly. The aim of the meeting was to enable members of the public to meet IRAC members and to find out more about the Committee - how it worked and the type of issues it dealt with. The first two sessions were devoted to short presentations describing IRAC's work and influences, now and in the future, on radiation protection generally. The third session was a discussion forum. The agenda for the meeting and the presentations are posted on the web at: www.hse.gov.uk/foi/iracopen.htm. Each session of presentations was followed by questions of clarification and the third session of the meeting comprised an open forum. Many of the questions raised were not directly relevant to IRAC but, nevertheless, members provided brief responses and referred questions on to others as appropriate. One question had been notified in advance, asking whether members of IRAC agreed that it is now (regrettably) reasonably foreseeable that a loss of containment of radioactive material may occur at a nuclear facility as a result of impact by an aeroplane or by other hostile acts, and that this should be made clear in published guidance on REPPIR. This question was not within IRAC's remit. The Chairman of the Nuclear Safety Advisory Committee offered to take the question to the Committee's next meeting. Issues discussed included: Concerns that exposure to ionising radiation at low levels is more dangerous than is currently reflected in risk estimates. The European Parliament has adopted a resolution calling on the main international bodies, including the International Commission on Radiological

  20. Impact ionisation mass spectrometry of polypyrrole-coated pyrrhotite microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Jon K.; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Armes, Steven P.; Fielding, Lee A.; Postberg, Frank; Bugiel, Sebastian; Drake, Keith; Srama, Ralf; Kearsley, Anton T.; Trieloff, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Cation and anion impact ionization mass spectra of polypyrrole-coated pyrrhotite cosmic dust analogue particles are analysed over a range of cosmically relevant impact speeds. Spectra with mass resolutions of 150-300 were generated by hypervelocity impacts of charged particles, accelerated to up to 37 km s-1 in a Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator, onto a silver target plate in the Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA) spectrometer. Ions clearly indicative of the polypyrrole overlayer are identified at masses of 93, 105, 117, 128 and 141 u. Organic species, predominantly derived from the thin (20 nm) polypyrrole layer on the surface of the particles, dominate the anion spectra even at high (>20 km s-1) impact velocities and contribute significantly to the cation spectra at velocities lower than this. Atomic species from the pyrrhotite core (Fe and S) are visible in all spectra at impact velocities above 6 km s-1 for 56Fe+, 9 km s-1 for 32S+ and 16 km s-1 for 32S- ions. Species from the pyrrhotite core are also frequently visible in cation spectra at impact speeds at which surface ionisation is believed to dominate (Silver was confirmed as an excellent choice for the target plate of an impact ionization mass spectrometer, as it provided a unique isotope signature for many target-projectile cluster peaks at masses above 107-109 u. The affinity of Ag towards a dominant organic fragment ion (CN-) derived from fragmentation of the polypyrrole component led to molecular cluster formation. This resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to a particular particle component, which may be of great use when investigating astrobiologically relevant chemicals, such as amino acids.

  1. The biological effects of exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for exposure to ionising radiation range from natural background radiation (chronic) to the explosions of atomic bombs (acute), with some medical, industrial and research exposures lying between these extremes. Biological responses to radiation that predominate at high doses incurred at high dose rates are different from those that predominate at low doses and low dose rates. Single doses from bomb explosions ranged up to many thousand mGy. Acute doses greater than about 1000 mGy cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Below this threshold, radiation has a variety of potential latent health effects: Change to the incidence of cancer is the most usual subject of attention but change to longevity may be the best overall measure because decreased incidences of non-cancer mortality have been observed to coincide with increased incidence of cancer mortality. Acute doses greater than 500 mGy cause increased risks of cancer and decreased life expectancy. For doses less than 100 mGy, beneficial overall health effects ('radiation hormesis') have been observed. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic exposure to natural radiation has occurred throughout evolution and is necessary for the normal life and health of current species. Dose rates greater than the present global average of about 2 mGy per year have either no discernible health effect or beneficial health effects up to several hundred mGy per year. It is clearly not credible that a single health effects model -- such as the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of risk estimation -- could fit all latent health effects. A more realistic model is suggested.

  2. Influence of easily ionised elements on the delayed responses of the emission intensities of an analyte in a power modulated U-shaped argon stabilised DC arc plasma with an aerosol supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV KUZMANOVIC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The current of a U-shaped argon stabilised DC arc was square modulated with a 40 Hz repetition frequency between 6 and 3 A. The delayed line intensity responses to the modulation of the arc current were investigated using calcium as a representative analyte. The intensities of both the atomic and ionic lines were monitored at different distances from the arc axis in the presence of various concentrations of the easily ionised element. Temporal evolutions were monitored on a millisecond time scale. It was found that the responses of the line intesity to the arc current change strongly depended on the observed radial position, especially in the vicinity of the arc axis. The obtained results showed a significant influence of even small amounts of the easily ionised element on the excitation and transport of the analyte and indicated a way of possibly improving the analytical capabilities of the excitation source.

  3. Calculation of Photo-Ionisation Cross Sections and Radiative Recombination Rate Coefficients for CO and CO+ Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhouioui Raja; Teulet Philippe; Cressault Yann; Ghalila Hassen; Riahi Riadh; Jaidane Nejm Eddine; Ben Lakhdar Zohra

    2014-01-01

    A method based upon the weighted total cross section (WTCS) theory is proposed to calculate the photo-ionisation cross sections and the radiative recombination rate coefficients between the fundamental level of CO and the main electronic states of its corresponding ion. Total photo-ionisation cross sections and radiative recombination rate coefficients are determined from the calculation of elementary vibrational photo-ionisation cross sections. Transitions between CO + (X, A and B) and CO(X) are considered. Total photo-ionisation cross sections and recombination coefficients are computed in the temperature interval 500–15000 K. (low temperature plasma)

  4. Fragmentation, auto-modification and post ionisation proton bound dimer ion formation: the differential mobility spectrometry of low molecular weight alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkiewicz, D M; Thomas, C L P; Eiceman, G A

    2016-08-07

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is currently being used for environmental monitoring of space craft atmospheres and has been proposed for the rapid assessment of patients at accident and emergency receptions. Three studies investigated hitherto undescribed complexity in the DMS spectra of methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol product ions formed from a (63)Ni ionisation source. 54 000 DMS spectra obtained over a concentration range of 0.01 mg m(-3)(g) to 1.80 g m(-3)(g) revealed the phenomenon of auto-modification of the product ions. This occurred when the neutral vapour concentration exceeded the level required to induce a neutral-ion collision during the low field portion of the dispersion field waveform. Further, post-ionisation cluster-ion formation or protonated monomer/proton bound dimer inter-conversion within the ion-filter was indicated by apparent shifts in the values of the protonated monomer compensation field maximum; indicative of post-ionisation conversion of the protonated monomer to a proton-bound dimer. APCI-DMS-quadrupole mass spectrometry studies enabled the ion dissociation products from dispersion-field heating to be monitored and product ion fragmentation relationships to be proposed. Methanol was not observed to dissociate, while propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol underwent dissociation reactions consistent with dehydration processes that led ultimately to the generation of what is tentatively assigned as a cyclo-C3H3(+) ion (m/z 39) and hydrated protons. Studies of the interaction of ion filter temperature with dispersion-field heating of product ions isolated dissociation/fragmentation product ions that have not been previously described in DMS. The implications of these combined findings with regard to data sharing and data interpretation were highlighted.

  5. Techniques of Ozone Monitoring in a Mountain Forest Region: Passive and Continuous Sampling, Vertical and Canopy Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Gerosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone is the most harmful air pollutant for plant ecosystems in the Mediterranean and Alpine areas due to its biological and economic damage to crops and forests. In order to evaluate the relation between ozone exposure and vegetation injury under on-field conditions, suitable ozone monitoring techniques were investi-gated. In the framework of a 5-year research project aimed at ozone risk assessment on forests, both continuous analysers and passive samplers were employed during the summer seasons (1994�1998 in different sites of a wide mountain region (80 x 40 km2 on the southern slope of the European Alps. Continuous analysers allowed the recording of ozone hourly concentration means necessary both to calculate specific exposure indexes (such as AOT, SUM, W126 and to record daily time-courses. Passive samplers, even though supplied only weekly mean concentration values, made it possible to estimate the altitude concentration gradient useful to correct the altitude dependence of ozone concentrations to be inserted into exposure indexes. In-canopy ozone profiles were also determined by placing passive samplers at different heights inside the forest canopy. Vertical ozone soundings by means of tethered balloons (kytoons allowed the measurement of the vertical concentration gradient above the forest canopy. They also revealed ozone reservoirs aloft and were useful to explain the ozone advection dynamic in mountain slopes where ground measurement proved to be inadequate. An intercomparison between passive (PASSAM, CH and continuous measurements highlighted the necessity to accurately standardize all the exposure operations, particularly the pre- and postexposure conservation at cold temperature to avoid dye (DPE activity. Advantages and disadvantages from each mentioned technique are discussed.

  6. Profiling the Oxylipin and Endocannabinoid Metabolome by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in Human Plasma to Monitor Postprandial Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gouveia-Figueira

    Full Text Available Bioactive lipids, including oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds may function as specific biochemical markers of certain aspects of inflammation. However, the postprandial responsiveness of these compounds is largely unknown; therefore, changes in the circulating oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in response to a challenge meal were investigated at six occasions in a subject who freely modified her usual diet. The dietary change, and especially the challenge meal itself, represented a modification of precursor fatty acid status, with expectedly subtle effects on bioactive lipid levels. To detect even the slightest alteration, highly sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS methods for bioactive lipid profiling was employed. A previously validated UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for profiling the endocannabinoid metabolome was used, while validation of an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for oxylipin analysis was performed with acceptable outcomes for a majority of the parameters according to the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines for linearity (0.9938 < R2 < 0.9996, limit of detection (0.0005-2.1 pg on column, limit of quantification (0.0005-4.2 pg on column, inter- and intraday accuracy (85-115% and precision (< 5%, recovery (40-109% and stability (40-105%. Forty-seven of fifty-two bioactive lipids were detected in plasma samples at fasting and in the postprandial state (0.5, 1, and 3 hours after the meal. Multivariate analysis showed a significant shift of bioactive lipid profiles in the postprandial state due to inclusion of dairy products in the diet, which was in line with univariate analysis revealing seven compounds (NAGly, 9-HODE, 13-oxo-ODE, 9(10-EpOME, 12(13-EpOME, 20-HETE, and 11,12-DHET that were significantly different between background diets in the postprandial state (but not at fasting. The only change in baseline levels at fasting was

  7. Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

  8. Measurement system of bubbly flow using Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor and Video Data Processing Unit. 3. Comparison of flow characteristics between bubbly cocurrent and countercurrent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shirong; Suzuki, Yumiko; Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a new measurement system which consisted of an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor (UVP) and a Video Data Processing Unit (VDP) in order to clarify the two-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for two-dimensional two-phase flow. In the present paper, the proposed measurement system is applied to fully developed bubbly cocurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. In addition, the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity, which was defined as a ratio of the standard deviation of velocity fluctuation in a bubbly flow to that in a water single phase flow, were examined. Next, these flow characteristics were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows reported in our previous paper. Finally, concerning the drift flux model, the distribution parameter and drift velocity were obtained directly from both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles, and their results were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  9. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit. 2. Flow characteristics of bubbly countercurrent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a measurement system which is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and a video data processing unit in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system was applied for bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. Next, turbulence intensity in a continuous liquid phase was defined as a standard deviation of velocity fluctuation, and the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity in the channel was clarified as a ratio of the standard deviation of flow fluctuation in a bubbly countercurrent flow to that in a water single phase flow. Finally, the distribution parameter and drift velocity used in the drift flux model for bubbly countercurrent flows were calculated from the obtained velocity profiles of both phases and void fraction profile, and were compared with the correlation proposed for bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  10. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such {sup 14}C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, {sup 14}C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the {sup 14}N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  11. Issues related to radiation protection in the medical application of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, B.C.; Tripathi, U.B.; Sharma, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    The medical application of ionising radiation is by far the largest contributor (about 95%) to human exposures from manmade sources of radiation. Diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and interventional radiology procedures are common sources of the medical exposures. In addition to medical exposures, exposures also result from other radiation related occupational activities. This paper endeavours to summarise the relevant findings, conclusions and recommendations of UNSCEAR Report 2000 and the two recent IAEA international conferences, namely, (1) International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy, Malaga, Spain, 2001, and (2) International Conference on Occupational Radiological Protection: Protecting Workers against exposure to ionising radiation, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002, with reference to medical applications of ionising radiation

  12. The significance of a new correspondence principle for electromagnetic interaction in strong optical field ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boreham, B. W.; Hora, H.

    1997-01-01

    We have recently developed a correspondence principle for electromagnetic interaction. When applied to laser interactions with electrons this correspondence principle identifies a critical laser intensity I*. This critical intensity is a transition intensity separating classical mechanical and quantum mechanical interaction regimes. In this paper we discuss the further application of I* to the interaction of bound electrons in atoms. By comparing I* with the ionisation threshold intensities as calculated from a cycle-averaged simple-atom model we conclude that I* can be usefully interpreted as a lower bound to the classical regime in studies of ionisation of gas atoms by intense laser beams

  13. Ionisation of hydrogen-like atoms by a multiphoton absorption process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontier, Y.; Trahin, M.

    1967-01-01

    The general expression for the amplitude of the probability of ionisation by a multiphoton absorption process is derived. Its non-relativistic limit is taken and the bipolar approximation is used for calculating the ionisation cross-section of hydrogen-like atoms. This latter involves the summation over intermediate virtual states by means of: a) a recursion relationship concerning angular functions, b) a particular technique which when applied to radial functions makes it possible to solve a system of inhomogeneous first-order differential equations. (authors) [fr

  14. Serum ionised calcium and cardiovascular disease in 45-years old men and women followed for 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogard, Christina Gerlach; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    ) and a broader definition of CVD. Persons with ionised serum calcium in the highest quintile were compared with persons in the lower four quintiles. Results: In a univariate analysis persons with ionised serum calcium in the highest quintile had increased risk of IHD (p=0.001) and CVD (p=0.02) compared...

  15. Investigation of cellular signalling responses to non-ionising radiation in melanocytes by microarray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.M.; Pedley, J.; Martyn, A.C.; Fraser, L.M.; Banducci, K.J.; Parsons, P.G.; Breit, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer resulting from the abnormal proliferation and spread of specialised pigment cells in the skin, known as melanocytes. Extensive epidemiological and molecular evidence suggests that a major risk factor for melanoma formation is exposure to non-ionising radiation in the form of solar ultra-violet (UV) light. However, the exact role of solar UV in the development of melanoma is unclear. To elucidate the molecular events that occur in melanocytes following solar UV exposure and determine how they lead to melanoma development, cDNA microarray analysis was used to analyse the gene expression profile of normal melanocytes, melanocytes exposed to simulated solar UV and melanoma cells. The development of cDNA microarray technology has allowed gene expression profiling at the mRNA level to be conducted for many thousands of genes simultaneously by hybridising an array of known sequences with labelled cDNA reverse transcribed form the sample RNA. Gene expression analysis was performed for over 13,000 genes. More than 500 genes were identified as differentially expressed in melanocytes following a single UV exposure, although overall there was a general suppression of transcription. Genes that were up-regulated included oncogenes and cytoskeletal genes; in contrast, genes encoding protein tyrosine kinases and apoptosis effectors were down-regulated. Many of the genes identified as being differentially expressed represent novel UV-regulated targets. Repeated exposure to solar UV resulted in the elevation in expression of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) superfamily, the Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1). Our results have shown that MIC-1 is up-regulated by solar UV in melanocytes, and is highly expressed (>3 fold) in a number of metastatic melanoma cell lines (31/61) in comparison to primary melanocytes. Furthermore functional, dimerised MIC-1 was found to be secreted by melanocytes, and secreted levels were

  16. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry and chemometrics for high-throughput screening of growth promoters in meat producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Jandova, Renata; Stead, Sara; Takats, Zoltan; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2018-01-17

    In a proof of concept perspective, Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the direct analysis of meat samples from β-agonist treated livestock. In this context, the combination of REIMS with untargeted metabolomics was investigated to identify carcasses from treated animals on the basis of a modification of indirect metabolites profile. The REIMS analysis generated specific lipid profiles which enabled the differentiation of meat samples collected from pigs treated with ractopamine via their feeding regime. Furthermore, the strategy was found successful when tested on different muscle types (loin, shoulder and thigh), which further expands its applicability. Classification performances were greater than 95% accurate which fully answers requirements of a screening strategy. This research indicates that REIMS implemented in an untargeted-metabolomics workflow can be considered as a high-throughput and accurate strategy for real-time meat classification in relation to ractopamine (and wider β-agonists) treatment in pig production. This approach may subsequently be implemented as a rapid screening test, at the slaughterhouse or at border inspection points, to detect such practice.

  17. The role of fluid mobility in the development of shale weathering profiles: Direct observations from a vadose zone monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druhan, J. L.; Wang, J.; Cargill, S.; Murphy, C.; Tune, A. K.; Dietrich, W. E.; Rempe, D.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive effort has focused on resolving the contribution of weathering reactions to the transfer of mass over scales ranging from individual hillslope weathering profiles, across local watersheds, to continental drainage networks. A persistent limitation in quantifying these fluxes is the variability in fluid flowpaths through the subsurface, which may alter the extent of chemical weathering relative to that expected from idealized homogenous conditions. In the past decade, the consequence of fluid travel time on solute flux has been recognized as a key complexity in the interpretation of solute concentrations, particularly in upland watersheds characterized by fracture flowpaths, as is typical of shale-dominated landscapes. Though recent studies have suggested a variety of models for solute generation in such dual (matrix and fracture flow) domain systems, a central impediment to advancing prediction is the lack of direct observations. Here, we report solute chemistry as a function of depth across an 18 m thick vadose zone of weathered argillite (shale) in the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory (ERCZO) using novel sub-horizontal distributed samplers (Vadose Zone Monitoring System). We contrast a year of major and trace ion chemistry obtained from water samples collected approximately biweekly using two complementary sampling systems, one applying active pressure to extract matrix-bound pore fluid, and the other using a passive collection method to extract freely draining water. Precipitation falling during the winter rainy season passes through this vadose zone, causing increased rock moisture that is subsequently depleted by transpiring trees. Solute concentrations reflect these seasonal changes, and, surprisingly, normalized ion ratios span the full range of values reported for the world's largest rivers. Notably, for some major cations, freely draining water is consistently less concentrated than matrix-bound water, and the composition of vadose zone water

  18. Monitoring of ovarian activity by daily measurement of urinary excretion rates of oestrone glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide using the Ovarian Monitor, Part III: variability of normal menstrual cycle profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Cooke, Delwyn G; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Brown, James B

    2013-12-01

    What are the characteristics of, and how variable are, individual normal menstrual cycle profiles of excretion rates for the urinary metabolites oestrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG)? There is a continuum of menstrual cycle profiles that differ from standard textbook profiles but which can be understood simply in terms of growth, atresia and ovulation of ovarian follicles. Point-of-care assays with the Ovarian Monitor pre-coated assay tubes, using urine samples diluted to a constant volume per unit time, give laboratory accurate clinical data for individual menstrual cycles. Lay operators can perform the point-of-care assay system at home to achieve reliable and reproducible results, which can be used for natural family planning. This prospective study involved 62 women, with normal menstrual cycles, recruited from three centres: Palmerston North, New Zealand, Sydney, Australia and Santiago, Chile. The study lasted 3 years. Women collected daily urine samples and determined their E1G and PdG rates with a pre-coated enzyme assay system known as the Ovarian Monitor. For two cycles, the assays were repeated in a study centre and the results were averaged to give 113 individual menstrual cycles for analysis. The cycles were displayed individually in a proprietary database program. The individual normal hormonal profiles were more complex than the classic composite curves for 40% of the cycles. Of 113 ostensibly normal cycles, only 91 were potentially fertile and 22 had some luteal phase defect. The oestrone glucuronide and PdG excretion rates were reliable and informative in the non-invasive elucidation of ovulation and ovarian function for both simple and complex profiles. Daily monitoring revealed the variability of normal menstrual cycle profiles. The LH peaks were variable and ambiguous markers for ovulation. The study consisted of cycles only from women with regular cycles of 20-40 days duration. All the women were intending to avoid a

  19. Gene expression profiling of PBL in response to ionising radiation and modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis...

  20. The ionising radiation (medical exposure) regulations - IR (ME) R, Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, R.; Brejza, P.; Cremona, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The regulations in Malta at present are in draft stage. These regulations partially implement European Council Directive 97/43/Euratom. This Directive lays down the basic measurements for the health and protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure. The regulations impose duties on persons administering radiations, to protect people from unnecessary exposure whether as part of their own medical diagnosis, treatment or as part of occupational health worker for health screening, medico-legal procedures, voluntary participation in research etc. These regulations also apply to individuals who help other individuals undergoing medical exposure. Main provisions 1. Regulation 2 contains the definitions of 28 terms used in these regulations. 2. Regulation 3.1 and 3.2 sets out the medical exposures to which the regulations apply. 3. Regulation 4 requires approval of medical exposures due to medical research, from radiation protection board of Malta. 4. Regulation 5 prohibits new procedures involving medical exposure unless it has been justified in advance. 5. Regulation 6 provides conditions justifying medical exposures. It prohibits any medical exposure from being carried out which has not been justified and authorized and sets out matters to be taken into account for justification. 6. Regulation 7 requires that practitioner justifies the exposure, shall pay special attention towards (a) exposure from medical research procedures where there is no direct health benefit to the individual undergoing exposure, (b) exposures for medico-legal purposes; (c) exposures to pregnant or possible pregnant women and (d) exposures to breast-feeding women. 7. Regulation 8.1 to 8.3 prohibit any medical exposure from being carried out which has not been justified and sets out matters to be taken for justification 8. Regulation 8.4 prohibits an exposure if it cannot be justified. 9. Regulation 9 requires the employer to provide a

  1. Calculated ionisation potentials to determine the oxidation of vanillin precursors by lignin peroxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, ten R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hartmans, S.; Swarts, H.J.; Field, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the biocatalytic production of vanillin, this research focused on the lignin peroxidase (LiP) catalysed oxidation of naturally occurring phenolic derivatives: O-methyl ethers, O-acetyl esters, and O-glucosyl ethers. The ionisation potential (IP) of a series of model compounds was

  2. Chapter 8. Ionisation radiation and human organism. Radioactivity of human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with ionisation radiation and human organism as well as with radioactivity of human tissues. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Radiation stress of human organism; (2) Radioactivity of human tissues and the factors influencing radioactive contamination; (3) Possibilities of decreasing of radiation stress

  3. Bioaerosol detection by aerosol TOF-mass spectrometry: Application of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuijckhuijse, A.L. van; Stowers, M.A.; Kientz, Ch.E.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Scarlett, B.

    2000-01-01

    In previous publications the use of an aerosol time of flight mass spectrometer was reported for the on-line measurements of aerosols (Weiss 1997, Kievit 1995). The apparatus is capable of measuring the size as well as the chemical composition, by the use of Laser Desorption/Ionisation (LDI), of an

  4. For discussion: obtaining consent for ionising radiation: has the time come?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this paper is to promote debate on the issues surrounding the provision of information to, and the obtaining of valid consent from patients exposed to ionising radiation (IR) from diagnostic and interventional imaging procedures, This is especially pertinent in view of recent interest in the risks of IR expressed in the medical and lay press.

  5. Study and optimization of the ionisation channel in the Edelweiss dark matter direct detection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censier, B.

    2006-02-01

    The EDELWEISS experiment is aiming at the detection of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), today's most favoured candidates for solving the dark matter issue. Background ionising particles are identified thanks to the simultaneous measurement of heat and ionisation in the detectors. The main limitation to this method is coming from the ionisation measurement, charge collection being less efficient in some part of the detectors known as 'dead' areas. The specificity of the measurement is due to the use of very low temperatures and low collection fields. This thesis is dedicated to the study of carrier trapping. It involves time-resolved charge measurements as well as a simulation code adapted to the specific physical conditions. We first present results concerning charge trapping at the free surfaces of the detectors. Our method allows to build a surface-charge in a controlled manner by irradiation with a strong radioactive source. This charge is then characterised with a weaker source which acts as a probe. In a second part of the work, bulk-trapping characteristics are deduced from charge collection efficiency measurements, and by an original method based on event localisation in the detector. The results show that a large proportion of the doping impurities are ionised, as indicated independently by the study of degradation by space-charge build-up. In this last part, near-electrodes areas are found to contain large densities of charged trapping centres, in connection with dead-layer effects. (author)

  6. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  7. International responsability of state by the deleterius effects of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de.

    1988-01-01

    International Responsability of State, considering the deleterius effects of ionising radiation on the human being, property, territory and environment which are under other jurisdiction, is focused. Conventional rules, costumary rules, the evolution of ''opinion juris'' as well as the decisions of tribunals related to the subject are analysed. (author) [pt

  8. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, J.

    1961-02-01

    At the moment ionisation chambers are the detectors which are best suited to the task of nuclear reactor control by neutronic measurements. We have thought it wise to state some generalities concerning reactor dynamics, the various neutron detection methods, the working of ionisation chambers and the measurement methods used. Our contribution to reactor control techniques consists on the one hand in an attempt to make a synthesis of the factors influencing the operation of ionisation chambers, the study of these factors, and on the other hand in the development of ionisation chambers of the fission and boron types, making it possible to follow the working of a reactor from the moment it starts up until maximum power is attained. In the field of fission chambers, we have in particular improved the technique for depositing uranium oxide on aluminium and have perfected the electrolytic deposition process on other metals: stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium, kovar, tungsten and beryllium. We have developed several types of fission chambers used during the start-up of reactors: one type of medium performance now in use in French piles one high-sensitivity type one high-temperature type which has operated up to 600 deg. C. As far as boron chambers are concerned, we have studied the perturbations caused to the measurement by the exposure of the chamber to high neutron flux and to a very strong γ radiation. This exposure brings about a modification of the properties of the constituent materials and causes a background noise in the chamber which can seriously handicap the neutron measurements. We have shown that the compensation technique makes it possible to limit this noise and to thereby increase the range of measurement of conventional ionisation chambers intended for power measurements. Finally, we have built two types of compensation chambers used in the French reactors and have begun the study of a third type of high sensitivity for high

  9. Destruction of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation and the implications for life detection on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Page, Kristian; Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Wright, Gary; Munshi, Tasnim; Scowen, Ian J; Ward, John M; Edwards, Howell G M

    2012-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a very effective approach for the detection of microorganisms colonising hostile environments on Earth. The ExoMars rover, due for launch in 2018, will carry a Raman laser spectrometer to analyse samples of the martian subsurface collected by the probe's 2-m drill in a search for similar biosignatures. The martian surface is unprotected from the flux of cosmic rays, an ionising radiation field that will degrade organic molecules and so diminish and distort the detectable Raman signature of potential martian microbial life. This study employs Raman spectroscopy to analyse samples of two model organisms, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the extremely radiation resistant polyextremophile Deinococcus radiodurans, that have been exposed to increasing doses of ionising radiation. The three most prominent peaks in the Raman spectra are from cellular carotenoids: deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans and β-carotene in Synechocystis. The degradative effect of ionising radiation is clearly seen, with significant diminishment of carotenoid spectral peak heights after 15 kGy and complete erasure of Raman biosignatures by 150 kGy of ionising radiation. The Raman signal of carotenoid in D. radiodurans diminishes more rapidly than that of Synechocystis, believed to be due to deinoxanthin acting as a superior scavenger of radiolytically produced reactive oxygen species, and so being destroyed more quickly than the less efficient antioxidant β-carotene. This study highlights the necessity for further experimental work on the manner and rate of degradation of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation, as this is of prime importance for the successful detection of microbial life in the martian near subsurface.

  10. Quantification of complex DNA damage by ionising radiation. An experimental and theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulford, J.

    2000-05-01

    Ionising radiation potentially produces a broad spectrum of damage in DNA including single and double strand breaks (ssb and dsb) and base damages. It has been hypothesised that sites of complex damage within cellular DNA have particular biological significance due to an associated decreased efficiency in repair. The aim of this study is to gain further understanding of the formation of complex DNA damage. Irradiations of plasmid DNA illustrate that an increase in ionising density of the radiation results in a decrease in ssb yields/Gy but an increase in dsb per ssb, indicative of an increase in the number of complex damage sites per simple isolated damage site. As the mechanism for damage formation shifts from purely indirect at low scavenging capacities to a significant proportion of direct at higher scavenging capacities the proportion of complex damage increases. Comparisons with the yields of ssb and dsb simulated by Monte-Carlo calculations for Al K USX and α-particles also indicate this correspondence. The ionisation density of low energy, secondary electrons produced by photons was assessed experimentally from the dependence of the yield of OH radicals escaping intra-track recombination on photon energy. As energy decreases the OH radical yield initially decreases reflecting an increased ionisation density. However, with further decrease in photon energy the yield of OH radicals increases in line with theoretical calculations. Base damage yields were determined for low and high ionising density radiation over a range of scavenging capacities. As scavenging capacity increases the base damage: ssb ratios increases implying a contribution from electrons to base damage. It is proposed that base damage contributes to DNA damage complexity. Complex damage analysis reveals that at cell mimetic scavenging capacities, 23% and 72% of ssb have an additional spatially close damage site following γ-ray and α-particle irradiation respectively. (author)

  11. Atmospheric pressure ionisation - mass spectrometry for argon online monitoring in ASTRID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doizi, D.; Roujou, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Safety, operability, waste transmutation and mastered investment costs are key issues for the development of generation IV reactors, especially sodium cooled fast reactors. To achieve a development scheduled around 2040, the nuclear energy division of CEA, France, is studying a prototype called ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) which is in its conceptual design phase. To achieve a high level of maturity, In Service Inspection and Repair is very important, in particular fuel cladding failure detection. If such a failure occurs, fission products Xenon and Krypton are released. Their fast and sensitive detection is a challenge. The use of a commercial API-MS is evaluated in this work. Detection limits below 10 ppt have been measured for Kr 84 and for Xe 132. (authors)

  12. Monitoring of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.; Camps, J.

    2010-01-01

    No matter how extensive the safety measures might be in and around nuclear sites, an incident can never be entirely ruled out. SCK-CEN is a specialist in radiological evaluations, in order to determine the impact of ionising radiation or a discharge of radionuclides on man and the environment. In August 2008, a team of SCK-CEN researchers participated in the radiological monitoring of the environment after an incident at the National Institute of Radio Elements (IRE) in Fleurus. SCK-CEN also conducted thyroid gland measurements in the population. The incident provided useful lessons on dealing with nuclear emergency situations.

  13. Levelling Profiles and a GPS Network to Monitor the Active Folding and Faulting Deformation in the Campo de Dalias (Betic Cordillera, Southeastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Gil, Antonio José; Borque, María Jesús; de Lacy, María Clara; Pedrera, Antonio; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Alfaro, Pedro; García-Tortosa, Francisco; Ramos, Maria Isabel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; de Galdeano-Equiza, Carlos Sanz

    2010-01-01

    The Campo de Dalias is an area with relevant seismicity associated to the active tectonic deformations of the southern boundary of the Betic Cordillera. A non-permanent GPS network was installed to monitor, for the first time, the fault- and fold-related activity. In addition, two high precision levelling profiles were measured twice over a one-year period across the Balanegra Fault, one of the most active faults recognized in the area. The absence of significant movement of the main fault surface suggests seismogenic behaviour. The possible recurrence interval may be between 100 and 300 y. The repetitive GPS and high precision levelling monitoring of the fault surface during a long time period may help us to determine future fault behaviour with regard to the existence (or not) of a creep component, the accumulation of elastic deformation before faulting, and implications of the fold-fault relationship. PMID:22319309

  14. A neutral-beam profile monitor with a phosphor screen and a high-sensitivity camera for the J-PARC KOTO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T.; Kamiji, I.; Nakagiri, K.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Sasao, N.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2018-03-01

    We have developed a beam-profile monitor (BPM) system to align the collimators for the neutral beam-line at the Hadron Experimental Facility of J-PARC. The system is composed of a phosphor screen and a CCD camera coupled to an image intensifier mounted on a remote control X- Y stage. The design and detailed performance studies of the BPM are presented. The monitor has a spatial resolution of better than 0.6 mm and a deviation from linearity of less than 1%. These results indicate that the BPM system meets the requirements to define collimator-edge positions for the beam-line tuning. Confirmation using the neutral beam for the KOTO experiment is also presented.

  15. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire's multiple scattering theory and Vavilov's energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program's accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented

  16. Evaluation of ion chamber dependent correction factors for ionisation chamber dosimetry in proton beams using a Monte Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmans, H. [Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Biomedical Physics; Verhaegen, F.

    1995-12-01

    In the last decade, several clinical proton beam therapy facilities have been developed. To satisfy the demand for uniformity in clinical (routine) proton beam dosimetry two dosimetry protocols (ECHED and AAPM) have been published. Both protocols neglect the influence of ion chamber dependent parameters on dose determination in proton beams because of the scatter properties of these beams, although the problem has not been studied thoroughly yet. A comparison between water calorimetry and ionisation chamber dosimetry showed a discrepancy of 2.6% between the former method and ionometry following the ECHED protocol. Possibly, a small part of this difference can be attributed to chamber dependent correction factors. Indications for this possibility are found in ionometry measurements. To allow the simulation of complex geometries with different media necessary for the study of those corrections, an existing proton Monte Carlo code (PTRAN, Berger) has been modified. The original code, that applies Mollire`s multiple scattering theory and Vavilov`s energy straggling theory, calculates depth dose profiles, energy distributions and radial distributions for pencil beams in water. Comparisons with measurements and calculations reported in the literature are done to test the program`s accuracy. Preliminary results of the influence of chamber design and chamber materials on dose to water determination are presented.

  17. Effects of ionising radiation on isolated and cellular DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadet, J.; Artignan, X.; Berger, M.; Douki, T.; Gromova, M.; Polverelli, M.; Ravanat, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the present survey, emphasis has been placed on mechanistic aspects of the radiation-induced decomposition of the base moities of DNA and model compounds. An almost complete description of the radical reactions mediated by both OH radicals (indirect effects) and one-electron oxidation (direct effects) is now possible for guanine compounds in aerated aqueous solution. In addition, the results of a comparison of a targeted assay (high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical method) and a non specific method ('comet assay') for monitoring radiation-induced DNA damage within human cells are reported. (authors)

  18. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles: how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg

    2012-11-01

    To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.

  19. Direct profiling of phytochemicals in tulip tissues and in vivo monitoring of the change of carbohydrate content in tulip bulbs by probe electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhan; Chen, Lee Chuin; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Ariyada, Osamu; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Nonami, Hiroshi; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2009-12-01

    Probe electrospray ionization (PESI) is a recently developed ESI-based ionization technique which generates electrospray from the tip of a solid needle. In this study, we have applied PESI interfaced with a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) for direct profiling of phytochemicals in a section of a tulip bulb in different regions, including basal plate, outer and inner rims of scale, flower bud and foliage leaves. Different parts of tulip petals and leaves have also been investigated. Carbohydrates, amino acids and other phytochemicals were detected. A series of in vivo PESI-MS experiments were carried out on the second outermost scales of four living tulip bulbs to monitoring the change of carbohydrate content during the first week of initial growth. The breakdown of carbohydrates was observed which was in accordance with previous reports achieved by other techniques. This study has indicated that PESI-MS can be used for rapid and direct analysis of phytochemicals in living biological systems with advantages of low sample consumption and little sample preparation. Therefore, PESI-MS can be a new choice for direct analysis/profiling of bioactive compounds or monitoring metabolic changes in living biological systems.

  20. Characterisation of a proposed internet synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Alder, John F; Brandt, Simon D

    2009-08-14

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. These properties attract great interest from clinical, neuroscientific, clandestine and forensic communities. The Breath of Hope Synthesis was reported on an internet website as a convenient two-step methodology for the preparation of DMT. The analytical characterisation of the first stage was the subject of previous publications by the authors and involved the thermal decarboxylation of tryptophan and the formation of tryptamine. The present study reports on the characterisation of the second step of this procedure which was based on the methylation of tryptamine. This employed methyl iodide and benzyltriethylammonium chloride/sodium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. The reaction product was characterised by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Quantitative evaluation was carried out in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), which included synthesis of the identified reaction products. MRM screening of the product did not lead to the detection of DMT. Instead, 11.1% tryptamine starting material, 21.0% N,N,N-trimethyltryptammonium iodide (TMT) and 47.4% 1-N-methyl-TMT were detected. A 0.5% trace of the monomethylated N-methyltryptamine was also detected. This study demonstrated the impact on product purity of doubtful synthetic methodologies discussed on the internet.

  1. European Communities (Foodstuffs treated with ionising radiation) Regulations, 2000. Statutory Instrument S.I. No. 297 of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These Regulations give effect to Directive 1999/2/EC (the framework Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States concerning foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation and Directive 1999/3/EC (the implementing Directive) of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 February 1999 on the establishment of a Community list of foods and food ingredients treated with ionising radiation. The effect of these Regulations is to lay down the general provisions for the treatment of foodstuffs with ionising radiation. Provisions concerning the approval and control of irradiation facilities and rules on labelling are also included. A positive list of foodstuffs authorised for treatment with ionising radiation and their maximum radiation doses are defined in the implementing Directive. These Regulations should be read together with the two Directives (author)

  2. How do air ions reflect variations in ionising radiation in the lower atmosphere in a boreal forest?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the ion production in the atmosphere is attributed to ionising radiation. In the lower atmosphere, ionising radiation consists mainly of the decay emissions of radon and its progeny, gamma radiation of the terrestrial origin as well as photons and elementary particles of cosmic radiation. These types of radiation produce ion pairs via the ionisation of nitrogen and oxygen as well as trace species in the atmosphere, the rate of which is defined as the ionising capacity. Larger air ions are produced out of the initial charge carriers by processes such as clustering or attachment to pre-existing aerosol particles. This study aimed (1 to identify the key factors responsible for the variability in ionising radiation and in the observed air ion concentrations, (2 to reveal the linkage between them and (3 to provide an in-depth analysis into the effects of ionising radiation on air ion formation, based on measurement data collected during 2003–2006 from a boreal forest site in southern Finland. In general, gamma radiation dominated the ion production in the lower atmosphere. Variations in the ionising capacity came from mixing layer dynamics, soil type and moisture content, meteorological conditions, long-distance transportation, snow cover attenuation and precipitation. Slightly similar diurnal patterns to variations in the ionising capacity were observed in air ion concentrations of the cluster size (0.8–1.7 nm in mobility diameters. However, features observed in the 0.8–1 nm ion concentration were in good connection to variations of the ionising capacity. Further, by carefully constraining perturbing variables, a strong dependency of the cluster ion concentration on the ionising capacity was identified, proving the functionality of ionising radiation in air ion production in the lower atmosphere. This relationship, however, was only clearly observed on new particle formation (NPF days, possibly indicating that charges after

  3. Practical Correlation Analysis between Scan and Malware Profiles against Zero-Day Attacks Based on Darknet Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Koji; Inoue, Daisuke; Eto, Masashi; Yoshioka, Katsunari

    Considering rapid increase of recent highly organized and sophisticated malwares, practical solutions for the countermeasures against malwares especially related to zero-day attacks should be effectively developed in an urgent manner. Several research activities have been already carried out focusing on statistic calculation of network events by means of global network sensors (so-called macroscopic approach) as well as on direct malware analysis such as code analysis (so-called microscopic approach). However, in the current research activities, it is not clear at all how to inter-correlate between network behaviors obtained from macroscopic approach and malware behaviors obtained from microscopic approach. In this paper, in one side, network behaviors observed from darknet are strictly analyzed to produce scan profiles, and in the other side, malware behaviors obtained from honeypots are correctly analyzed so as to produce a set of profiles containing malware characteristics. To this end, inter-relationship between above two types of profiles is practically discussed and studied so that frequently observed malwares behaviors can be finally identified in view of scan-malware chain.

  4. Performance evaluation of synthetic diamond to realize ionisation chamber for radiotherapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Waryn, M.J.

    2005-09-01

    This work focuses on the optimisation of synthetic CVD diamond quality to realize ionisation chambers for radiotherapy. Diamonds samples have been synthesized and characterized using thermally stimulated measurement. These measurements showed the presence of trapping levels due to crystalline defects or impurities in material. The study of the response of these samples under irradiation has showed a correlation between the charged state of traps (priming and overshoot phenomena) and the response of the detector (stabilization of the signal). To remove the overshoot phenomenon which prevents from reproducible measurements, we used a specific operating set up controlling the device temperature. This technique enables to neutralize these instable phenomena and to use CVD diamond for ionisation chamber fabrication. (author)

  5. Exploring the Powerful Ionised Wind in the Seyfert Galaxy PG1211+143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Highly-ionised high-speed winds in AGN (UFOs) were first detected with XMM-Newton a decade ago, and are now established as a key factor in the study of SMBH accretion, and in the growth and metal enrichment of their host galaxies. However, information on the ionisation and dynamical structure, and the ultimate fate of UFOs remains very limited. We request a 600ks extended XMM-Newton study of the prototype UFO PG1211+143 in AO-13, to obtain high quality EPIC and RGS spectra, to map the flow structure and variability, while seeking evidence for the anticipated interaction with the ISM and possible conversion of the energetic wind to a momentum-driven flow.

  6. An important step forward in continuous spectroscopic imaging of ionising radiations using ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Fessler, P; Eberle, H; Raad-Iseli, C D; Hilt, B; Huss, D; Krummenacher, F; Lutz, Jean Robert; Prevot, G; Renouprez, Albert Jean; Sigward, M H; Schwaller, B; Voltolini, C

    1999-01-01

    Characterization results are given for an original ASIC allowing continuous acquisition of ionising radiation images in spectroscopic mode. Ionising radiation imaging in general and spectroscopic imaging in particular must primarily be guided by the attempt to decrease statistical noise, which requires detection systems designed to allow very high counting rates. Any source of dead time must therefore be avoided. Thus, the use of on-line corrections of the inevitable dispersion of characteristics between the large number of electronic channels of the detection system, shall be precluded. Without claiming to achieve ultimate noise levels, the work described is focused on how to prevent good individual acquisition channel noise performance from being totally destroyed by the dispersion between channels without introducing dead times. With this goal, we developed an automatic charge amplifier output voltage offset compensation system which operates regardless of the cause of the offset (detector or electronic). ...

  7. The effect of highly ionising particles on the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Bouhali, O; Clerbaux, B; De Langhe, E; De Lentdecker, G; De Wolf, E; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Pernicka, Manfred; Tasevsky, M; Waltenberger, W

    2005-01-01

    Inelastic nuclear collisions of hadrons incident on silicon sensors can generate secondary highly ionising particles (HIPs) and deposit as much energy within the sensor bulk as several hundred minimum ionising particles. The large signals generated by these 'HIP events' can momentarily saturate the APV25 front-end readout chip for the silicon strip tracker (SST) sub-detector of the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment, resulting in deadtime in the detector readout system. This paper presents studies of this phenomenon through simulation, laboratory measurements and dedicated beam tests. A proposed change to a front-end component to reduce the APV25 sensitivity to HIP events is also examined. The results are used to infer the expected effect on the performance of the CMS SST at the future large hadron collider. The induced inefficiencies are at the percent level and will have a negligible effect on the physics performance of the SST.

  8. Experimental techniques for studying bystander effects in vitro by high and low-LET ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M A; Stevens, D L; Kadhim, M; Blake-James, M; Mill, A J; Goodhead, D T

    2006-01-01

    Ionising radiation can induce responses within non-exposed neighbouring (bystander) cells which potentially have important implications on the estimates of risk from low dose or low dose rate exposures of ionising radiations. A range of strategies have been developed for investigating bystander effects in vitro for both high-LET alpha particles or low-LET ultrasoft X rays using either partial shielding (grids, half-shields and slits) or by using a co-culture system where two physically separated populations of cells can be cultured together, allowing one population of cells to be irradiated while the second population remains unirradiated. The techniques described provide a useful tool to study bystander effects and complement microbeam studies. Studies using these systems show significant increases in the unirradiated bystander cells for various end points including the induction of chromosomal instability in haemopoetic stem cells and transformation in CGL1 cells.

  9. Tools to discover anionic and nonionic polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit; Christensen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    A tiered approach is proposed for the discovery of unknown anionic and nonionic polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants (PFASs) by reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) – negative electrospray ionisation – quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC–ESI−–QTOF–MS). T......A tiered approach is proposed for the discovery of unknown anionic and nonionic polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants (PFASs) by reversed phase ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) – negative electrospray ionisation – quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC...... such as [M−H+solvent]− and [(M−H)(M−H+Na)n]− were used to confirm the identity of the precursor ions. In relation to quantification of PFASs, we discuss how their surfactancy influence the ESI processes, challenge their handling in solution and choices of precursor-to-product ions for MSMS of e...

  10. Bucked Coils lattice: a novel ionisation cooling lattice for the Neutrino Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekou, A; Pasternak, J

    2012-01-01

    A successful muon ionisation cooling channel for the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider, requires simultaneously a strong focusing and a large mean RF gradient. To date, all candidate design lattices achieved these requirements with a large magnetic field in the RF cavities, which can potentially limit the achievable gradient leading to RF breakdown. This paper presents the Bucked Coils lattice, designed to reduce the magnetic field at the RF cavities while achieving a satisfactory cooling effect and muon transmission. The Bucked Coils managed to achieve significantly reduced magnetic field components at the RF position, while also achieving a comparable transmission to the FSIIA lattice, the current reference ionisation cooling lattice of the Neutrino Factory. A detailed comparison with respect to the magnetic field reduction, cooling dynamics and transmission is given. A preliminary feasibility study taking into account the hoop stress of the coils and their superconducting operation is also presented.

  11. Monitoring of the mass density profile along the 0° geomagnetic longitude during magnetic storms with the use of ground magnetometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, N.; Stepanova, M. V.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Pilipenko, V.; Zesta, E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground magnetometers offer a very cheap and robust means of globally monitoring the magnetospheric mass density, by determining the ULF field line resonant frequency. ULF waves are almost always present in near-Earth environment and are generated by the solar wind interaction with the terrestrial magnetosphere. These waves from the magnetopause propagate through the magnetosphere. When they encounter a field line that resonates at the same frequency, coupling to the Alfven field line oscillations occurs and the resonance can be detected on the ground at that particular latitude. There are different methods for determining resonant frequencies from ground ULF waves. the density profiles along the 0° geomagnetic longitude were obtained using both the gradient and the amplitude-phase methods for the analysis of the magnetic field data from the magnetometer arrays: SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array), MAGDAS and American Antarctic bases (Palmer, WAIS-D). We compared the density profiles during quiet magnetic conditions and during strong magnetic storms (recovery phase). It is shown that in the recovery phase of strong magnetic storms (Dst <-150 nT) profile of the equatorial mass density varies greatly in comparison with the density distribution in quiet days.

  12. The Coulomb deflection effect on the L3-subshell alignment in low-velocity proton impact ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palinkas, J.; Schlenk, B.; Valek, A.

    1981-01-01

    The alignment parameter of the L 3 subshell of gold has been determined by measuring the angular distribution of the Lsub(l)/Lsub(γ) intensity ratio following proton impact ionisation in the 0.25-0.60 MeV energy range. The experimental results make it clear that the minimum of the alignment parameter at low energies found earlier for He + impact also exists in the case of proton impact ionisation. (author)

  13. K-shell ionisation cross sections for W, Au and U by low velocity protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Faria, N.V. de; Freire Junior, F.L.; Montenegro, E.C.; Pinho, A.G. de; Silveira, E.F. da.

    1984-01-01

    Proton-induced K-shell ionisation cross section for W, Au and U by low velocity protons were obtained from thick target measurements. For the first time the lowest incident energy reached a value less than 10 times the binding energy of the K-shell electron (less than 9 times in the case of Au). Possible errors are thoroughly examined and a comparison with other available experimental results and theoretical values is presented and discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Decontamination of hospital wastes by the combined action of ionising radiation and heat - the thermorad process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, P.; Rocquigny, H. de

    1995-01-01

    The Thermorad process is used for decontaminating hospital wastes at the hospital as they are collected from the different departments. The process utilises the combined microbiological effects of ionising radiation (5 kGy) and dry heat (60 o C). The treatment unit, which is compact and of small size, contains a cobalt 60 source of under 100,000 curies and has an annual treatment capacity of 5000 m 3 . (author)

  15. The effect of the 1985 Ionising Radiations Regulations on a service inspection company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outhwaite, D.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the significant changes and requirements resulting from the 1985 Ionising Radiations Regulations, and examines their effect on the administration and operations of a service inspection company engaging in Industrial Radiography. The major innovations introduced by the 1985 Regulations are discussed under three topic headings: 1) local rules and radiation protection personnel, 2) controlled and supervised areas, and 3) hazard assessments and contingency plans. (U.K.)

  16. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a miss...... of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion....

  17. An isotope view on ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Bork, Nicolai Christian; Hattori, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a miss...... yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion....

  18. Use of ionising radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education, as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety licence referred to in section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/1991). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionising radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions

  19. International Atomic Energy Agency Regional Workshop on Commercialisation of ionising energy treatment of food: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.; Toner, B.

    1985-01-01

    The global need to ensure adequate food supplies places a demand on new technologies and techniques to improve yields and preservation of food by eliminating or reducing bacterial degradation and infestation of raw or processed foods. The use of ionising radiation in food processing also has potential to alleviate certain food-borne diseases which cause serious threats to the health of people in many countries

  20. Radon in drinking water: Comparison and evaluation of two ionisation chamber activity measurement methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, H; Lotter, K; Karner, P; Friedmann, H; Maringer, F J

    2018-04-01

    In this study the radon activity concentration of water samples from the so called "Thermenlinie" are measured using two different techniques: currents measured with an ionisation chamber setup developed by H. Friedmann are compared with results obtained using a commercially available AlphaGUARD. A fit to compensate for measurements made in non-equilibrium state is applied and the detection limit is estimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  2. Determination of the ionisation potential of certain hydrocarbons in the liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, J.; Grob, R.; Brunet, G.; Sabattier, R.; Guelfucci, J.P.; Blanc, D.

    1978-01-01

    The first results obtained are presented on the determination of the ionisation potential of four alkanes (n-hexane, n-pentane, cyclopentane and trimethyl-2,2,4 pentane) in the liquid phase. In the gaseous phase, the ionisation potential values of these hydrocarbons are respectively 10.18 eV for n-hexane, 10.35 eV for n-pentane, 10.53 eV for cyclopentane and 9.86 eV for trimethyl-2,2,4 pentane. Consequently rare gas resonance lamps (krypton and Xenon) were made, sealed and excited by an ultra-high frequency wave, which emit photons in the energy field concerned, i.e. from 8.5 eV to 11eV. The energy of the photons emitted by these lamps is respectively 8.44 eV (100%) and 9.57 eV (2%) for xenon and 10.03 eV (100%) and 10.64 eV (5%) for krypton. From the extent of the induced ionisation currents and particularly the value of the ratio of the currents induced by the photons of the krypton and xenon lamps, a minimum value of the ionisation potential drop can be deduced compared with the gas phase of 0.61 eV for n-hexane, 0.78 eV for n-pentane, 0.96 eV for cyclopentane and a maximum value of 1.42 eV for trimethyl-2,2,4 pentane [fr

  3. Absolute 3PO triple differential cross sections for electron-helium Wannier threshold ionisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, D.R.J.; Crothers, D.S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The uniform semiclassical approximation of Crothers is employed to find a final-state 3 P O wave function for threshold electron impact ionisation of helium. The Kohn variational principle is applied perturbatively to evaluate the scattering amplitude and hence the absolute 3 P O contribution to the triple differential cross sections. These plus the previous absolute singlet results of Crothers are compared favourably with the relative experimental results of Selles et al. (orig.)

  4. The ENEA calibration service for ionising radiations. Part 1: Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteventi, F.; Sermenghi, I.

    1999-01-01

    The ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) calibration service for ionizing radiations has been active for 40 years in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory web. It has been the first center, in 1985, to be acknowledges by the Italian calibration service (SIT) for the two quantities for photons: exposure and air kerma. Since the Institute for the Radiation Protection of ENEA has moved to the new site in Montecuccolino (Bologna, Italy) in 1995, the whole laboratory has been renovated and all irradiation rooms together with radiation source and equipment have been reorganized according to the Χ, γ, β and neutron fields metrology requirements. The aim of this report, as the first part of a report describing all facilities available at the service, is to give a detailed description of all equipment s qualified for photon fields metrology including the secondary standards and the calibration procedures performed for radiation monitoring devices and dosemeters [it

  5. Histamine protects bone marrow against cellular damage induced by ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Vanina A; Croci, Máximo; Carabajal, Eliana; Bergoc, Rosa M; Rivera, Elena S

    2010-04-01

    Based on our previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on small intestine, in the present work we aimed to determine whether histamine is able to protect bone marrow cells against ionising radiation damage. 56 mice and 40 rats were divided into four groups. Histamine and histamine-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous histamine injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 24 h before irradiation. Irradiated groups received a single dose on whole-body using Cesium-137 source and were sacrificed three days after irradiation. We evaluated the number of medullar components, bone marrow trophism, oedema, vascular damage, and other histological characteristics and also proliferation markers by immunohistochemistry. Histamine treatment substantially reduced the grade of aplasia, the oedema and vascular damage induced by ionising radiation on bone marrow of mice and rats. Additionally, histamine preserved medullar components increasing the number of megakaryocytes (14.0 +/- 1.0 vs. 7.3 +/- 1.0 in mice; and 9.9 +/- 1.3 vs. 4.1 +/- 1.0 in rats, P effect was associated with an increased proliferation rate of bone marrow cells. Histamine reduces ionising radiation toxicity on bone marrow cells being a suitable candidate for use as radioprotector, especially for patients undergoing radiotherapy who are at the risk of bone marrow or small intestine damage.

  6. Relativistic reflection from accretion disc ionised due to illumination from on-axis compact corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovciak, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Svoboda, J.

    2014-07-01

    We re-visit the relativistic (light bending) reflection scenario of AGN spectra in the lamp-post geometry. We compute the ionisation of the disc consistently with the amount of illumination from the on-axis compact corona. In this model the ionisation pattern of the disc is dependent on the distance from the centre according to astrophysically-motivated assumptions. We investigate the complementarity of different model parameters like: a) the intrinsic primary flux and the height of the corona, both affecting the normalization of the observed primary power-law; b) the height of the corona and the black hole spin, both affecting the amount of radiation emitted from the innermost regions of the disc; and c) the intrinsic primary flux, the height of the corona and the density of the disc, the three parameters that affect the ionisation state of the disc. We examine how these complementarities manifest themselves when fitting X-ray broadband spectra of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy MCG-6-30-15.

  7. A detailed study of the pulse height deficit effect in gas ionisation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weijers, T.D.M.; Timmers, H.; Ophel, T.R.; Elliman, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Gas ionisation detectors were originally developed for nuclear physics applications but have more recently also found use in nuclear techniques of analysis such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and ion beam analysis (IBA). They are ideal for heavy ion detection primarily because they do not suffer from radiation damage. It is well known that the pulse height versus energy relation for gas ionization detectors is non-linear. Previous studies have established that this is due to a pulse height deficit effect, which increases with both the atomic number and energy of the detected ion, and is of the order of 5 - 8MeV for typical fission fragment energies and masses. Published data does not, however, provide accurate estimates of the size of this effect for the wide range of ion species and energies applicable to materials analysis applications such as heavy ion elastic recoil detection (HIERDA), nor does it provide complete understanding of the factors which contribute to the effect. This presentation reports on a detailed study of the pulse height deficit effect, undertaken at the ANU 14UD pelletron accelerator facility using a propane-filled gas ionisation detector. Results will be presented quantifying the size of the pulse height deficit for a variety of ion species and energies. Furthermore, it will be demonstrated that a significant residual pulse height deficit remains after accounting for energy loss in the detector window, and non-ionising energy loss processes in the detector gas

  8. Evaluation of cytogenetic damage in nuclear medicine personnel occupationally exposed to low-level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kopjar, N.; Poropat, M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite intensive research over the last few decades, there still remains considerable uncertainty as to the genetic impact of ionising radiation on human populations, particularly at low levels. The aim of this study was to provide data on genetic hazards associated with occupational exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in nuclear medicine departments. The assessment of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of medical staff was performed using the chromosome aberration (CA) test. Exposed subjects showed significantly higher frequencies of CA than controls. There were significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage within the exposed population, indicating differences in genome sensitivity. Age and gender were not confounding factors, while smoking enhanced the levels of DNA damage only in control subjects. The present study suggests that chronic exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in nuclear medicine departments causes genotoxic damage. Therefore, to avoid potential genotoxic effects, the exposed medical personnel should minimise radiation exposure wherever possible. Our results also point to the significance of biological indicators providing information about the actual risk to the radiation exposed individuals.(author)

  9. Health protection of persons occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavalic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health condition of workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation. The results for 1406 workers exposed to ionising radiations, who were regularly examined in 2004, were analysed using Statistica 5.0. The analysis included workers' case histories, frequency of illnesses and causes of temporary or permanent work disability. Of 1406 workers, 16 (1.13%) were found permanently disabled; in 11 the cause of disability was lens opacity, in 2 persistent trombocitophenia, and in 2 malignant tumour. Twenty-four workers were temporarily disabled, of whom 5 due to pregnancy. Thrombocytopenia was found in 12 men and only one woman. Anaemia was found in 4 women; dicentric chromosomes were the cause of temporary disability in one person, and tuberculosis in one person. Medical examinations of Croatian workers confirm low occupational exposure to ionising radiation. With this type of radiation, the established lens impairments could not be characterised as occupational. The two malignant tumours however were recognised as occupational diseases.(author)

  10. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) Array near a Highway for Traffic Monitoring and Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Ak, E. Ms; Lord, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring traffic is important for many technical reasons. It allows for better design of future roads and assessment of the state of current roads. The number, size, weight, and speed of vehicles control deterioration rate. Also, real-time information supplies data to intelligent information systems to help control traffic. Recently there have been studies looking at monitoring traffic seismically as vibrations from traffic are not sensitive to weather and poor visibility. Furthermore, traffic noise can be used to image S-wave velocity distribution in the near surface by capturing and interpreting Rayleigh and Love waves (Nakata, 2016; Zeng et al. 2016). The capability of DAS for high spatial sampling (1 m), temporal sampling (up to 10 kHz), and distributed nature (tens of kilometers) allows for a closer look at the traffic as it passes and how the speed of the vehicle may change over the length of the array. The potential and difficulties of using DAS for these objectives were studied using two DAS arrays. One at Garner Valley in Southern California (a 700-meter array adjacent to CA Highway 74) and another in Brady Hot Springs, Nevada (an 8700-meter array adjacent to Interstate 80). These studies experimentally evaluated the use of DAS data for monitoring traffic and assessing the use of traffic vibration as non-localized sources for seismic imaging. DAS arrays should also be resilient to issues with lighting conditions that are problematic for video monitoring and it may be sensitive to the weight of a vehicle. This study along a major interstate provides a basis for examining DAS' potential and limitations as a key component of intelligent highway systems.

  11. Temperature profiling of polypeptides in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. I. Monitoring of dimerization and unfolding of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Colin T; Chen, Yuxin; Hodges, Robert S

    2003-08-15

    The present study sets out to extend the utility of reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) by demonstrating its ability to monitor dimerization and unfolding of de novo designed synthetic amphipathic alpha-helical peptides on stationary phases of varying hydrophobicity. Thus, we have compared the effect of temperature (5-80 degrees C) on the RP-HPLC (C8 or cyano columns) elution behaviour of mixtures of peptides encompassing amphipathic alpha-helical structure, amphipathic alpha-helical structure with L- or D-substitutions or non-amphipathic alpha-helical structure. By comparing the retention behaviour of the helical peptides to a peptide of negligible secondary structure (a random coil), we rationalize that "temperature profiling" by RP-HPLC can monitor association of peptide molecules, either through oligomerization or aggregation, or monitor unfolding of alpha-helical peptides with increasing temperature. We believe that the conformation-dependent response of peptides to RP-HPLC under changing temperature has implications both for general analysis and purification of peptides but also for the de novo design of peptides and proteins.

  12. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  13. Simplified modeling photo-ionisation of uranium in Silva project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, B.; Pourre-Brichot, P.; Valadier, L.

    2000-01-01

    SILVA is a process which targets 235 U by photo-ionization. It is therefore important to compute the proportion of ionized atoms depending on the properties of the lasers. The interaction between atoms and lasers occurs via the link between the Maxwell and Schroedinger equations. This kind of approach is only feasible for a few simple cases: e.g. wave plane or simple laser profiling. Introducing the characteristics of SILVA, computation time increases substantially (several hundred days per kilogram of vapor). To circumvent this problem, we wrote a program (Jackpot) that treats photo-ionization by a simplified model: kinetics equations. However, various optical components were introduced with absorption factor by wavelength, to account for the effects of optics systems on the trajectory. Instead of seeking the complex wavefunction solutions of the Maxwell-Schroedinger equations, we solve a system where the unknown values are a set of populations. The size of the set depends only on the number of hold points in the process. Recent work shows that we can converge towards the same results as the Maxwell-Schroedinger system if we can fit the cross-sections of the kinetic system correctly. As to the optical aspect, Jackpot can handle diffraction. In this case, it solves the propagation equation of an electric field by a double Fourier transform method. For interactions with mirrors, the new direction of a ray is calculated with Descartes law, applying a numerical phase mask to the electric field. We account for diaphragmation mechanisms as well as the absorption law for each mirror, by a real factor by wavelength. Jackpot is simple to use and can be used to predict experimental results. Jackpot is now a library calling by a script written in Python. Changes are being made for a closer approach to reality (real laser, new photo-ionization model)

  14. Monitoring soil bacteria with community-level physiological profiles using Biolog™ ECO-plates in the Netherlands and Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Wouterse, Marja; Drost, Sytske M.

    2016-01-01

    , land uses and climate zones. This method for determination of CLPP was specifically designed to be applied in large and long-term monitoring activities. It encompassed a solution for the inoculum-density dependence of colour formation patterns in ECO-plates, through stepwise dilution to extinction...... of the bacterial inoculum. The CLPP in Dutch and European soil samples appeared to be reproducible and sensitive to land use and/or soil texture. Although the method is selective, CLPP based parameters correlated well with other microbial parameters and soil characteristics. Consistent patterns in CLPP and soil...

  15. Prescription event monitoring stud to assess the safety profile of oral natural micronized progesterone sustained release in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purandare AC, Hajare A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Role of natural micronized progesterone (NMP in various therapeutic conditions, including luteal phase correction and luteal phase support (LPS has been very well highlighted1, 2. It offers better safety profile on long term administration with ancillary immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties3. Oral NMP in the form of sustained release (SRoffers better patient compliance due to once a day dosage schedule4. This employs a novel matrix technology for the release of progesterone in small pulses into the systemic circulation over a period of 24 hours, thereby minimizing the hepatic metabolism related side effects including sedation or drowsiness. Objective: To study the safety profile of oral NMP SR (Dubagest SR, a PEM study was conducted in the outpatient settings in India.Materials and methods: PEM study is a method employed worldwide to provide useful safety information on the drug when prescribed in ‘Real-life clinic settings’. Patients with bad obstetric history (BOH or unexplained infertility were prescribed either 300 or 400 mg SR once a day following induction with Natural or Stimulated ART cycle for two months. Safety information related as ‘Events’ was captured on the Study questionnaire sheet provided to 35 doctors across India for five patients at each centre between March and May ’13.Results: 153 patients completed the study with a mean of 27yrs& 55kgs. In infertility patients with BOH 87% patients had ≥ 2 abortions. The formulation was prescribed for Luteal Phase Support in Unexplained infertility (43.8% or BOH (50% and Secondary Amenorrhoea (5.9%. Oral NMP 300 mg SR was the most commonly prescribed formulation. The formulation was well tolerated with side effects including drowsiness (0.6%, hyperemesis (1.3%& giddiness (0.6% that were mild and transient. Two patients reported Spotting that disappeared on continued therapy and in other case probably related to reappearance of menses. Conclusion: Oral

  16. Monitoring Soil Bacteria with Community-Level Physiological Profiles Using Biolog™ ECO-Plates in the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieva, G. Sh; Gilmutdinova, I. M.; Fomin, V. P.; Selivanovskaya, S. Yu; Galitskaya, P. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Conservation of soil fertility is one of the most important tasks of the present time. As microorganisms are among the key factors in forming soil fertility, monitoring their state in natural and anthropogenically changed soils is an important component of compulsory environmental monitoring. Modern methods make it possible to evaluate the diversity and the functions of soil microorganisms, however, unfortunately, not all the soils are analyzed with their help up to the present moment. The present investigation is aimed to evaluate the functional diversity of five natural soil samples in the Republic of Tatarstan (belonging to sod-podzol, sod-carbonate, alluvial, and gray types) using the method of Biolog EcoPlate according to the index of average well color development, alpha-biodiversiry Shannon index (H), amount of substrates consumed ®, and strategy of consumption of various carbon substrate groups. It was shown that the highest AWCD index was found in sample No 3 - alluvial soil type (3.159±0.460), the lowest one - in sample No 5 - gray soil type (0.572±0.230). Correlation of biological activity of microorganisms with organic matter content in soil was shown.

  17. Status and test report on the LANL-Boeing APLE/HPO flying-wire beam-profile monitor. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, M.; Barlow, D.; Fortgang, C.; Gilpatrick, J.; Meyer, R.; Rendon, A.; Warren, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Greegor, R. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The High-Power Oscillator (HPO) demonstration of the Average Power Laser Experiment (APLE) is a collaboration by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Boeing to demonstrate a 10 kW average power, 10 {mu}m free electron laser (FEL). As part of the collaboration, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for many of the electron beam diagnostics in the linac, transport, and laser sections. Because of the high duty factor and power of the electron beam, special diagnostics are required. This report describes the flying wire diagnostic required to monitor the beam profile during high-power, high-duty operation. The authors describe the diagnostic and prototype tests on the Los Alamos APLE Prototype Experiment (APEX) FEL. They also describe the current status of the flying wires being built for APLE.

  18. POSSIBILITY OF MONITORING OF PAHs DISTRIBUTION IN THE VERTICAL PROFILE AT THE BACKGROUND METEOROLOGICAL STATION KREŠÍN - RETRACTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Strnadová

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ARTICLE HAS BEEN RETRACTED BY EDITORIAL OFFICE, UPON AN APPROVAL OF ALL AUTHORSThe contaminants present in the atmosphere have a substantial impact on public health. Among contaminants, the most important are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. This paper is focused on the possibility of continuous PAHs monitoring and the description of their vertical distribution using filters, which serve to purify the air before the determination of the greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, ozone and Hg in air, continuously sampled at 8, 50 and 230m at the atmospheric station Krešín near Pacov and elaboration of a simple and economical method of extraction of these filters. The station serves as a point for monitoring the occurrence and remote transport of greenhouse gases and selected atmospheric pollutants and for the measurements of basic meteorological characteristics. In December, 17, 2014, a sampling of 16 priority PAHs started and lasted until December, 9, 2015. Samples were taken approximately once a month. The maximum concentration of ΣPAHs was 15.905 ng/m3, measured at the height of 8 meters in the period of 11. 2. 2015–11. 3. 2015, the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the immission limit in the period by more than 50%. By the sampling, the hypothesis about decreasing concentration of PAHs with increasing height was confirmed, especially the decrease of heavier PAHs. The sampling has shown that it is highly desirable to use the meteorological tower for sampling of PAHs using PTFE filters either by including the active sampler itself, or by using pre-filters for tropospheric ozone and gaseous elemental mercury analysers. 

  19. Strategies for the Assessment of Metabolic Profiles of Steroid Hormones in View of Diagnostics and Drug Monitoring: Analytical Problems and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Oledzka, Ilona; Kowalski, Piotr; Baczek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    During the last few years there has been a growing interest in research focused on the metabolism of steroid hormones despite that the study of metabolic hormone pathways is still a difficult and demanding task because of low steroid concentrations and a complexity of the analysed matrices. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the development of new, more selective and sensitive methods for monitoring these compounds in biological samples. A lot of bibliographic databases for world research literature were structurally searched using selected review question and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Next, the reports of the highest quality were selected using standard tools (181) and they were described to evaluate the advantages and limitations of different approaches in the measurements of the steroids and their metabolites. The overview of the analytical challenges, development of methods used in the assessment of the metabolic pathways of steroid hormones, and the priorities for future research with a special consideration for liquid chromatography (LC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been presented. Moreover, many LC and CE applications in pharmacological and psychological studies as well as endocrinology and sports medicine, taking into account the recent progress in the area of the metabolic profiling of steroids, have been critically discussed. The latest reports show that LC systems coupled with mass spectrometry have the predominant position in the research of steroid profiles. Moreover, CE techniques are going to gain a prominent position in the diagnosis of hormone levels in the near future.

  20. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  1. The nature of luminous Lyα emitters at z ˜ 2-3: maximal dust-poor starbursts and highly ionising AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, David; Matthee, Jorryt; Darvish, Behnam; Smail, Ian; Best, Philip N.; Alegre, Lara; Röttgering, Huub; Mobasher, Bahram; Stroe, Ana Paulino-Afonso Andra; Oteo, Iván

    2018-03-01

    Deep narrow-band surveys have revealed a large population of faint Lyα emitters (LAEs) in the distant Universe, but relatively little is known about the most luminous sources (L_Lyα {≳} 10^{42.7} erg s-1; L_Lyα {≳} L^*_{Lyα }). Here we present the spectroscopic follow-up of 21 luminous LAEs at z ˜ 2 - 3 found with panoramic narrow-band surveys over five independent extragalactic fields (≈4 × 106 Mpc3 surveyed at z ˜ 2.2 and z ˜ 3.1). We use WHT/ISIS, Keck/DEIMOS and VLT/X-SHOOTER to study these sources using high ionisation UV lines. Luminous LAEs at z ˜ 2-3 have blue UV slopes (β =-2.0^{+0.3}_{-0.1}), high Lyα escape fractions (50^{+20}_{-15}%) and span five orders of magnitude in UV luminosity (M_{UV}≈ -19 to -24). Many (70%) show at least one high ionisation rest-frame UV line such as CIV, NV, CIII], HEII or OIII], typically blue-shifted by ≈100 - 200 km s-1 relative to Lyα. Their Lyα profiles reveal a wide variety of shapes, including significant blue-shifted components and widths from 200 to 4000 km s-1. Overall, 60 ± 11 % appear to be AGN dominated, and at L_{Lyα }>10^{43.3} erg s-1 and/or M_{UV}starbursts. Our results show that luminous LAEs at z ˜ 2-3 are a diverse population and that 2 × L^*_{Lyα } and 2 × M_UV^* mark a sharp transition in the nature of LAEs, from star formation dominated to AGN dominated.

  2. Looking into individual coffee beans during the roasting process: direct micro-probe sampling on-line photo-ionisation mass spectrometric analysis of coffee roasting gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Schünemann, Romy; Streibel, Thorsten; Ehlert, Sven; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    A micro-probe (μ-probe) gas sampling device for on-line analysis of gases evolving in confined, small objects by single-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) was developed. The technique is applied for the first time in a feasibility study to record the formation of volatile and flavour compounds during the roasting process within (inside) or in the direct vicinity (outside) of individual coffee beans. A real-time on-line analysis of evolving volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC and SVOC) as they are formed under the mild pyrolytic conditions of the roasting process was performed. The soft-ionisation mass spectra depict a molecular ion signature, which is well corresponding with the existing knowledge of coffee roasting and evolving compounds. Additionally, thereby it is possible to discriminate between Coffea arabica (Arabica) and Coffea canephora (Robusta). The recognized differences in the roasting gas profiles reflect the differences in the precursor composition of the coffee cultivars very well. Furthermore, a well-known set of marker compounds for Arabica and Robusta, namely the lipids kahweol and cafestol (detected in their dehydrated form at m/z 296 and m/z 298, respectively) were observed. If the variation in time of different compounds is observed, distinctly different evolution behaviours were detected. Here, phenol (m/z 94) and caffeine (m/z 194) are exemplary chosen, whereas phenol shows very sharp emission peaks, caffeine do not have this highly transient behaviour. Finally, the changes of the chemical signature as a function of the roasting time, the influence of sampling position (inside, outside) and cultivar (Arabica, Robusta) is investigated by multivariate statistics (PCA). In summary, this pilot study demonstrates the high potential of the measurement technique to enhance the fundamental knowledge of the formation processes of volatile and semi-volatile flavour compounds inside the individual coffee bean.

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring profile in urban African black and European white untreated hypertensive patients matched for age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polónia, Jorge; Madede, Tavares; Silva, José A; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Damasceno, Albertino

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) profile in never-treated black hypertensive patients living in Africa, Mozambique (20-80 years), versus never-treated white hypertensive patients living in Europe. ABP recordings of untreated black hypertensive patients and white hypertensive patients with 24-h ABP of 130/80 mmHg or more were retrospectively selected from two computerized database records of ABP and matched for age by decades, sex, and BMI. Black hypertensive patients were n=548, 47 ± 12 years, 52% women, BMI=28.0 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), 7% smokers, 7% diabetics; white hypertensive patients were n=604, 47 ± 15 years, 52% women, BMI=27.4 ± 5.1 kg/m(2), 8.4% diabetics, and 18% smokers (Pwhite hypertensive patients showed higher casual blood pressure (BP) 160/104 ± 19/14 versus 149/97 ± 18/12 mmHg, 24-h ABP 146/92 ± 16/13 versus 139/85 ± 11/10 mmHg, daytime ABP 150/95 ± 16/13 versus 143/88 ± 13/11 mmHg, night-time BP 139/84 ± 17/13 versus 130/78 ± 13/10 mmHg (all Pwhite hypertensive patients for all spectra of age distribution. This might be the reason for the worse cardiovascular prognosis described in black hypertensive patients compared with white hypertensive patients.

  4. Synthetic diamond devices for radiotherapy applications: Thermoluminescent dosimeter and ionisation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Nesladek, M.; Bergonzo, P.

    2006-01-01

    In radiotherapy field, the major usage of dosimeters is in the measurement of the dose received by the patient during radiotherapy (in-vivo measurements) and in beam calibration and uniformity checks. Diamond exhibits several interesting characteristics that make it a good candidate for radiation detection. It is indeed soft-tissue equivalent (Z=6 compared to Z=7.42 for human tissue), mechanically robust and relatively insensitive to radiation damage, chemically stable and non toxic. Moreover, the recent availability of synthetic samples, grown under controlled conditions using the chemical vapour deposition (C.V.D.) technique, allowed decreasing the high cost and the long delivery time of diamond devices. Diamond can be use for off-line dosimetry as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for on-line dosimetry as ionisation chamber [2,3]. These both applications are reported here. For this study, samples were grown in the laboratory and devices were then tested under X-ray irradiations and in clinical environment under medical cobalt source. The work described in this paper was performed in the framework of the European Integrated Project M.A.E.S.T.R.O., Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio-Oncology, (6. FP) which is granted by the European Commission.The first results of this study clearly show that C.V.D. diamond detectors are suitable for dosimetry in radiotherapy applications. Moreover, for both T.L. dosimeters and ionisation chambers applications, and even though the sensitivity is subsequently reduced, nitrogen incorporation in films seems to significantly improve the dosimetric characteristics of the devices. Therefore, the optimisation of the material quality appears as a very important issue in order to increase the dosimetric characteristics of devices and more particularly, for use as thermoluminescent dosimeters, other impurities (Nickel, Phosphorus) will be tested. For ionisation chamber applications, experiments with

  5. Diagnostic medical exposures. Advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C.; Shrimpton, J.; Bury, R

    1998-07-01

    The main objective of NRPB advice concerning in utero exposures to ionising radiations is 'to prevent unnecessary exposure of the fetus when medical diagnostic procedures involving ionising radiations are indicated during pregnancy'. In addition, advice is meant to help to avoid unnecessary concern or action if an exposure does occur. NRPB issued ASP8 (Exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant women: advice on the diagnostic exposure of women who are, or who may be, pregnant) in 1985. This advice suggested that there would be no risks to the concepts following irradiation during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle and that subsequent risks in the remainder of the first 4 week period would be likely to be so small that no special limitation on exposure was required - sometimes known as 'the 28-day rule'. In 1993, NRPB published further advice to replace ASP8 in the Documents of the NRPB series, in Volume 4, No 4 - henceforth referred to as Doc NRPB 4(4){sup 2} - which drew upon data published since 1985. The more recent data suggest that risks in the interval between 10 days and the date at which the next menstrual period is due, although still small for most diagnostic procedures, may be significant for higher dose procedures. Consequently, it is considered there is a need to operate a modified policy for such higher dose procedures. This pocket publication has been produced to present in a concise and user-friendly format the basis of the most recent NRPB advice and to provide a guide for the implementation of that advice in the everyday practice of diagnostic radiology. The opportunity has also been taken to provide the most up to date data on doses in the UK. This publication is split into three parts: an introduction to the terms used in the document, a practical guide to implementation of the advice, and the scientific background to the advice.

  6. A micro-gap, air-filled ionisation chamber as a detector for criticality accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, I.; Zielczynski, M.; Gryzinski, M.A.; Golnik, N.

    2014-01-01

    A micro-gap air-filled ionisation chamber was designed for criticality dosimetry. The special feature of the chamber is its very small gap between electrodes of only 0.3 mm. This prevents ion recombination at high dose rates and minimises the influence of gas on secondary particles spectrum. The electrodes are made of polypropylene because of higher content of hydrogen in this material, when compared with soft tissue. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity in such chamber becomes practically negligible. The chamber's envelope contains two specially connected capacitors, one for polarising the electrodes and the other for collecting the ionisation charge. Air-filled ionisation chamber with very small gap is a simple dosemeter, which fulfills the most desired properties of criticality accident dosemeters. Short ion collection time is achieved by combination of small gap and relatively high polarising voltage. For the same reason, parasitic recombination of ions in the chamber is negligibly small even at high dose rates. The difference between neutron and gamma sensitivity is small for tissue-equivalent chamber and is expected to become practically negligible when the chamber electrodes are made of polypropylene. Additional capacitor provides a broad measuring range from ∼0.1 Gy up to ∼25 Gy; however, leakage of electrical charge from polarising capacitor has to be observed and taken into account. Periodical re-charging of the device is necessary. Obviously, final test of the device in conditions simulating criticality accident is needed and will be performed as soon as available. (authors)

  7. Transcription-based model for the induction of chromosomal exchange events by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.A.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanistic basis for chromosomal aberration formation, following exposure of mammalian cells to ionising radiation, has long been debated. Although chromosomal aberrations are probably initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), little is understood about the mechanisms that generate and modulate DNA rearrangement. Based on results from our laboratory and data from the literature, a novel model of chromosomal aberration formation has been suggested (Radford 2002). The basic postulates of this model are that: (1) DSB, primarily those involving multiple individual damage sites (i.e. complex DSB), are the critical initiating lesion; (2) only those DSB occurring in transcription units that are associated with transcription 'factories' (complexes containing multiple transcription units) induce chromosomal exchange events; (3) such DSB are brought into contact with a DNA topoisomerase I molecule through RNA polymerase II catalysed transcription and give rise to trapped DNA-topo I cleavage complexes; and (4) trapped complexes interact with another topo I molecule on a temporarily inactive transcription unit at the same transcription factory leading to DNA cleavage and subsequent strand exchange between the cleavage complexes. We have developed a method using inverse PCR that allows the detection and sequencing of putative ionising radiation-induced DNA rearrangements involving different regions of the human genome (Forrester and Radford 1998). The sequences detected by inverse PCR can provide a test of the prediction of the transcription-based model that ionising radiation-induced DNA rearrangements occur between sequences in active transcription units. Accordingly, reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine if sequences involved in rearrangements were transcribed in the test cells. Consistent with the transcription-based model, nearly all of the sequences examined gave a positive result to reverse transcriptase PCR (Forrester and Radford unpublished)

  8. Diagnostic medical exposures. Advice on exposure to ionising radiation during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, C.; Shrimpton, J.; Bury, R.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of NRPB advice concerning in utero exposures to ionising radiations is 'to prevent unnecessary exposure of the fetus when medical diagnostic procedures involving ionising radiations are indicated during pregnancy'. In addition, advice is meant to help to avoid unnecessary concern or action if an exposure does occur. NRPB issued ASP8 (Exposure to ionising radiation of pregnant women: advice on the diagnostic exposure of women who are, or who may be, pregnant) in 1985. This advice suggested that there would be no risks to the concepts following irradiation during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle and that subsequent risks in the remainder of the first 4 week period would be likely to be so small that no special limitation on exposure was required - sometimes known as 'the 28-day rule'. In 1993, NRPB published further advice to replace ASP8 in the Documents of the NRPB series, in Volume 4, No 4 - henceforth referred to as Doc NRPB 4(4) 2 - which drew upon data published since 1985. The more recent data suggest that risks in the interval between 10 days and the date at which the next menstrual period is due, although still small for most diagnostic procedures, may be significant for higher dose procedures. Consequently, it is considered there is a need to operate a modified policy for such higher dose procedures. This pocket publication has been produced to present in a concise and user-friendly format the basis of the most recent NRPB advice and to provide a guide for the implementation of that advice in the everyday practice of diagnostic radiology. The opportunity has also been taken to provide the most up to date data on doses in the UK. This publication is split into three parts: an introduction to the terms used in the document, a practical guide to implementation of the advice, and the scientific background to the advice

  9. Dissipative instabilities in a partially ionised prominence plasma slab. II. The effect of compressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. F.; Ballai, I.; Erdélyi, R.

    2018-02-01

    This study deals with the dissipative instability that appears in a compressible partially ionised plasma slab embedded in a uniform magnetic field, modelling the state of the plasma in solar prominences. In the partially ionised plasma, the dominant dissipative effect is the Cowling resistivity. The regions outside the slab (modelling the solar corona) are fully ionised, and the dominant mechanism of dissipation is viscosity. Analytical solutions to the extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations are found inside and outside of the slab and solutions are matched at the boundaries of the slab. The dispersion relation is derived and solutions are found analytically in the slender slab limit, while the conditions necessary for the appearance of the instability is investigated numerically for the entire parameter space. Our study is focussed on the effect of the compressibility on the generation and evolution of instabilities. We find that compressibility reduces the threshold of the equilibrium flow, where waves can be unstable, to a level that is comparable to the internal cusp speed, which is of the same order of flow speeds that are currently observed in solar prominences. Our study addresses only the slow waves, as these are the most likely perturbations to become unstable, however the time-scales of the instability are found to be rather large ranging from 105-107 s. It is determined that the instability threshold is further influenced by the concentration of neutrals and the strength of the viscosity of the corona. Interestingly, these two latter aspects have opposite effects. Our numerical analysis shows that the interplay between the equilibrium flow, neutrals and dispersion can change considerably the nature of waves. Despite employing a simple model, our study confirms the necessity of consideration of neutrals when discussing the stability of prominences under solar conditions.

  10. Calculated ionisation potentials to determine the oxidation of vanillin precursors by lignin peroxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Have, ten, R.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Hartmans, S.; Swarts, H.J.; Field, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the biocatalytic production of vanillin, this research focused on the lignin peroxidase (LiP) catalysed oxidation of naturally occurring phenolic derivatives: O-methyl ethers, O-acetyl esters, and O-glucosyl ethers. The ionisation potential (IP) of a series of model compounds was calculated and compared to their experimental conversion by LiP, defining a relative IP threshold of approximately 9.0 eV. Based on this threshold value only the O-acetyl esters and glucosides of isoeugeno...

  11. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Kostidis, L.I. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  12. Characterisation of the Muon Beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V.J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C.N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A.D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J.H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L.M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O.M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T.L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y.K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M.A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T.J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D.A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P.J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F.J.P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D.J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C.D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C.G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  13. Semiempirical confrontations between theory and experiment in highly ionised complex atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Highly ionised complex atoms, which have many electrons stripped away but many electrons still remaining, are presently a subject of vigorous experimental study. The high precision experimentally attainable for these systems suggests their use in the investigation of higher order theoretical processes, and the specification of these interactions is essential to the development of reliable predictive methods. It is shown that parametric reductions which combine ab initio theoretical calculations with experimental observations can yield predictions of much higher precision than could be obtained from either source separately. These formulations also reveal subtle regularities in the measured data that are not exhibited by the corresponding computations, which suggest possible calculational improvements. (orig.)

  14. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A. [Harwell Oxford, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry (United Kingdom); Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hunt, C.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Richards, A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M. [Imperial College London, Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Karadzhov, Y.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H. [Universite de Geneve, DPNC, Section de Physique, Geneva (Switzerland); De Bari, A.; Cecchet, G. [Sezione INFN Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Bayes, R.; Forrest, D.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K. [The University of Glasgow, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Lucchini, G. [Sezione INFN Milano Bicocca (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Milano (Italy); Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova, G. [St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, Department of Atomic Physics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J. [University of Sheffield, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravar, U. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States); Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L. [Sezione INFN Roma Tre e Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma (Italy); Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Owens, P.; White, C. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Cooke, P.; Gamet, R. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J. [University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Dick, A.J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G. [University of Strathclyde, Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Filthaut, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ishimoto, S. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H. [Osaka University, Graduate School of Science, Department of Physics, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Onel, Y. [University of Iowa, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa City, IA (United States); Palladino, V. [Universita Federico II, Sezione INFN Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); Palmer, R.B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (US); Roberts, T.J. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL (US); Collaboration: The MICE Collaboration

    2013-10-15

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 {pi} mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 {pi} mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE. (orig.)

  15. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hunt, C.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Richards, A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Graulich, J.S.; Karadzhov, Y.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H.; De Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Bayes, R.; Forrest, D.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Lucchini, G.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Rusinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova, G.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.P.; Zisman, M.S.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Owens, P.; White, C.; Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Dick, A.J.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G.; Filthaut, F.; Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Ishimoto, S.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Onel, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.B.; Roberts, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 π mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 π mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE. (orig.)

  16. The fragmentation mechanism of five-membered lactones by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Antônio E. M.; Fonseca, Tatiana; Hong, Hui; Staunton, James; Galembeck, Sérgio E.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Gates, Paul J.

    2004-04-01

    A series of five-membered lactones (both saturated and unsaturated) and a lactam were analysed by electrospray ionisation tandem (ESI-MS/MS) and sequential mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). It was observed that the main fragment ions were derived from neutral losses of CO and/or H2O (NH3 for the lactam). The fragmentation pathways followed are rationalised in terms of the resulting carbocation stability and the energy of the possible fragment ions, calculated by the CBS-Q composite method.

  17. X-ray spectroscopy of highly ionised atoms of Ti through Zn in a dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shiguro; Fujita, Junji

    1985-01-01

    X-ray spectra for several elements have been observed from a high-temperature plasma produced in a vacuum spark using a curved-crystal spectrometer. The transition wavelengths of the He-like resonance lines for Ti through Zn are determined for the first time under careful experimental treatments. The result is compared with theoretical predictions. The transition wavelengths of the Fe He-like resonance series lines up to 1s6p-1s 2 and the Kβ transition energies of Ti partially M-shell-ionised ions (Ti VI-XIII) are also determined. As a result, several satelite lines are found. (orig.)

  18. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation—Implications for low dose risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Munira; Salomaa, Sisko; Wright, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Non-DNA targeted effects of ionising radiation, which include genomic instability, and a variety of bystander effects including abscopal effects and bystander mediated adaptive response, have raised concerns about the magnitude of low-dose radiation risk. Genomic instability, bystander effects an......) Integrated Project funded by the European Union. Here we critically examine the evidence for non-targeted effects, discuss apparently contradictory results and consider implications for low-dose radiation health effects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Selektive Ionisation von Wasserstoffbrücken-gebundenen Clustern und Molekülen

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Im ersten Teil der Dissertation werden diverse Typen von Wasserstoff-Brücken, wie die O-H···O, die N-H···O und die N-H···Pi Brücke in isolierten Heterodimeren aus Indol, Phenol und Naphthol mit Wasser und Benzol, untersucht. Mit Mass Analyzed Threshold Ionization (MATI), einer kombinierten Technik aus Flugzeit-Massenspektrometrie und resonanter Mehr-Photonen-Ionisation (REMPI) im gekühlten Überschall-Molekularstrahl, gelang die Aufzeichnung von kationischen Spektren dieser Systeme und damit u...

  20. Monitoring expression profiles of rice (Oryza sativa L.) genes under abiotic stresses using cDNA Microarray Analysis (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Transcript regulation in response to cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application was investigated in rice (Oryza sativa L., Nipponbare) with microarray analysis including approx. 1700 independent DNA elements derived from three cDNA libraries constructed from 15-day old rice seedlings stressed with drought, cold and high salinity. A total of 141 non-redundant genes were identified, whose expression ratios were more than three-fold compared with the control genes for at least one of stress treatments in microarray analysis. However, after RNA gel blot analysis, a total of 73 genes were identified, among them the transcripts of 36, 62, 57 and 43 genes were found increased after cold, drought, high salinity and ABA application, respectively. Sixteen of these identified genes have been reported previously to be stress inducible in rice, while 57 of which are novel that have not been reported earlier as stress responsive in rice. We observed a strong association in the expression patterns of stress responsive genes and found 15 stress inducible genes that responded to all four treatments. Based on Venn diagram analysis, 56 genes were induced by both drought and high salinity, whereas 22 genes were upregulated by both cold and high salinity stress. Similarly 43 genes were induced by both drought stress and ABA application, while only 17 genes were identified as cold and ABA inducible genes. These results indicated the existence of greater cross talk between drought, ABA and high salinity stress signaling processes than those between cold and ABA, and cold and high salinity stress signaling pathways. The cold, drought, high salinity and ABA inducible genes were classified into four gene groups from their expression profiles. Analysis of data enabled us to identify a number of promoters and possible cis-acting DNA elements of several genes induced by a variety of abiotic stresses by combining expression data with genomic sequence data of rice. Comparative analysis of

  1. Identification of organic pigments in tattoo inks and permanent make-up using laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Markus; Hauri, Urs; Kroll, Lydia; Hohl, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, about 12% of the European and 20% of the US population are tattooed. Rising concerns regarding consumer safety, led to legal restrictions on tattoo and permanent make-up (PMU) inks. Restrictions also include bans on certain colourants. Both ink types use organic pigments for colour-giving, plus inorganic pigments for white and black and colour tones. Pigments are only sparingly soluble in common solvents and occur as suspended particles in the ink matrix. Their detection and identification therefore pose a major challenge for laboratories involved in monitoring the legal compliance of tattoo inks and PMU. We overcame this challenge by developing a direct laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, which included an easy sample clean up. The method proved to be capable of detecting and identifying organic pigments in almost all of the tested ink samples. Method validation and routine deployment during market surveys showed the method to be fit for purpose. Pigment screening of 396 tattoo inks and 55 PMU taken from the Swiss market between 2009 and 2017 lead to the following conclusions: Pigment variety is much greater in tattoo inks (18) than in PMU (10); four prohibited pigments (Pigment Green 7, Pigment Red 122, Pigment Violet 19 and 23) were found in both ink types; for PMU, these four pigments made up 12% of the pigment findings, compared to 32% for tattoo inks. Therefore, legal compliance of PMU was at a higher level. A comparison of pigments found with those declared on tattoo ink labels clearly showed that banned pigments are rarely declared, but rather masked by listing non present legal pigments and label forging; therefore, highlighting the urgency of widespread market controls.

  2. The use of enzyme-coupled magnetic nanoparticles for studying the spectra of unusual substrates of mushroom tyrosinase by direct surface-assisted laser desorption/ionisation and high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwiński, Aleksander; Da Silva, David; Delépée, Raphaël; Maunit, Benoît

    2014-09-30

    Tyrosinase-coupled magnetic particles (EMPs) were used to demonstrate that resorcinol-containing tyrosinase inhibitors are oxidised by tyrosinase only in the presence of the enzyme's classic substrate. This shows the potential for the application of EMPs as a non-organic matrix for monitoring enzymatic conversion of a novel substrate family directly on-the-spot, principally due to minimal enzyme requirement per analysis. Tyrosinase was covalently coupled to core-shell-type silica-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (EMPs) that were applied as non-organic SALDI matrix suitable for studying low-mass compounds using a classic matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Because of the dual function of the EMPs - enzyme host and non-organic matrix - we describe this ionisation method as Enzyme-coupled Nanoparticles-Assisted LDI-MS (ENALDI-MS). Supplementary studies of the enzymatic conversion of glabridin and 3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (DHPA) were conducted by high-resolution electrospray ionisation quadrupole-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS). The initial experiment involving EMPs as non-organic matrix (ENALDI-MS) showed enzymatic conversion of glabridin, a strong tyrosinase inhibitor, only in the presence of L-Tyr, the classic tyrosinase substrate. These findings were evaluated by ESI-QqTOF-MS proving that glabridin and DHPA are converted into the corresponding quinones by tyrosinase only in the presence of the auxiliary monophenol or o-diphenol substrates (L-Tyr and catechin, respectively) capable of regenerating the active site of tyrosinase. EMPs were shown to be useful as a non-organic matrix to monitor enzymatic conversion of the novel tyrosinase substrate family directly on-the-spot with a minimal enzyme consumption (6.5 pmol/spot). Results obtained by ENALDI-MS were fully confirmed by ESI-QqTOF-MS demonstrating that resorcinol-containing tyrosinase inhibitors may be oxidised

  3. Further studies on the use of enzyme profiles to monitor residue accumulation in wildlife: Plasma enzymes in starlings fed graded concentrations of morsodren, DDE, Aroclor 1254, and malathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Wild-trapped starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were fed concentrations of Morsodren (2, 4, and 8 ppm), DDE or Aroclor 1254 (5, 25, and 100 ppm), or malathion (8, 35, and 160 ppm) that were found to be sublethal in pen-reared Coturnix quail fed these amounts for 12 weeks. Plasma enzymes had to be measured earlier than planned in starlings fed Morsodren (at three weeks) or the organochlorine compounds (at seven weeks) because of unexpected, subsequent mortality. Variations in enzyme response were greater in wild than in pen-reared birds, but not enough to mask the toxicant-induced changes in enzyme activity. Cholinesterase activities decreased in birds fed Morsodren or malathion, and increased in those fed the organochlorine compounds. Lactate dehydrogenase activities increased two-fold in starlings fed Morsodren and two- to four-fold in those fed the organochlorine compounds, but only 50% in those fed malathion. Further examination of enzyme profiles showed that creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities increased two-to four-fold in birds fed Morsodren or the organochlorine compounds but not at all in those fed malathion. Thus the classes of environmental contaminants fed to starlings could be easily distinguished by these enzymatic parameters. Evaluation of enzymatic profiles appears to be a potentially valuable technique to monitor the presence of toxicants in wild populations, especially if used to complement standard chemical residue analyses. Here the residue analyses showed, after three weeks feeding, that mercury in the carcasses reflected the concentrations fed daily, whereas accumulation in the livers was two- to four-fold greater. After seven weeks feeding, liver residues of either organochlorine compound were about three-fold higher than the concentrations fed daily. However, four times as much DDE as Aroclor 1254 had accumulated in the carcasses.

  4. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Quejido, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound esposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-steps purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs

  5. Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometric analysis for tin in a fly ash material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Carolina; Fernandez, Marta; Quejido, Alberto J.; Sanchez, Dolores M.; Morante, Ramon; Martin, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solution has been prepared from 112 Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4.5 M HCl during 25 min ultrasound exposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-step purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10.11 ± 0.55 and 10.50 ± 0.64 μmol g -1 ) are comparable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference materials certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of samples

  6. Measurement of the total ionisation intensity near the ground and separation of the various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grevet, Ph.

    1965-06-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the total amount of ion-pairs produced in the air per unit time and unit volume. It is possible, furthermore, by using continuous recording to study the variations in the ionisation due to α, β and γ radiation at a height of one metre. The apparatus which has been developed consists of two chambers of 120 litres: one, hermetically sealed detects the γ component, the other with a circulation of the ambient air detects the α and γ; it is thus possible by difference to evaluate the α component. The chambers and the associated electronic equipment have been designed for continuous operation in the open air. Another chamber without walls can be used for measuring directly the total ionisation intensity and from this an approximate calculation may be made of the β component. A series of recordings has been made near Saclay where the natural radio-activity level is moderate, and in regions of low and high activity (near the sea and in the CEA's mining divisions). It has thus been possible to show the variation in the γ component as a function of the geographic position of the measurement (from 3.7 to 6.3 l/cm 3 .s), the very large variations of the α component at a given place with changing meteorological conditions (from 1.5 to 45 l/cm 3 .s at Saclay for example) an the far smaller variations in the β component. (author) [fr

  7. Modelling the propagation of effects of chronic exposure to ionising radiation from individuals to populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, F. [Laboratory of Environmental Modelling, DEI/SECRE/LME, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache, Building 159, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.alonzo@irsn.fr; Hertel-Aas, T. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Gilek, M. [School of Life Sciences, Soedertoern University College, 14189 Huddinge (Sweden); Gilbin, R. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Oughton, D.H. [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 5003, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas (Norway); Garnier-Laplace, J. [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, DEI/SECRE/LRE, Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Cadarache Building 186, BP3, 13115 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2008-09-15

    This study evaluated the potential effect of ionising radiation on population growth using simple population models and parameter values derived from chronic exposure experiments in two invertebrate species with contrasting life-history strategies. In the earthworm Eisenia fetida, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing gamma dose rate (up to 0.6 generation times at 11 mGy h{sup -1}). Population extinction was predicted at 43 mGy h{sup -1}. In the microcrustacean Daphnia magna, models predicted increasing delay in population growth with increasing alpha dose rate (up to 0.8 generation times at 15.0 mGy h{sup -1}), only after two successive generations were exposed. The study examined population effects of changes in different individual endpoints (including survival, number of offspring produced and time to first reproduction). Models showed that the two species did not respond equally to equivalent levels of change, the fast growing daphnids being more susceptible to reduction in fecundity or delay in reproduction than the slow growing earthworms. This suggested that susceptibility of a population to ionising radiation cannot be considered independent of the species' life history.

  8. Closing of Coster-Kronig transitions in multiply ionised gold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Czarnota, M.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the effect of closing of L- and M-shell Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions in multiply ionised Au atoms, for which the selected CK transitions become energetically forbidden. This effect plays an important role when the Coster-Kronig energy for single-hole configuration is relatively low, being comparable with a change of the electronic binding energies in multiply ionised atom. We show, by using a simplified model, that for gold the effect of closing of CK transitions occurs for strong L 1 -L 3 M 4,5 transition for the L 1 -subshell as well as the M 3 -M 5 N 6,7 and M 4 -M 5 O 3,4 CK transitions for the M 3 - and M 4 -subshell, respectively. We demonstrate that the discussed effect of closing CK transitions substantially changes the X-ray fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields and thus has to be considered in interpretation of X-rays excited by heavy ion impact

  9. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordienko, A V; Mavritskii, O B; Egorov, A N; Pechenkin, A A; Savchenkov, D V [National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  10. On magnetospheric electron impact ionisation and dynamics in Titan's ram-side and polar ionosphere – a Cassini case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Lewis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present data from the sixth Cassini flyby of Titan (T5, showing that the magnetosphere of Saturn strongly interacts with the moon's ionosphere and exo-ionosphere. A simple electron ionisation model provides a reasonable agreement with the altitude structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore, we suggest that the dense and cold exo-ionosphere (from the exobase at 1430 km and outward to several Titan radii from the surface can be explained by magnetospheric forcing and other transport processes whereas exospheric ionisation by impacting low energy electrons seems to play a minor role.

  11. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Watanabe

    Full Text Available A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD, or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3, including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4. Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30 and unhealthy (n = 13. A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for

  12. Feasibility Study of NMR Based Serum Metabolomic Profiling to Animal Health Monitoring: A Case Study on Iron Storage Disease in Captive Sumatran Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Roth, Terri L.; Bauer, Stuart J.; Lane, Adam; Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of wildlife species maintained in captivity are susceptible to iron storage disease (ISD), or hemochromatosis, a disease resulting from the deposition of excess iron into insoluble iron clusters in soft tissue. Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is one of the rhinoceros species that has evolutionarily adapted to a low-iron diet and is susceptible to iron overload. Hemosiderosis is reported at necropsy in many African black and Sumatran rhinoceroses but only a small number of animals reportedly die from hemochromatosis. The underlying cause and reasons for differences in susceptibility to hemochromatosis within the taxon remains unclear. Although serum ferritin concentrations have been useful in monitoring the progression of ISD in many species, there is some question regarding their value in diagnosing hemochromatosis in the Sumatran rhino. To investigate the metabolic changes during the development of hemochromatosis and possibly increase our understanding of its progression and individual susceptibility differences, the serum metabolome from a Sumatran rhinoceros was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The study involved samples from female rhinoceros at the Cincinnati Zoo (n = 3), including two animals that died from liver failure caused by ISD, and the Sungai Dusun Rhinoceros Conservation Centre in Peninsular Malaysia (n = 4). Principal component analysis was performed to visually and statistically compare the metabolic profiles of the healthy animals. The results indicated that significant differences were present between the animals at the zoo and the animals in the conservation center. A comparison of the 43 serum metabolomes of three zoo rhinoceros showed two distinct groupings, healthy (n = 30) and unhealthy (n = 13). A total of eighteen altered metabolites were identified in healthy versus unhealthy samples. Results strongly suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is a valuable tool for animal health

  13. Seismotectonics and Seismic Structure of the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean - Constraints from Local Earthquake Monitoring and Seismic Refraction and Wide-Angle Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchters, W.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Villasenor, A.; Booth-Rea, G.; Gallart, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Alboran Basin is located in the western-most Mediterranean Sea and is surrounded by the Gibraltar-Betic and Rif orogenic arc. Geological evidence suggests that the most important phase of formation started in the early-to-mid-Miocene. Currently two conflicting models are discussed for its formation: One model proposes contractive tectonics producing strike-slip faults and folds with sedimentation occurring in synclinal basins and in regions of subsidiary extension in transtensional fault segments. A second model proposes slab roll back that caused contraction at the front of the arc and coeval overriding plate bending and extension and associated arc magmatism. However, this phase has been partially masked by late Miocene to present contractive structures, caused by the convergence of Africa and Iberia. Two German/Spanish collaborative research projects provided excellent new seismological and seismic data. Onshore/offshore earthquake monitoring received a wealth of local earthquake data to study seismotectonics and yielded the average 1D velocity structure of the Alboran/Betics/Rif domain. In the Alboran Basin most earthquakes occur below 20 km along a diffuse fault zone, crossing the Alboran Sea from the Moroccan to the Spanish coast. Further, earthquakes along the northern portion of the Alboran Ridge show thrust mechanisms and compression roughly normal to the vector of plate convergence between Africa and Iberia. A 250 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle profile was acquired coincident with the existing multi-channel seismic (MCS) ESCI-Alb2 line using the German research vessel Meteor. Shots fired with a 64-litre airgun array were recorded on 24 ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) and ocean-bottom hydrophone (OBH) stations. The profile run roughly along the axis of the basin, circa 65 km off the coast of Morocco, north of the Alboran Ridge. It continues in an ENE direction to end north of the Algeria coast. Using seismic tomography we mapped the crustal

  14. Apoptosis is signalled early by low doses of ionising radiation in a radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlong, Hayley, E-mail: hayley.furlong@dit.ie [DIT Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St, Dublin 8 (Ireland); School of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Mothersill, Carmel [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Nuclear Research Building, 1280 Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada); Lyng, Fiona M. [DIT Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Howe, Orla [DIT Centre for Radiation and Environmental Science, Focas Research Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St, Dublin 8 (Ireland); School of Biological Sciences, College of Sciences and Health, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Molecular mechanisms involved in the production of a radiation induced bystander effect are not well known. ► We investigate gene expression changes in apoptotic genes in both direct and bystander responses. ► We demonstrate initiation of the apoptotic cascade in a bystander response. ► Lower doses reveal a specific but differential response related to apoptosis compared to higher doses. - Abstract: It is known that ionising radiation (IR) induces a complex signalling apoptotic cascade post-exposure to low doses ultimately to remove damaged cells from a population, specifically via the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, it was hypothesised that bystander reporter cells may initiate a similar apoptotic response if exposed to low doses of IR (0.05 Gy and 0.5 Gy) and compared to directly irradiated cells. Key apoptotic genes were selected according to their role in the apoptotic cascade; tumour suppressor gene TP53, pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl2, pro-apoptotic JNK and anti-apoptotic ERK, initiator caspase 2 and 9 and effector caspase 3, 6 and 7. The data generated consolidated the role of apoptosis following direct IR exposure for all doses and time points as pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax and JNK as well as initiator caspase 7 and effector caspase 3 and 9 were up-regulated. However, the gene expression profile for the bystander response was quite different and more complex in comparison to the direct response. The 0.05 Gy dose point had a more significant apoptosis gene expression profile compared to the 0.5 Gy dose point and genes were not always expressed within 1 h but were sometimes expressed 24 h later. The bystander data clearly demonstrates initiation of the apoptotic cascade by the up-regulation of TP53, Bax, Bcl-2, initiator caspase 2 and effector caspase 6. The effector caspases 3 and 7 of the bystander samples demonstrated down-regulation in their gene expression levels at 0.05 Gy and 0.5 Gy at both time points therefore not

  15. Apoptosis is signalled early by low doses of ionising radiation in a radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, Hayley; Mothersill, Carmel; Lyng, Fiona M.; Howe, Orla

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Molecular mechanisms involved in the production of a radiation induced bystander effect are not well known. ► We investigate gene expression changes in apoptotic genes in both direct and bystander responses. ► We demonstrate initiation of the apoptotic cascade in a bystander response. ► Lower doses reveal a specific but differential response related to apoptosis compared to higher doses. - Abstract: It is known that ionising radiation (IR) induces a complex signalling apoptotic cascade post-exposure to low doses ultimately to remove damaged cells from a population, specifically via the intrinsic pathway. Therefore, it was hypothesised that bystander reporter cells may initiate a similar apoptotic response if exposed to low doses of IR (0.05 Gy and 0.5 Gy) and compared to directly irradiated cells. Key apoptotic genes were selected according to their role in the apoptotic cascade; tumour suppressor gene TP53, pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl2, pro-apoptotic JNK and anti-apoptotic ERK, initiator caspase 2 and 9 and effector caspase 3, 6 and 7. The data generated consolidated the role of apoptosis following direct IR exposure for all doses and time points as pro-apoptotic genes such as Bax and JNK as well as initiator caspase 7 and effector caspase 3 and 9 were up-regulated. However, the gene expression profile for the bystander response was quite different and more complex in comparison to the direct response. The 0.05 Gy dose point had a more significant apoptosis gene expression profile compared to the 0.5 Gy dose point and genes were not always expressed within 1 h but were sometimes expressed 24 h later. The bystander data clearly demonstrates initiation of the apoptotic cascade by the up-regulation of TP53, Bax, Bcl-2, initiator caspase 2 and effector caspase 6. The effector caspases 3 and 7 of the bystander samples demonstrated down-regulation in their gene expression levels at 0.05 Gy and 0.5 Gy at both time points therefore not

  16. Interoperable End-to-End Remote Patient Monitoring Platform based on IEEE 11073 PHD and ZigBee Health Care Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Malcolm; de Folter, Joost; Verma, Vivek; Gokalp, Hulya

    2017-08-07

    This paper describes the implementation of an end-to-end remote monitoring platform based on the IEEE 11073 standards for Personal Health Devices (PHD). It provides an overview of the concepts and approaches and describes how the standard has been optimized for small devices with limited resources of processor, memory and power and that use short range wireless technology. It explains aspects of IEEE 11073, including the Domain Information Model, state model and nomenclature, and how these support its plug-and-play architecture. It shows how these aspects underpin a much larger eco-system of interoperable devices and systems that include IHE PCD-01, HL7 and BlueTooth LE medical devices, and the relationship to the Continua Guidelines, advocating the adoption of data standards and nomenclature to support semantic interoperability between health and ambient assisted living (AAL) in future platforms. The paper further describes the adaptions that have been made in order to implement the standard on the ZigBee Health Care Profile and the experiences of implementing an end-to-end platform that has been deployed to frail elderly patients with chronic disease(s) and patients with diabetes.

  17. [Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Monitoring of Biological Specimens and Toxin Profile in a Food Poisoning Case Caused by the Scavenging Gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Kazunari; Yoshimura, Hiroki; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Motomura, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    In November 2015, a patient presented with symptoms of toxicity after eating whole boiled samples of the scavenging gastropod Nassarius (Alectrion) glans "Kinshibai" in Nagasaki. This food poisoning case was the third recorded in Japan. The case was investigated by evaluation of the toxin profile of the gastropod, and monitoring of tetrodotoxin (TTX) levels in serum and urine sampled from the affected individual. One gastropod contained a harmful dose of TTX (2.5 mg/ individual in food residue sample 2). In biological samples, maximum TTX concentrations were 42.8 ng/mL in serum on the day after onset of symptoms. TTX urinary excretion was calculated to be 2.4 mg. From the measured TTX concentrations, it was estimated that a lethal dose had been ingested in this case. Moreover, it was found by LC-QqQ-MS/MS analysis and mouse bioassay that the toxicity of "Kinshibai" was not solely due to TTX. The remaining toxicity was thought to be due to 11-oxoTTX. As in previous poisoning cases, it was concluded that ingestion of this gastropod poses a high risk of food poisoning.

  18. Study and optimization of the ionisation channel in the Edelweiss dark matter direct detection experiment; Etude et optimisation de la voie ionisation dans l'experience Edelweiss de detection directe de la matiere noire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censier, B

    2006-02-15

    The EDELWEISS experiment is aiming at the detection of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs), today's most favoured candidates for solving the dark matter issue. Background ionising particles are identified thanks to the simultaneous measurement of heat and ionisation in the detectors. The main limitation to this method is coming from the ionisation measurement, charge collection being less efficient in some part of the detectors known as 'dead' areas. The specificity of the measurement is due to the use of very low temperatures and low collection fields. This thesis is dedicated to the study of carrier trapping. It involves time-resolved charge measurements as well as a simulation code adapted to the specific physical conditions. We first present results concerning charge trapping at the free surfaces of the detectors. Our method allows to build a surface-charge in a controlled manner by irradiation with a strong radioactive source. This charge is then characterised with a weaker source which acts as a probe. In a second part of the work, bulk-trapping characteristics are deduced from charge collection efficiency measurements, and by an original method based on event localisation in the detector. The results show that a large proportion of the doping impurities are ionised, as indicated independently by the study of degradation by space-charge build-up. In this last part, near-electrodes areas are found to contain large densities of charged trapping centres, in connection with dead-layer effects. (author)

  19. Characterisation of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields in the Spanish INMA birth cohort: Study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Gallastegi (Mara); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); A. Jiménez-Zabala (Ana); I. Calvente (Irene); M. Fernández (Marta); L. Birks (Laura); B. Struchen (Benjamin); M. Vrijheid (Martine); M. Estarlich (Marisa); M.F. Fernandez (Mariana); M. Torrent (Maties); F. Ballester (Ferran); J.J. Aurrekoetxea (Juan José); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); D. Guerra (David); J. González (Julián); M. Röösli (Martin); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Analysis of the association between exposure to electromagnetic fields of non-ionising radiation (EMF-NIR) and health in children and adolescents is hindered by the limited availability of data, mainly due to the difficulties on the exposure assessment. This study protocol

  20. Time-dependent hydrogen ionisation in 3D simulations of the solar chromosphere. Methods and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaarts, J.; Wedemeyer-Bohm, S.

    2006-01-01

    Context. The hydrogen ionisation degree deviates substantially from statistical equilibrium under the conditions of the solar chromosphere. A realistic description of this atmospheric layer thus must account for time-dependent non-equilibrium effects. Aims. Advancing the realism of numerical

  1. Testing of the effect of the entry beam tube windows of the silicon detectors of the ionisation radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopestansky, J.; Tykva, R.; Stanek, S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with testing of the entry beam tube windows of the silicon detectors of the ionisation radiation with surface barrier.The influence of the parameters of basic material and modified technologic preparation on the size and homogeneity of the windows was tested

  2. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after ionising irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Bos, A.J.J.; Winkelman, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermally (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were studied in AlN-Y2O3 ceramics after irradiation with ionising radiation. The extremely high TL sensitivity (approximately 60 times the sensitivity of LiF:Mg,Tl (TLD-100)) makes AlN-Y2O3 ceramics attractive as a TLD material. However...

  3. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS

  4. The ionisation loss of relativistic charged particles in thin gas samples and its use for particle identification. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, J.H.; Allison, W.W.M.; Bunch, J.N.

    1976-01-01

    A brief review shows a significant discrepancy between available data and theoretical predictions on the ionisation loss of charged particles in thin gas-filled proportional counters. The discrepancy related both to the increase of the most probable loss at relativistic velocities (relativistic rise) and to the spectrum of such losses at a given velocity (the Landau distribution). The origin of this relativistic rise is discussed in simple terms and related to the phenomena of transition radiation and Cherenkov radiation. It is shown that the failure of the prediction is due to the small number of ionising collisions in a gas. This problem is overcome by using a Monte Carlo method rather than a continuous integral over the spectrum of single collision processes. A specific mode of the atomic form factors is used with a modified Born approximation to yield the differential cross sections needed for the calculation. The new predictions give improved agreement with experiment and are used to investigate the problem of identifying particles of known momenta in the relativistic region. It is shown that by measuring the ionisation loss of each particle several hundred times over 5m or more, kaon, pion and proton separation with good confidence level may be achieved. Many gases are considered and a comparison is made. The results are also compared with the velocity resolution achievable by measuring primary ionisation. (Auth.)

  5. Determination of kava lactones in food supplements by liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, I.; Boonzaaijer, G.; Spies-Faber, E.J.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography and detection with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry was used for the determination of kava extracts in herbal mixtures. One percent of kava extract can be detected, corresponding to approximately 0.05-0.2 mg/g of the individual

  6. CTF3 Injector Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Burger, S; Lefèvre, T; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The electron gun of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) produces 15.6µs long pulses with an energy of 140keV and a current that can be as high as 9A. For the nominal beam operation a 5.4A beam current is generated and sent downstream into the bunching system and the rest of the accelerator. The corresponding beam charge will induce a thermal load that most of the materials, considered as radiators, would not withstand. With this problem in mind, we have built a beam imaging system, installed just after the gun and equipped with two screens. The first one is a phosphorescent screen which yields a high signal and can be for low beam currents. The second screen, a thin graphite foil, is used as a forward OTR radiator and can stand the full beam intensity. Moreover, the time resolution of OTR is very good, in the femtosecond range. This allows the observation of the evolution in time of the beam size during the pulse by using a gated camera. We present in this paper the first results obtained using this system.

  7. Real-time analysis of aromatics in combustion engine exhaust by resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS): a robust tool for chassis dynamometer testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, T.W. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); Clairotte, M.; Manfredi, U.; Carriero, M.; Martini, G.; Krasenbrink, A.; Astorga, C. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Transport and Air Quality Unit, Ispra, VA (Italy); European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, Sustainable Transport Unit, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Streibel, T.; Pommeres, A.; Sklorz, M. [University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany); Elsasser, M.; Zimmermann, R. [Cooperation Group Complex Molecular Systems (CMA)/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre (JMSC), Neuherberg (Germany); University of Rostock, Analytical Chemistry/Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Institute of Chemistry, Rostock (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOF-MS) is a robust method for real-time analysis of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex emissions. A mobile system has been developed which enables direct analysis on site. In this paper, we utilize a multicomponent calibration scheme based on the analytes' photo-ionisation cross-sections relative to a calibrated species. This allows semi-quantification of a great number of components by only calibrating one compound of choice, here toluene. The cross-sections were determined by injecting nebulised solutions of aromatic compounds into the TOF-MS ion source with the help of a HPLC pump. Then, REMPI-TOF-MS was implemented at various chassis dynamometers and test cells and the exhaust of the following vehicles and engines investigated: a compression ignition light-duty (LD) passenger car, a compression ignition LD van, two spark ignition LD passenger cars, 2 two-stroke mopeds, and a two-stroke engine of a string gas trimmer. The quantitative time profiles of benzene are shown. The results indicate that two-stroke engines are a significant source for toxic and cancerogenic compounds. Air pollution and health effects caused by gardening equipment might still be underestimated. (orig.)

  8. Calculated ionisation potentials determine the oxidation of vanillin precursors by lignin peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Have, R; Rietjens, I M; Hartmans, S; Swarts, H J; Field, J A

    1998-07-03

    In view of the biocatalytic production of vanillin, this research focused on the lignin peroxidase (LiP) catalysed oxidation of naturally occurring phenolic derivatives: O-methyl ethers, O-acetyl esters, and O-glucosyl ethers. The ionisation potential (IP) of a series of model compounds was calculated and compared to their experimental conversion by LiP, defining a relative IP threshold of approximately 9.0 eV. Based on this threshold value only the O-acetyl esters and glucosides of isoeugenol and coniferyl alcohol would be potential LiP substrates. Both O-acetyl esters were tested and were shown to be converted to O-acetyl vanillin in molar yields of 51.8 and 2.3%, respectively.

  9. Workshop on 'Dosimetric Issues in the Medical use of Ionising Radiation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottollier-Depois, Jean-François; Vanhavere, Filip

    2008-01-01

    A joint workshop was initiated by EURADOS based on the work programme of the working group 'Radiation protection dosimetry of medical staff'. The workshop was held within the framework of the regular EURADOS Annual Meeting series, of which the 2008 event was held in Paris (AM2008). The topic 'Dosimetric Issues in the Medical Use of Ionising Radiation' is very broad, and is covered by the different European projects of FP6 and FP7. This topic is also a major part of the current activities of the French Society of Medical Physic (SFPM). By promoting this joint initiative, AM2008 was an opportunity for the wider scientific community with interests in this area to meet and follow the progress in the different fields. This report introduces the themes addressed during the workshop, from which most of the papers presented in this volume are included.

  10. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J

    2011-06-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance (γ-D 10 = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of γ-D 10 values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N 2 , whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  12. Molecular alterations in thyroid tumors induced after exposure to ionising radiation in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounacer, A.; Wicker, R.; Sarasin, A.; Suarez, H.G.; Schlumberger, M.; Caillou, B.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the presence of molecular lesions in the ras, gsp and ret genes, in epithelial thyroid tumors developed in patients who had received ionising radiation therapy in infancy for benign or malignant conditions. Our data showed: a similar frequency of ras and gsp activating mutations in radiation-associated and 'spontaneous' tumors. However, while the mutations are only transversions in the radiation-associated tumors, they are transversions as well as transitions in the 'spontaneous' ones and a mutation in codon 691 giving rise to a polymorphism in the ret gene, and frequently associated to a C-cell hyperplasia in radiation-associated tumors. The frequency of this mutation was significantly higher (60%) in these tumors, than in normal controls (21%) or 'spontaneous' epithelial thyroid tumors (23%). (author)

  13. Draft guidance notes for the protection of persons exposed to ionising radiations in research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These guidance notes have been prepared for those who use ionising radiation in a wide range of research work and teaching, such as that under the control of universities, polytechnics, Government Departments or research organisations and for those who work in industrial research laboratories. Ancillary activities, such as the testing and calibration of equipment and the storage and disposal of radioactive materials, are also covered by these notes so far as they are carried out on the same premises. The guidance notes indicate procedures for the protection of all persons who may be exposed as a result of these practices, i.e. all employed persons, apprentices and students, and members of the public. (author)

  14. Measurements of the electron impact ionisation cross sections of He, C, O and N atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, E.; Harrison, M.F.A.; Smith, A.C.H.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute measurements are reported of the electron impact ionisation cross sections of ground-state atoms of helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen for electron energies ranging from 7 to 1000 eV. The method used was that of crossed beams in which fast beams of atoms are produced by change capture of 2 to 4 keV ions in a gas target. The data for helium atoms above 100 eV are in excellent agreement (+-5%) with the absolute data of Rapp and Englander-Golden (J. Chem.Phys.; 43:1464 (1965)) who used a static gas target technique. However, the present data are smaller in magnitude at lower energies. Data for oxygen and nitrogen atoms are in adequate agreement with data from earlier crossed-beams experiments that employed thermal-energy atom beams. Comparisons are made with the various published theoretical cross sections. (author)

  15. Guidance notes for the protection of persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Guidance notes have been prepared by the NRPB, the Health Departments and the Health and Safety Executive for the protection of all persons against ionising radiations arising from medical and dental use. The guidance notes are a guide to good radiation protection practice consistent with regulatory requirements. The areas covered include medical and dental radiology, diagnostic X-ray equipment for medical and dental radiography, beam therapy and remotely controlled after-loading, brachytherapy, diagnostic and therapeutic uses of unsealed radioactive substances, diagnostic uses of sealed or other solid radioactive sources, patients leaving hospital after administration of radioactive substances, precautions after death of a patient whom radioactive substances have been administered, storage and movement of radioactive substances, disposal of radioactive waste and contingency planning and emergency procedures. (U.K.)

  16. Applying the ionising radiation regulations to radon in the UK workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    As a response to the identification of a health risk from workplace radon in the UK, the Ionising Radiations Regulations include the protection of workers from excessive levels of radon. Employers are required to make risk assessments, and the interpretation of the Health and Safety Executive is that the regulations apply to workplace premises in locations already designated as Radon Affected Areas for domestic purposes, with the difference that in workplaces, it is the maximum winter radon concentration rather than the annual average which is the parameter of interest. This paper discusses the rationale behind the current regulatory environment, outlines the role and duties of Accredited Radiation Protection Advisers and summarises the strategies necessary to conform to the regulations. (authors)

  17. Electrifying atmospheres charging, ionisation and lightning in the solar system and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, Karen L

    2013-01-01

    Electrical processes take place in all planetary atmospheres. There is evidence for lightning on Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, it is possible on Mars and Titan, and cosmic rays ionise every atmosphere, leading to charged droplets and particles. Controversy surrounds the role of atmospheric electricity in physical climate processes on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of electrification in the atmospheres of other planets and their moons. This book reviews the theory, and, where available, measurements, of planetary atmospheric electricity, taken to include ion production and ion-aerosol interactions. The conditions necessary for a global atmospheric electric circuit similar to Earth’s, and the likelihood of meeting these conditions in other planetary atmospheres, are briefly discussed. Atmospheric electrification is more important at planets receiving little solar radiation, increasing the relative significance of electrical forces. Nucleation onto atmospheric ...

  18. Integrated cross sections for the ionisation of atomic hydrogen by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, D.A.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1992-05-01

    Distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations are reported for singly-differential and total cross sections for the electron impact ionisation for atomic hydrogen at 25, 40, 60, 100, 150 and 250 eV. The theory is compared with available experiments. At all the energies except 25 eV the theory predicts a lower singly-differential cross section for the low-energy side of the secondary-electron energies (<5 eV), compared to the only available absolute measurements of Shyn (1992). The DWBA calculation is in good agreement with the experiment at 25 eV but only if e-e post-collision interaction is included in the theory in some way. 23 refs., 2 figs

  19. Time-dependent hydrogen ionisation in 3D simulations of the solar chromosphere. Methods and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaarts, J.; Wedemeyer-Böhm, S.

    2006-12-01

    Context: .The hydrogen ionisation degree deviates substantially from statistical equilibrium under the conditions of the solar chromosphere. A realistic description of this atmospheric layer thus must account for time-dependent non-equilibrium effects. Aims: .Advancing the realism of numerical simulations of the solar chromosphere by improved numerical treatment of the relevant physics will provide more realistic models that are essential for interpretation of existing and future observations. Methods: .An approximate method for solving the rate equations for the hydrogen populations was extended and implemented in the three-dimensional radiation (magneto-)hydrodynamics code CO^5BOLD. The method is based on a model atom with six energy levels and fixed radiative rates. It has been tested extensively in one-dimensional simulations. The extended method has been used to create a three-dimensional model that extends from the upper convection zone to the chromosphere. Results: .The ionisation degree of hydrogen in our time-dependent simulation is comparable to the corresponding equilibrium value up to 500 km above optical depth unity. Above this height, the non-equilibrium ionisation degree is fairly constant over time and space, and tends to be at a value set by hot propagating shock waves. The hydrogen level populations and electron density are much more constant than the corresponding values for statistical equilibrium, too. In contrast, the equilibrium ionisation degree varies by more than 20 orders of magnitude between hot, shocked regions and cool, non-shocked regions. Conclusions: .The simulation shows for the first time in 3D that the chromospheric hydrogen ionisation degree and electron density cannot be calculated in equilibrium. Our simulation can provide realistic values of those quantities for detailed radiative transfer computations.

  20. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Stefano, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author)

  1. The ionising radiations: a daily reality Las radiaciones ionizantes: una realidad cotidiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gallego Díaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduce the nature of the radioactive substances and of the ionising radiation, the effects that they cause on the matter and the available media for their detection and measure, as well as the sources of natural radiation, to which the human being are exposed. Next, in the more detailed part of this paper, it is described the wide range of ionising radiations uses in: medicine, agriculture, earth sciences, biology and in some other scientific fields, that allow to pose its impact in the perspective of facing the ones from natural sources. The article concludes that for avoiding damages it is necessary proper protection against the radioactive substances, but avoiding limitation their beneficial uses in the various ranges described. For finishing this paper, the basic principles of radiation protection are described, due to they are the its principal aim.Este trabajo introduce la naturaleza de las sustancias radiactivas y de la radiación ionizante, los efectos que causa sobre la materia y los medios disponibles para su detección y medida, así como las fuentes de radiación naturales a las que los seres humanos estamos expuestos. Seguidamente, en el apartado más amplio del trabajo, se describen las múltiples aplicaciones de las radiaciones ionizantes en la medicina, la agricultura, la industria, las ciencias de la tierra, la biología y otras ramas, lo que permite poder poner su impacto en perspectiva frente al de las fuentes naturales. La tesis final del artículo es que para evitar sufrir daños resulta necesario protegerse adecuadamente de los efectos nocivos de la radiación y las sustancias radiactivas, pero sin limitar innecesariamente su utilización beneficiosa en los numerosos ámbitos descritos. Ese es el objetivo fundamental de la protección radiológica, cuyos principios básicos se presentan para terminar.

  2. EPR spectroscopy for the detection of foods treated with ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    The advantage of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR or ESR) as a tool for the control of irradiated food lies in its sensitivity and accuracy. Ionising radiation produces, in irradiated materials, paramagnetic species of different kinds, i.e. radicals, radical-ions and paramagnetic centres, which can be measured by EPR but most of them are not stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation. It is because radiation-induced paramagnetic species are thermodynamically less stable than surrounding molecules and take part in fast radiolytic reactions leading to the formation of final diamagnetic products that they are not detectable by the EPR method. Most of organic radicals produced by radiation in the liquid phase ae unstable but if the unpaired electron is incorporated into the complex polymeric system as in peptides and polysaccharides and is structurally isolated from the water, its stability is markedly increased. Since 1954 it is known that ionising radiation produces paramagnetic entities in biological materials, cells and tissues and some are stable enough to be observed by EPR spectroscopy at room temperature. The present paper describes and discusses that part of results obtained by this group during the period of ADMIT activity (1989-94) which are original and may be useful to those who will be working in the near future on the development of uniform control systems for the detection of irradiated food. The intention was to focus attention on these facts and data which influence the certainty of the detection in both positive and negative manner. (author)

  3. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation; Etude de quelques syntheses de colorants thianziniques et indaminiques amorcees par les rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestic, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-03-15

    With a view to finding some radiochemical reactions applicable on an industrial scale for evaluating the radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, a systematic study was made of the radiochemical synthesis of thiazinic dyes such as methylene blue and Lauths' violet, on which the first tests were carried out in 1954. The first part of the study concerned the identification and the dosage, during radiolysis, of dyes by means of their absorption spectra after separation from the reaction medium by adsorption chromatography or ion-exchange; other radiolysis products such as ammonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide were also identified. During a later stage by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters it was possible to determine the most favourable conditions for radio-synthesis; the maximum radiochemical yields obtained had the following values: G (Lauths' violet) 1,65; G (Methylene blue) = 1,75. Furthermore, the study of the influence of variously substituted aminated products on the radiochemical yield showed the possibility of synthesising Bindsehedlers green and Wursters blue by radiochemical methods. Finally the discovery of a fundamental intermediate product, Wursters red, together with the kinetic study of the chemical synthesis of methylene blue made it possible to determine the main stages of the reaction mechanism and to decide which of these stages could be attributed to ionising radiations in the case of the radiochemical synthesis. (author) [French] Dans le but de trouver des reactions radiochimiques susceptibles d'une application industrielle pour valoriser les dechets radioactifs provenant des reacteurs nucleaires, il a ete entrepris une etude systematique de la synthese radiochimique des colorants thiazimiques tels que le Bleu de Methylene et le Violet de Lauth dont les premiers essais ont ete effectues par Loiseleur en 1954. La premiere partie de l'etude a porte sur l'identification et le dosage des colorants formes

  4. Lasing from the domain of collision of ionisation waves produced due to electric field concentration at electrodes with a small radius of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasenko, Viktor F; Tel'minov, A E; Burachenko, A G; Rybka, D V; Baksht, E Kh; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Vil'tovskii, P O

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of UV lasing in nitrogen and of diffusive discharge produced without an additional ionisation source were experimentally investigated in a nonuniform electric field formed by electrodes with different profiles. High-voltage nanosecond pulses were applied to the blade- and cylinder-shaped electrodes. It was determined that the gap breakdown at elevated pressure was caused by diffusive jets which propagate from the electrodes with a small radius of curvature. The electric field increased in the intersection of counter-propagating jets, with the effect that the threshold of lasing in the C 3 Π u - B 3 Π g (λ = 337.1 nm) molecular nitrogen band was attained for low average electric fields (below 60 V cm -1 Torr -1 ) and at pressures of 760 Torr and above. With lowering the pressure from 760 to 20 Torr, the voltage of gap breakdown in the nonuniform electric field was observed to increase for a voltage pulse rise time of ∼300 ps and to decrease for a pulse rise time of ∼2 ns.

  5. Multi-residue analysis of drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-03-25

    A new-multi residue method was developed for the environmental monitoring of 65 stimulants, opiod and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, human urine indicators and their metabolites in wastewater and surface water. The proposed analytical methodology offers rapid analysis for a large number of compounds, with low limits of quantification and utilises only one solid-phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method, thus overcoming the drawbacks of previously published procedures. The method employed solid phase extraction with the usage of Oasis MCX sorbent and subsequent ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. The usage of a 1.7 μm particle size column (1 mm×150 mm) resulted in very low flow rates (0.04 mLmin(-1)), and as a consequence gave good sensitivity, low mobile phase consumption and short retention times for all compounds (from 2.9 to 23.1 min). High SPE recoveries (>60%) were obtained for the majority of compounds. The mean correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were typically higher than 0.997 and showed good linearity in the range 0-1000 μgL(-1). The method limits of detection ranged from 0.1 ngL(-1) for compounds including cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norbenzoylecgonine and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD to 100 ngL(-1) for caffeine. Method quantification limits ranged from 0.5 to 154.2 ngL(-1). Intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were on average less than 10%. The method accuracy range was within -33.1 to 30.1%. The new multi-residue method was used to analyse drugs of abuse in wastewater and river water in the UK environment. Of the targeted 65 compounds, 46 analytes were detected at levels above the method quantification limit (MQL) in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent, 43 in WWTP effluent and 36 compounds in river water. Copyright

  6. Veterinary applications of ionising radiation HERCA Task Force on Veterinary Applications. Main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medical applications of ionising radiation' and conclusions of the TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Berlamont, Jolien; Michalczak, Herbert; Balogh, Lajos; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-11-01

    In the fall of 2012, the subject of radiation protection in veterinary medicine was raised during the meeting of the HERCA Board. Issues with regard to this subject had been brought to the attention of HERCA by the European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging (ECVDI). In October 2012, the Board decided to charge a small Task Force (TF) to further explore the issues in this field. This TF drew up a questionnaire which looked at the general radiation protection regulatory requirements in veterinary medicine applications of ionizing radiation. The results of this study showed large differences in the requirements applicable in the HERCA member countries. The TF also noticed the increasing use of more complex imaging procedures and of different radio-therapeutic modalities, which may imply greater risks of exposure of humans to ionising radiation. These results were presented during the HERCA Board meeting in Berlin, Germany and on which the Board decided to establish a Working Group on veterinary applications of ionising radiations (WG Vet). The main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medicine applications of ionising radiation' is attached in Appendix

  7. Eddy covariance flux measurements of ammonia by high temperature chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sintermann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A system for fast ammonia (NH3 measurements with chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (CIMS based on a commercial Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS is presented. It uses electron transfer reaction as ionisation pathway and features a drift tube of polyetheretherketone (PEEK and silica-coated steel. Heating the instrumental inlet and the drift tube to 180 °C enabled an effective time resolution of ~1 s and made it possible to apply the instrument for eddy covariance (EC measurements. EC fluxes of NH3 were measured over two agricultural fields in Oensingen, Switzerland, following fertilisations with cattle slurry. Air was aspirated close to a sonic anemometer at a flow of 100 STP L min−1 and was directed through a 23 m long 1/2" PFA tube heated to 150 °C to an air-conditioned trailer where the gas was sub-sampled from the large bypass stream. This setup minimised damping of fast NH3 concentration changes between the sampling point and the actual measurement. High-frequency attenuation loss of the NH3 fluxes of 20 to 40% was quantified and corrected for using an empirical ogive method. The instrumental NH3 background signal showed a minor interference with H2O which was characterised in the laboratory. The resulting correction of the NH3 flux after slurry spreading was less than 1‰. The flux detection limit of the EC system was about 5 ng m−2 s−1 while the accuracy of individual flux measurements was estimated 16% for the high-flux regime during these experiments. The NH3 emissions after broad spreading of the slurry showed an initial maximum of 150 μg m−2 s−1 with a fast decline in the following hours.

  8. Occupational radiation injuries from ionising rays recorded in the Federal Republic of Germany during the period between 1953 and 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffke, R.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of 218 occupational diseases, which were reported between 1953 and 1979 and officially recognised as being caused by ionising rays, showed these to be made up chiefly by skin disorders (61%, equally distributed over acute and chronic forms), even though considerable percentage shares were also calculated for haematological ailments (15%) and bronchial carcinomas developed by uranium miners. There was a total of 42 deaths, 32 of which were ascribed to uranium mining and 10 to haematological diseases. In all, the annual rate of occupational diseases attributed to ionising rays shows a tendency to decline, even though the number of individuals exposed to radiation is increasing. The incidence of radiation injuries was calculated to be in the order of 0.01% for persons at risk of occupational radiation exposure. (orig./EDB) [de

  9. A cascade method of training for the revised CEGB Radiological Safety Rules and the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.R.; John, P.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to achieve compliance with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 the CEGB has introduced a revised set of Radiological Safety Rule. These Rules are for implementation at all sites under the Board's control where ionising radiations are used. It was a requirement that the new Safety Rules be brought into operation on a common date and to a consistent standard of performance throughout the industry; this necessitated a considerable training programme to familiarise and inform some 8,000 staff working at a large number of locations. The training week of identified groups of staff varied widely, according to their different levels of authority and responsibility. The paper sets out the means by which the chosen cascade method of training was selected and developed, and gives details of the modular package of training material which was produced. It also relates how the management objectives were met within the constraints of an uncompromising time schedule. (author)

  10. The 1sσ molecular orbital ionisation in asymmetric ion-atom collisions by direct Coulomb interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Sigaud, G.M.

    1984-11-01

    The adiabatic perturbation theory is applied to the ionisation of the 1sσ molecular orbital (MO) and extended to less adiabatic collisions by imposing an asymptotic matching with the semi-classical approximation. The transient molecular state wavefunction is modelled using the concept of an 'effective' charge for the colliding system. Through this procedure, the transition amplitudes are evaluated simulating both the relaxation of the passive electrons and the modification of the active electron wave-function, as well as their connection with the motion of the centre of charge during the collision. The direct Coulomb ionisation of the 1sσ MO is calculated for projectiles following hyperbolic paths, in terms of this 'effective' charge, using the current-vector formalism. Comparison is made with a large amount of experimental data showing good agreement. (Author) [pt

  11. Influence of Low-Dose Ionising Radiation on the Occurrence of Chromosomal Aberrations in Horse Lymphocytes after In vitro Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukavina, D.; Hasanbasic, D.; Haveric, A.; Haveric, S.; Ajanovic, A.; Katica, A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that ionising radiation affect the chromosomal aberrations that have been used as a reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Many studies confirm that the increase of radiation doses is related to the increase of mutation number and that even low doses could induce the mutations. Thus in this study we analysed the influence of low-dose ionising radiation to the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood of 12 horses after in vitro X-irradiation. To gain metaphase plates the method of cultivation periphery blood lymphocytes was employed. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified according to the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN). The results showed that the percentage of chromosomal aberrations in irradiated blood (0.1 Gy and 0.2 Gy) was higher relative to the controlled samples of nonirradiated blood.(author)

  12. Statutory Instruments No 144 of 1994. European Communities (Protection of outside workers from ionising radiation) Regulations, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    These Regulations implement Council Directive 90/641 EURATOM of 4 December, 1990 on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas. The Regulations provide for the radiation protection of workers liable to receive an exposure of high radiation levels while working away from their employers' premises. The Regulations also apply to workers who come from, or who go to work in, another Member State of the European Community

  13. Treating meats with ionising radiations. An EPR approach to the reconstruction of the administered dose and its reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, Angelo, E-mail: aalberti@isof.cnr.i [ISOF-CNR, Area della Ricerca, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Chiaravalle, Eugenio [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, I-71100 Foggia (Italy); Corda, Ugo; Fuochi, Piergiorgio; Macciantelli, Dante [ISOF-CNR, Area della Ricerca, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mangiacotti, Michele; Marchesani, Giuliana [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, I-71100 Foggia (Italy); Plescia, Elena [ISOF-CNR, Area della Ricerca, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Treatment of food with ionising radiations in order to increase its shelf-life is largely employed in many countries. Because of restrictions issued by different governments on the use of this technique, in addition to the identification of irradiated foodstuffs, it may be important to determine the radiation dose administered to the foodstuffs. An EPR based protocol to reconstruct the administered dose from samples of irradiated meats (rabbit, pork and duck) within an uncertainty of {+-}25% is reported.

  14. A value-critical assessment of the policy construction of hazard and risk for the safe use of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of the concept of ionising radiation safety policy from value perspectives that differ from those of the rationalist scientific. It attempts to present a social interpretation of the constitution of the present methods of policy composition that are primarily based on a conservative, orthodox, scientific paradigm. A modification of this process is then offered to integrate social discourse into the policy construction without compromising the value of the scientific input. 6 refs

  15. Ionising energy treatment for fresh horticultural produce -mandarins and other produce, Trials 1 and 2, May-July 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLauchlan, R.L.; Brown, B.I.; Mitchell, G.E.; Aston, J.W.; Wood, A.F.; Isaacs, A.R.; Williams, S.M.; Nottingham, S.M.; Wilson, P.R.; Juffs, H.S.; Johnson, G.I.; Heather, N.W.; Giles, J.E.; Wills, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two trials are described on the effect of ionising energy treatment, or irradiation, on the quality, shelf-life and composition of fresh produce, mainly at doses consistent with disinfestation treatment for quarantine purposes. Trial 1, carried out in May 1987, deals with replicated treatments of Imperial mandarins and preliminary observation treatments on a range of other produce. Trial 2 deals with replicated treatments of Ellendale mandarins and preliminary observation treatments on other produce

  16. Tropospheric ozonesonde profiles at long-term U.S. monitoring sites: 1. A climatology based on self-organizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Young, George S.

    2016-02-01

    Sonde-based climatologies of tropospheric ozone (O3) are vital for developing satellite retrieval algorithms and evaluating chemical transport model output. Typical O3 climatologies average measurements by latitude or region, and season. A recent analysis using self-organizing maps (SOM) to cluster ozonesondes from two tropical sites found that clusters of O3 mixing ratio profiles are an excellent way to capture O3 variability and link meteorological influences to O3 profiles. Clusters correspond to distinct meteorological conditions, e.g., convection, subsidence, cloud cover, and transported pollution. Here the SOM technique is extended to four long-term U.S. sites (Boulder, CO; Huntsville, AL; Trinidad Head, CA; and Wallops Island, VA) with 4530 total profiles. Sensitivity tests on k-means algorithm and SOM justify use of 3 × 3 SOM (nine clusters). At each site, SOM clusters together O3 profiles with similar tropopause height, 500 hPa height/temperature, and amount of tropospheric and total column O3. Cluster means are compared to monthly O3 climatologies. For all four sites, near-tropopause O3 is double (over +100 parts per billion by volume; ppbv) the monthly climatological O3 mixing ratio in three clusters that contain 13-16% of profiles, mostly in winter and spring. Large midtropospheric deviations from monthly means (-6 ppbv, +7-10 ppbv O3 at 6 km) are found in two of the most populated clusters (combined 36-39% of profiles). These two clusters contain distinctly polluted (summer) and clean O3 (fall-winter, high tropopause) profiles, respectively. As for tropical profiles previously analyzed with SOM, O3 averages are often poor representations of U.S. O3 profile statistics.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of plant response to ionising radiation. Exploration of the glucosinolate role in the anti-oxidative response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms are exposed to low doses of ionising radiation from natural or anthropogenic sources. The major effects of the radiations are due to DNA deterioration and water radiolysis which generates an oxidative stress by free radical production. Plants constitute good models to study the effects of ionising radiations and the search of antioxidant molecules because of their important secondary metabolism. Thus this thesis, funded by the Brittany region, characterized the physiological and molecular response of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana to low (10 Gy) and moderate (40 Gy) doses of ionising radiation, and was therefore interested in glucosinolates, characteristic compounds of the Brassicaceae family. The global proteomic and transcriptomic studies carried out on this model revealed (1) a common response for both doses dealing with the activation of DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle regulation and protection of cellular structures; (2) an adjustment of the energetic metabolism and an activation of secondary compounds biosynthesis (i.e. glucosinolates and flavonoids) after the 10 Gy dose; (3) an induction of enzymatic control of ROS, the regulation of cellular components recycling and of programmed cell death after the 40 Gy dose. The potential anti-oxidative role of glucosinolates was then explored. The in vitro anti-oxidative power of some glucosinolates and their derivative products were demonstrated. Their modulating effects against irradiation-induced damages were then tested in vivo by simple experimental approaches. The importance of the glucosinolate level to give a positive or negative effect was demonstrated. (author)

  18. FREQUENCY OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS AND MICRONUCLEI IN HORSE LYMPHOCYTES FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO LOW DOSE IONISING RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Rukavina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ionising radiation is known to cause chromosomal instability, which is observed as increased frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei. These are listed as reliable criteria in biological dosimetry. Numerous experiments conducted on both animal and plant models demonstrated that increase in radiation dosage is followed by increased mutation frequency, and that mutations occur even at the lowest exposure. We used horse blood in vitro irradiated by low doses of ionizing radiation. Cultivation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and micronucleus test were used as biomarkers of genetic damage. The observed aberrations were recorded and classified in accordance with the International System of Cytogenetic Nomenclature. Micronuclei were identified on the basis of criteria proposed by Fenech et al. (8. Analysis of chromosomal aberration showed increased frequency of aberrations in blood cultures exposed to 0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy compared to the controls. Microscopic analysis of chromosomal damage in in vitro micronucleus test revealed that the applied radiation dose induced micronuclei while no binucleated cells with micronuclei were found in lymphocytes that were not irradiated. In this paper we analysed the influence of low dose ionising radiation on frequency of chromosomal aberration and micronuclei in horse lymphocytes following in vitro exposure to X-rays (0,1 Gy and 0,2 Gy. Key words: chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, ionising radiation, horse lymphocytes

  19. Cancer mortality risk of nuclear power workers due to the exposure of ionising radiation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehringer, F.; Seitz, G.; Hammer, G.P.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    A cohort study of German nuclear power workers was set up to investigate overall and cancer mortality risk related to a chronic exposure to ionising radiation of low-level dose. The German study was performed as a part of an international study carried out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon. First results of the international study have been published recently [1]. German data are not yet included in this analysis. The German cohort consists of 4844 employees from 10 nuclear power plants. All persons who worked in these nuclear power plants in 1991 or started employment between 1991 und 1997 are included (except for employees of one plant, whose observation period started in 1992). These persons accumulated about 31,000 person years. Overall, 68 deaths were observed in the observation period between 1.1.1991-31.12.1997. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were computed for all causes of death, all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, external causes, and all other causes. Overall, a strong healthy worker effect was observed (SMR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.41;0.67]). No increase in total cancer mortality was seen (SMR=0.85 [95% CI: 0.53;1.30]). However, numbers are too small for stable risk estimates and further effort is under way to complete the cohort in terms of power plants and to extend the follow-up until 2005. (authors)

  20. Effect of ionizing radiation on cardiovascular system; Les effets des rayonnements ionisants sur le systeme cardiovasculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire de radiopathologie et de therapies experimentales (LRTE), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-07-01

    Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)

  1. Genomic instability in rat: Breakpoints induced by ionising radiation and interstitial telomeric-like sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Acien, Maribel [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Paya, Pilar [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Giulotto, Elena [Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Egozcue, Josep [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Montserrat [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain) and Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2006-03-20

    The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most widely studied experimental species in biomedical research although little is known about its chromosomal structure. The characterisation of possible unstable regions of the karyotype of this species would contribute to the better understanding of its genomic architecture. The cytogenetic effects of ionising radiation have been widely used for the study of genomic instability, and the importance of interstitial telomeric-like sequences (ITSs) in instability of the genome has also been reported in previous studies in vertebrates. In order to describe the unstable chromosomal regions of R. norvegicus, the distribution of breakpoints induced by X-irradiation and ITSs in its karyotype were analysed in this work. For the X-irradiation analysis, 52 foetuses (from 14 irradiated rats) were studied, 4803 metaphases were analysed, and a total of 456 breakpoints induced by X-rays were detected, located in 114 chromosomal bands, with 25 of them significantly affected by X-irradiation (hot spots). For the analysis of ITSs, three foetuses (from three rats) were studied, 305 metaphases were analysed and 121 ITSs were detected, widely distributed in the karyotype of this species. Seventy-six percent of all hot spots analysed in this study were co-localised with ITSs.

  2. The study of some thiazinic and indaminic dye syntheses induced by ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestic, S.

    1961-03-01

    With a view to finding some radiochemical reactions applicable on an industrial scale for evaluating the radioactive waste from nuclear reactors, a systematic study was made of the radiochemical synthesis of thiazinic dyes such as methylene blue and Lauths' violet, on which the first tests were carried out in 1954. The first part of the study concerned the identification and the dosage, during radiolysis, of dyes by means of their absorption spectra after separation from the reaction medium by adsorption chromatography or ion-exchange; other radiolysis products such as ammonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide were also identified. During a later stage by systematically varying the physico-chemical parameters it was possible to determine the most favourable conditions for radio-synthesis; the maximum radiochemical yields obtained had the following values: G (Lauths' violet) 1,65; G (Methylene blue) = 1,75. Furthermore, the study of the influence of variously substituted aminated products on the radiochemical yield showed the possibility of synthesising Bindsehedlers green and Wursters blue by radiochemical methods. Finally the discovery of a fundamental intermediate product, Wursters red, together with the kinetic study of the chemical synthesis of methylene blue made it possible to determine the main stages of the reaction mechanism and to decide which of these stages could be attributed to ionising radiations in the case of the radiochemical synthesis. (author) [fr

  3. The combined effects of diabetes and ionising radiation on the rat retina: an ultrastructural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, A.W.; Anderson, H.R.; Gardiner, T.A.; Archer, D.B.; McIntyre, Irene

    1994-01-01

    The combined effect of STZ-diabetes and ionising radiation on the rat retina was investigated. Wistar rats, which had been diabetic for 6 months, were irradiated with a single dose of x-rays (1500 cGy) and the ultrastructural effects evaluated at 4-10 mths post-irradiation. At 4 months post-irradiation, the outer nuclear layer of the retina was greatly reduced in thickness and the photoreceptor outer segments were disorganised and reduced in length. By 6 months post-irradiation, the photoreceptor cells were virtually absent, bringing the external limiting membrane into close apposition to the RPE. At 10 months post-irradiation, the RPE was atrophic and degenerative with retinal glial cells coming into contact with Bruch's membrane. This study has described a progressive inner retinal ischemia, with cytoid bodies, capillary non-perfusion and general atrophy of the inner retina intensifying markedly with increasing post-irradiation time. The results suggest that irradiated STZ-diabetic rats may provide a useful model of outer retinal neovascularisation and progressive inner retina ischemia. (author)

  4. Law on protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breznik, B.; Krizman, M.; Skrk, D.; Tavzes, R.

    2003-01-01

    The existing legislation related to nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia was introduced in 80's. The necessity for the new law is based on the new radiation safety standards (ICRP 60) and the intention of Slovenia to harmonize the legislation with the European Union. The harmonization means adoption of the basic safety standards and other relevant directives and regulations of Euratom. The nuclear safety section of this law is based on the legally binding international conventions ratified by Slovenia. The general approach is similar to that of some members of Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD). The guidelines of the law were set by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, Nuclear Safety Administration, and Ministry of Health. The expert group of the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning and the Ministry of Health together with the representatives of the users of the ionising sources and representatives of the nuclear sector, prepared the draft of the subject law. The emphasis in this paper is given to main topics and solutions related to the control of the occupationally exposed workers, radiation safety, licensing, nuclear and waste safety, and radiation protection of people and patients. (authors)

  5. Genotoxicity in earthworm after combined treatment of ionising radiation and mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu; An, Kwang-Guk

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of mercury and radiation on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The levels of DNA damage and the repair kinetics in the coelomocytes of E. fetida treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) and ionising radiation (gamma rays) were analysed by means of the comet assay. For detection of DNA damage and repair, E. fetida was exposed to HgCl 2 (0-160 mg kg -1 ) and irradiated with gamma rays (0-50 Gy) in vivo. The increase in DNA damage depended on the concentration of mercury or dose of radiation. The results showed that the more the oxidative stress induced by mercury and radiation the longer the repair time that was required. When a combination of HgCl 2 and gamma rays was applied, the cell damage was much higher than those treated with HgCl 2 or radiation alone, which indicated that the genotoxic effects were increased after the combined treatment of mercury and radiation. (authors)

  6. The risk of low doses of ionising radiation and the linear no threshold relationship debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Masse, R.; Vathaire, F. de; Averbeck, D.; Aurengo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The ICRP and the B.E.I.R. VII reports recommend a linear no threshold (L.N.T.) relationship for the estimation of cancer excess risk induced by ionising radiations (IR), but the 2005 report of Medicine and Science French Academies concludes that it leads to overestimate of risk for low and very low doses. The bases of L.N.T. are challenged by recent biological and animal experimental studies which show that the defence against IR involves the cell microenvironment and the immunologic system. The defence mechanisms against low doses are different and comparatively more effective than for high doses. Cell death is predominant against low doses. DNA repairing is activated against high doses, in order to preserve tissue functions. These mechanisms provide for multicellular organisms an effective and low cost defence system. The differences between low and high doses defence mechanisms are obvious for alpha emitters which show several greys threshold effects. These differences result in an impairment of epidemiological studies which, for statistical power purpose, amalgamate high and low doses exposure data, since it would imply that cancer IR induction and defence mechanisms are similar in both cases. Low IR dose risk estimates should rely on specific epidemiological studies restricted to low dose exposures and taking precisely into account potential confounding factors. The preliminary synthesis of cohort studies for which low dose data (< 100 mSv) were available show no significant risk excess, neither for solid cancer nor for leukemias. (authors)

  7. On the divergences in assessment of environmental impacts from ionising radiation following the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, P; Sundell-Bergman, S; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M

    2017-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on March 11, 2011, led to significant contamination of the surrounding terrestrial and marine environments. Whilst impacts on human health remain the primary concern in the aftermath of such an accident, recent years have seen a significant body of work conducted on the assessment of the accident's impacts on both the terrestrial and marine environment. Such assessments have been undertaken at various levels of biological organisation, for different species, using different methodologies and coming, in many cases, to divergent conclusions as to the effects of the accident on the environment. This article provides an overview of the work conducted in relation to the environmental impacts of the Fukushima accident, critically comparing and contrasting methodologies and results with a view towards finding reasons for discrepancies, should they indeed exist. Based on the outcomes of studies conducted to date, it would appear that in order to avoid the fractured and disparate conclusions drawn in the aftermath of previous accidents, radioactive contaminants and their effects can no longer simply be viewed in isolation with respect to the ecosystems these effects may impact. A combination of laboratory based and field studies with a focus on ecosystem functioning and effects could offer the best opportunities for coherence in the interpretation of the results of studies into the environmental impacts of ionising radiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic instability in rat: Breakpoints induced by ionising radiation and interstitial telomeric-like sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, Nuria; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Parrilla, Juan Jose; Acien, Maribel; Paya, Pilar; Giulotto, Elena; Egozcue, Josep; Garcia, Francisca; Garcia, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most widely studied experimental species in biomedical research although little is known about its chromosomal structure. The characterisation of possible unstable regions of the karyotype of this species would contribute to the better understanding of its genomic architecture. The cytogenetic effects of ionising radiation have been widely used for the study of genomic instability, and the importance of interstitial telomeric-like sequences (ITSs) in instability of the genome has also been reported in previous studies in vertebrates. In order to describe the unstable chromosomal regions of R. norvegicus, the distribution of breakpoints induced by X-irradiation and ITSs in its karyotype were analysed in this work. For the X-irradiation analysis, 52 foetuses (from 14 irradiated rats) were studied, 4803 metaphases were analysed, and a total of 456 breakpoints induced by X-rays were detected, located in 114 chromosomal bands, with 25 of them significantly affected by X-irradiation (hot spots). For the analysis of ITSs, three foetuses (from three rats) were studied, 305 metaphases were analysed and 121 ITSs were detected, widely distributed in the karyotype of this species. Seventy-six percent of all hot spots analysed in this study were co-localised with ITSs

  9. Gene expression analysis after low dose ionising radiation exposure of the developing organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrafi Benotmane, M.

    2007-01-01

    Measuring gene expression using microarrays is relevant to many areas of biology and medicine, such as follow up of developmental stages and diseases onset, and treatment study. Since there can be tens of thousands of distinct probes on an array, each micro array experiment can accomplish the equivalent number of genetic tests in parallel. Arrays have therefore dramatically accelerated many types of investigations. For example, microarrays can be used to identify stress response genes by comparing gene expression in challenged versus normal cells. In the Molecular and Cellular Biology lab (MCB), the micro array experiments are performed within the Genomic Platform, fully equipped to analyse either the behaviour of bacteria during long space flight, the effect of low dose ionising radiation on the developing organism in mice, or the human individual radiation sensitivity. For the low dose effect, two main stages of development are of interest; 1) the gastrula stage at which ionizing radiation can induce several malformations. 2) the organogenesis. During brain development, epidemiological studies of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima/Nagasaki showed increased risk of mental retardation in children of women exposed between weeks 8-15 of pregnancy or at a lower extend between weeks 15 to 25

  10. Impact of chronic, low-level ionising radiation exposure on terrestrial invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hingston, J.; Wood, M.D.; Copplestone, D.; Zinger, I. [Liverpool Univ., School of Biological Sciences, Merseyside (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    There is a need to confirm that the environment is being adequately protected from the mixture of contaminants released into it. In the field of environmental radioactivity, tools have been developed to assess the impacts of ionising radiation on wildlife. The scientific data upon which these assessments are based is, however, lacking. New documentation has been produced by the UK Environment Agency to provide guidelines on structuring experiments (using environmentally relevant doses) and select suitable non-human species and endpoints for study. It is anticipated that this documentation will be used to direct future experiments in this field. This paper presents the results of the first of these experiments. Numbers of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the wood louse Porcellio scaber were segregated and constantly exposed to one of six radiation doses (background, 0.1, 0.4, 1.5, 4.0 and 8.0 mGyh{sup -1}) for a total of 16 and 14 weeks respectively. The endpoints of mortality, number of viable offspring and average weight of an individual were recorded and the results of this study will be discussed here. (author)

  11. Detection of the effects of low dose ionising irradiation on epidermal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, S.P.; Black, D.R.; Gaskell, S.A.; Marks, R. (Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff (UK)); Sathyanarayana, J.R.; Paterson, I. (Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff (UK))

    1985-01-01

    A non-invasive technique for the detection of small doses of X irradiation to the skin would be important for improvements in radiation protection. In this investigation we have studied the effects of doses of X rays of less than 2.0 Gy (sub-erythemal) on human skin in order to select such a technique. Our results indicate that a dose of X rays between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy was sufficient to depress significantly epidermal cell production in the basal layer. Accompanying this change in epidermal cell production after 1.0 Gy exposure, there was a reduction in the rate of desquamation of corneocytes. In the stratum granulosum, changes in ''non-specific esterase'' activity (a marker of lysosomal enzyme release) were also observed. Thus at three stages of the keratinisation process, functional alterations had occurred within three days of exposure to an X ray dose of 1.0 Gy. For this reason it seems likely that the various changes were at least partially independent of each other and that the stratum corneum may serve as a biological dosimeter for the detection of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation.

  12. Analysis of e-e angular correlations in near-threshold electron impact ionisation of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selles, P.; Huetz, A.; Mazeau, J.

    1987-01-01

    Using a coincidence technique in a coplanar geometry, triple differential cross sections (TDCS) for electron impact ionisation of helium are measured in the 0.5-2 eV energy range above threshold. As a few states (O <= L <= 2) of the two outgoing electrons are obviously involved in the process, their respective intensities appear as unknown parameters in the theoretical TDCS as deduced in the frame of the Wannier theory. The authors show that almost all these parameters can be determined through normalisation to the measured TDCS in two specific geometries: in the first one the two electrons are kept in opposite directions while in the second one they remain symmetrical with respect to the incident beam. A comparison with the complete set of data is then performed. The measured TDCS are in agreement with the Wannier theory for the lowest energies (0.5 and 1 eV). At 2 eV the overall agreement becomes poorer, although some predictions of the Wannier theory still apply. Finally specific measurements at 8 eV clearly show from consideration of symmetry that the Wannier theory no longer applies at this energy. (author)

  13. A gas ionisation Direct-STIM detector for MeV ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn, E-mail: rattanaporn@rmutl.ac.th [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Agriculture, Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna, Chiang Rai, 57120 Chiang Rai (Thailand); Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35, Jyväskylä FI-40014 (Finland); Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Dellea, Mario; Jenni, Josef [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland); Roux, Adrien; Stoppini, Luc [Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Campus Biotech, Chemin des Mines 9, Geneva (Switzerland); Whitlow, Harry J. [University of Applied Sciences (HES-SO), Haute Ecole Arc Ingénierie, Eplatures-Gris 17, CH-2300 La Chaux-de-Fonds (Switzerland)

    2015-04-01

    Direct-Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (Direct-STIM) is a powerful technique that yields structural information in sub-cellular whole cell imaging. Usually, a Si p-i-n diode is used in Direct-STIM measurements as a detector. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of radiation damage which appears as a broadening in the energy resolution, we have developed a gas ionisation detector for use with a focused ion beam. The design is based on the ETH Frisch grid-less off-axis Geiger–Müller geometry. It is developed for use in a MeV ion microscope with a standard Oxford Microbeams triplet lens and scanning system. The design has a large available solid angle for other detectors (e.g. proton induced fluorescence). Here we report the performance for imaging ReNcells VM with μm resolution where energy resolutions of <24 keV fwhm could be achieved for 1 MeV protons using isobutane gas.

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Shallow Water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) Profiles for selected locations across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Near-shore shallow water Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) surveys provided vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, and turbidity providing indications for...

  18. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-04-20 (NODC Accession 7601066)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 20 April 1976. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  19. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-08-17 (NODC Accession 7700691)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 17 August 1977. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  20. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1977-06-14 (NODC Accession 7700521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 14 June 1977. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  1. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-10-19 (NODC Accession 7700137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 19 October 1976. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as...

  2. Temperature profiles from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE as part of the Marine Resources Monitoring, Assessment and Prediction (MARMAP) project from 1976-03-25 (NODC Accession 7600884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from XBT casts from the BLUENOSE from 25 March 1976. Data were collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) as part...

  3. Direct and simultaneous determination of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher M; Couchman, Lewis; Marsden, Joanne T; Rees, David C; Moniz, Caje; Lim, Chang Kee

    2012-08-01

    Urinary concentrations of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) are elevated in patients with acute hepatic porphyrias, especially during acute attacks. Current assays require lengthy sample pre-treatment and derivatisation steps. We report here a rapid, sensitive and specific hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, for the direct and simultaneous quantitation of ALA and PBG in urine following simple dilution with acetonitrile and centrifugation prior to injection. ALA and PBG were detected using selected reaction monitoring mode, following positive electrospray ionisation. Urine samples (N = 46) from active and latent mutation-confirmed acute hepatic porphyria patients and normal subjects (N = 45) were analysed and the results compared with those of a commercially available spectrophotometric method. The validated calibration range was 3-3000 µmol/L for ALA and 2-2000 µmol/L for PBG. For both analytes, imprecision (relative standard deviation) was less than 5% and accuracy (percentage nominal concentrations) was between 88 and 109%. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 μmol/L for both analytes. The calculated LC-MS/MS and spectrophotometric results from patient samples compared well [Pearson correlation (r²) of 0.99 and 0.95, for ALA and PBG, respectively]. The method was successfully applied to the measurement of ALA and PBG in urine samples for the screening, biochemical diagnosis and treatment monitoring of patients with acute hepatic porphyrias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Contribution to the study and use of ionisation chambers for nuclear reactor control (1965); Contribution a l'etude et a l'utilisation des chambres d'ionisation pour le controle des reacteurs nucleaires (1965)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchene, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-02-15

    At the moment ionisation chambers are the detectors which are best suited to the task of nuclear reactor control by neutronic measurements. We have thought it wise to state some generalities concerning reactor dynamics, the various neutron detection methods, the working of ionisation chambers and the measurement methods used. Our contribution to reactor control techniques consists on the one hand in an attempt to make a synthesis of the factors influencing the operation of ionisation chambers, the study of these factors, and on the other hand in the development of ionisation chambers of the fission and boron types, making it possible to follow the working of a reactor from the moment it starts up until maximum power is attained. In the field of fission chambers, we have in particular improved the technique for depositing uranium oxide on aluminium and have perfected the electrolytic deposition process on other metals: stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, nickel, tantalum, titanium, kovar, tungsten and beryllium. We have developed several types of fission chambers used during the start-up of reactors: one type of medium performance now in use in French piles one high-sensitivity type one high-temperature type which has operated up to 600 deg. C. As far as boron chambers are concerned, we have studied the perturbations caused to the measurement by the exposure of the chamber to high neutron flux and to a very strong {gamma} radiation. This exposure brings about a modification of the properties of the constituent materials and causes a background noise in the chamber which can seriously handicap the neutron measurements. We have shown that the compensation technique makes it possible to limit this noise and to thereby increase the range of measurement of conventional ionisation chambers intended for power measurements. Finally, we have built two types of compensation chambers used in the French reactors and have begun the study of a third type of high sensitivity for

  5. Protein oxidative damage and redox imbalance induced by ionising radiation in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraforte, Donatella; Paulicelli, Eleonora; Patrono, Clarice; Gambardella, Lucrezia; Scorza, Giuseppe; Testa, Antonella; Fattibene, Paola

    2018-03-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of the cytotoxicity induced by the direct reaction of ionising radiation (IR) with all critical cellular components, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The derived oxidative damage may propagate in exposed tissues in a dose- and spatiotemporal dependent manner to other cell compartments, affecting intracellular signalling, and cell fate. To understand how cell damage is induced, we studied the oxidative events occurring immediately after cell irradiation by analysing the fate of IR-derived ROS, the intracellular oxidative damage, and the modification of redox environment accumulating in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) within 1 h after cell irradiation (dose range 0-10 Gy). By using the immuno-spin trapping technique (IST), spectrophotometric methods, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we showed that IR-derived ROS (i) induced an IST-detectable, antioxidant-inhibitable one-electron oxidation of specific intracellular proteins; (ii) altered the glutathione (GSH) content (which was found to increase below 2 Gy, and decrease at higher doses, leading to a redox imbalance); (iii) decreased glutathione peroxidase and glutaredoxin activity; (iv) modified neither glutathione reductase nor thioredoxin reductase activity; (v) were detected by spin trapping technique, but adduct intensity decreased due to cell competition for ROS; and (vi) induced no EPR-detectable radicals assignable to oxidised cellular components. In conclusion, our results showed that IR generated an early high oxidising potential (protein radical intermediates, redox imbalance, modified redox enzyme activity) in irradiated cells potentially able to propagate the damage and induce oxidative modification of secondary targets.

  6. Accurate simulation of ionisation chamber response with the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempau, Josep; Andreo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Ionisation chambers (IC) are routinely used in hospitals for the dosimetry of the photon and electron beams used for radiotherapy treatments. The determination of absorbed dose to water from the absorbed dose to the air filling the cavity requires the introduction of stopping power ratios and perturbation factors, which account for the disturbance caused by the presence of the chamber. Although this may seem a problem readily amenable to Monte Carlo simulation, the fact is that the accurate determination of IC response has been, for various decades, one of the most important challenges of the simulation of electromagnetic showers. The main difficulty stems from the use of condensed history techniques for electron and positron transport. This approach, which involves grouping a large number of interactions into a single artificial event, is known to produce the so-called interface effects when particles travel across surfaces separating different media. These effects can be sizeable when the electron step length is not negligible compared to the size of the region being crossed, as it is the case with the cavity of an IC. The artefact, which becomes apparent when the chamber response shows a marked dependence on the adopted step size, can be palliated with the use of sophisticated electron transport algorithms. These topics are discussed in the context of the transport model implemented in the PENELOPE code. The degree of violation of the Fano theorem for a simple, planar geometry, is used as a measure of the stability of the algorithm with respect to variations of the electron step length, thus assessing the 'quality' of its condensed history scheme. It is shown that, with a suitable choice of transport parameters, PENELOPE simulates IC response with an accuracy of the order of 0.1%.

  7. Bi-Abundance Ionisation Structure of the Wolf-Rayet Planetary Nebula PB 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, A.

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula PB 8 around a [WN/WC]-hybrid central star is one of planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancy factors (ADFs 2-3), which could be an indication of a tiny fraction of metal-rich inclusions embedded in the nebula (bi-abundance). In this work, we have constructed photoionisation models to reproduce the optical and infrared observations of the planetary nebula PB 8 using a non-LTE stellar model atmosphere ionising source. A chemically homogeneous model initially used cannot predict the optical recombination lines. However, a bi-abundance model provides a better fit to most of the observed optical recombination lines from N and O ions. The metal-rich inclusions in the bi-abundance model occupy 5.6% of the total volume of the nebula, and are roughly 1.7 times cooler and denser than the mean values of the surrounding nebula. The N/H and O/H abundance ratios in the metal-rich inclusions are 1.0 and 1.7 dex larger than the diffuse warm nebula, respectively. To reproduce the Spitzer spectral energy distribution of PB 8, dust grains with a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.01 (by mass) were also included. It is found that the presence of metal-rich inclusions can explain the heavy element optical recombination lines, while a dual-dust chemistry with different grain species and discrete grain sizes likely produces the infrared continuum of this planetary nebula. This study demonstrates that the bi-abundance hypothesis, which was examined in a few planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancies (ADFs > 10), could also be applied to those typical planetary nebulae with moderate abundance discrepancies.

  8. Interactions between carbo-platin, cisplatin and ionising radiation in an human ovarian cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalliet, P.

    1999-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) and radiotherapy are frequently used concomitantly in the treatment of various malignant conditions. Because of its toxicity, cisplatin tends to be replaced by carbo-platin (CBDCA) in several indications. Available data regarding the combined effects of cisplatin and carbo-platin with ionising radiation are contradictory. Various concentrations of cisplatin and carbo-platin and various timing of association with radiation have been tested in vitro in a human ovarian cancer cell line. The parental cell line (AOvC-0) and a cisplatin-resistant stable sub-line (AOvC-CDDP/O) (De Pooter et al., Cn Res, 1991) were exposed to carbo-platin (2.5, 5 and 10 M) and to CDDP (1, 2.5 and 5 M), 16 h and 4 h before and 4 h and 16 h after irradiation, respectively. Cell survival was evaluated by a classical clonogenic assay. Exposure of AOvC-0 to 5M CBDCA and of AOvC-CDDDP/O to 10 M CBDCA, before or shortly after radiation exposure, increased cell lethality in a clear supra-additive way, with the highest DEF in the shoulder region of the survival curve and at radiation doses relevant to clinical radiotherapy. In the sensitive cell line, 5 M carbo-platin resulted in an additional lethality equivalent to 4.5 Gy; in the resistant cells, 10M carbo-platin was equivalent to 3.6 Gy. Replacing carbo-platin by cisplatin in an identical set-up demonstrated exclusively simple additivity (DEF = 1). These data suggest that carbo-platin and cisplatin delivered at equi-toxic doses interact with radiation a different way and that, in the present set-up, only carbo-platin enhanced the effects of radiation. Carbo-platin might consequently be a better candidate than cisplatin in some concomitant combinations with radiotherapy. (authors)

  9. Physical interaction of ionising radiations with the intracellular macromolecular target DNA and its biological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geard, C.R.; Loucas, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA breaks were evaluated in normal human fibroblasts after irradiation of non-cycling G1 phase cells with 90 keV·μm -1 α particles and 250 kV p X rays. Yields were measured using the premature chromosome condensation technique in interphase cells, straight after and 24 h after irradiation, and by mitotic scoring of terminal deletions following cellular release at 24 h and progression through the cell cycle. Yields were related to the frequencies of energy deposition events per cell nucleus estimated microdosimetrically for X rays and by relating fluence to nuclear cross-sectional areas for the α particles. Linear relationships were found for both radiations and at all three times post-irradiation. Initial break yields of 1.3 x 10 o and 1.6 x 10 -2 per energy deposition event for α particles and X rays respectively, changed to residual yields (24 h) of 4.0 x 10 -1 and 1.3 x 10 -3 , and for terminal deletions at mitosis to 6.0 x 10 -3 and 4.0 x 10 -5 per energy deposition event. That is, one 90 keV·μm -1 α particle is about 100 times more biologically effective than an electron track from 250 kV p X rays and greater than 99% of initially induced chromosomal DNA breaks are repaired/misrepaired before the next mitosis. Misrepair will involve illegitimate interactions and combinations of pairs of lesions, entities which pre-dominate at mitosis, while a failure to repair/misrepair resulting in relic DNA double strand breaks is likely to be of minimal consequence. Lesion interaction, proximity dependent, and largely irrespective of LET dependent lesion severity will then be the principal basis for the unwanted biological sequelae from ionising radiations. (Author)

  10. The Design of Diagnostic Medical Facilities where Ionising Radiation is used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.; O'Reilly, G.; O'Connor, U.; Gallagher, A.; Sheahan, N.; Fennell, S.

    2009-06-01

    The original Code of Practice on The Design of Diagnostic Medical Facilities Using Ionising Radiation was first published by the Nuclear Energy Board in 1988. In the intervening years the 'Blue Book' as it became known has served the medical community well as the sector has expanded and modernised and the late Dr Noel Nowlan, then Chief Executive of the Nuclear Energy Board, deserves much credit for initiating this pioneering contribution to radiation safety in Ireland. There have been significant developments since its publication in terms of the underlying radiation protection legislation, regulatory practice as well as developments in new technologies that have given rise to the need for a revision of the Code. This revised Code is based on a comprehensive draft document produced by the Haughton Institute under contract to the RPII and was finalised following extensive consultations with the relevant stakeholders. The revised Code includes a brief review of the current legislative framework and its specific impact on the management of building projects (Chapters 1 and 2), a presentation of the main types of radiological (Chapter 3) and nuclear medicine (Chapter 4) facilities, a treatment of the technical aspects of shielding calculations (Chapter 5) and a discussion of the practical aspects of implementing shielding solutions in a building context (Chapter 6). The primary purpose of the Code is to assist in the design of diagnostic facilities to the highest radiation protection standards in order to ensure the safety of workers and members of the public and the delivery of a safe service to patients. Diagnostic radiology is a dynamic environment and the Code is intended to be used in consultation with the current literature, an experienced Radiation Protection Advisor and a multidisciplinary project team

  11. Recombination in liquid filled ionisation chambers with multiple charge carrier species: Theoretical and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, P.; González-Castaño, D.M.; Gómez, F.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Liquid-filled ionisation chambers (LICs) are used in radiotherapy for dosimetry and quality assurance. Volume recombination can be quite important in LICs for moderate dose rates, causing non-linearities in the dose rate response of these detectors, and needs to be corrected for. This effect is usually described with Greening and Boag models for continuous and pulsed radiation respectively. Such models assume that the charge is carried by two different species, positive and negative ions, each of those species with a given mobility. However, LICs operating in non-ultrapure mode can contain different types of electronegative impurities with different mobilities, thus increasing the number of different charge carriers. If this is the case, Greening and Boag models can be no longer valid and need to be reformulated. In this work we present a theoretical and numerical study of volume recombination in parallel-plate LICs with multiple charge carrier species, extending Boag and Greening models. Results from a recent publication that reported three different mobilities in an isooctane-filled LIC have been used to study the effect of extra carrier species on recombination. We have found that in pulsed beams the inclusion of extra mobilities does not affect volume recombination much, a behaviour that was expected because Boag formula for charge collection efficiency does not depend on the mobilities of the charge carriers if the Debye relationship between mobilities and recombination constant holds. This is not the case in continuous radiation, where the presence of extra charge carrier species significantly affects the amount of volume recombination. - Highlights: • Analytical extension of Greening and Boag theories to multiple charge carriers. • Detailed numerical study of process of volume recombination in LICs. • Recombination in pulsed beams is independent of number and mobilities of carriers. • Multiple charge carriers have a significant effect in continuous

  12. Online molecular characterisation of organic aerosols in an atmospheric chamber using extractive electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Peter J.; Giorio, Chiara; Mahon, Brendan M.; Kalberer, Markus

    2017-12-01

    The oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represents a substantial source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. In this study, we present online measurements of the molecular constituents formed in the gas and aerosol phases during α-pinene oxidation in the Cambridge Atmospheric Simulation Chamber (CASC). We focus on characterising the performance of extractive electrospray ionisation (EESI) mass spectrometry (MS) for particle analysis. A number of new aspects of EESI-MS performance are considered here. We show that relative quantification of organic analytes can be achieved in mixed organic-inorganic particles. A comprehensive assignment of mass spectra for α-pinene derived SOA in both positive and negative ion modes is obtained using an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometer. We compare these online spectra to conventional offline ESI-MS spectra and find good agreement in terms of the compounds identified, without the need for complex sample work-up procedures. Under our experimental conditions, EESI-MS signals arise only from particle-phase analytes. High-time-resolution (7 min) EESI-MS spectra are compared with simulations from the near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) for a range of reaction conditions. We show that MS peak abundances scale with modelled concentrations for condensable products (pinonic acid, pinic acid, OH-pinonic acid). Relative quantification is achieved throughout SOA formation as the composition, size and mass (5-2400 µg m-3) of particles is evolving. This work provides a robust demonstration of the advantages of EESI-MS for chamber studies over offline ESI-MS (time resolution, relative quantification) and over hard online techniques (molecular information).

  13. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  14. Functional characterisation of an Arabidopsis gene strongly induced by ionising radiation: the gene coding the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (AthPARP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet-Chabeaud, G.

    2000-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana, the model-system in plant genetics, has been used to study the responses to DNA damage, experimentally introduced by γ-irradiation. We have characterised a radiation-induced gene coding a 111 kDa protein, AthPARP-1, homologous to the human poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (hPARP-1). As hPARP-1 is composed by three functional domain with characteristic motifs, AthPARP-1 binds to DNA bearing single-strand breaks and shows DNA damage-dependent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. The preferential expression of AthPARP-1 in mitotically active tissues is in agreement with a potential role in the maintenance of genome integrity during DNA replication, as proposed for its human counterpart. Transcriptional gene activation by ionising radiation of AthPARP-1 and AthPARP-2 genes is to date plant specific activation. Our expression analyses after exposure to various stress indicate that 1) AthPARP-1 and AthPARP-2 play an important role in the response to DNA lesions, particularly they are activated by genotoxic agents implicating the BER DNA repair pathway 2) AthPARP-2 gene seems to play an additional role in the signal transduction induced by oxidative stress 3) the observed expression profile of AthPARP-1 is in favour of the regulation of AthPARP-1 gene expression at the level of transcription and translation. This mode of regulation of AthPARP-1 protein biosynthesis, clearly distinct from that observed in animals, needs the implication of a so far unidentified transcription factor that is activated by the presence of DNA lesions. The major outcome of this work resides in the isolation and characterisation of such new transcription factor, which will provide new insight on the regulation of plant gene expression by genotoxic stress. (author) [fr

  15. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionisation bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. IV. The dibenzanthracene species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, Michael S.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of the 1.2,3.4; 1.2,5.6 and 1.2,7.8 isomers of dibenzanthracene up to the double ionisation threshold at ∼18 eV is presented with the aid of one-particle Green's Function calculations performed using the outer-valence Green's Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with basis sets of improving quality. Suited extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the one-electron energies characterising the π-band system (ε b < 10 eV) to Dunning's correlation consistent basis set of triple zeta quality (cc-pVTZ) enable theoretical insights into HeI measurements which approach chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol or 43.4 meV). In contrast, a confrontation of simulated spectral envelopes with high-resolution He I photoelectron spectra indicates that polycyclic aromatic molecules with sterically overcrowded bay regions are more susceptible to undergo vibronic coupling complications at the σ-ionisation onset. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital (or one-electron) picture of ionisation at the ADC(3)/6-31G levels. The extent of shake-up bands is correspondingly related to topological, structural and magnetic criteria of aromaticity. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet-doublet excitation energies of the related radical cations, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  16. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP. Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  17. Valence one-electron and shake-up ionisation bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. IV. The dibenzanthracene species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deleuze, Michael S. [Theoretische Chemie, Departement SBG, Universiteit Hasselt, Agoralaan, Gebouw D, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)], E-mail: michael.deleuze@uhasselt.be

    2006-10-26

    A comprehensive study of the He (I) ultra-violet photoelectron spectra of the 1.2,3.4; 1.2,5.6 and 1.2,7.8 isomers of dibenzanthracene up to the double ionisation threshold at {approx}18 eV is presented with the aid of one-particle Green's Function calculations performed using the outer-valence Green's Function (OVGF) approach and the third-order algebraic diagrammatic construction [ADC(3)] scheme, along with basis sets of improving quality. Suited extrapolations of the ADC(3) results for the one-electron energies characterising the {pi}-band system ({epsilon} {sub b} < 10 eV) to Dunning's correlation consistent basis set of triple zeta quality (cc-pVTZ) enable theoretical insights into HeI measurements which approach chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol or 43.4 meV). In contrast, a confrontation of simulated spectral envelopes with high-resolution He I photoelectron spectra indicates that polycyclic aromatic molecules with sterically overcrowded bay regions are more susceptible to undergo vibronic coupling complications at the {sigma}-ionisation onset. OVGF/cc-pVDZ or OVGF/cc-pVTZ pole strengths smaller than 0.85 systematically corroborate a breakdown of the orbital (or one-electron) picture of ionisation at the ADC(3)/6-31G levels. The extent of shake-up bands is correspondingly related to topological, structural and magnetic criteria of aromaticity. Comparison is made with calculations of the lowest doublet-doublet excitation energies of the related radical cations, by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT)

  18. IBM-PC based data acquisition system for a laser enhanced ionisation spectrometer using a low cost GPIB card

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath Kumar, R.; Ravindranath, S.V.G.

    1992-01-01

    An IBM-PC based data acquisition system has been developed for the existing laser enhanced ionisation spectrometer in the Division. Here the boxcar averager (type SR 250) which integrates the spectrometer output is interfaced to an IBM-PC, converted into a GPIB controller with the help of a locally available GPIB card, (Dynalog Micro Systems make PCL 848) through the GPIB port of the computer interface module (SR 245). The menu driven software developed in BASIC, triggers the scan in the dye laser through its control port, collects data from the spectrometer, plots, displays and stores it on the hard disc for further use. (author). 6 refs., 18 figs., 2 appendixes

  19. A TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER FOR SIMS AND FIELD IONISED NEUTRAL ANALYSIS USING A PULSED LMIS

    OpenAIRE

    Waugh, A.; Kingham, D.; Richardson, C.; Goff, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new surface analysis instrument has been developed using an energy-compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Samples are ionised for analysis either by microfocussed laser irradiation or by sputtering with a microfocussed (< 0.25 µm) mass-filtered beam of Ga+ ions from a liquid metal ion source. A framestore-based data system allows the simultaneous capture o f both SIMS mass spectra and mass-resolved ion images. Data are presented illustrating both SIMS and Laser Microprobe performance...

  20. LA SPECTROSCOPIE DE MASSE PAR IONISATION CHIMIQUE AVEC LA DIETHYLAMINE COMME GAZ REACTANT DES IRIDOIDES GLUCOSIDIQUES DE TYPE C-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H SAADI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail s’intéresse à l’étude de la spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique de quelques composés des iridoïdes glucosidiques de type C-9 extraits des plantes de l’espèce Euplantago en utilisant la diéthylamine comme gaz réactant. Nous avons appliqué la même technique que précédemment à deux d’entre eux se trouvant en abondance dans ce type de plantes, après leur acétylation.

  1. LA SPECTROSCOPIE DE MASSE PAR IONISATION CHIMIQUE AVEC LA DIETHYLAMINE COMME GAZ REACTANT DES IRIDOIDES GLUCOSIDIQUES DE TYPE C-9

    OpenAIRE

    H SAADI; Dj ZEGHOUGH; S.S POPOV

    2000-01-01

    Ce travail s’intéresse à l’étude de la spectrométrie de masse par ionisation chimique de quelques composés des iridoïdes glucosidiques de type C-9 extraits des plantes de l’espèce Euplantago en utilisant la diéthylamine comme gaz réactant. Nous avons appliqué la même technique que précédemment à deux d’entre eux se trouvant en abondance dans ce type de plantes, après leur acétylation.

  2. The report of the French Academy of Science: 'Problems associated with the effects of low doses of ionising radiation'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 the French Academy of Science published a report on 'Problems associated with low doses of ionising radiation'. This report aroused interest among French-speaking scientists and a translation in English was published a year later. The report pointed out that an important issue in radioprotection was not whether to accept or reject the linear no-threshold model but rather to test its validity. The aim of this review is to analyse the report and its recommendations, and to briefly indicate the progress which has been made and the questions which remain open. Three areas of the report are covered in this review: DNA repair, carcinogenesis and epidemiological data. (author)

  3. Chemotaxonomy of bacteria by comprehensive GC and GC-MS in electron impact and chemical ionisation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Frank; Tienpont, Bart; Sandra, Pat

    2008-10-01

    The analysis of the cellular lipidic fraction of bacteria is described. After hydrolysis and methylation, the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are determined by 1-D GC using the Sherlock MIDI bacteria identification system, by comprehensive GC (GC x GC) and by GC-MS in electron impact (EI) and positive chemical ionisation (PCI) mode. With GC x GC, the enhanced selectivity and group type separation provides a more complete elucidation of the fatty acids in microorganisms. GC-EI-MS and GC-PCI-MS were helpful for confirmation. The bacteria selected in this study are Brevundimonas diminuta, Chryseobacterium gleum and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

  4. Double spike methodology for uranium determination by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry: separation and purification of 234U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, P.M.; Saxena, M.K.; Sanjai Kumar; Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    With an objective to prepare double spike of 233 U+ 234 U for determination of uranium concentration by Isotopic Dilution Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (ID-TIMS), 234 U was separated and purified from aged 238 Pu sample (15 years old) using several ion exchange and solvent extraction procedures. Final product containing 95% and 5% alpha activities of 234 and 238 Pu, respectively, which translates into 99.998 atom% of 234 U and 0.002 atom% of 238 Pu was found suitable for double spike. (author). 1 ref

  5. Identification of organic pigments in tattoo inks and permanent make-up using laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Niederer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, about 12% of the European and 20% of the US population are tattooed. Rising concerns regarding consumer safety, led to legal restrictions on tattoo and permanent make-up (PMU inks. Restrictions also include bans on certain colourants. Both ink types use organic pigments for colour-giving, plus inorganic pigments for white and black and colour tones. Pigments are only sparingly soluble in common solvents and occur as suspended particles in the ink matrix. Their detection and identification therefore pose a major challenge for laboratories involved in monitoring the legal compliance of tattoo inks and PMU. We overcame this challenge by developing a direct laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, which included an easy sample clean up. The method proved to be capable of detecting and identifying organic pigments in almost all of the tested ink samples. Method validation and routine deployment during market surveys showed the method to be fit for purpose. Pigment screening of 396 tattoo inks and 55 PMU taken from the Swiss market between 2009 and 2017 lead to the following conclusions: Pigment variety is much greater in tattoo inks (18 than in PMU (10; four prohibited pigments (Pigment Green 7, Pigment Red 122, Pigment Violet 19 and 23 were found in both ink types; for PMU, these four pigments made up 12% of the pigment findings, compared to 32% for tattoo inks. Therefore, legal compliance of PMU was at a higher level. A comparison of pigments found with those declared on tattoo ink labels clearly showed that banned pigments are rarely declared, but rather masked by listing non present legal pigments and label forging; therefore, highlighting the urgency of widespread market controls.

  6. Determination of vitamin B5 in a range of fortified food products by reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermayr, Ruth; Kalman, Andras; Trisconi, Marie-José; Heudi, Olivier

    2004-04-02

    Methods for Vitamin B5 determination in food products remain limited by their low sensitivity and poor selectivity. Here, we have developed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for Vitamin B5 determination in wide range of fortified food products. Vitamin B5 was extracted from food samples by heat treatment and analysed by LC-MS in the positive mode using electrospray ionisation (ESI). Vitamin B5 was quantified using hopantenic acid (HOPA) as internal standard after their separation on a C18 narrow-bore column with a gradient of mobile phase made of water/acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) 0.025%. MS with single ion monitoring mode at mass m/z 220 was used for Vitamin B5 quantification. Calibration curve between 0.5 and 10 microg/ml of Vitamin B5 was linear (r2=0.9993) and the detection limit was determined to be 800 pg. The overall quantitative efficiency of the method was evaluated using Nestle reference sample (infant formula). The intra-assay RSD was 4.8% (n=8), the inter-assay RSD 6.4% (n=4) and the recoveries of the spiked samples were above 95%. Application of the LC-MS method to Vitamin B5 determination in wide range of fortified food products including three US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference samples (RM 8435, RM 8415 and SRM 1546) shows consistent results with those obtained by microbiology and recoveries of Vitamin B5 between 93 and 104% for the spiked samples.

  7. WE-G-BRA-06: Calibrating an Ionisation Chamber: Gaining Experience Using a Dosimetry 'flight Simulator'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, A; Saunderson, J; Ward, J

    2012-06-01

    Recently there has been great interest in the use of simulation training, with the view to enhance safety within radiotherapy practice. We have developed a Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) which facilitates this, including the simulation of a number of 'Physics practices'. One such process is the calibration of an ionisation chamber for use in Linac photon beams. The VERT system was used to provide a life sized 3D virtual environment within which we were able to simulate the calibration of a departmental chamber for 6MV and 15 MV beams following the UK 1990 Code of Practice. The characteristics of the beams are fixed parameters in the simulation, whereas default (Absorbed dose to water) correction factors of the chambers are configurable thereby dictating their response in the virtual x-ray beam. When the simulation is started, a random, realistic temperature and pressure is assigned to the bunker. Measurement and chamber positional errors are assigned to the chambers. A virtual water phantom was placed on the Linac couch and irradiated through the side using a 10 × 10 field. With a chamber at the appropriate depths and irradiated iso-centrically, the Quality Indices (QI) of the beams were obtained. The two chambers were 'inter-compared', allowing the departmental chamber calibration factor to be calculated from that of the reference chamber. For the virtual 6/15 MV beams, the QI were found to be 0.668/ 0.761 and the inter-comparison ratios 0.4408/ 0.4402 respectively. The departmental chamber calibration factors were calculated; applying these and appropriate environmental corrections allowed the output of the Linac to be confirmed. We have shown how a virtual training environment can be used to demonstrate practical processes and reinforce learning. The UK CoP was used here, however any relevant protocol could be demonstrated. Two of the authors (Beavis and Ward) are Founders of Vertual Ltd, a spin-out company created to commercialise the

  8. gammaH2AX foci form preferentially in euchromatin after ionising-radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian G Cowell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs; these domains can be observed by immunofluorescence microscopy and are termed gammaH2AX foci. H2AX phosphorylation is believed to have a role mounting an efficient cellular response to DNA damage. Theoretical considerations suggest an essentially random chromosomal distribution of X-ray induced DSBs, and experimental evidence does not consistently indicate otherwise. However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of gammaH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX occurs preferentially in euchromatic regions of the genome following X-irradiation. H2AX phosphorylation has also been demonstrated previously to occur at stalled replication forks induced by UV radiation or exposure to agents such as hydroxyurea. In this study, treatment of S-phase cells with hydroxyurea lead to efficient H2AX phosphorylation in both euchromatin and heterochromatin at times when these chromatin compartments were undergoing replication. This suggests a block to H2AX phosphorylation in heterochromatin that is at least partially relieved by ongoing DNA replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We discuss a number of possible mechanisms that could account for the observed pattern of H2AX phosphorylation. Since gammaH2AX is regarded as forming a platform for the recruitment or retention of other DNA repair and signaling molecules, these findings imply that the processing of DSBs in heterochromatin differs from that in euchromatic regions. The

  9. Derivation of hazardous doses for amphibians acutely exposed to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, Shoichi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Kawaguchi, Isao; Takata, Toshitaro; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Derivation of effect benchmark values for each taxonomic group, which has been difficult due to lack of experimental effects data, is required for more adequate protection of the environment from ionising radiation. Estimation of effects doses from nuclear DNA mass and subsequent species sensitivity distribution (SSD) analysis were proposed as a method for such a derivation in acute irradiation situations for assumed nuclear accident scenarios. As a case study, 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s), at which only 5% of species are acutely affected at 50% or higher lethality, were estimated on a global scale. After nuclear DNA mass data were obtained from a database, 50% lethal doses (LD 50 s) for 4.8 and 36% of the global Anura and Caudata species, respectively, were estimated by correlative equations between nuclear DNA mass and LD 50 s. Differences between estimated and experimental LD 50 s were within a factor of three. The HD 5 s obtained by the SSD analysis of these estimated LD 50 s data were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata, respectively. This approach was also applied to the derivation of regional HD 5 s. The respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan. This HD 5 value for the Japanese Anura was significantly higher than the global value, while Caudata had no significant difference in global and Japanese HD 5 s. These results suggest that this approach is also useful for derivation of regional benchmark values, some of which are likely different from the global values. - Highlights: ► A possible method was proposed for derivation of an effect benchmark value for each taxonomic group. ► 50% lethal doses were estimated from nuclear DNA mass in amphibian species. ► 5% hazardous doses (HD 5 s) were estimated by species sensitivity distribution. ► Respective HD 5 s were 5.0 and 3.1 Gy for Anura and Caudata globally. ► Respective HD 5 s were 6.5 and 3.2 Gy for Anura and Caudata inhabiting Japan.

  10. Proposal for a Graded Authorisation Model for the Use of Ionising Radiation in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland RPII intends to refocus, streamline and modernise its regulation of the use of ionising radiation in Ireland. This report provides detailed proposals for establishing a graded approach to authorisation in which regulators will be able to focus on higher risk practices by simplifying requirements placed on those of lower risk, without compromising the safety or security of the Irish population. These proposals build on RPII strategic analyses that seek to navigate a course between the competing pressures of public sector reform and the rapid technological changes in medical and nuclear arenas, which challenge the licensing and advisory functions of RPII. A graded approach to authorisation provides the potential for a sustainable basis for future regulation in Ireland. Such an approach would be in line with the forthcoming EURATOM Basic Safety Standards and with general current regulatory trends, which are moving away from one-size-fits-all approaches towards more adaptive, interactive and transparent regulation. In seeking this reform, the RPII also aims to fully utilize the benefits of the internet and electronic communications and to improve the transparency of its processes. These proposals have been developed using a robust, comprehensive project methodology involving a root and branch analysis of current and potential future approaches to authorisation. A series of facilitated workshops were held, punctuated by intensive periods of focused co-enquiry, involving all members of the RPII Regulatory Service. This approach made the fullest use of the decades of expertise and knowledge of these staff. It also provided the platform for developing a common vision of a graded approach to authorisation; for agreeing the criteria for differentiating between levels of authorisation; for collecting the necessary evidence for decision-making and for identifying the implications of these decisions. The graded approach presented

  11. The detection of iron protoporphyrin (heme b) in phytoplankton and marine particulate material by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry – comparison with diode array detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledhill, Martha, E-mail: m.gledhill@geomar.de

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • Mass spectrometry was applied to the analysis of heme b in biological material. • Optimal conditions involved selective reactant monitoring of the heme b product ion. • The isotopic signature for this iron tetrapyrrole further improved selectivity. • Mass spectrometry and spectrophotometry were compared for heme b analysis. • Combining techniques made a powerful tool for analysis of heme in marine microbes. - Abstract: A mass spectrometric (MS) method for the identification of iron protoporphyrin (IX) (FePTP, heme b) in marine particulate material and phytoplankton is described. Electrospray ionisation of FePTP produced the molecular Fe(III)PTP{sup +} ion (m/z = 616) or the pseudomolecular [Fe(II)PTP + H]{sup +} ion (m/z = 617), depending on the oxidation state of the central iron ion. Collision induced dissociation (CID) in the ion trap mass spectrometer resulted in a single detected product ion (m/z = 557) indicative of loss of ethanoic acid from a carboxylic acid side chain. Widening the isolation width to 616 ± 3 resulted in production of a mass spectrum demonstrating the distinctive isotopic ratio of the iron containing fragment, further increasing the specificity of the analysis. Selective reactant monitoring (SRM) of the fragment ion (m/z = 557) was applied to the detection of FePTP after chromatography of ammoniacal OGP extracts of marine samples. The detection limit for FePTP analysed by SRM after chromatography was 1.2 ± 0.5 fmol. For phytoplankton samples, reasonably good agreement was achieved between results obtained with SRM and those obtained by monitoring absorbance at λ = 400 nm using a diode array detector (DAD). Use of SRM for analysis of particulate material obtained from the high latitude North Atlantic allowed for the analysis of FePTP in the presence of a co-eluting compound that interfered with detection by DAD. Simultaneous collection of mass spectra from m/z = 300 to 1500 resulted in identification of the

  12. Leaf Anatomy and Photochemical Behaviour of Solanum lycopersicum L. Plants from Seeds Irradiated with Low-LET Ionising Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. De Micco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants can be exposed to ionising radiation not only in Space but also on Earth, due to specific technological applications or after nuclear disasters. The response of plants to ionising radiation depends on radiation quality/quantity and/or plant characteristics. In this paper, we analyse some growth traits, leaf anatomy, and ecophysiological features of plants of Solanum lycopersicum L. “Microtom” grown from seeds irradiated with increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 20, 50, and 100 Gy. Both juvenile and compound leaves from plants developed from irradiated and control seeds were analysed through light and epifluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed quantifying anatomical parameters to detect the occurrence of signs of structural damage. Fluorescence parameters and total photosynthetic pigment content were analysed to evaluate the functioning of the photosynthetic machinery. Radiation did not affect percentage and rate of seed germination. Plants from irradiated seeds accomplished the crop cycle and showed a more compact habitus. Dose-depended tendencies of variations occurred in phenolic content, while other leaf anatomical parameters did not show distinct trends after irradiation. The sporadic perturbations of leaf structure, observed during the vegetative phase, after high levels of radiation were not so severe as to induce any significant alterations in photosynthetic efficiency.

  13. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Breton

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN from biomass burning events in Canada using I− reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO and acetonitrile (CH3CN was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume-defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6-sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR of 3.68 ± 0.149 pptv ppbv−1 was calculated, which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011. The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work, the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N yr−1.

  14. Modelling the tongue-of-ionisation using CTIP with SuperDARN electric potential input: verification by radiotomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Pryse

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric potential patterns obtained by the SuperDARN radar network are used as input to the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model, in an attempt to improve the modelling of the spatial distribution of the ionospheric plasma at high latitudes. Two case studies are considered, one under conditions of stable IMF Bz negative and the other under stable IMF Bz positive. The modelled plasma distributions are compared with sets of well-established tomographic reconstructions, which have been interpreted previously in multi-instrument studies. For IMF Bz negative both the model and observations show a tongue-of-ionisation on the nightside, with good agreement between the electron density and location of the tongue. Under Bz positive, the SuperDARN input allows the model to reproduce a spatial plasma distribution akin to that observed. In this case plasma, unable to penetrate the polar cap boundary into the polar cap, is drawn by the convective flow in a tongue-of-ionisation around the periphery of the polar cap.

  15. Modelling the tongue-of-ionisation using CTIP with SuperDARN electric potential input: verification by radiotomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Pryse

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric potential patterns obtained by the SuperDARN radar network are used as input to the Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere model, in an attempt to improve the modelling of the spatial distribution of the ionospheric plasma at high latitudes. Two case studies are considered, one under conditions of stable IMF Bz negative and the other under stable IMF Bz positive. The modelled plasma distributions are compared with sets of well-established tomographic reconstructions, which have been interpreted previously in multi-instrument studies. For IMF Bz negative both the model and observations show a tongue-of-ionisation on the nightside, with good agreement between the electron density and location of the tongue. Under Bz positive, the SuperDARN input allows the model to reproduce a spatial plasma distribution akin to that observed. In this case plasma, unable to penetrate the polar cap boundary into the polar cap, is drawn by the convective flow in a tongue-of-ionisation around the periphery of the polar cap.

  16. Radio-oxidation of an EPDM elastomer under weak or strong ionising radiations: measurement and modelling of dioxygen consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, N.

    2005-10-01

    Usually, the irradiation of polymers under ionising radiations occurs in air that is in the presence of oxygen. This leads to a radio oxidation process and to oxygen consumption. Our material is an EPDM elastomer (ethylene propylene 1,4 hexadiene) used as insulator in control-command cables in nuclear plants (Pressurised Water Reactor). A specific device has been conceived and built up during this PhD work for measuring very small oxygen consumptions with an accuracy of around 10%. Ionising radiations used are electrons at 1 MeV and carbon ions at 11 MeV per nucleon. Under both electron and ion irradiations, the influence of oxygen pressure on oxygen consumption has been studied in a very large range: between 1 and 200 mbar. In both cases, the yield of oxygen consumption is constant in-between 200 and 5 mbar. Then, at lower pressures, it decreases appreciably. On the other hand, the oxygen consumption during ion irradiation is four times smaller than during electron irradiation. This emphasizes the role of the heterogeneity of the energy deposition at a nano-metric scale. The adjustment of the experimental results obtained during electron irradiation with the general homogeneous steady-state kinetic model has allowed extracting all the values of the kinetic parameters for the chosen mechanism of radio oxidation. The knowledge of these numbers will allow us to face our results obtained during ion irradiation with a heterogeneous kinetic model under development. (author)

  17. Internet-based ICRP resource for healthcare providers on the risks and benefits of medical imaging that uses ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, S; Applegate, K E; Perez, M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 3 Working Party was to update the 2001 web-based module 'Radiation and your patient: a guide for medical practitioners' from ICRP. The key elements of this task were: to clearly identify the target audience (such as healthcare providers with an emphasis on primary care); to review other reputable sources of information; and to succinctly publish the contribution made by ICRP to the various topics. A 'question-and-answer' format addressing practical topics was adopted. These topics included benefits and risks of imaging using ionising radiation in common medical situations, as well as pertaining to specific populations such as pregnant, breast-feeding, and paediatric patients. In general, the benefits of medical imaging and related procedures far outweigh the potential risks associated with ionising radiation exposure. However, it is still important to ensure that the examinations are clinically justified, that the procedure is optimised to deliver the lowest dose commensurate with the medical purpose, and that consideration is given to diagnostic reference levels for particular classes of examinations. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  18. Solvent Separating Secondary Metabolites Directly from Biosynthetic Tissue for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rudd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of “on surface” solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples.

  19. Assessing the surroundings for effects of ionising radiation on the granting of permits, DOVIS A. Emissions to air and water

    CERN Document Server

    Blaauboer, R O

    2002-01-01

    In the Netherlands, as in most other countries, one generally needs a permit to produce (including the manufacture, processing, control and storage), to apply or to dispose of radioactive materials, or to use equipment that produces ionising radiation. This permit must be in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. Limits that are set for radioactive material can be found in the Decree on radiation protection ('Besluit stralings-bescherming') which has been in force since March 1, 2002. Along with the application for a permit, calculation results have to be submitted on the radiation dose that members of the public receive as a consequence of (possible) emissions of radioactive material (into the atmosphere or surface water) or as a consequence of external irradiation. Fairly rough estimates, based on simple rules, will often be satisfactory. These rules can be found in an annex of a Ministerial Order on the assessment of consequences of ionising radiation (mr-AGIS). However, in some cases this will not be ade...

  20. Study on the influence of the B4C layer thickness on the neutron flux and energy distribution shape in multi-electrode ionisation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymińska, K; Maciak, M; Ośko, J; Tulik, P; Zielczyński, M; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A model of a multi-electrode ionisation chamber, with polypropylene electrodes coated with a thin layer of B4C was created within Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) and Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) codes. The influence of the layer thickness on neutron absorption in B4C and on the neutron spectra in the consecutive intra-electrode gas volumes has been studied using the MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The results will be used for designing the new type of the ionisation chamber. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Oxygen tension regulates the miRNA profile and bioactivity of exosomes released from extravillous trophoblast cells – Liquid biopsies for monitoring complications of pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Grace; Guanzon, Dominic; Kinhal, Vyjayanthi; Elfeky, Omar; Lai, Andrew; Longo, Sherri; Nuzhat, Zarin; Palma, Carlos; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Menon, Ramkumar; Mol, Ben W.; Rice, Gregory E.; Salomon, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of how cells communicate has undergone a paradigm shift since the recent recognition of the role of exosomes in intercellular signaling. In this study, we investigated whether oxygen tension alters the exosome release and miRNA profile from extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, modifying their bioactivity on endothelial cells (EC). Furthermore, we have established the exosomal miRNA profile at early gestation in women who develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). HTR-8/SVneo cells were used as an EVT model. The effect of oxygen tension (i.e. 8% and 1% oxygen) on exosome release was quantified using nanocrystals (Qdot®) coupled to CD63 by fluorescence NTA. A real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte™) was used to establish the effect of exosomes on EC. Plasma samples were obtained at early gestation (gestation, who later developed PE and SPTB. We suggest that aberrant exosomal signalling by placental cells is a common aetiological factor in pregnancy complications characterised by incomplete SpA remodeling and is therefore a clinically relevant biomarker of pregnancy complications. PMID:28350871

  2. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)

    2014-07-01

    -barcoding, invertebrate DNA barcoding, DNA methylation, and other molecular endpoints is ongoing, together with studies of possible adaptation of plants, invertebrates and microorganisms. Preliminary results show significant differences in diversity for many species between contaminated and reference sites. However, more research is needed to draw conclusions about the cause of such observations. Nevertheless, by combining a through site characterisation and exposure assessment with a variety of ecologically relevant biomarker and endpoint measurements, the data produced should be a valuable contribution to international activities looking at the impacts of chronic exposure of ionising radiation on non-human species. Project participants: Elena Belykh, Anna Kaneva, Boris Kondratenok, Alla Kolesnikova, Alexey Kurdin, Tatinana Majstrenko, Taskayeva Anastasia Oleshya Vakhrusheva, Illa Velegzhaninov, Vladimir Zainullin (IoB, Komi Republic, Russia); S. Haciyakupoglu (Istanbul Technical University, Turkey); Rahime Oral, Sabriye Yusan, Filiz Gur Filiz (Ege University, Turkey); Murat Belivermis, Onder Kilic (Istanbul University, Turkey); Fatma Kocbas (Celal Bayar University, Turkey); Mustafa Akiner, (Rize University, Turkey); Claire Coutris, Erik Joner (Bioforsk, Norway); Turid Hertel-Aas, Emmanuel Lapied, Yevgeniya Tomkiv, Brit Salbu, Lindis Skipperud (Centre for Environmental Radioactivity, UMB, Norway). Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  3. Phytochemical profiling of the ripening of Chinese mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars by real-time monitoring using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and its potential benefits as prebiotic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Dars, Abdul Ghani; Liu, Qiudou; Xie, Bijun; Sun, Zhida

    2018-08-01

    Maturity has important effects on the phytochemical and biochemical characteristics of fruits. It affects the quality, nutritional value, harvest time and commercial operations. In this study, Keitt, Sensation and Xiangya mango cultivars in four distinct stages from southwest China were evaluated for their phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activities in real time. Furthermore, the biochemical characteristics indices polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and pectin methylesterase (PME) activities were determined. Antioxidant compounds such as vitamin C, total phenolic, total flavonoid and total carotenoid content were also analysed. A total of 34 phenolic compounds were identified and quantitatively monitored by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Consecutive degradation of phenolic acids and its derivatives were observed upon maturity. We found that in addition to carotenoids, phenolic acids could also be used as a measurement index of maturity in mango. Mango juices and its phenolic extracts may be used as potential prebiotics for modulating probiotic proliferation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Person competent in radiation protection - changing profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Any entity (enterprise, laboratory, university, hospital,...), in which ionising radiations are used or produced, has to hire a person competent in radiation protection (PCR). This person has 6 main missions: 1) assessing the risks, 2) taking adequate protection measures, 3) delimiting risk areas around radiation sources (zoning), 4) informing and training the staff, 5) ensuring the dosimetric follow-up of the workers, and 6) ensuring the adequate follow-up of the equipment (periodic controls, maintenance). In France between 8000 and 15000 PCRs operate and most work partially in this activity. According to the sector where they work, PCRs' profiles can be very different: from technician to engineer but all have passed the same specific certification. Now, the new law imposes 3 levels of certification according to the risks involved in the sector: for instance the lowest level for the transport sector and the highest level for the management of radioactive wastes. (A.C.)

  5. Two-Step Single Particle Mass Spectrometry for On-Line Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Bente, M.; Sklorz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed as trace products in combustion processes and are emitted to the atmosphere. Larger PAH have low vapour pressure and are predominantly bound to the ambient fine particulate matter (PM). Upon inhalation, PAH show both, chronic human toxicity (i.e. many PAH are potent carcinogens) as well as acute human toxicity (i.e. inflammatory effects due to oxi-dative stress) and are discussed to be relevant for the observed health effect of ambient PM. Therefore a better understanding of the occurrence, dynamics and particle size dependence of particle bound-PAH is of great interest. On-line aerosol mass spectrometry in principle is the method of choice to investigate the size resolved changes in the chemical speciation of particles as well the status of internal vs. external mixing of chemical constituents. However the present available aerosol mass spectrometers (ATOFMS and AMS) do not allow detection of PAH from ambient air PM. In order to allow a single particle based monitoring of PAH from ambient PM a new single particle laser ionisation mass spectrometer was built and applied. The system is based on ATOFMS principle but uses a two- step photo-ionization. A tracked and sized particle firstly is laser desorbed (LD) by a IR-laser pulse (CO2-laser, λ=10.2 μm) and subsequently the released PAH are selectively ionized by an intense UV-laser pulse (ArF excimer, λ=248 nm) in a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation process (REMPI). The PAH-ions are detected in a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A virtual impactor enrichment unit is used to increase the detection frequency of the ambient particles. With the current inlet system particles from about 400 nm to 10 μm are accessible. Single particle based temporal profiles of PAH containing particles ion (size distribution and PAH speciation) have been recorded in Oberschleissheim, Germany from ambient air. Furthermore profiles of relevant emission sources (e

  6. Measurement of the total ionisation intensity near the ground and separation of the various components; Mesure de l'intensite totale d'ionisation au voisinage du sol et separation de ses differentes composantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevet, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the total amount of ion-pairs produced in the air per unit time and unit volume. It is possible, furthermore, by using continuous recording to study the variations in the ionisation due to {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiation at a height of one metre. The apparatus which has been developed consists of two chambers of 120 litres: one, hermetically sealed detects the {gamma} component, the other with a circulation of the ambient air detects the {alpha} and {gamma}; it is thus possible by difference to evaluate the {alpha} component. The chambers and the associated electronic equipment have been designed for continuous operation in the open air. Another chamber without walls can be used for measuring directly the total ionisation intensity and from this an approximate calculation may be made of the {beta} component. A series of recordings has been made near Saclay where the natural radio-activity level is moderate, and in regions of low and high activity (near the sea and in the CEA's mining divisions). It has thus been possible to show the variation in the {gamma} component as a function of the geographic position of the measurement (from 3.7 to 6.3 l/cm{sup 3}.s), the very large variations of the {alpha} component at a given place with changing meteorological conditions (from 1.5 to 45 l/cm{sup 3}.s at Saclay for example) an the far smaller variations in the {beta} component. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est de mesurer la quantite totale de paires d'ions produite dans l'air par unite de temps et de volume. Des enregistrements continus permettent, de plus, d'etudier les variations a 1 m du sol de cette ionisation due aux rayonnements {alpha}, {beta} et {gamma}. L'appareillage mis au point est forme de deux chambres de 120 litres: l'une hermetiquement fermee detecte la composante {gamma}; l'autre avec circulation de l'air ambiant detecte {alpha} + {gamma} ce qui permet d

  7. DNA damaging by ionising radiations. Influence of the structure and of the environment; Degradation de l'ADN par les rayonnements ionisants. Influence de la structure et de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotheim-Maurizot, M. [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), 45 - Orleans (France); Begusova, M. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Prague, Dept. de Dosimetrie des Radiations (Czech Republic); Charlier, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France)

    2003-12-01

    DNA damaging by ionising radiations. Influence of the structure and of the environment. DNA which bears the genetic information of the cell is the critical target for radiolytic attack. In the nucleus, DNA is not a straight and naked double helix in B-form. The sequence of the bases, the topological stress, the interactions with other partners (proteins) induce structures different from the canonical B-form. The effects of radiations occur through the attack by radicals issued from water radiolysis. The most reactive one is the oxidative hydroxyl radical. The radiolytic process is a chemical process in which both reactivity and accessibility of reactive sites, and consequently the structure of DNA, are involved. We have developed a simulation code to calculate the hydroxyl radical attack of different DNA structures. This procedure uses structural data obtained by either NMR, crystallography or molecular modelling, and accurately fits the experimental results. (author)

  8. The Spatial Distribution of Alkaloids in Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm and Palicourea coriacea (Cham.) K. Schum Leaves Analysed by Desorption Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Lucilia; Moraes, Aline Pereira; de Oliveira, Cecília Maria Alves

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Species of the genera Psychotria and Palicourea are sources of indole alkaloids, however, the distribution of alkaloids within the plants is not known. Analysing the spatial distribution using desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) has become attract...

  9. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on general obligations in medical and dental practices using ionising radiation; issued on April 28, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure

  10. Dégradation de lŽADN par les rayonnements ionisants. Influence de la structure et de lŽenvironnement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maurizot, M.; Běgusová, Marie

    11-12 (2003), s. 97-102 ISSN 0151-9093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : DNA * ionising radiations * hydroxyl radical Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.112, year: 2003

  11. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on general obligations in medical and dental practices using ionising radiation; issued on April 28, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to medical and dental practices with ionising radiation used for medical exposures. The regulations are also applicable to exposures of persons who knowingly and willingly, other than as part of their occupation, support and comfort patients undergoing medical exposure.

  12. Isotopic analysis of neodymium in a granite rock sample in presence of samarium and cerium by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Radhika M.; Ramakumar, K.L.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Jain, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    Present investigations are directed towards looking into the possibility adopting a standardised procedure for measuring isotopic composition of Nd in a granite sample in presence of Sm and Ce employing a thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) instrument with a variable multi-collection detector system

  13. Characterisation of chemical components for identifying historical Chinese textile dyes by ultra high performance liquid chromatography – photodiode array – electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, J.; Wanrooij, J.; van Bommel, M.; Quye, A.

    2017-01-01

    This research makes the first attempt to apply Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to both Photodiode Array detection (PDA) and Electrospray Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (ESI–MS) to the chemical characterisation of common textile dyes in ancient China. Three different

  14. Ion suppression in the determination of clenbuterol in urine by solid-phase extraction atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ion-trap mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W.J.; Niederlander, H.A G; de Zeeuw, R.A.; de Jong, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Ion suppression effects were observed during the determination of clenbuterol in urine with solid-phase extraction/multiple-stage ion-trap mass spectrometry (SPE/MS3), despite the use of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation. During SPE, a polymeric stationary phase (polydivinylbenzene) was

  15. A search for non-baryonic dark matter using an ionisation bolometer in the edelweiss experiment; Recherche de matiere sombre non-baryonique au moyen d`un bolometre a ionisation dans le cadre de l`experience edelweiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Stefano, Ph. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee]|[Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-24

    The EDELWEISS experiment is an underground direct-detection search for hypothetical supersymmetric WIMPs that might solve the problem of dark matter. We have employed a cryogenic 70 g germanium ionisation bolometer, in which a WIMP would scatter elastically off a nucleus, creating both a heat and an ionisation signal. To offset the various electronic noises present in our necessarily small signals, we have s applied an optimal filtering technique in the frequency domain. This allows us to reach resolutions of 1.2 keV FWHM at 122 keV on north channels. It also provides good separation right down to low energies between the expected signal of nuclear recoils, and the photonic background of electron recoils which ionize more for a given energy. Calibration data show that we are able to reject 99.7 % of this background, while keeping 95% of the signal. However, our 1.17 kg.days of data searching for WIMPs show a third population encroaching on the expected signal. This is probably due to low energy photons or electrons interacting in the outer layers of the crystal, where charges are incompletely collected. Nevertheless, by trading off half of the conserved signal, we still manage to reject 98.5 % of the background. Thus the raw rate of 40 evts/d/kg/keV yields a conservative 90 % upper limit on the signal of 0.6 evts/d/kg/keV. This represents nearly a three orders of magnitude improvement for EDELWEISS, and puts the predicted supersymmetric phase space within two orders of magnitude. (author) 196 refs.

  16. Sampled sinusoidal stimulation profile and multichannel fuzzy logic classification for monitor-based phase-coded SSVEP brain-computer interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyakov, Nikolay V; Chumerin, Nikolay; Robben, Arne; Combaz, Adrien; van Vliet, Marijn; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2013-06-01

    The performance and usability of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be improved by new paradigms, stimulation methods, decoding strategies, sensor technology etc. In this study we introduce new stimulation and decoding methods for electroencephalogram (EEG)-based BCIs that have targets flickering at the same frequency but with different phases. The phase information is estimated from the EEG data, and used for target command decoding. All visual stimulation is done on a conventional (60-Hz) LCD screen. Instead of the 'on/off' visual stimulation, commonly used in phase-coded BCI, we propose one based on a sampled sinusoidal intensity profile. In order to fully exploit the circular nature of the evoked phase response, we introduce a filter feature selection procedure based on circular statistics and propose a fuzzy logic classifier designed to cope with circular information from multiple channels jointly. We show that the proposed visual stimulation enables us not only to encode more commands under the same conditions, but also to obtain EEG responses with a more stable phase. We also demonstrate that the proposed decoding approach outperforms existing ones, especially for the short time windows used. The work presented here shows how to overcome some of the limitations of screen-based visual stimulation. The superiority of the proposed decoding approach demonstrates the importance of preserving the circularity of the data during the decoding stage.

  17. Reliability and validity of the Daily Cognitive-Communication and Sleep Profile: a new instrument for monitoring sleep, wakefulness and daytime function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Christina Hoi Ling; Nguyen, Michelle; Moineddin, Rahim; Colantonio, Angela; Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    The Daily Cognitive Communicative and Sleep Profile (DCCASP) is a seven-item instrument that captures daily subjective sleep quality, perceived mood, cognitive, and communication functions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the DCCASP. The DCCASP was self-administered daily to a convenience sample of young adults (n = 54) for two two-week blocks, interspersed with a two-week rest period. Afterwards, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Internal consistency and criterion validity were calculated by Cronbach's α coefficient, Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC), and Spearman rank (rs) correlation coefficient, respectively. Results indicated high internal consistency (Cronbach-s α = 0.864-0.938) among mean ratings of sleep quality on the DCCASP. There were significant correlations between mean ratings of sleep quality and all domains (rs=0.38-0.55, psleep quality ratings on the DCCASP and PSQI (rs=0.40, psleep quality and perceived mood, cognitive, and communication functions over time, amongst a normative sample of young adults. Further studies on its psychometric properties are necessary to clarify its utility in a clinical population. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. New-Generation NASA Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) Volcanic SO2 Dataset: Algorithm Description, Initial Results, and Continuation with the Suomi-NPP Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Can; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Carn, Simon; Zhang, Yan; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Since the fall of 2004, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has been providing global monitoring of volcanic SO2 emissions, helping to understand their climate impacts and to mitigate aviation hazards. Here we introduce a new-generation OMI volcanic SO2 dataset based on a principal component analysis (PCA) retrieval technique. To reduce retrieval noise and artifacts as seen in the current operational linear fit (LF) algorithm, the new algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO, uses characteristic features extracted directly from OMI radiances in the spectral fitting, thereby helping to minimize interferences from various geophysical processes (e.g., O3 absorption) and measurement details (e.g., wavelength shift). To solve the problem of low bias for large SO2 total columns in the LF product, the OMSO2VOLCANO algorithm employs a table lookup approach to estimate SO2 Jacobians (i.e., the instrument sensitivity to a perturbation in the SO2 column amount) and iteratively adjusts the spectral fitting window to exclude shorter wavelengths where the SO2 absorption signals are saturated. To first order, the effects of clouds and aerosols are accounted for using a simple Lambertian equivalent reflectivity approach. As with the LF algorithm, OMSO2VOLCANO provides total column retrievals based on a set of predefined SO2 profiles from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere, including a new profile peaked at 13 km for plumes in the upper troposphere. Examples given in this study indicate that the new dataset shows significant improvement over the LF product, with at least 50% reduction in retrieval noise over the remote Pacific. For large eruptions such as Kasatochi in 2008 (approximately 1700 kt total SO2/ and Sierra Negra in 2005 (greater than 1100DU maximum SO2), OMSO2VOLCANO generally agrees well with other algorithms that also utilize the full spectral content of satellite measurements, while the LF algorithm tends to underestimate SO2. We also demonstrate that, despite the

  19. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging and its development for plant protein imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millar A Harvey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI mass spectrometry imaging (MSI uses the power of high mass resolution time of flight (ToF mass spectrometry coupled to the raster of lasers shots across the cut surface of tissues to provide new insights into the spatial distribution of biomolecules within biological tissues. The history of this technique in animals and plants is considered and the potential for analysis of proteins by this technique in plants is discussed. Protein biomarker identification from MALDI-MSI is a challenge and a number of different approaches to address this bottleneck are discussed. The technical considerations needed for MALDI-MSI are reviewed and these are presented alongside examples from our own work and a protocol for MALDI-MSI of proteins in plant samples.

  20. The detection of piroxicam, tenoxicam and their metabolites in equine urine by electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Andrew R; Suann, Craig J; Stenhouse, Allen M

    2004-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the metabolism and urinary excretion of orally administered piroxicam and tenoxicam in the horse. The major component detected in urine after the administration of piroxicam was 5'-hydroxypiroxicam, which was detectable up to 24 h post-administration. Unchanged piroxicam was present only as a minor component. In contrast, unchanged tenoxicam was the major component observed after the administration of tenoxicam, being detectable for 72 h post-administration, while 5'-hydroxytenoxicam was a minor component. Phase II beta-glucuronide conjugation in each case was found to be negligible. The ion trap mass spectral characteristics of piroxicam, tenoxicam, 5'-hydroxypiroxicam and 5'-hydroxytenoxicam under electrospray ionisation conditions were examined in some detail. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Method for determining the irradiation dose deposited in a scintillator by ionising radiation and associated device - WO 2013060745 A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for determining an irradiation dose deposited in a scintillator (5) by ionising radiation, said method comprising the steps of: irradiating the scintillator (5) for a pre-determined time; detecting an instant at which the scintillator (5) is excited, using a first photodetector (11); subsequently, detecting an instant at which a scintillation photon is received, using a second photodetector (14) operating in single photon counting mode; identifying each sequence formed by the detection of an excitation instant by the first photodetector (11) and the detection of a reception instant by the second photodetector (14) at a coincidence event; counting the number of coincidence events; and obtaining the irradiation dose deposited during the irradiation time as a function of the number of coincidence events counted and a pre-determined proportionality factor. (authors)

  2. Microscopical examination: the impact of different ionising radiation doses over protective clothing used in the operating theatre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.J.; Cabec Silva, M.E.; Schacher, L.; Adolphe, D.

    2004-01-01

    The goals to be pursued by this paper are to highlight the effect of different ionising radiation methods, considered low temperature sterilisation, over protective clothing (surgical gowns) used in the operating theatre through microscopical examination. In order to investigate the influence of the radiation on the properties of nonwoven-based surgical gowns, two types of radiation (gamma and electron beam radiation) were considered in this study. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is widely used in studies of polymers, although for this kind of nonwoven based structures, that goes through sterilisation treatments it isn't commonly used. So, this paper also intends to relate the results of the evaluation of comfort and barrier properties after irradiated at several doses in a range from 0 to 160 kGy. (orig.)

  3. Hypotension based on office and ambulatory monitoring blood pressure. Prevalence and clinical profile among a cohort of 70,997 treated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divisón-Garrote, Juan A; Banegas, José R; De la Cruz, Juan J; Escobar-Cervantes, Carlos; De la Sierra, Alejandro; Gorostidi, Manuel; Vinyoles, Ernest; Abellán-Aleman, José; Segura, Julián; Ruilope, Luis M

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of hypotension and factors associated with the presence of this condition in treated hypertensive patients undergoing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Data were taken from the Spanish ABPM Registry. Office blood pressure (BP) and ABPM were determined using validated devices under standardized conditions. Based on previous studies, hypotension was defined as office systolic/diastolic BP ABPM ABPM ABPM ABPM, 3.9% with nighttime ABPM, and 6.8% with 24-hour ABPM. Low diastolic BP values were responsible for the majority of cases of hypotension. Some 68% of the hypotension cases detected by daytime ABPM did not correspond to hypotension according to office BP. The variables independently and consistently associated with higher likelihood of office, daytime, and 24 hour-based hypotension were age, female gender, history of ischemic heart disease, and body mass index ABPM could be especially helpful for identifying ambulatory hypotension, in particular in patients who are older, women, or with previous ischemic heart disease where antihypertensive treatment should be especially individualized and cautious. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the Botanical Authenticity and Phytochemical Profile of Black Cohosh Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Selected Ion Monitoring Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Kronenberg, Fredi; Nuntanakorn, Paiboon; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L., syn. Cimicifuga racemosa L.) has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause, but the botanical authenticity of most products containing black cohosh has not been evaluated, nor is manufacturing highly regulated in the United States. In this study, 11 black cohosh products were analyzed for triterpene glycosides, phenolic constituents, and formononetin by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection and a new selected ion monitoring liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method. Three of the 11 products were found to contain the marker compound cimifugin and not cimiracemoside C, thereby indicating that these plants contain Asian Actaea instead of black cohosh. One product contained both black cohosh and an Asian Actaea species. For the products containing only black cohosh, there was significant product-to-product variability in the amounts of the selected triterpene glycosides and phenolic constituents, and as expected, no formononetin was detected. PMID:16637680

  5. Randomized pilot trial of gene expression profiling versus heart biopsy in the first year after heart transplant: early invasive monitoring attenuation through gene expression trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashigawa, Jon; Patel, Jignesh; Azarbal, Babak; Kittleson, Michelle; Chang, David; Czer, Lawrence; Daun, Tiffany; Luu, Minh; Trento, Alfredo; Cheng, Richard; Esmailian, Fardad

    2015-05-01

    The endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) is considered the gold standard in rejection surveillance post cardiac transplant, but is invasive, with risk of complications. A previous trial suggested that the gene expression profiling (GEP) blood test was noninferior to EMB between 6 and 60 months post transplant. As most rejections occur in the first 6 months, we conducted a single-center randomized trial of GEP versus EMB starting at 55 days post transplant (when GEP is valid). Sixty heart transplant patients meeting inclusion criteria were randomized beginning at 55 days post transplant to either GEP or EMB arms. A positive GEP ≥30 between 2 and 6 months, or ≥34 after 6 months, prompted a follow-up biopsy. The primary end point included a composite of death/retransplant, rejection with hemodynamic compromise or graft dysfunction at 18 months post transplant. A coprimary end point included change in first-year maximal intimal thickness by intravascular ultrasound, a recognized surrogate for long-term outcome. Corticosteroid weaning was assessed in both the groups. The composite end point was similar between the GEP and EMB groups (10% versus 17%; log-rank P=0.44). The coprimary end point of first-year intravascular ultrasound change demonstrated no difference in mean maximal intimal thickness (0.35±0.36 versus 0.36±0.26 mm; P=0.944). Steroid weaning was successful in both the groups (91% versus 95%). In this pilot study, GEP starting at 55 days post transplant seems comparable with EMB for rejection surveillance in selected heart transplant patients and does not result in increased adverse outcomes. GEP also seems useful to guide corticosteroid weaning. Larger randomized trials are required to confirm these findings. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT014182482377. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. An overview of the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The ERICA project (environmental risks from ionising contaminants: assessment and management, EC contract no. FI6R-CT-2004-508847) concluded with the publication of two main outputs: the ERICA Integrated Approach to the assessment and management of environmental risks from ionising radiation, of which also introduces the user to the second main output, the ERICA Tool, which is a software programme with supporting databases, that together with its associated help will guide users through the assessment process. More than 60 European scientists contributed to the ERICA Integrated Approach. In addition, a large number of experts, policy makers, and decision-makers in different areas have contributed views on the ERICA Integrated Approach and its associated Tool from the user's perspective, through participation in the End-Users Group set up under the ERICA project. Databases on transfer, dose conversion coefficients and radiation effects on biota have been developed specifically for the purpose of the Integrated Approach, and incorporated into, or interacting with, the Tool. Species sensitivity distributions of biological effects data have been performed and did not reveal, for chronic exposure, any statistical grounds for separation between terrestrial, marine and freshwater ecosystems in terms of species sensitivity to radiation; on the basis of such analysis a universal screening dose rate criterion of 10 μGy h -1 incremental dose rate is suggested for exiting the assessment procedure while being confident that environmental risks are negligible. This criterion is used for the two first tiers (conservative assessment with limited data requirement and various possibilities of incorporating user-defined parameter values, including the screening dose rate criterion) of the assessment methodology. Exposure situations of concern are carried through a third tier, making use of all relevant databases and with a number of issues and options listed to support and guide

  7. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G.

    2006-01-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  8. Comparative evaluation of different approaches to environmental protection against ionising radiation in view of practicability and consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Hornung, L.; Mundigl, S.; Kirchner, G. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Salzgitter, (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    International organisations, including ICRP, IAEA and UNSCEAR, and the international scientific community are currently engaged in work on the protection of non-human species against ionising radiation as a complement to the existing framework centred on humans. The basic ideas and conceptual approaches developed during the last decade substantially agree with each other. The EC funded FASSET project (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact) summarizes and reviews the current knowledge of radiation effects on biota, provides basic dosimetric models for fauna and flora and suggests an assessment framework. Protection of the environment against ionising radiation, on the one hand, aims to close a conceptual gap in radiation protection. Therefore, current frameworks for environmental protection conceptually follow radiation protection of man. On the other hand, preservation of natural resources, habitats and the biological diversity are common objectives of environmental protection against radioactive as well as chemical pollutants, suggesting an integrated approach based on the fundamental ideas of conventional environmental protection. In essence, a conceptual framework encompassing protection of man as well as of fauna and flora against chemical and radioactive pollutants would be highly desirable in view of coherence, consistency and transparency. Such an umbrella concept communicates the positive message that similar issues are treated in a conceptually similar manner, thus facilitating scientific justification and public communication and increasing acceptance. This paper discusses different concepts and approaches to radiation protection of man, radiation protection of non-human biota and environmental protection against chemical pollutants, identifies common principles and differences, addresses conflicting requirements and evaluates the feasibility and limitations of such an encompassing framework. (authors)

  9. Perfil de pacientes diabéticos tipo 1: insulinoterapia e automonitorização Profile of patients with diabetes type 1: insulinotherapy and self-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENRIQUETA GALVANIN GUIDIO DE ALMEIDA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado em Londrina - PR, com coorte local de pacientes do Estudo Brasileiro de Incidência de Diabetes Mellitus do tipo 1 (EBID. OBJETIVOS: Conhecer o tratamento insulínico e o esquema de automonitorização glicêmica utilizado por estes diabéticos; verificar o conhecimento quanto ao que consideram otimização destes parâmetros e limitações de uso.MÉTODO: Realizou-se aplicação de um inquérito com questões objetivas em 63 pacientes da coorte.RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 13 anos, sem predominância de gênero. Constatou-se que a maioria dos diabéticos 79,36% (n=50 realizava, no mínimo, duas aplicações diárias de insulina. Todos utilizavam insulina NPH em uma (n=13 ou duas (n=50 doses. O uso de insulina regular, em esquemas variáveis, estava associado ao de NPH em 41,27% (n=26 pacientes. O tipo de insulina mais utilizada foi a humana 53,97% (n=34. Dos pacientes que não faziam uso de insulina humana, 44,83% (n=13 consideravam-na de alto custo. Entretanto, 95,24% (n=60 fariam uso dela se fosse distribuída pelo Sistema Único de Saúde. Quanto à monitorização, 63,40% (n=40 realizavam testes até sete vezes semanais, 20,63% (n=13 de 15 a 21 e somente um paciente de 29 a 35 testes. O alto custo foi o motivo de 48,21% (n=27 para a não realização dos testes; 58,73% (n=37 os fariam no sangue e 33,33% (n=21 no sangue e na urina, caso ganhassem as tiras reagentes.CONCLUSÃO: Nesta coorte, embora já se adote a insulina humana como de uso preferencial, o esquema insulínico ainda é tradicional e a monitorização fica muito aquém do ideal.OBJECTIVES: A study carried out in Londrina - PR, with the cohort of local patients from Brazilian Study on the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 (EDID. To know the insulin treatment and the plan for glycemic self-monitoring used by these patients; to verify their knowledge as for what they consider the optimization of these parameters and limitations of use.METHODS: A survey

  10. Measurement of small ion beams by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using new 1013 Ohm resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Bouman, C.; Schwieters, J.B.; Davies, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First data are presented using 10 13 Ohm resistors connected to Faraday collectors. • 5 prototype 10 13 Ohm resistors were installed in a TRITON-Plus TIMS. • Performance was tested by measuring Sr and Nd isotope ratios on  13 Ohm resistors perform better than ion counting and 10 11 Ohm resistors. • Fourth decimal variability can be resolved for Nd isotope ratios on 10 pg samples. - Abstract: We tested 5 newly manufactured – prototype – 10 13 Ohm resistors in the feedback loop of Faraday cup amplifiers to measure small ion beams by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS). The high Ohmic resistors installed in the TRITON Plus at the VU University Amsterdam theoretically have 10 times lower noise levels relative to the default 10 11 Ohm resistors. To investigate the precision and accuracy of analyses using these new amplifiers we measured Sr and Nd isotopes of reference standards at a range of ion currents (3.2 × 10 −16 to 1 × 10 −12 A, corresponding to intensities of 32 μV to 100 mV on a default 10 11 Ohm amplifier) and on small amounts of material (100 and 10 pg). Internal precision and external reproducibility for Sr and Nd isotope ratios are both better when collected on 10 13 compared 10 12 Ohm resistors and to the default 10 11 Ohm resistors. At an 87 Sr ion current of 3 × 10 −14 A (3 mV on a 10 11 Ohm amplifier) the internal precision (2 SE) of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr is 5 times better for 10 13 Ohm resistors compared to 10 11 Ohm resistors. The external reproducibility (2 SD) at this beam intensity is 9 times better. Multiple 100 and 10 pg Sr standards, ran to exhaustion, yielded low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr compared to the long term average (e.g. 10 pg average = 0.710083 ± 164 (n = 11) instead of 0.710244 ± 12, n = 73). The average off-set for 10 pg standards can be explained by a loading blank contribution of 1.3 pg. In contrast, Nd data on 100 pg and 10 pg samples are accurate suggesting that Nd loading blanks do not compromise the

  11. Determination of N-nitrosamines in processed meats by liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-methanol chemical ionisation/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Marina Bergoli; Sabik, Hassan; Gariépy, Claude; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Arul, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A simple, accessible and reproducible method was developed and validated as an alternative for the determination of nine volatile N-nitrosamines (NAs) in meat products, using a low volume of organic solvent and without requiring specific apparatus, offering the possibility of practical implementation in routine laboratories. The NAs were extracted with dichloromethane followed by a clean-up with phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-chemical ionisation/mass spectrometry (GC-CI/MS) in positive-ion mode using methanol as reagent. Limits of detection and quantification, recovery and reproducibility were determined for all NAs (N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosomethylethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosomorpholine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosodibutylamine and N-nitrosodiphenylamine). Satisfactory sensitivity and selectivity were obtained even without concentrating the extract by solvent evaporation, avoiding the loss of the nine NAs studied. Limits of detection ranged from 0.15 to 0.37 µg kg(-1), whereas limits of quantification ranged from 0.50 to 1.24 µg kg(-1). Recoveries calculated in cooked ham that had been spiked at 10 and 100 µg kg(-1) were found to be between 70% and 114% with an average relative standard deviation of 13.2%. The method was successfully used to analyse five samples of processed meat products on the day of purchase and 7 days later (after storage at 4°C). The most abundant NAs found in the analysed products were N-nitrosodipropylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine, which ranged from 1.75 to 34.75 µg kg(-1) and from 1.50 to 4.26 µg kg(-1), respectively. In general, an increase in the level of NAs was observed after the storage period. The proposed method may therefore be a useful tool for food safety control once it allows assessing the profile and the dietary intake of NAs in food over time.

  12. Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Known As Coronary Risk Panel Formal Name Lipid Profile This article was last reviewed on June 29, ... phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid profile are classified by their density into high-density ...

  13. Towards a novel modular architecture for CERN radiation monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Boukabache, Hamza; Ducos, Gael; Cardines, Nicola; Bellotta, Antonio; Toner, Ciarán; Perrin, Daniel; Forkel-Wirth, Doris

    2017-01-01

    The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has the legal obligation to protect the public and the people working on its premises from any unjustified exposure to ionising radiation. In this context, radiation monitoring is one of the main concerns of the Radiation Protection Group. After 30 y of reliable service, the ARea CONtroller (ARCON) system is approaching the end of its lifecycle, which raises the need for new, more efficient radiation monitors with a high level of modularity to ensure better maintainability. Based on these two main principles, new detectors are currently being developed that will be capable of measuring very low dose rates down to 50 nSv h−1, whilst being able to measure radiation over an extensive range of 8 decades without any auto scaling. To reach these performances, CERN Radiation MOnitoring Electronics (CROME), the new generation of CERN radiation monitors, is based on the versatile architecture that includes new read-out electronics developed by the Instrumentation...

  14. Data Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hladíková, Radka

    2010-01-01

    Title: Data Profiling Author: Radka Hladíková Department: Department of Software Engineering Supervisor: Ing. Vladimír Kyjonka Supervisor's e-mail address: Abstract: This thesis puts mind on problems with data quality and data profiling. This Work analyses and summarizes problems of data quality, data defects, process of data quality, data quality assessment and data profiling. The main topic is data profiling as a process of researching data available in existing...

  15. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  16. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for on-line characterization, monitoring and isotopic profiling of the main selenium-metabolite in human urine after consumption of Se-rich and Se-enriched food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, Emmie; Ogra, Yasumitsu; Suzuki, Kazuo T.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita

    2006-01-01

    The metabolism of selenium (Se) in the human body has yet not completely been unravelled and hence, an efficient method for characterization and on-line monitoring of the main Se-compound in human urine after consumption of Se-rich food was developed. Total Se-concentration in human urine after consumption of several Se-rich products was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest Se concentration in urine was observed after 4-10 h. The urine samples were brought onto a reversed phase column and the Se was detected by ICP-MS. Parameters for liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) measurements were optimized by using commercially available sugars, because it is known that some of the urinary metabolites contain a sugar moiety. In order to characterize the predominant Se-metabolite, it was necessary to extensively clean-up the sample and preconcentrate the species. The main metabolite was measured on its precursor ion on three different m/z according to three isotopes of Se. Relative peak surfaces matched the relative abundances of the isotopes. The product ions could be measured in a human urine sample in accordance to the product ions of the commercially available sugars. Moreover, the evidence of a selenosugar was demonstrated by the use of the Se-isotopes when measuring the product ions. LC-ESI-MS-MS was proven to be very efficient for the characterization of the main urinary Se-metabolite and can be used for on-line monitoring of the compound in urine samples. The method can be extended for clinical screening after consumption of Se-(en)rich(ed) food by use of the Se-isotopic profile and/or of the typical product ions of (methyl)-N-acetyl-hexosamines

  17. Influence of environmental changes on continuous radon monitors. Results of a Spanish intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, A.; Ortega, X.

    2006-01-01

    The first Spanish intercomparison exercise for continuous radon monitors was carried out with the participation of nine monitoring systems from eight laboratories. The exposures were carried out in the radon and thoron chambers at the Inst. of Energy Techniques (INTE) of the Technical Univ. of Catalonia (UPC), which is considered to be the Spanish reference chamber. The monitors were exposed to three different temperatures (13, 20 and 30 deg. C), relative humidities (30, 45 and 80%) and radon concentrations (450, 2000 and 9000 Bq m -3 ). Exposures in the thoron chamber were carried out at concentrations of ∼450 Bq m -3 . The response of the ionisation chambers and scintillation monitors was acceptable. However, the response of monitors based on electrostatic collection was found to be influenced by external climatic conditions. Moreover, all radon monitors were sensitive to thoron concentration, which was especially significant for scintillation monitors. (authors)

  18. Stufenweise Ionisation positiv geladener Kohlenstoffund Stickstoffionen durch Elektronenstoss ($C^{2+} \\to C^{3+} \\to C^{4+} \\to C^{5+} \\to C^{6+}$ und $N^{3+} \\to N^{4+} \\to N^{5+} \\to N^{6+} \\to N^{7+}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E D; Donets, E D no 1; Ilyushchenko, V I no 1

    1975-01-01

    Stufenweise Ionisation positiv geladener Kohlenstoffund Stickstoffionen durch Elektronenstoss ($C^{2+} \\to C^{3+} \\to C^{4+} \\to C^{5+} \\to C^{6+}$ und $N^{3+} \\to N^{4+} \\to N^{5+} \\to N^{6+} \\to N^{7+}$)

  19. Design of a High-Perveance Electron Gun for Electron Cooling in the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN and Non-Interceptive Proton Beam Profile Monitors using Ion or Atomic Probe Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    For an efficient electron cooling of the low-energy Pb54+ ions in LEIR a high-perveance (at least 3.6microperv) electron gun had to be designed. The theoretical study of electron guns has shown that the required perveance can be achieved by using a convex cathode. The gun should be immersed in a strong magnetic field (B=2-6kG) in order to obtain a parallel beam with very low transverse energy (typically 0.1 eV). This idea was confirmed by experimental tests at Fermilab. An adiabatic magnetic expansion is foreseen after the gun in order to reduce the magnetic field to accpetable values (0.6-1 kG) in the cooling section. The internal geometry of a convex cathode gun for the LEIR electron cooler together with the parameters of the magnetic expansion are proposed. The scheme fulfils the requirements. In addition, the author has made an important contribution in the field of beam instrumentation for the LHC and other accelerators at CERN. A profile monitor has been developed that uses a Xe ion probe beam that inte...

  20. Identification of Wheat Varieties Using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry and an Artificial Neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Helle Aagaard; Kesmir, Can; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    1999-01-01

    A novel tool for variety identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L,) has been developed: an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify the gliadin fraction analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The robustness of this no......A novel tool for variety identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L,) has been developed: an artificial neural network (ANN) is used to classify the gliadin fraction analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). The robustness...... of this novel method with respect to various experimental parameters has been tested, The results can be summarised: (i) With this approach 97% of the wheat varieties can be classified correctly with a corresponding correlation coefficient of 1.0, (ii) The method is fast since the time of extracting gliadins...