WorldWideScience

Sample records for iodines evaluation des

  1. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Iodine Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about iodine? Disclaimer What is iodine and what does it do? Iodine is a ...

  2. Impact evaluation of iron & iodine fortified salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, K M; Brahmam, G N; Ranganathan, S; Vijayaraghavan, K; Sivakumar, B; Krishnaswamy, K

    1998-11-01

    As a novel approach to tackle the problems of iron deficiency anaemia and iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs), which often coexist, the National Institute of Nutrition has developed iron and iodine fortified common salt (double fortified salt-DFS) as a public health measure. This salt has undergone a battery of laboratory and field tests to evaluate its feasibility for use in a national programme. The DFS is designed to provide 1 mg of iron and 15 micrograms of iodine per gram of common salt. This was made possible by the inclusion of a polyphosphate stabilizer, sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) at 1 per cent level. The stability of iron and iodine was found to be good up to 6 months. However, the stability of iodine depended upon the quality of the salt used for fortification. The biological effects of long-term consumption of DFS were evaluated in experimental rats and in field trials. Both iron and iodine from the salt were found to be biologically available in regenerating haemoglobin and in increasing excretion of iodine in urine. When this salt was tested in tribal villages endemic for goitre and iron deficiency anaemia, the bioresponse was good with regard to the iodine status but was not uniform in all segments with regard to iron, probably due to confounding variables. In a study carried out in residential school children where such variables did not exist, DFS was found to have significant impact on haemoglobin status in anaemic children and improved their urinary iodine excretion. The consumption of DFS for 2 yr did not have any adverse effects in school children as well as in the tribal population. Parameters related to calcium homeostasis were not altered in children receiving DFS. Histopathological examination of tissues and radiological examination of bone did not reveal any abnormality in DFS fed rats. Similarly serum and urinary parameters related to calcium and phosphorus were not altered in DFS fed rats. Therefore, DFS is presented as a feasible and

  3. Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed. The thyroid gland needs iodine ... most recognized form of deficiency is goiter. Additionally, across the globe iodine deficiency is thought to be ...

  4. Evaluation des dommages des punaisese( Heteroptera ) et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse statistique des résultats dans les blocs témoins montre que les punaises occasionnent plus de dommages aux boutons floraux et aux capsules vertes immatures que les chenilles. Sur les jeunes capsules, la moyenne des dommages des punaises et des chenilles reste statistiquement identique. Les traitements ...

  5. Challenges in the evaluation of urinary iodine status in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Sørensen, Louise Kolding; Motavaf, Anne Krejbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is the recommended method to evaluate iodine status in pregnancy, but several factors may challenge the interpretation of the results. We evaluated UIC in pregnant women according to (1) sampling in the hospital versus at home, (2) time...... of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling, and (3) members of their household. Study Design: Danish crosssectional study in the year 2012. Pregnant women (n = 158), their male partners (n = 157) and children (n = 51) provided a questionnaire with detailed information on iodine supplement.......042), but not estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion (p = 0.79), were higher when sampling was at home. Median UIC was dependent on the time of the most recent iodine supplement intake prior to sampling [same day (n = 79): 150 μg/l (95% CI 131-181 μg/l), the day before (n = 51): 105 μg/l (78-131 μg/l), several days...

  6. Evaluation of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used to assess the dietary intake of iodine. Design: The iodine intake determined by the FFQ was compared with 4-day dietary records and with iodine excretion in 24 h urine samples in a subgroup of participants in a cross-sectional study...

  7. Evaluation des connaissances des enseignants du secondaire de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation des connaissances des enseignants du secondaire de l'atlantique au Benin sur les facteurs de risques du cancer du col de l'uterus en 2014. ... Les données ont été collectées à l'aide d'un questionnaire auto-administré. Une régression logistique pas à pas descendante a été faite. L'adéquation du modèle a été ...

  8. Evaluating iodine deficiency in pregnant women and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, Peter; Andersen, S.; Bjarnadottir, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    ) the concentration of iodine in a spot or casual urine sample cannot be used to diagnose iodine deficiency in an individual; 3) a moderate fall in the concentration of serum free T4 during pregnancy is not a sign of maternal iodine deficiency; 4) an increase in the concentration of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) during...

  9. Evaluation on determination of iodine in coal by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Jackson, J.C.; Palmer, C.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quick and inexpensive method of relative high iodine determination from coal samples was evaluated. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provided a detection limit of about 14 ppm (3 times of standard deviations of the blank sample), without any complex sample preparation. An analytical relative standard deviation of 16% was readily attainable for coal samples. Under optimum conditions, coal samples with iodine concentrations higher than 5 ppm can be determined using this EDXRF method. For the time being, due to the general iodine concentrations of coal samples lower than 5 ppm, except for some high iodine content coal, this method can not effectively been used for iodine determination. More work needed to meet the requirement of determination of iodine from coal samples for this method. Copyright ?? 2005 by The Geochemical Society of Japan.

  10. Evaluation of iodine content of some selected fruits and vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-07

    Feb 7, 2011 ... consumption of other vegetables in this group may not guarantee the RDA, however, combination of these vegetables with other cereals and legumes that are high in iodine levels would complement the iodine requirement of individuals. Furthermore, these groups of vegetables could be taken regularly by ...

  11. Evaluation of Iodine Bioavailability in Seaweed Using in Vitro Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-González, M Raquel; Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-09-27

    Due to the high levels of iodine present in seaweed, the ingestion of a large amount of this type of food can produce excessive intake of iodine. However, the food after ingestion undergoes different chemistry and physical processes that can modify the amount of iodine that reaches the systemic circulation (bioavailability). Studies on the bioavailability of iodine from food are scarce and indicate that the bioavailable amount is generally lower than ingested. Iodine in vitro bioavailability estimation from different commercialized seaweed has been studied using different in vitro approaches (solubility, dialyzability, and transport and uptake by intestinal cells). Results indicate that iodine is available after gastrointestinal digestion for absorption (bioaccessibility: 49-82%), kombu being the seaweed with the highest bioaccessibility. The incorporation of dialysis cell cultures to elucidate bioavailability modifies the estimation of the amount of iodine that may reach the systemic circulation (dialysis, 5-28%; cell culture, ≤3%). The paper discusses advantages and drawbacks of these methodologies for iodine bioavailability in seaweed.

  12. Treatment of hyperthyroidism by 131-iodine; Traitement des hyperthyroidies par l'iode 131: dose calculee versus dose fixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieffe, S.; Cuif-Joba, A.; Testard, A.; Fortuna, I.; Pocharta, J.M.; Papathanassioua, D.; Schvartz, C. [Service d' endocrinologie et medecine nucleaires, institut Jean-Godinot, 1, rue du General Koeing, 51056 Reims, (France)

    2009-05-15

    In a first time, we chose to modify the dose to be administered, on using always the Marinelli formula but on increasing the absorbed dose. In a second time, we wanted to simplify the determination of the dose to be administered by modulating it only in function of the thyroid volume. Two groups of patients were managed for hyperthyroidism recurrence. In a first group the iodine dose ({sup 131}I) was determined with the help of the simplified Marinelli formula: chosen absorbed dose was 150 Gy, gland volume determined by echography, measurement of the fixation at the sixth hour. In the second group, the thyroid volume was determined by echography. The patients with a thyroid from 5 to 30 g received 185 MBq, from 30 to 50 g 370 MBq and superior to 50 g 555 MBq of iodine 131. The two groups of patients have the same characteristics. the results of treatment by iodine 131, evaluated on the dosages of T4L and TSH at three and six months, show the preservation of euthyroidism or the passage in hypothyroidism among 94% of patients in the group 1 and 80% of patients in the group 2. These results are not significantly different. The easiness of the realisation of the treatment in the group 2 lead us to continue this simplified therapy scheme that allows equally to improve the radiation protection of medical personnel by avoiding the use of iodine 131. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part II: Evaluation of pH and iodine re-evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • Transport of iodine and chemicals influencing pH were analyzed using CFD. • Chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress iodine re-evolution. • The current evaluation method for I 2 re-evolution is excessively conservative. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine that is released during a postulated loss of coolant accident is dissolved into the containment spray water and transported into the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST). The re-evolution of iodine from the water is a safety concern. In this study, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses are conducted in order to analyze the transport of chemical species including iodine in the IRWST and to calculate the amount of iodine that re-evolves from the IRWST water. The CFD analyses demonstrate that the pH of water is high where the iodine concentration is high. Considering that the creation rate of molecular iodine declines as the pH increases, it can be understood that the iodine re-evolution is not so strong in practical situations because the chemical conditions of the iodine-rich region suppress the re-evolution of the iodine. In addition, four different methods for evaluating the amount of re-evolved iodine are examined. The amount of re-evolved iodine calculated using the total-volume-average values, which are currently used for safety analyses, appear to be significantly higher than those determined using other methods. The amount of re-evolved iodine estimated using a realistic method with a conservative assumption of volatilization appears to be approximately one thousandth of that evaluated using the current method. This implies that the current method is very conservative.

  14. Evaluation of "instant" preparation of the colon with povidone-iodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F E; DeCosse, J J; Condon, R E

    1976-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of 20 minutes exposure to 10% povidone-iodine solution and to 5% neomycin-erythromycin solution was evaluated in vitro in 6 suspensions of dog feces. Povidone-iodine eliminated aerobic growth (P less than 0.001) and reduced anaerobes 4.01 +/- 1.06 (P less than 0.02); C. perfringens was the only anaerobic organism grown. Forty unprepared dogs underwent resection of the sigmoid colon and primary anastomosis. Twenty received normal saline and 20 povidone-iodine injected intraluminally immediately before resection. The colon contents of povidone-iodine treated dogs grew only 0.07 +/- 0.07 aerobes and 3.74 +/- 0.49 anaerobes (all Clostridia) (log10/ml colon contents) (P less than 0.001). All povidone-iodine dogs survived 3 weeks with no anastomotic leaks; three controls died from anastomotic leak within the first week (P = 0.12). Reexploration of survivors revealed less perianastomotic reaction in the povidone-iodine group. Twenty minutes exposure to povidone-iodine produced a significant decrease in bacterial counts in vitro and in unprepared sigmoid colon. No adverse effects were demonstrated. Images Fig. 4. PMID:180916

  15. Evaluation of soil-plant transfer factors of iodine. Estimation of annual ingestion for iodine from the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, Arsene.

    1980-11-01

    The author presents the iodine middle contents of the soils and vegetables. A synthesis on the iodine evolution in the soils and vegetables allows to conclude that the vegetable absorption of this isotope is correlated with the isotopiquely exchangeable iodine of the soil. The soil-plant transfer-factors are calculated for the vegetables, cereals, fruits from the stable iodine quantitative analysis. The annual iodine ingestion has been estimated from the dietary of the European Communites areas. This one is a little different of the quantity estimated by CRESTA-LACOURLY-R 2979, yet the contribution by consummation unity is different [fr

  16. Experimental models, protocols, and reference values for evaluation of iodinated analogues of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.; Koumanov, F.; Ghezzi, C.; Mathieu, J.P.; Hamant, S.; Leiris, J. de; Comet, M.

    1995-01-01

    For an iodinated analogue of glucose to be useful for evaluating glucose uptake using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), it must enter the cell via the same transporter as glucose and accumulate within the cell without being degraded. The biological behavior of the iodinated tracer must therefore be similar to that of 2-deoxy-d-[1- 14 C]-glucose(2-DG). In the present study, four experimental models (biodistribution in mouse, isolated rat heart, human erythrocytes in suspension and cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) have been chosen and protocols have been set up which allow for the examination of small quantities of iodinated analogues of glucose. The uptakes of 2-DG and l-[1- 14 C]-glucose have been measured in these models to establish reference values which will be compared with uptake values for iodinated analogues of glucose

  17. Evaluation de la gestion des dechets issus des activites de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le moyen d'élimination des déchets utilisé est l'incinération. Tous les agents impliqués dans la vaccination ont une connaissance des risques de contamination liés aux déchets vaccinaux. La gestion des déchets reste un système global dont tous les aspects méritent d'être considérés. Chaque étape de l'élimination est ...

  18. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le riz est l'aliment principal pour la quasi-totalité des populations vivant en Côte d'Ivoire. Cependant, les adventices sont considérées comme la contrainte biologique la plus importante faisant obstacle à la production rizicole. L'objectif de cette étude menée en 2015 était d'évaluer différentes techniques de gestion des ...

  19. Evaluation of povidone-iodine applications in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As a routine measure to prevent intraocular inflammation, rinsing conjunctival sac with povidone-iodine(PVP-Ihas been increasingly adopted in cataract surgery. It can effectively reduce the complications of cataract surgery, including endophthalmitis and corneal complications. However, PVP-I itself has certain side effects. Therefore, to achieve the best bactericidal effect and to avoid eye injury, it is necessary to find out the optimal treatment duration and concentration. This article offers a review on the latest researches worldwide in this field.

  20. Evaluation economique des performances des services d'eau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. En Algérie, le recours à des entreprises spécialisées dans la production et la distribution d'eau potable implique la nécessité de disposer d'évaluations du coût de ces activités. Cet article propose une étude micro-économétrique de la fonction de coût de l'alimentation en eau potable sur des données de panel, ...

  1. Evaluation des conditions de germination des noyaux de Grewia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    personnel

    31 janv. 2014 ... 1Laboratoire de Physiologie et Production Végétales, Université Marien NGOUABI,. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP.69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo. 2Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et Forestérie, Université Marien NGOUABI,. BP. 69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo.

  2. evaluation technique et economique des formules alimentaires de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation technique et économique des formules alimentaires d'embouche ovine au Niger. EVALUATION TECHNIQUE ... L'essai conduit en 75 j à la station de recherche de Kollo visait l'évaluation des performances de croissance des béliers nourris avec 5 ...... que et Vétérinaire Hassan II-Rabat-Maroc. 80 p. Gnanda I. B.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the fecal-tagging quality in CT colonography: barium vs. iodinated oral contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koichi; Singh, Anand Kumar; Sangwaiya, Minal Jagtiani; Näppi, Janne; Zalis, Michael E; Cai, Wenli; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this evaluation was to compare the tagging quality of a barium-based regimen with that of iodine-based regimens for computed tomographic (CT) colonography. Tagging quality was assessed retrospectively in three different types of fecal-tagging CT colonographic cases: 24 barium-based cases, 22 nonionic iodine-based cases, and 24 ionic iodine-based cases. For the purpose of evaluation, the large intestine was divided into six segments, and the tagging homogeneity of a total of 420 segments (70 patients) was graded by three blinded readers from 0 (heterogeneous) to 4 (homogeneous). For barium-based cases, the average score for the three readers was 2.4, whereas it was 3.4 for nonionic iodine and 3.6 for ionic iodine. The percentages of segments that were assigned scores of 4 (excellent tagging [100%]) were 11.6%, 61.9%, and 72.9% for the barium-based, nonionic iodine-based, and ionic iodine-based regimens, respectively. The homogeneity scores of iodine-based fecal-tagging regimens were significantly higher than those of the barium-based fecal-tagging regimen (P barium-based regimen (P barium-based fecal-tagging regimen. Iodine-based fecal-tagging regimens can provide an appropriate method for use in nonlaxative or minimum-laxative CT colonography.

  4. The evaluation of the iodine content of table salt in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of the iodine content of table salt in Lesotho. Masekonyela LD Sebotsa, Joan Huskissons, Peter Jooste. Abstract. No abstract available [Afr. J. Health Sci. 2002; 9: 139-145]. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Evaluation inquiry of the provision of iodine tablets to the populations living in the vicinity of the nuclear center of electric production at Bugey, september 1998;Enquete d'evaluation de la mise a disposition des comprimes d'iode aux personnes vivant a proximite du Centre nucleaire de production d'electricite du Bugey, septembre 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helynck, B. [Cellule inter-regionale d' Epidemiologie de Rhone-Alpes Auvergne, 69 - Lyon (France); Rey, S. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de l' Isere, 38 - Grenoble (France); Malfait, Ph. [Institut de veille sanitaire, Saint-Maurice (France); Dubois, M.C. [Direction Departementale des Affaires Sanitaires et Sociales de l' Ain, 01 - Bourg-en-Bresse (France)

    2002-03-15

    50 % of households in the area of the particular plan of intervention (P.P.I.) of Bugey N.P.P. had removed the iodine tablets. This cover is insufficient, when the Ministry circular considered an availability of tablets in every household. The inquiry highlighted a relationship with between the removal of tablets and knowledge about iodine, but the results suggest that this information campaign was not enough efficient. This situation is worrying, because of the expiry date of the tablets, new campaigns are to be done regularly. In order to improve the results of future campaigns, it is important to take into account feedbacks of the first distribution. The information sources must be diversified. Health professionals should be involved. The Institutions in charge of health in children (Service of maternal and infants protection and service for the promotion of health for students) should also be involved. Simplification and clarity of messages must be improved, especially towards priority populations such young parents, pregnant women. (N.C.)

  6. Systematic review of studies evaluating urinary iodine concentration as a predictor of 24-hour urinary iodine excretion for estimating population iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of "spot" urine iodine concentrations (UICs in predicting 24-hour urine iodine excretion (UIE for estimating average population iodine intake. METHODS: An electronic literature search was conducted for articles published through 19 May 2013 in MEDLINE (from 1950, EMBASE (from 1980, and the Cochrane Library (from 1993 using the terms "urinary excretion (timed or spot or random and (24 h or 24 hour, iodine (iodine deficiency, iodine (intake," and "urine (timed, spot, random, 24-hour." Full-text articles about studies that examined > 40 healthy human subjects and measured UIE using the 24-hour urine collection method and UIC and/or UIE using one alternative method (spot (random, timed, and "overnight" (first morning urine, fasting or not fasting were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: The review included data from 1 434 participants across the six studies that met the inclusion criteria. The main statistical methods for comparing data from the 24-hour urine collections with the values obtained from the alternative method(s were either regression (β or correlation (r coefficients and concordance analysis through Bland-Altman plots. The urine samples collected using the alternative methods were subject to greater intra-individual and inter-individual variability than the 24-hour urine collections. There was a wide range in coefficient values for the comparisons between 24-hour URE measured in 24-hour urine collection and 24-hour UIE estimated using the alternative sampling methods. No alternative sampling method (spot, timed, or "overnight" was appropriate for estimating 24-hour UIE. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this systematic review suggest current data on UICs as a means of predicting 24-hour UIE for estimating population sodium intake are inadequate and highlight the need for further methodological investigations.

  7. Evaluation des proprietes antioxidantes et biologiques de farines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 août 2014 ... Soro et al. J. Appl. Biosci. 2014. Evalution des proprietes antioxidantes et biologiques des farines infantiles a base d'igname/soja,/sources vegetales de mineraux. 7032. Evaluation of antioxidant and biological property of yam, soy and minerals based infant flours. ABSTRACT. Objectif: The objective of this ...

  8. Evaluation of double vital staining with lugol's iodine and methylene blue in diagnosing superficial esophageal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guiyong; Long, Qinglin; Wu, Yuwei; Zhao, Jingjing; Chen, Lei; Li, Xianghong

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of double vital staining with lugol's iodine and methylene blue in the diagnosis of superficial esophageal lesions. Doubtful superficial esophageal lesions identified with conventional endoscope were sprayed with 3% lugol's iodine and 0.5% methylene blue in order and observed in detail after each staining. Depending on the mucosal staining, biopsy specimen was obtained and underwent pathological examination. Using conventional endoscope, we found 356 lesions in 297 patients, among which 179 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and precancerous lesions (CAPs) (including 71 early esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 23 esophageal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias, 85 esophageal low-grade intraepithelial neoplasias) and 177 were non-cancer non-precancerous lesions (NCNPs) (i.e. esophagitis and esophageal squamous cell hyperplasia). Most of CAPs were lightly stained or unstained, while NCNPs were hyperstained after lugol's iodine stained. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of lugol's lightly stained and unstained for identifying CAPs were 34.5%, 100%, 60.7%, 100% and 67.4%, respectively. Most of CAPs were lightly stained or hyperstained, while NCNPs were unstained after double vital staining. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of double vital staining lightly stained and hyperstained for identifying CAPs were 97.7%, 100%, 97.8%, 100% and 98.9%, respectively. The accuracy of double vital staining for identifying CAPs was higher than that of lugol's iodine stained (p = 0.000). The double staining with lugol's iodine and methylene blue significantly improves the detection and diagnosis of early esophageal squamous cell CAPs.

  9. Gold-198 and rose bengal marked with iodine-131 in the diagnostic of hepatic vesicular affections; L'or{sup 198} et le rose bengale marque a l'iode{sup 131} dans le diagnostic des affections hepatovesiculaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manambelona Razafimalaza, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    Colloidal gold-198 makes it possible to obtain clear images of hepatic parenchyma; the examination can be repeated from different angles thus demonstrating the presence of pathologically inert regions, whether they be hydatic cysts, abscesses or neoplasia. The study of the disappearance curve for the colloid, together with a measurement of the blood volume, makes it possible also to calculate the hepatic flow. Using Rose Bengal marked with iodine-131, it is possible to obtain images of the liver and of the bile ducts, and to follow the elimination of the dye in the intestines. The simultaneous recording of the disappearance curves for the blood and of the appearance of the dye in the intestines constitutes an useful working test which is particularly sensible for evaluating the permeability of the bile ducts and, to a certain degree, the site of an obstruction. (author) [French] L'or colloidal-198 permet d'obtenir avec nettete des images du parenchyme hepatique; l'examen peut etre repete sous plusieurs incidences mettant ainsi en evidence les zones muettes pathologiques, qu'il s'agisse de kystes hydatiques, d'abces ou de neoplasies. L'etude de la courbe d'epuration du colloide completee par une mesure du volume sanguin offre en outre la possibilite de calculer le debit hepatique. A l'aide du rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, il est possible d'obtenir des images du foie et de la vesicule biliaire, et de suivre l'elimination intestinale du colorant. L'enregistrement simultane des courbes d'epuration sanguine et d'apparition intestinale constitue une epreuve fonctionnelle particulierement sensible pour apprecier la permeabilite des voies biliaires et dans une certaine mesure le site d'une obstruction. (auteur)

  10. Formulation and evaluation of controlled release dental implants of povidone iodine for periodontitis.

    OpenAIRE

    David A; Kurien S; Udupa N; Verma B

    1994-01-01

    Diseases of the periodontium continue to be one of the man′s most wide spread afflictions. Periodontitis is one of such which is characterised by a periodontal pocket formed due to the inflammatory disease of gingiva and the deeper periodontal tissues. Local controlled release implants of povidone iodine was prepared using various polymers and stability, release characteristics, total drug content etc, were evaluated. The clinical studies of the dental implants were carried out on 10 p...

  11. Evaluation de la qualité de la tenue des dossiers médicaux des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la qualité de la tenue des dossiers médicaux des patientes en gynécologie et en obstétrique dans un Centre hospitalier universitaire de référence, Burkina Faso. H. Zamané, S. Kiemtoré, I. Ouédraogo, P.D. Kaïn, Y.A. Sawadogo, S.D. Sanou, A. Ouattara, A. Dembélé, J. Lankoandé ...

  12. High resolution microendoscopy with structured illumination and Lugol's iodine staining for evaluation of breast cancer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Jessica; Kyrish, Matthew; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Grant, Benjamin; Kuerer, Henry; Yang, Wei; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Intraoperative margin assessment to evaluate resected tissue margins for neoplastic tissue is performed to prevent reoperations following breast-conserving surgery. High resolution microendoscopy (HRME) can rapidly acquire images of fresh tissue specimens, but is limited by low image contrast in tissues with high optical scattering. In this study we evaluated two techniques to reduce out-of-focus light: HRME image acquisition with structured illumination (SI-HRME) and topical application of Lugol's Iodine. Fresh breast tissue specimens from 19 patients were stained with proflavine alone or Lugol's Iodine and proflavine. Images of tissue specimens were acquired using a confocal microscope and an HRME system with and without structured illumination. Images were evaluated based on visual and quantitative assessment of image contrast. The highest mean contrast was measured in confocal images stained with proflavine. Contrast was significantly lower in HRME images stained with proflavine; however, incorporation of structured illumination significantly increased contrast in HRME images to levels comparable to that in confocal images. The addition of Lugol's Iodine did not increase mean contrast significantly for HRME or SI-HRME images. These findings suggest that structured illumination could potentially be used to increase contrast in HRME images of breast tissue for rapid image acquisition.

  13. Evaluation of radiation exposure from patients with thyroid disease by iodine-131 therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianfeng; Lu Keyi; Duan Lian

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiation exposure to the individuals other than patients with thyroid disease, who had received radioiodine (iodine-131) therapy and had turned into a specific 'radiant point'. Methods: 107 outpatients or inpatients, with iodine-131 therapy had been investigated and followed up by telephone and outpatients. There were 117 times treatment (68 females, 49 males, mean age 41 years old), including the patients with hyperthyroidism (39 females, 40 males), thyroid cancer (27 females, 8 males), toxic thyroid adenoma (1 female and 1 male) and nontoxic nodular goiter(1 female). According to the personal condition of the patients, we attained the percentage of thyroid iodine-131 uptake (U), the iodine-131 dose (Q), the duration of constrained social activity, and the occupancy factor (OF) for the 3 periods (the preequilibrium, OFp; the constrained, OFc; and the unconstrained, OFuc), and the time of exposure to individuals other than patients, and to calculate the exposure dose (mSv) to the individuals. The formula is E (mSv) = Q[OFP(0.0173)+ OFC(0.537)U(1-e-0.095C)+0.023(1-U)(1-e-2.08C ) +OFUC (0.537) Ue-0.095C +0.0236(1-U)e-2.08C]. In accordance with the new recommendations of the national criteria from GB18871-2002, we evaluated the radiation safety to the individuals other than patients Results: Based on the national criteria the total effective dose equivalent to the individuals other than patients may not exceed 5 mSv. For all patients, including 79 hyperthyroidism, 2 toxic thyroid adenoma and 16 times treatment of thyroid cancer, the exposure doses to the individuals were not likely to exceed 5 mSv, but the others, including 19 times treatment of thyroid cancer and 1 nontoxic nodular goiter, the exposure doses were higher than 5 mSv. There were no difference between the part of hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer of inpatients were compared with outpatients (P>0.05, respectively). we found that occupancy factor during the preequilibrium period

  14. evaluation et selection participative des varietes ameliorees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    de sélection et d'évaluation et des visites inter et intra villages ont été organisées pour permettre aux partenaires de comparer leurs ..... ha-1. Ce rendement est proche de ceux obtenus. TABLEAU 2. Critères de choix des variétés. Critères de choix. Fréquence Rang. (%). Rendement en grains. 95. 1. Rendement en ...

  15. Environmental sciences: general. 1. Evaluation of Iodine Reactions with Nuclear Aerosols by DRIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggs, C.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear source term computations require databases for iodine vapor reactions with cesium compounds. We have explored measurements of iodine vapor [I 2(g) ] reactions with cesium carbonate particles [CsCO 3(s) ] using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy in the far infrared region for iodine vapor concentrations typical of post-transient conditions in a pressurized water reactor containment. Cesium hydroxide (CsOH) in aerosol form is likely a significant source of radio-cesium released during a reactor transient. As shown in Eq. (1), CsOH (s) particles can combine with iodine gas to form cesium iodide [CsI (s) ] particles. Equations (2) and (3) present a two-step method where the CsOH (s) particles combine with carbon dioxide [CO 2(g) ] found in air to form Cs 2 CO 3(s) particles, which then react with iodine gas to form CsI (s) particles: I 2(g) + 4CsOH (s) ↔ 2CsI (s) 12CsO (s) 12H 2 O (l) , (1) CO 2(g) 12CsOH (s) ↔ Cs 2 CO 3(s) + H 2 O, (2) and Cs 2 CO 3(s) 13I 2(g) ↔ 5CsI (s) + CsIO 3(s) + 3CO 2(g) . (3) We elected to study reactions with Cs 2 CO 3(s) rather than CsOH (s) particles because of significant analytical and handling challenges with the DRIFT attachment presented by the corrosive characteristics of CsOH (s) particles. Physical modifications to the DRIFT attachment, in addition to improved handling practices, need to be evaluated prior to proceeding with the study of CsOH (s) by this method. The reaction of cesium carbonate agglomerates with iodine could occur by surface adsorption and/or absorption. Physical adsorption depends on the surface area and porosity of the solid material. Chemical adsorption depends on the chemical properties of both the gas and the solid material. Beahm et al. previously used classical wet chemical methods to monitor the reaction products after the reaction occurred. The use of DRIFT allows the study of the predicted physical and chemical adsorption occurring on the Cs 2 CO 3(s) surface

  16. Evaluation des pratiques de gestion des adventices en riziculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to evaluate different management techniques of weeds on irrigated rice in from Daloa, Central-West of Côte d'Ivoire. To do a control plot and 3 ...... 2009, Garoua (Cameroun), 10 p. Gogoi A.K., Upadhyay U.C. and Roy A.K. 1995. Status of weed management in wet seeded rice in Assam, India. In K. Moody (Ed.) Constraints ...

  17. Evaluation de la pertinence des examens radiographiques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : La vulgarisation du guide de bon usage des examens d'imagerie médicale aux prescripteurs togolais sera d'un apport précieux dans leur prescription d'examen radiographique utile. Mots clés : Radiographie du thorax, justification, Guide de bon usage de la SFR, Radioprotection, CHU Campus de Lomé.

  18. Evaluation des potentiels nutritionnels et technologiques de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Par ailleurs, le bissap avec des teneurs en anthocyanes de 767 et 967 mg/100 g respectivement pour les varietes THAI et CLT 92, constitue une bonne source de colorant naturel. The physico-chemical, biochemical and nutritional characterization of the baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata), Ditax (Detarium senegalensis) fruit, ...

  19. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with 131 I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng/l or 27

  20. In vivo imaging of insulin receptors by PET: preclinical evaluation of iodine-125 and iodine-124 labelled human insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iozzo, P.; Osman, S.; Glaser, M.; Knickmeier, M.; Ferrannini, E.; Pike, V.W.; Camici, P.G.; Law, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    [A 14 -*I]iodoinsulin was prepared for studies to assess the suitability of labeled iodoinsulin for positron emission tomography (PET). Iodine-125 was used to establish the methods and for preliminary studies in rats. Further studies and PET scanning in rats were carried out using iodine-124. Tissue and plasma radioactivity was measured as the uptake index (UI={cpm·(g tissue) -1 }/{cpm injected·(g body weight) -1 }) at 1 to 40 min after intravenous injection of either [A 14 - 125 I]iodoinsulin or [A 14 - 124 I]iodoinsulin. For both radiotracers, initial clearance of radioactivity from plasma was rapid (T 1/2 ∼ 1 min), reaching a plateau (UI = 2.8) at ∼ 5 min which was maintained for 35 min. Tissue biodistributions of the two radiotracers were comparable; at 10 min after injection, UI for myocardium was 2.4, liver, 4.0, pancreas, 5.4, brain, 0.17, kidney, 22, lung, 2.3, muscle, 0.54 and fat, 0.28. Predosing rats with unlabelled insulin reduced the UI for myocardium (0.95), liver (1.8), pancreas (1.2) and brain (0.08), increased that for kidney (61) but had no effect on that for lung (2.5), muscle (0.50) or fat (0.34). Analysis of radioactivity in plasma demonstrated a decrease of [ 125 I]iodoinsulin associated with the appearance of labeled metabolites; the percentage of plasma radioactivity due to [ 125 I]iodoinsulin was 40% at 5 min and 10% at 10 min. The heart, liver and kidneys were visualized using [ 124 I]iodoinsulin with PET

  1. Evaluation of Goiter Prevalence and Iodine to Creatinine Ratio among School-aged Girls in Urmia County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J nourooz-zadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical evaluation of iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs is often accomplished by assessment of urinary iodine excretion (UIE in random samples; however, the utilization of 24 hour urine samples is a more reliable biomarker of nutritional iodine status. This study was designed to evaluate total goiter prevalence (TGP and iodine/creatinine ratio among school-aged children in Urmia County. Methods: Schoolchildren (n=500 were recruited by cluster sampling from different educational areas in Urmia County. Goiter prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation, UIE was determined by Sandell-Koltoff reaction, and Urinary creatinine was measured by the Jaffe-method. Results: In general, TGP was 12.2%. Among these, there were 48 individuals (9.6% with grade I goiter and 13 subjects (2.6% with grade II goiter. Mean urinary creatinine, median UIE and median I/Cr ratio were respectively 1.36±0.76 mg/dL, 14.3µg/dL, and 11.5µg/mg. Prevalence of iodine deficiency according to UIE criteria was 22.8% and that of I/Cr ratio was 41.2%. There was a correlation between age and UIE (P=001; r=0.163. UIE and urinary creatinine were correlated as well (P<0.003; r= 0.133. A correlation was also detected between I/Cr ratios and UIE (P=0.003; r=0.133 whilst a negative association was seen between age and I/Cr ratios (P=0.001; and r=–0.263. Conclusion: This investigation reconfirms that there is slight-to-mild iodine deficiency in Urmia County. The utilization of I/Cr ratio in conjugation with UIE and palpation may provide a better assessment in investigating nutritional iodine status.

  2. Evaluation des activites antihyperglycemiantes d'extraits aqueux de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    écorce de Casuarina equisetifolia révèle la présence des alcaloïdes, des tanins, des flavonoïdes, des leucoanthocyanes, des dérivés anthracéniques, des coumarines et des composés réducteurs, composés aux propriétés médicales multiples, ...

  3. The evaluation of Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with endoscope for diagnosis of non-erosive reflux disease in clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Xue, L; Liu, J; Zhang, H-Y; Zhang, D; Song, X-H; He, Y-X; Yang, T; Li, C-Q; Li, Y-Q

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the value of Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with endoscope on the diagnosis of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). A total of 96 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients were selected to participate in this study. The patients were stained on esophageal mucosa by Lugol's iodine solution and examined at routine endoscopy. The shallow staining and/or non-staining group patients were treated with esomeprazole and mosapride citrate, and then the changes in Lugol's iodine staining, Gerd Q (Gerd questionnaire) scoring and histological characters of esophageal mucosa were recorded before and after treatment. As the results, a total of 68 patients were diagnosed as NERD, and 36 of 68 patients were observed with uniform staining and 32 of 68 patients were observed with shallow staining and/or non-staining. After 4 weeks for treatment, 28 of 32 patients with shallow staining and/or non-staining became uniform staining and 4 of 32 patients were still with shallow staining and/or non-staining. Before and after treatment, the Gerd Q scoring of uniform staining groups and shallow staining and/or non-staining groups all had a significant difference (p Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with endoscope. Lugol's iodine solution staining combined with routine endoscopy, Gerd Q scoring and histomorphology can be used to evaluate the diagnosis and therapeutic effect of NERD.

  4. Application of iodinated starch powder using an atomizer spray gun - a new and effective tool to evaluate hypohidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J H-L; Choo, W; Chang, J H; Tey, H L; Chong, W-S

    2016-08-01

    Hypohidrosis is defined as diminished sweating in response to an appropriate thermal or sympathetic stimulus. When encountered in a clinical setting, it necessitates an accurate documentation of its pattern and extent to prognosticate the risk of associated heat-related illnesses. This can be achieved by thermoregulatory sweat testing which includes a starch-iodine sweat test that can be administered via various methods. To describe and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun in administering the starch-iodine test. We describe the administration of the starch-iodine test via an atomizer spray gun (Series 700 Lab Model; Mitsuba Systems, Mumbai, India). The method was utilized for the evaluation of 30 individuals who presented with symptoms of hypohidrosis. Application of iodinated starch powder prepared in-house with the atomizer spray gun achieved a lightweight and homogeneous coat on our patients' skin which allowed for clear visualization of the sweating pattern in areas of anhidrosis. The sharp demarcation of the pathological regions enabled the precise calculation of the affected body surface area of impaired sweating. Unlike the starch-iodine tests using the Minor and Wada methods, neither staining of the skin nor irritation was detected in this method. We report a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun to perform the starch-iodine test in a rapid, reproducible, effective, and safe manner suitable for use in the clinical evaluation of hypohidrosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Scoping calculation for components of the cow-milk dose pathway for evaluating the dose contribution from iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations have been undertaken to evaluate The absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 001) examined the contributions of the various exposure pathways associated with environmental transport and accumulation of iodine-131 in the pasture-cow-milk pathway. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to thyroid dose of infants and adult from (1) the ingestion by dairy cattle of various feedstuffs (pasturage, silage, alfalfa hay, and grass hay) in four different feeding regimes; (2) ingestion of soil by dairy cattle; (3) ingestion of stared feed on which airborne iodine-131 had been deposited; and (4) inhalation of airborne iodine-131 by dairy cows

  6. Iodine-123-iodobenzamide imaging, MRI and apomorphine testing in the evaluation of patients with Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Schaaf, A.A.; Stell, R.; Groom, G.N.; Lambrecht, R.; Najdovski, L.; Cardaci, G.; Davis, S.; Dikic, B.; Laing, B.; Mastaaglia, F.L.; O''Brein, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Idiopathic Parkinson''s disease (IPD) is characterised by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Other neurodegenerative disorders may mimic IPD, and the clinical distinction is important in patient management. Iodine-123-iodobenzamide (IBZM) has high specific binding to dopamine-2 (D2) receptors enabling SPECT studies of these receptors in the human brain. A significant reduction of D2 receptor binding of 123 I-lBZM has been shown in the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinsonian syndromes (PS) but normal uptake is seen in patients with IPD. Iodine-123-lBZM SPECT imaging has been proposed as a means of distinguishing between patients with IPD and PS and may be of value in predicting the long-term responsiveness to dopaminergic drugs. Magnetic resonance imaging has also been used to distinguish IPD from PS, and apomorphine testing is in use as a clinical means of predicting response to dopaminergic drugs. We plan to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of 123 I-lBZM SPECT, MRI and apomorphine testing for categorisation of patients and the prediction of responsiveness to dopaminergic drugs. To date we have studied 17 patients. SPECT imaging of the brain was carried out two hours after the i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 123 I-lBZM and visual and semi-quantitative analysis, using ratios of uptake in basal ganglia to frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum have been carried out. Although the data are incomplete, preliminary results suggest that there is a poor correlation of 123 I-lBZM uptake with the provisional clinical diagnosis and with apomorphine testing, but that 123 I-lBZM uptake is a predictor of dopaminergic response

  7. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  8. Iodine Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans, termed iodine deficiency disorders, due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Globally, it is estimated that 2 billion individuals have an insufficient iodine intake, and South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected.

  9. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des Techniciens Superieurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: Evaluer le niveau de connaissance des Techniciens Supérieurs en Santé (TSS) togolais dans le domaine de la néphrologie préventive. Sujets et méthodes: Une étude prospective de type transversal et observationnelle du 15 Septembre 2011 au 15 Mai 2012 dans les différentes structures sanitaires du territoire ...

  10. Evaluation des facteurs pronostiques pouvant influencer les ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But nasal obstruction can be caused by other conditions, such as turbinate hypertrophy, adenoid hypertrophy, and nasal polyposis. The surgeons' selection criteria for septoplasty largely rely on clinical judgment alone. The aim of our study was to evaluate if this clinical criteria and the demographics ones could influence the ...

  11. Evaluation of the iodine concentration in serum and urine of hypothyroid males an inexpensive and rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, G.A.; Kazi, T.G.; Sirajuddin; Afridi, H.I.; Baig, J.A.; Shah, A.Q.; Arain, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine) of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs) and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220) of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs) and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01). The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002) respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008). The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism. (author)

  12. Preventive distribution and plans of iodine tablets stocks management; Distribution preventive et plans de gestion des stocks de comprimes d'iode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This official note includes two parts: one concerns the new preventive distribution of iodine tablets on the areas defined by the Particular Intervention Plans (P.P.I.) around nuclear facilities and the other one the setting up of iodine tablets stocks beyond the P.P.I. areas. In annexe is a guide for the elaboration of stocks management plans for steady iodine tablets. (N.C.)

  13. Evaluation génétique du processus de la domestication des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation génétique du processus de la domestication des ignames sauvages dioscorea abyssinica, dans l'état de Nasarawa (Nigéria) par les marqueurs microsatellites (ssr). comparaison des ignames pré-domestiquées avec les variétés locales des ignames cult.

  14. Evaluation de l'abondance des kystes des protozoaires flagellés ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les analyses statistiques montrent des corrélations significatives (P ≤ 0,05) entre la densité des kystes des protozoaires flagelles identifiées et les paramètres physico-chimiques tels que les MES, l'oxydabilité et la turbidité. Conclusions et application des resultsts: Les plantes doivent être bien lavées, désinfectées et bien ...

  15. The evaluation of functioning thyroid nodules using sodium pertechnetate TC-99m scan in comparison with iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saghari M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid scintigraphy has been helpful in detecting and evaluation of thyroid nodules. Sodium pertechnetate Tc-99m is the most commonly used radionuclide for thyroid imaging because of its general availability, favorable dosimetric characteristics and low cost. But, there are reports of occasional disparity in isotope uptake in lesions compared with radioiodide. In order to determine percentage and clinical significance of this disparity, we screened 101 patients with solitary functioning nodules using sodium pertechnetate TC-99m in comparison with subsequent Iodine-131 scan in research institute for nuclear medicine. We conclude that sodium pertechnetate TC-99m is a reliable radiotracer for the detection and evaluation of thyroid nodules and there is no need for the subsequent Iodine-131 scan.

  16. Evaluation de l\\'activité hémagglutinante des lectines des graines de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % de saturation, de l\\'extrait brut de Csp présente l\\'activité hémagglutinante la plus élevée (512). Le traitement thermique à 100°C pendant 15 minutes réduit significativement l\\'activité hémagglutinante des lectines des extraits bruts des graines ...

  17. [Evaluation on the visual inspection with Lugol's iodine in cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ni; Ma, Cong-ping; Sun, Li-xin; Zhang, Yong-zhen; Shao, Shu-li; Xing, Ju-xia; Bao, Yan-ping; Huang, Rui-de; He, Li-ji; Qiao, You-lin

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) in cervical cancer screening program and to provide evidence for designing a cervical cancer screening algorithm in high risk areas of existing low-resource settings to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Women in Yangcheng county, Shanxi province were screened with VILI, colposcopy, liquid-based cytology test and human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test. The efficacy of different screening tests was compared by Youden's index based on the pathology as the gold standard. In the population being screened, the mean age was 40.80 +/- 10.75 years old. Based on pathological findings, 4.35% (32/735) of the subjects had >or= CIN (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) II. The sensitivity and specificity for the VILI test (>or= positive) were 53.13 and 82.19, while 56.25 and 79.09 were for colposcopy (>or= low grade dysplasia) respectively. Comparing by the Youden's indexs, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between VILI and colposcopy. However, statistical significant difference (P 0.05) found between the experienced doctors and the newly-trained doctors working in the field station. With low sensitivity when using microscope but low cost of equipments, VILI can be one of the primary screening tests in China's rural area with low-resource settings if the screening frequency is to be increased.

  18. Iodine-Starch test for assessment of hyperhidrosis in amputees, evaluation of different methods of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Colby; Wayment, Ben; Klein, Stephanie; Godfrey, Bradeigh

    2017-08-21

    Hyperhidrosis is a common problem for amputees. The iodine-starch test is frequently used to assess hyperhidrosis, but a method for its application has not been described for amputees. We performed an unblinded comparison of the iodine-starch test using various methods to protect the prosthesis in 10 prosthetic limb users with hyperhidrosis. Plastic wrap produced a diffuse pattern of sweating in 70% of subjects. Forty percent had complaints about this method, and 50% experienced leakage of iodine stain onto prosthetic liners. The prosthetic sheath produced a focal or multifocal reaction in 100% of subjects after 10 min of ambulation. Eighty percent had minor leakage onto the liner, and complaints were noted in 10%. The proportion that experienced diffuse sweating was significantly higher in the plastic wrap condition (p = 0.016; difference in proportions = 70%; 95% confidence interval = 32-100%). The prosthetic sock was tested in four subjects and all had at least mild complaints; three had minor leakage onto the liner. Repeated complaints and lack of stain prevention led to discontinuation with this method. Of the three methods, the sheath produces a focal or multifocal reaction after 10 min of ambulation and tends to cause less subject complaints. It should be the preferred method to apply the iodine-starch test to amputees. Implications for rehabilitation Hyperhidrosis is a common problem in amputees which negatively affects quality of life. The iodine-starch test is commonly used to guide treatment decisions for hyperhidrosis, but a preferred method for applying it in amputees has not been described. This study describes different methods for applying the iodine-starch test. A prosthetic sheath covering should be the preferred method for the iodine-starch test in amputees.

  19. Extensive Evaluation of a Diffusion Denuder Technique for the Quantification of Atmospheric Stable and Radioactive Molecular Iodine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Hou, Xiaolin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the evaluation and optimization of a new approach for the quantification of gaseous molecular iodine (I2) for laboratory- and field-based studies and its novel application for the measurement of radioactive molecular iodine. α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD) in combination with 129I......, and condition of release and derivatization of iodine, is extensively evaluated and optimized. The collection efficiency is larger than 98% and the limit of detection (LOD) obtained is 0.17 parts-per-trillion-by-volume (pptv) for a sampling duration of 30 min at 500 mL min−1. Furthermore, the potential use...... of this protocol for the determination of radioactive I2 at ultra trace level is also demonstrated when 129I− used in the coating is replaced by 127I− and a multiple denuder system is used. Using the present method we observed 25.7−108.6 pptv 127I2 at Mweenish Bay, Ireland and 108 molecule m−3 129I2 at Mainz...

  20. Evaluation of the uncertainties associated to the in vivo monitoring of iodine-131 in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The internal dose from the incorporation of radionuclides by humans can be estimated by in vivo direct measurements in the human body and in vitro analysis of biological indicators. In vivo techniques consist on the identification and quantification of radionuclides present in the whole body and in specific organs and tissues. The results obtained in measurements may present small uncertainties which are within pre-set limits in monitoring programs for occupationally exposed individuals. This study aims to evaluate the sources of uncertainty associated with the results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid. The benchmarks adopted in this study are based on the criteria suggested by the General Guide for Estimating Effective Doses from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS/European Community). The reference values used were the ones for high-energy photons (>100 keV). Besides the parameters suggested by the IDEAS Guide, it has also been evaluated the fluctuation of the counting due to the phantom repositioning, which represents the reproducibility of the counting geometry. Measurements were performed at the Whole Body Counter Unit of the IRD using a scintillation detector NaI (Tl) 3'' x 3'' and a neck-thyroid phantom developed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD. This phantom contains a standard source of barium-133 added to a piece of filter paper with the dimension and shape of a thyroid gland. Scattering factors were calculated and compared in different counting geometries. The results show that the technique studied presents reproducibility equivalent to the values suggested in the IDEAS Guide and measurement uncertainties compatible to international quality standards for this type of in vivo monitoring. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the performance of a micromethod for measuring urinary iodine by using six sigma quality metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Husniza; Khalid, Norhayati Mustafa; Selamat, Rusidah; Wan Nazaimoon, Wan Mohamud

    2013-09-01

    The urinary iodine micromethod (UIMM) is a modification of the conventional method and its performance needs evaluation. UIMM performance was evaluated using the method validation and 2008 Iodine Deficiency Disorders survey data obtained from four urinary iodine (UI) laboratories. Method acceptability tests and Sigma quality metrics were determined using total allowable errors (TEas) set by two external quality assurance (EQA) providers. UIMM obeyed various method acceptability test criteria with some discrepancies at low concentrations. Method validation data calculated against the UI Quality Program (TUIQP) TEas showed that the Sigma metrics were at 2.75, 1.80, and 3.80 for 51±15.50 µg/L, 108±32.40 µg/L, and 149±38.60 µg/L UI, respectively. External quality control (EQC) data showed that the performance of the laboratories was within Sigma metrics of 0.85-1.12, 1.57-4.36, and 1.46-4.98 at 46.91±7.05 µg/L, 135.14±13.53 µg/L, and 238.58±17.90 µg/L, respectively. No laboratory showed a calculated total error (TEcalc)performance for the medium-high level, and two laboratories showed an acceptable performance for the high level. When calculated against the Ensuring the Quality of UI Procedures (EQUIP) TEas, the performance of all laboratories was≤2.49 Sigma metrics at all concentrations. Only one laboratory had TEcalcperformance for the iodine deficiency levels and variable performance at other concentrations according to different TEas.

  2. Iodine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical tests or the treatment of thyroid disease Tincture of iodine Iodine is also used during the ... Seek immediate medical help. DO NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by Poison Control or a health care professional. Give the person milk, or ...

  3. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S

    1999-01-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from ... the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P

  4. Evaluation of iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide spray reagents for the detection of latent fingermarks at the crime scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Katherine; Maynard, Philip; du Pasquier, Eric; Lennard, Chris; Stoilovic, Milutin; Roux, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The performance of two spray reagents, iodine-benzoflavone and ruthenium tetroxide (RTX), was evaluated and compared with the conventional technique currently used at the crime scene, that is, powdering. Neither the spray techniques nor powdering were shown to be suitable for all surfaces and ages of marks tested. On some surfaces such as glass and treated wood, powdering was still the superior technique, whereas the spray techniques produced better development on wallpaper, vinyl, and brick. Sequencing work showed that RTX was incompatible with powdering and cyanoacrylate (with a rhodamine 6G stain). Iodine-benzoflavone can be used successfully either before or after powdering in a sequence; however, it was incompatible with cyanoacrylate. Two non-CFC formulations of iodine-benzoflavone using HFC4310mee and HFE7100 solvents were tested and shown not to be as effective as the original Arklone (CFC-113) formulation; however, the HFC4310mee solvent is recommended as the most suitable replacement solvent. Due to the expense of the commercial RTX spray, attempts at formulating a more cost-effective version were also carried out. A formulation was developed that gave comparable development to the commercial version but at a much cheaper cost, and with a shelf life of up to two months. Recommendations are presented for which techniques are suitable for different surfaces and ages of marks. Powdering was shown to be the best technique on all ages of marks tested on treated wood, glass, and also on marks aged three days and older on paint. Iodine-benzoflavone was the best technique on wallpaper, vinyl, brick, and raw wood. RTX was the best detection technique for fresh marks and marks aged up to one day on wallpaper and paint.

  5. Direct evaluation of thyroid [sup 127]I and iodine overload: in vivo study by X-ray fluorescence and in vitro by SIMS microscopy. Evaluation directe de l'[sup 127]I thyroidien en situation de surcharge iodee: etude in vivo par fluorescence X et in vitro par microscopie ionique analytique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briancon, C.; Jeusset, J.; Halpern, S.; Fragu, P. (Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France))

    1992-01-01

    This review describes the two methods which allow direct estimation of stable iodine ([sup 127] I) within thyroid gland either in vivo by X-ray fluorescence or in vitro by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) microscopy on tissue section. Although the measurement of thyroid iodine content (TIC) by X-ray fluorescence has little relevance for routine explorations of thyroid function, this is a valuable method for understanding complex pathophysiological conditions such as the thyroid adaptation to iodine overload. On the other hand, SIMS microscopy which is able to characterize the functional activity of thyroid tissue by measuring [sup 127] I concentration within the thyroid follicles, can be used to determine the extent to which exogeneous iodine affects the regulation of iodine within the thyroid follicles. Both methods were used to evaluate the quantitative changes in thyroid [sup 127] I induced by amiodarone iodine overload. TIC measurements shows that hyperthyroidism occured only in patients who increased their iodine stores, while the patients who developed hypothyroidism has low iodine stores. The SIMS microscopy data obtained in mice demonstrated that the thyroid response to amiodarone is related to dietary iodine intake leading to an increase in local iodine concentration in iodine deficient mice and to a decrease in iodine supplemented mice. This response is specific and different from that induced by an iodine overload. These results could explain that hyperthyroidism with high thyroid iodine content occured in areas with low thyroid iodine content in areas with a supplemented iodine diet.

  6. Evaluation des caractéristiques ethnobotaniques et structurales de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La dégradation des habitats naturels des espèces forestière évolue de façon croissance avec l'augmentation de la taille de la population du Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude est de contribuer à la conservation de Nesogordonia kabingaensis qui est l'une des espèces à habitat unique dans le pays. Des enquêtes ...

  7. Evaluation de la mise en oeuvre des mesures de radioprotection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Résultats : Sur les 62 services de radiologie recensés, 27.4% avaient des surfaces des salles comprises entre 10-20 m2 et 87.6% avaient des parois en briques pleines. Les portes des services étaient en bois dans 67.7% et en aluminium dans 32.3%. La grande majorité (95.2%) de ses portes étaient plombées.

  8. Evaluation des degats de 25 souches locales de Sitophilus zeamais ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... des grains attaques, une perte de poids des grains d'environ 3%, un accroissement de la population de 36% et enfin la classe III qui regroupe les souches peu agressives ou seulement 9% des grains sont attaques, leur perte' de poids est de 2% environ et la population au terme du stockage n'a aug mente que de 8,7%.

  9. Evaluation des teneurs en coliformes fécaux par couplage avec des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilaire

    Correspondance: ... Dans le but d'évaluer les teneurs en coliformes fécaux contenus dans les effluents de la Station de Traitement des Eaux. Polluées ... paramètre probant dans le traitement des eaux usées afin de diminuer la charge en coliformes fécaux.

  10. Original Paper Evaluation des techniques de production du beurre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    faire l'état des lieux de la filière karité au Togo. Les résultats obtenus ont montré que 31,25% des unités de .... Collecte des échantillons. Les entretiens se sont déroulés sur les lieux de production suivis de la collecte des ..... Département des Forêts, FAO : 303p. Ferris RSB, Collinsom C, Wanda K, Jagwe J,. Wright P. 2001.

  11. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  12. Iodine Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid problems, such as nodules, hyperthyroidism and autoimmune thyroid disease. Administration of large amounts of iodine through medications ( ... Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease FNA Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease ...

  13. EVALUATION DES POLITIQUES PUBLIQUES DE GESTION DES INONDATIONS AU JAPON - RAPPORT DE L'OCDE

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs , Yves; Forestier , Ségolène; Lahidji , Ulf; Stevens , Barrie; Radisch , Jack; Schieb , Pierre-Alain

    2009-01-01

    18 p.; International audience; Méthodologie En coopération avec le gouvernement Japonais, le programme de l'OCDE sur l'avenir a entrepris en 2006 une évaluation de la politique Japonaise en matière de gestion des inondations. L'équipe sélectionnée par l'OCDE en charge de cette évaluation était composée d'experts indépendants. Suite à une étude préliminaire, l'équipe d'experts s'est déplacée au Japon pour interviewer des membres du gouvernement, des collectivités locales, des associations non ...

  14. 155 Evaluation de la qualité nutritive des laits pasteurisés et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIDNANG KOYE CESAR

    Les résultats de la présente étude ont permis de montrer une variation significative de la composition du lait après 5 et 10 jours de conservation à +4°C. Cette variation s'explique par la diminution du taux des différents constituants du lait parce que même à +4°C, des germes comme les psychotropes continuent leur activité.

  15. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... in various regions of Denmark. One hundred and fifty-two healthy pregnant women admitted to five different Danish departments of obstetrics participated in the study. Iodine status was evaluated by measurement of iodine in spot urine at day five after delivery and by careful history of the intake of iodine...... containing vitamin/mineral tablets. Approximately one third of the women had received tablets containing iodine. In women who had not received iodine supplementation urinary iodine was low with a median value of 39.7 micrograms/g creatinine (Aalborg 28, Randers 33, Ringkøbing 34, Arhus 43 and Copenhagen 62...

  16. Iodine in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - iodine ... Many months of iodine deficiency in a person's diet may cause goiter or hypothyroidism . Without enough iodine, ... and older children. Getting enough iodine in the diet may prevent a form of physical and intellectual ...

  17. Serum thyroglobulin and urinary iodine concentration are the most appropriate indicators of iodine status and thyroid function under conditions of increasing iodine supply in schoolchildren in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Briel, T.; West, C. E.; Hautvast, J. G.; Vulsma, T.; de Vijlder, J. J.; Ategbo, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Iodine deficiency control programs have greatly reduced iodine deficiency disorders worldwide. For monitoring changes in iodine status, different indicators may be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of indicators of iodine status and thyroid function, thyroglobulin (Tg),

  18. Formation and behaviour of organic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilliacus, R.; Koukkar, P.; Karjunen, T.; Sjoevall, H.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents experimental studies on the formation of organic iodine in severe reactor accidents. The analyses were performed to evaluate the amount of alkaline chemical needed for effective pH control of containment water during the accidents. The formation of organic iodine in solutions used in the filtered venting system and the absorption of iodine compounds in the solutions were studied. Experiments for the formation of organic iodine on painted surfaces were also performed. (au)

  19. Dose evaluation by adding iodine 131 in a department of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa Suarez, R.; Barreras Caballero, A.; Brigido Flores, O.; Damera Martinez, A.; Lasserra Sanchez, O.; Pioto Garcia, R.

    1998-01-01

    The work shows the outcome from the control of internal pollution with Iodine 131 of workers from the nuclear medicine department of the Cancer hospital from Camaguey y based on the control of the concentration of this radionuclide in the air in working areas of this department. That concentration is calculated by gamma spectrometry using a SILENA multi-channel analyzer and a semiconductor detector of pure Ge staring from samples gathered using a KIMOTO aspiration pump and an FPP -15 filter of Russian manufacture

  20. Evaluation de l'activité antioxydante des extraits des feuilles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une extraction éthanolique des feuilles de ces deux plantes a été effectuée au Soxhlet. Les deux extraits secs, redissouts dans de l'eau, ont été fractionnés en utilisant successivement l'hexane, le dichlorométhane et l'acétate d'éthyle. Les propriétés antioxydantes des extraits et celles de leurs différentes fractions ont été ...

  1. Iodine status in neonates in Denmark: regional variations and dependency on maternal iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1994-01-01

    Iodine status of 147 neonates born in five different regions of Denmark was evaluated in relation to the iodine content of breast milk and iodine supplementation taken by the mother. Approximately two-thirds of the women had not received iodine supplementation. They had low iodine concentrations...... in breast milk and urinary iodine concentrations of the neonates at day 5 were low. The median values (milk/urine) were 33.6/31.7 micrograms/l (Randers 22/26, Ringkøbing 29/16, Aalborg 36/31. Arhus 54/41 and Copenhagen 55/59 micrograms/l). Higher values were found in the group where tablets containing...... iodine had been taken (milk/urine: 57.0/61.0 micrograms/l). In general, the values are low compared with internationally recommended levels. We suggest that mothers without autoimmune thyroid disease should receive iodine supplementation in the form of vitamin/mineral tablets containing iodine (150...

  2. Evaluation et selection participative des varietes ameliorees de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le manque de semences de variétés performantes constitue au Bénin l'une des contraintes au développement de la production de niébé. L'objectif de cette étude est de mettre à la disposition des producteurs de nouvelles variétés améliorées à travers l'amélioration de leur capacité à évaluer et à sélectionner des variétés ...

  3. Evaluation of the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC for the attract of iodine in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso A, D.; Arista R, E.; Alonso A, A.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study whose main objective is the evaluation of the diagnoses capacity of the DETEC - PC, a detection-measurement system for the reception of iodine in thyroid, with it presumptive diagnostic is presented. To such effect a clinical essay was designed in which all the patients included in the study were evaluated using the new equipment (DETEC - PC) and the standard diagnoses procedure well-known for the initials RIA. The sample size was calculated in a such way that the percent of gross coincidence among both methods could be estimate with a precision of 1% at a trust level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the essay. For the analysis of the agreement in the diagnostic it was used the Kappa statistician. The obtained results showed a high grade of gross agreement and an agreement level among moderate and substantial when it was corrected by possible random agreement among both procedures. (Author)

  4. Evaluation de l'application des Recommandations 2009 de l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion : Cette étude suggère que la mise en application des recommandations de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé n'est pas totalement effective dans les formations sanitaires de la région du Littoral au Cameroun. Pour pallier à cela il est recommandé d'assurer une formation continue au bénéfice des ...

  5. Evaluation de la toxicité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la toxicité des huiles essentielles de Cymbopogon nardus (L) et Ocimum gratissimum (L) contre Sitophilus zeamais Motsch et Rhyzopertha dominica F, les principaux insectes nuisibles au maïs en stockage...

  6. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John; Kamhawi, Hani; Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    This project is a collaborative effort to mature an iodine propulsion system while reducing risk and increasing fidelity of a technology demonstration mission concept. 1 The FY 2014 tasks include investments leveraged throughout NASA, from multiple mission directorates, as a partnership with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), a NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Technology Investment Project, and an Air Force partnership. Propulsion technology is often a critical enabling technology for space missions. NASA is investing in technologies to enable high value missions with very small and low-cost spacecraft, even CubeSats. However, these small spacecraft currently lack any appreciable propulsion capability. CubeSats are typically deployed and drift without any ability to transfer to higher value orbits, perform orbit maintenance, or deorbit. However, the iodine Hall system can allow the spacecraft to transfer into a higher value science orbit. The iodine satellite (iSAT) will be able to achieve a (Delta)V of >500 m/s with 1,300 s. The iSAT spacecraft, illustrated in figure 1, is currently a 12U CubeSat. The spacecraft chassis will be constructed from aluminum with a finish to prevent iodine-driven corrosion. The iSAT spacecraft includes full three-axis control using wheels, magnetic torque rods, inertial management unit, and a suite of sensors and optics. The spacecraft will leverage heat generated by spacecraft components and radiators for a passive thermal control system.

  7. Evaluation of Iodine Remediation Technologies in Subsurface Sediments: Interim Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Isotopes of iodine were generated during plutonium production from nine production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site. The long half-life 129I generated at the Hanford Site during reactor operations was 1) stored in single-shell and double-shell tanks, 2) discharged to liquid disposal sites (e.g., cribs and trenches), 3) released to the atmosphere during fuel reprocessing operations, or 4) captured by off-gas absorbent devices (silver reactors) at chemical separations plants (PUREX, B-Plant, T-Plant, and REDOX). Releases of 129I to the subsurface have resulted in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit. There is also 129I remaining in the vadose zone beneath disposal or leak locations. Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited.

  8. Iodine Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Dankanich, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Iodine Satellite (iSat) spacecraft will be the first CubeSat to demonstrate high change in velocity from a primary propulsion system by using Hall thruster technology and iodine as a propellant. The mission will demonstrate CubeSat maneuverability, including plane change, altitude change and change in its closest approach to Earth to ensure atmospheric reentry in less than 90 days. The mission is planned for launch in fall 2017. Hall thruster technology is a type of electric propulsion. Electric propulsion uses electricity, typically from solar panels, to accelerate the propellant. Electric propulsion can accelerate propellant to 10 times higher velocities than traditional chemical propulsion systems, which significantly increases fuel efficiency. To enable the success of the propulsion subsystem, iSat will also demonstrate power management and thermal control capabilities well beyond the current state-of-the-art for spacecraft of its size. This technology is a viable primary propulsion system that can be used on small satellites ranging from about 22 pounds (10 kilograms) to more than 1,000 pounds (450 kilograms). iSat's fuel efficiency is ten times greater and its propulsion per volume is 100 times greater than current cold-gas systems and three times better than the same system operating on xenon. iSat's iodine propulsion system consists of a 200 watt (W) Hall thruster, a cathode, a tank to store solid iodine, a power processing unit (PPU) and the feed system to supply the iodine. This propulsion system is based on a 200 W Hall thruster developed by Busek Co. Inc., which was previously flown using xenon as the propellant. Several improvements have been made to the original system to include a compact PPU, targeting greater than 80 percent reduction in mass and volume of conventional PPU designs. The cathode technology is planned to enable heaterless cathode conditioning, significantly increasing total system efficiency. The feed system has been designed to

  9. Evaluation de la qualité des eaux des ruisseaux du cours moyen de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Laboratoire d'Hydrobiologie et d'Aquaculture, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-. Calavi (LHA/FSA/UAC), 01 BP : 526 Cotonou, Bénin. 2 Unité de Recherche en Aquaculture et Ecotoxicologie Aquatique (URAEAq), Faculté d'Agronomie,. Université de Parakou, 03 BP : 61 Parakou-URAEAq, Bénin ...

  10. Evaluation of radiographic and genetic aspects of hereditary subluxation of the radial head in Bouviers des Flandres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temwichitr, J.; Leegwater, P.A.J.; Auriemma, E.; van 't Veld, E.M.; Zijlstra, C.; Voorhout, G.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation of radiographic and genetic aspects of hereditary subluxation of the radial head in Bouviers des Flandres. Summary Objective-To study radiographic and genetic aspects of hereditary radial head subluxation in Bouviers des Flandres. Animals-26 related Bouviers des Flandres affected with

  11. Evaluation of paramagnetic species in coals with iodine doping technique; Yoso tenkaho wo mochiita sekitanchu no jojiseishu no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, S.; Kumagai, H.; Chiba, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

    1996-10-28

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of coals was considered by using iodine doping technique. Sub-bituminous coal (WA) and bituminous coal (UF) were used to observe EPR spectra using microwaves. With the UF coal, strength of the narrow component of the spectra was found constant regardless of amount of the doped iodine, wherein radicals without interaction with iodine were detected. Strength of the broad component increased with the iodine doping amount, where in deviation of {pi} electrons was detected, which have been generated as a result of interaction between aromatic rings and iodine in the coals. Spin concentration of the WA coal with low coalification degree is constant regardless of the iodine doping amount, and the interaction of the iodine with the aromatic rings was found small. The higher the coalification degree, the more the aromatic ring structure grows, and electron donor capability for the iodine increases. In a system with the entire spin being uniform, the spectrum height shows a saturation phenomenon against increase in microwave output. A non-uniform system, in which the oriented spin forms small groups and is in local thermal equilibrium, does not show saturation, but increases monotonously. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Evaluation des proprietes antioxidantes et biologiques de farines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : L'objectif visé par cette étude a été d'évaluer la capacité des farines infantiles formulées à être utilisées contre les carences nutritionnelles et comme aliments fonctionnelles. Les densités des farines infantiles en nutriments et en micronutriments clés, ont été déterminées. Aussi les propriétés antioxidantes et ...

  13. Evaluation de la vulnerabilite socio-economique des producteurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a évalué le degré de vulnérabilité socio-économique des producteurs agricoles face à la variabilité climatique ainsi que les adaptations développées pour faire face aux effets néfastes afférents dans quatre Communes au Nord-Ouest du Bénin. La méthodologie de recherche est basée sur des entretiens ...

  14. Systematic Evaluation of Protein Reduction and Alkylation Reveals Massive Unspecific Side Effects by Iodine-containing Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Torsten; Winter, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Reduction and alkylation of cysteine residues is part of virtually any proteomics workflow. Despite its frequent use, up to date no systematic investigation of the impact of different conditions on the outcome of proteomics studies has been performed. In this study, we compared common reduction reagents (dithiothreitol, tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine, and β-mercaptoethanol) and alkylation reagents (iodoacetamide, iodoacetic acid, acrylamide, and chloroacetamide). Using in-gel digests as well as SAX fractionated in-solution digests of cytosolic fractions of HeLa cells, we evaluated 13 different reduction and alkylation conditions resulting in considerably varying identification rates. We observed strong differences in offsite alkylation reactions at 7 amino acids as well as at the peptide N terminus, identifying single and double adducts of all reagents. Using dimethyl labeling, mass tolerant searches, and synthetic peptide experiments, we identified alkylation of methionine residues by iodine-containing alkylation reagents as one of the major factors for the differences. We observed differences of more than 9-fold in numbers of identified methionine-containing peptide spectral matches for in-gel digested samples between iodine- and noniodine-containing alkylation reagents. This was because of formation of carbamidomethylated and carboxymethylated methionine side chains and a resulting prominent neutral loss during ESI ionization or in MS/MS fragmentation, strongly decreasing identification rates of methionine-containing peptides. We achieved best results with acrylamide as alkylation reagent, whereas the highest numbers of peptide spectral matches were obtained when reducing with dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol for the in-solution and the in-gel digested samples, respectively. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. The clinical evaluation of iodine-131 therapy in non-toxic goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yue; Zhang Chunyin; Sun Xiaoyang; Qiu Ling; Long Shuiqing; Gan Xilun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the Iodine-131 dose, indications and effect of radioiodine treatment of non-toxic goiter (NTG). Methods: 35 patients with large non-toxic goiters were treated with 131 I. 5 had previous thyroidectomy with goiter recurrence, 15 had symptoms of respiratory obstruction after thyroxin treatment without adequate effect, 3 were older patients who were at high operative risk, 5 had cardiopulmonary disease, 7 refused surgery. 131 I was given at a dose of 2.96-70.3 MBq/g total thyroid mass corrected to a 100% 131 I uptake in 24 hours. Thyroid size was measured by sonography during 12-36 months follow-up. Results: In 35 patients treated with 131 I the thyroid mass was reduced from 86.5 ± 20.3 g to 40.3 ± 13.6 g at 12 months (P 131 I therapy for NTG. 131 I therapy for NTG appears to be an acceptable, cost-effective, simple therapy for large NTG, especially for older patients who are at high operative risk, have had previous thyroidectomy with goiter recurrence, contraindications to or refusal of surgery

  16. utilisation des donnees pour l'evaluation de l'heterogeneite des sols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    en carbone, sable et en argile, ainsi que ses propriétés chimiques (SBE, CEC, V) ont été identifiées comme étant les composantes principales de la fertilité. Il s'agit de la matière organique (M. O.), de la texture et des propriétés chimiques du sol. Trois groupes d'échantillons de sol ferrallitique ont été distingués selon la ...

  17. 155 Evaluation de la qualité nutritive des laits pasteurisés et des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIDNANG KOYE CESAR

    1. Introduction. Au Burkina Faso, les unités de transformation ont très peu de capacités pour déterminer la composition des laits ... la qualité du lait fourni par les fermes et celle que transforment les unités de transformation laitière. Les .... chaleur a été coupée et cette température a été maintenue pendant trois (03) mn.

  18. Evaluation des rendements en graines et fanes des variétés

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (L.) Walp.) au Niger avec mention spéciale au Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Thèse de doctorat, Université de Niamey,. 117p. Addam K. S. 1999. Effet de l'azote et du phosphore sur la nutrition azotée des variétés de niébé. (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) présélection- nées au Niger. DEA, physiologie végétale.

  19. Iodine-123 lodobenzamide imaging, MRI and apomorphine testing in the evaluation of patients with Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Schaaf, A.A.; Stell, R.; Groom, G.N.; Lambrecht, R.; Najdovski, L.; Collier, T.L.; Cardaci, G.; Davis, S.; Laing, B.; Mastaglia, F.L.; O'Brien, J.; ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW,

    1997-01-01

    Full text; The clinical distinction between idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and other neurodegenerative disorders which mimic this condition is important in patient management. Iodine-123 lodobenzamide (IBZM) SPECT imaging of cerebral dopamine-2 (D 2 ) receptors has been proposed as a means of distinguishing between IPD and atypical variants, including such Parkinsonian syndromes (PS) as multi-system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy, and to predict long-term responsiveness to dopaminergic drugs. Apomorphine testing is currently in use for the latter purpose. To assess the role of IBZM SPECT, MRI and apomorphine testing in categorising patients with Parkinsonian symptoms and for predicting therapeutic response, we studied 40 subjects, 18 of whom had IPD. SPECT brain studies were carried out two hours after the intravenous injection of approximately 185 MBq of 123 I IBZM. Semiquantitative IBZM striatal/occipital cortex uptake ratios in the IPD group were 1.53 + 0.17 (mean + S.D.), and in the non-lPD group 1.53 ± 0.29. Of the 11 IPD patients and 19 non-lPD patients who had MRI, none and two, respectively, showed iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Eleven of 13 IPD and 3 of 18 non-lPD subjects had a positive apomorphine test, while 15 of 15 IPD and 5 of 19 non-lPD subjects responded to dopaminergic therapy. When patients were classified into responders (R) (n 20) and non-responders (NR) (n = 14), the IBZM ratios were 1.56 ± 0.22 and 1.47 ± 0.29 respectively (no significant difference between the groups). The apomorphine test accurately predicted response, being positive in 13 of 15 R and negative in 11 of 12 NR. We conclude that 123 I SPECT is not helpful in differentiating IPD from PS, nor in predicting response to dopaminergic drugs

  20. Iodine-123 lodobenzamide imaging, MRI and apomorphine testing in the evaluation of patients with Parkinsonism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Schaaf, A.A.; Stell, R.; Groom, G.N.; Lambrecht, R.; Najdovski, L.; Collier, T.L.; Cardaci, G.; Davis, S.; Laing, B.; Mastaglia, F.L.; O`Brien, J. [Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, (Australia)]|[ANSTO, Lucas Heights, NSW, (Australia). The Biomedicine and Health Program

    1997-09-01

    Full text; The clinical distinction between idiopathic Parkinson`s disease (IPD) and other neurodegenerative disorders which mimic this condition is important in patient management. Iodine-123 lodobenzamide (IBZM) SPECT imaging of cerebral dopamine-2 (D{sub 2}) receptors has been proposed as a means of distinguishing between IPD and atypical variants, including such Parkinsonian syndromes (PS) as multi-system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy, and to predict long-term responsiveness to dopaminergic drugs. Apomorphine testing is currently in use for the latter purpose. To assess the role of IBZM SPECT, MRI and apomorphine testing in categorising patients with Parkinsonian symptoms and for predicting therapeutic response, we studied 40 subjects, 18 of whom had IPD. SPECT brain studies were carried out two hours after the intravenous injection of approximately 185 MBq of {sup 123}I IBZM. Semiquantitative IBZM striatal/occipital cortex uptake ratios in the IPD group were 1.53 + 0.17 (mean + S.D.), and in the non-lPD group 1.53 {+-} 0.29. Of the 11 IPD patients and 19 non-lPD patients who had MRI, none and two, respectively, showed iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Eleven of 13 IPD and 3 of 18 non-lPD subjects had a positive apomorphine test, while 15 of 15 IPD and 5 of 19 non-lPD subjects responded to dopaminergic therapy. When patients were classified into responders (R) (n 20) and non-responders (NR) (n = 14), the IBZM ratios were 1.56 {+-} 0.22 and 1.47 {+-} 0.29 respectively (no significant difference between the groups). The apomorphine test accurately predicted response, being positive in 13 of 15 R and negative in 11 of 12 NR. We conclude that {sup 123}I SPECT is not helpful in differentiating IPD from PS, nor in predicting response to dopaminergic drugs.

  1. Iodine nutritional status in Brazil: a meta-analysis of all studies performed in the country pinpoints to an insufficient evaluation and heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Renata de Oliveira; Barreto, Iasmin dos Santos; Maia, Lorena Rejane de Jesus; Rebouças, Sara Cristina Lima; Cerqueira, Taíse Lima de Oliveira; Oliveira, Clotilde Assis; Santos, Carlos Antônio de Souza Teles; Mendes, Carlos Maurício Cardeal; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Ramos, Helton Estrela

    2015-02-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) is the result of an inadequate dietary intake of iodine, which physiological consequences are endemic goiter and thyroid dysfunction. The objective of this study was to a analyze studies that assessed the status of Brazil's population iodine nutrition and IDD prevalence. Systematic review using PRISMA statement. Electronic database: PubMed, Medline, SciELO and Lilacs. Quality of studies: Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was carried out with R Core Team Statistical Software, version 3.1.0 (2014). The summary measure (WMD) and its confidence interval (CI) of 95% were calculated. The "Funnel plot" graph assessed publication bias and heterogeneity. Seventeen papers were eligible: pregnant women (2), school children (9), adults/elderly (4) and preschool children/infants (2). Geographic distribution: North (1), Northeast (1), Midwest (2), Southeast (13), South (3). Twenty-three thousand two hundred seventy-two subjects were evaluated between 1997 and 2013 and all have use urinary iodine (UI) measurement. However, only 7 studies could be included in meta-analysis, all from Southeast region. The overall prevalence of IDD in school children in southeast region was 15.3% (95% CI, 13-35%), however this data had an important heterogeneity, expressed by the I2 Statistic of 99.5%. Only few studies have been performed and enrolled populations from south/southeast region of Brazil. The actual IDD prevalence analysis is complex because it was detected bias due influence of individual studies and very high heterogeneity. IDD might still be high in some areas but this remained unknown even after this meta-analysis evaluation. The generation of a national program for analysis of iodine status in all regions is urgently required.

  2. Evaluation des indicateurs indirects de morbidite de la bilharziose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But: Dans le but de mettre en place des méthodes d'évaluation rapide de la morbidité dans les communautés à traiter, une étude transversale a été effectuée pour évaluer les performances diagnostiques de trois indicateurs indirects utilisables par le programme national de lutte contre les bilharzioses au Togo. Matériels et ...

  3. Evaluation de l'activite antifalcimiante de differents extraits des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'étude de l'activité antifalcimiante s'est faite sur les prélèvements sanguins de 32 drépanocytaires homozygotes SSFA2. Après induction de la falciformation des ... The study of antifalcimiante activity was done on the blood samples of 32 SSFA2 homozygous sickle cell patients. After induction of sickling of the red blood ...

  4. 82 Evaluation hydro-chimique des eaux souterraines en milieu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    Afrique SCIENCE 05(1) (2009) 82 - 98. L. Matini et al. 83 pour l'usage eau de boisson a été le chrome VI pour lequel 78,57% des points d'eaux analysées (y compris la source) avaient une teneur supérieure à 0,05 mg/L. Mots-clés : Eaux souterraines, chrome VI, analyses exploratoires multivariées,. Brazzaville Congo.

  5. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.

    1978-05-01

    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  6. Iodine-131 production by a dry method using reactor-irradiated elementary tellurium. Part 1 - Conditions for obtaining iodine emanation and its capture. Part 2 - comparative study of preparation conditions using Pyrex, stainless steel and alumina equipment. Part 3 - production on a semi-industrial scale; Production de l'iode 131 par voie seche a partir de tellure elementaire irradie a la pile. 1ere partie - Etudes des conditions pour obtenir l'emanation de l'iode et le capter. 2eme partie - Etude comparee des conditions pour effectuer cette preparation avec des appareils en Pyrex, en acier inoxydable et en alumine. 3eme partie - production a l'echelle semi-industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardy, A.; Beydon, J.; Murthy, T.S.; Doyen, J.B.; Lefrancois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    A previous report has described how iodine 131 can be prepared from elementary tellurium by a dry method which consists in treating irradiated tellurium at 400 degrees in argon. The possibility of carrying out this treatment in a stainless steel or alumina apparatus has been considered. The behavior of gaseous iodine 131 towards these materials has thus been studied. If the adsorption of iodine on stainless steel is superficial desorption is rapid at 250 degrees in oxygen or 400 degrees in argon. If the adsorption is chemical in nature it becomes necessary to heat to higher temperatures. Adsorption of iodine on alumina is very weak and the iodine can be desorbed rapidly. With these materials tests have been carried out on 300 gms of tellurium containing 41 curies of iodine 131; the yields were very satisfactory ( 98 per cent). (author) [French] La methode de preparation de l iode 131 par voie seche a partir de tellure elementaire decrite dans un precedent rapport consiste a traiter le tellure irradie a 400 degres sous argon. Nous avons examine la possibilite d effectuer ce traitement dans un appareil en acier inoxidable ou en alumine. Le comportement de l iode 131 gazeux vis a vis de ces materiaux a donc ete etudie. Si l adsorption de l iode sur l acier inoxidable est superficielle la desorption est rapide a 250 degres sous oxygene ou 400 degres sous argon. Si la fixation est de nature chimique il est necessaire de chauffer a des temperatures plus elevees. L adsorption de l iode sur l alumine est res faible et l iode peut etre desorbe rapideemnt. En employant ces materiaux des essais ont ete obtenus sur 300 g de tellure contenant 41 curies d iode 131 avec un bon rendement (98 pour cent). (auteur00.

  7. Evaluation des retombees economiques des projets energetiques au Quebec : Analyse couts-avantages de la mini-centrale hydroelectrique de Val-Jalbert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossoro, Marcel Thierry

    Evaluer les retombees economiques d'un projet, cela consiste a evaluer le benefice du projet du point de vue de la collectivite. C'est le processus d'analyse, de mesure et d'appreciation de l'impact du projet, sur l'economie locale, regionale ou nationale. Il permet de prendre une decision optimale sur la faisabilite de l'investissement compte tenu de ses incidences sur l'ensemble des agents economiques. L'incoherence des approches et outils dans l'evaluation peut biaiser le calcul de l'impact net du projet, et par consequent, biaiser les termes de la hierarchisation des priorites en matiere d'investissement. Dans le cas des projets sensibles, necessitant de lourds investissements et beaucoup mediatises, comme cela est le cas des projets energetiques ; le biais peut s'averer desastreux et aboutir a une situation chaotique. La presente recherche porte sur l'evaluation des retombees economiques des projets energetiques au Quebec ; la pertinence et la coherence des outils et methodes d'evaluation. Elle est edifiee par une etude de cas. L'etude porte sur l'evaluation du projet de la mini-centrale hydroelectrique de Val Jalbert par la methode de l'analyse couts-avantages. Nous utilisons la methode des prix de reference selon l'approche de l'ONUDI. L'etude revele que le projet de la mini-centrale hydroelectrique de Val Jalbert repond positivement aux deux objectifs : l'efficience---maximisation de la consommation, et l'equite sociale---maximisation de la justice sociale. Il est donc considere, du point de vue de l'ONUDI, comme etant economiquement (ou socialement) rentable. L'analyse couts-avantages est un puissant evaluateur d'impact. Elle evalue le projet en l'integrant dans un cadre coherent d'analyses economiques, qui repose non seulement sur des valeurs nationales mais egalement, qui prend en compte les couts et avantages directs, indirects, internes et externes ; ce qui fait de l'outil, l'evaluateur le plus complet. A travers l'etude, nous montrons comment l

  8. Evaluation of topical povidone-iodine versus gentamycin in staphylococcus coagulase positive corneal ulcers-An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma G

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Povidone iodine was found highly effective in controlling the infection and reducing the period of morbidity caused by experimentally produced staphylococcal coagulase positive corneal ulcers in 50 eyes of rabbits in comparison to Gentamycin sulphate. Povidone-iodine was also found to be safe, without any adverse reaction. Hence it can be considered for use in human beings for effective control of corneal infections.

  9. Evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by simple urine analysis after oral administration of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Weyenberg, A.; McPherson, D.W.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Bergmann, K. von; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    A new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue called ''MIPAG'' [1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl) pentadecan-1-oyl]rac-glycerol] has been prepared in which 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is attached to position-3. MIPAG has been developed for the evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function by simple urine analysis and has been evaluated in rats and humans. After oral administration, IPPA is released from the triglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipases followed by intestinal absorption and the principal IPPA metabolite (p-iodobenzoic acid. IBA) is primarily excreted in the urine. Excretion in the urine and feces was evaluated in rats, as well as the biodistribution in various organs over 21 days. Twenty patients without pancreatic disease (normals) and four patients with pancreatic insufficiency were also investigated. Following oral administration of 30 μCi of MIPAG, urine was collected for two successive 24-h periods. Blood samples were drawn and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on the serum lipid extracts. Urine from normals contained 44.9%±7.7% and 61.8%±8.4% of the administered activity after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The patients with pancreatic insufficiency excreted 13.1%±5.6% and 18.9%±6.2%, respectively, which was significantly decreased (P<0.001) compared with normals. The TLC profiles showed an increasing proportion of IBA with time. Urine analysis after oral administration of MIPAG thus appears to be an attractive new technique for the evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by a simple urine analysis. (orig.)

  10. Iodine and Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Yarrington; Elizabeth N. Pearce

    2011-01-01

    Iodine is a necessary element for the production of thyroid hormone. We will review the impact of dietary iodine status on thyroid function in pregnancy. We will discuss iodine metabolism, homeostasis, and nutritional recommendations for pregnancy. We will also discuss the possible effects of environmental contaminants on iodine utilization in pregnant women.

  11. The placenta as a compensatory iodine storage organ.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, Robert

    2011-05-01

    The production of iodine-containing thyroid hormones necessary for brain development in the fetus depends not only on maternal dietary intake but also on placental iodine transport. The optimum level of iodine nutrition during pregnancy and the proportion of the pregnant population reaching this level have previously been evaluated. Little information exists on the ability of the placenta to either accumulate or store iodine. This study aims to investigate iodine uptake and tissue iodine content within placental tissue obtained from women delivering at term.

  12. Geophysical Well Logs Applied to Geothermal Resource Evaluation Application des diagraphies à l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fertl W. H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Well logging in the petroleum industry has been developed over five decades into a mature industry, whereas geothermal well logging is a relatively new enterprise. Fundamental differences also occur in the geologic environments and key objectives of both logging applications. Geothermal reservoirs are frequently in fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks, which contain hot water or stem at temperature exceeding 150°C. The discussion focuses on present day logging technology, geologic and reservoir engineering objectives, and qualitive and quantitative formation interpretation techniques for geothermal resource evaluation. Specific field case studies illustrate the interpretive state-of-the-art, including examples from the Geysers dry steam field in the Imperial Valley of California, hot water fields in California, Nevada, and Idaho, and the LASL Hot Dry Rock test project in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico. Les diagraphies dans les forages pétroliers ont atteint leur maturité, alors que le contrôle diagraphique des sondages géothermiques est une entreprise relativement nouvelle. Des différences fondamentales apparaissent aussi dans les environnements géologiques et dans les objectifs clés des deux types d'applications des diagraphies. Les réservoirs géothermiques se situent souvent dans les roches ignées ou métamorphiques fracturées qui contiennent de l'eau chaude ou de la vapeur à des températures dépassant 150 °C. L'exposé sera concentré sur les techniques actuelles d'enregistrements, les objectifs géologiques et liés à l'exploitation des réserves et sur les techniques qualitatives et quantitatives d'interprétation des formations pour l'évaluation des ressources géothermiques. Quelques cas particuliers illustrent l'état actuel des techniques d'interprétation avec des exemples pris dans le champ de vapeur sèche des geysers dans Imperial Valley de Californie, des champs d'eau chaude en Californie, Nevada et Idaho et

  13. Evaluation de la satisfaction des patientes hospitalisées au service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la satisfaction des patientes hospitalisées au service de gynécologie obstétrique de Sousse, Tunisie. I Bougmiza, M EL Ghardallou, C Zedini, H Lahouimel, T Nabli-Ajmi, R Gataa, I Touati, H Khairi, A Mtiraoui ...

  14. Evaluation of Physical Capture Efficiency and Disinfection Capability of a Novel Iodinated Filter Medium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ratnesar, Shanna; Wu, Chang-Yu; Wander, Joe; Lundgren, Dale; Farrah, Sam; Wanakule, Prinda; Blackburn, Matthew; Lan, Mei-Fang

    2006-01-01

    ...% that of the glass-fiber HEPA filter (0.0054 in H2O/(in/min) vs 0.065 in H2O/(in/min)). Biological disinfection by the medium was evaluated using Micrococcus luteus and Echerichia coli vegetative bacterial cells...

  15. CT colonography with minimal bowel preparation: evaluation of tagging quality, patient acceptance and diagnostic accuracy in two iodine-based preparation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedenbaum, Marjolein H.; Vries, A.H. de; Bipat, S.; Stoker, J.; Gouw, C.I.B.F.; Rijn, A.F. van; Dekker, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a 1-day with a 2-day iodine bowel preparation for CT colonography in a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening population. One hundred consecutive patients underwent CT colonography and colonoscopy with segmental unblinding. The first 50 patients (group 1) ingested 7*50 ml iodinated contrast starting 2 days before CT colonography. The latter 50 patients (group 2) ingested 4*50 ml iodinated contrast starting 1 day before CT colonography. Per colonic segment measurements of residual stool attenuation and homogeneity were performed, and a subjective evaluation of tagging quality (grade 1-5) was done. Independently, two reviewers performed polyp and carcinoma detection. The tagging density was 638 and 618 HU (p = 0.458) and homogeneity 91 and 86 HU for groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.145). The tagging quality was graded 5 (excellent) in 90% of all segments in group 1 and 91% in group 2 (p = 0.749). Mean per-polyp sensitivity for lesions ≥10 mm was 86% in group 1 and 97% in group 2 (p = 0.355). Patient burden from diarrhoea significantly decreased for patients in group 2. One-day preparation with meglumine ioxithalamate results in an improved patient acceptability compared with 2-day preparation and has a comparable, excellent image quality and good diagnostic performance. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of cardiac autonomic nerves by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and ambulatory electrocardiography in patients after arterial switch operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Hajime; Maeda, Masanobu; Miyahara, Ken [Shakaihoken Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya (Japan)] [and others

    2000-05-01

    The autonomic cardiac nerves reach the heart after passing through the vicinity of the aortic root and the pulmonary trunk. The arterial switch operation (ASO) completely transects the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk. Therefore, this surgical procedure virtually denerves the heart. Cardiac sympathetic denervation and reinnervation were evaluated in patients after ASO using iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy and parasympathetic denervation and reinnervation using ambulatory electrocardiography [Holter electrocardiogram (ECG)]. MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 14 patients who underwent ASO (ASO group) and 3 patients who underwent other open heart surgery (control group). All patients in the ASO group underwent the operation in the neonatal or infantile period. Planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of the myocardium were obtained. Defect score was determined by the SPECT images as a semi-quantitative index. The mean interval between ASO and MIBG scintigraphy was 25.6{+-}14.6 months. Holter ECG was also performed in 14 patients in the ASO group and 19 age-matched normal children. The Holter ECGs were plotted on a Lorenz plot. The H index, which is related to vagal tone for the cardiovascular system, was calculated from the R-R intervals. The mean interval between the ASO and Holter ECG was 8.3{+-}9.7 months. MIBG scintigraphy in the control group demonstrated an almost normal homogeneous tracer uptake, but showed extremely reduced tracer uptake and significantly higher defect score in the ASO group. The extent and degree of the reduction of MIBG uptake improved with time after the ASO. The heart-to-mediastinum MIBG count ratio tended to increase with time. The H index of the ASO group was lower than that of normal children (<12 months: Control group 0.0280{+-}0.0068 vs ASO group 0.0219{+-}0.0083), and gradually increased with time (1-3 years: 0.0470{+-}0.0157 vs 0.0314{+-}0.0124). (author)

  17. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, P; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation and adequate iodine intake is important for normal brain development of the fetus/newborn child. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the extent to which this increase in iodine requirement is met in pregnant women living...... micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  18. Evaluation method of iodine re-evolution from an in-containment water pool after a loss of coolant accident, Part I: pH estimation of a solution with various chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • It is required to evaluate re-evolved iodine from sump water after LOCA. • pH evaluation based on Gibbs free energy minimization. • Program was developed to evaluate chemical equilibrium and pH solutions. • Predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Radioactive iodine, which is released into the atmosphere of the containment building, is absorbed into the containment spray water and dissolved to be ionized. This iodine-rich water is then transported to the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) in APR1400 nuclear power plants. When the pH of the water is below 7, the dissolved iodine converts to molecular iodine and re-evolves from the water and returns to the atmosphere. A series of studies have been conducted in order to evaluate the iodine re-evolution from the IRWST. This study consists of two parts: the pH evaluation method and the evaluation of the iodine re-evolution. This paper presents the first part, i.e. the pH evaluation method. The equilibrium concentrations of various chemicals in a solution are determined at the minimum Gibbs’ free energy. This method is useful for complex reactant problems rather than equilibrium constants method because the latter method requires numerous equilibrium constants and there might be missing equilibrium constants associated with the solution. The calculated pH values of solutions are compared with the experimental measurements in order to validate this method and the thermodynamic data of the chemicals incorporated into the program. The estimated values for solutions are in good agreement with the experimental measurements within a difference of less than 3.3%.

  19. Evaluation the sources of uncertainty associated to the measurement results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha

    2011-01-01

    In vivo monitoring techniques consist of identification and quantification of radionuclides present in the whole body and specific organs and tissues. In Vivo monitoring requires the use of detedors which are sensitive to the radiation emitted by radionuclides present in the monitored individual. The results obtained in measurements may present small uncertainties which are within pre-set limits in monitoring programs for occupationally exposed individuais. However, any device used to determine physical quantities present uncertainties in the measured values. The total uncertainty of a measurement result is estimated from the propagation of the uncertainties associated to each parameter of the calculation. This study aims to evaluate the sources of uncertainty associated to the measurement results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid, in comparison to the suggested in the General Guide for Estimating Effective Doses from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS/European Community). The reference values used were the ones for high-energy photons (>100 keV). The measurement uncertainties were divided into two categories: type A and type B. The component of type A represents the statistical fluctuation in the counting of the standard source. Regarding type B, the following variations were presented: detector positioning over the phantom; variation of background radiation; thickness of the overlay tissue over the monitored organ, distribution of the activity in the organ. Besides the parameters suggested by the IDEAS Guide, it has also been evaluated the fluctuation of the counting due to the phantom repositioning, which represents the reproducibility of the measurement geometry. Measurements were performed at the Whole Body Counter Unit of IRD using a scintillation detector Nal (Tl) 3 x3 and a neck-thyroid phantom developed at LABMIVIRD. Scattering factors were calculated and compared in different counting geometries. The results of this study show that the

  20. Evaluation des Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations des districts sanitaires de Benoye, Laoukassy, Moundou et N?Djam?na Sud sur la rage canine au Tchad

    OpenAIRE

    Mindekem, Rolande; Lechenne, Monique; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Zinsstag, Jakob; Ouedraogo, Laurent Tinoaga; Salifou, Sahidou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction La rage canine demeure une pr?occupation en Afrique comme au Tchad. La pr?sente ?tude vise ? ?valuer les Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations pour la prise en charge appropri?e des personnes expos?es et une lutte efficace. M?thodes C??tait une ?tude transversale descriptive r?alis?e en juillet et septembre dans quatre districts sanitaires au Tchad en 2015. Les donn?es ont ?t? collect?es ? l?aide d?un questionnaire aupr?s des m?nages recrut?s suivant un sondage al?ato...

  1. Evaluating the response of gastric carcinomas to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using iodine concentration on spectral CT: a comparison with pathological regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, L.; Li, Z.-Y.; Li, Z.-W.; Zhang, X.-P.; Li, Y.-L.; Li, X.-T.; Wang, Z.-L.; Ji, J.-F.; Sun, Y.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the potential of iodine concentration (IC) determined using virtual monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) to predict the response of gastric carcinomas to preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). Materials and methods: A total of 20 patients were enrolled who underwent two spectral CT examinations (1 week before and two cycles after NC). The percentage change in tumour thickness (%ΔCWT) and in IC on the arterial phase (%ΔIC-a) and venous phase (%ΔIC-v) after NC were calculated and compared for different histopathological regression grades and response groups. The diagnostic efficacies to discriminate good response (GR) and poor response (PR) of the above three parameters were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: The decrease rate of %ΔIC-a for the GR group was higher than that for the PR group (−0.59 [−0.76, −0.20] versus −0.11 [−0.75, 0.92], p=0.012). There was no significant difference in the %ΔIC-v and %ΔCWT values between the GR and PR groups (p=0.076 and p=0.779, respectively). The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) values were 0.857, 0.762, and 0.542 for %ΔIC-a, %ΔIC-v, and %ΔCWT, respectively, in the response prediction. The cut-off value for identifying PR was a decrease rate of <52.9% for %ΔIC-a, and the sensitivity and specificity values were 0.857 and 0.833. Conclusion: Changes in the IC for gastric carcinomas following NC were detected using spectral CT and correlated with histopathological regression. The prediction efficacy for IC was better than that for tumour thickness, with IC on the arterial phase being a better predictor than IC on the venous phase. - Highlights: • Spectral CT detected the change of IC of gastric carcinomas to NC. • The change of IC had correlation with pathological regression grades. • The response prediction efficacy of IC was better than tumor size. • The response prediction ability of IC on arterial phase was superior to venous

  2. Evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases; Pruefung einer potentiellen strahleninduzierten Nebenschilddruesenfunktionsstoerung waehrend einer Radioiodtherapie benigner Schilddruesenerkrankung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Serena Christine

    2011-09-28

    The intention of the present thesis was the evaluation of a potential parathyroid dysfunction under treatment with radioactive iodine of benign thyroid diseases. It was to be examined whether a change in the parathyroid function would arise within the first week on treatment. So far there are some minor studies existing describing significant changes in the parathyroid hormone serum level within the first months after radioactive iodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Moreover, it is a fact that external beam-radiotherapy can induce neoplasia and that the risk for the subsequent development of primary hyperparathyroidism doubles or triples after external beam-radiotherapy of the head and neck. Up to now, however, an increased incidence for primary hyperparathyroidism following treatment with radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) could not be proved. At the department of nuclear medicine of the university hospital Giessen-Marburg GmbH, location Marburg, a prospective cohort study was executed on radioactive iodine therapy of benign thyroid diseases with 105 probands (75 women / 30 men, mean age 60.62 ± 14.3 years). According to their thyroid diseases these 105 probands were classified into following subgroups: thyroid adenoma with 23 patients, multifocal thyroid autonomy with 8 patients, disseminated thyroid autonomy with 37 patients as well as the subgroup Graves' hyperthyroidism (without Graves' ophtalmopathy) and accordingly Graves' disease (with Graves' ophtalmopathy) with 37 patients. The serum level of the intact parathyroid hormone was determined directly before starting the radioactive iodine therapy on the admission day and on day 1, 3 and 5 of the radioactive iodine therapy as well as at the ambulant follow-up examination one month after the start of the therapy. In case of 99 of 105 probands the serum level of parathyroid hormone declined on treatment with {sup 131}I with its nadir on day 3 of therapy (decline by 15.71 ng

  3. Iodine deficiency disorders in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyu, A; Tambi, Z; Ahmad, Y

    1998-12-01

    The state of Sarawak in Malaysia has a high prevalence of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). This has been revealed through a review of goitre surveys that were carried out in the State from the early 1970s to the 1990s. The primary cause was low iodine intake. Contributory factors were low iodine content in the soil and water as well as high cassava consumption. Virtual elimination of IDD is one of the nutritional goals of the IDD prevention and control programs. The strategies adopted include the iodination of coarse salt, which is sold in the market by shopkeepers and also provided free from government health clinics; legislation requiring that salt sold in IDD-gazetted areas must be iodised; and the use of iodinators to iodise water supplied by the gravity-feed system to villages and boarding schools in rural areas. The indicators used in the monitoring and evaluation of the program include the availability of iodised salt in the market and households, iodine levels in water supply that had been fitted with iodinators, goitre volume measured by ultrasound, and urinary iodine excretion among school children.

  4. 195 Evaluation de la charge polluante des rivières des eaux usées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kapepula

    ressources financières des pouvoirs publics au niveau local et l'absence de réelles politiques environnementales sont parmi les ... sont collectés vers les quatre rivières. Généralement les aides de la gestion des déchets adéquates protègent la santé humaine et l'environnement et conserve les ressources naturelles [3].

  5. Thyroid volume and urinary iodine in European schoolchildren: standardization of values for assessment of iodine deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delange, F.; Benker, G.; Caron, P.; Eber, O.; Ott, W.; Peter, F.; Podoba, J.; Simescu, M.; Szybinsky, Z.; Vertongen, F.; Vitti, P.; Wiersinga, W.; Zamrazil, V.

    1997-01-01

    Up to 1992, most European countries used to be moderately to severely iodine deficient. The present study aimed at evaluating possible changes in the status of iodine nutrition in 12 European countries during the past few years. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography in 7599 schoolchildren

  6. Dietary iodine intake in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hai Xia; Li, Jian Wen; Mao, Wei Feng; Zhu, Jiang Hui; He, Yu Na; Song, Xiao Yu; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Sa Na; Liu, Zhao Ping; Li, Feng Qin

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate dietary iodine intake and its potential risks among the Chinese population. Individual dietary iodine intake was calculated using food consumption data multiplying by iodine concentration in foods, table salt and drinking water, followed by summing, and then compared with the corresponding age-specific reference values, including Upper Intake Level (UL) and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). In areas with water iodine concentration (WI) lower than 150 μg/L, 80.8% of residents had iodine intake between the RNI and UL, 5.8% higher than UL, and the remaining (13.4%) lower than RNI if iodized salt was consumed. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.0% of residents between RNI and UL, 1.4% higher than UL, and a large part of residents (97.6%) lower than RNI. In areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L, all residents had iodine intake between RNI and UL if iodized salt was consumed, except 10.5% and 24.9% of residents higher than UL in areas with WI at 150-300 μg/L and higher than 300 μg/L respectively. However, in the uniodized salt consumption scenario, only 1.5% and 1.7% of residents had higher iodine intake than UL respectively. The findings suggested that in general, the dietary iodine intake by the Chinese population was appropriate and safe at the present stage. People in areas with WI lower than 150 μg/L were more likely to have iodine deficiency. While people in areas with WI higher than 150 μg/L were more likely to have excessive iodine intake if iodized salt was consumed. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation d'un scenario d'apprentissage favorisant la mobilisation des habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Samuel F. J.

    Les resultats au Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des eleves (PISA) demontrent que les jeunes neobrunswickois francophones se classent b un niveau significativement inferieur comparaiivement aux eleves anglophones du Nouveau-Brunswick, aux eleves des autres provinces canadiennes et se classent sous la moyenne internationale de tous les pays participants quant b la culture scientifique. L'evaluation de cette culture scientifique est basee sur une serie de savoirs, de savoir-faire et de savoir-etre reliee au processus d'enquete scolaire. Le processus d'enquete scolaire est une approche b l'apprentissage ou les eleves effectuent des recherches d'informations, discutent d'idees et entreprennent des investigations pour augmenter leur comprehension d'un probleme ou d'un sujet. Les recherches demontrent que le processus d'enquete scolaire est rarement une composante pedagogique importante de la salle de classe et les recherches portant sur l'implantation du processus d'enquete scolaire recommandent de rendre ce dernier plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants. Afin de rendre le processus d'enquete plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants, notre recherche porte sur l'evaluation de la valeur pedagogique d'un scenario d'apprentissage (PhaRoboS) concu specialement pour creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions a mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Les retombees de cette evaluation nous permettront d'offrir des pistes de remediations afin d'aider plus d'enseignantes et d'enseignants b creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions b mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Cette evaluation s'est faite a partir d'une methodologie inspiree de l'evaluation pour fin d'amelioration d'un objet pedagogique. L'analyse des donnees qualitatives recueillies aupres des eleves et de leur enseignante d'une ecole francophone du Nouveau-Brunswick semble montrer que

  8. Radiation protection of people in contact with patient treated with metabolic radiotherapy using iodine-131 in nuclear medicine - case of the Laboratoire des Radio-Isotopes(LRI) Anpandrianomby

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAMAROJAONA, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the aim to propose recommendations for radiation protection of those in contact with patients, simulations were performed for restricting the radiation hazards to the family and the members of the public coming into contact with a patient treated with 131 Iode for a thyroid pathology. The simulated dose constraint was 0,3 mSv for the family. According to the regulation in radiation protection in Madagascar, annual dose limit for the public is 1mSv and 20 mSv for the workers. Several contact patterns were tested: contact to the workers, daily visits, public transports, return to work, sleeping with partner and close contact with children. The recommendations duration was evaluated both as a function of the administered activity (out-patient) or the residual activity (discharged inpatient) by measuring the dose rate at 1 m distance from the patient. [fr

  9. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelay, J. [IPSN/DPEA/SEAC (France)

    1996-12-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author).

  10. Present status of iodine research at IPSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since several years, IPSN has conducted an effort in order to evaluate the release of radioactive iodine in case of hypothetical severe accident in a realistic manner. This source-term evaluation is performed with IODE code which is a module of the EXCADRE system of codes. This code is validated against: -analytical experiments: in these experiments, IPSN studies radiolytic effects and chemical processes in the sump, organic formation, mass transfer, effect of spray (CARAIDAS experiment), - the CAIMAN semi global experiment; this experiment will allow to study the phenomena linked to iodine behavior under representative containment geometry in the presence of painted surfaces and global irradiation, - the PHEBUS FP program. The paper consists to describe succinctly the current status of IODE and the various experiments for its validation. In case of hypothetical severe accident iodine can induce important perturbations of human organism. The effects are principally radiological, in particular on the thyroid. At short term, radioactive iodine is the most important contributor for the sanitary risk. It represents 55% of effective dose and 92% of thyroid dose at 10 km in case of controlled rejects with current assumptions. This is the reason why it must be actively studied. In France, the safety evaluations are performed with mechanistic codes or lumped parameter codes like EXCADRE which contains a module devoted to iodine studies: IODINE. The objective of the French experimental program on iodine is to understand and quantify important phenomena in order to put kinetic parameters in IODE module. The experiments can be classified in analytical experiments, the semi-global experiment CAIMAN which takes into account different phenomena studied in analytical experiments and the global experiment PHEBUS PF, not only devoted to iodine behavior study. In the following text we will present the needs of IODINE code and these different experiments. (author)

  11. Iodine deficiency and iodine excess in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords:
    iodine deficiency, iodine excess, endemic goiter, drinking water, iodine intake, thyroid function, thyroid size, iodized salt, iodized oil, IQ, physical development, hearing capacity, epidemiology, meta-analysis, IDD, randomized trial, intervention, USA, Bangladesh,

  12. Values of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing the iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Wu, Lian; Yu, Song-lin; Fang, Hui-ling; Kamg, Wei-ming; Cheng, Xin-qi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Jian-chun; Qiu, Ling

    2015-04-01

    To assess the clinical application value of iodine metabolism biomarkers in assessing iodine nutrition status in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease. Blood,morning urine and 24-hour urine samples were collected in 31 healthy volunteers and in 30 surgically treated patients with thyroid disease before and after surgery. Iodine concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The iodine metabolism biomarkers including serum iodine (SI), morning urine iodine(UI), morning urine iodine/urine creatinine ratio (UI/UCr), 24-hour urine iodine (24 h UI), and 24-hour urine iodine excretion (24 h UIE) were evaluated in these two groups. In addition, the validation coincidence rate of iodine metabolism biomarkers in healthy volunteers to different reference ranges including World Health Organization, Mayo Clinic, and Quest Diagnostics were calculated. The UI/UCr ratio of pre-operative thyroid disease patients was significantly lower than that of healthy volunteers (P0.05) between these two groups. The SI, UI ,and 24 h UI in postoperative thyroid disease patients were significantly higher than those of the pre-operative patients (all Piodine metabolism biomarkers. The UI/UCr ratio may be used for iodine nutrition evaluation in surgically treated patients with thyroid disease.

  13. Iodine-123 program at the TRIUMF laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A research program for the production and utilization of iodine-123 is described. From 1979 to 1982 the spallation of elemental cesium by 500-MeV protons was used to provide 100 mCi/hr at the end of bombardment (EOB). Contaminants were 3% iodine-125 and 0.15% tellurium-121 at EOB + 36 hr. The material from weekly runs was used by remote clinics in Canada for evaluation as a radiochemical and for labeling studies. A new facility at TRIUMF will be operational in 1983 to produce iodine-123 by the (p,5n) reaction

  14. The Iodine Content in Urine, Faeces and Selected Organs of Rats Fed Lettuce Biofortified with Iodine Through Foliar Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakoczy, Roksana; Kopeć, Aneta; Piątkowska, Ewa; Smoleń, Sylwester; Skoczylas, Łukasz; Leszczyńska, Teresa; Sady, Włodzimierz

    2016-12-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans. Foliar application of micronutrients is successfully used in order to increase the concentration of essential elements in vegetables. The aim of this study was to evaluate the iodine absorption in the rat organism fed foliar biofortified lettuce. The presented study was consisted of the vegetative and animal experiment. In the vegetative experiment with lettuce, two combinations of foliar application were used: (1) control-without iodine application and (2) iodine application in the potassium iodide (KI) form. In the animal experiment, Wistar rats were divided to four groups, which received one of four diets: (1) C-control diet containing iodine in the KI form, (2) D-diet deficient in iodine, (3) D + BL-diet containing biofortified lettuce, and (4) D + CL-diet containing control lettuce (as the only source of iodine in diet, respectively). The diets contained 0.260, 0.060, 0.254 and 0.075 mg I/kg, respectively. In order to determine the iodine absorption in the rat organisms, the content of this trace element was measured in urine, faeces and in selected organs with the use of the ICP-OES technique. Foliar application of the KI increased the content of iodine in lettuce. The rats from the D + BL group excreted significantly less iodine in their urine and faeces and also accumulated more iodine in the organs than the rats from the C group. Iodine with biofortified lettuce was much bioavailable for rodents than iodine from control diet. Biofortified lettuce can be a source of iodine in a diet of human and can improve iodine nutrition.

  15. Iodine deficiency disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (IDD) is one of the common problem in the diet. Iodine deficiency as prevalence of goiter in population occurs in the mountainous areas. There is consensus that 800 million people are at risk of IDD from living in iodine deficient area and 190 million from goiter. Very high prevalence of IDD in different parts of the world are striking. It has generally observed that in iodine-deficient areas about 50% are affected with goiter, 1-5% from cretinsim and 20% from impaired mental and/or mortor function. (A.B.)

  16. Evaluation des prescriptions antibiotiques au service des urgences de l’Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V (HMIMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbouti, Anass; Rafai, Mostafa; Chouaib, Naoufal; Jidane, Said; Belkouch, Ahmed; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2016-01-01

    Cette étude à pour objectifs de décrire les pratiques des prescriptions, évaluer leur pertinence et leur conformité aux règles d’utilisations et étudier les facteurs susceptibles de les influencer. Il s’agit d’une étude transversale d’évaluation des prescriptions antibiotiques portant sur 105 patients réalisée au service des urgences médico-chirurgicales de l’H.M.I.Med V de Rabat sur une période d’un mois. Le recueil des données était fait à l’aide d’un questionnaire rapportant les données démographiques et anamnestiques, les antécédents, la notion d’allergie, les données spécifiques de l’examen clinique, les données para cliniques, la prescription détaillée de l’antibiotique. Les données récoltées ont été ensuite évaluées par un médecin référent, chargé d’indiquer les éventuelles erreurs de traitement. Parmi les infections ayant motivé la prescription des antibiotiques, les affections des systèmes respiratoires et urinaires étaient au premier rang, les familles d’antibiotiques les plus couramment employées sont les pénicillines, les quinolones et les céphalosporines. 74 prescriptions soit (70,5%) étaient à la fois pertinentes et conformes contre 9 prescriptions soit (8,6%) justifiées mais non pertinentes et 6 prescriptions soit (5,7%) étaient jugées injustifiées par le médecin référent par absence d’infection. Les évaluations des pratiques médicales sont rarement menées dans les établissements de santé; c’est dans ce cadre que nous avons voulu nous inscrire en produisant cette étude afin d’améliorer la pertinence de nos prescriptions antibiotiques et d’optimiser leur conformité aux différentes recommandations. PMID:28292124

  17. Evaluation des Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations des districts sanitaires de Benoye, Laoukassy, Moundou et N’Djaména Sud sur la rage canine au Tchad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindekem, Rolande; Lechenne, Monique; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Zinsstag, Jakob; Ouedraogo, Laurent Tinoaga; Salifou, Sahidou

    2017-01-01

    Introduction La rage canine demeure une préoccupation en Afrique comme au Tchad. La présente étude vise à évaluer les Connaissances-Attitudes-Pratiques des populations pour la prise en charge appropriée des personnes exposées et une lutte efficace. Méthodes C’était une étude transversale descriptive réalisée en juillet et septembre dans quatre districts sanitaires au Tchad en 2015. Les données ont été collectées à l’aide d’un questionnaire auprès des ménages recrutés suivant un sondage aléatoire à 3 degrés. Résultats C’était 2428 personnes enquêtées avec un niveau maximum primaire (54,12%). L’âge moyen était de 36 ± 13,50 ans. Ils étaient cultivateurs (35,17%), commerçants (18,04%), ménagères (12,81%). La rage était définie comme une maladie transmise du chien à l’homme (41,43%), une altération du cerveau (41,27%), une sous-alimentation (10,26%). Le chat était faiblement connu réservoir (13,84%) et vecteur (19,77%) ainsi que la griffure comme moyen de transmission (4,61%) et la vaccination du chat comme mesure préventive (0,49%). Les premiers soins en cas de morsure à domicile étaient les pratiques traditionnelles (47,69%), le lavage des plaies (19,48%) ou aucune action entreprise (20,43%). Les ménages consultaient la santé humaine (78,50%), la santé animale (5,35%) et les guérisseurs traditionnels (27%). Conclusion La communication en rapport avec des premiers soins à la maison en cas de morsure, la connaissance du chat comme réservoir et vecteur, celle de la griffure comme moyen de transmission et la promotion de la consultation des services vétérinaires en cas de morsure sont nécessaires. PMID:28761600

  18. A comparative study of transfer factors of water, iodine and strontium on rye-grass and clover. Development of a model of evaluation of the limits of foliar contamination by wet deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, Livio; Levi, Emilio.

    1977-07-01

    Transfer factors of water, iodine ( 131 I) and strontium ( 85 Sr) on above-ground parts of rye-grass and clover were determined as a function of aspersion intensities. An analysis of the results showed the effect of aspersion intensities, nature of the chemical element and plant species on the values of transfer factors of iodine and strontium. It also made it possible to propose a simple method of evaluation of contamination limits of the aerial parts of plants by wet deposit, based on transfer values of water on plants only [fr

  19. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF PREOPERATIVE SKIN PREPARATION WITH AQUEOUS POVIDONE IODINE ONLY AND IN COMBINATION WITH ALCHOLIC CHLORHEXIDINE IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING ELECTIVE AND EMERGENCY SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latchu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Many techniques are there for skin preparation before surgery, the commonest being initial scrub with antiseptic soap solution, followed by painting the prepared area with antiseptic paint solution. But degerming of the skin can be done with antiseptics us ed for less than one minute which is as effective as five minute scrub with germicidal soap solution followed by painting with antiseptics . AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : 1. To evaluate the efficacy of povidone iodine alone and antiseptic agent containing alcoholic chlorhexidine with povidone iodine in preoperative skin preparation by taking swab culture. 2. To compare the rate of postoperative wound infection in both the groups . METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Comparative study conducted on 100 patients in two groups. STUDY SETTING: Sri Venkateswara Medical College Tirupathi SOURCE OF DATA: 100 Patients (50 in each Group undergoing elective and emergency surgery admitted in the Department of General Surgery in S.V.R.R. Government General Hospital, Tirupati from 2013 to 2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Patients undergoing elective & emergency surgery in department of general surgery. 2. Patients with no focus of infection anywhere on the body. 3. Patients irrespective of their age and sex. 4. Patients neither immunocompromised nor on any long term steroids. 5. Patients undergoing mes h repair of hernia are also included. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Immuno compromised patients and patients on long term steroids. 2. Patients with septicemia. 3. Patients suffering from malignancies or undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. 4. Contaminat ed surgeries in which viscus was opened were excluded from the study. 5. Patients with co - morbid medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension etc. METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: In each case preoperatively, detailed history was taken and routine investiga tions like haemoglobin, total count, differential count, ESR, RBS and chest X - ray, ultrasound were done to

  20. Entwicklung und Evaluation der Schulcurriculum : Auf Grund des Nachdenkens von Zeitschrift "Curriculum"

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 成章

    2009-01-01

    Der Beitrag versucht auf Grund des Nachdenkens von Zeitschrift „Curriculum“ zu untersuchen, wie die Schulcurriculum entwickelt wird, wie die evaluiert wird. Zeitschrift „Curriculm“ wurde von „Kerncurriculum Bund“ in dem Nachkriegsjapan herausgebt. Von 1949/1 bis zu 1959/12 wurde Zeitschrift „Curriculum“ in monatlichen regelmäßigen Zeitabständen publiziert. Nach 1960/1 ändert „Curriculum“ den Namen „Lebenserziehung“. Hierbei ich ordne die Forschung-Perioden zur Evaluation-Forschung der Schulcu...

  1. [Recurrent postoperative sciatica. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray computed tomography with iodine injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, J L; de Korvin, B; Frocrain, L; Lucas, C; Duvauferrier, R

    1990-01-01

    The respective performance of MRI and CT were studied prospectively in 80 cases. Surgery was indicated in 56 patients after MRI examination and 21 patients after CT; the 21 patients were included in the 56. Among these patients, 45 were reoperated and 11 preferred the medical treatment. Surgery confirmed the diagnosis for 44 patients (from the 45), and the only discordance was the presence of ligament calcification, associated to a disc protrusion not seen on MRI. Surgery confirmed also the diagnosis for the 21 cases diagnosed by CT after iodine injection. However, among the 24 cases of fibrosis diagnosed by CT after i.v. injection were found: 19 recurrent disc protrusions, 4 disc protrusions with fibrosis, and 1 disc protrusion at a level above the operated disc.

  2. Evaluation of visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine as cervical cancer screening tools in a low-resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sabuhi; Das, Vinta; Zahra, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    In view of the failure of cytology screening programmes for cervical cancer in developing countries, the World Health Organization suggested unaided visual inspection of the cervix after an application of acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) as alternative screening methods. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of VIA and VILI compared to Pap smear as screening methods for carcinoma of the cervix in a low-resource setting. Three hundred and twenty-eight women were subjected to a Pap smear test, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. The results were as follows: Pap smear test (20.83%, specificity 98.38%), VIA (55.5%, 71.39%) and VILI (86.84%, 48.93%). Although VIA and VILI are less specific in comparison to the Pap smear test, they are more sensitive in detecting pre-invasive lesions. Hence VIA and VILI can be used as cervical cancer screening tools in low-resource settings.

  3. Iodine-deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Jooste, P.L.; Pandav, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed

  4. The iodine reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The iodine is an important element because it has long life isotopes (such as iodine 129) and a great mobility in natural media. Iodine presents a complex chemistry because of its volatility and its strong redox reactivity. The S.E.C.R. works to better understand the reactivity of this element in different natural, industrial or biological environments. It plays a part in thermochemical sites as a possible way of hydrogen formation. This seminar gives some aspects relative to the chemical reactivity of iodine, since its thermochemistry in the I/S cycles to produce hydrogen to its reactivity in the natural medium and its potential radiological impact. This document includes 4 presentations transparencies) dealing with: the 129 I cycle rejected in the low radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents of the La Hague reprocessing plant (C. Frechou); a bibliographic review of iodine retention in soils (F. Bazer-Bachi); the hydrogen production and the iodine/sulfur thermochemical cycle (role of iodine in the process); and the direct characterization by electro-spray ionization mass spectroscopy of iodine fixation by fulvic acids (P. Reiller, B. Amekraz, C. Moulin, V. Moulin)

  5. Marine geochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, H.; Elderfield, H.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine has long been classified as a biophilic element with analyses showing that iodine is strongly enriched, relative to seawater concentrations in both plankton and particulate matter and that the concentration of iodine found in surface sediments is still further enriched relative to that found in the sedimenting particulate matter. The extent of enrichment of iodine relative to carbon in deep sea surface sediments has been shown to depend on the carbon accumulation rate. Iodine decomposition rates have been calculated and are shown to vary with the sedimentation rate in the same manner as has been shown for organic carbon. Vertical profiles of total dissolved iodine, iodate and iodide in interstitial waters of sediments from the north east Atlantic are characterised by three zones of reaction as identified by changes in the concentration of iodate and iodide. These reaction zones represent (i) iodide production (ii) iodide oxidation and (iii) iodate reduction. Pore water and solid phase iodine profiles from cores containing turbidite units have shown that iodine, released to pore waters as iodide during the oxidation of the organic matter, has been scavenged after diffusing upwards into a less reducing region of the sediment. (author)

  6. Computational and Experimental Assessment of Jets in Cross Flow (Evaluation Numerique et Experimentale des Jets dans des Courants Transversaux)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Phosphorescence intensity depends on temperature test section, 91.5 cm tall, is formed by an aluminum and is strongly quenched by oxygen , so...before injection, using the oxygen in the second- tions. More details about the solution scheme are given "ar" air as an oxidizer. in Ref. 12, 13, and...plaques de mouvement du jet transversal et l’dloignement relatif sont dquipdes do prises de pression relides A des capteurs de entre le jet

  7. Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the mechanisms of iodine-induced hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, identify the risk factors for thyroid dysfunction following an iodine load, and summarize the major sources of excess iodine exposure. Recent findings Excess iodine is generally well tolerated, but individuals with underlying thyroid disease or other risk factors may be susceptible to iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction following acute or chronic exposure. Sources of increased iodine exposure include the global public health efforts of iodine supplementation, the escalating use of iodinated contrast radiologic studies, amiodarone administration in vulnerable patients, excess seaweed consumption, and various miscellaneous sources. Summary Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction. PMID:22820214

  8. Evaluation of local hospital discharge for thyroid cancer patients treated with Iodine-131; comparison with internationally accepted release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stylianou-Markidou, E.; Peraticou, A.; Constantinou, C.; Giannos, A.; Aritkan, A.V.; Dimitriadou, D.; Frangos, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Aim: Patients with Thyroid Cancer treated with I-131 in our institution, stay in a shielded room for two days, or until they emit less than 40 μSv/hr at 1m, based on the Cyprus legislation for radiation protection. Other countries have different regulations and public dose limits, and their hospital discharge guidelines vary accordingly. The purpose of this study is to evaluate local hospital discharge regulations, make a comparison with other countries' accepted release criteria, and find where improvements can be made. Methods: 267 patients were treated with I-131 (activity 1.8-8.9GBq) from September 2001 to April 2007. The dose equivalent rate (DER) was measured within 30 min of the administration at a distance of 1 m from the patient. Measurements at 1m were also obtained before the release of the patient. For a group of these patients, measurements were also carried out a week after the treatment with I-131. The doses given to members of the public, from each of the above patients, were calculated using the Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) concept, which is based on the line source model. For 10% of these patients, measurements of the dose emitted to surroundings were taken, using two different methods. (a) Doses were measured with TLD dosimeters placed at specific points of the room during the two day restriction of the patient in the shielded room. These points were at bedside, at 1 m from the patient's bed, at 3m from the patient's bed, in the shower area, and at the side of the toilet. (b) On the day of release, personal dosimeters were given to a member of the immediate family (carer) of the patient for a minimum of five days. The skin dose and dose at approximately 10cm depth were measured by the National personnel monitoring for radiation protection authority of Cyprus. Results: Our calculation of the TEDE values indicated that, had the patients been released just after the administration of the radiopharmaceutical, members of the

  9. Intravascular enhancement with identical iodine delivery rate using different iodine contrast media in a circulation phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Wildberger, Joachim E; Jurencak, Tomas; Yanniello, Michael J; Nijssen, Estelle C; Kalafut, John F; Nalbantov, Georgi; Mühlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F; Das, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Both iodine delivery rate (IDR) and iodine concentration are decisive factors for vascular enhancement in computed tomographic angiography. It is unclear, however, whether the use of high-iodine concentration contrast media is beneficial to lower iodine concentrations when IDR is kept identical. This study evaluates the effect of using different iodine concentrations on intravascular attenuation in a circulation phantom while maintaining a constant IDR. A circulation phantom with a low-pressure venous compartment and a high-pressure arterial compartment simulating physiological circulation parameters was used (heart rate, 60 beats per minute; stroke volume, 60 mL; blood pressure, 120/80 mm Hg). Maintaining a constant IDR (2.0 g/s) and a constant total iodine load (20 g), prewarmed (37°C) contrast media with differing iodine concentrations (240-400 mg/mL) were injected into the phantom using a double-headed power injector. Serial computed tomographic scans at the level of the ascending aorta (AA), the descending aorta (DA), and the left main coronary artery (LM) were obtained. Total amount of contrast volume (milliliters), iodine delivery (grams of iodine), peak flow rate (milliliter per second), and intravascular pressure (pounds per square inch) were monitored using a dedicated data acquisition program. Attenuation values in the AA, the DA, and the LM were constantly measured (Hounsfield unit [HU]). In addition, time-enhancement curves, aortic peak enhancement, and time to peak were determined. All contrast injection protocols resulted in similar attenuation values: the AA (516 [11] to 531 [37] HU), the DA (514 [17] to 531 [32] HU), and the LM (490 [10] to 507 [17] HU). No significant differences were found between the AA, the DA, and the LM for either peak enhancement (all P > 0.05) or mean time to peak (AA, 19.4 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds; DA, 21.1 [1.0] to 21.4 [1.15] seconds; LM, 19.8 [0.58] to 20.1 [1.05] seconds). This phantom study demonstrates that

  10. Iodine status in the Nordic countries – past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Filipsson Nyström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate iodine nutrition is dependent on ground water content, seafood, and, as many countries use iodized cow fodder, dairy products. In most countries, salt fortification programs are needed to assure adequate iodine intake. Objectives: The objectives are threefold: 1 to describe the past and present iodine situation in the Nordic countries, 2 to identify important gaps of knowledge, and 3 to highlight differences among the Nordic countries’ iodine biomonitoring and fortification policies. Design: Historical data are compared with the current situation. The Nordic countries’ strategies to achieve recommended intake and urine iodine levels and their respective success rates are evaluated. Results: In the past, the iodine situation ranged from excellent in Iceland to widespread goiter and cretinism in large areas of Sweden. The situation was less severe in Norway and Finland. According to a 1960 World Health Organization (WHO report, there were then no observations of iodine deficiency in Denmark. In Sweden and Finland, the fortification of table salt was introduced 50–75 years ago, and in Norway and Finland, the fortification of cow fodder starting in the 1950s helped improve the population's iodine status due to the high intake of milk. In Denmark, iodine has been added to household salt and salt in bread for the past 15 years. The Nordic countries differ with regard to regulations and degree of governmental involvement. There are indications that pregnant and lactating women, the two most vulnerable groups, are mildly deficient in iodine in several of the Nordic countries. Conclusion: The Nordic countries employ different strategies to attain adequate iodine nutrition. The situation is not optimal and is in need of re-evaluation. Iodine researchers, Nordic national food administrations, and Nordic governmental institutions would benefit from collaboration to attain a broader approach and guarantee good iodine health for all.

  11. Iodine generator for reclaimed water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The system disclosed is for controlling the iodine level in a water supply in a spacecraft. It includes an iodine accumulator which stores crystalline iodine, an electrochemical valve to control the input of iodine to the drinking water and an iodine dispenser. A pump dispenses fluid through the iodine dispenser and an iodine sensor to a potable water tank storage. The iodine sensor electronically detects the iodine level in the water, and through electronic means, produces a correction current control. The correction current control operates the electro-chemical iodine valve to release iodine from the iodine accumulator into the iodine dispenser.

  12. Contribution of scintigraphy for somatostatin receptors in case of non-iodine-fixating metastases of thyroid epithelioma; Apport de la scintigraphie des recepteurs de la somatostatine en cas de metastases non iodo-fixant d`epiteloma thyroidien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couty, H. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CRLC, Montpellier (France); Andrieu, J.M.; Baudet, L. [Service d`Endocrinologie, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Faurous, P.; Artus, J.C. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CRLC, Montpellier (France); Jaffiol, C. [Service d`Endocrinologie, CHU Lapeyronie, CRLC, Montpellier (France)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity and importance of scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors (SSR) in the detection of non iodine-fixating metastases of thyroid epithelioma. We have studied retrospectively 7 patients with a detectable thyroglobulin under hormonal hindrance, amounting after cessation of treatment up to 72 - 1500 {mu} g/l and a normal post-irradiation therapy (3.7 GBq of {sup 131}I) scintigraphy. These patients (4 F / 3 M), aged from 27 to 74 years (average age, 54 years), were treated by total and ganglionic curettage for papillary cancer of thyroid. Their evolutive surveillance extended from 1 to 24 years (on average, 8.4 years) and they received curative cumulated {sup 131}I activities of 13 to 26 GBq. Each of them benefited by an osseous scintigraphy, of a cervico-thoraco-abdominal TDM and of a {sup 111}In Pentetreotide SSR. The SSR was positive for 4/7 patients showing cervico-mediastinal fixations, the localizations being not detected by TDM. The osseous scintigraphy revealed once to be positive showing a costal lesion already detected by SSR. Cervical non-palpable adenopathies were detected by TDM for one patient. The anatomical-pathological analysis confirmed their thyroid origin. For other two patients the TDM showed suspect pulmonary nodules. These cervical and pulmonary localization were not detected by SSR. The SSR + TDM couple was positive for 6/7 patients. In conclusion, in this series the sensitivity of SSR was estimated to be 57%. Besides, the results obtained showed a net complementarity between the detection performances of SSR and TDM

  13. Evaluation des techniques de production du beurre de karité au Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fort de ces constats, il est alors envisagé par la suite des études supplémentaires sur des paramètres physico-chimiques des échantillons afin de mieux apprécier la qualité des beurres de karité produits au Togo. Mot clés : Beurre, unités de production, procédés d'extraction, rendements en beurre, caractéristiques ...

  14. Evaluation de l'activité antioxydante des extraits hydro-ethanoliques ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concernant le test ABTS les CI50 des deux extraits sont 39,3 ± 1,00 μg/ml et 109 ± 6,25 μg/ml respectivement. Le pouvoir réducteur des écorces est supérieur à celui des feuilles à toutes les concentrations testées. Donc les écorces présentent une activité antioxydante meilleure que celle des feuilles de cette plante.

  15. Semiquantitative test for iodine vapor above "complexed" iodine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loran, M; Kleinmann, K

    1975-04-01

    A test to determine the extent to which free iodine exists in the vapor phase above the surface of "complexed iodine" solutions is described. The procedure is based on the qualitative starch-iodine test. The results can be related to the degree of complexation occurring between the polymer used in the preparation and iodine. Four products were tested: nonylphenoxypoly ethanol-iodine complex; polyvinyl pyrrolidine-iodine complex; popoxamer-iodine complex; and nonylphenoxypoly ethanol and polyvinyl pyrrolidone iodine complex. Free iodine in the vapor phase of the first product was detected in 90 minutes; the time for the other three was five days. For the tincture of iodine control, the time was 30 minutes.

  16. Biometric Border Security Evaluation Framework (Biometrique Cadre D’evaluation de la Securite des Frontieres)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    assess capture rates and identification rates Approximately 25000 images were collected for testing, of which approximately 6000 were of sufficient...interoperability have been mostly overcome due to the pervasive adoption of ICAO and ISO standards for biometric imaging, and due to the near-total reliance on...surmontés grâce à l’adoption envahissante de normes OACI et ISO pour l’imagerie biométrique, et grâce à la confiance quasi totale à l’égard des

  17. Milk as an Essential Source of Iodine in Latvian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimane Lolita Vija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are studied as alternative iodine sources, because salt iodisation is controversial due to high salt consumption leading to cardiovascular diseases. However, the iodine concentration in milk markedly varies. This study evaluated the iodine concentration in cow’s milk available in the Latvian market. Iodine and fat concentration was analysed with a spectrophotometer “Varian Cary 50” based ISO 2446:2008 in 20 milk samples. Data from the Central Statistical Bureau and survey among pregnant women were used to analyse milk product consumption and its impact on iodine status. Average iodine concentration in milk samples was 457.6 (179.6 μg/L, winter samples had a higher concentration of iodine than summer samples: 563.4 (329.6 μg/L and 469.2 (162.0 μg/L, but this is not statistically significant p < 0.05. Iodine concentration in skimmed milk was 490 μg/L, milk with the reduced fat content 501.7 (174.8 μg/L, and whole milk — 422.6 (192.11 μg/L. Milk consumption decreased from 2002 to 2014, while yogurt and cheese consumption increased. Higher consumption of milk and milk products was related to higher urinary iodine concentration ρ = 0.115; p = 0.003. Milk and milk products are an important iodine source in Latvia and their consumption should be promoted.

  18. Is placental iodine content related to dietary iodine intake?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, R

    2011-08-01

    Delivery of iodine to the foetus depends not only on maternal dietary iodine intake but also on the presence of a functioning placental transport system. A role for the placenta as an iodine storage organ has been suggested, and this study compares the iodine content of placentas from women giving birth at term in Ireland and Iran, areas with median urinary iodine of 79 and 206 μg\\/l respectively.

  19. Evaluation des bassins par modélisation intégrée en deux dimensions des transferts techniques, de l'écoulement des fluides, de la genèse et de la migration des hydrocarbures Basin Evaluation by Integrated Two-Dimensional Modeling of Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, Hydrocarbon Generation, and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenet P. Y.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le modèle de bassin exposé dans cet article décrit les phénomènes physiques et chimiques qui contrôlent la formation d'accumulations commerciales, dans le cadre évolutif d'un bassin sédimentaire affecté par la subsidence : transfert de chaleur, compaction et écoulement de l'eau, génèse des hydrocarbures, migration diphasique de l'eau et des hydrocarbures. Le modèle tient compte des variations de conductivité et des phénomènes thermiques transitoires pour reconstituer les paléo-températures. Des validations quantitatives de la reconstitution des paléo-températures et du modèle cinétique de formation des hydrocarbures peuvent être obtenues par comparaison avec les températures actuelles et les données géochimiques. Les écoulements et les surpressions induits par la compaction sont décrits en couplant une loi de compaction avec la loi de Darcy, classique pour les écoulements de l'eau, en ajoutant un critère de fracturation hydraulique naturelle. Ceci permet de modéliser les pressions anormales dans des séquences deltaïques récentes (delta de la Mahakam, comme dans des bassins liés à des rifts anciens (mer du Nord. Une adaptation de la loi de Darcy aux écoulements diphasiques permet de reproduire la migration primaire et la migration secondaire. En particulier, le modèle permet d'étudier le rôle des pressions anormales et l'influence des failles sur la migration et le piégeage. Nos résultats confirment que les modèles de bassins peuvent contribuer à synthétiser les données géologiques, géophysiques et géochimiques dans un schéma cohérent. En précisant l'évaluation pétrolière, ces modèles constituent une des principales voies pour améliorer l'efficacité de l'exploration. The basin model discussed in this paper describes the physical and chemical phenomena that control the formation of commercial accumulations of hydrocarbons in the moving framework of a subsiding sedimentary basin : heat

  20. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PREOPERATIVE SKIN PREPARATION WITH CHLORHEXIDINE-ALCOHOL VERSUS POVIDONE-IODINE IN PREVENTION OF SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Danasekaran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgical site infections is a dangerous condition posing a heavy burden on the patient and social health system. The use of preoperative skin preparation by effective antiseptic plays an important role in reducing postoperative wound infections. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare and evaluate the efficacy of 2% chlorhexidine-alcohol versus 5% povidone-iodine in abdominal surgeries for prevention of SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present one year randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of General Surgery, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai, over a period from 2014 to 2015 on 120 patients undergoing elective abdominal surgeries. The patients were divided into two groups by computer randomisation that is Group A (chlorhexidine-alcohol group and Group B (povidone-iodine group. The surgical wounds were examined for any infections present. RESULTS Most of the patients were males in both the groups (73.33% and 61.67% in group A and B, respectively. Half of the patients (50% in both the groups had chronic appendicitis. The mean duration of surgery in group A was 44.66 ± 5.86 minutes, and in group B, it was 45.00 ± 6.24 minutes. Staphylococcus aureus (1.67% in group A and 10% in group B was the most common organism isolated after skin preparation. After the application of antiseptic agents, there was reduction of bacterial colonisation in both the groups, but significant reduction was seen in chlorhexidine group. In group A, two patients had superficial SSIs compared to 14 patients in group B (p=0.001. The mean length of hospital stay in group A was significantly less (7.20 ± 1.10 vs. 8.67 ± 3.17. CONCLUSION Preoperative skin cleansing with chlorhexidine significantly reduces risk of postoperative SSIs and colonisation of bacteria in clean abdominal surgeries.

  1. Chemical and radiological toxicity of iodine isotopes. Experimental study on the rat at the perinatal stage; Toxicite chimique et radiologique des isotopes de l'iode. Etude experimentale chez le rat en periode perinatale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, K

    2000-07-01

    The recommended prophylactic measure in the case of an exposure to radio-iodine is an excess take of stable iodine. During the perinatal stage, the thyroid is radio-sensible but also fragile with respect to an excess of iodine. This work performed on the rat, treats of the potential thyroidal toxicity of the prophylaxy and analyzes the early radio-lesions induced by {sup 131}I. On the basis of microscopic (optical, electronic, ionic) and dosimetric studies (TSH, T4), four aspects are considered: 1 - the perinatal morpho-functional evolution (F18, J1, J4, J10, J21, J35); 2 - the consequences of an iodine overburden at three moments of the thyroid maturation (F16, F20 and J4); 3 - the effects on the thyroid cells growth of different iodine overburdens (4 g, 20 g, 100 g); and 4 - the radio-toxic effects (after 48 h) of {sup 131}I taken at J5 (30 Gy) and at J35 (900 Gy). This work evidences the following points: 1 - the perinatal evolution of the thyroid tissue of the rat shows ultra-structural and follicular modifications and physiological follicular destructions; 2 - the variability of the iodine overburden effects: hyperactivity for overburdens at F16, tissue destruction with compensated hypothyroidism for overburdens at J5, no recognized thyroidal anomaly for the overburden at J20; 3 - the iodated overburden inhibits the start-up of the S-phase of the cellular cycle at a lower level (1/20); 4 - the {sup 131}I taken at J5 (30 Gy) induces a lysis of the nucleic acids content, while {sup 131}I taken at J35 (900 Gy) induces an important inflammatory reaction and some apoptosis phenomena. In summary, the stable iodine prophylactic measure can have two conjugated effects on the rat: an interesting action of thyroid cells growth inhibition, and a toxic action leading to an hyperactivity or a follicular destruction without hypothyroidism, depending on the maturation stage. The early effects of {sup 131}I seem to be linked with the age. (J.S.)

  2. The iodized salt programme in Bangalore, India provides adequate iodine intakes in pregnant women and more-than-adequate iodine intakes in their children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaiswal, N.; Boonstra, A.; Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasan, K.; Zimmerman, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India. Design A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women

  3. Evaluation of automated serum des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) assays for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyeon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated two new autoanalyzers, μTAS and Lumipulse for des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) assay. Analytical performance was evaluated, and the upper reference limit of the 97.5th percentile for DCP was re-established using sera from 140 healthy individuals. DCP levels were determined by the two autoanalyzers and EIA in a total of 239 sera from HCC patients (n=120) and those without HCC (n=119). Total imprecision of the two automated assays was Lumipulse. There were proportional and constant biases between the results from the autoanalyzers and those from EIA. The two newly developed DCP assays showed high analytical performance, but re-establishment of reference limits would be necessary. The new analyzers could be useful for clinical laboratories because of convenience of operation and wide AMRs. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical evaluation of Lugol's iodine staining in the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, M; Shigeta, T; Takahashi, H; Minamikawa, T; Komatsubara, H; Oguni, A; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often surrounded by epithelial dysplasia; leaving it unresected can result in local recurrence. Staining with Lugol's iodine solution detects epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosa, but whether it decreases local recurrence after OSCC surgery is unknown. This study investigated local recurrence rates in patients with early tongue cancer who underwent surgery using Lugol's staining. 93 patients with T1-2N0 tongue SCC underwent partial glossectomy using Lugol's staining during surgery. Resection was performed at least 5mm from the margin of the unstained area. Patients were investigated retrospectively for local recurrence status. Postoperative histology revealed negative surgical margins for SCC or epithelial dysplasia in 81 patients, close margins for SCC in 5, positive margins for mild epithelial dysplasia in 6, and a positive margin for SCC in one. Those with a positive or a close margin for SCC underwent additional resection 2-4 weeks after surgery; one was proved histologically to have residual SCC. No patients developed local recurrence, but 2 died of neck metastasis and 2 of distant metastasis. The 5-year disease specific survival rate was 93.8%. Lugol's staining during surgery can reduce local recurrence and improve survival in patients with early tongue SCC. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IODINE CONTENT OF ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Devina L; Young, Lorraine S; He, Xuemei; Braverman, Lewis E; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2017-07-01

    Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations. The objective of this study was to determine the iodine content of U.S. adult enteral and parenteral nutrition solutions. This study also aimed to determine whether adult patients in the United States who are receiving long-term artificial nutrition may be at risk for iodine deficiency. Ten enteral nutrition solutions and 4 parenteral nutrition solutions were evaluated. The iodine contents of these solutions were measured spectrophotometrically and compared to the labeled contents. Measured and labeled EN iodine contents were similar (range 131-176 μg/L and 106-160 μg/L, respectively). In contrast, PN formulas were found to contain small, unlabeled amounts of iodine, averaging 27 μg/L. Typical fluid requirements are 30 to 40 mL/kg/day for adults receiving either total EN (TEN) or total PN (TPN). Adults on long-term TEN likely consume enough servings to meet their daily iodine requirements. However, patients on long-term TPN would require on average 5.6 L PN/day to meet the recommended daily allowance of iodine. This volume of PN is far in excess of typical consumption. Thus, U.S. patients requiring long-term TPN may be at risk for iodine deficiency. EN = enteral nutrition; PN = parenteral nutrition; TEN = total enteral nutrition; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; UIC = urinary iodine concentration.

  6. Assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation: introduction to articles arising from 3 workshops held by the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    The NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in 2014, each held in Rockville, Maryland. These workshops were part of the ongoing ODS Iodine Initiative, begun in 2011 in response to concerns that US pregnant women may be at risk of iodine deficiency and that a high fraction of prenatal dietary supplements do not contain the recommended amounts of iodine. The primary purpose of the workshops was to consider the data and resources necessary to evaluate the clinical and public health benefits and risks of maternal iodine supplementation in the United States. The first workshop focused on the assessment of iodine intake, the second focused on the assessment of iodine status, and the third focused on the design and interpretation of clinical trials of maternal iodine supplementation. Here we provide the background of the ODS Iodine Initiative, summarize the 3 workshops held in 2014, and introduce the articles that arose from the workshops and are published in this supplement issue. PMID:27534646

  7. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  8. evaluation de la fertilite femelle des arabusta par le niveau de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les hybrides Arabusta sont caractérisés par une faible fertilité exprimée par des taux de caracolis élevés et des taux de loges vides importants induisant des productivités faibles. Pour une stratégie plus efficiente des sélections, il est important de connaître les niveaux de fertilité femelle des différents types de caféiers ...

  9. Controversies in urinary iodine determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Soldin, Offie Porat

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) is associated with increased prevalence of goiter, increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, and is the world’s leading cause of intellectual deficits. Iodine nutritional status of a population is assessed by measurements of urinary iodine concentrations which are also used to define, indicate, survey and monitor iodine deficiency and consequently its treatment. Several methods are available for urinary iodine determination. Discussed here are some of the limitat...

  10. [The radioiodine test for the evaluation of iodine deficiency in the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt and in East Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, K; Weiss, O; Möckel, G; Gerlach, J; Seitz, W; Ulrich, F E; Dempe, A

    1981-10-01

    The values of the per cent 24 h radioiodine uptake in the GDR are above 60--70% and speak for a low alimentary intake of iodine or renal excretion of iodine below 40 micrograms J/d. Like the struma prevalences they show a tendency increasing from north to south and characterize the whole European situation of iodine deficiency including its decrease from west to east. The mean values of radioiodine uptake of 71.7 +/- 13.2% (n = 110) in euthyroids of the district of Karl-Marx-Stadt correspond to the iodine deficiency as it occurs approximately in the districts of Erfurt, Dresden, Munich or Freiburg/B. The alimentary iodine intake of 38.4 +/- 17.2 micrograms J/d and the renal iodine excretion of 29.9 +/- 16.1 micrograms J/d, calculated from the 24 h radioiodine accumulation values of 40 euthyroid persons by means of a mathematical model developed by Oddie and co-workers were low. The latter only slightly differed (P less than 0.05) from its chemically estimated excretion of iodine in the urine: 23.1 +/- 16.9 micrograms J/g creatinine (n = 73). Between the calculated and chemically estimated excretion of iodine there was a relatively strict correlation of r = 0.68 (n = 26; P less than 0.001). The introduction of an iodine prophylaxis is regarded as an urgent necessity. Later on a new estimation of the regional "normal values" is necessary for the per cent radioiodine uptake.

  11. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hrabina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the evaluation of the chemical purity of iodine-filled absorption cells and the optical frequency references used for the frequency locking of laser standards. We summarize the recent trends and progress in absorption cell technology and we focus on methods for iodine cell purity testing. We compare two independent experimental systems based on the laser-induced fluorescence method, showing an improvement of measurement uncertainty by introducing a compensation system reducing unwanted influences. We show the advantages of this technique, which is relatively simple and does not require extensive hardware equipment. As an alternative to the traditionally used methods we propose an approach of hyperfine transitions’ spectral linewidth measurement. The key characteristic of this method is demonstrated on a set of testing iodine cells. The relationship between laser-induced fluorescence and transition linewidth methods will be presented as well as a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technique (in comparison with traditional measurement approaches.

  12. Iodine chemistry at severe accidents. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in the field. APRI 5 report. Part I: Iodine chemistry at hypothetical severe accidents. A review of the state-of-the-art 2003. Part II: A comparison of our knowledge on iodine chemistry and fission products with the current models used in MAAP 4.0.5; Jodkemi under svaara haverier. En sammanstaellnig och vaerdering av kunskapslaeget inom omraadet. APRI 5 rapport. Del I: Jodkemi vid hypotetiska svaara haverier. En genomgaang av kunskapslaeget aar 2003. Del II: Jaemfoerelse av kunskapslaeget om jodkemi och fissionsprodukter med aktuella modeller i MAAP 4.0.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, Jan-Olov [Liljenzins data och kemikonsult, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The current report tries to summarize and analyze the state-of-the-art on Iodine chemistry relevant to the conditions expected during severe accidents in nuclear power plants. This has made it necessary to compare a considerable amount of data, new as well as old, in order to try to find the reasons behind some changes in the expected chemical behaviour of Iodine. In a few cases this has been far from simple. Many numerical values are given in this report. However, me numbers given should not be used in a non-critical way because they are often deduced from measurements whose interpretation depends on various kinds of systematic differences and assumptions with regard to technique, 'known' constants, and models applied. The most important observation today is that one can no longer uncritically assume that iodine is only released and transported as cesium iodide. The considerable effect that control rod material (including other construction materials) can have on the way in which an accident develops and on its iodine chemistry is clearly seen from the results of the experiments performed within the PHEBUS FP project. The second part of the report evaluates new knowledge on Iodine chemistry and Iodine behaviour of importance in severe nuclear reactor accidents. Also some new information regarding the behaviour and chemistry of other fission products has been collected. In the light of this information, the current modelling of Iodine behaviour in the MAAP code version 4.0.5 has been investigated. No modelling errors have been found. However, some of the equations used to calculate the vapour pressure of the components in the AlC-alloy used in PWR control rods give questionable results. An error in the MAAP manual was found which should be corrected. Finally, some suggestions are given for future improvements in the modelling of severe accidents used in MAAP for both BWRs and PWRs.

  13. Production of radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, David J.

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses and compares various ways of Iodine-123 production using different targets such as 124 Xe, 122 Te, 123 Te, 124 Te and others. Requirements to targets and their design are discussed as well as nuclear reactions that lead to 123 I. Separation of the Iodine radioisotope is briefly presented along with comparison of the pathways in terms of the isotopic purity of target 123 I

  14. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  15. Comparative evaluation of three capripoxvirus-vectored peste des petits ruminants vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakri, F; Bamouh, Z; Ghzal, F; Baha, W; Tadlaoui, K; Fihri, O Fassi; Chen, W; Bu, Z; Elharrak, M

    2018-01-15

    Sheep and goat pox (SGP) with peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants that cause huge economic losses. Recombinant vaccines that can protect from both infections have been reported as a promising solution for the future. SGP was used as a vector to express two structural proteins hemagglutinin or the fusion protein of PPRV. We compared immunity conferred by recombinant capripoxvirus vaccines expressing H or F or both HF. Safety and efficacy were evaluated in goats and sheep. Two vaccine doses were tested in sheep, 10 4.5 TCDI50 in 1ml dose was retained for the further experiment. Results showed that the recombinant HF confers an earlier and stronger immunity against both SGP and PPR. This recombinant vaccine protect also against the disease in exposed and unexposed sheep. The potential Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals of recombinant vaccines is of great advantage in any eradication program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetic cartography of radioisotopes of iodine in the thyroid follicles of the new-born rats under low or standard iodine diet: Analyzed using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS50): Contribution to the study of the consequences of Chernobyl; Cartographie cinetique des radioisotopes de l'iode dans le follicule thyroidien du rat nouveau-ne carence en iode ou non. Analyse par spectrometrie de masse d'ions secondaires (NanoSIMS50). Contribution a l'etude des consequences de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbast, M

    2008-03-15

    The most significant impact of the Chernobylsk accident is the increased incidence of thyroid cancers among children in contaminated areas. To estimate the radiation dose provided by radioiodine released after Chernobylsk (iodine 131 and short-lived isotopes, iodine 132, 133, 134, 135), we used new-born rats to mimic the situation of fallout contamination (young age and iodine deficiency). The pups, under low iodine diet and under standard diet, were contaminated with {sup 129}I at ages varying between 2 to 15 days and sacrificed 1, 4, 8, 24 hours and 4, 8 days after contamination. The variation in intra colloidal iodine distribution from 1 hour to 8 days was performed using a new ionic nano probe (NanoSIMS50). This method permits to discriminate between the newly incorporated iodine (129) and the initial pool of iodine (127). SIMS observations permit to heterogeneous intra and inter follicular distribution of {sup 129}I. Iodine deficiency increases the absorbed amounts of iodine by a factor 10. Dosimetric estimations show an important contribution of short-lived radioiodine to the total thyrocyte dose. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the age and the iodine deficiency accelerate the absorption of iodine in follicles and that the contribution of short-lived iodine connate ne neglected. (author)

  17. Application of BOLD MRI and DTI for the evaluation of renal effect related to viscosity of iodinated contrast agent in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ren, Ke; Liu, Yi; Sun, Wen-Ge; Wang, Jia-Huan; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Cheng-Hua

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of viscosity of contrast agent (CA) on intrarenal oxygenation and diffusion as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a rat model. Radiocontrast iodixanol formulated in three viscosities were designated 270, 320, and 350 (mg iodine/mL). Sixty-three male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Saline and iodixanol (4 g iodine/kg) were administered. MR images were acquired on a 3.0T scanner at baseline and at 1 hour, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours postinjection of solutions. BOLD-MRI was performed with a multiple gradient-recalled-echo sequence. The changes in R2*, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), histology, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) immunoexpression were evaluated. The R2*, ADC, and FA values were normalized to baseline to calculate ΔR2*, ΔADC, and ΔFA. Compared with baseline levels, distinct elevation of ΔR2* (P < 0.05) and obvious decrease in ΔADC (P < 0.01) and ΔFA (P < 0.05) were observed in all the anatomical compartments at 1 hour after administration of CA. The absolute values in ΔR2*, ΔADC, and ΔFA increased with increases in CA viscosity, and differed significantly between the CA groups in renal cortex (CO), outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM), and inner stripe of outer medulla (ISOM) (all P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation was observed between ΔR2* and HIF-1α expression (P < 0.001, r = 0.75). Significant negative correlations were observed between ΔADC, ΔFA, and pathologies in CO, OSOM, ISOM (all P < 0.001, r = -0.68-0.87; all P < 0.001, r = -0.60-0.66). The effect of CA viscosity on intrarenal oxygenation and diffusion was viscosity-dependent, and was identified using BOLD-MRI and DTI. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1320-1331. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Concentrations of iodine and some environmental goitrogens in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the distribution of iodine and goitrogens in two selected rivers: Adada and Akoru in Enugu Sate, Nigeria. Iodine concentrations were found to be 0.109±0.001 and 0.108±0.001 ppm, respectively in both water bodies. The evaluated environmental goitrogens were as follows in Adada ...

  19. Mission and System Advantages of Iodine Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Oleson, Steve; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of alternative propellants for Hall thrusters continues to be of interest to the community. Investments have been made and continue for the maturation of iodine based Hall thrusters. Iodine testing has shown comparable performance to xenon. However, iodine has a higher storage density and resulting higher ?V capability for volume constrained systems. Iodine's vapor pressure is low enough to permit low-pressure storage, but high enough to minimize potential adverse spacecraft-thruster interactions. The low vapor pressure also means that iodine does not condense inside the thruster at ordinary operating temperatures. Iodine is safe, it stores at sub-atmospheric pressure, and can be stored unregulated for years on end; whether on the ground or on orbit. Iodine fills a niche for both low power (10kW) electric propulsion regimes. A range of missions have been evaluated for direct comparison of Iodine and Xenon options. The results show advantages of iodine Hall systems for both small and microsatellite application and for very large exploration class missions.

  20. Iodine status among pregnant women in rural Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kuang Kuay; Chan, Ying Ying; Teh, Chien Huey; Ismail, Hasimah; Yusof, Rafidah; Muhi, Jamail; Lim, Kuang Hock; Foo, Leng Huat

    2017-01-01

    In 2000, legislation on mandatory universal salt iodisation was enacted in Sabah, Malaysia, to reduce the incidence of iodine deficiency disorders among its population. To evaluate the iodine levels among pregnant women from selected rural divisions in Sabah 13 years after the enactment of the universal salt iodisation programme. This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 30 June, 2013, in three rural divisions of Sabah (the Interior, the West Coast, and Kudat). Data regarding domestic iodised salt use and iodine-containing supplement consumption were obtained from respondents through face-to-face interviews; goitre enlargement was examined through palpation and graded according to the World Health Organization classification. Spot urine samples were also obtained to assess urinary iodine levels by using an in-house modified micromethod. In total, 534 pregnant women participated. The prevalence of goitre was 1.0% (n=5), noted only in the West Coast and Kudat divisions. Although all pregnant women consumed iodised salt, overall median urinary iodine concentration was only 106 μg/L, indicating insufficient iodine intake, with nearly two-thirds of the women (60%) having a median urinary iodine concentrations of Sabah still exhibit iodine deficiency disorder despite the mandatory universal salt iodisation programme. Iodine supplementation programmes targeting pregnant women are warranted.

  1. Iodine Contents in Baby Food Consumed in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate iodine intake in Japanese infants, iodine contents were determined in both commercial and homemade baby food samples consumed in Japan. Fifty-three samples of commercial bottled or retort baby food and 25 samples of homemade baby food for one day were collected and their iodine contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after an extraction with 0.5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Among the commercial baby food samples, 35 samples showed low iodine values ( 1000 ng/g wet weight. Significantly higher iodine values were observed in 15 samples composed of dishes cooked using kombu (a kind of kelp than other samples. Among the homemade baby food samples, 12 samples brought very low iodine intake (< 1- 24 μg/d, while 5 samples brought very high iodine intake (283-978 μg/d. These results indicate that intermittent high iodine baby food including dishes cooked using kombu contributes to sufficient iodine intake in Japanese infants.

  2. Evaluation de la qualité sanitaire des poudres de feuilles de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Face au péril des carences nutritionnelles, la promotion des compléments alimentaires prend de l'ampleur au Bénin. L'objectif de cette étude est d'évaluer la qualité hygiénique des poudres de feuilles de Moringa oleifera commercialisées à Cotonou. 24 échantillons ont été achetés dans 12 points de vente et soumis à des ...

  3. Parametres de l'evaluation des traductions (Criteria for translation evaluation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouadec, Daniel

    1981-01-01

    Examines the problems encountered in evaluating translators' work and attempts to establish criteria for an objective method of evaluation. In this respect, questions the adequacy of traditional correction and revision principles as evaluation procedures and proposes new criteria based on the function and objectives of the evaluation process. (MES)

  4. Evaluation des Programmes d'Informatique (Evaluation of Computer Science Programs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Claude

    In March 1994, Quebec's Commission on the Evaluation of Collegiate Teaching initiated an evaluation of computer science programs in province colleges. This report describes the evaluation process and presents results. The first section describes the following four stages of the evaluation: the formation of a consulting committee and evaluation…

  5. Iodide Residues in Milk Vary between Iodine-Based Teat Disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, Elizabeth A; Mukai, Motoko; Zurakowski, Michael; Rauch, Bradley; Gioia, Gloria; Hillebrandt, Joseph R; Henderson, Mark; Schukken, Ynte H; Hemling, Thomas C

    Majority of iodine found in dairy milk comes from the diet and teat disinfection products used during milking process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 4 iodine-based teat dips on milk iodide concentrations varying in iodine level (0.25% vs. 0.5%, w/w), normal low viscosity

  6. Determination of iodine in food products by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, Preeti; Rajurkar, N.S.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Partha Sarathi, D.

    2007-01-01

    An epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) method using boron carbide shielding was standardized for the determination of concentrations of low levels of iodine in food materials namely milk, milk powder and baby foods. Advantage of iodine determination by ENAA has been evaluated by determining boron ratios of iodine and its interfering elements like Na, K, Mn and Br. For method validation, iodine concentration was determined in NIST SRM 1549, a low fat milk powder. (author)

  7. Interference of Cerebrospinal Fluid Total Protein Measurement by Povidone-Iodine Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Verena; Sacks, David B; Zhao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background A falsely high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein (TP) result measured by pyrogallol red (PGR) method was suspected to be caused by preparation of the collection site with povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine) solution. Methods CSF TP was evaluated for interference in samples with different final concentrations of PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) or iodine alone (up to 0.025% iodine) using three methods: PGR, modified biuret and benzethonium chloride (BZTC). Interference exceeding ±20% of the baseline value is considered clinically significant according the criterion defined by College of American Pathologists. Results There was a positive interference with the PGR method and a negative inference for the BZTC method in CSF samples spiked with PVP-iodine. The PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) did not cause a clinically significant interference with the modified biuret method. PVP alone without iodine caused a positive interference with the PGR method but did not interfere with the modified biuret or the BZTC method. When the samples were spiked with iodine alone, none of the three methods was affected (change < 20%) by iodine concentration up to 0.025%. Conclusions Contamination of CSF specimens with PVP-iodine can lead to interference with CSF TP measurements using PGR or BZTC methods. PMID:25446880

  8. Interference of cerebrospinal fluid total protein measurement by povidone-iodine contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounden, Verena; Sacks, David B; Zhao, Zhen

    2015-02-02

    A falsely high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein (TP) result measured by pyrogallol red (PGR) method was suspected to be caused by preparation of the collection site with povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine) solution. CSF TP was evaluated for interference in samples with different final concentrations of PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) or iodine alone (up to 0.025% iodine) using three methods: PGR, modified biuret and benzethonium chloride (BZTC). Interference exceeding ±20% of the baseline value is considered clinically significant according to the criterion defined by the College of American Pathologists. There were positive interference with the PGR method and negative inference for the BZTC method in CSF samples spiked with PVP-iodine. The PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) did not cause a clinically significant interference with the modified biuret method. PVP alone without iodine caused a positive interference with the PGR method but did not interfere with the modified biuret or the BZTC method. When the samples were spiked with iodine alone, none of the three methods was affected (change<20%) by iodine concentration up to 0.025%. Contamination of CSF specimens with PVP-iodine can lead to interference with CSF TP measurements using PGR or BZTC methods. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Technical Status Review Appraisal of the Suitability of Turbulence Models in Flow Calculations (Revue Technique - L’Evaluation de l’Applicabilite des Modeles de Turbulence dans de Calcul des Ecoulements)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Ingenieros Aeronauticos B- 1040 Brussels, Belgium Departansento de Mecanica de Fluidos Plaza del Cardenal Cisneros 3 M. l’ing. G~n~ral B. Monnerie 28040...ADVISORY REPORT 291 -; "TechniCal Status Review Appraisal of the Suitability of Turbulence Models in Flow Calculations (Revue Technique - L’Evaluation de ...IApplicabilitc des Mod~les de Turbulence dans Ic Ca lcul des Ecoulrments) , NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION +CWI/ Votmfa wyAfj Best Available Copy

  10. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion: preparation, characterization and comparative evaluation of its decontamination efficacy against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131 and Thallium-201.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sudha; Sharma, Navneet; Ojha, Himanshu; Shivkumar, Hosakote Gurumalappa; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to develop p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene o/w nanoemulsion for decontamination of radioisotopes from skin. Formulation was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), multi-photon confocal microscopy techniques and in vitro dissolution studies. In vivo evaluation of nano-emulsion was done using nuclear medicine technique. Stability studies and dermal toxicity studies were also carried out. Comparative decontamination efficacy (DE) studies were performed on synthetic human tissue equivalent material and Sprague Dawley rat against three commonly used medical radioisotopes, i.e., Technetium-99m ((99m)Tc), Iodine-131 ((131)I) and Thallium-201 ((201)Tl). Decontamination was performed using cotton swabs soaked in nanoemulsion at different time intervals of contaminants exposure. Whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using gamma camera before and after each decontamination attempt data was analyzed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and found to be statistically significant (panimals. Skin histopathology slides with and without API (Active pharmaceutical ingredients) also found to be comparable. p-Tertbutylcalix[4]arene loaded nanoemulsion shows great promise for skin decontamination against broad ranges of radiological contaminants besides being stable and safe. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES): A Plan to Improve Global Disaster Response by Privatizing the Assessment Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2017-09-01

    Emergency medicine personnel frequently respond to major disasters. They expect to have an effective and efficient management system to elegantly allocate available resources. Despite claims to the contrary, experience demonstrates this rarely occurs. This article describes privatizing disaster assessment using a single-purposed, accountable, and well-trained organization. The goal is to achieve elegant disaster assessment, rather than repeatedly exhorting existing groups to do it. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES) would quickly and efficiently assess a postdisaster population's needs. It would use an accountable nongovernmental agency's teams with maximal training, mobility, and flexibility. Designed to augment the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's 2015 Emergency Response Preparedness Plan, RaDES would provide the initial information needed to avoid haphazard and overlapping disaster responses. Rapidly deployed teams would gather information from multiple sources and continually communicate those findings to their base, which would then disseminate them to disaster coordinators in a concise, coherent, and transparent way. The RaDES concept represents an elegant, minimally bureaucratic, and effective rapid response to major disasters. However, its implementation faces logistical, funding, and political obstacles. Developing and maintaining RaDES would require significant funding and political commitment to coordinate the numerous agencies that claim to be performing the same tasks. Although simulations can demonstrate efficacy and deficiencies, only field tests will demonstrate RaDES' power to improve interagency coordination and decrease the cost of major disaster response. At the least, the RaDES concept should serve as a model for discussing how to practicably improve our current chaotic disaster responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Iodination-deiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherberg, N.; Refetoff, S.

    1977-01-01

    Bound iodine is released from radioiodinated nucleotides in polymers exposed to sodium bisulfite. The rate of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of pyrimidines can be controlled both by change of temperature or pH and is also dependent on the molecular association of the nucleotide. The rate of release of iodine from iodocytidine in polycytidylate is greater than the rate of elimination from RNA. Experiments testing the influence of base-pairing of the iodopyrimidines in synthetic polynucleotides showed that pairing of the substituted nucleotide protected the iodine bond. The rates of bisulfite-catalyzed deiodination of several radioiodinated RNAs were measured. The action of bisulfite on all single-stranded RNAs tested was multiphasic consisting of a rapid early deiodination reaction supplanted by a slower phase which was followed by reacceleration of release. The release of iodine from double-stranded RNA and DNA-RNA duplexes was retarded in comparison with the release from ribosomal and messenger RNA fractions. The deiodination profiles of single- and double-stranded RNA suggested that in the intermediate stage iodine release is governed by melting of paired zones of low stability. Late release may result from destabilization of the molecule through the addition of bisulfite to the pyrimidine ring or deamination. The effect of several substances expected to complex with polynucleotides was tested. The results show that a change in sensitivity to chemical deiodination may follow the interaction of small amounts of protein with polynucleotides

  13. Volatilization of iodine from vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.; Johnston, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    Gaseous emissions of iodine were measured from bean plant foliage. A gamma-emitting iodine tracer, Na 125 I, was taken up by the plants from a hydroponic growth medium and released to a cuvette atmosphere. The dynamics of the flux were studied using a flow-through gamma detector. The relationship between leaf radioactive tracer activity and growth-medium activity was linear, as was the relationship between the iodine flux and both leaf and growth-medium activity. Iodine flux and leaf conductance to water responded similarly to changes in light levels, suggesting that the stomata may partially control the flux. The flux was inhibited by aeration of the hydroponic growth media, and we postulate that methylation causes the iodine flux. Iodine emissions from living vegetation probably contribute < 0.1% to the stable iodine concentration in the atmosphere above terrestrial areas. However, this pathway may be a direct route for radioactive iodine transport from contaminated soils to the atmosphere. (author)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of lung subtraction iodine mapping CT for the evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: Correlation with perfusion SPECT/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Masashi; Yamada, Yoshitake; Kawakami, Takashi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Iwabuchi, Yu; Sugiura, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Nakahara, Tadaki; Okuda, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Sano, Fumiya; Abe, Takayuki; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Keiichi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-09-15

    For treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), the evaluation of segmental pulmonary perfusion is important. There are no previous reports about lung subtraction iodine mapping (LSIM) computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of segmental pulmonary perfusion in patients with CTEPH, using lung perfusion SPECT/CT (LPS) as the reference. 50 patients (age, 60.7±16.7years) with known or suspected CTEPH were enrolled in this study. Non-contrast chest CT and CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were performed on a 320-detector row CT system. Then, based on a non-rigid registration followed by subtraction of non-contrast images from contrast-enhanced images, color-coded LSIM images were generated. LPS was performed using a SPECT/CT system within a period of 2months, and served as the reference standard. LSIM and CTPA images were evaluated in a blinded manner for the detection of pulmonary perfusion defects on a segment-by-segment basis. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of LSIM for the detection of segmental perfusion defects were 95% (734/773), 84% (107/127), 93% (841/900), 97% (734/754) and 73% (107/146), respectively, while the corresponding values for CTPA were 65% (505/773), 61% (78/127), 65% (583/900), 91% (505/554) and 23% (78/346). Generalized estimating equations analyses revealed a significantly better performance of LSIM than that of CTPA regarding the sensitivity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values (all Pperfusion in patients with CTEPH, and it provides a significantly higher diagnostic accuracy compared with CTPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistence of goiter despite adequate iodine intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminzadeh, M.; Karamizadeh, Z.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the state of iodine uptake and frequency of goiter in a previously endemic population after use of iodine salt for ten years. In an area in south of Iran following examination of randomly selected 1504, 8-10 year school children, 102 cases with grade 2 or larger goiter were found. One hundred normal cases regarding thyroid examination were also selected as controls. From all 202 children, random urine specimen was assayed for iodine as an indicator of iodide intake. Frequency of goiter grade 2 or larger was 6.8%. Median levels of urinary iodine in goiterous children and controls were 20.00 micro gram/dL and 24.50 micro gram/dL respectively. Values more than 10 micro g/dL indicate sufficient intake. Frequency of iodine deficiency in patients with goiter was 14.0% vs. 12.7% in control group. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P value=0.748). Iodized salt has been effective to provide acceptable iodide intake but other causes are supposed to be responsible as etiologic factors for persistence of endemic goiter. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress in Sheep Affected with Peste des petits ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kataria A. K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to evaluate oxidative stress in sheep affected with peste des petits ruminants (PPR. Oxidative stress in the affected sheep was evaluated by determining various serum biomarkers viz. vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase, the mean values of which were 1.70±0.07µmol L-1, 13.00± 0.10 µmol L-1, 2.25 ±0.07 µmol L-1, 3.10 ±0.06 µmol L-1, 140.00 ±8.00 kU L-1, 294.22 ±9.91 kU L-1, 6.99± 0.05 kU L-1 and 100.10 ±3.00 m U L-1, respectively. The levels of vitamins A, C, E and glutathione decreased significantly (p≤0.05 and the serum catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and xanthine oxidase activities increased significantly (p≤0.05 in affected sheep as compared to that in healthy ones. On the basis of the altered levels of serum biomarkers of oxidative stress it was concluded that the animals affected with PPR developed oxidative stress. The findings suggested the relevance of periodic assessment of oxidative status in ruminants for healthier management through supplementation of proper antioxidants as supportive treatment in PPR and in healthy in-contact animals.

  17. Mock iodine-125 radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    An intimate mixture of americium-241 and iodine-129 provides an energy spectrum that reliably simulates the spectrum of iodine-125 in a well-type detector. As such, it may be used as a long-lived standard to calibrate instruments such as well scintillation spectrometers in which measurements are to be made involving iodine-125

  18. Considerations regarding iodine prophylaxis in radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.R.; Gisone, P.; Rojo, A.M.; Dubner, D.; Bruno, H.

    1995-01-01

    The indication for the blockade of thyroid gland by the administration of stable iodide is the main countermeasure for diminishing the thyroid uptake of radioiodine following radiological accidents with potential release of radioiodine into the environment in order to avoid deterministic effects and to decrease the probability of stochastic effects. Iodine prophylaxis should be considered along with other countermeasures like sheltering indoors, evacuation and control on contaminated foods. In this communication different factors related to accidental situations regarding iodine prophylaxis are evaluated. A therapeutical scheme is proposed in order to be applied in countries of this region. (author). 4 refs

  19. The study of iodine in Chinese total diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Chai, Chifang; Qian, Qinfang; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Yongbao; Wang, Ke

    1997-01-01

    In this work, China was divided into four area groups according to their geographical positions and dietary habits. All foods were divided into 12 types and the iodine contents in various diets were determined using epithermal neutron activation analysis (NAA). The intakes for China were evaluated. The results indicate that the intakes of iodine in northern areas are slightly higher and in south areas lower than the lowest recommended intake, and the average intake in China is 166 μg/person per day, which is within the recommended range. In addition, one province was chosen from each area groups. The dietary intakes of iodine were investigated in different ages and sex using total mixed diet method. Our results indicate that the average iodine intake of four provinces was lower than the recommended value, which suggests that it is necessary to supplement iodine in foods in China

  20. Iodine deficiency persists in the Zanzibar Islands of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assey, V D; Greiner, T; Mzee, R K; Abuu, H; Mgoba, C; Kimboka, S; Peterson, S

    2006-12-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient for normal human growth and development. It is estimated that more than 1.6 billion people live in iodine-deficient environments, yet there are still some countries and areas where the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders is unknown. To establish the prevalence of iodine-deficiency disorders in the Zanzibar Islands, a community assumed to have ready access to iodine-rich seafoods. In a cross-sectional study, 11,967 schoolchildren were palpated for goiter prevalence, a subsample was evaluated for urinary iodine concentration, and the availability of iodated salt was assessed at the household and retail levels. The mean total goiter prevalence was 21.3% for Unguja and 32.0% for Pemba. The overall median urinary iodine concentration was 127.5 microg/L. For Unguja the median was 185.7 microg/L, a higher value than the median of 53.4 microg/L for Pemba (p Zanzibar Islands belies the common assumption that an island population with access to seafood is not at risk for iodine-deficiency disorders. We urge health planners to implement mandatory salt iodation and education efforts to alleviate the situation.

  1. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples

  2. Iodine in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, Karl Johan [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of {sup 129}I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added {sup 129}I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of {sup 129}I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the {sup 129}I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the {sup 129}I uptake to plants.

  3. Iodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, Karl Johan

    2000-12-01

    A literature study of the migration and the appearance of iodine isotopes in the bio-sphere particularly in soil is presented. Some important papers in the field of iodine appearance in soil and the appearance of 129 I in the surroundings of reprocessing plants are discussed. The most important conclusions are: 1. Iodine binds to organic matter in the soil and also to some oxides of aluminium and iron. 2. If the iodine is not bound to the soil a large fraction of added 129 I is volatilized after a rather short period. 3. The binding and also the volatilisation seems to be due to biological activity in the soil. It may take place within living microorganisms or by external enzymes excreted from microorganisms. 4. Due to variations in the composition of soil there may be a large variation in the distribution of 129 I in the vertical profile of soil - usually most of the 129 I in the upper layer - which also results in large variations in the 129 I uptake to plants

  4. Evaluation de l'efficience de l'inoculation des semences chez 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collet et les dix premiers centimètres de profondeur du sol et l'autre à ''nodulation libre et totale'' renferme des variétés dont les nodules sont disséminés sur toute la longueur des racines. Mots clés : Soja, Inoculation, nodulation, bactérie, Côte d'Ivoire. Abstract. Monitoring the effectiveness of the inoculation with bacteria ...

  5. Evaluation de la pollution par les métaux lourds des sols et de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... l'ordre décroissant de la pollution est le suivant : au niveau des localités : Aglomé > Kpémé > Goumoukopé > Séouatchikopé > Gbodjomé au niveau des sols : Cadmium > Nickel > Cuivre > Plomb au niveau du maïs : Nickel > Cadmium > Cuivre > Plomb. Mots clés : usine de phosphate, facteur de pollution, métaux lourds.

  6. Evaluation de la satisfaction des patients d'un service d'urgences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: évaluer la satisfaction des patients dans le service des urgences. Méthodes : étude descriptive transversale à passage unique par questionnaire, de janvier à avril 2010. Résultats : 338 patients d'âge moyen 44,9 ans ont été inclus. La majorité (51%) était analphabète;43,2% agriculteurs ou du secteur informel.

  7. Is Non-Contrast CT Adequate for the Evaluation of Hepatic Metastasis in Patients Who Cannot Receive Iodinated Contrast Media?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bum Jee

    Full Text Available To evaluate the appropriateness of follow-up with only non-enhanced CT (NECT in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.This retrospective study included 323 patients with colorectal and gastric cancer who underwent two consecutive CT examinations (CT1 and CT2, including non-contrast and portal venous phase CT images, with an interval of 1 year. Patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A included patients with no hepatic metastasis on CT1 and with or without newly developed metastasis on CT2 to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NECT for detecting newly developed hepatic metastasis; Group B included patients with known hepatic metastasis both on CT1 and CT2 to evaluate the accuracy of NECT for the assessment of hepatic metastasis based on RECIST criteria (version 1.1. Contrast-enhanced CT (CECT images were considered as reference standards.Group A included 172 patients (M:F = 107:65; mean age, 62.6 years. Among them, 57 patients had 95 metastases (mean size, 2.2 ± 1.3 cm. Per patient and per lesion sensitivity for diagnosing newly developed hepatic metastasis was 56.1-66.7% and 52.6-56.8%, respectively. In terms of small metastases (<1.5 cm, per lesion sensitivity was significantly decreased to 28.1-34.4% (P < 0.05. Metastasis size measurements were significantly smaller on NECT (P < 0.001 compared with reference standards. In Group B, the accuracy of response evaluation based on RECIST criteria was 65.6-72.2%.NECT showed inadequate diagnostic performances in both detecting newly developed hepatic metastasis and evaluating the response of hepatic metastasis based on RECIST criteria.

  8. The Prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine exertion in school-aged children in Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mozhgan Padyab

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine deficiency and its related disorder such as goiter are endemic in Lorestan province. Following initiation of iodine deficiency control program in 1989, production, distribution and consumption of iodinated salt were begun. This survey was conducted in the framework of national monitoring survey in 2001 to find out the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine level in order to evaluate the iodine status of school- aged children in Lorestan. Materials and Methods: 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Lorestan. The grade of goiter in 600 boys and 600 girls, was determined according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren. Findings: Total goiter rate was 7.8% 7.8% in girls and 7.7% in boys. Median urinary iodine was 17 μg/dl. Urinary iodine was above 10 μg/dl in 85.7% and less than 5 μg/dl in 1.7%. No one had urinary iodine below 2 μg/dl. Conclusion: It is concluded that the rate of goiter in Lorestan has decreased significantly since 1996 and urinary iodine levels in schoolchildren are indicative of adequate iodine intake. Therefore Lorestan province can be considered as an 'iodine deficiency free' zone.

  9. Accuracy of contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT for the assessment of iodine uptake in renal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Marin, Daniele; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Scribano, Emanuele; Krauss, Bernhard; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the accuracy of iodine-related attenuation and iodine quantification as imaging biomarkers of iodine uptake in renal lesions on a single-phase nephrographic image with dual-energy MDCT. Fifty-nine patients (41 men, 18 women; age range, 28-84 years) with 80 renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT during the nephrographic phase of enhancement. Renal lesions were characterized as enhancing or nonenhancing on color-coded iodine overlay maps using iodine-related attenuation (in Hounsfield units) and iodine quantification (in milligrams per milliliter). For iodine-related attenuation the iodine uptake thresholds of 15 and 20 HU were tested; a threshold of 0.5 mg/mL was used for iodine quantification. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of iodine-related attenuation and iodine quantification were calculated from chi-square tests of contingency with histopathology or imaging follow-up as the reference standard. The 95% CIs were calculated from binomial expression. Differences in sensitivity and specificity were assessed by means of McNemar analysis. A significant difference in sensitivity and specificity was found between iodine-related attenuation with the thresholds of 15 HU (sensitivity, 91.4%; specificity, 93.3%; PPV, 91.4%; NPV, 93.3%) and 20 HU (sensitivity, 77.1%; specificity, 100%; PPV, 100%; NPV, 84.9%) (p = 0.008) and between iodine quantification (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 97.7%; PPV, 97.2%; NPV, 100%) and iodine-related attenuation with a threshold of 20 HU (p = 0.004). No significant difference in sensitivity and specificity was found between iodine quantification and iodine-related attenuation with a threshold of 15 HU. Contrast-enhanced dual-energy MDCT with iodine-related attenuation and iodine quantification allows accurate evaluation of iodine uptake in renal lesions on a single-phase nephrographic image.

  10. Bolus injection of contrast agents with various iodine concentrations and delivery rates for intracranial three-dimensional CT angiography. Evaluation of intracranial arteriovenous contrast using a multidetector-row CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahata, Morio; Abe, Yoshinao; Ono, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the difference in computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of the intracranial arterial and venous systems among the various contrast injection protocols (higher iodine delivery rate or higher concentration of the agent) on the source images of intracranial three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) using a multidetector-row CT (MDCT) scanner. We used 100 ml of iopamidol 300 at an injection rate of 3.0 ml/s, 100 ml of iopamidol 300 at an injection rate of 3.7 ml/s, and 80 ml of iopamidol 370 at an injection rate of 3.0 ml/s. There were 10 patients in each group. Attenuation values of the bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs), basilar artery trunk, bilateral cavernous sinuses (CSs), and Galenic vein were measured quantitatively on the axial CT angiographic source images obtained by four-channel MDCT. Injection of the high-concentration contrast with a higher iodine-delivery rate achieved good arteriovenous contrast at the cavernous portion. With the same rate of iodine delivery, injection of the intermediate concentrate agent increased the CT value of not only the ICAs but also the CSs. High-concentration contrast could increase ICA attenuation without intracavernous attenuation gain during the ''first-pass'' phase. (author)

  11. Single-source dual-energy CT angiography with reduced iodine load in patients referred for aortoiliofemoral evaluation before transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on image quality and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, Benjamin; Caudron, Jerome; Lefebvre, Valentin; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France); Lestrat, Jean-Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rouen (France); Bubenheim, Michael [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Biostatistics, Rouen (France); Godin, Matthieu; Tron, Christophe [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); Eltchaninoff, Helene; Bauer, Fabrice [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Rouen (France); UFR Medecine Pharmacie, INSERM U1096, Rouen (France)

    2014-11-15

    To compare image quality and radiation dose of pre-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) aortoiliofemoral CT angiography (AICTA) provided by standard vs. dual-energy mode with reduced iodine load protocols. One hundred and sixty-one patients underwent a two-step CTA protocol before TAVI including cardiac CTA with injection of 65 mL of iodinated contrast agent (ICA), immediately followed by AICTA. From this second acquisition, the following three different patient groups were identified: Group 1: 52 patients with standard AICTA (60 mL ICA, 100 kVp, mA automodulation); Group 2: 48 patients with dual-energy AICTA with 50 % iodine load reduction (30 mL ICA, fast kVp switching, 600 mA); Group 3: 61 patients with an identical protocol to Group 2, but exposed to 375 mA. The qualitative/subjective image quality (13-point score) and quantitative/objective image quality (contrast attenuation and image noise) were evaluated. The radiation dose was recorded. There was no significant difference in non-diagnostic images between the three protocols. Contrast attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio were significantly higher, whereas noise was significantly lower in the standard protocol (all P < 0.05). The radiation dose was lower in the dual-energy protocol at 375 mA (P < 0.05). Dual-energy AICTA before TAVI results in a reduction of iodine load while maintaining sufficient diagnostic information despite increased noise. (orig.)

  12. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, Andrea B.; Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  13. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  14. Monitoring the severity of iodine deficiency disorders in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimenya, Gabriel S; Olico-Okui; Kaviri, Dentos; Mbona, Nazarius; Byarugaba, Wilson

    2002-08-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) cover a variety of pathological conditions including goitre, mental retardation and perinatal mortality in millions of individuals globally. IDD was initially identified as a problem in 1970 and was confirmed in 1991. In 1993, the Uganda government introduced a policy of Universal Salt Iodization (USI) requiring all household salt to be iodized. After 5 years this study evaluates the USI programme. To determine goitre prevalence rate, establish the proportion of household consuming iodized salt and determine the levels of iodine intake in the sample districts. A sample of 2880 school children aged 6-12 years from 72 Primary schools in 6 districts of Uganda was studied in October 1999. Goitre was established by palpation, salt iodine was analysed by thiosulphate titration, while urinary iodine was analyzed using ICCIDD recommended method F in which iodine is detected colorimetrically at 410 nm. The over all total goitre rate was 60.2% down from 74.3 in 1991 and visible goitre was 30% down from 39.2% in 1991. The proportion of households taking adequately iodized salt was 63.8% and the median urinary iodine was 310 microg/L. Whereas 36% of 95 urine samples analysed in 1991 had urinary iodine below 50 microg/L, only 5% of the 293 urine samples studied in 1999 had the same urine levels. This represents a considerable improvement in iodine intake, which is confirmed by the fact that 63.8% of the study households consume adequately iodized salt. If maintained and evenly spread, this will enable Uganda to control IDD. USI has improved iodine intake in Uganda. However, iodine malnutrition is still a severe public health problem because some communities in this study such as in Kisoro still have low iodine consumption, while others such as Luwero now have iodine excess. The latter is likely to predispose to hyperthyroidism. The national set standard of household salt iodine of 100 ppm be revised. Locally produced salt be iodized, and a

  15. CT colonography with minimal bowel preparation: evaluation of tagging quality, patient acceptance and diagnostic accuracy in two iodine-based preparation schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedenbaum, M.H.; de Vries, A.H.; Gouw, C.I.B.F.; van Rijn, A.F.; Bipat, S.; Dekker, E.; Stoker, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare a 1-day with a 2-day iodine bowel preparation for CT colonography in a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients underwent CT colonography and colonoscopy with segmental

  16. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  17. Performance evaluation of of caesium, iodine, strontium and ruthenium isotopes in urban areas after contamination by accidental release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetere, Maria Ines de Carvalho

    2002-03-01

    The exposures of urban populations to the radiation derived from the deposition, after accidental atmospheric releases, of I37 Cs, 134 Cs, 129 I, 131 I, 133 I, 89 Sr, l03 Ru and 106 Ru were assessed, using the integrated system for the evaluation of environmental radiological impact in emergency situations (SIEM), developed by the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD) / Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN). These radionuclides are fission products likely to be emitted in the occurrence of severe nuclear reactor accidents. Their environmental behaviour in urban areas, due to their deposition in soil, in urban surfaces and in vegetable-garden food products, such as leafy and non-leafy vegetables, were analyzed, and dose assessments at the short, medium and long terms were performed, with and without the application of protective measures for reduction of doses. Simulations of unitary initial deposition for each radionuclide and of two different potential accidents involving pressurized water reactors (PWR), with different source terms and distinct deposition for each radionuclide, were performed. Results were analyzed on the basis of the relative relevance of radionuclides and pathways for the exposure of members of the public, as a function of age and time after the release. It was also performed an assessment of the effectiveness of protective measures as a function of the moment of their implementation. (author)

  18. The speciation of iodine in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulman, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The speciation of iodine in the environment is discussed under the following topics: (i) sea surface to atmosphere, (ii) chemistry in bulk seawater, (iii) iodine in rocks, (iv) iodine in soils, (v) iodine in plants and (vi) iodine in solidified wastes. (author)

  19. Evaluation of long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure. Is cardiac imaging with iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    The effect of cardiac sympathetic activity on long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure was evaluated by cardiac imaging with 123 I-MIBG in 46 patients admitted for the first episode of heart failure. Cardiac imaging was performed with 123 I-MIBG and 201 Tl at rest on separate days before discharge. Using whole body imaging, the ratio of cardiac uptake of the isotope to total injected dose was calculated (percentage uptake). The cardiac uptake ratio of 123 I-MIBG (percentage uptake of 123 I-MIBG divided by percentage uptake of 201 Tl) and percentage washout of 123 I-MIBG from the heart over 3 hours were calculated as scintigraphic parameters. Cardiac events were defined as cardiac death or deterioration of heart failure requiring readmission. Scintigraphic parameters, clinical parameters, left ventricular function obtained by echocardiography and neurohumoral parameters were compared between the event group and event-free group. During the follow-up period, cardiac events developed in 14 patients (30%). Univariate analysis showed uptake ratio and washout rate of 123 I-MIBG, percentage uptake of 201 Tl, New York Heart Association class at discharge, fractional shortening of the left ventricle, serum norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide levels differed significantly between the two groups. Cox proportional-hazard analysis showed that the uptake ratio was an independent predictor of cardiac events. When a cut-off point in the uptake ratio equal to or less than 0.50 and age equal to or more than 65 years old were included in the Cox proportional-hazard analysis instead of actual numbers, relative risks of cardiac events by each index were 31.2 and 4.2, respectively. These data suggest that cardiac uptake of 123 I-MIBG is a strong and independent predictor of long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure. (K.H.)

  20. Observation on the adverse reactions of different concentrations of povidone-iodine applied before cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Jun Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficiency and safety of 50g/L povidone-iodine solution in preventing postoperative endophthalmitis through comparing the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis and adverse reactions after conjunctival sac washing with povidone-iodine of different concentrations.METHODS: Totally 500 cataract patients were divided into 50g/L povidone-iodine group and 25g/L povidone-iodine group. All the operated eyes were observed during and after surgery.The patients' subjective discomfort was inquired and their signs of eyes were recorded. RESULTS: The eye irritation of 50g/L povidone-iodine group was more significant than 25g/L povidone-iodine group. No significant difference in the corneal epithelial loss and endophthalmitis was observed between two groups.CONCLUSION:Conjunctival sac washing with 50g/L povidone-iodine is an effective and safe measure to prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

  1. evaluation agronomique des varietes de maïs riches en proteines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Cinq variétés de maïs riches en protéines de qualité (MRP) ont été expérimentées en station puis en milieu paysan, avec des témoins locaux en ..... sionnent bord champ. En ce qui concerne la ... Tableau 1 : Carrés moyens des variables étudiées en station, pour les variétés de maïs précoces riche en protéines (MRP).

  2. Evaluation de la prise en charge des infections respiratoires aiguês ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recommandée par les directives de PCIME, notamment avec une trop large utilisation d'antibiotique (95,50%,) dont 24,66 % pour " une toux ou un rhume "et dans un tiers des cas l'association céphalosporine de 3èmegénération + aminoside a été utilisée (30,75%). Le taux de létalité global était de 5, 03%; La plupart des ...

  3. Evaluation de la qualité de vie des personnes vivant avec le VIH à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contexte: Lorsqu'en 2000 le Cameroun fait le choix du traitement par antirétroviraux pour les PVVIH, la qualité de vie (QdV) n'est pas un enjeu de la prise en charge. La chronicisation du sida place aujourd'hui l'évaluation de qualité de vie des PVVIH au sein des défis de santé publique. L'objectif de cette étude était ...

  4. Evaluation des stratégies paysannes d'adaptation aux changements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La calibration et la validation du modèle sur les rendements historiques des variétés améliorée et locale de maïs de la commune de Tanguiéta ont permis de déterminer les impacts des différents scénarios constitués suivant les tendances évolutives du climat local. De ces études d'impacts on retiendra que les scénarios ...

  5. Iodine immobilization in apatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.; Lartigue, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    In the context of a scientific program on long-lived radionuclide conditioning, a matrix for iodine 129 immobilization has been studied. A lead vanado-phosphate apatite was prepared from the melt of lead vanado-phosphate Pb 3 (VO 4 ) 1.6 (PO 4 ) 0.4 and lead iodide PbI 2 in stoichiometric proportions by calcination at 700 deg. C during 3 hours. Natural sintering of this apatite is not possible because the product decomposition occurs at 400 deg. C. Reactive sintering is the solution. The principle depends on the coating of lead iodide with lead vanado-phosphate. Lead vanado-phosphate coating is used as iodo-apatite reactant and as dense covering to confine iodine during synthesis. So the best condition to immobilize iodine during iodo-apatite synthesis is a reactive sintering at 700 deg. C under 25 MPa. We obtained an iodo-apatite surrounded with dense lead vanadate. Leaching behaviour of the matrix synthesized by solid-solid reaction is under progress in order to determine chemical durability, basic mechanisms of the iodo-apatite alteration and kinetic rate law. Iodo-apatite dissolution rates were pH and temperature dependent. We obtained a rate of 2.5 10 -3 g.m -2 .d -1 at 90 deg. C in initially de-ionised water. (authors)

  6. Evaluation des caractéristiques physico-chimiques des miels commercialisés à Cotonou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djossou, JA.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of Physiochemical Characteristic of the Honeys Marketed in Cotonou. Honey is the foodstuff produced by honeybees from the nectar or honeydew. In Benin, it is marketed and sold in pharmacies, supermarkets, small shops in some large cities, village markets and even at home. However, the conditions of harvesting, packaging and storage can influence its qualities. To verify the quality of honeys marketed in Cotonou, 36 samples were purchased in supermarkets and pharmacies. The physicochemical quality and polyphenolic nature of samples were determined. The results show that the pH varied from 3.57 to 5.17 with an acidity of between 21.80 and 62,32meq NaOH/ kg. They have high content of proline (169.27-1699.21 mg / kg and total sugar (81.96-90.06 g / 100 g with an HMF content of 22.51 to 41.96 mg / kg. They contained 9.84 to 19.76% moisture and 0.19 to 0.62% minerals. Considering all physicochemical parameters, almost half (41.67% of the samples presented at least one quality parameter exceeding the permitted limit of the 2001 Codex Alimentarius norm. There is a large variability between samples for total phenolic content (27.88-248.80 mg GAE/100 g and flavonoids (0.30 to 55.17 mg CAT/100 g. A significant correlation was observed between color and total phenolic content. Color and the total flavonoids were correlated too, as were also the polyphenolic compounds.

  7. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.E.; Thompson, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3 to 20 wt percent iodine as Ba(IO 3 ) 2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO 3 ) 2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. 10 claims, 2 figures

  8. Evaluer l’« éthicité » des pratiques enseignantes en entrepreneuriat à l’université

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Taktak Kallel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La généralisation des enseignements de l’entrepreneuriat à l’université et la singularité de ce champ disciplinaire justifient la revendication par les enseignants de cette discipline d’une professionnalité propre. Or cette « professionnalisation » ne va pas sans interroger la responsabilité éthique des enseignants du domaine. Cette question se pose avec acuité dans le contexte universitaire tunisien. A partir de ce contexte, nous engageons une réflexion éthique sur l’enseignement de l’entrepreneuriat, soumettons à la discussion quelques postures expériencées en la matière et explorons les possibilités d’évaluation de l’éthicité des enseignants de cette discipline par leurs étudiants.The generalization of entrepreneurship teaching in universities and the singularity of this disciplinary field justify the claim of their own professionalism by teachers of the discipline. But this "professionalization" is not without querying the ethical responsibility of teachers in that field. This question is particularly acute in Tunisian universities. From this context, we initiate an ethical reflection on entrepreneurship teaching, submit for discussion some experienced postures in this area and explore the possibilities for evaluating the ethical orientation of teachers in this discipline by their students.

  9. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  10. Literature study of the radiobiological parameters of Caesium-137 required for evaluating internal irradiation doses as a function of age; Etude bibliographique des parametres radiobiologiques du cesium-137 necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne en fonction de l'age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    This document reassembles information published in scientific literature on radiobiological parameters of Cs-137, necessary for the estimate of the internal irradiation dose of man according to his age (during growth). The data are completed by a commented review of the mathematical models, proposed in order to value the irradiation doses from ingested cesium and the biological parameters. (author) [French] Ce document rassemble les informations publiees dans la litterature scientifique, concernant les parametres radiobiologiqueo du cesium-137, necessaires a l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation interne de l'homme en fonction de l'age. Ces donnees sont completees par une revue commentee des modeles mathematiques proposes en vue de l'evaluation des doses d'irradiation a partir des quantites de cesium ingerees et des parametres biologiques. (auteur)

  11. Avaliação do conhecimento de médicos não-radiologistas sobre reações adversas aos contrastes iodados Evaluation of nonradiologist physicians' knowledge about adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Trindade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento dos médicos não-radiologistas sobre reações adversas ao meio de contraste iodado, sua prevenção e as condições clínicas que aumentam seu risco. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 203 médicos não-radiologistas (assistentes, residentes e estagiários de várias especialidades, utilizando um questionário com dez questões de múltipla escolha abordando profilaxia, fatores de risco e condutas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento de reações adversas aos meios de contraste iodados. Os resultados foram analisados com o programa Statistic Package for Social Sciences, Windows®, versão 12.0. RESULTADOS: Asma, alergia alimentar, ansiedade e doença isquêmica do coração foram considerados fatores de risco por 80,9%, 78,9%, 5,9% e 4,1% dos participantes, respectivamente. Para 23,4% dos médicos, não há contra-indicações absolutas ao uso do meio de contraste iodado. As condutas profiláticas em pacientes com reação prévia ao meio de contraste iodado e em diabéticos em uso de metformina foram corretamente indicadas por 84,5% e 53,7% dos participantes, respectivamente. As questões abordando nefropatia induzida por meio de contraste iodado, uso de anti-sépticos tópicos iodados em pacientes com história de reação adversa ao meio de contraste iodado e ansiedade foram acertadas por 86,1%, 45,5%, e 5,9% dos participantes, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os médicos não-radiologistas demonstraram conhecimento razoável sobre reações adversas aos meios de contraste iodados. É necessária melhor integração e comunicação entre radiologistas e médicos das demais especialidades.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nonradiologist physicians' knowledge about adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media, as well as prevention and associated risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A transversal study was developed with 203 nonradiologist physicians (assistants, residents and trainees of different specialties

  12. 280 Evaluation du pouvoir disjonctif des variables catégorielles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA BOKO

    some information on the geographical origins and the parental genealogies of those genitors. The factorial analysis of ... The criteria "geographical origin" represented 14% of total disjunction expression of ..... matériel d'origine ANGOLA comme nouvelle source de diversification des populations de géniteurs sélectionnés.

  13. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A. Ch.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase. (author)

  14. Iodine removal from a gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikis, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Iodine, e.g. radioactive iodine, present as one or more organic iodides, optionally with elemental iodine, in a gas phase (e.g. air) are removed by photochemically decomposing the organic iodides to elemental iodine, reacting the iodine produced, and any initially present with excess ozone, preferably photochemically produced in situ in the gas phase to produce solid iodine oxides, and removing the solid oxides from the gas phase

  15. Evaluation d'une approche pedagogique respectant les facons d'apprendre des filles en sciences et en TIC en 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirette-Pitre, Nicole T.

    2009-07-01

    La reussite scolaire des filles les amene de plus en plus a poursuivre une formation postsecondaire et a exercer des professions qui demandent un haut niveau de connaissances et d'expertise scientifique. Toutefois, les filles demeurent toujours tres peu nombreuses a envisager une carriere en sciences (chimie et physique), en ingenierie ou en TIC (technologie d'information et de la communication), soit une carriere reliee a la nouvelle economie. Pour plusieurs filles, les sciences et les TIC ne sont pas des matieres scolaires qu'elles trouvent interessantes meme si elles y reussissent tres bien. Ces filles admettent que leurs experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC ne leur ont pas permis de developper un interet ni de se sentir confiante en leurs habiletes a reussir dans ces matieres. Par consequent, peu de filles choisissent de poursuivre leurs etudes postsecondaires dans ces disciplines. La theorie sociocognitive du choix carriere a ete choisie comme modele theorique pour mieux comprendre quelles variables entrent en jeu lorsque les filles choisissent leur carriere. Notre etude a pour objet la conception et l'evaluation de l'efficacite d'un materiel pedagogique concu specifiquement pour ameliorer les experiences d'apprentissage en sciences et en TIC des filles de 9e annee au Nouveau-Brunswick. L'approche pedagogique privilegiee dans notre materiel a mis en oeuvre des strategies pedagogiques issues des meilleures pratiques que nous avons identifiees et qui visaient particulierement l'augmentation du sentiment d'auto-efficacite et de l'interet des filles pour ces disciplines. Ce materiel disponible par Internet a l'adresse http://www.umoncton.ca/lirettn/scientic est directement en lien avec le programme d'etudes en sciences de la nature de 9e annee du Nouveau-Brunswick. L'evaluation de l'efficacite de notre materiel pedagogique a ete faite selon deux grandes etapes methodologiques: 1) l'evaluation de l'utilisabilite et de la convivialite du materiel et 2

  16. Use of iodine-125 brachytherapy in treatment of choroidal melanomas, technic and preliminary analysis of 78 patients; Traitement conservateur des melanomes choroidiens par curietherapie par l'iode 125, technique et analyse preliminaire d'une serie de 78 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quetin, P.; Schumacher, C.; Schraub, S. [Centre Paul-Strauss, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Meyer, L.; Polto, F.; Sahel, J. [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Clinique Ophtalmologique, 67 (France); Magnenet, P. [Centre Paul-Strauss, Dept. de Radiophysique, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Andres, E. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Medecine Interne, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2001-12-01

    Purpose. - Iodine 125 curietherapy is one of the conservative treatments of uveal melanoma. The technique used to achieve these results was simplified through the physical characteristics of the radioelement and the optimized-dosimetry program employed. Patients and methods. - 78 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine 125. About 100 Gy were delivered to the superior pole of the tumour. The minimal length of follow-up was 17 months and the average, 67 months. Results. -There was 88% local control, leading to lowered visual acuity in 76 % of the cases. Radiation retinopathy, directly related to proximity to the macula, is the principle etiology. Seven patients died of hepatic metastasis, five patients were enucleated. Four patients were further treated with proton-therapy to make up for non-control locally. Conclusion. -One dose of 100 Gy to the superior pole of the tumor seemed to lead to good local control, with the exception of complications related to proximity to the macula and the optic nerve. In this attempt to optimize irradiation, the time lapse between any benefit in local control derived from irradiation and post-therapeutic complications observed remains insufficient to evaluate any relationship. (authors)

  17. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy in Denmark. Regional variations and frequency of individual iodine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Laurberg, Peter; Børlum, K G

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/g creatinine). These values are far below internationally recommended levels. The consequences remain to be evaluated and no firm recommendations can be given. It seems reasonable, however, to recommend a high intake of food containing iodine (e.g. milk products) during pregnancy and lactation...

  18. The Status of Iodine Nutrition and Iodine Deficiency Disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iodine deficiency disorders are serious public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and severity of iodine deficiency disorders among school children in Metekel Zone. Methods: A cross-sectional school based descriptive study was conducted between February 2011 ...

  19. Iodine deficiency among goiter patients in rural South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuot, Chep C; Galukande, Moses; Ibingira, Charles; Kisa, Nicholas; Fualal, Jane Odubu

    2014-10-23

    It is estimated that 2.2 billion or approximately 30% of the world's population live in iodine-deficient areas. In a 2005 study households consuming iodized salt in South Sudan increased from 40% to 73%. Despite this achievement, there are still many goiter cases in rural South Sudan and iodine deficiency remains as a major public health problem in this part of sub Saharan Africa.The purpose of this study therefore was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency among rural Southern Sudan goiter patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three South Sudan counties, adults with goiter were from three centers following a mobilization campaign that lasted 4 weeks for free medical care. They were clinically evaluated and completed interviewer administered questionnaires to determine their age, gender, diet, family history, drug history, and medical history. Urine samples were then taken for urinary iodine levels. The outcome was iodine deficiency measured as urinary iodine less than 100 μg per/ L. Multiple logistic regression was used to establish the factors associated with iodine deficiency in South Sudan. Ethical approval was obtained. A total of 286 goitre patients were recruited. The mean age was 38 years (SD 9), 262(92%) were females (F: M ratio 11:1), and 257(90%) were rural- peasants, 25% (20/286) had moderate to severe iodine deficiency. 174(62%) consumed non-iodized salts. Iodine deficiency is highly prevalent among rural South Sudan communities and a likely cause for goiters. Rural poor women are highly vulnerable.

  20. Modelling the chemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquette, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have assembled a kinetic model, based on elementary chemical reactions, that describes the chemical behaviour of iodine in aqueous solution as a function of time and various parameters such as pH, concentration and radiation field. The model is conceptually divided into six section: aqueous iodine chemistry, aqueous organic iodide chemistry, water radiolysis, radiolysis of iodine solutions, radiolysis of organic iodide solutions and mass transfer. The model indicates that, in the absence of a radiation field, the rate of production of volatile iodine species is controlled by the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion. The volatile iodine species are dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. The single most important parameter controlling iodine volatility is the pH of the solution; high pH values tend to minimize iodine volatility. In the presence of a radiation field, the volatility of iodine is controlled by the radiation-induced oxidation of the iodide ion. Again, iodine volatility is dominated by organic iodides if organic impurities are present. High pH values minimize iodine volatility. A sensitivity analysis has been performed on some sections of the model to identify reactions to which the volatility of iodine is most sensitive. In the absence of a radiation field, the volatility is most sensitive, first, to the rate of oxidation of the iodide ion, and, second, to the rate of mass transfer of volatile species between the aqueous and the gaseous phases. This approach should be useful in identifying reactions for which accurate rate constants are required and in decreasing the complexity of the model. 37 refs

  1. Iodine-Catalyzed Polysaccharide Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is provided of the recent reports to use iodine-catalyzed esterification reaction to produce esters from polysaccharides. The process entails reaction of the polysaccharide with an acid anhydride in the presence of a catalytic level of iodine, and in the absence of additional solvents. T...

  2. Synthetic Studies on Quassinoids: Total Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (+)-Des-D-chaparrinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Paul A.; Speake, Jason D.

    1998-08-21

    A total synthesis of des-D-chaparrinone (2), which lacks the ring D delta-lactone of (-)-chaparrinone (1) has been developed. The synthesis commences with the known, readily available tricyclic ketone 3 (R = Me). Elaboration of the configuration at C(5) followed by resolution of 6 employing 2(R),3(R)-2,3-butanediol gave rise to 9. Installation of the ring C functionality provided 15 which was transformed into tricyclic diketone 25. Introduction of the ring A functional groups afforded 29, which upon exposure to aluminum trichloride and sodium iodide gave rise directly to (+)-des-D-chaparrinone (2). Biological studies revealed that (+)-2 was devoid of any solid tumor activity.

  3. evaluation des sequelles chez les victimes d'accidents de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 déc. 2007 ... professionnelle : métier exercé et conditions d'exer- cice avant l'accident, conditions de reprise du tra- vail, modification des conditions du travail, voire reclassement ou licenciement. L'expert doit étudier « les gestes professionnels » c'est-à-dire ceux qui sont possibles à exécuter ou au contraire difficiles et.

  4. Evaluation des pertes post-recolte dans la chaine de production et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les légumes feuilles traditionnels contribuent à l'alimentation quotidienne de la population au Cameroun. La nature particulièrement périssable de la plupart de ces légumes, limite leur durée de conservation après récolte. Cette étude montre la situation des pertes post-récolte de ces légumes telle que perçue par les ...

  5. Evaluation et cartographie de la vulnérabilité à la pollution des eaux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    indique qu'elle est étanche. L'existence de deux lignes de partages des eaux, de direction Sud-Nord, séparant respectivement les écoulements vers l'Oued Maiz, où la nappe de la haute terrasse se fait alimentée latéralement par les travertins, et vers Oued Zimba et Oued Boussourra entre Belkheir et. Boumahra. 920. 925.

  6. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant iodine nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fereidoun; Smyth, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this review is to explore information available regarding iodine secretion in milk, both mothers and infants iodine nutrition during breastfeeding and to make recommendations for appropriate iodine supplementation during lactation. MEDLINE was queried for studies between 1960 and 2007 that included lactation and breastfeeding with iodine and iodine deficiency. Studies were selected if they studied (i) Secretion of iodine in breast milk; (ii) breastfeeding and iodine nutrition; (iii) factors affecting maternal iodine metabolism and (iv) recommendations for iodine supplementation during breastfeeding. Thirty-six articles met the selection criteria. The iodine content of breast milk varies with dietary iodine intake, being lowest in areas of iodine deficiency with high prevalence of goitre. Milk iodine levels are correspondingly higher when programs of iodine prophylaxis such as salt iodization or administration of iodized oil have been introduced. The small iodine pool of the neonatal thyroid turns over very rapidly and is highly sensitive to variations in dietary iodine intake. Expression of the sodium iodide symporter is up-regulated in the lactating mammary gland which results in preferential uptake of iodide. In areas of iodine sufficiency breast milk iodine concentration should be in the range of 100-150 microg/dl. Studies from France, Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Spain, Italy, Denmark, Thailand and Zaire have shown breast milk concentrations of nutrition. The current WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF recommendation for daily iodine intake (250 microg for lactating mothers) has been selected to ensure that iodine deficiency dose not occur in the postpartum period and that the iodine content of the milk is sufficient for the infant's iodine requirement.

  7. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aceves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In addition to being a component of thyroid hormone (TH, iodine can be an antioxidant as well as an antiproliferative and differentiation agent that helps to maintain the integrity of several organs with the ability to take up iodine.Methods and Results: Studies from our laboratory shown that in preclinical (cell culture, induced animal cancer and xenographs and clinical studies (mammary cancer protocol, molecular iodine (I2 supplementation exerts suppressive effects on implantation, development, and progression of cancer neoplasias. These effects can be mediated by a variety of mechanisms and pathways, including direct actions, in which the oxidized iodine modulates the immune/tumor response and through iodolipid formation and the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type gamma (PPARγ triggering apoptotic and/or differentiation pathways.Conclusion: The absence of side effects and the easy availability and handling of I2 have allowed the establishment of clinical protocols to utilize I2 supplementation as an adjuvant in therapies against cancers that take up iodine.-----------------------------------------Cite this article as:  Aceves C, Anguiano B. Antineoplastic mechanisms of Iodine in cancers that take up Iodine. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3401.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  8. Characterization of iodinated adrenomedullin derivatives suitable for lung nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Létourneau, Myriam; Chatenet, David; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Fournier, Alain

    2011-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of 99m-technetium adrenomedullin (AM) as a new molecular lung imaging agent that could provide significant advantages for the diagnosis and follow-up of disorders affecting the pulmonary circulation such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension. Having the possibility to conjugate the targeting molecule with different radionuclides would offer more flexibility and potential advantages depending on clinical situations. Since various iodine isotopes are currently used in nuclear medicine and in pharmacological studies, we have evaluated which iodination method should be privileged in order to produce a good iodinated AM-derived nuclear medicine agent. Synthetic AM was labeled with iodine through chemical and lactoperoxidase oxidation methods. Position of the iodine atom on the peptide was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis following cyanogen bromide cleavage and carboxypeptidase Y digestion. Binding affinity of iodinated AM analogues was evaluated by competition and saturation binding experiments on dog lung preparations. In this study, we demonstrated that, upon lactoperoxidase oxidation, iodination occurred at Tyr(1) and that this radioligand retained higher binding affinity and specificity over preparations obtained through chemical oxidation. These results emphasize the fact that even a small chemical modification, i.e. iodination, might deeply modify the pharmacological profile of a compound and support observations that the C-terminal tail of human AM plays an important role in the AM receptor binding process. Consequently, incorporation of a radionuclide to produce an AM-based nuclear medicine agent should privilege the N-terminus of the molecule. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of iodinated adrenomedullin derivatives suitable for lung nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Yan; Letourneau, Myriam; Chatenet, David [Laboratoire d' etudes moleculaires et pharmacologiques des peptides, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Ville de Laval, Qc, H7V 1B7 (Canada); Dupuis, Jocelyn [Research Center, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Qc (Canada); Fournier, Alain, E-mail: alain.fournier@iaf.inrs.ca [Laboratoire d' etudes moleculaires et pharmacologiques des peptides, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Ville de Laval, Qc, H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: We have recently demonstrated the effectiveness of 99m-technetium adrenomedullin (AM) as a new molecular lung imaging agent that could provide significant advantages for the diagnosis and follow-up of disorders affecting the pulmonary circulation such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension. Having the possibility to conjugate the targeting molecule with different radionuclides would offer more flexibility and potential advantages depending on clinical situations. Since various iodine isotopes are currently used in nuclear medicine and in pharmacological studies, we have evaluated which iodination method should be privileged in order to produce a good iodinated AM-derived nuclear medicine agent. Methods: Synthetic AM was labeled with iodine through chemical and lactoperoxidase oxidation methods. Position of the iodine atom on the peptide was determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis following cyanogen bromide cleavage and carboxypeptidase Y digestion. Binding affinity of iodinated AM analogues was evaluated by competition and saturation binding experiments on dog lung preparations. Results: In this study, we demonstrated that, upon lactoperoxidase oxidation, iodination occurred at Tyr{sup 1} and that this radioligand retained higher binding affinity and specificity over preparations obtained through chemical oxidation. Conclusions: These results emphasize the fact that even a small chemical modification, i.e. iodination, might deeply modify the pharmacological profile of a compound and support observations that the C-terminal tail of human AM plays an important role in the AM receptor binding process. Consequently, incorporation of a radionuclide to produce an AM-based nuclear medicine agent should privilege the N-terminus of the molecule.

  10. Wind energy report Germany 1999/2000. Annual evaluation of WMEP; Windenergie Report Deutschland 1999/2000. Jahresauswertung des WMEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Ensslin, C.; Hahn, B.; Hoppe-Klipper, M.; Rohrig, K. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The 1999/2000 issue of the annual evaluations of the scientific measurement and evaluation programme (WMEP) is the tenth regular publication of operational results from the wind turbines included in the ''250 MW Wind'' funding programme. Besides depicting the current state of the technology, a reflection on the long-term and successful development of this still young technology is offered. With the approval of a fourth project phase (2000 - 2004) it has been ensured that, also in coming years, particular attention can be paid to long-term behaviour in regard to reliability, life span and operational costs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Jahresauswertung 1999/2000 des ''wissenschaftlichen mess- und evaluierungsprogramms'' (WMEP) stellt bereits die zehnte Ausgabe der regelmaessigen Veroeffentlichung von Betriebsergebnissen der Windenergieanlagen im Foerderprogramm ''250 MW Wind'' dar. Sie bietet damit neben der Darstellung des aktuellen Stands der Technik auch einen Rueckblick auf die langjaehrige und erfolgreiche Entwicklung dieser noch jungen Technologie. Mit dem Auftrag einer vierten Projektphase (zunaechst 2000 bis 2002) ist sichergestellt, dass auch in den kommenden Jahren besonders auf das Langzeitverhalten hinsichtlich Zuverlaessigkeit, Lebensdauer und Betriebskosten eingegangen werden kann. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of dual-energy CT-derived iodine content and iodine overlay of normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma cervical lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Ahmed M; Razek, A A; Kerl, J Matthias; Nour-Eldin, N E; Bauer, Ralf; Vogl, Thomas J

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)-derived iodine content and iodine overlay could differentiate between normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cervical lymph nodes. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Sixteen patients with normal lymph nodes, 20 patients with enlarged nodes draining deep cervical inflammations and 23 patients with pathologically proved metastatic SCC nodes who underwent contrast enhanced DECT were retrospectively identified. Iodine content and overlay of 36 normal, 43 inflammatory and 52 metastatic lymph nodes were calculated using circular regions of interest and compared among the three groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of iodine content and overlay for diagnosis of metastatic nodes. Iodine content (mg/ml) was significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (2.34 ± 0.45) than for normal (2.86 ± 0.37) and inflammatory (3.53 ± 0.56) lymph nodes, P overlay (HU) was also significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (47 ± 11.6) than normal (57.4 ± 8.2) and inflammatory nodes (69.3 ± 11.5), P overlay were 0.923 and 0.896. DECT-derived iodine content and overlay differ significantly among normal, inflammatory and metastatic SCC cervical lymph nodes. • Derived iodine content can be calculated from contrast-enhanced dual-energy CT. • Derived iodine content and iodine overlay could help characterise cervical lymph nodes. • Iodine parameters were significantly lower in metastatic lymph nodes than normal/inflammatory lymph nodes. • Iodine content appears more sensitive than iodine overlay for lymph node characterisation.

  12. Iodine content of infant formulas and iodine intake of premature babies: high risk of iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, S; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1994-11-01

    As part of a study of thyroid function in premature babies, the iodine content of their mothers' breast milk, that of 32 formulas from different brands used in Spain, and that of 127 formulas used in other countries was determined. Breast milk contained more iodine--mean (SEM) 10 (1) microgram/dl--than most of the formulas, especially those for premature babies. Iodine intakes were therefore below the recommended daily amount (RDA) for newborns: babies of 27-30 weeks' gestational age took 3.1 (1.1) micrograms/day at 5 days of age and 29.8 (2.7) micrograms by 2 months of age. This problem is not exclusive to Spanish premature babies as the iodine content of many of the formulas on sale in other countries was also inadequate. It is concluded that preterm infants who are formula fed are at high risk of iodine deficiency.

  13. Evaluation de la vulnérabilité spécifique aux nitrates (NO 3 ) des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pour évaluer le degré de protection de cette nappe vis-à-vis des nitrates, la méthodologie a pris en compte les paramètres hydrogéologiques de l'aquifère, les paramètres humains qui sont considérés comme des sources potentielles de nitrates et des caractéristiques physiques et chimiques des nitrates. Ces différents ...

  14. Knowledge of the Importance of Iodine in Nutrition among Adults in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciekure Elīna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.

  15. Comparison of dual-energy CT-derived iodine content and iodine overlay of normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma cervical lymph nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tawfik, Ahmed M. [Johan Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main, Hessen (Germany); Mansoura University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Razek, A.A. [Mansoura University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Kerl, J.M.; Nour-Eldin, N.E.; Bauer, Ralf; Vogl, Thomas J. [Johan Wolfgang Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt am Main, Hessen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate whether dual-energy computed tomography (DECT)-derived iodine content and iodine overlay could differentiate between normal, inflammatory and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cervical lymph nodes. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Sixteen patients with normal lymph nodes, 20 patients with enlarged nodes draining deep cervical inflammations and 23 patients with pathologically proved metastatic SCC nodes who underwent contrast enhanced DECT were retrospectively identified. Iodine content and overlay of 36 normal, 43 inflammatory and 52 metastatic lymph nodes were calculated using circular regions of interest and compared among the three groups. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of iodine content and overlay for diagnosis of metastatic nodes. Iodine content (mg/ml) was significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (2.34 ± 0.45) than for normal (2.86 ± 0.37) and inflammatory (3.53 ± 0.56) lymph nodes, P < 0.0001. Iodine overlay (HU) was also significantly lower for metastatic lymph nodes (47 ± 11.6) than normal (57.4 ± 8.2) and inflammatory nodes (69.3 ± 11.5), P < 0.0001. The areas under the ROC curve for iodine content and iodine overlay were 0.923 and 0.896. DECT-derived iodine content and overlay differ significantly among normal, inflammatory and metastatic SCC cervical lymph nodes. (orig.)

  16. Thyroglobulin as a marker of iodine nutrition status in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The iodine status of a population is traditionally evaluated by either urinary iodine (UT) excretion or by some measure of thyroid volume and the prevalence of goitre. In this prospective study of a mandatory iodization programme, we aimed to evaluate serum thyroglobulin (Tg) as a mark...

  17. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  18. [Assessment on dietary iodine intake in three areas of Zhejiang province, 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-chun; Zhang, Rong-hua; Liu, Li-ping; Gu, Fang; Wu, Wen-qian; Guan, Xu-hui; Li, Xiao-wei

    2012-03-01

    To assess the level of dietary iodine intake in three areas of Zhejiang and the related policy on universal salt iodization in the province. The study involved 497 residents from 180 families living in Hangzhou, Taizhou, Zhoushan cities, representing coastal and inland areas in Zhejiang province in 2009. A total diet study was applied to obtain the typical diet samples at three study areas through food consumption, aggregation, sampling and preparation processes. The contents of iodine in diet samples were determined by tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The amount of dietary iodine intake was calculated by timing the food consumption data and the iodine content in different dietary samples. The safety of dietary iodine intake was evaluated according to the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) and tolerable upper intake level (UL) published by the Chinese Nutrition Society in 2001. The dietary iodine intake of reference person in three areas of Zhejiang province was 421.0 µg/d. The levels of P5, P25, median, P75, P90, P95 dietary iodine intake were 145.7 µg/d, 267.6 µg/d, 358.5 µg/d, 495.6 µg/d, 774.1 µg/d and 1273.0 µg/d respectively. Daily dietary iodine intake at RNI, RNI-UL, >UL accounted for 5.2%, 87.5% and 7.2% of all the participants respectively. Without considering the loss through cooking, salt iodine provided 81.6% of the dietary iodine source. The resources of dietary iodine would include vegetables, cereals and marine food, proportionally, as 57.2%, 13.0% and 8.5%, respectively. Participants whose daily dietary iodine intake exceeded the UL level would consume more marine algae products than those whose dietary iodine intakes were lower than RNI or between RNI-UL. Dietary iodine intake among most residents and their average level were among reasonable ranges. Meanwhile, deficiency and excess of iodine intake coexisted. Salt iodine was the main resource of dietary iodine. Participants whose dietary

  19. Iodine in the environment revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.; Carlsen, L.

    1989-05-01

    The report gives an overview of the environmental cycle of iodine, especially focusing on the possible reactions being responsible for the retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. During the last two decades evidence for the presence of iodine in soil as organically bound has been presented. The major part of inorganic iodine in the terrestrial environment will, under physical and chemical conditions normally prevailing, exist as iodide. No evidence for a direct reaction between iodide and organic material has been presented, whereas strong support for the engagement of microbial activity in the formation of organic iodine compounds in soil has been obtained. Incorporation of iodine in humic substances as a result of enzymatic catalysis, involving an enzyme of the perozidase group apperas reasonable. It is concluded that microbiological activity involving extracellular enzymes most probably is responsible for the possible retention of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is suggested that these reactions in detail should be studied experimentally. (author) 3 tabs., 2 ills., 51 refs

  20. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  1. Evaluer la qualité des archives ouvertes : le certificat DINI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Schöpfel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L’article présente le certificat DINI, un référentiel pour la certification et l’audit des archives ouvertes, des archives institutionnelles et des plateformes de revues en libre accès, développé par l’Initiative Allemande pour l’Information en Réseau DINI. L’article décrit le contexte, l’objectif et l’historique de ce certificat avant d’exposer sa structure et son contenu. Parmi les huit sections du certificat figurent la visibilité du site, la sécurité de l’information et l’archivage pérenne. La discussion porte sur l’objet du référentiel, sur son influence et sur la nécessité d’une adaptation au contexte francophone. La traduction française du certificat a été publiée en 2012. The article presents the DINI certificate, standard recommendations for the certification of document and publishing services, i.e. open archives, institutional repositories and platforms for open access journals, developed by the German Initiative for Networked Information DINI. The article describes the context, purpose and history of this certificate before exposing its structure and content. The eight areas include criteria for the visibility of the site, information security and long-term preservation. The article discusses the object of certification, its impact and the need to adapt some recommendations to the French-speaking context. The French translation of the certificate has been published in 2012.

  2. Evaluation inquiry of the provision of iodine tablets to the populations living in the vicinity of the nuclear center of electric production at Bugey, september 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helynck, B.; Rey, S.; Malfait, Ph.; Dubois, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    50 % of households in the area of the particular plan of intervention (P.P.I.) of Bugey N.P.P. had removed the iodine tablets. This cover is insufficient, when the Ministry circular considered an availability of tablets in every household. The inquiry highlighted a relationship with between the removal of tablets and knowledge about iodine, but the results suggest that this information campaign was not enough efficient. This situation is worrying, because of the expiry date of the tablets, new campaigns are to be done regularly. In order to improve the results of future campaigns, it is important to take into account feedbacks of the first distribution. The information sources must be diversified. Health professionals should be involved. The Institutions in charge of health in children (Service of maternal and infants protection and service for the promotion of health for students) should also be involved. Simplification and clarity of messages must be improved, especially towards priority populations such young parents, pregnant women. (N.C.)

  3. Efficacy and Physicochemical Evaluation of an Optimized Semisolid Formulation of Povidone Iodine Proposed by Extreme Vertices Statistical Design; a Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Valizadeh, Hadi; Shademan, Shahin; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant issues in pharmaceutical industries, prior to commercialization of a pharmaceutical preparation is the "preformulation" stage. However, far too attention has been paid to verification of the software assisted statistical designs in preformulation studies. The main aim of this study was to report a step by step preformulation approach for a semisolid preparation based on a statistical mixture design and to verify the predictions made by the software with an in-vitro efficacy bioassay test. Extreme vertices mixture design (4 factors, 4 levels) was applied for preformulation of a semisolid Povidone Iodine preparation as Water removable ointment using different PolyEthylenGlycoles. Software Assisted (Minitab) analysis was then performed using four practically assessed response values including; Available iodine, viscosity (N index and yield value) and water absorption capacity. Subsequently mixture analysis was performed and finally, an optimized formulation was proposed. The efficacy of this formulation was bio-assayed using microbial tests in-vitro and MIC values were calculated for Escherichia coli, pseudomonaaeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Results indicated the acceptable conformity of the measured responses. Thus, it can be concluded that the proposed design had an adequate power to predict the responses in practice. Stability studies, proved no significant change during the one year study for the optimized formulation. Efficacy was eligible on all tested species and in the case of staphylococcus aureus; the prepared semisolid formulation was even more effective. PMID:26664368

  4. Efficacy and Physicochemical Evaluation of an Optimized Semisolid Formulation of Povidone Iodine Proposed by Extreme Vertices Statistical Design; a Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Valizadeh, Hadi; Shademan, Shahin; Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant issues in pharmaceutical industries, prior to commercialization of a pharmaceutical preparation is the "preformulation" stage. However, far too attention has been paid to verification of the software assisted statistical designs in preformulation studies. The main aim of this study was to report a step by step preformulation approach for a semisolid preparation based on a statistical mixture design and to verify the predictions made by the software with an in-vitro efficacy bioassay test. Extreme vertices mixture design (4 factors, 4 levels) was applied for preformulation of a semisolid Povidone Iodine preparation as Water removable ointment using different PolyEthylenGlycoles. Software Assisted (Minitab) analysis was then performed using four practically assessed response values including; Available iodine, viscosity (N index and yield value) and water absorption capacity. Subsequently mixture analysis was performed and finally, an optimized formulation was proposed. The efficacy of this formulation was bio-assayed using microbial tests in-vitro and MIC values were calculated for Escherichia coli, pseudomonaaeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Results indicated the acceptable conformity of the measured responses. Thus, it can be concluded that the proposed design had an adequate power to predict the responses in practice. Stability studies, proved no significant change during the one year study for the optimized formulation. Efficacy was eligible on all tested species and in the case of staphylococcus aureus; the prepared semisolid formulation was even more effective.

  5. Evaluation des potentialités nutritives et l'aptitude à la conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les onze variétés d'oignon introduites au Burkina Faso présentent un fort potentiel nutritionnel pour les consommateurs. Les cinq variétés à fortes teneurs en matière sèche (>12%) sont plus aptes à la conservation. Leur vulgarisation auprès des producteurs permettra de réduire les pertes post récoltes, d'améliorer la durée ...

  6. Evaluation du procédé d'abattage des bovins aux abattoirs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La viande est une denrée alimentaire hautement périssable dont la qualité hygiénique dépend de la contamination pendant les opérations d'abattage et de découpe. L'objectif de l'étude est d'évaluer le procédé d'abattage des bovins aux abattoirs de Cotonou-Porto-Novo au sud-Bénin. L'analyse du procédé d'abattage a ...

  7. Evaluation à terme du clippage microchirurgical des anévrismes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de ce travail était d'évaluer le devenir clinique et angiographique à terme des patients clippés pour un anévrysme intracrânien rompu. L'étude a été rétrospective portant sur 14 patients opérés d'un anévrysme rompu de 1991 à 2008. L'état clinique initial après la rupture a été évalué par le score de laWorld ...

  8. Evaluation des changements physico-chimiques caractérisant le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les propriétés physico-chimiques caractérisant le mûrissement d'une variété de banane plantain (Corne 1) et de deux variétés de bananes de dessert (Poyo et Figue Sucrée) ont été étudiées à la température ambiante (28 ± 2°C) et comparées. Les résultats montrent que le délai d'apparition des stades du mûrissement est ...

  9. Evaluation de l'efficience de l'inoculation des semences chez 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans le cadre de la relance de la sojaculture en Côte d'Ivoire, l'étude de la relation symbiotique (bactérie - plante) a été réalisée en vue d'optimiser la production. L'inoculation a été faite par enrobage des semences de soja juste avant leur semis avec un mélange de culture pure de la souche IRAT-FA3 de Bradyrhizobium ...

  10. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  11. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P.; Flury Herard, A.; Menetrier, F.; Bion, L.; Schoech, C.; Masset, S.

    2004-01-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  12. Evaluation of the diagnostic capacity of the DETEC-PC for the attract of iodine in thyroid; Evaluacion de la capacidad de diagnostico del DETEC-PC para la captacion de iodo en tiroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso A, D. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47. Playa C.P. 11300, La Habana (Cuba); Arista R, E. [CEADEN, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600, La Habana (Cuba); Alonso A, A. [Hasselt University, Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)]. e-mail: lola@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    A comparative study whose main objective is the evaluation of the diagnoses capacity of the DETEC - PC, a detection-measurement system for the reception of iodine in thyroid, with it presumptive diagnostic is presented. To such effect a clinical essay was designed in which all the patients included in the study were evaluated using the new equipment (DETEC - PC) and the standard diagnoses procedure well-known for the initials RIA. The sample size was calculated in a such way that the percent of gross coincidence among both methods could be estimate with a precision of 1% at a trust level of 95%. In total 110 patients were included in the essay. For the analysis of the agreement in the diagnostic it was used the Kappa statistician. The obtained results showed a high grade of gross agreement and an agreement level among moderate and substantial when it was corrected by possible random agreement among both procedures. (Author)

  13. Radiochemistry of iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures. (JRD)

  14. Current iodinated contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacul, F.

    2001-01-01

    The number of scientific papers on iodinated contrast media is declining. Indeed, comparative trials between high-osmolality and low-osmolality agents largely showed the higher safety and tolerability of the latter, and this is no longer a matter of discussion. Only financial constraints could prevent a total conversion to low-osmolality agents. Research comparing low-osmolality (nonionic monomers, ionic dimer) and iso-osmolality contrast media (nonionic dimers) are still ongoing. Both classes of nonionic compounds proved safer than the ionic dimer. The relative merits of nonionic monomers and nonionic dimers are a matter for debate, and criteria for a selective use of different agents for different procedures could be discussed. (orig.)

  15. Radiochemistry of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, M.; Kleinberg, J.

    1977-09-01

    The preparation of isotopes of the element, with selected procedures for its determination in or separation from various media is described along with the separating of iodine species from each other. Each part of the introductory section is referenced separately from the remainder of the monograph. For the preparative and analytical sections there is an extensive, indexed bibliography which was developed from the indexes of Volumes 19 to 30 inclusive (1965-1974) of Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA). From these indexes the NSA abstracts of possible pertinent references were selected for examination and a choice was made of those references which were to be included in the bibliography. The bibliography has both primary and secondary references. Although the monograph does not cover hot atom chemistry, the kinetics of exchange reactions, decay schemes, or physiological applications, papers in these areas were examined as possible sources of useful preparative and analytical procedures

  16. Evaluation of efficacy of topical povidone-iodine and different types of fluoroquinolones in the sterilization of bacterial flora on the conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Altintas, Ayse Gul Kocak; Anayol, Mustafa Alpaslan; Raza, Sabri; Celikbilek, Nevreste; Simsek, Saban

    2011-12-01

    To compare the sterilization effectivity of topical povidone-iodine, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin on the conjunctival bacterial flora. One hundred sixty-four eyes of 164 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were prospectively analyzed. Conjunctival cultures were obtained 1 day before the surgery without any topical application in all patients. Conjunctival flora was examined in 53 eyes of 53 patients (Group I) 15 min after 5% topical povidone-iodine application on the day of the surgery. Fifty-four eyes of 54 patients (Group II) received 1 drop 0.3% ciprofloxacin at 12 pm 1 day before the operation and 4 drops at 15 min intervals on the day of the surgery. Another 57 eyes of 57 patients (Group III) received 0.3% ofloxacin in the same application mode as ciprofloxacin. Conjunctival cultures were taken in all patients 15 min after last drop of topical antibiotic application. Only coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 75.4% in Group I, 72.2% in Group II, and 59.6% in Group III on pretreatment culture. Different types of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Micrococcus spp. were identified in other patients. Pretreatment conjunctival flora of Group I and Group II were similar (P>0.05), but it was significantly different in Group III (P0.05), but bacterial eradication effectiveness was significantly higher in Group II than that of other groups (Pflora as pretreatment cultures in 14.9% in Group I, 1.8% in Group II, and 19.2% in Group III. The difference between Group I and Group III was statistically insignificant (P>0.05) and the difference between Group II and other groups was statistically significant (Pflora in Group I, which were seen in 3 eyes (5.5%) in Group II and in 8 eyes (14%) in Group III. The differences between groups were statistically insignificant (P>0.05). Ciprofloxacin seems to be more effective in conjunctival sterilization. In consideration with high variety of bacterial flora in

  17. Iodine laser program: SAIL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The iodine laser is the most highly developed near-infrared gas laser available for large-scale laser development. Its fast-repetition-rate potential and prospects for improvements in efficiency make it a primary laser candidate to meet mid-term laser-fusion requirements. It may have adequate efficiency for commercial laser-fusion applications in a hybrid fission/fusion reactor, for fusion-fuel breeding and for laser-fusion power generation using complex pellets. Research progress is reported on: (1) SAIL-1; (2) iodine laser-code development; (3) collision and radiation coupling for iodine atoms; (4) development of multilevel Block-Maxwell equations; (5) approximations for iodine amplifiers; and (6) studies based on the ISTAR code

  18. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  19. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases.

  20. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution. PMID:7051944

  1. Thyroidectomy: is Lugol's iodine necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, P J; Mitchell, J E

    1982-01-01

    In a randomised controlled clinical trial of Lugol's iodine against placebo in 44 patients undergoing thyroidectomy we have failed to show any benefit in terms of reduced bleeding or operative facility after using iodide solution.

  2. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) control in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Yadav, Kapil; Srivastava, Rahul; Pandav, Rijuta; Karmarkar, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a “mission approach” with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS) Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic), providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India. PMID:24135192

  3. Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant S Pandav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD constitute the single largest cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Majority of consequences of IDD are invisible and irreversible but at the same time these are preventable. In India, the entire population is prone to IDD due to deficiency of iodine in the soil of the subcontinent and consequently the food derived from it. To combat the risk of IDD, salt is fortified with iodine. However, an estimated 350 million people do not consume adequately iodized salt and, therefore, are at risk for IDD. Of the 325 districts surveyed in India so far, 263 are IDD-endemic. The current household level iodized salt coverage in India is 91 per cent with 71 per cent households consuming adequately iodized salt. The IDD control goal in India was to reduce the prevalence of IDD below 10 per cent in the entire country by 2012. What is required is a "mission approach" with greater coordination amongst all stakeholders of IDD control efforts in India. Mainstreaming of IDD control in policy making, devising State specific action plans to control IDD, strict implementation of Food Safety and Standards (FSS Act, 2006, addressing inequities in iodized salt coverage (rural-urban, socio-economic, providing iodized salt in Public Distribution System, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of IDD programme and ensuring sustainability of IDD control activities are essential to achieve sustainable elimination of IDD in India.

  4. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Haywood, S.M.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for iodine-125,129,131,132,133,134,135 in selected materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for iodine radionuclides in water, soil, grass, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for iodine radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the sanitary and environmental risks resulting from the Erika sinking and from the coasts cleaning operations; Evaluation des risques sanitaires et environnementaux resultant du naufrage de l'ERIKA et des operations de nettoyage des cotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicolella, A

    2000-03-15

    This synthesis presents the methodology of the risks evaluation and of the INERIS report, the products analysis, general data on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the exposure evaluation, the sanitary impact evaluation for the polycyclic organic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds and the evaluation of ecological risks. (A.L.B.)

  6. Evaluation of the impact and the releases of operating nuclear facilities; Evaluation de l'impact et des rejets des installations nucleaires en fonctionnement normal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The monitoring of nuclear installations releases, the associated impacts evaluation and the radiation monitoring of the environment are of an increase interest since the last ten years. Theses two days, organized by the environment section of the SFRP (French Society of Radiation Protection), aim to discuss the following topics: the development of the methods to improve radioactive elements and toxic substances releases in the environment; the structure of the environment control and the objectives of this control; the association of the local actors to the releases monitoring and to the environment control; the perspectives of evolution in matter of nuclear facilities releases management. (A.L.B.)

  7. Iodine recovery from brine solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weetall, H.H.; Hertl, W.

    1985-10-15

    Iodine has been produced by the reaction of iodide with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of the catalyst ferrous sulfate. The presence of high concentrations of chloride or bromide in both natural and synthetic brines have no effect on the reaction specificity or kinetics. This approach is potentially a less caustic method for the recovery of iodine from brine as compared to the most commonly used chlorine displacement methods.

  8. Evaluation of Iodine-131 dispersion after accident in Nuclear Angra Power Plant using the model of aquatic dispersion, SisBahia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Andre Silva de; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2014-01-01

    It was inserted, in the cooling system of the nucleus, a LOCA, where 431 m 3 of coolant was lost. Such an inventory contained 3,04 x 10 10 Bq / m 3 and iodine was released near the beach Itaorna, Angra dos Reis - RJ. Applying the model in the proposed scenario (Angra 1 and Angra 2 in operation and 3 in with varying capture and discharge with the discharge gradually reduced after the accident), the dilution of the specific activity of radionuclides reached lower values after 22 hours, the reference levels for seawater 131 I (7,40 x 10 2 Bq / m 3 ). After 54 hours, levels of the radionuclide, in the area of indirect influence, are already below minimum activity values detected by the laboratory for environmental monitoring of the CNAAA (5,0 x 10 1 Bq / m 3

  9. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  10. Evaluation multicritère des nuisances et de la perception en milieu urbain

    OpenAIRE

    Marry, Solène; Baulac, Marine; Marchand, Dorothée; Defrance, Jérôme; Ramalho, Olivier; Garcia, Michel; Flori, Jean-Paul; De Oliveira, Fabrice; Roussel, Julie; Savina, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    National audience; Le contexte actuel de la ville durable vise, entre autres, à améliorer la qualité de vie des citadins. Le travail présenté ici propose une approche multicritères afin d'évaluer le confort en milieu urbain. Plusieurs thématiques sont prises en compte dans cette méthodologie pluridisciplinaire : l'acoustique, l'éclairage, l'aérothermie, la qualité de l'air, les odeurs, l'esthétique, la dimension sociale et l'aménagement urbain. Il s'agit, à partir à la fois d'expérimentations...

  11. Spectral properties of iodine cells for laser standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabina, Jan; Šarbort, Martin; Acef, Ouali; Du Burck, Frédéric; Chiodo, Nicola; Chea, Erick; Holá, Miroslava; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of this work is oriented towards preparation and spectral properties evaluation of optical frequency references for laser standards - molecular iodine cells. These references represent the crucial part of setups for practical realization of the meter unit - highly stable laser standards. Furthermore, not only in the most precise laboratory instruments, but also in less demanding interferometric measuring setups the frequency stabilization of the lasers throught the absorption in suitable media ensure the direct traceability to the fundamental standard of length. A set of absorption cells filled with different amounts of molecular iodine (different saturation pressure point of absorption media) was prepared and an agreement between expected and resulting spectral properties of these cells was observed and evaluated. The usage of borosilicate glass instead of common fused silica as a material for cells bodies represents an approach to simplify the manufacturing technology process and also reduces the overall cell costs. A great care must be taken to control/avoid the risk of absorption media contamination by impurities releasing from the cell walls. We introduce an iodine purity and spectral properties evaluation method based on measurement of linewidth of the hyperfine transitions. The proposed method was used for verification of great iodine purity of manufactured cells by comparison of spectral properties with cells traditionally made of fused silica glass with well known iodine purity. The results confirmed a great potential of proposed approaches.

  12. Metabolism and toxicology of plutonium-239 - evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed (1963); Metabolisme et toxicologie du plutonium 239 - evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Ph. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    After reviewing the main metabolic and toxicological properties of plutonium 239 as well as the professional norms now in force, the report considers the difficult problem of the evaluation of the internal contamination of persons professionally exposed. This evaluation is dependent on the practical organisation of the supervision involved: - systematic supervision by periodic analysis of urinary Pu and special supervision in the case of incidents by an examination adapted to each case. A simple interpretation of the systematic analyses, as well as the evaluation methods used in the main cases of occidental contamination are outlined. (author) [French] Apres avoir passe en revue les principales proprietes metaboliques et toxicologiques du plutonium 239, ainsi que les normes professionnelles actuellement en vigueur, le rapport aborde le probleme difficile de l'evaluation de la contamination interne des personnes professionnellement exposees. Cette evaluation est fonction de l'organisation pratique de la surveillance: - surveillance systematique par des analyses periodiques de Pu urinaire et surveillance speciale en cas d'incidents par des examens appropries a chaque cas. Une interpretation simple des analyses systematiques, ainsi que des methodes d'evaluation utilisables dans les principaux cas de contamination accidentelle sont exposees. (auteur)

  13. Evaluation qualitative des eaux souterraines de la plaine d’Hennaya, à la consommation et à des fins d’irrigation (Nord- Ouest Algérien)

    OpenAIRE

    SENOUCI, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    l’Univers. RESUME La plaine d’Hennaya, située au nord de la ville de Tlemcen, caractérisée par un climat semi- aride, possède actuellement des ressources hydriques relativement limitées, à savoir uniquement les eaux souterraines de la nappe Mio-Plio-Quaternaire, alimentée latéralement par les dolomies de Tlemcen. Ces dernières années, un essor agricole, a eu lieu, ce qui a entraîné, d’une part, l’accroissement des besoins en eaux et a provoqué, d’autre part, la dégradatio...

  14. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  15. Iodine filters in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.

    1977-04-01

    On the basis of calculated and recorded release rates of nuclear power plants, the significance of iodine releases in the invironmental impact relative to other nuclides is discussed. The release pathways for iodine in LWR-type reactors and the efficiency of various methods to lower the activity release are given. The airborne species of iodine are discussed with regard to their removal in iodine sorption filters and environmental impact. The technical status of iodine removal by means of iodine sorption filters is studied for normal operation and accident conditions in nuclear power stations on the basis of the data given in the relevant literature for the efficiency of a number of iodine sorption materials. The applicability of concepts for ventilation and containment and their influence on iodine filter systems are discussed. Design, structure, and testing of iodine sorption filters are treated in detail; recommendations for design are given, and failure sources are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  16. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  17. State of the art report on iodine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.; Cantrel, L.; Ducros, G.; Funke, F.; Herranz, L.; Rydl, A.; Weber, G.; Wren, C.

    2007-01-01

    An accident in which the normal core cooling is lost could lead to fuel elements melting and fission product release beyond the plant limits. Nuclear power plants are designed with engineering systems and associated operational procedures which provide an in-depth defence against such accidents. Iodine is a major contributor to the potential source term to the environment, thus a good understanding of its behaviour and validated calculation tools are required to perform meaningful risk analyses and make decisions in the field of accident management, mitigation measures and emergency procedures. A number of experimental programmes, involving separate-effect and integral tests have been carried out during the last decade, providing new and valuable results that have improved our understanding of iodine phenomena. A modelling effort has also been pursued in order to encapsulate the acquired knowledge in the calculation tools prepared for predicting the iodine behaviour under severe accident conditions. In view of the progress made, the Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (GAMA) considered the necessity of producing a status paper on iodine chemistry, with the following objectives: - to review insights gained and evaluate the progress made during the last 10 years on the understanding of phenomena governing iodine chemistry and release in the case of a reactor severe accident, - to evaluate the current status of iodine chemistry knowledge and tools used for source term prediction in connection with accident management and emergency planning, under various reactor conditions, to identify the remaining weaknesses, discuss the reactor safety relevance of these issues and make recommendations as necessary. This paper aims at shedding light on the present situation, helping end-users and decision makers to adequately address questions related to iodine behaviour under severe accident conditions, and to essential programmes of work in this area

  18. Investigation on efficiency of stable iodine distribution around Golfech nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payoux, P.; Simon, J.; Campana Briault, H.; Fenolland, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Background. In order to prevent thyroid cancer radio induced during civil nuclear accident french regulations plan stable iodine distribution for populations living near nuclear power stations. We evaluate availability of stable iodine and understanding of such measure with investigation around Golfech nuclear power station. Methods. In 2001, 1148 families living in a 10 km perimeter around power station were questioned through their schooled child. Our anonymous questionnaire (22 questions, 91 items) was linked with stable iodine availability, organ protection, most exposed persons, dosage and time of stable iodine ingestion. Results. 72,1 % families replied. Among them, 60,8% could easily and quickly find stable iodine in case of emergency, 87,8% know that such measure is to protect thyroid, 80,5% know that children and pregnant women (62,7%) are the most exposed people, 82,3% know that such ingestion is allowed by Prefect order. Conclusion. Answer rate and stable iodine prophylaxis knowledge are satisfactory. On the other hand, in case of necessity about 40% of the concerned families don't have a rapid access to stable iodine, which will forced authorities to distribute as a matter of urgency supplementary stable iodine. Statistical analysis of the answers demonstrate that the most iodine prophylaxis ignorant people are the most refractory to this approach. (author)

  19. Formative Evaluation von digitalen Lehr- und Lernmedien am Beispiel des neuen Französischlehrmittels dis donc!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Totter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obwohl Lehrmittel eine zentrale Funktion für das Lernen in der Schule haben und ein wichtiges Medium für die Implementation von Innovationen sind, gibt es bislang nur wenige Lehrmittelentwicklungsprojekte bei denen ein innovativer Einsatz digitaler Lehr- und Lernmedien von Projektbeginn an als Teil eines Lehrmittels konzipiert und evaluiert wird. Für eine erfolgreiche Implementation einer Innovation ist es jedoch besonders wichtig, dass bereits während des Entwicklungsprozesses forschungsbasierte Ergebnisse zur Verfügung stehen zur Qualitätssicherung und bezüglich Akzeptanz im Schulfeld. Die formative Evaluation setzt genau an dieser Stelle an. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages wird ein Vorgehensmodell für eine formative Evaluation digitaler Lehr- und Lernmedien, die integrativer Teil eines Lehrmittels sind, vorgestellt und am Beispiel des neuen Französischlehrmittels dis donc! für den Unterricht von Französisch als zweite Fremdsprache in der 5.-9. Klasse werden erste Ergebnisse daraus präsentiert. Textbooks are central for student learning and an important means for the implementation of innovation, such as the introduction of digital teaching and learning materials. So far there exist only few development processes of textbooks, whereby digital teaching and learning materials are developed and evaluated as an integral part of the process right from the start. However, where innovation is involved, it is very important to have tight, empirical data-based feedback loops in the development process, so as to effectively assess the quality of, and ensure the acceptance of innovation elements. An efficient way to attain such feedback loops is through formative evaluations. Along these lines, this article introduces a framework for the formative evaluation of digital teaching and learning materials that are part of a textbook; furthermore, it presents first results of the application of the framework for the evaluation of the new textbook dis

  20. Control of the amount of free molecular iodine in iodine germicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J; Panicucci, R; Duan, Y; Dinehart, K; Murphy, J; Kessler, J; Gottardi, W

    1997-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase has been used to generate iodine compositions that comprised principally free molecular iodine. The concentration of free molecular iodine in these enzyme-based compositions ranged from 44 to 63% of the thiosulphate titratable iodine; this is substantially higher than the corresponding value for the povidone-iodine preparation betadine. The biocidal efficacy of these compositions was proportional to the concentration of free molecular iodine. Iodine compositions with relatively low total iodine concentrations but high levels of free molecular iodine (20-175 ppm) killed Staphylococcus aureus and spores of Bacillus subtilis more rapidly than betadine. The effects of normal saline and these enzyme-based iodine compositions on the rate of epidermal regeneration in superficial swine wounds were comparable. These results suggest that an effective germicide containing a high level of molecular iodine need not be irritating or toxic.

  1. Study of Iodine Prophylaxis Following Nuclear Accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Widayati; Tedjasari, R. S.; Elfida

    2007-01-01

    Study of iodine prophylaxis following nuclear accidents has been done. Giving stable iodine to a population exposed by I-131 is one of preventive action from internal radiation to the thyroid gland. Stable iodine could be given as Kl tablet in a range of dose of 30 mg/day to 130 mg/day. Improper giving of stable iodine could cause side effect to health, so then some factors should be considered i. e. dose estimation, age, dose of stable iodine to be given, duration of stable iodine prophylaxis and risk of health. (author)

  2. Evaluation des résultats de l'implantation cochléaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hssaine, Khaoula; Belhoucha, Btissam; Benhommad, Othman; Rochdi, Youssef; Nouri, Hassan; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Les implants cochléaires sont des prothèses électro-acoustiques qui ont pour rôle de pallier une déficience bilatérale de l'oreille interne, qu'elle soit profonde ou sévère, acquise ou congénitale. Nous rapportons l'expérience du service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico-faciale de l'hôpital universitaire Mohammed VI de Marrakech, dont l'objectif est d'évaluer l'implantation cochléaire et de préciser les facteurs influençant les résultats dans notre pratique. Le profil APCEI a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats orthophoniques. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective étalée sur une période de 7 ans (Décembre 2007 à Décembre 2014). Durant cette période; 54 patients ont été implantés et suivient dans notre formation. Il s'agit de 30 filles et 24 garçons atteints d'une surdité sévères à profonde bilatérale, dont 48 enfants avaient une surdité pré-linguale. L'âge moyen d'implantation cochléaire pédiatrique était de 5,15 ans. L'implantation était unilatérale chez tous les patients. L'intervention était suivie par des réglages et une rééducation orthophonique régulière. L'évaluation était réalisée par la même équipe chaque mois durant les premiers 6 mois, puis tous les 6 mois. La durée moyenne de suivi était de 30,86 mois. Tous les patients ont tiré un bénéfice de leurs implants avec une variabilité interindividuelle. Les bons résultats étaient corrélés à l'implantation précoce, à un investissement parental important et au un bon suivi de la rééducation orthophonique. L'implantation cochléaire a révolutionnée la prise en charge de la surdité profonde et sévère. C'est une technique sûre, efficace lorsqu'elle s'adresse à des populations correctement sélectionnées. PMID:26848357

  3. INCOMMANDS TDP: Human Factors Design and Evaluation Guide (PDT INCOMMANDS: Guide de Conception et d’Evaluation des Facteurs Humains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Support, ou Système novateur d’aide à la décision pour la gestion du combat naval) vise à étudier, à démontrer et à évaluer de nouveaux concepts d’aide...guideront et façonneront l’élaboration des concepts d’IOM et d’aide à la décision arrêtés dans le cadre du projet INCOMMANDS de sorte qu’ils...commandement élaborés par l’équipe du projet . Ce document vise à étayer et à orienter la conception et l’élaboration du système de soutien électronique

  4. Incidence of hyperthyroidism in Slovenia since improved iodine supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaletel, K.; Gaberscek, S.; Pirnat, E.; Hojker, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since the year 1953, when iodine prophylaxis was introduced in Slovenia, several epidemiological studies confirmed the existence of mild iodine deficiency on the whole territory of Slovenia. In January 1999 the implementation of higher iodine content (25 mg of KI or 32 mg of KIO 3 ) was recommended and since then the increased incidence of thyrotoxicosis was observed. Here we present 5-year follow-up data of the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease. We estimated incidence rates from 1997 to 2001 for hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease among 1000000 people, living in the area of Ljubljana. We assumed that most cases were seen and treated in the Outpatient Department for thyroid diseases of Department for Nuclear Medicine of University Medical Centre Ljubljana. Immediately after correction of iodine deficiency, the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy rose almost twice in 1999 (320 cases in 1999 compared to 173 cases in 1997), but afterwards the incidence slightly decreased (240 cases in 2000). Similarly, the incidence of Graves' disease rose in 1999 (267 cases in 1999 compared to 237 in 1997) and in contrast to thyroid autonomy the incidence further increased in the following years (337 in 2000 and 246 in the first half of 2001). The increased incidence of hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy and Graves' disease after elevation of iodine prophylaxis in Slovenia is comparable with data in some other endemic areas. Those data indicate that stepwise supplementation is preferable to immediate corrections. However, we believe that iodine prophylaxis is reasonable and justified and to reassess the iodine nutrition status we plan a follow up evaluation in year 2002. (author)

  5. Iodine uptake and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera-Caltzontzin, Paloma; Delgado, Guadalupe; Aceves, Carmen; Anguiano, Brenda

    2013-11-08

    Iodine supplementation exerts antitumor effects in several types of cancer. Iodide (I⁻) and iodine (I₂) reduce cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and DU-145). Both chemical species decrease tumor growth in athymic mice xenografted with DU-145 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the uptake and effects of iodine in a preclinical model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate [TRAMP] mice/SV40-TAG antigens), which develops cancer by 12 wks of age. ¹²⁵I⁻ and ¹²⁵I₂ uptake was analyzed in prostates from wild-type and TRAMP mice of 12 and 24 wks in the presence of perchlorate (inhibitor of the Na⁺/I⁻ symporter [NIS]). NIS expression was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mice (6 wks old) were supplemented with 0.125 mg I⁻ plus 0.062 mg I₂/mouse/day for 12 or 24 wks. The weight of the genitourinary tract (GUT), the number of acini with lesions, cell proliferation (levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA] by immunohistochemistry), p53 and p21 expression (by qPCR) and apoptosis (relative amount of nucleosomes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were evaluated. In both age-groups, normal and tumoral prostates take up both forms of iodine, but only I⁻ uptake was blocked by perchlorate. Iodine supplementation prevented the overexpression of NIS in the TRAMP mice, but had no effect on the GUT weight, cell phenotype, proliferation or apoptosis. In TRAMP mice, iodine increased p53 expression but had no effect on p21 (a p53-dependent gene). Our data corroborate NIS involvement in I⁻ uptake and support the notion that another transporter mediates I₂ uptake. Iodine did not prevent cancer progression. This result could be explained by a strong inactivation of the p53 pathway by TAG antigens.

  6. Acute Adverse Reactions to Nonionic Iodinated Contrast Media for CT: Prospective Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Dehydration, Oral Rehydration, and Patient Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Sano, Katsuhiro; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the effects of dehydration and oral rehydration on the incidence of acute adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered during abdominal and pelvic CT in outpatients. For our prospective randomized study performed at a single institution, adult outpatients undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal CT were randomly divided into a rehydration group (n = 2244 patients [1379 men and 865 women]; mean age, 65.2 years; age range, 18-90 years) and a control group (n = 3715 [2112 male patients and 1603 female patients]; mean age, 65.8 years; age range, 17-96 years), which included an age- and sex-matched subgroup (adjusted control group, n = 2244). The rehydration group received an oral rehydration solution (500 mL of liquid in which osmotic pressure is adjusted to enhance gastrointestinal absorption) before abdominal and pelvic CT. Patients were also divided into subclinically dehydrated (n = 997) and hydrated (n = 4962) groups according to their answers to a questionnaire that they completed before the CT examination. The patients were interviewed about contrast-induced adverse reactions before they left the CT room, and the reactions were categorized as allergiclike or physiologic. The incidence of reactions was compared between the rehydration and control groups and between the subclinical dehydration and hydrated groups. The rehydration and control groups were compared with an unpaired t test or a chi-square or Fisher test. The overall incidence of an acute adverse reaction was 4.3% (254/5959); the acute adverse reactions included 136 allergiclike and 118 physiologic reactions. Fourteen allergiclike and nine physiologic reactions were moderate grade, and none was severe. There was no significant difference between the rehydration group and adjusted control group in the overall incidence of adverse reactions (99/2244 [4.4%] vs 100/2244 [4.5%], respectively; p = 0.9422) or between the subclinically dehydrated group

  7. Organic chemistry and radiochemistry: study of chemical interactions between iodine and paint of French nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation; Chimie organique et radiochimie. Etude des interactions chimiques iode-peinture dans un reacteur nucleaire (de type R.E.P.) en situation d'accident grave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, Y. [Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-01-01

    In Phebus (French in pile facility; PWR scale 1/5000) experiments, performed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, few quantities of organic iodides were registered after interaction between iodine and reactor containment paint. This study concerns all mechanisms of chemical reactions between iodine and the polymer of the paint in order to estimate the organic iodides released from the paint. At first, all the paint components had been identified. Several models of chemical sites of the polymer were synthesized and tested with iodine in different conditions of temperature and radiation. These experiments showed interactions between iodine and secondary or tertiary amines by charge transfer. In few cases, the complex of tertiary amines creates oxidation reactions. (author)

  8. [Assessment of dietary iodine intake of population in non-high-iodine areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Fengqin; Liu, Zhaoping; He, Yuna; Sui, Haixia; Mao, Weifeng; Liu, Sana; Yan, Weixing; Li, Ning; Chen, Junshi

    2011-03-01

    To assess the potential risk of dietary iodine insufficiency of population in non-high-iodine areas (water iodine China. The dietary iodine intake of 13 age-sex population groups were estimated by combining the data of iodine intake from food, table salt and drinking water. Two conditions were considered: consuming iodized salt or non-iodized salt. The data of food and table salt consumption were derived from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in 2002. Water consumption was calculated as the recommended water intake. Iodine contents of food, table salt and water were calculated from China Food Composition Table and iodine surveillance data. Under the condition of consuming iodized salt, the average iodine intake of all population groups was higher than the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI), while the iodine intakes of individuals above Upper Limits (UL) and below RNI were 5.8% and 13.4% respectively, and the iodine intake of individuals lower than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was 9.4% in adults above 18 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women). If non-iodized salt was consumed, the average iodine intake of most sex-age population groups was higher than RNI, but the iodine intake of 97.6% of individuals would be lower than RNI, while the iodine intake of 97.4% of adults would be lower than EAR. The contribution of iodine from table salt was much higher than that from drinking water and food in the condition of consuming iodized salt, while food was the predominant contributor of dietary iodine in the condition of consuming non-iodized salt. The health risk of iodine deficiency was higher than that of iodine excess in areas where water iodine was China, and the risk of iodine insufficiency was much higher if non-iodized salt was consumed. Iodized salt should be the main sources of dietary iodine intake for population in areas where water iodine was China.

  9. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women.

  10. Evaluation of Salivary Gland Dysfunction Using Salivary Gland Scintigraphy in Sjoegren's Syndrome Patients and in Thyroid Cancer Patients after Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ji Yeon; Jang, Su Jin; Lee, Won Woo; Jang, Sung June; Lee, Yun Jong; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) provides an objective means of diagnosing salivary gland dysfunction in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) patients and in thyroid cancer patients after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy. In the present study, SGS was performed in SS patients and in thyroid cancer patients post RAI, and scintigraphic parameters were compared. Twenty eight SS patients (males:females=1:27, age 53.3{+-}11.9 years), 28 controls (males:females=3.25, age 54.1{+-}10.1 years), and 92 thyroid cancer patients (males:females=28:64, age 46.2{+-}12.9) who had undergone a session of high dose RAI therapy (mean dose, 5.2{+-}1.5 GBq) were included. SGS was performed using Tc 99m pertechnetate (925MBq). Scintigraphic parameters (parotid uptake ratio PU, submandibular uptake ratio SU, percent age parotid excretion %PE, and percentage submandibular excretion %SE) were measured and compared for SS, thyroid cancer post RAI, and control patients. PU, SU, %SE, and %PE were all significantly lower in SS than in post RAI thyroid cancer of control patients (p<0.05), whereas only %PE was significantly lower in post RAI thyroid cancer patients than in controls (P<0.05). SU and %SE were found to be correlated with the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. Scintigraphic parameters derived from SGS can play a crucial role in the detection of salivary gland dysfunction in SS patients and in post RAI thyroid cancer patients.

  11. A Comparison of the Use of Contrast Media with Different Iodine Concentrations for Multidetector CT of the Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Chai; Cho, Jeong Yeon

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal iodine concentration of contrast media for kidney multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) by comparing the degree of renal parenchymal enhancement and the severity of the renal streak artifact with contrast media of different iodine concentrations. Materials and Methods A 16-row MDCT was performed in 15 sedated rabbits by injection of 2 mL contrast media/kg body weight at a rate of 0.3 mL/sec. Monomeric nonionic contrast media of 250, 300, and 370 mg iodine/mL were injected at 1-week intervals. Mean attenuation values were measured in each renal structure with attenuation differences among the structures. The artifact was evaluated by CT window width/level and three grading methods. The values were compared with iodine concentrations. Results The 370 mg iodine/mL concentration showed significantly higher cortical enhancement than 250 mg iodine/mL in all phases (p < 0.05). There was however no significant difference in the degree of enhancement between the 300 mg iodine/mL and 370 mg iodine/mL concentrations in all phases. There is a significant difference in attenuation for the cortex-outer medulla between 250 mg iodine/mL and 300 mg iodine/mL (p < 0.05). The artifact was more severe with a medium of 370 mg iodine/mL than with 250 mg iodine/mL by all grading methods (p < 0.05). Conclusion The 300 mg iodine/mL is considered to be the most appropriate iodine concentration in an aspect of the enhancement and artifact on a kidney MDCT scan. PMID:22043154

  12. Effect of iodine solutions on polyaniline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, M.M.; Amer, W.A.; Stejskal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) emeraldine-base films have been exposed to iodine solutions. The interaction between the films and the iodine solution was studied using the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique and the UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The iodine-treated film of emeraldine base was subjected to dedoping process using 0.1 M ammonia solution. The resulting film was exposed again to the previously used iodine solution. Iodine was found to play multiple roles: the ring-iodination of PANI film, the oxidation of PANI to pernigraniline base, and iodine doping to PANI salt. A sensor based on PANI-coated electrode of QCM was developed to monitor the presence of iodine in solution.

  13. SPIRT-NRC. Containment Spray Iodine Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K. [Benton City Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Sherry, R.R.; Tam, P.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1988-01-01

    SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles,the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  14. Iodinated contrast media nephrotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyrier, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the late seventies, iodinated contrast agents (ICA) were considered to be a major cause of acute iatrogenic renal failure. Over the last decade new contrast agents have been synthesized, nonionic and less hyperosmolar. The incidence of acute renal failure due to ICAs, varies from 3.7 to 70% of cases according to the series, with an average figure of 10.2%. The pathophysiology of ICA nephrotoxicity was mainly studied in laboratory animal models. Three main factors are involved in an inducing ICA-mediated decrease in glomerular filtration rate: reduction of the renal plasma flow, a direct cytotoxic effect on renal tubular cells and erythrocyte alteration leading to intra-renal sludge. Excluding dysglobulinemias with urinary excretion of immunoglobulin light chains, which represent a special case of maximum nephrotoxicity, 4 main risk factors of renal toxicity have been identified in nondiabetic subjects: previous renal failure with serum creatinine levels greater than 140 μmol per liter, extracellular dehydration, age over 60 and use of high doses of ICA and/or repeated ICA injections before serum creatinine levels return to baseline. Preventive measures for avoiding ICA nephrotoxicity are threefold: maintain or restore adequate hydration with saline infusion, stop NSAID treatment several days before ICA administration, and allow a 5 day interval before repeating contrast media injections. New, nonionic and moderately hyperosmolar contrast agents appear to be much less nephrotoxic than conventional ICAs in laboratory animals and in high-risk patients. It is advisable to select such contrast media for investigating high-risk patients. This approach was recently substantiated in well designed, randomized clinical studies which included more than 2 000 patients. (author)

  15. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Knutsen, Helle Katrine; Johansen, Nina Cathrine; Nyheim, Kristine Aastad; Erlund, Iris; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Henjum, Sigrun

    2018-02-17

    Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children ( n = 47), adolescents ( n = 46), adults ( n = 71), the elderly ( n = 23), pregnant women ( n = 45), ovo-lacto vegetarians ( n = 25), and vegans ( n = 19). In all participants combined, the median (95% CI) UIC was 101 (90, 110) µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile) calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175) µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile) estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150) µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82%) and vegans the lowest (14%) probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  16. Inadequate Iodine Intake in Population Groups Defined by Age, Life Stage and Vegetarian Dietary Practice in a Norwegian Convenience Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lise Brantsæter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate iodine intake has been identified in populations considered iodine replete for decades. The objective of the current study is to evaluate urinary iodine concentration (UIC and the probability of adequate iodine intake in subgroups of the Norwegian population defined by age, life stage and vegetarian dietary practice. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed the probability of adequate iodine intake by two 24-h food diaries and UIC from two fasting morning spot urine samples in 276 participants. The participants included children (n = 47, adolescents (n = 46, adults (n = 71, the elderly (n = 23, pregnant women (n = 45, ovo-lacto vegetarians (n = 25, and vegans (n = 19. In all participants combined, the median (95% CI UIC was 101 (90, 110 µg/L, median (25th, 75th percentile calculated iodine intake was 112 (77, 175 µg/day and median (25th, 75th percentile estimated usual iodine intake was 101 (75, 150 µg/day. According to WHOs criteria for evaluation of median UIC, iodine intake was inadequate in the elderly, pregnant women, vegans and non-pregnant women of childbearing age. Children had the highest (82% and vegans the lowest (14% probability of adequate iodine intake according to reported food and supplement intakes. This study confirms the need for monitoring iodine intake and status in nationally representative study samples in Norway.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Désirée E.

    2009-01-01

    The article focuses on iodine, its benefits and adverse effects, and its production and consumption. It states that iodine is essential to humans for it produces thyroid hormones to nourish thyroid glands but excessive intake could cause goiter, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. U.S. laws require salt iodization to help prevent diseases. Chile and Japan are the world's leading iodine producer while in the U.S. iodine is mined from deep well brines in northern Oklahoma.

  18. Contrast induced hyperthyroidism due to iodine excess

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq, Usman; Price, Timothy; Laddipeerla, Narsing; Townsend, Amanda; Broadbridge, Vy

    2009-01-01

    Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is a thyrotoxic condition caused by exposure to excessive iodine. Historically this type of hyperthyroidism has been described in areas of iodine deficiency. With advances in medicine, iodine induced hyperthyroidism has been observed following the use of drugs containing iodine—for example, amiodarone, and contrast agents used in radiological imaging. In elderly patients it is frequently difficult to diagnose and control contrast related hyperthyroidism, as most...

  19. Laser Induced Fluorescence of the Iodine Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    density of iodine (solid at room temperature) is 4.933 g/cc. Iodine also has a relatively high vapor pressure at low temperatures. Vapor pressures of...unknowns with iodine – Vapor pressure requires temperature control – New flow control system design/complexity – Performance and lifetime? – Safety... Iodine is a demonstrated HET propellant – Cheaper than xenon, similar critical properties – 3x higher storage density – Low pressure storage • Issues

  20. Use of Lugol's iodine in oral cancer diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Massimo; Lucchese, Alberta; Baldoni, Edoardo; Grassi, Felice Roberto; Serpico, Rosario

    2010-11-01

    Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) still represents an important challenge for clinicians and patients. Vital staining such as toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine solution, are routinely used in the OSCC detection but few data exist about the last one. A literature review is made to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Lugol's iodine solution in OSCC detection and in its margins demarcation. A review was made of the studies published between 1990 and 2010 in relation to the application of Lugol's iodine for OSCC detection and a better definition of its margins. Data obtained point to the utility and the safety of Lugol's iodine when employed for detection and margins delineation of OSCC and dysplasia. All the studies consulted found the Lugol's iodine to be effective, cheap and easy to use and they emphasized its importance in clinical practice. There is need for larger controlled, randomized studies with carefully selected and standardized outcome measures and patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  2. Management modes for iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, I.F.; Smith, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    This study completes a two-stage programme, supported by the Commission of the European Communities, on management modes for iodine-129. The models for the radiological assessment of iodine-129 management modes have been reviewed and, where necessary, revised, and a generic radiological assessment has been carried out using these models. Cost benefit analysis has been demonstrated for a variety of iodine-129 management modes; for a wide range of assumptions, the costs of abatement of atmospheric discharges would be outweighed by the radiological benefits. The cost benefit analysis thus complements and confirms the preliminary conclusion of the previous study: iodine-129 should be trapped to a large extent from the off-gases of a large reprocessing plant and disposed of by other suitable means, in order to ensure that all exposures from this radionuclide are as low as reasonably achievable. Once the major fraction of the iodine-129 throughput of a reprocessing plant has been trapped from the dissolver off-gases, there are unlikely to be strong radiation protection incentives either for further trapping from the dissolver off-gases or for trapping from the vessel off-gases. In a generic study it is not possible to state an optimum choice of process(es) for abatement of atmospheric discharges of iodine-129. This choice must be determined by assessments in the specific context of a particular reprocessing plant, its site, the waste disposal routes that are actually available, and also in the wider context of the management plans for all radioactive wastes at the plant in question

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFICIENT AND DIRECT IODINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: Iodine, Polymer-supported periodic acid, Oxidant, Iodination. INTRODUCTION. Iodobenzene derivatives are valuable compounds in organic synthesis, medicine, and biochemistry [1]. Iodine is an elemental halogen that has less reactive than the other halides in electrophilic substitution reactions, therefore ...

  4. Iodine in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Crill, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency (ID) has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production. Methods for assessment of iodine nutrition in individuals include the urinary iodine concentration (UI), thyroid size and thyroid function tests. The UI measured in several

  5. Industrial system for producing iodine-123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brantley, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An industrial system to produce iodine-123 required a complex set of steps involving new approaches by the Food and Drug Administration, difficult distribution procedures, and evidence from potential users that either very pure iodine-123 or inexpensive iodine-123 is needed. Industry has shown its willingness to invest in new radionuclides but needs strong evidence as to product potential to justify those investments

  6. Dual energy CT iodine map for delineating inflammation of inflammatory arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Fukuda, Kunihiko [The Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Umezawa, Yoshinori; Asahina, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Hidemi [The Jikei University School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Tokyo (Japan); Furuya, Kazuhiro [The Jikei University School of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    Iodine mapping is an image-processing technique used with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to improve iodine contrast resolution. CT, because of its high spatial resolution and thin slice reconstruction, is well suited to the evaluation of the peripheral joints. Recent developments in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis that require early diagnosis and precise therapeutic assessment encourage radiological evaluation. To facilitate such assessment, we describe DECT iodine mapping as a novel modality for evaluating rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis of the hands and feet. (orig.)

  7. Iodization of village water supply in the control of endemic iodine deficiency in rural Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, L C; Zainab, T; Goh, S Y; Letchuman, G R; Nafikudin, M; Doraisingam, P; Khalid, B

    1996-09-01

    A simple water iodizing system, which incorporates the Venturi principle in combination with the controlled release mechanism of a silicone-sodium iodide elastomer, for the iodization of rural piped-water supply in the control of endemic iodine deficiency has been developed and its effectiveness evaluated in three Iban longhouse villages in the iodine-deficient district of Lubok Antu, Sarawak. Urines were collected for iodine assays from women aged 15-40 years before and at 6 and 12 months after the connection of the iodinating device; goiter assessment was performed on the women at the start and end of the 1-year study. Water samples were collected for iodine assays at 2-weekly intervals. In all three villages, significant and sustained increases in median urinary iodine excretions, reaching levels recommended for an iodine-sufficient population, were observed; goitre prevalences were reduced in all the villages (by 22.6% to 35.8%). The iodine levels in the water ranged from 34 micrograms/l to 212 micrograms/L. In the control village, median urinary iodine excretions remained essentially unchanged but a small increase in goiter prevalence was observed. The iodized water was well received by the villagers and no adverse effects of water iodization were observed. The system functioned unattended throughout the one year period. The cost of providing supplemental iodine via the iodizing device is approximately 60 cents (U.S.) per family per year which is affordable by either the Government or the villagers. It is concluded that the iodizing system offers a new cost-effective strategy for the control of endemic iodine deficiency in Sarawak and may have applications in other areas with similar water sources.

  8. Which Iodine concentration in chest CT? - A prospective study in 300 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlenbruch, Georg; Behrendt, Florian F.; Eddahabi, Mohammed A.; Das, Marco; Guenther, Rolf W.; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Knackstedt, Christian; Stanzel, Sven; Seidensticker, Peter; Wildberger, Joachim E.

    2008-01-01

    In computed tomography(CT) several contrast media with different iodine concentrations are available. The aim of this study is to prospectively compare contrast media with iodine concentrations of 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine/ml for chest- CT. 300 consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled, under a waiver of the local ethics committee. The first (second, third) 100 patients, received contrast medium with 300(370, 400)mg iodine/ml. Injection protocols were adapted for an identical iodine delivery rate(1.3 mg/s) and total iodine load(33 g) for all three groups. Standardized MDCT of the chest (16 x 0.75 mm, 120 kVp, 100 mAseff.) was performed. Intravascular attenuation values were measured in the pulmonary trunk and the ascending aorta; subjective image quality was rated on a 3-point-scale. Discomfort during and after injection was evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in contrast enhancement comparing the three contrast media at the pulmonary trunk(p = 0.3198) and at the ascending aorta(p = 0.0840). Image quality(p = 0.0176) and discomfort during injection(p 0.7034) were comparable for all groups. General discomfort after injection of contrast media with 300 mg iodine/ml was statistically significant higher compared to 370 mg iodine/ml(p = 0.00019). Given identical iodine delivery rates of 1.3 g/s and iodine loads of 33 g, contrast media with concentrations of 300, 370 and 400 mg iodine/ml do not result in different intravascular enhancement in chest-CT. (orig.)

  9. Iodine losses during Winkler titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, George P.; Stalcup, Marvel C.; Stanley, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure iodine loss during the aliquot version of the Winkler titration for dissolved oxygen in seawater shows that 0.01-0.03 ml l -1 equivalent oxygen is lost at typical oceanic concentrations in the method presently used. A standardization technique, which mimics that employed during the titration of seawater samples, compensates for this iodine loss throughout the oceanic range. This result, contradicting an earlier report by GREEN and CARRITT (1966, Analyst, 91, 207-208), demonstrates that the whole-bottle method of oxygen titration is not to be preferred over the aliquot method.

  10. Studies in iodine metabolism: Progress report, July 1968-July 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1987-01-01

    This document describes research on iodine metabolism conducted at the University of Tennessee, Memphis between July 1968 and July 1969. The author and his research team prepared autoradiographs of rat thyroids from individuals exposed to Iodine 125 in utero. Additional studies were conducted to determine the effect on hypothalamic lesions on iodide metabolism in rats; to evaluate an iodide-specific electrode for measuring iodide levels in blood or urine; and to study the amount of thyroxine absorption from the intestine. An analysis of bovine and sheep thyroids from eight locations provided additional information on global fallout levels. 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of therapy for dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure by iodine-123 metaiodobenzyl-guanidine imaging. Comparison with heart rate variability power spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shou-lin; Ikeda, Jun; Takita, Tamotsu; Sekiguchi, Yohei; Demachi, Jun; Chikama, Hisao; Goto, Atsushi; Shirato, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between the myocardial uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG) and heart rate variability parameters has not been determined. This study determined the relationship between the change in myocardial uptake of 123 I-MIBG and improvement in left ventricular function after treatment, to determine the usefulness of 123 I-MIBG imaging to assess the effect of therapy on heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). 123 I-MIBG imaging and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability were performed before and after treatment in 17 patients with heart failure due to DCM. The following parameters were compared before and after treatment: New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, radiographic cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), blood pressure, echocardiographic data (left ventricular end-systolic (LVDs) and end-diastolic (LVDd) diameters, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)), plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine, heart rate variability power spectral analysis data (mean low frequency (MLF) and high frequency power (MHF)) and the myocardium to mediastinum activity ratio (MYO/M) obtained in early and late images, and washout rate calculated by anterior planar imaging of 123 I-MIBG. The NYHA functional class, LVEF, LVDs, CTR, MLF and MHF improved after treatment. Early MYO/M and late MYO/M improved after treatment. The rate of increase in late MYO/M was positively correlated with the rate of improvement of LVEF after treatment. Furthermore, the late MYO/M was negatively correlated with MLF. Washout rate revealed no correlation with hemodynamic parameters. These findings suggest that late MYO/M is more useful than washout rate to assess the effect of treatment on heart failure due to DCM. Furthermore, the 123 I-MIBG imaging and heart rate variability parameters are useful to assess the autonomic tone in DCM with heart failure. (author)

  12. The retention of iodine in stainless steel sample lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.J.; Deir, C. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Ball, J.M. [Whiteshell Laboratories, Pinawa (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    Following an accident in a multi-unit CANDU nuclear generating station, decontamination of air vented from containment would play a critical role in minimizing the release of iodine to the environment. The concentration of gas phase iodine in containment air would be measured using the post accident radiation monitoring system, requiring that air samples be passed through a considerable length of tubing to a remote location where the desired measurements could safely be made. A significant loss of iodine, due to adsorption on the sample line surfaces, could greatly distort the measurement. In this study, the retention of I{sub 2}(g) on stainless steel was evaluated in bench scale experiments in order to evaluate, and if possible minimise, the extent of any such line losses. Experiments at the University of Toronto were performed using 6 inch lengths of 1/4 inch stainless steel tubing. Air, containing I-131 labelled I{sub 2}(g), ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}10} to 10{sup {minus}6} mol/dm{sup 3} and relative humidity (:RH) from 20 to 90 %, was passed through tubing samples maintained at temperatures ranging from 25 to 90{degrees}C. Adsorption at low gas phase iodine concentrations differed substantially from that at higher concentrations. The rate of deposition was proportional to the gas phase concentration, giving support to the concept of a first order deposition velocity. The surface loading increased with increasing relative humidity, particularly at low RH values, while the deposition rate decreased with increasing temperature. Surface water on the steel may play an important role in the deposition process. The chemisorbed iodine was located primarily in areas of corrosion. Furthermore, water used to wash the steel contained Fe, Mn and iodine in the form of iodide, suggesting that I{sub 2} reacted to form metal iodides. The deposition of I{sub 2} was also found to depend on the initial surface condition.

  13. L\\'evaluation des troubles vesico-sphincteriens dans la sclerose en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our objective in this study is to examine the relations between the Urinary disorders (UD), the functional statue, the gravity of the neurological disease and the quality of life during the Multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients and methods 25 consecutive MS patients with mean age of 39 +-7,75 years were evaluated. The evaluation ...

  14. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  15. Evaluation agronomique des variétés de maïs riches en protéines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cinq variétés de maïs riches en protéines de qualité (MRP) ont été expérimentées en station puis en milieu paysan, avec des témoins locaux en zone forestière de Côte d'Ivoire, en vue d'évaluer leurs performances agronomiques ainsi que les facteurs de préférences des agriculteurs. Les rendements moyens des variétés ...

  16. Evaluation des risques-projet par une approche AHP/WPM: Application à un projet réel BTP

    OpenAIRE

    LMOUSSAOUI , Hafida; JAMOULI , Hicham

    2015-01-01

    International audience; La complexité et l'incertitude de l'environnement sont à l'origine de nouveaux défis auxquels les entreprises du domaine BTP font face quotidiennement. La maîtrise des paramètres des projets devient donc une nécessité pour leur pérennité. L'objectif du management des risques est de maîtriser ces paramètres pendant toutes les phases du projet. Il s'appuie sur un processus continu et itératif permettant successivement d'identifier et analyser les risques encourus, les év...

  17. Evaluation et amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des pâtes et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'analyse des pâtes et des bouillies issues des procédés modifiés montre une augmentation de la teneur en protéines à 12 g/100g de MS et de la teneur en lipides à 15 g/100g de MS pour la pâte et bouillie à base de mélange de maïs germé et de grains d'arachide décortiqués, la pâte et bouillie à base de mélange de ...

  18. Twenty-four hour radioactive iodine uptake in 35 patients with amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, E.; Aghini-Lombardi, F.; Lippi, F.; Baschieri, L.; Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.; Pinchera, A.

    1985-12-01

    Amiodarone associated thyrotoxicosis (AAT) occurs in approximately 10% of patients treated with this iodine rich drug in areas of mild iodine deficiency. The thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) is usually undetectable or very low in iodine-induced thyrotoxicosis. In the present study, 35 patients with AAT were evaluated. Twelve patients had no thyroid abnormalities by physical exam and all had 24-hr RAIU less than or equal to 4%. In contrast, nine of 11 patients with AAT and diffuse goiters and eight of 12 patients with AAT and nodular goiters had RAIU values greater than 8%. In patients with AAT and goiter it appears possible that the thyroid fails to adapt normally to the excess iodide load, resulting in an inappropriately high RAIU in the presence of excess plasma iodine.

  19. Use of Lugol's iodine in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jeremy; Devine, John C; McCaul, James A; McLellan, Douglas R; Farrow, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the use of Lugol's iodine in achieving surgical margins free from dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma by an observational study of two series of 50 consecutive patients having resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) between November 2004 and March 2007. The standard group had resection of the primary tumour with a macroscopic 1cm margin and removal of adjacent visibly abnormal mucosa. The Lugol's iodine group had identical treatment with resection of any adjacent mucosa that did not stain after the application of Lugol's iodine (where this was feasible). In the standard group 16 patients (32%) had dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive SCC at a surgical margin. In the Lugol's iodine group two patients (4%) had dysplasia or carcinoma in situ; none had invasive SCC. Lugol's iodine is a simple, inexpensive, and apparently effective means of reducing the likelihood of unsatisfactory surgical margins in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal SCC.

  20. Comparisons of Three Indicators for Frey's Syndrome: Subjective Symptoms, Minor's Starch Iodine Test, and Infrared Thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Kwon, Sae Young; Won, Jung Youn; Yoo, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Gu; Kim, Si Whan; Park, Bumjung

    2013-12-01

    To correlate Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method. This study included 59 patients who underwent unilateral parotidectomy. A subjective clinical questionnaire and an objective Minor's starch iodine test were performed to evaluate the incidence of Frey's syndrome. Infrared thermography was performed, and the subjects were divided into seven groups according to the temperature differences between operated and unoperated sites. The thermal differences were correlated with the results from Minor's starch iodine test and the subjective symptoms questionnaire. Of the 59 patients, 20 patients (33.9%) reported subjective symptoms after eating; 30 patients (50.8%) tested positive for Minor's starch iodine test, 19 patients (63.3%) of which reported subjective symptoms. Of the 29 patients who were negative for the iodine test, 2 patients (6.9%) reported subjective symptoms. Thus, subjective symptoms were well correlated with Minor's starch iodine test (r=0.589, Piodine test was 0.82℃±0.26℃, and that in the negative group was 0.10℃±0.47℃. With increased thermal differences, more patients showed positivity in the iodine test (χ(2)=29.9, Pstarch iodine test, and infrared thermography are well correlated with one another. Quantitative thermography provides clues for the wide variation in the incidence of Frey's syndrome, and could be a useful method for diagnosing and studying Frey's syndrome.

  1. Study of the iodine kinetics in thermal conditions of a RCS in nuclear severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grégoire, A.-C.; Délicat, Y.; Tornabene, C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • High temperature iodine reactivity in gas phase. • Kinetics limitations were evidenced in severe accident gas atmosphere conditions. • Iodine kinetic scheme involving steam/di-hydrogen/di-oxygen. - Abstract: During the PHEBUS-FP integral severe accidents simulation tests, gaseous iodine was detected in earlier stages of the simulated accident, coming from the experimental circuit modelling a reactor coolant system. One possible explanation is the existence of some kinetic limitations which promote the persistence of gaseous iodine at low temperature. This paper sums up some analytical and modelling works performed to check this assumption. Results show that the chemical speciation of iodine cannot be calculated by assuming chemical equilibrium, kinetics have to be considered, in particular for oxidising atmosphere with an excess of steam. A kinetic model for gaseous iodine is proposed and qualified by comparison with experimental works. Such modelling should be considered to calculate the transport of iodine through the reactor coolant system for a severe accident because it can significantly impact iodine source term evaluations.

  2. Diagnostic efficiency of toluidine blue with Lugol's iodine in oral premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Kamarthi; Prasad, Shiva; Ashok, L

    2010-01-01

    In vivo stains are prompt resources, which have emerged, in the recent years, to aid as clinical diagnostic tools in detecting early premalignant and malignant lesions. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic efficiency of toluidine blue with Lugol's iodine in oral premalignancies and malignancies and to evaluate the reliability of in vivo staining with toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine in the lesions at risk of malignancy. The study group comprised 30 subjects with clinically suspicious premalignant lesions and 30 subjects with clinically suspicious malignant lesions. All the lesions were stained consecutively with toluidine blue and Lugol's iodine and the dye retention were recorded with photographs. Depending on the retention of the dyes, the biopsy site was determined. The biopsy specimens were sent for histological confirmation and results were statistically analyzed. The overall diagnostic accuracy of Lugol's iodine when used consecutively with toluidine blue stain in distinguishing premalignant lesions and malignant lesions was 90%. As the degree of differentiation of malignant lesions progressed toward more severity, they failed to show the retention of Lugol's iodine and the result was highly significant statistically, with a P value Lugol's iodine when used with toluidine blue helped in delineating the inflammatory lesions and was the mean source in determining clinically the degrees of differentiation of malignant lesions as the poorly differentiated malignant lesions without glycogen content failed to show Lugol's iodine retention. Toluidine blue with Lugol's iodine can be used as a pretherapeutic assessment of the biologic aggressiveness of the disease.

  3. Salt fortification with iodine: Sudan situation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzeldin, S H; Crawford, M A; Ghebremeskel, K

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) constitute a severe public health problem in Sudan. IDD affects children and women throughout life. More than 2 out of 10 school age children have goiter. The prevalence reaches 40% in some regions of the country. Several interventional measures were introduced to control the IDD problem. While the situation with regard to production and supply of iodized salt was thus deteriorating, an Emergency Food Security and Nutrition Assessment Survey (EFSNA) revealed that the prevalence of IDD among adult women, as reflected in the presence of visible goiter, was as high as 25.5%. We have conducted a situation analysis survey in the Republic of Sudan to review the prevailing situation and suggest a benchmark that would help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementations. SWOT analysis, questionnaire, focus groups discussion beside a combination of rapid assessment approach and qualitative method were used to critically evaluate the salt iodization situation in the country and assess the prevailing IDD situation in and propose a plan of action to overcome the bottlenecks. The survey concluded that Iodine deficiency affects children and women all through Sudan. The prevalence is even greater in some regions of the country and there is no supportive policy environment for successful universal salt iodization. To overcome this aggravated situation Sudan will need to conduct a baseline study to provide data on the prevalence of IDD, geographic distribution, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to iodine deficiency. This will provide a benchmark that will help in developing effective control measures and in monitoring their implementation. The study recommended a set of actions to the government to overcome the prevailing situation and strengthening the current policy and implementation.

  4. Nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Plane, John M. C.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Kinnison, Douglas E.

    2017-04-01

    Little attention has so far been paid to the nighttime atmospheric chemistry of iodine species. Atmospheric models predict a buildup of HOI and I2 during the night that leads to a spike of IO at sunrise, which is not observed by measurements. In this work, electronic structure calculations are used to survey possible reactions that HOI and I2 could undergo at night in the lower troposphere, and hence reduce their nighttime accumulation. The new reaction NO3 + HOI → IO + HNO3 is proposed and included in two atmospheric models, along with the known reaction between I2 and NO3, to explore a new nocturnal iodine radical activation mechanism. Our results show that this iodine scheme leads to a considerable reduction of nighttime HOI and I2, which results in the enhancement of more than 25% of nighttime ocean emissions of HOI + I2 and the removal of the anomalous spike of IO at sunrise. That active nighttime iodine could also have a considerable, so far unrecognized, impact on the reduction of the NO3 radical levels in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and hence upon the nocturnal oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere. The effect of this is exemplified by the indirect effect on dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation.

  5. Dietary flavonoids and iodine Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elst, van der J.P.; Smit, J.W.A.; Romijn, H.A.; Heide, van der D.

    2003-01-01

    Flavonoids have inhibiting effects on the proliferation of cancer cells, including thyroidal ones. In the treatment of thyroid cancer the uptake of iodide is essential. Flavonoids are known to interfere with iodide organification ill vitro, and to cause goiter. The influence of flavonoids on iodine

  6. Method of fixing radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, Hiroyuki; Yamazaki, Nakamichi; Kubota, Yu; Hoshino, Yoshihiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive iodine by adsorbing radioactive iodine to silicate type adsorbents carrying silver thereon, mixing the adsorbents with hydroxides of alkali or alkaline earth metals and subjecting them to hydrothermic reaction. Method: The adsorbents used in this invention are, for example, those silicate type adsorbents carrying silver such as silver-supporting zeolite and silver-supporting moldenite, and the silver supporting amount is suitably from about 30 to 40 % by weight. When radioactive iodine is brought into contact with the adsorbents, it is adsorbed and a portion thereof is present in the instable coupling. Then, at least one of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and barium hydroxide is mixed in an amount of 1 to 30 % by weight to the adsorbents and maintained under the state of a pressure of higher than 70 kg/cm 2 and a temperature above 150 deg C under the presence of water to conduct hydrothermic reduction, whereby iodine is converted into stable AgI or AgIO 3 and the adsorabents are formed into solidification products. (Takahashi, M.)

  7. Iodine tablets and a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paile, W.

    1992-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is one of the major substances released during severe nuclear accidents. Radioactive iodine is easily gasified, and if present in fallout it can enter the lungs, and thereby the circulatory system, with the inhalation of air. Once in a body, radioactive iodine accumulates in the thyroid and may result in tumours in the thyroid and, in extreme cases, impaired thyroid function. Accumulation of radioactive iodine can be prevented by taking non-radioactive, 'cold' iodine as tablets. Iodine tablets dilute the radioactive iodine that has entered the body. A dose of iodine also paralyses the thyroid temporarily by saturating its iodine-carrying capacity. To be useful iodine tablets should be taken immediately when a radioactive emission has occurred. If the tablets are taken too early or too late, they give little protection. Iodine tablets should not be taken just to be on the safe side, since their use may involve harmful side effects. Dosing instructions should also be followed with care. (orig.)

  8. Fortified Iodine Milk Improves Iodine Status and Cognitive Abilities in Schoolchildren Aged 7–9 Years Living in a Rural Mountainous Area of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ezzahra Zahrou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is required for the production of the thyroid hormones essential for the growth and development of the brain. All forms of iodine deficiency (ID affect the mental development of the child. Our study aims to assess the impact of ID on the intellectual development of Moroccan schoolchildren and to evaluate the effect of consumption of fortified milk on reducing ID. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted on schoolchildren, children were divided into two groups to receive fortified milk (30% of cover of RDI iodine or nonfortified milk for 9 months. Urinary iodine was analyzed using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction, a dynamic cognitive test using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices to assess learning potential was performed at baseline and end line, and anthropometric assessment was done only at baseline. The study included schoolchildren who were severely iodine deficient. The prevalence of malnutrition was high in both groups; in this study, we found improvements in iodine status and in cognitive abilities among Moroccan schoolchildren. Our study showed that the consumption of fortified milk led to a clear improvement in iodine status and also appeared to have a favorable effect on the cognitive ability of Moroccan schoolchildren in a rural mountainous region.

  9. Evaluation des variétés de riz prometteuses pour la résistance à ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , (Rice yellow Mottle Virus ou RYMV), l'helminthosporiose (Helminthosporium oryzae ou Bipolaris oryzae) et la cécidomyie africaine des galles de riz (Orseolia oryzivora) sont les principales contraintes biotiques majeures qui causent plus de ...

  10. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. The Prevalence of Goiter and Urinary Iodine Exertion in 7 – 10 year old School Children of Qom 2001 - 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sheikholeslam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesIodine deficiency was a public health problem in Iran before the start of iodine supplementation program in 1989. This study has been conducted in the framework of the national monitoring survey in 2001 to find the prevalence of goiter and urinary iodine levels in order to evaluate the effect of national supplementation program on the iodine status of school-aged children in the city of Qom. MethodsIn a descriptive, cross-sectional study, 1200 schoolchildren, aged 7-10 years, were selected randomly from all regions of Qom, and the grade of goiter was determined in 600 boys and 600 girls according to WHO classification. Urinary iodine content was estimated using the digestion method in one tenth of the schoolchildren.ResultsGoiter was observed in 26% of children (24.3% of girls and 27.7% of boys. The average urinary iodine level was 15.2 µg/dl. Urinary iodine levels higher than 10 μg/dl was measured in 71.7% and less than 5 µg/dl in 8.1% of children. Urinary iodine levels less than 2 μg/dl has not been observed in any of the cases. No significant difference was observed in prevalence of goiter and the urinary iodine level between males and females, and students in living in urban or rural areas.ConclusionComparison of these results with those of the year 1996 shows that prevalence of goiter has significantly decreased in these students. Also, it shows that in the city of Qom, the urinary iodine levels of schoolchildren fall in the standard range determined by WHO. This indicates that the iodine intake is adequate in the province of Qom. Therefore, this province can be considered as an “iodine deficiency-free” zone.Keywords: Goiter; Goiter Endemic; Iodine.

  12. Determination of iodine and iodine compounds in marine samples by ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maiken Sødergreen; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2014-01-01

    By now it is a well-known fact that iodine is an essential trace element for the growth and development of the human body. Because of iodine deficiency, some countries have added iodate to salt in order to increase the iodine intake. However, some people prefer iodine from more natural sources like...... seaweed and fish, which contain elevated levels of iodine (fish typically 1-10 mg/kg and seaweed up to 8000 mg/kg). These marine food items may contain different iodine species, which may have different bioavailability and toxicity, and hence there is an increased interest in developing analytical methods...... for determining the different iodine species. For determining the total iodine concentration in marine samples five different extraction methods were compared. The most efficient and precise method was then used for determining the total concentration of iodine in seaweed and fish samples using inductively...

  13. En evaluering af projektet 'bib:talk unge mødes' på Ballerup Bibliotek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Staunæs, Dorthe

    2007-01-01

    diskutere alt fra politik til pop, fra religion til rock eller udveksle triste tanker og sjove vitser. Bibtalk.dk var stedet hvor man skulle mødes, krydse klinger og bygger venskaber. Biblioteks café blev nyindrettet med spændende og igangsættende udsmykning. Her skulle man mødes i virkeligheden og måske...

  14. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, T.J.; Lee, J.D. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Ha, J.-W. [Cardiology Division, Yonsei Cardiovascular Center, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Yang, W.I.; Cho, S.H. [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). The serum NA level also showed no statistical difference until 4 weeks and was significantly increased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). MIBG uptake was decreased in the 6- and 8-week groups (P<0.05), and was closely correlated with the reduction in the number of nerve fibres on PGP 9.5 stain. Myocyte damage was seen only in the 8-week group. Neuronal population and the {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the

  15. Evaluation de methodes de controle non destructives (CND) alternatives pour remplacer l'attaque anodique des superalliages de nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfard, Atousa

    Les superalliages de nickel, comme le Waspaloy, ont trouve leur place dans differentes industries grâce a leurs caracteristiques particulieres, notamment la bonne resistance a la corrosion a haute temperature. Ce memoire porte sur l'identification d'une methode d'inspection non destructive a sec, pour reveler les defauts microstructuraux sur un echantillon usine de disque de turbine de superalliage de nickel : le Waspaloy. Les precipites intermetalliques augmentent la resistance a la traction, la resistance au fluage, la limite d'elasticite et la limite de rupture du superalliage. Cependant, les defauts microstructuraux, les freckles et les white spots, ont des effets negatifs sur les proprietes mecaniques des superalliages de nickel. Ce document presente une etude approfondie de l'origine et de la nature des freckles et des white spots. Les travaux experimentaux sont principalement concentres sur les mesures de conductivite electrique par courants de Foucault et sur les mesures ultrasonores par ondes acoustiques de surface (les ondes de Rayleigh). Pour enrichir la capacite d'analyse, une etude sur la technique de l'imagerie magneto-optique est egalement presentee dans ce document. Le controle des parametres de mesure confirme l'efficacite de chaque technique. Ce rapport rend compte des resultats satisfaisants qui pourront servir pour les recherches et les travaux a venir.

  16. Radio-iodine therapy and Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholamrezanezhad, A.; Mirpour, S.; Saghari, M.; Abdollahzadeh, J.; Pourmoslemi, A.; Yarmand, S.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important cause of gastritis and related morbidities. Following consumption, radioactive iodine accumulates considerably in the stomach. On the basis of this observation, we decided to determine whether the high radiation induced by radio-iodine in the stomach is effective in the eradication of this infection. All consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma, who were referred for radio-iodine therapy [dose 117.1±24.4 mCi (4.3±0.9 GBq), range 100-200 mCi (3.7-7.4 GBq)], were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urease breath test (UBT) was performed 1-2 h before radio-iodine consumption and the test was repeated 2 months later. Of 88 patients, 71 had pre-treatment positive UBT. Of these, 23 patients had negative post-treatment result, which means a significant reduction (26.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16.8-35.5%) in the number of positive UBT results in our treated population (32.4% of UBT-positive cases became UBT-negative). Considering the high prevalence of reinfection in developing countries, the therapeutic benefit would have been more considerable if the second UBT had been done with a lag time of less than 2 months. Although radio-iodine therapy is not a logical method for the treatment of patients suffering from H. pylori, our finding provides indirect evidence about the radiosensitivity of bacteria, the future clinical applications of which need to be further evaluated. Also this finding can be useful for the food industry, where radiation is used widely to sterilize food. Regarding the possibility of H. pylori suppression, we recommend not using UBT for screening for the infection for at least within 2 months following radio-iodine therapy. (author)

  17. Uptake and distribution of organo-iodine in deep-sea corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E Brendan; Mohon, Leslye M; Chang, Ching-Chih

    2018-07-01

    Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico. Organo-iodine is the dominant iodine species in the black corals, demonstrating that binding of iodine to organic matter plays an important role in the transport and transfer of iodine to the deep-sea corals. The identification of growth bands captured in high-resolution scanning electron images (SEM) with synchronous peaks in iodine variability suggest that riverine delivery of terrestrial-derived organo-iodine is the most plausible explanation to account for annual periodicity in the deep-sea coral geochemistry. Whereas previous studies have suggested the presence of annual growth rings in deep-sea corals, this present study provides a mechanism to explain the formation of annual growth bands. Furthermore, deep-sea coral ages based on iodine peak counts agree well with those ages derived from radiocarbon ( 14 C) measurements. These results hold promise for developing chronologies independent of 14 C dating, which is an essential component in constraining reservoir ages and using radiocarbon as a tracer of ocean circulation. Furthermore, the presence of enriched 129 I/ 127 I ratios during the most recent period of skeleton growth is linked to nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s. The sensitivity of the coral skeleton to record changes in surface water 129 I composition provides further evidence that iodine composition and isotope

  18. Uptake and distribution of organo-iodine in deep-sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Roark, E. Brendan; Mohon, Leslye M.; Chang, Ching-Chih

    2018-01-01

    Understanding iodine concentration, transport, and bioavailability is essential in evaluating iodine's impact to the environment and its effectiveness as an environmental biogeotracer. While iodine and its radionuclides have proven to be important tracers in geologic and biologic studies, little is known about transport of this element to the deep sea and subsequent uptake in deep-sea coral habitats. Results presented here on deep-sea black coral iodine speciation and iodine isotope variability provides key information on iodine behavior in natural and anthropogenic environments, and its geochemical pathway in the Gulf of Mexico. Organo-iodine is the dominant iodine species in the black corals, demonstrating that binding of iodine to organic matter plays an important role in the transport and transfer of iodine to the deep-sea corals. The identification of growth bands captured in high-resolution scanning electron images (SEM) with synchronous peaks in iodine variability suggest that riverine delivery of terrestrial-derived organo-iodine is the most plausible explanation to account for annual periodicity in the deep-sea coral geochemistry. Whereas previous studies have suggested the presence of annual growth rings in deep-sea corals, this present study provides a mechanism to explain the formation of annual growth bands. Furthermore, deep-sea coral ages based on iodine peak counts agree well with those ages derived from radiocarbon (14C) measurements. These results hold promise for developing chronologies independent of 14C dating, which is an essential component in constraining reservoir ages and using radiocarbon as a tracer of ocean circulation. Furthermore, the presence of enriched 129I/127I ratios during the most recent period of skeleton growth is linked to nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s. The sensitivity of the coral skeleton to record changes in surface water 129I composition provides further evidence that iodine composition and isotope

  19. A Spectroscopic Method for Determining Free Iodine in Iodinated Fatty-Acid Esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyubin, V. V.; Klyubina, K. A.; Makovetskaya, K. N.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the concentration of free iodine in samples of iodinated fatty-acid esters can be measured using the electronic absorption spectra of their solutions in ethanol. The method proposed is rather simple in use and highly sensitive, allowing detection of presence of less than 10 ppm of free iodine in iodinated compounds. It is shown using the example of Lipiodol that this makes it possible to easily detect small amounts of free iodine in samples containing bound iodine in concentrations down to 40 wt %.

  20. Evaluation probabiliste de la sécurité structurale des barrages-poids

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Dams are hydraulic structures of civil engineering inducing important technological risks. The regulation in France relating to the safety of the hydraulic structures is recently evolved (decree of December 11, 2007) and henceforth envisages for the large dams the realization of studies of dangers in which the probabilistic methods of evaluation of structural safety take an important place.Structural reliability methods have acquired a significant development during these last years. However,...

  1. Epidemiological trends of iodine-related thyroid disorders: an example from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberšček, Simona; Zaletel, Katja

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology of thyroid disorders is significantly associated with iodine supply. In 1999, Slovenia increased iodine content in kitchen salt from 10 mg to 25 mg of potassium iodide per kg of salt. According to the WHO criteria, Slovenia shifted from a mildly iodine-deficient country to a country with adequate iodine intake. Ten years after the increase in iodine intake, the incidence of diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy decreased. Now patients with diffuse goitre and thyroid autonomy reach older age than the patients before the increase in iodine intake. In addition, patients with thyroid autonomy are less frequently hyperthyroid than ten years ago and iodine-induced hyperthyroidism is less severe. The incidence of highly malignant thyroid carcinoma has also dropped. However, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis increased, most probably in genetically predisposed individuals. Over the last ten years, many animal and in vitro studies evaluated the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) on various aspects of the thyroid function. They mostly studied the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, perfluorinated chemicals, and perchlorate. However, human studies on the effects of EDCs on the thyroid function are very scarce, especially the long-term ones. What they do suggest is that PCBs and dioxins interfere with the transport of thyroid hormones and adversely affect the thyroid function. Many authors agree that iodine deficiency predisposes the thyroid gland to harmful effects of EDCs. Therefore the effects of EDCs in iodine-deficient areas could be more severe than in areas with adequate iodine intake.

  2. Can an Educational Intervention Improve Iodine Nutrition Status in Pregnant Women? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.

  3. Validity and Reproducibility of the Iodine Dietary Intake Questionnaire Assessment Conducted for Young Polish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malowaniec, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse a designed brief iodine dietary intake questionnaire based on a food frequency assessment (IOdine Dietary INtake Evaluation-Food Frequency Questionnaire—IODINE-FFQ), including the assessment of validity and reproducibility in a group of 90 Polish women aged 20–35 years. Participants collected 3-day dietary records and filled in the IODINE-FFQ twice (FFQ1—directly after the dietary record and FFQ2—6 weeks later). The analysis included an assessment of validity (comparison with the results of the 3-day dietary record) and of reproducibility (comparison of the results obtained twice—FFQ1 and FFQ2). In the analysis of validity, a Bland-Altman index of 5.5% and 4.4% was recorded, respectively for FFQ1 and FFQ2. In the analysis of reproducibility it was 6.7%, but the share of individuals correctly classified into tertiles was over 70% (weighted κ of 0.675). It was stated, that assessment of IODINE-FFQ revealed a satisfactory level of validity and reproducibility in the analysis of Bland-Alman plot. The IODINE-FFQ may be indicated as a tool for the assessment of iodine intake in the young women in Poland, however further studies should be considered in order to obtain the practical tool for public health specialists. Due to the lack of validated iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires for countries of Eastern Europe, the IODINE-FFQ may be adjusted for courtiers other than Poland including iodine-fortified products. PMID:28661461

  4. Geochemical Cycling of Iodine Species in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Moran, J E; Blackwood, V

    2007-08-23

    Iodine is an important element in studies of environmental protection and human health, global-scale hydrologic processes and nuclear nonproliferation. Biogeochemical cycling of iodine in soils is complex, because iodine occurs in multiple oxidation states and as inorganic and organic species that may be hydrophilic, atmophilic, and biophilic. In this study, we applied new analytical techniques to study the content and speciation of stable iodine in representative surface soils, and sorption and transport behavior of iodine species (iodide, iodate, and 4-iodoaniline) in sediments collected at numerous nuclear facilities in the United States, where anthropogenic {sup 129}I from prior nuclear fuel processing activities poses an environmental risk. The surface soil samples were chosen for their geographic locations (e.g., near the ocean or nuclear facilities) and for their differing physico-chemical characteristics (organic matter, texture, etc). Extracted solutions were analyzed by IC and ICP-MS methods to determine iodine concentrations and to examine iodine speciation (iodide, iodate, and organic iodine). In natural soils, iodine is mostly (nearly 90% of total iodine) present as organic species, while inorganic iodine becomes important (up to 50%) only in sediments with low organic matter. Results from laboratory column studies, aimed at examining transport of different iodine species, showed much greater retardation of 4-iodoaniline than iodide or iodate. Careful attention must be given to potential interconversion among species when interpreting the biogeochemical behavior of iodine in the environment. In addition to speciation, input concentration and residence time effects will influence the biogeochemical cycling of anthropogenic 129I deposited on surface soils.

  5. Stakeholder reactions toward iodine biofortified foods. An application of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Mogendi, Joseph Birundu; Wesana, Joshua; Makokha, Anselimo; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    To use Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) to evaluate stakeholders' intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods as an alternative means to improve children's iodine status and overall school performance. A survey was administered with 360 parents of primary school children and 40 school heads. Protection motivation is measured through matching the cognitive processes they use to evaluate iodine deficiency (threat appraisal), as well as iodine biofortified foods to reduce the threat (coping appraisal). Data were analyzed through Robust (Cluster) regression analysis. Gender had a significant effect on coping appraisal for school heads, while age, education, occupation, income, household size and knowledge were significant predictors of threat, coping appraisal and/or protection motivation intention among parents. Nevertheless, in the overall protection motivation model, only two coping factors, namely self-efficacy (parents) and response cost (school heads), influenced the intention to adopt iodine biofortified foods. School feeding programs incorporating iodine biofortification should strive to increase not only consumer knowledge about iodine but also its association to apparent deficiency disorders, boost self-efficacy and ensure that the costs incurred are not perceived as barriers of adoption. The insignificant threat appraisal effects lend support for targeting future communication on biofortification upon the strategies itself, rather than on the targeted micronutrient deficiency. PMT, and coping factors in particular, seem to be valuable in assessing intentions to adopt healthy foods. Nevertheless, research is needed to improve the impacts of threat appraisal factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Connaissances et attitudes des manipulateurs radio du Togo sur l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Evaluer les connaissances et les attitudes des manipulateurs togolais sur l'irradiation médicale des grossesses. Matériels et Méthode : Etude transversale menée en Avril 2011 chez 72 manipulateurs de radiologie des structures sanitaires publiques et privées du Togo. Résultats : Le quart des manipulateurs ...

  7. Professional practice assessment. Pertinence of positron emission tomography clinical indications in oncology; Evaluation des pratiques professionnelles. Pertinence des indications de la tomographie a emission de positons en cancerologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Stanc, E.; Tainturier, C. [Hopital Foch, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 92 - Suresnes (France); Swaenepoel, J. [Hopital Foch, Cellule Qualite, 92 - Suresnes (France)

    2009-09-15

    Introduction As part of the health care quality and safety policy in France, Professional Practice Assessment (P.P.A.) are mandatory in the health services 'certification' process. We present our study regarding the pertinence of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) indications in oncology. Materials and methods A multidisciplinary task group used the Quick Audit method with two rounds of 100 request forms each. The assessment list of criteria comprised four items of decreasing relevance grading the PET scans clinical indications, which were derived from the three French published guidelines (S.O.R. [F.N.C.L.C.C]., 'Guide du bon usage des examens d'imagerie medicale' [S.F.R.-S.F.M.N.], 'Guide pour la redaction de protocoles pour la TEP au F.D.G. en cancerologie' [S.F.M.N.]) and five additional items: clinical information, patient's body weight, previous treatments dates, diabetes, claustrophobia. Results The first round showed that 68% of the requested scans corresponded to the two most relevant groups of indications (S.O.R. Standards and Options). The request forms were correctly filled in regarding the clinical information, but this was not the case for the other items we tested. Several actions were conducted: dedicated PET request form, availability of the S.O.R. on the hospital intranet, boost of the referring physicians awareness during the multidisciplinary oncology meetings (Reunions de Concertation Pluridisciplinaires RCP). The second round showed a better pertinence of the PET scans indications (75% versus 68%); the patient's body weight was more frequently mentioned on the request form. Discussion This study is an example of P.P.A. in our discipline. It led to an improvement of the oncologic PET scans clinical indications in our hospital. This work is pursued in everyday discussion with the referring clinicians, especially during the RCP. (authors)

  8. Impacts of energy crop cultivation on nature and landscape. Development and application of an evaluation method; Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf Natur und Landschaft. Entwicklung und Anwendung einer Bewertungsmethode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehe, Julia

    2011-08-15

    For long-term planning, knowledge about the interrelationship of effects of the cultivation method and the sensitivity of ecological balance is essential. Hence, the objective of this thesis is the development of a method for the evaluation of the impacts of bioenergy crop production for biogas use on the natural environment. The developed method is in alignment with existing methods. It is also in alignment with those methods used within the practice of landscape planning, so that the method as well as the derived conclusions can be implemented into landscape planning practice in the future. The evaluation method has been applied in the three model regions Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel and Emsland. These test areas represent different physical regions in Lower Saxony and typical agricultural production conditions. On the basis of these results, general statements on the impact of bioenergy crop production on the ecological balance of the area can be made. [German] Grundlage fuer eine vorausschauende Steuerung des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien ist die Kenntnis der Zusammenhaenge der Wirkung des Energiepflanzenanbaus und der Empfindlichkeit des Naturhaushaltes. Ziel der Arbeit ist daher die Erarbeitung einer Methode zur umfassenden Bewertung dieser Auswirkungen auf den Naturhaushalt. Die Methode orientiert sich an bereits bestehenden und in der Praxis der Landschaftsplanung angewendeten Bewertungsmethoden, so dass sie ebenso wie die daraus abgeleiteten Schlussfolgerungen zukuenftig Eingang in die Planungspraxis finden kann. Die Bewertungsmethode wird in den drei Modellregionen Hildesheim, Soltau-Fallingbostel und Emsland angewendet, mit denen die verschiedenen Naturraeume und fuer Niedersachsen typischen landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsbedingungen abgebildet werden. Auf Grundlage dieser Ergebnisse koennen dann allgemeine Aussagen zu den Auswirkungen des Energiepflanzenanbaus auf den Naturhaushalt gemacht werden.

  9. Radioactive iodine uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid physiology and diagnostic evaluation of patients with thyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Hyperthyroidism Read more Thyroid Diseases Read more Thyroid Tests Read more A.D. ...

  10. Estimation of iodine intake from various urinary iodine measurements in population studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, P.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Iodine intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. However, the methods for urine collection and the reporting of the results vary. These methods, and their advantages and disadvantages......, are considered in this article. Summary: There are two main ways in which urine can be collected for iodine measurement. The first is the collection of urine over a period, usually 24 hours. The second is the collection of a spot urinary sample. Urinary iodine values can be expressed as the content...... or concentration and reported without modification or as a function of creatinine in the same sample. The 24-hour urine for iodine measurement is often considered as the “reference standard” for giving a precise estimate of the individual iodine excretion and thereby iodine intake. As 24-hour collections...

  11. Iodine Absorption Cells Purity Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabina, Jan; Zucco, M.; Philippe, Ch.; Pham, Minh Tuan; Holá, Miroslava; Acef, O.; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 17010102. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-18430S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : iodine cells * absorption spectroscopy * laser spectroscopy * laser standards * frequency stability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  12. Anti-microbial and skin wound dressing application of molecular iodine nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Bharathi Babu, Divya; Jayakumar, Gomathi; Dhinakar Raj, Gopal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, iodine nanoparticles were synthesized without use of any stabilizer by a new co-precipitation process using polyvinyl pyrolidone, calcium lactate, disodium hydrogen phosphate and iodine solution as precursor and the reaction was catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. Ten mg of the synthesized nanoparticles killed 95% of bacteria and inhibited 90% of bio film formation. Assays on membrane disintegration activities of the nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles destroyed the extracellular membrane of the bacteria. The wound healing application evaluated using mice model showed that it was hastened by iodine nanoparticles.

  13. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  14. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2000-08-01

    The ancient Chinese recognized goiter and the therapeutic effects of burnt sponge and seaweed in reducing its size or causing its disappearance. The modern use of iodine in the prevention of goiter dates from 1830, when it was proposed that goiter is an iodine deficiency disease due to lack of iodine in the water supply. But unfavorable symptoms of iodism were frequent owing to overenthusiastic use and overdose of iodine. Consequently, iodide prophylaxis was discredited and abandoned. The presence of iodine in organic combination as a normal constituent of the thyroid was established in 1896 and the use of iodine in treatment and prevention of goiter was revived. In 1917 the general use of iodized salt in goitrous areas was shown to be effective in preventing simple endemic goiter.

  15. Iodine frequency references for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm 3 ) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ∼ 1 · 10 −14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10 −15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017. (paper)

  16. Iodine frequency references for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Döringshoff, Klaus; Oswald, Markus; Johann, Ulrich; Peters, Achim; Braxmaier, Claus

    2017-05-01

    Optical frequency references are a key element for the realization of future space missions. They are needed for missions related to tests of fundamental physics, gravitational wave detection, Earth observation and navigation and ranging. In missions such as GRACE follow-on or LISA the optical frequency reference is used as light source for high-sensitivity inter-satellite distance metrology. While cavity-based systems are current baseline e.g. for LISA, frequency stabilization on a hyperfine transition in molecular iodine near 532 nm is a promising alternative. Due to its absolute frequency, iodine standards crucially simplify the initial spacecraft acquisition procedures. Current setups fulfill the GRACE-FO and LISA frequency stability requirements and are realized near Engineering Model level. We present the current status of our developments on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level taking into account specific design criteria for space compatibility such as compactness (size iodine spectroscopy EM: 38 × 18 × 10 cm3) and robustness. Both setups achieved similar frequency stabilities of ˜ 1 · 10-14 at an integration time of 1 s and below 5 · 10-15 at integration times between 10 s and 1000 s. Furthermore, we present an even more compact design currently developed for a sounding rocket mission with launch in 2017.

  17. Sirolimus inhibits key events of restenosis in vitro/ex vivo: evaluation of the clinical relevance of the data by SI/MPL- and SI/DES-ratio's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kountides Margaratis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirolimus (SRL, Rapamycin has been used successfully to inhibit restenosis both in drug eluting stents (DES and after systemic application. The current study reports on the effects of SRL in various human in vitro/ex vivo models and evaluates the theoretical clinical relevance of the data by SI/MPL- and SI/DES-ratio's. Methods Definition of the SI/MPL-ratio: relation between significant inhibitory effects in vitro/ex vivo and the maximal plasma level after systemic administration in vivo (6.4 ng/ml for SRL. Definition of the SI/DES-ratio: relation between significant inhibitory effects in vitro/ex vivo and the drug concentration in DES (7.5 mg/ml in the ISAR drug-eluting stent platform. Part I of the study investigated in cytoflow studies the effect of SRL (0.01–1000 ng/ml on TNF-α induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 in human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC and human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCMSMC. Part II of the study analysed the effect of SRL (0.01–1000 ng/ml on cell migration of HCMSMC. In part III, IV, and V of the study ex vivo angioplasty (9 bar was carried out in a human organ culture model (HOC-model. SRL (50 ng/ml was added for a period of 21 days, after 21 and 56 days cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neointimal hyperplasia was studied. Results Expression of ICAM-1 was significantly inhibited both in HCAEC (SRL ≥ 0.01 ng/ml and HCMSMC (SRL ≥ 10 ng/ml. SRL in concentrations ≥ 0.1 ng/ml significantly inhibited migration of HCMSMC. Cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia was inhibited at day 21 and day 56, significance (p Conclusion SI/MPL-ratio's ≤ 1 (ICAM-1 expression, cell migration characterize inhibitory effects of SRL that can be theoretically expected both after systemic and local high dose administration, a SI/MPL-ratio of 7.81 (cell proliferation represents an effect that was achieved with drug concentrations 7.81-times the MPL. SI/DES-ratio's between 10

  18. The current salt iodization strategy in Kyrgyzstan ensures sufficient iodine nutrition among school-age children but not pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanalieva, Roza B; Mamutova, Svetlana; van der Haar, Frits

    2010-05-01

    Although goitre and cretinism were brought under control in Kyrgyzstan during the 1960s by centrally directed iodized salt supplies, iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) had made a comeback when the USSR broke up in 1991. Upon independence, Kyrgyzstan started developing its own salt processing industry and by 2001 the Government enacted a law on IDD elimination, mandating universal salt iodization (USI) at 25-55 mg/kg. The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the USI strategy on the iodine consumption, iodine status and burden of IDD in the population of Kyrgyzstan. A national, population-representative survey during autumn 2007 collected household salt and urine samples of school-age children and pregnant women for quantitative iodine measurements. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasound. The median iodine content in household salt was 11.2 mg/kg; 97.9 % of salt samples were iodized, but only 39.5 % had >or=15 mg iodine/kg. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of 114 microg/l in children did not differ from the UIC of 111 microg/l in pregnant women. Thyroid volume in pregnant women increased with the duration of pregnancy. Strong relationships existed between salt iodine levels and the UIC values in children and women. The iodine nutrition status of the Kyrgyz population is highly responsive to household salt iodization. Although the results in children suggest adequate iodine nutrition, the iodine consumption among pregnant women did not assure their dietary requirements. In-depth analysis of the survey data suggest that excess iodine intake is not likely to become a public health concern in Kyrgyzstan when the salt supply meets agreed standards.

  19. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  20. Local radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons of iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenak, P.; Uenak, T.

    1987-01-01

    High radiotoxicity of iodine-125 has been mainly attributed to the local radiolytic effects of Auger electrons on biological systems. In the present study, experimental and theoretical results are compared. The agreement between the experimental and theoretical results explains that the energy absorption of iodine aggregates has an important role in the radiolytic effectiveness of Auger electrons and iodine-125 in benzene-iodine solutions. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs

  1. Evaluation des traits de vie d'une espèce endémique du Maroc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cette étude a pour objectif la contribution à la détermination de la qualité physicochimique des eaux de l'Oued Sidi Rachid au Moyen Atlas où vit une espèce endémique du Maroc : la truite de rivière (Salmo trutta macrostigma, Duméril, 1858). L'étude des paramètres essentiels pour la vie de ce salmonidé au cours de la ...

  2. Advanced chemical oxygen iodine lasers for novel beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kenan; Zhao, Tianliang; Huai, Ying; Jin, Yuqi

    2018-03-01

    Chemical oxygen iodine laser, or COIL, is an impressive type of chemical laser that emits high power beam with good atmospheric transmissivity. Chemical oxygen iodine lasers with continuous-wave plane wave output are well-developed and are widely adopted in directed energy systems in the past several decades. Approaches of generating novel output beam based on chemical oxygen iodine lasers are explored in the current study. Since sophisticated physical processes including supersonic flowing of gaseous active media, chemical reacting of various species, optical power amplification, as well as thermal deformation and vibration of mirrors take place in the operation of COIL, a multi-disciplinary model is developed for tracing the interacting mechanisms and evaluating the performance of the proposed laser architectures. Pulsed output mode with repetition rate as high as hundreds of kHz, pulsed output mode with low repetition rate and high pulse energy, as well as novel beam with vector or vortex feature can be obtained. The results suggest potential approaches for expanding the applicability of chemical oxygen iodine lasers.

  3. Molecular environment of iodine in naturally iodinated humic substances: Insight from X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, Michel L.; Mercier-Bion, Florence; Barre, Nicole; Reiller, Pascal; Moulin, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    The molecular environment of iodine in reference inorganic and organic compounds, and in dry humic and fulvic acids (HAs and FAs) extracted from subsurface and deep aquifers was probed by iodine L-3-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) of iodine spectra from HAs and FAs resembled those of organic references and displayed structural features consistent with iodine forming covalent bonds with organic molecules. Simulation of XANES spectra by linear combination of reference spectra suggested the predominance of iodine forming covalent bonds to aromatic rings (aromatic-bound iodine). Comparison of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra of reference and samples further showed that iodine was surrounded by carbon shells at distances comparable to those for references containing aromatic-bound iodine. Quantitative analysis of EXAFS spectra indicated that iodine was bound to about one carbon at a distance d(I-C) of 2.01(4)-2.04(9) angstrom, which was comparable to the distances observed for aromatic-bound iodine in references (1.99(1)-2.07(6) angstrom), and significantly shorter than that observed for aliphatic-bound iodine (2.15(2)-2.16(2) angstrom). These results are in agreement with previous conclusions from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and from electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. These results collectively suggest that the aromatic-bound iodine is stable in the various aquifers of this study. (authors)

  4. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation on the offspring: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recently increased their recommended iodine intake during pregnancy from 200 to 250 µg/d and suggested that a median urinary iodine (UI) concentration of 150-249 µg/L indicates adequate iodine intake in pregnant women. Thyrotropin concentrations in blood collected

  5. Iodine requirements and the risks and benefits of correcting iodine deficiency in populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). IDD remains the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. IDD assessment methods include urinary iodine

  6. Iodine: It's Important in Patients that Require Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects on growth and development because of inadequate thyroid hormone production. Four methods are generally recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition: urinary iodine concentration, thyroid size, and blood concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone

  7. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  8. Hygienic assessment of radioactive iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilenko, I.Ya.

    1987-01-01

    Sources of radioactive iodine isotopes and their biological significance depending on the way of intake are discussed. The degree of food contamination by radioactive iodine as well as products, which serve as the source of its intake into the human body, and results of their processing are considered. The danger of radioactive iodine intake by different groups of population as well as thyroid irradiation effects are discussed. Description of activities, directed to the human body protection against radioactive iodine and assessment of these protection measures efficiency is presented

  9. Absorption spectrum of Iodine around 5915 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The iodine absorption spectrum around 5915 A is of interest for many authors especially the hyperfine structure of the iodine line. Lodine absorption spectrum was obtained due to the interaction of iodine vapour with dye laser [(R6G) (0.5A) scanning range around 5915 A] which is pumped by(Ar + )laser absorption spectrum. The decrease in the peak of the transmission line around 5915 A shows the signal futher decreased by heating the iodine cell. This analysis has been done using a monochromator

  10. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  11. Effect of Co-Contaminants Uranium and Nitrate on Iodine Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Brady D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resch, Charles T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baum, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leavy, Ian I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the significance of co-contaminants on the migration and transformation of iodine species in the Hanford subsurface environment. These impacts are relevant because remedies that target individual contaminants like iodine, may not only impact the fate and transport of other contaminants in the subsurface, but also inhibit the effectiveness of a targeted remedy. For example, iodine (as iodate) co-precipitates with calcite, and has been identified as a potential remedy because it immobilizes iodine. Since uranium also co-precipitates with calcite in field sediments, the presence of uranium may also inhibit iodine co-precipitation. Another potentially significant impact from co-existing contaminants is iodine and nitrate. The presence of nitrate has been shown to promote biogeochemical reduction of iodate to iodide, thereby increasing iodine species subsurface mobility (as iodide exhibits less sorption). Hence, this study reports on both laboratory batch and column experiments that investigated a) the change in iodate uptake mass and rate of uptake into precipitating calcite due to the presence of differing amounts of uranium, b) the amount of change of the iodate bio-reduction rate due to the presence of differing nitrate concentrations, and c) whether nitrite can reduce iodate in the presence of microbes and/or minerals acting as catalysts.

  12. Evaluation of the electric utility missions; Evaluation des missions de service public de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrota, J

    2000-07-01

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  13. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies....

  14. Evaluation des lignées endogames de maïs ( Zea mays L.) pour le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zea mays L.) de basse et moyenne altitudes dans le développement des hybrides. Les 55 hybrides issus de ce croissement et 3 variétés composites ont été évalués en 2004 sur trois sites dans un dispositif simple comprenant 2 répétitions.

  15. Study on Radioecology and Tracer of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaolin, Hou

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 (15.7 Ma) is a naturally occurring radioisotope of iodine. The ratio of 129 I/ 127 I was estimated to be ∼ 10 -12 in the ocean and 10 -11 in the territorial environment in pre-nuclear era, releases from nuclear weapon tests have increased this ratio to ∼ 10 -10 . However, a large amount of iodine-129 was released from various nuclear facilities, and the greatest releases of 129 I are from two European reprocessing plants, especially in recent years. By 1998, 2600 Kg and 220 Kg 129 I have been discharged to the marine environment and atmosphere from La Hague (France) and Sellafield reprocessing plants, respectively. This amount is tens times larger than the total 129 I inventory in the pre-nuclear ocean and weapon test releases. Although there is no significant radiation risk for the human health at present level of 129 I, the continuously increasing production and release of 129 I make the accumulation of 129 I in the environment, immigration, cycle and long term radioecological risk should be give more attention due to its long half-life, high accumulation in human thyroid and high mobility. Iodine is a conservative element in the ocean, the large amount of iodine-129 discharged to the marine system can therefore be used as a oceanographic tracer to study the physical dispersion, mixing and circulative processes of water mass in the ocean. In Riso national laboratory, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method was developed, using this method the radioecology and tracer of iodine-129 was studied. Some representative works are presented below. (1) Evaluation of radiation exposure of humans to iodine-129. The human and animal thyroids collected from different places, such as Tianjin in China, Gemol in Belarus, Ribe in Denmark, human urine in Denmark, seafood in China were analysed for iodine-129 concentration and 129 I/ 127 I ratio, the exposure level were compared with other places. (2) Reconstruction of radiation dose from I-131 in the

  16. FDA regulations regarding iodine addition to foods and labeling of foods containing added iodine12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Paula R

    2016-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the addition of iodine to infant formulas, the iodization of salt, and the addition of salt and iodine to foods. The required amount of iodine in infant formulas is based on caloric content, and the label must provide the iodine content per 100 kcal. Cuprous iodide and potassium iodide may be added to table salt as a source of dietary iodine at a maximum amount of 0.01%; if added, the label must indicate that the salt is iodized. Table salt to which iodine has not been added must bear the statement, “This salt does not supply iodide, a necessary nutrient.” If a nutrient is to be appropriately added to a food for the purpose of correcting a dietary insufficiency, there should be sufficient scientific information available to demonstrate a nutritional deficiency and/or identify a public health problem. Furthermore, the population groups that would benefit from the proposed fortification should be identified. If iodine is added to a food, the percent Daily Value of iodine must be listed. There are no FDA regulations governing ingredient standards for dietary supplements. As a result, some dietary supplements include iodine and others do not. If a supplement contains iodine, the Supplement Facts label must list iodine as a nutrient ingredient. If iodine is not listed on the Supplement Facts label, then it has not been added. There are similarities between the FDA, which establishes US food regulations and policies, and the Codex Alimentarius (Codex), which develops international food standards and guidelines under the aegis of the FAO and the WHO. Both the FDA and Codex call for the labeling of table salt to indicate fortification with iodine, voluntary labeling of iodine on foods, and a Daily Value (called a Nutrient Reference Value by Codex) of 150 μg for iodine. PMID:27534626

  17. Association of iodine status with IQ level and academic achievement of rural primary school children in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Bhowal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine being an integral component of the thyroid hormones is crucial for physical and mental development. Iodine status & intake is often measured by a surrogate measure, namely urine iodine excretion, as almost all ingested iodine is excreted in the urine. Aims &Objectives: To investigate the body Iodine status of rural primary school children and its association with their intelligence level (IQ & academic achievement. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in three Government schools in the district of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India among  300 children (150 boys & 150 girls aged 6 to 8 years  studying in class II to IV. Urinary iodine was estimated by the 'Wet Digestion Method (Sandell-Kolthoff reaction. IQ level was evaluated using Ravens Progressive Matrices test. Academic achievement was evaluated on the marks obtained in the term end examinations.  Result: 12.34%, 15.6% & 24.3% of the children were in the severe, moderate & mild range of iodine deficiency in terms of urinary iodine excretion. It was found that 85.67% & 14.33% of the children were consumed iodated salt ≥15 ppm &< 15 ppm of iodine level. 0.67%, 5% & 27.34 % of them achieved A, B & C of IQ grades, respectively.62.34 % of the students achieved first three academic grades. Body Iodine status of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.01 with IQ grades and academic achievement. Academic achievement of the children has significant positive correlation (P<0.05 with their intelligence level. Conclusions: Poor body Iodine status of the rural primary school children may be one of the causes for their poor intelligence level and academic achievement.

  18. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers' performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding K d values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and K d values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and K d values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine sorption.

  19. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  20. Comparisons of Three Indicators for Frey's Syndrome: Subjective Symptoms, Minor's Starch Iodine Test, and Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Kwon, Sae Young; Won, Jung Youn; Yoo, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Gu; Kim, Si Whan; Park, Bumjung

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate Frey's syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minor's starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method. Methods This study included 59 patients who underwent unilateral parotidectomy. A subjective clinical questionnaire and an objective Minor's starch iodine test were performed to evaluate the incidence of Frey's syndrome. Infrared thermography was performed, and the subjects ...

  1. A comparison of spectrophotometric and denuder based approaches for the determination of gaseous molecular iodine

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Chance; M. Shaw; L. Telgmann; M. Baxter; L. J. Carpenter

    2009-01-01

    The presence of molecular iodine in the atmosphere is thought to have implications for both climate and human nutritional health, but measurement of the gas at low concentrations requires technically demanding techniques that are not widely accessible. Here, starch coated denuder tubes and solvent traps coupled with spectrophotometric detection are evaluated and compared as relatively cheap and straightforward methods to measure gaseous molecular iodine at environmentally relevant concen...

  2. Lactoperoxidase-Catalyzed Iodination of Plasmamembrane Lipids and Proteins in Arabidopsis Protoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Merle M., Millard; Plant Stress Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture

    1988-01-01

    Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination was evaluated as a technique to identify plasma membrane components in protoplasts isolated from leaf tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Restriction of the probe to the plasma membrane was assessed by determining radioactivity in lipids characteristic of intracellular organelles after labeling intact versus broken protoplasts. In-tact protoplasts were purified on a sucrose-sorbitol gradient and iodinated using Na[^I] with lactoperoxidase and H_2O_2...

  3. Historical aspects of iodine deficiency control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpas, Jean-Baptiste; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    In 1895, iodine was characterized as an essential element of thyroid tissue by Baumann. The efficacy of iodine to prevent goiter was demonstrated by Marine in Northern USA in 1916-1920. Severe endemic goiter and cretinism had been almost entirely eliminated from continental Western Europe and Northern America before the 1930's; however large populations elsewhere and even some places in Western Europe (Sicily) were still affected up to the 2000's. Public health consequences of iodine deficiency are not limited to endemic goiter and cretinism. Iodine deficiency disorders include also increased neonatal death rate and decreased intellectual development, although these consequences are not included in the current estimation of the Global Burden Disease related to iodine deficiency. Severe iodine deficiency as a public health problem is now largely under control worldwide, but can still affect isolated places, in hard-to-reach and/or politically neglected populations. We emphasize the importance of maintaining international cooperation efforts, in order to monitor iodine status where iodine deficiency is now adequately controlled, and identify at-risk population where it is not. The goal should be now global eradication of severe iodine deficiency. Commercial distribution of iodized salt remains the most appropriate strategy. A randomized clinical trial in New Guinea clearly showed in the 1970's that correcting severe iodine deficiency early in pregnancy prevents endemic neurological cretinism. This supports the essential role of thyroid hormones of maternal origin on the normal fetal development, during the first trimester of pregnancy (i.e. when fetal thyroid is still not functional). A randomized clinical trial in Congo (RD) in the 1970's also showed that correcting severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy prevents myxœdematous cretinism, particularly prevalent in affected Congolese areas.

  4. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  5. Evaluation des fluides de forage HP/HT pour forages profonds Evaluation of Hp/Ht Drilling Fluid Formulations for Deep Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argillier J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le forage de puits profonds exige la mise au point de fluides de forage dont la formulation est adaptée aux températures élevées de formation : l'une des principales difficultés est la dégradation thermique des additifs chimiques utilisés dans les formulations à base d'eau qui se produit fréquemment lors du forage de puits à température élevée. Cette dégradation peut conduire à des variations importantes des caractéristiques rhéologiques et de filtration et à une perte de propriétés nécessaires à leur performance. De plus, même s'il n'y a pas de dégradation des composants la viscosité des solutions de polymères hydrosolubles couramment utilisés dans les formulations de fluides diminue fortement avec l'augmentation de la température au-dessus de 60°C. Une autre source de difficulté qui apparaît à forte température avec les boues à base d'eau est la gélification des argiles utilisées dans la formulation. Ce phénomène provoque une forte augmentation de la viscosité de la formulation et des pertes de charges, en particulier en cas de reprise de forage. Diverses méthodes ont été mises au point pour étudier le comportement des boues à base d'eau dans des conditions de pression et de température élevées, entre autres : - des expériences de laboratoire, pour étudier par exemple la stabilité en conditions anaérobies des solutions de polymères et le comportement rhéologique des suspensions d'argile dans des conditions de pression et de température élevées afin de simuler les caractéristiques de gélification des argiles à haute température; - des essais sur boucle d'étude HP/HT en utilisant une boucle expérimentale conçue pour étudier les fluides de forage dans des conditions de fond réalistes, c'est-à-dire des températures atteignant 180°C, des pressions atteignant 500 bar et des taux de cisaillement atteignant 10 000 s puissance( -1 Cette méthodologie a permis d'étudier un certain

  6. Evaluation of the contamination of marine algae (seaweed) from the St. Lawrence River and likely to be consumed by humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phaneuf, D.; Cote, I.; Dumas, P.; Ferron, L.A.; LeBlanc, A. [CHUQ, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada). Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec

    1999-02-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the contamination of marine algae (seaweeds) growing in the St. Lawrence River estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence and to evaluate the risks to human health from the consumption of these algae. Algae were collected by hand at low tide. A total of 10 sites on the north and south shores of the St. Lawrence as well as in Baie des Chaleurs were sampled. The most frequently collected species of algae were Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Laminaria Longicruris, Palmaria palmata, Ulva lactuca, and Fucus distichus. Alga samples were analyzed for metals iodine, and organochlorines. A risk assessment was performed using risk factors. In general, concentrations in St. Lawrence algae were not very high. Consequently, health risks associated with these compounds in St. Lawrence algae were very low. Iodine concentration, on the other hand, could be of concern with regard to human health. Regular consumption of algae, especially of Laminaria sp., could result in levels of iodine sufficient to cause thyroid problems. For regular consumers, it would be preferable to choose species with low iodine concentrations, such as U. lactuca and P. palmata, in order to prevent potential problems. Furthermore, it would also be important to assess whether preparation for consumption or cooking affects the iodine content of algae. Algae consumption may also have beneficial health effects. Scientific literature has shown that it is a good source of fiber and vitamins, especially vitamin B{sub 12}.

  7. Study of molecular iodine-epoxy paint mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belval-Haltier, E. [Inst. de Protection et Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, CEN Cadarache, St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    The mass transfer phenomena may have a significant influence on the quantity of I{sub 2} which could be released following a severe accident of a nuclear power plant and specially the mass transfer of iodine onto containment surfaces. So, the objective of the present work was to evaluate which phase limited the adsorption process of iodine onto gaseous epoxy paint under a range of conditions which may be relevant to a severe reactor accident. In this aim, a series of experiments was conducted in which the sorption kinetics of molecular iodine, labelled with {sup 131}I, was measured by monitoring continuously the accumulation of this species on the epoxy surface. For each test condition, the initial deposition velocity was determined and the corresponding gas phase mass transfer, kg, was estimated by using the heat transfer analogy for a laminar flow passing over a flat plate. Then, the surface reaction rate, Kr, was deduced from these two values. Experiments performed indicated that iodine adsorption onto epoxy paint is highly dependent on temperature, relative humidity of the carrier gas and moisture content of the painted coupon. In dry air flow conditions, the adsorption of iodine onto paint was found to increase with temperature and to be limited by the surface reaction rate, Kr. The I{sub 2} adsorption rate was found to increase with the humidity of carrier gas and in some studied conditions, the initial deposition velocity appeared to be controlled by gas phase mass transfer rather than surface interaction. The same phenomenon has been observed with an increase of the initial water content of the painted coupon. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  8. Study of the iodine transport mechanisms in a nuclear accidental medium by high temperature mass spectrometry in the framework of the 'CHIP' (Iodine Chemistry in the reactor coolant system) program. I - Thermodynamics of CsOH vaporization; Etude des mecanismes de transport de l iode en milieu nucleaire accidentel par spectrometrie de masse haute temperature dans le cadre du programme CHIP (CHimie de l Iode dans le circuit Primaire). I - Thermodynamique de la vaporisation de CsOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roki, F.Z.; Ohnet, M.N.; Jacquemain, D. [IRSN, DPAM, SEREA, Laboratoire d Essais Analytiques, Centre de Cadarache, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-Lez- Durance Cedex, (France); Chatillon, C. [Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et Physico-Chimie Metallurgiques (associe au CNRS, UMR 5614), BP 75 - 38402 Saint Martin d Heres, (France)

    2006-07-01

    Iodine is one of the fission products which vaporizes in a complex chemical medium and can be transported under different gaseous forms in the PWR primary coolant system during a severe nuclear accident. The 'CHIP' analytical program has been implemented to study in a first time, the quaternary complex systems of the type Cs-I-O-H. In this system, the CsOH(l or s) vaporization is an important element. A study by high temperature mass spectrometry shows that the vapor species are the CsOH(g), its dimers Cs{sub 2}O{sub 2}H{sub 2}(g) and its trimers Cs{sub 3}O{sub 3}H{sub 3}(g). For this last specie, no thermodynamic determination has been done until today. The quantitative exploitation of the vapor pressures leads to the determination of the dimerization enthalpy reaction: (CsOH){sub 2}(g)=2 CsOH(g) {delta}H(average)(298.14 K)136.5 {+-} 3.85 kJ.mol{sup -1} (calculated with the third thermodynamic law). (O.M.)

  9. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  10. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  11. Experimental study on iodine chemistry (EXSI) - Containment experiments with elemental iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkelae, T.; Auvinen, A. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Holm, J.; Ekberg, C. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)); Glaenneskog, H. (Vattenfall Power Consultant (Sweden))

    2009-10-15

    The behaviour of iodine during a severe accident has been studied in several experimental programs, ranging from the large-scale PHEBUS FP tests and intermediate-scale ThAI tests to numerous separate effect studies. Oxidation of iodine in gas phase has been one of the greatest remaining uncertainties in iodine behaviour during a severe accident. In this study the possible formation of iodine oxide aerosol due to radiolytic oxidation of gaseous iodine is experimentally tested and the reaction products are analysed. The experimental facility applied in this study is based on the sampling system built at VTT for ISTP program project CHIP conducted IRSN. The experimental facility and the measuring technology are sophisticated and unique in the area of nuclear research as well as in the field of aerosol science. The results from the experiments show an extensive particle formation when ozone and gaseous iodine react with each other. The formed particles were collected on filters, while gaseous iodine was trapped into bubbles. The particles were iodine oxides and the size of particles was approximately 100 nm. The transport of gaseous iodine through the facility decreased when both gaseous iodine and ozone were fed together into facility. Experimental study on radiolytic oxidation of iodine was conducted in co-operation between VTT and Chalmers University of Technology as a part of the NKS-R programs. (author)

  12. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations in Belgium: a useful indicator for detecting mild iodine deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Vandevijvere

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are a good indicator of iodine deficiency in the population. A frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L below 3% has been proposed as the threshold indicating iodine sufficiency. The objective of the present study was to evaluate feasibility and usefulness of nation-wide neonatal TSH concentration screening results to assess iodine status in Belgium. All newborns born in Belgium during the period 2009-2011 (n = 377713 were included in the study, except those suffering from congenital hypothyroidism and premature neonates. The frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L from 2009 to 2011 in Belgium fluctuated between 2.6 and 3.3% in the centres using the same TSH assay. There was a significant inverse association between neonatal TSH level and birth weight. The longer the duration between birth and screening, the lower the TSH level. Neonatal TSH levels were significantly lower in winter than in spring or autumn and significantly lower in spring and summer than in autumn while significantly higher in spring compared to summer. In conclusion, despite that pregnant women in Belgium are mildly iodine deficient, the frequency of neonatal TSH concentrations above 5 mU/L was very low, suggesting that the neonatal TSH threshold proposed for detecting iodine deficiency needs to be re-evaluated. Although neonatal TSH is useful to detect severe iodine deficiency, it should not be recommended presently for the evaluation of iodine status in mildly iodine deficient regions.

  13. Interrelationship between iodine nutritional status of lactating mothers and their absolutely breast-fed infants in coastal districts of Gangetic West Bengal in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, N; Samanta, S K; Chakraborty, A; Chandra, N K; Chandra, A K

    2018-01-01

    Iodine nutritional status of 128 lactating mothers and their breast-fed infants (1-3 months) from iodine-replete villages during post-salt iodization period was evaluated. Mothers' urine, blood, and breast milk (BM) and infants' urine and blood were collected and analyzed for iodine and serum FT 4 and TSH estimation. Mothers' and infants' age, parity, occupation, education, and household income were recorded. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of infants was 250 μg/L, indicating their iodine intake was more than adequate. Mothers' median UIC was 185 μg/L, indicating adequate iodine nutrition; however, 13.28% had mild to severe deficiency. Median breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) was 230 μg/L, which was more than their median UIC 185 μg/L. In iodine-deficient mothers, positive correlation was found between mothers' and infants' serum FT 4 and TSH levels, and negative correlation was found between mothers' and infants' serum FT 4 and TSH levels in excessive iodine nutrition group. Iodine intake of breast-fed infants was at the limit of above requirement, and they are possibly at the risk of excess iodine intake. In iodine deficient and excessive iodine intake mothers, their infants' serum FT 4 and TSH are independent on their iodine nutritional status but dependent on thyroid hormone profile of their mothers but differently. What is Known: • A median urinary iodine of 100 μg/L is used to define adequate iodine intake of lactating mothers and children < 2 years. However, adequate iodine intake in terms of urinary iodine of infants of age 1-3 months is not known. What is New: • Iodine intake of absolutely breast-fed infants (1-3 months) was more than adequate, though their mother's intake was adequate as breast milk contains more iodine than urine. The infants of iodine deficient and excessive iodine intake mothers, infants' hormonal profile is independent of their iodine nutritional status but dependent on their mothers thyroid hormone

  14. The anaerobic digestion of urban sludges: evaluation, state of the art; La digestion anaerobie des boues urbaines: etat des lieux, etat de l'art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This presentation brings an evaluation and a state of the art of the sewage sludges channel, in terms of de-pollution efficiency as energy production. It gives also economical references which allow long dated arbitration. These data underline the necessity of taking into account the investments, the operating costs and also the induced profits: sludges volume reduction and the associated charges, complete or part energy autonomy... (A.L.B.)

  15. Evaluer et mesurer les connaissances collectives des projets de Knowledge Management: vers un nouveau type de méthodes d'évaluation des connaissances ?

    OpenAIRE

    Dudezert, Aurélie; Bocquet, Jean-Claude; Mira-Bonnardel, Sylvie; Binot, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a state of the art of company knowledge measurement methods. It describes the multiplicity of point of views for valuating knowledge. In fact, in these methods, knowledge is defined in different ways but only few of them propose an evaluation of knowledge as a product of an individual and organizational learning process. Nevertheless this paper shows that such methods would allow the establishment of performance metrics scoring of Knowledge Management projects.; Cet arti...

  16. Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.L.

    1974-01-01

    While radioactive iodine is clearly the therapy of choice for Graves' disease (even in younger patients) the use of radioactive iodine for therapy of the toxic multinodular or uninodular goiter presents an entirely different problem. Although these two entities can be treated with radioactive iodine provided there is some suppression of the tissue that is not autonomous, transient release of thyroid hormone may induce symptoms of thyroid storm in the very large multinodular toxic goiter treated with radioiodine therapy. These toxic nodules generally require much larger doses of radioiodine than is commonly used for classical Graves' disease and may either require fractional administration of radioisotopes or concomitant use of antithyroid drugs and iodides. In general, surgery remains the treatment of choice for large toxic multinodular goiters, after proper preparation by medical means including radioactive iodine. Radioactive iodine therapy for hyperthyroidism is contraindicated in pregnancy and generally is not used in children below five years of age. (U.S.)

  17. Iodine in eggs in an iodopenic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihail; Tadzher, Isak S.

    1996-01-01

    Macedonia is a region with a recognized precarious iodine balance, due to iodine deficiency in almost all water sources. Five percent iodine intake through eggs in the daily diet of adults is significant in this balance. The content of 40-220 micro g I - /kg eggs is lower than the British one (average 340-370 micro g I - /kg). The amount per egg is 3-6 micro g I' far less than 711 micro g I - in special iodine-enriched eggs designed for treatment of thyroid and metabolic disorders by feeding chickens with kelp additives. The iodine content of our manufacturers, provides substantial part of former Yugoslavia with eggs, is entirely dependent on imported fishmeal in chicken feed. (Author)

  18. Radioiodination of methoxsalen using different iodinating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyoub, S.M.; Farah, K.

    2007-01-01

    Different iodinating agents such as chloramine-T (Ch-T), iodogen, H 2 O 2 and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) were used for the labelling of methoxsalen via electrophilic substitution reaction. These iodinating agents oxidize NaI to produce the iodonium ions which attacked the active position in methoxsalen. These iodinating agents successfully iodinate the methoxsalen with a reasonable radiochemical yield and purity. The factors affecting both chemical yield and purity, such as the concentration of the iodinating agent, the methoxsalen concentration and the reaction time, were studied. Different developing solvents were used for the identification of the products using TLC technique. It was found that the most suitable solvent for the identification of methoxsalen using TLC was n-butanol : acetic acid : water (4:1:1). Radiochemical yields of 80% and 84% , with purity 99%, were achieved in case of NBS and H 2 O 2 , respectively

  19. Exploration of the safe upper level of iodine intake in euthyroid Chinese adults: a randomized double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Zhongna; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Yao, Zhaixiao; Shen, Jun; Halfyard, Beth; Tan, Long; Zhao, Na; Wu, Yuntang; Gao, Shuo; Tan, Jian; Liu, Jiayu; Chen, Zupei; Zhang, Wanqi

    2012-02-01

    The beneficial health effects associated with Universal Salt Iodization are well known. Yet, little is known about the possible adverse health effects in people with high iodine intake and the safe daily intake upper limit in the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to explore the safe upper level of total daily iodine intake among adults in China. A 4-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial was conducted in 256 euthyroid adults. Participants were randomly assigned to 12 intervention groups with various iodine supplement doses ranging from 0 to 2000 μg/d. Total iodine intake included iodine from both supplements and diet. Multiple outcome measures were used to evaluate possible adverse effects, including thyroid function, thyroid size, and urinary iodine. The mean iodine intake from the diets and salt intake of the participants were 105 ± 25 and 258 ± 101 μg/d, respectively. In comparison with the placebo group, all iodide-supplemented groups responded with significant increases in median urinary iodine concentrations (P iodine intervention groups (1500-2000 μg). Subclinical hypothyroidism appeared in the groups that received 400 μg I (5%) and 500-2000 μg I (15-47%). This study showed that subclinical hypothyroidism appeared in the participants who took the 400-μg I supplement, which provided a total iodine intake of ∼800 μg/d. Thus, we caution against a total daily iodine intake that exceeds 800 μg/d in China and recommend further research to determine a safe daily upper limit.

  20. Incidence of symptomatic salivary disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goni E, Ignacio; Selt A, Guillermo Vander; Ruiz A, Catalina; Leon R, Augusto; Solar G, Antonieta; Orellana B, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer can produce severe and frequent salivary symptoms, during the treatment or later. Aim: To analyze the incidence, severity and characteristics of the salivary signs and symptoms in these patients. Patients and Method: Retrospective and descriptive anal isis of 106 patients with confirmed diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, treated with surgery and radioactive iodine, that completed a telephonic survey for the evaluation of salivary symptoms. Results: 26 (24.52%) patients presented with salivary symptoms or signs after the radioactive iodine therapy (mean 5 months). The average doses of I 131 was 128,5 mCi. Xerostomy, pain, xeroftalmy, inflammation, sialoadenitis and dysgeusia, were the most frequent clinical symptoms. Conclusions: After radioactive iodine therapy the salivary symptoms and signs incidence is high. We conclude that the indication for this treatment must be selective, but in accordance with the oncological risk of each patient

  1. Impact of Ecologically Unfriendly Environment on the Formation of Thyroid Pathology in Children Against Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Kosmynina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By prevalence among thyroid pathological conditions in Ukraine, the diffuse nontoxic goiter is dominated, the frequency of which, in addition to iodine deficiency, is influenced by anthropogenic pollution of environment. The article evaluated the role of the negative impact of polluted environment on the formation of thyroid disease in children from ecologically unfriendly region on the background of endemic iodine deficiency compared with children from ecologically friendly area of iodine deficiency. It has been determined the frequency of diffuse endemic goiter in children from studied groups according to palpation and ultrasonography. The functional state of the pituitary-thyroid system in children living in iodine deficiency environmentally unfriendly and ecologically friendly areas has been researched.

  2. Overview of the ACEX project iodine work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merilo, M.

    1996-12-01

    The ACEX project is an internationally sponsored research program that focuses on several aspects of severe accidents. The areas addressed are iodine behavior in containments, pool scrubbing, molten corium concrete interactions, and ex-vessel core debris coolability. These areas all represent extensions to the previous and current ACE and MACE programs respectively. The ACE-Phase B (iodine) project, and other recent research efforts, have clarified the roles of the important phenomena that influence iodine volatility in reactor containments during severe accidents. The ACE Iodine Chemistry Subcommittee concluded that even though enough data has been generated to support reasonably good quantification of the important phenomena, a few important areas remain where quantification is still uncertain. This is due to a lack of agreement on how to utilize the existing database, as well as the possible absence of critical test and/or property data. Technical resolution of the overall iodine behavior issue is therefore not feasible until these uncertainties are fully assessed and practical solutions have been identified, implemented, and verified. The overall objectives of the ACEX iodine research program are to ensure that the iodine database can be used to predict the airborne concentration of iodine, the conditions for iodine reservoir stability, and to provide a mechanistic understanding for these phenomena. The first phase of this work involves a comprehensive review and interpretation of the existing database in order to formulate practical strategies for dealing with significant uncertainties and/or deficiencies. Several projects are underway involving the effects of organic reactions and structural surface interactions. In addition effort is being expended on standardizing the aqueous iodine kinetics database, specifying useful mass transfer models, and defining methodology for pH prediction. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Content iodine in sauces of type emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakirov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The scarcity of natural resources arouse a necessity to find additional sources of protein, fat, carbohydrates, and their complexes with scarce mineral compounds. Therefore, a relevant issue is to enrich the diets deficient iodine compounds through research and development of new food products. Materials and methods. Investigation of iodine content in emulsion-type sauces at all stages was performed using Xray -fluorescence analyzer «Elvax». X-ray -fluorescence method consists of the appearance characteristic X-radiation of atoms of a chemical element at infringement they the primary X-ray irradiation. Results and discussion. Investigated for the determination of organic and inorganic forms of iodine in content of food items, and installed the total loss of iodine in sauces after cooking and storage at +5 ... +10 ° C for 30 days. Using iodine-proteinaceous additive from 0.5 ... 2.5% by mass of iodine 0.01% can be achieved from 15 to 50% of the human daily requirement by iodine. The resulting product does not lose its organoleptic, physico - chemical, consumer characteristics and meets the requirements of normative documents. As a result of our research, it was found that the addition of the supplements enriched protein-mineral (SEPM in composition sauces does not adversely affect the physical -chemical characteristics of sauces, but due to the stabilizing effect of additives iodine-proteinaceous increased emulsion stability up to 98 - 100% without additional foo d additives (emulsifiers. This additive has passed a series of tests that indicate on compliance with requirements normative and technical documentation. Conclusions. Used methodical approach allowed us to estimate the level of organic and inorganic iodine, as well as describe in more detail and correctly interpret the chemical composition of foods fortified with iodine and predict their health properties.

  4. Iodine excretion during stimulation with rhTSH in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, M.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, C.; Kies, P.; Schober, O. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2003-12-01

    Aim: Elevated iodine intake is a serious problem in the diagnostic and therapeutic application of {sup 131}iodine in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Therefore, iodine avoidance is necessary 3 months in advance. Additionally, endogenous stimulation requires withdrawal of thyroid hormone substitution for 4 weeks. Exogenous stimulation using recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) enables the continuous substitution of levothyroxine, which contains 65.4% of its molecular weight in iodine. Thus, a substantial source of iodine intake is maintained during exogenous stimulation. Although this amount of stable iodine is comparable to the iodine intake in regions of normal iodine supply, it may reduce the accumulation of radioiodine in thyroid carcinoma tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the iodine excretion depending on different ways of stimulation. Methods: Iodine excretion was measured in 146 patients in the long term follow up after differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Patients were separated into 2 groups, those on hormone withdrawal (G I) and rhTSH-stimulated patients on hormone substitution (G II). Results: Iodine excretion was significantly lower in hypothyroid patients (G I, median 50 {mu}g/l, range: 25-600 {mu}g/l) than in those under levothyroxine medication (G II, median 75 {mu}g/l, 25-600 {mu}g/l, p<0.027). TSH in G I (median 57.0 {mu}U/ml, range: 14.4-183 {mu}U/ml) was significantly lower (p<0.001) than in G II (117 {mu}U/ml, 32.2-281 {mu}U/ml). Conclusion: Iodine excretion was higher in patients under rhTSH-stimulation than after hormone withdrawal. This may indicate an increased iodine pool in rhTSH-stimulated patients (deiodination of levothyroxine), thus limiting the sensitivity of radioiodine scanning to the level of endogenous stimulation despite significantly higher TSH levels during rhTSH-stimulation. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Eine erhoehte Iodzufuhr ist ein erhebliches Problem in der diagnostischen und therapeutischen Anwendung von {sup 131}Iod

  5. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  6. Community monitoring of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme in the National Capital Region of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Juhi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Karmarkar, Madhukar G; Nair, Sirimavo

    2011-05-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the current status of iodine-deficiency disorders (IDD) in the National Capital Region of Delhi (NCR Delhi) and evaluate the implementation and impact of the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP). Cross-sectional study. School-going children (n 1230) in the age group of 6-12 years were enrolled from thirty primary schools in the Municipal Corporation of Delhi. Thirty schools were selected using the probability-proportional-to-size cluster sampling methodology. In each identified school forty-one children were surveyed. Urine and salt samples were collected and studied for iodine concentration. A total of sixty salt samples from retail level were also collected. Schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was found to be 198·4 μg/l. The percentage of children with UIE levels of salt (salt with iodine levels of at least 15 ppm at consumption level) was 88·8%. The assessment of iodine content of salt revealed that only 6·1% of the families were consuming salt with iodine content less than 7 ppm. At retail level 88·3% of salt samples had >15 ppm iodine. Significant progress has been achieved towards elimination of IDD from NCR Delhi. There is a need for further strengthening of the system to monitor the quality of iodized salt provided to the beneficiaries under the universal salt iodization programme and so eliminate IDD from NCR Delhi.

  7. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bouga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed (edible algae is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224 were identified. Only 22 products (10% stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18% provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503 and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520. While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content.

  8. Transcriptome Profiling of Caco-2 Cancer Cell Line following Treatment with Extracts from Iodine-Biofortified Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta A Koronowicz

    Full Text Available Although iodization of salt is the most common method used to obtain iodine-enriched food, iodine deficiency disorders are still a global health problem and profoundly affect the quality of human life. Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulators of human metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis and have been reported to be involved in carcinogenesis. In this study, for the first time, we evaluated the effect of iodine-biofortified lettuce on transcriptomic profile of Caco-2 cancer cell line by applying the Whole Human Genome Microarray assay. We showed 1326 differentially expressed Caco-2 transcripts after treatment with iodine-biofortified (BFL and non-fortified (NFL lettuce extracts. We analysed pathways, molecular functions, biological processes and protein classes based on comparison between BFL and NFL specific genes. Iodine, which was expected to act as a free ion (KI-NFL or at least in part to be incorporated into lettuce macromolecules (BFL, differently regulated pathways of numerous transcription factors leading to different cellular effects. In this study we showed the inhibition of Caco-2 cells proliferation after treatment with BFL, but not potassium iodide (KI, and BFL-mediated induction of mitochondrial apoptosis and/or cell differentiation. Our results showed that iodine-biofortified plants can be effectively used by cells as an alternative source of this trace element. Moreover, the observed differences in action of both iodine sources may suggest a potential of BFL in cancer treatment.

  9. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouga, Maria; Combet, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content). PMID:28231201

  10. IRSN publishes the tritium exposure dosimetric evaluation of employees and visitors of 2M Process company at Saint-Maur-des-Fosses and Bondoufle sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A building of 2M Process company at Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France) has been accidentally contaminated after the handling of a tritium contaminated device. The consequence is a contamination of the personnel and of the visitors of the company, and of the environment in the vicinity of the building. Since November 3, 2010, date of the accident declaration, the French institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN) has started investigations on request of the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), in order to estimate the radiation doses received by the 2M Process company employees and visitors. Dosimetric evaluations have been carried out on the basis of personalised interviews of the employees and on the basis of tritium analyses in the urines of both the employees and visitors of the 2M Process company at Saint-Maur-des-Fosses and of the visitors of the Etude et Diffusion company at Bondoufle where the first tests on the contaminated device were performed. This report presents the results of these investigations and the evaluation of the doses received by the employees and visitors of 2M Process company. (J.S.)

  11. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Iodine Through Urinary Iodine Screening Among Local Children and Adolescents After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Nomura, Shuhei; Watanobe, Hajime; Nishikawa, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Chiaki; Ochi, Sae; Leppold, Claire; Kinoshita, Hirokatsu; Kato, Shigeaki; Saito, Yasutoshi

    2016-12-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation. However, little information is available on the prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011. In order to assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and the prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged ≤18 years at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima, were evaluated. A total of 4410 children and adolescents with a median age of 10 years at examination underwent UIC testing between October 2012 and October 2015. Calculated for all the participants, the median UIC level was 204 μg/L (range 25-21,100 μg/L). There were 133 (3.0%), 732 (16.6%), and 1472 (33.4%) participants with UIC levels of nutritional iodine status, no participants were severely iodine deficient (<20 μg/L), but 16.6% of the population were mildly (50-100 μg/L) or moderately (20-50 μg/L) iodine deficient. While no significant difference in UIC was noted between those who did and did not increase dietary iodine intake after the accident (p = 0.93), there were significant differences by year (p < 0.01), school level (p < 0.001), and residential area at the time of the accident (p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that the children and adolescents examined had a sufficient amount of iodine during the period 1.5-4.5 years after the nuclear accident. In addition to the differences in the scale and the countermeasures undertaken between the Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents, differences in dietary iodine intake might have played an additional role in resulting in the reportedly different radiation doses to the thyroid between the two nuclear accidents.

  12. Effect of iodine supplementation in pregnant women on child neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Jaiswal, Nidhi; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Galetti, Valeria; Stinca, Sara; Mackenzie, Ian; Thomas, Susan; Thomas, Tinku; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Iodine deficiency during pregnancy might be associated with reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) score in offspring. We assessed the effect of iodine supplementation in mildly iodine-deficient pregnant women on neurodevelopment of their offspring in areas where schoolchildren were iodine

  13. Prevalence and serverity of Iodine deficiency disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The median urinary iodine level was 56 4g/L that indicates iodine deficiency. Out of 389 households in the study area, 277 (71.2%) were using non-iodinated salt, 102 (26.2%) of the households were using iodinated salt. Cabbage usage was significantly associated with goiter. CONCLUSION: Endemic goiter is quite ...

  14. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) in Burie and Womberma Districts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) affect millions of people in developing countries mainly due to dietary iodine deficiency and aggravating factors that affect the bioavailability of iodine in the body. Iodine deficiency disorder is one of the public health problems of Ethiopia. Recent findings show that both endemic and ...

  15. Iodine deficiency in primary school children and knowledge of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: More than two billion individuals worldwide have inadequate iodine intake and the adverse consequences of iodine deficiency are widely observed. Objective: To assess the iodine status of primary school children and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders among their caretakers. Methods: A ...

  16. Rationale and design of decision: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory, differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, Marcia S; Schlumberger, Martin; Nutting, Christopher M; Sherman, Steven I; Shong, Young Kee; Smit, Johannes WA; Reike, Gerhard; Chung, John; Kalmus, Joachim; Kappeler, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer and the number of patients who die from this disease are increasing globally. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the histologic subtype present in most patients and is primarily responsible for the increased overall incidence of thyroid cancer. Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets several molecular signals believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, including those implicated in DTC. In phase II studies of patients with DTC, sorafenib treatment has yielded a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 58 to 84 weeks and disease control rates of 59% to 100%. The DECISION trial was designed to assess the ability of sorafenib to improve PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory DTC. DECISION is a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study in patients with locally advanced/metastatic RAI-refractory DTC. Study treatment will continue until radiographically documented disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, noncompliance, or withdrawal of consent. Efficacy will be evaluated every 56 days (2 cycles), whereas safety will be evaluated every 28 days (1 cycle) for the first 8 months and every 56 days thereafter. Following disease progression, patients may continue or start sorafenib, depending on whether they were randomized to receive sorafenib or placebo, at investigator discretion. Patients originally randomized to receive sorafenib will be followed up every 3 months for overall survival (OS); patients originally randomized to receive placebo will be followed up every month for 8 months after cross-over to sorafenib. The duration of the trial is expected to be 30 months from the time the first patient is randomized until the planned number of PFS events is attained. The primary endpoint is PFS; secondary endpoints include OS, time to disease progression, disease control rate, response rate, duration of response, safety, and

  17. Méthodes d'évaluation des pétroles bruts en vue de la fabrication d'huile lubrifiantes Methods of Evaluating Crude Oils for Manufacturing Lube Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le choix des pétroles bruts pour la fabrication des bases d'huiles nécessite une connaissance du pétrole brut lui-même. Ce choix est rendu possible par l`utilisation de différentes méthodes d'évaluation et par leur validité d'application. La description des différentes méthodes présentées est complétée par des exemples. Les résultats montrent que les méthodes sont complémentaires et permettent d'obtenir des informations précises sur les rendements et les caractéristiques des huiles lubrifiantes qu'il est possible d'obtenir à partir d'un pétrole brut. Selection of crudes for lube-oil base-stock manufacturing needs a thorough understanding of the crude oil. This selection is helped by different methods of evaluation and their scale of applications. Use of different methods is illustrated with data, and teir limitations with respect to type of information generated :are described. The results obtained show that each method is complementary ta every other one helps in arriving at definite information about the quality and quantity of thé lubeoil base stocks from a crude ail.

  18. Evaluation de L’Effet du Vieillissement des Equipages sur les Consequences du Decalage Horaire (Evaluation of Crew Members Aging on Jet-Lag Consequences)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    Ergonomia , 1987, 30, 13 79- physique que psychologique. Cela tend A damontrer que 1393. dans des conditions militaires op~rationnelles, les 2...melatonin. Ergonomia , 1987, 30, 1379- 1393. 2 - BLOIS R, FEINBERG I., GAILLARD J.M., KUPFER D.J. and WEBB W.B. Sleep in normal and pathological aging

  19. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R. W.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K.; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-01

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I- measurements showed enrichments of up to ˜1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  20. Iodine nutrition and risk of thyroid irradiation from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delange, F.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss the following aspects of physiopathology of iodine nutrition related to thyroid irradiation by nuclear accidents: (1) The cycle of iodine in nature, the dietary sources of iodine and the recommended dietary allowances for iodine. (2) The anomalies of thyroid metabolism induced by iodine deficiency. The caricatural situation as seen in endemic goitre will be used as mode. (3) The specific paediatric aspects of adaptation to iodine deficiency. (4) The present status of iodine nutrition in Europe. (author)

  1. EVALUATION DE L’IMPACT ENVIRONNEMENTAL : Evaluation des potentialités de transfert de l’ADN des plantes transgéniques vers les bactéries du sol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonet Pascal

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Les bactéries se caractérisent par leurs stratégies évolutives multiples incluant mutations ponctuelles, remaniements endogènes par déplacements de séquences d’insertion ou de transposons, délétions ou amplifications de larges régions d’ADN et acquisition de nouveaux gènes par transfert horizontal d’informations génétiques. Les récentes et toutes premières analyses conduites sur les données des quelques génomes bactériens totalement séquencés indiquent le rôle tout à fait fondamental qu’ont pu jouer les transferts latéraux de gènes dans l’évolution bactérienne [1-3]. Nombre de travaux sont aujourd’hui conduits afin d’élucider le rôle des trois mécanismes de transfert (conjugaison, transformation et transduction dans l’évolution et l’adaptation des bactéries aux conditions changeantes de leur environnement. En particulier, l’accroissement inquiétant de la proportion de germes résistants aux antibiotiques serait le fait de la dispersion de plasmides porteurs des gènes de résistance parmi la microflore pathogène ? Dans ces cisconstances, la question de savoir si les plantes transgéniques, très souvent pourvues de tels gènes, pourraient constituer un facteur aggravant la dissémination d’éléments menaçant potentiellement la santé humaine est donc totalement justifiée. Tout au long de l’évolution, la nature a cependant établi un certain nombre de filtres moléculaires afin de limiter les flux de gènes, notamment entre organismes phylétiquement très éloignés. La caractéristique des plantes transgéniques tient à ce que certains des gènes des transgènes, et en particulier ceux conférant la résistance aux antibiotiques, ont une origine procaryotique susceptible de leur permettre de contourner les barrières moléculaires. Cependant, d’autres facteurs environnementaux, biotiques et abiotiques vont intervenir pour favoriser ou au contraire limiter les échanges de g

  2. Evaluation de la sécurité du circuit des médicaments anticancéreux dans un hôpital régional en Tunisie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Jihène; El Ghardallou, Meriam; Bougmiza, Iheb; Henchiri, Besma; Limam, Manel; Mejdoub, Rim; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ajmi, Thouraya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parmi les événements indésirables, ceux liés au circuit des médicaments occupent une place importante et risquent de causer un préjudice grave aux patients. Dans ce contexte, nous avons mené cette étude dans l'optique de décrire et d’évaluer le circuit des médicaments anticancéreux dans un hôpital régional tunisien. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude évaluative du risque lié aux médicaments anticancéreux, type « visite de risque » menée sur une période de 15 jours au cours de l'année 2014 au service de cancérologie de l'hôpital régional de Gafsa (Tunisie). Cette méthode d’évaluation est inspirée de celle conduite par le projet « SECURIMED » développé par le Comité de Coordination de l'Evaluation Clinique et de la Qualité en Aquitaine (CCECQA), en France. Résultats Dans notre étude, l'observation du circuit des médicaments anticancéreux a révélé certaines insuffisances. On a noté que la répartition des missions des différents acteurs est sujette parfois à des glissements de tâches. Un manque important ainsi que une inadéquation aux normes au niveau des équipements nécessaires pour la préparation et la protection des professionnels manipulant ces médicaments ont été également décelés. Conclusion La sécurisation du circuit des médicaments devrait être une priorité inscrite dans l'ensemble des démarches nationales et partagée par tous les intervenants et ce dans l'optique d'atteindre un objectif prémium: la qualité de la prise en charge globale et la sécurité des patients. PMID:27200135

  3. Evaluation experimentale de l'efficacite des gants de protection contre les nanoparticules de dioxyde de titane dans des conditions de travail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinches, Ludwig

    Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) enter into the formulation of several commercial products including cosmetics, paints, varnishes or food. An increasing number of people will be exposed to nanoparticles (NP), in particular, scientists during their research and workers in companies. As such, they are an emerging source of hazard. Indeed, an increasing number of studies are warning against their likely harmful effects on health. The International Agency for Research against Cancer has classified nTiO2 as being possibly carcinogenic to humans. Furthermore some studies have shown that the skin is not an impervious membrane to the NP and that NP penetration is possible when the skin is injured by abrasion, after repeated flexions or even intact. Therefore, dermal protection will be necessary in order to thoroughly protect NP users. Based upon the precautionary principle, gloves should be used as protection against chemicals. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study on their resistance towards NP has been conducted. In this study, the performance of protective gloves was evaluated with respect to nTiO2 solutions and powders, under conditions simulating occupational use. Mechanical deformations, simulating those produced by hand flexing, were applied to nitrile and butyl rubber and latex samples that were in contact with nTiO2 in water, in propylene glycol or in powder form. nTiO 2 penetration through the protective gloves was determined after deformations of the materials. Following these results, the physicochemical and mechanical phenomena that facilitate the penetration of nTiO2 were identified and studied. It was shown that mechanical deformations caused both damage to the sample surface but also a change in the degree of crystallinity of the glove material. Strain energy was also measured. It decreased significantly in presence and absence of nTiO2, indicating a weakening of the polymer chains. A qualitative study showed that repetitive

  4. Radioactive iodine and environmental and sanitary effects - bibliographic study and quantification; Iodes radioactifs et impacts environnemental et sanitaire - etude bibliographique et quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, Ph.; Armand, P.; Monfort, M.; Fritsch, P. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Flury Herard, A. [CEA, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 75 - Paris (France); Menetrier, F. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Dir. des Sciences du Vivant, 92 (France); Bion, L. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire (DEN), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Schoech, C.; Masset, S. [Societe EX-IN - Expertise et Ingenierie, 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document is intended to a large public. It reviews the different parameters needed to evaluate the potential act o radioactive releases from the emission to public. Its objectives are to evaluate the importance of different exposure pathways and to assess efficiency of the possible interventions for large public. The main conclusions are summarised hereafter: The radioactive decay chains have to be taken into account to evaluate the iodine source term in the nuclear plants in the case of fission accidents. The physico-chemical forms of iodine are important in order to determine the released activity and deposited activity on the soil. The isotopes to be taken into account are mainly iodine 131 for radiological assessments and also iodine 133 for the nuclear reactor accidents, and the chain Tellurium-Iodine 132 when no particulate filtration exists. Iodine 129 in French reprocessing plant cannot lead to significant accidents. The dominant exposure pathways are related to the consumption of contaminated food products (vegetable, milk) for the inorganic iodine. The iodine transfer to goat and sheep milk is greater than the one to cow milk. The meat production of herbivores at field is the most sensitive. The interest to remove rapidly herbivore from pasture appears relatively clearly. The banning of consumption of local contaminated food products (vegetables and meats) may reduce by about a factor of thirteen the impact due to iodine 131. The youngest the population is, the greatest are the thyroid radiosensitivity and variability within the population. Oral administration of stable iodine limits transfers to maternal milk and foetal thyroid. Ingestion of stable iodine is complementary to consumption banning of local contaminated food products. The earliest the ingestion is, the greatest is the efficiency. 0,1 TBq of 131 iodine released at a low height involves only limited and local actions whereas the release of 10 TBq involves direct and immediate protection

  5. Study on iodine levels in thyroids of iodine-supplemented rats by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuefei; Zhang Fang; Xu Qing; Liu Nianqing; Chai Zhifang; Zhao Xueqin; Zuo Aijun

    2003-01-01

    The second generation female Wistar rats that have been treated with iodine-deficient food, after their delivery, are divided into three groups i.e. excessive-iodine (EI), adequate-iodine (AI) and iodine-deficient (ID) according to the KIO 3 concentration in the drinking water (3.0, 0.4, 0 mg/L). In addition, the normal rats with low iodine food and 0.4 mg/L KIO 3 water are used as the control group (C). The iodine content in thyroid and the serum thyroid hormone levels of the third generation rats are measured by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), and the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicate that the total thyroxine (TT 4 ) and the free thyroxine (FT 4 ) of the EI, compared with those of the controls, are significantly decreased (p 3 ) evidently increased (p 4 , FT 4 and goiter

  6. Modeling an Iodine Hall Thruster Plume in the Iodine Satellite (ISAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    An iodine-operated 200-W Hall thruster plume has been simulated using a hybrid-PIC model to predict the spacecraft surface-plume interaction for spacecraft integration purposes. For validation of the model, the plasma potential, electron temperature, ion current flux, and ion number density of xenon propellant were compared with available measurement data at the nominal operating condition. To simulate iodine plasma, various collision cross sections were found and used in the model. While time-varying atomic iodine species (i.e., I, I+, I2+) information is provided by HPHall simulation at the discharge channel exit, the molecular iodine species (i.e., I2, I2+) are introduced as Maxwellian particles at the channel exit. Simulation results show that xenon and iodine plasma plumes appear to be very similar under the assumptions of the model. Assuming a sticking coefficient of unity, iodine deposition rate is estimated.

  7. Effect of chronic douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine on iodine absorption and thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safran, M.; Braverman, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Daily vaginal douching with polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine in 12 euthyroid volunteers for 14 days resulted in a significant increase in serum total iodine concentration and urine iodine excretion. The increase in serum total iodine was associated with a marked decrease in 24-hour 123 I uptake by the thyroid and a small but significant increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH) concentration. However, values for serum TSH never rose above the normal range. No significant changes in serum thyroxine (T4), free T4 index (FTI), or triiodothyronine concentrations were observed, although serum T4 and FTI did decrease slightly during treatment. The findings suggest that iodine is absorbed across the vaginal mucosa and that the subsequent increase in serum total iodine does induce subtle increases in serum TSH concentration. There was no evidence, however, of overt hypothyroidism in these euthyroid women

  8. Iodine excretion has decreased in Denmark between 2004 and 2010 - the importance of iodine content in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Carlé, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Fortification with the essential trace element iodine is widespread worldwide. In the present study, results on iodine excretion and intake of iodine-rich foods from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2004-5, 4 to 5 years after the implementation of mandatory iodine fortification, were compar...

  9. High Iodine and Salt Intakes and Obesity do not Modify the Thyroid Function in Mexican Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Villa, Lorena; García-Solís, Pablo; Solís-S, Juan Carlos; García-Gutiérrez, David Gustavo; Pérez-Mora, Valeria Alejandra; Robles-Osorio, Ludivina; Sampson-Zaldívar, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Mexico is considered as a nutritional transition country with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, and recent studies have reported a high iodine intake in children. Both high iodine intake and obesity have been associated with thyroid dysfunction. Our aim was to assess iodine and salt intake and thyroid function in Mexican schoolchildren with normal weight and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed during 2012-2013 in schoolchildren from Queretaro, Mexico. Six hundred seventy-eight schoolchildren were evaluated to obtain nutrition status, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid volume (TVol). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 47.3 %, the median UIC was 428 μg/L and TVol was normal in all schoolchildren; however, obese girls had a higher TVol than normal weight at the age of 8, 10 and 12 years. A subsample of schoolchildren was divided in 6-8 and 9-12-year-old groups, in order to compare thyroid function (thyrotropin, free T4, and anti-thyroid antibodies); iodine and salt intake were estimated with 24-h urinary samples. No differences in thyroid function were observed in both age groups. In the 6-8-year-old group, obese schoolchildren had higher iodine intake than normal-weight children (415.5 vs. 269.1 μg/day, p obese schoolchildren had higher salt intake than normal-weight children (6.2 vs. 3.8 g/day, p < 0.05), but no differences in iodine intake. Dietary patterns could explain the differences between both age groups. Further studies are needed to identify the main sources of iodine intake in Mexican populations.

  10. A model to secure a stable iodine concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisken Trøan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dairy products account for approximately 60% of the iodine intake in the Norwegian population. The iodine concentration in cow's milk varies considerably, depending on feeding practices, season, and amount of iodine and rapeseed products in cow fodder. The variation in iodine in milk affects the risk of iodine deficiency or excess in the population. Objective: The first goal of this study was to develop a model to predict the iodine concentration in milk based on the concentration of iodine and rapeseed or glucosinolate in feed, as a tool to securing stable iodine concentration in milk. A second aim was to estimate the impact of different iodine levels in milk on iodine nutrition in the Norwegian population. Design: Two models were developed on the basis of results from eight published and two unpublished studies from the past 20 years. The models were based on different iodine concentrations in the fodder combined with either glucosinolate (Model 1 or rapeseed cake/meal (Model 2. To illustrate the impact of different iodine concentrations in milk on iodine intake, we simulated the iodine contribution from dairy products in different population groups based on food intake data in the most recent dietary surveys in Norway. Results: The models developed could predict iodine concentration in milk. Cross-validation showed good fit and confirmed the explanatory power of the models. Our calculations showed that dairy products with current iodine level in milk (200 µg/kg cover 68, 49, 108 and 56% of the daily iodine requirements for men, women, 2-year-old children, and pregnant women, respectively. Conclusions: Securing a stable level of iodine in milk by adjusting iodine concentration in different cow feeds is thus important for preventing excess intake in small children and iodine deficiency in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  11. Studies in iodine metabolism. Progress report, April 1975-- March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations during the past twelve months have included the following subjects: factors which influence release of radioiodine from thyroid glands; contamination of commercially available low-iodine diets; effects of hypoxia on release of iodine from thyroid glands of rats and mice; development of practical tests for available iodine in low-iodine diets; reproduction and abnormal thyroglobulin of rats maintained on low-iodine diets; observations on radioactivity in animal thyroids; collaboration with other laboratories regarding radium in bovine thyroids

  12. Method of removing iodine and compounds thereof from gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keener, R.L.; Kittle, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including an acrylic backbone formed by the suspension polymerization of a mixture of an acrylic and a crosslinking monomer are useful in the removal of iodine and iodine compounds from gaseous effluents. Removal of radioactive iodine contaminants, particularly alkyl iodine compounds or hydrogen iodine, under extreme conditions, namely temperatures up to 180 0 C and humidities up to 100 percent, from effluents resulting from a major nuclear accident could probably be adsorbed by these resins described herein

  13. Iodine and thyroid gland with or without nuclear catastrophe

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačev-Zavišić Branka; Novaković-Paro Jovanka; Ičin Tijana; Bajkin Ivana; Todorović-Đilas Ljiljana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Iodine, as a trace element, is a necessary and limiting substrate for thyroid gland hormone synthesis. It is an essential element that enables the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Synthesis of Thyroid Hormones and Iodine Metabolism. Three iodine molecules are added to make triiodothyronine, and four for thyroxine - the two key hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency. The proper daily amount of iodine is r...

  14. Iodine-123 in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Stoecklin, G.; Weinreich, R.

    1976-08-01

    The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123 I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Autoradiography for iodine-125 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, W.; Divoux, S.; Pothmann, B.; Tabor, P.; Hermann, K.P.; Harder, D.

    1993-01-01

    To study the interior design of model 6702 and 6711 iodine-125 seeds, contact autoradiographs were performed using mammography film. Improved resolution was obtained using a pin-hole camera with a hole of 0.1 mm x 0.1 mm. With these techniques, qualitative determination of the relative activity distribution within each seed was possible. The number of the activated resin spheres and the positions of the centers of these spheres can be exactly determined. A model calculation shows that variations in the arrangement of the activated spheres within a seed have a moderate influence on the dose distribution at source distances below 10 mm. Knowing the exact source configuration may be useful when comparing dose calculations with measured data for model 6702 125 I seeds which are currently employed in ophthalmic plaque and implant therapy of other tumors. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  17. Does iodine gas released from seaweed contribute to dietary iodine intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P P A; Burns, R; Huang, R J; Hoffman, T; Mullan, K; Graham, U; Seitz, K; Platt, U; O'Dowd, C

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormone levels sufficient for brain development and normal metabolism require a minimal supply of iodine, mainly dietary. Living near the sea may confer advantages for iodine intake. Iodine (I(2)) gas released from seaweeds may, through respiration, supply a significant fraction of daily iodine requirements. Gaseous iodine released over seaweed beds was measured by a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method and iodine intake assessed by measuring urinary iodine (UI) excretion. Urine samples were obtained from female schoolchildren living in coastal seaweed rich and low seaweed abundance and inland areas of Ireland. Median I(2) ranged 154-905 pg/L (daytime downwind), with higher values (~1,287 pg/L) on still nights, 1,145-3,132 pg/L (over seaweed). A rough estimate of daily gaseous iodine intake in coastal areas, based upon an arbitrary respiration of 10,000L, ranged from 1 to 20 μg/day. Despite this relatively low potential I(2) intake, UI in populations living near a seaweed hotspot were much higher than in lower abundance seaweed coastal or inland areas (158, 71 and 58 μg/L, respectively). Higher values >150 μg/L were observed in 45.6% of (seaweed rich), 3.6% (lower seaweed), 2.3% (inland)) supporting the hypothesis that iodine intake in coastal regions may be dependent on seaweed abundance rather than proximity to the sea. The findings do not exclude the possibility of a significant role for iodine inhalation in influencing iodine status. Despite lacking iodized salt, coastal communities in seaweed-rich areas can maintain an adequate iodine supply. This observation brings new meaning to the expression "Sea air is good for you!"

  18. Iodine binding to humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, H E; Young, S D; Ander, E L; Crout, N M J; Watts, M J; Bailey, E H

    2016-08-01

    The rate of reactions between humic acid (HA) and iodide (I(-)) and iodate (IO3(-)) have been investigated in suspensions spiked with (129)I at concentrations of 22, 44 and 88 μg L(-1) and stored at 10 °C. Changes in the speciation of (129)I(-), (129)IO3(-) and mixed ((129)I(-) + (129)IO3(-)) spikes were monitored over 77 days using liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). In suspensions spiked with (129)I(-) 25% of the added I(-) was transformed into organic iodine (Org-(129)I) within 77 days and there was no evidence of (129)IO3(-) formation. By contrast, rapid loss of (129)IO3(-) and increase in both (129)I(-) and Org-(129)I was observed in (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions. However, the rate of Org-(129)I production was greater in mixed systems compared to (129)IO3(-)-spiked suspensions with the same total (129)I concentration, possibly indicating IO3(-)I(-) redox coupling. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) demonstrated that Org-(129)I was present in both high and low molecular weight fractions of the HA although a slight preference to bond with the lower molecular weight fractions was observed indicating that, after 77 days, the spiked isotope had not fully mixed with the native (127)I pool. Iodine transformations were modelled using first order rate equations and fitted rate coefficients determined. However, extrapolation of the model to 250 days indicated that a pseudo-steady state would be attained after ∼200 days but that the proportion of (129)I incorporated into HA was less than that of (127)I indicating the presence of a recalcitrant pool of (127)I that was unavailable for isotopic mixing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation des méthodes chimiques, spectroscopiques et chromatographiques utilisables pour l'identification des polluants pétroliers en mer Evaluation of Chemical, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Methods Used to Identify Offshore Oil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albaigés J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article on passe en revue les différentes méthodes utilisables pour l'identification des principaux polluants pétroliers de la mer par l'analyse quantitativé de leurs « marqueurs passifs x (soufre, azote, nickel, vanadium, paraffine et asphaltènes et la détermination d'autres caractéristiques intrinsèques. II s'agit de méthodes chimiques, spectroscop iques (infrarouge, ultraviolette et chromatographiques (chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation de flamme, photométrie de flamme et capture d'électrons. Les mesures ont concerné une grande variété de produits susceptibles de polluer la côte méditerranéenne espagnole - pétrole brut des gisements offshore d'Amposta et de Castellôn; - pétroles bruts importés traités dans les raffineries côtières (Boscan, Es Sider, Kuwait, Arabian light, etc.; - fractions lourdes provenant de ces raffineries (fuel-cils, asphaltes, lubrifiants; - polluants réels; - échantillons altérés artificiellement en laboratoire afin de mettre en évidence l'action progressive des éléments naturels. On a trouvé que les méthodes les plus intéressantes étaient : - le dosage chimique du soufre, du nickel et du vanadium; - la spectroscopie infrarouge; - la chromatographie en phase gazeuse à haute résolution avec détection par ionisation et photométrie de flamme. This article reviews the different methods that con be used to identify the leading petroleum pollutants of the sea by quantitative analysis of their a passive markers » (sulfur, nitrogen, nickel, vanadium, paraffin, asphaltenes and by determining other intrinsic properties. These methods are chemical, spectroscopic (infrared, ultraviolet and chromatographic (high-resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection, flame photometry and electron capture. Measurements were made of a great variety of products capable of polluting the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including

  20. Development of Databases on Iodine in Foods and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershow, Abby G.; Skeaff, Sheila A.; Merkel, Joyce M.; Pehrsson, Pamela R.

    2018-01-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal growth and neurodevelopment; thus, an adequate intake of iodine is particularly important for pregnant and lactating women, and throughout childhood. Low levels of iodine in the soil and groundwater are common in many parts of the world, often leading to diets that are low in iodine. Widespread salt iodization has eradicated severe iodine deficiency, but mild-to-moderate deficiency is still prevalent even in many developed countries. To understand patterns of iodine intake and to develop strategies for improving intake, it is important to characterize all sources of dietary iodine, and national databases on the iodine content of major dietary contributors (including foods, beverages, water, salts, and supplements) provide a key information resource. This paper discusses the importance of well-constructed databases on the iodine content of foods, beverages, and dietary supplements; the availability of iodine databases worldwide; and factors related to variability in iodine content that should be considered when developing such databases. We also describe current efforts in iodine database development in the United States, the use of iodine composition data to develop food fortification policies in New Zealand, and how iodine content databases might be used when considering the iodine intake and status of individuals and populations. PMID:29342090

  1. Influencing factors on iodine content of cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Gerhard; Franke, Katrin; Meyer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Schöne, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an essential trace element for humans and animals, and it is incorporated into the thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which have multiple functions in energy metabolism and growth, but also as transmitter of nervous stimuli and as an important factor for brain development. Because of the small range between iodine requirements and the upper level for humans (between 1:2.5 and 3), the requirements should be met, but excesses should be avoided. One of the most important iodine sources for humans is milk of ruminants. Therefore, various influencing factors on the iodine content of milk of ruminants should be analyzed in the paper. The iodine content of milk depends on many factors, such as iodine content and level of iodine supplementation of feed, iodine source, iodine antagonists such as glucosinolates in the feed, farm management, teat dipping with iodine-containing substances, and milk processing in the dairy. The effects of some factors on the iodine content of milk are demonstrated and discussed. Feed iodine supplementation has the main effect on milk iodine. However, the iodine content of milk may vary considerably depending on many other influencing factors. As a consequence of preventive consumer protection, the European Food Safety Authority proposed a reduction in the iodine upper level for lactating ruminants from 5 to 2 mg/kg complete feed.

  2. Recycling of iodine in fore-arc areas: evidence from the iodine brines in Chiba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Fehn, Udo; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2001-11-01

    The distribution of iodine in the Earth's crust is dominated by its accumulation in marine sediments. If fluxes between terrestrial and marine compartments are considered, however, a significant imbalance exists between known sources and sinks of iodine. We present here evidence from the fore-arc area near Chiba, Japan, the world's largest brine-iodine producing area, that iodine is mobilized from marine sediments during the early stages of subduction. Based on detailed chemical analyses of 22 brines and 129I dating of 13 of these samples collected from the Kazusa Formation, we show that iodine in these fluids is derived from organic-rich marine sediments with a minimum age of 50 Myr. Geochemical characteristics of the brines and the age of the iodine indicate that the iodine enrichment is caused by mobilization from subducting marine sediments and not by derivation from the host formation (age 1-2 Myr). The direct return of iodine from marine sediments into the oceans during the subduction of oceanic plates could provide the missing link in the iodine cycle and be an important pathway also in the marine cycle of carbon.

  3. Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    shows a schematic of the experimental system. Bioaerosols were generated by a six-jet Collison nebulizer at 7 Lpm. Virus concentrations in the...AFRL-RX-TY-TP-2012-0004 EFFECT OF BIOAEROSOL ON THE RELEASE OF IODINE FROM IODINE TREATED FILTERS Chang-Yu Wu, Hsing-Wang Li, Myung-Heui...Effect of Bioaerosol on the Release of Iodine from Iodine Treated Filters FA8650-06-C-5913 0602102F GOVT L0 QL102008 Wu, Chang-Yu; Li, Hsing-Wang; Woo

  4. The retention of iodine by iodine filters in nuclear power plants in the case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, V.

    1985-01-01

    Due to the liberation of considerable amounts of gaseous combustion products, fires in nuclear power plants may lead to a deterioration in the retention of radioiodine by iodine filters. The combustion products of the burnable materials, i.e., insulations, lubricants and paints, vary considerably with the development of the fire. Combustion product analyses of these materials have been performed only to a limited extent. The reaction of iodine with combustion products as well as the retention of the resulting iodine reaction products by sorbents have not yet been investigated. The reduction in the removal efficiencies of iodine sorbents due to the presence of combustion products is unknown. (orig.) [de

  5. Emissivity of the pulsed capacitive discharge in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Laslov, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    The emission parameters of a pulsed capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine and neon-iodine mixtures are reported. The discharge plasma emits at wavelengths of 183.0 and 206.2 nm, which correspond to iodine atom spectral lines. The capacitive discharge is initiated in a cylindrical quartz tube with an electrode distance of 10 cm. The discharge radiation is optimized in exciting pulse repetition rate and helium and neon pressures in He(Ne)-I2 mixtures. The optimal pressures of helium, neon, and iodine vapor fall into the ranges 0.8-2.0 kPa, 0.5-1.0 Pa, and ≤60 Pa, respectively.

  6. Capteurs routiers equipant les stations météoroutières : Evaluation de la qualité des informations des états de surface "sec, humide, mouillé"

    OpenAIRE

    LIVET, Jean; PITRE, R; LABORATOIRE REGIONAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES DE NANCY - CETE EST - LRPC NANCY

    2001-01-01

    Les capteurs routiers équipant les stations météoroutières implantées sur les réseaux autoroutiers et routiers, délivrent des informations d'état de surface de chaussées plus ou moins riches - sec, humide, mouillé ruisselant, etc -Dans le cadre des travaux PREDIT -accident par temps de pluie- et plus particulièrement le sujet 3 -statistique des hauteurs d'eau sur chaussées-, il a paru intéressant de qualifier ces informations. L'opportunité des essais préalables à la délivrance de l'homologat...

  7. Capteurs routiers équipant les stations météoroutières : Evaluation de la qualité des informations des états de surface "sec, himide, mouillé"

    OpenAIRE

    LIVET, J; PITRE, R; LABORATOIRE REGIONAL DES PONTS ET CHAUSSEES DE NANCY - CETE EST - LRPC NANCY

    2001-01-01

    Les capteurs routiers équipant les stations météoroutières implantées sur les réseaux autoroutiers et routiers, délivrent des informations d'état de surface de chaussées plus ou moins riches - sec, humide, mouillé ruisselant, etc -Dans le cadre des travaux PREDIT -accident par temps de pluie- et plus particulièrement le sujet 3 -statistique des hauteurs d'eau sur chaussées-, il a paru intéressant de qualifier ces informations. L'opportunité des essais préalables à la délivrance de l'homologat...

  8. Quantitative SPECT reconstruction of iodine-123 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilland, D.R.; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Many clinical and research studies in nuclear medicine require quantitation of iodine-123 ( 123 I) distribution for the determination of kinetics or localization. The objective of this study was to implement several reconstruction methods designed for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using 123 I and to evaluate their performance in terms of quantitative accuracy, image artifacts, and noise. The methods consisted of four attenuation and scatter compensation schemes incorporated into both the filtered backprojection/Chang (FBP) and maximum likelihood-expectation maximization (ML-EM) reconstruction algorithms. The methods were evaluated on data acquired of a phantom containing a hot sphere of 123 I activity in a lower level background 123 I distribution and nonuniform density media. For both reconstruction algorithms, nonuniform attenuation compensation combined with either scatter subtraction or Metz filtering produced images that were quantitatively accurate to within 15% of the true value. The ML-EM algorithm demonstrated quantitative accuracy comparable to FBP and smaller relative noise magnitude for all compensation schemes

  9. A mathematical model for iodine kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.A.T. da.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the iodine kinetics in thyroid is presented followed by its analytical solution. An eletroanalogical model is also developed for a simplified stage and another is proposed for the main case [pt

  10. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction in pregnant thyroid peroxidase antibody-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency: is iodine supplementation safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, S B; Jørgensen, A; Pedersen, K M

    2000-01-01

    In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed in e......-Ab-positive women living in an area with mild to moderate iodine deficiency did not induce or worsen PPTD. The study confirmed that screening for TPO-Ab in early pregnancy can predict women at high risk for development of PPTD. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Sep......In moderately iodine-deficient, pregnant, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab)-positive women the role of iodine supplementation in the development of postpartum thyroid dysfunction (PPTD) was studied in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double blind trial. Screening for TPO-Ab was performed...... abnormal serum TSH only. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of PPTD in the three groups: +/+ group, 59% (95% confidence interval, 36-79%); +/- group, 60% (36-81%); and -/- group, 46% (26-67%). There were also no differences in the severity of the PPTD, as evaluated...

  11. Thyroid disorders and radio iodine therapy: dental perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Arika; Krishnan, Manu; Tiwari, Brijesh; Singh, Sanjana; Sharma, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid disorders; hyper/hypothyroidism/thyroiditis/neoplasms are widely prevalent endocrine disorders. Oral manifestations of hyperthyroidism are increased susceptibility to caries, periodontal disease, maxillary/mandibular osteoporosis, premature shedding of deciduous teeth and early eruption of permanent teeth, sjogren and burning mouth syndromes. Undiagnosed/untreated hyperthyroidism often precipitates as 'Thyroid storm' during a stressful episode of surgical intervention/trauma. Hypothyroidism shows macroglossia, micrognathia, dysgeusia, thick lips, delayed eruption of teeth, poor periodontal health, enamel hypoplasia, anterior open bite, delayed wound healing and subnormal growth of jaws. Its congenital variant has underdeveloped mandible/overdeveloped maxilla, shortening of skull base and flaring of nostrils. Stomatodynia predominates in subacute thyroiditis. Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) is a common mode of therapy for thyrotoxicosis and carcinomas; where its beta radiations cause destruction of thyroid follicles. Since all forms of iodine are actively taken up by the salivary glands, salivary dysfunction is a consequent of 131 I therapy. It usually presents as xerostomia, mucositis, stomatitis, glossitis and dysguesia. Though reversible and dose-dependent to some extent, damage to bone marrow and gonads are also reported. It follows that thyroid disorders and its therapy with radio iodine show wide ranging side effects: both dental and general. In this context, this paper explains a novel method to evaluate these changes through salivary biochemistry, dental indices and periodontal markers. (author)

  12. Iodine dynamics in the terrestrial environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bowley, Hannah E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of soil properties on soil iodine dynamics and uptake to plants. Soil and vegetation samples were collected from across eastern Northern Ireland (NI) to form the basis of most experimental work; samples from the Rothamsted Park Grass archive were used to investigate the role of changing soil chemistry through time and due to selected fertiliser applications; and iodine dynamics in humic acid (HA) were studied to improve understanding of the r...

  13. Iodine Gas Trapping using Granular Porous Bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Hwan; Shin, Jin Myeong; Park, Jang Jin; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    {sup 129}I is a radionuclide with a very long half-life of 1.57 Χ 10{sup 7} years and has negative health effects to the human body. Therefore, the emission of {sup 129}I into the air is closely regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Many methods for trapping gaseous {sup 129}I have been developed thus far, including wet scrubbing and adsorption using silver loaded zeolites. Although wet scrubbing can effectively remove iodine, it suffers from corrosion of the vessel due to high concentration of the scrubbing solution. Silver loaded zeolites also show effectiveness in capturing {sup 129}I gas, yet weak thermal stability of physisorbed iodine remains a challenge. We studied a novel and facile method to trap iodine gas using bismuth. Granular bismuth having many pores was synthesized using bismuth nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol as a bismuth precursor and pore forming agent, respectively. Reaction of iodine and our samples resulted in an iodine capturing capacity of more than 2 times that of the commercial grade silver exchanged zeolite (AgX). Granular porous bismuths synthesized using bismuth nitrate and PVA show a promising performance in capturing iodine gas. The use of bismuth in trapping {sup 129}I gas can reduce the process cost as bismuth is cheap. Further study is going on to improve the mechanical property of granular porous bismuths for their easy handling.

  14. Ultrahigh iodine adsorption in porous organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Pei, Cuiying

    2014-01-01

    We present two porous organic frameworks (POFs), PAF-1 and JUC-Z2, with ultrahigh iodine capture capacity. The iodine vapor uptake of PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 were 1.86 g g-1 and 1.44 g g-1 respectively at 298 K per 40 Pa, which is extremely high for such low pressure sorption conditions. In addition, PAF-1 and JUC-Z2 could adsorb iodine over water with the selectivity of 5.1 and 6.5 respectively. The isosteric enthalpy at zero surface coverage, calculated by a virial equation with the iodine vapor sorption isotherms at 298 K and 313 K of JUC-Z2, reached -51.1 kJ mol-1, which was much higher than the coverage of PAF-1 (-14.9 kJ mol-1). Raman measurement confirmed the polyiodide to be I5 - in POFs. Furthermore, solvents with different polarities, such as n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol, were chosen to conduct iodine binding measurements on PAF-1 and JUC-Z2. The formation constant Kf for POFs in n-hexane, chloroform and methanol drastically decreased with the increase in polarity, thus illustrating the important role of solvents in iodine binding. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. Iodine nutritional status in Asturian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra Fernández, María; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Díaz Cadórniga, Francisco; Fernández Fernández, Juan Carlos; Delgado Álvarez, Elías

    2017-11-01

    Iodine deficiency is a public health problem, and iodine nutritional status should therefore be regularly measured. To ascertain iodine nutritional status in Asturias and its relation to use of iodized salt and to other sociodemographic and nutritional parameters. A descriptive, observational study was conducted in a random sample of schoolchildren aged 5 to 14 years, in whom urinary iodine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Families completed a survey on use of iodized salt, consumption of dairy products and fish, and sociodemographic data. The study sample consisted of 705 schoolchildren (51.1% females) with a mean age of 9.9 years (SD 2.6). In a total of 620 valid measurements, mean urinary iodine level was 204.1 μg/L (SD 120.6), while the median value was 180.7 μg/L (P 25 -P 75 : 124-252.3 μg/L, interquartile range 128.3 μg/L). Urinary iodine levels were y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Modern and past volcanic degassing of iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Auzende, A.-L.; Marocchi, M.; Raepsaet, C.; Munsch, P.; Testemale, D.; Mézouar, M.; Kubsky, S.; Carrière, M.; Ricolleau, A.; Fiquet, G.

    2016-01-01

    We have monitored iodine degassing from a melt to a water vapor during decompression (i.e. magma ascent). Experiments have been performed by combining diamond anvil cells experiments with synchrotron X-rays fluorescence analysis. Partition coefficients DIfluid/melt measured for a pressure and temperature range of 0.1-1.8 GPa and 500-900 °C, range from 41 to 1.92, values for room conditions DIfluid/glass (quenched samples) are equal to or higher than 350. We show that iodine degassing with water is earlier and much more efficient than for lighter halogen elements, Cl and Br. Iodine is totally degassed from the silicate melt at room conditions. By applying these results to modern volcanology, we calculate an annual iodine flux for subduction related volcanism of 0.16-2.4 kt yr-1. We suggest that the natural iodine degassing may be underestimated, having possible consequences on the Earth's ozone destruction cycle. By applying this results to the Early Earth, we propose a process that may explain the contrasted signature of I, Br and Cl, strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth, the most depleted being iodine, whereas fluorine is almost enriched. The Earth may have lost heavy halogen elements during an early water degassing process from the magma ocean.

  17. Dietary Iodine Intake of the Australian Population after Introduction of a Mandatory Iodine Fortification Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To address mild iodine deficiency in Australia, a mandatory fortification program of iodised salt in bread was implemented in 2009. This study aimed to determine factors associated with achieving an adequate dietary iodine intake in the Australian population post-fortification, and to assess whether bread consumption patterns affect iodine intake in high-risk groups. Using nationally representative data of repeated 24-h dietary recalls from the 2011–2012 Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, dietary iodine intakes and food group contributions were compared by age, socioeconomic status (SES, and geographical remoteness (N = 7735. The association between fortified bread intake and adequacy of iodine intake (meeting age and sex-specific Estimated Average Requirements was investigated using logistic regression models in women of childbearing age 14–50 years (n = 3496 and children aged 2–18 years (n = 1772. The effect of SES on bread consumption was further investigated in a sub group of children aged 5–9 years (n = 488. Main sources of iodine intake at the time of the survey were cereal and cereal products, followed by milk products and dishes. Differences in iodine intake and dietary iodine habits according to age, SES and location were found (p < 0.001 for women of child-bearing age. Fortified bread consumption at ≥100 g/day was associated with five times greater odds of achieving an adequate iodine intake (OR 5.0, 95% CI 4.96–5.13; p < 0.001 compared to lower bread consumption in women and 12 times in children (OR 12.34, 95% CI 1.71–89.26; p < 0.001. Disparities in dietary iodine intake exist within sectors of the Australian population, even after mandatory fortification of a staple food. On-going monitoring and surveillance of iodine status is required.

  18. National trends in iodine nutrition: is everyone getting enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2007-09-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. Until the 1920s, endemic iodine deficiency disorders were prevalent in the Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Northwestern regions of the United States. Iodized salt was responsible for eliminating endemic goiter in the United States and remains the mainstay of iodine deficiency disorder eradication efforts worldwide. Although urinary iodine values have decreased by 50% since the early 1970s, the United States remains iodine sufficient. However, U.S. iodine nutrition, particularly among women of childbearing age, may remain an area worthy of public health concern. There is a wide amount of variation in the iodine content of some common foods, and the iodine content of foods is not well reflected by package labeling. There needs to be increased awareness of the importance of adequate iodine nutrition, particularly during pregnancy and lactation, among the U.S. public.

  19. Ultraviolet gas-discharge lamp on iodine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Minya, A. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.; Kalyuzhnaya, A. G.; Shchedrin, A. I.

    2010-08-01

    The emission characteristics of a pulsed-periodic UV radiation source are reported. The source excited by a pulsed-periodic capacitive discharge initiated in helium-iodine vapor, neon-iodine vapor, or krypton-iodine vapor mixtures radiates in the spectral range 200-450 nm. It is shown that most of the plasma radiation power concentrates in the integral line of the iodine atom (206.2 nm) and in the D'- A' band of the iodine molecule with a maximum at 342 nm. The radiation intensity of the lamp is optimized in accordance with the partial pressure of the inert gases. The discharge plasma parameters that are of interest for simulating the process kinetics and the output characteristics of an UV source based on molecular iodine, atomic iodine, and xenon iodide are calculated in helium-iodine vapor and xenon-iodine vapor mixtures.

  20. Iodine Supplementation in Pregnancy and the Dilemma of Ambiguous Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Iodine requirements are increased during pregnancy, predominantly caused by an increase in renal iodide clearance and in the use of iodine for thyroid hormone production. Because iodine deficiency (ID) in pregnancy may be associated with neurodevelopmental deficits in the offspring, a pertinent...... question is at what level of iodine intake pregnant women should be advised to take iodine-containing supplements. The consensus reached by the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 was that pregnant women should not be recommended to take iodine-containing supplements if the population in general had been iodine...... sufficient for at least 2 years. However, guidance on this differs between scientific societies. This review discusses iodine supplementation in pregnancy. Based on current evidence, the recommendations given by WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD in 2007 provide a valid guidance on the use of iodine supplements in pregnant...

  1. Dynamics of production of iodine atoms by dissociation of iodides in a pulsed self-sustained discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Kochetov, Igor' V; Napartovich, A P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2013-01-01

    Absorption at the laser transition has been used for the first time to assess the evolution of concentration of iodine atoms in a pulsed self-sustained discharge in mixtures of iodides with a buffer gas such as molecular nitrogen and helium. Dynamics of the iodine atom production is studied by the method of absorption spectroscopy. The dissociation of C n F 2n+1 I and CnH 2n+1 I (n = 1, 2) iodides is investigated. The energy required to produce atomic iodine is evaluated. The experimental data obtained for CF 3 I are compared with the results of numerical simulations, their reasonable agreement being demonstrated. (active media)

  2. Predictors of Change in Serum TSH after Iodine Fortification: An 11-Year Follow-Up to the DanThyr Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergved, Lena; Jørgensen, Torben; Perrild, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Context:Few data are available on the effect of iodine fortification on thyroid function development in a population.Objective:Our objective was to evaluate changes in thyroid function after iodine fortification in a population and to identify predictors for changes in serum TSH.Design and Settin...

  3. Development of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with chemical generation of atomic iodine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodymová, Jarmila; Špalek, Otomar; Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Hager, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 77, - (2003), s. 331-336 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : atomic iodine * atomic chlorine * chemical oxygen-iodine laser(COIL) Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2003

  4. Longitudinal study of iodine in toenails following IV administration of an iodine-containing contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Morris, J.S.; Nichols, T.A.; Baskett, C.K.; Mason, M.M.; Horsman, T.L.; McDougall, I.R.

    1998-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between diet and thyroid cancer (TC) risk and the higher incidence of TC among Asian immigrants to the US compared to second and third generation subgroups has prompted epidemiologists to hypothesize that increased levels of iodine consumption may be associated with TC risk, particularly among persons with a history of clinical or subclinical thyroid dysfunction. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), we have applied epiboron neutron activation analysis to investigate human nails as a dietary monitor for iodine. Preliminary studies have indicated a positive correlation between dietary iodine intake and the concentration of iodine in toenails. However, these studies are confounded by high iodine levels (up to 30 ppm) in approximately 5% of the nails studied. We hypothesize that, in the subjects we have studied, the high iodine levels may be due to iodine-containing medications, in particular contrast-agents containing iopamidol. This paper will report on longitudinal studies using contrast agent subjects who where followed-up for almost two years compared to a longitudinal control and a population mean. Based on this study, we suggest that iodine-containing contrast agents contaminate nail samples via non-specific binding in the short term followed by incorporation in the nail as a result of absorption. (author)

  5. Sensitivity analysis on the deposition of inhaled radioactive iodine and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kensuke

    2001-01-01

    The prophylactic use of stable iodine is one of the protective measures during a nuclear emergency. In order to know the resultant radiation dose to the thyroid gland and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis in the case of Japanese, a sensitivity analysis was performed for related physiological parameters for Japanese. As a result, the variances in the deposition efficiency of radioactive iodine aerosol in the respiratory tract due to changes in the respiratory parameters were found rather small between the standard Caucasian and Japanese. The changes due to the radioactive iodine aerosol size were more significant, suggesting the importance of understanding the physico-chemical status of aerobic radioiodine released in a nuclear emergency. Concerning the metabolic parameters of iodine, the result of the sensitivity analysis based on an iodine metabolic model showed that the most critical parameters are those which describe the transport of stable and radioactive iodine from the blood compartment to the thyroid gland. Accordingly, a confirmation of the transport model and the related parameters for Japanese are essential to clarify the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis to reduce thyroid gland exposure of Japanese. (author)

  6. The impact of iodised salt or iodine supplements on iodine status during pregnancy lactation and infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Monitoring of iodine status during pregnancy, lactation and infancy is difficult as there are no established reference criteria for urinary iodine concentration (UI) for these groups; so it is uncertain whether iodized salt programs meet the needs of these life stages. Design and

  7. Impact of stent diameter and length on in-stent restenosis after DES vs BMS implantation in patients needing large coronary stents-A clinical and health-economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbinden, Rainer; von Felten, Stefanie; Wein, Bastian

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The British National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines recommend to use drug-eluting stents (DES) instead of bare-metal stents (BMS) only in lesions >15 mm in length or in vessels 3 mm in diameter. We analyzed the impact of stent length and stent diameter on in......-stent restenosis (ISR) in the BASKET-PROVE study population and evaluated the cost-effectiveness of DES compared to BMS. METHODS/RESULTS: The BASKET-PROVE trial compared DES vs BMS in large coronary arteries (≥3 mm). We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and cost-effectiveness acceptability...... of 10 000 CHF per TLR avoided, DES had a high probability of being cost-effective. CONCLUSION: In the BASKET-PROVE study population, the strongest predictor of ISR is the use of a BMS, even in patients in need of stents ≥3.0 mm and ≤15 mm lesion length and DES were cost-effective. This should prompt...

  8. Utilite des images de radar aeroporte en bande C pour l'evaluation du stade de croissance de la canne a sucre et des cultures maraicheres en milieu tropical, dans une optique de conservation des sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Nathalie Lucie

    1998-12-01

    This study aims at determining how images from an airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar System, in C-band and with two polarisation configurations, can help evaluate the degree of protection offered to soils by vegetation against erosion in tropical areas. With the objective of supplying information to improve the planning of images from the RADARSAT satellite for soil conservation projects, the study aims at establishing which incident angles and which climatic conditions improve contrasts between bare and protected soils. The study encompasses three sites in Costa Rica. Two of them are located in the central cordillera, in mountainous terrain: the Tierra Blanca site where root crops dominate, and the Juan Vinas site where sugar cane is cultivated. The images have been prepared to allow the quantitative analysis of radar backscattering. The first stage of the analysis compares the discriminating capacities of images acquired on each site with different incident angles and polarisations. In general, the backscattering coefficient of crops has shown a lower tendency to diminish in function of local incident angle than that of bare soil. Results suggest that for sugar cane in relatively dry conditions, it is possible to distinguish plots of bare soil from vegetated ones on the basis of their average backscattering coefficient, except for very high incident angles (higher than 73°). The second part of the analysis treats of the complementarity of the HH and VV polarisations and of images acquired with different incident angles. From the results of this study, we can draw recommendations for the acquisition of RADARSAT images even if the images studied here present a higher spatial resolution and higher incident angles, in many cases. Higher incident angles are recommended because they enhance contrasts between bare soil plots and vegetated ones. The very high incident angles at which we observed the opposite effect are not attainable with satellite radars. Relief causes

  9. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant work recently in the development of iodine-fed Hall thrusters for in-space propulsion applications.1 The use of iodine as a propellant provides many advantages over present xenon-gas-fed Hall thruster systems. Iodine is a solid at ambient temperature (no pressurization required) and has no special handling requirements, making it safe for secondary flight opportunities. It has exceptionally high ?I sp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing system level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine provides thrust and efficiency that are comparable to xenonfed Hall thrusters while operating in the same discharge current and voltage regime, making it possible to leverage the development of flight-qualified xenon Hall thruster power processing units for the iodine application. Work at MSFC is presently aimed at designing, integrating, and demonstrating a flight-like iodine feed system suitable for the Hall thruster application. This effort represents a significant advancement in state-of-the-art. Though Iodine thrusters have demonstrated high performance with mission enabling potential, a flight-like feed system has never been demonstrated and iodine compatible components do not yet exist. Presented in this paper is the end-to-end integrated feed system demonstration. The system includes a propellant tank with active feedback-control heating, fill and drain interfaces, latching and proportional flow control valves (PFCV), flow resistors, and flight-like CubeSat power and control electronics. Hardware is integrated into a CubeSat-sized structure, calibrated and tested under vacuum conditions, and operated under under hot-fire conditions using a Busek BHT-200 thruster designed for iodine. Performance of the system is evaluated thorugh accurate measurement of thrust and a calibrated of mass flow rate measurement, which is a function of

  10. Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation Artisanale Des Crevettes ( Penaeus Spp) Au Sud Du Bénin : Évaluation Des Performances Techniques Des Équipements Et Procédés De Fumage. ... This study aims to evaluate and compare the technical performances of the main important traditional smoking processes in the south of Benin. Therefore ...

  11. Etude des anomalies electrocardiographiques chez le sportif Togolais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recommandations à l'endroit des fédérations et des autorités administratives pour promouvoir la surveillance médicale et cardiologique des sportifs Togolais. Mots clés : Anomalies ECG, sportifs Togolais. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the different kind of electrocardiographic abnormalities encountered with ...

  12. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China.

  13. [Application of iodine metabolism analysis methods in thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-hua; Qiu, Ling

    2013-08-01

    The main physiological role of iodine in the body is to synthesize thyroid hormone. Both iodine deficiency and iodine excess can lead to severe thyroid diseases. While its role in thyroid diseases has increasingly been recognized, few relevant platforms and techniques for iodine detection have been available in China. This paper summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of currently iodine detection methods including direct titration, arsenic cerium catalytic spectrophotometry, chromatography with pulsed amperometry, colorimetry based on automatic biochemistry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, so as to optimize the iodine nutrition for patients with thyroid diseases.

  14. 40 CFR 415.430 - Applicability; description of the iodine production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... iodine production subcategory. 415.430 Section 415.430 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY Iodine Production Subcategory § 415.430 Applicability; description of the iodine production... iodine. ...

  15. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  16. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  17. Iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women following 2 decades without public education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Nazeri, Pantea; Amiri, Parisa; Mehran, Ladan; Shakeri, Nezhat; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the association of iodine nutrition status and knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Tehranian women after 2 decades without updating public education. Cross-sectional study. Eight health care centers from 4 district areas of Tehran. A total of 383 women aged ≥ 19 years, randomly selected. Iodine concentration of 24-hour urine samples, iodine content of household salts, and knowledge, attitude, and practice scores regarding iodine nutrition and iodized salt. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify the association of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores with urinary iodine concentration (UIC) 100 μg/L (P = .001). Risk of UIC education level, region of residence, and iodine content of salt was significantly associated with intermediate practice score (odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-13.2). Marginally suboptimal iodine status in women of childbearing age can be attributed to inappropriate practices, but not to knowledge and attitude. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lugol's iodine dye-enhanced endoscopy in patients with cancer of the oesophagus and head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, E M; Williams, S R; Leung, J W; Chung, S C; Van Hasselt, C A; Li, A K

    1992-12-01

    Lugol's iodine dye indicates the presence of unsuspected early oesophageal cancers during endoscopy at which such cancers fail to show the characteristic black colour change. We evaluated Lugol's iodine dye-enhanced endoscopy in 17 patients with oesophageal cancer. In a further 37 patients with head and neck cancer we examined the use of Lugol's iodine since these patients have a 29% risk of synchronous oesophageal cancer. The oesophagus was sprayed with Lugol's iodine (1.5%) during endoscopy. Any areas not turning black were biopsied. In 13 patients with oesophageal cancer discrete areas beyond the macroscopically obvious primary tumour showed no change in colour. Biopsy revealed cancer in all cases. Six synchronous cancers were found in the head and neck group, one of which was identified only by the use of Lugol's iodine. Lugol's iodine augmented the information gained about the oesophageal mucosa during endoscopy. It revealed unsuspected cancer which altered the management of patients with primary oesophageal cancer as well as those with head and neck cancer. We recommend the routine use of Lugol's iodine-enhanced endoscopy for surveillance of all 'at risk' oesophageal cases.

  19. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  20. Evaluation de la méthode d’essai des semelles anti-perforation en textile selon la norme NF EN ISO 20344 : 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Grand , G.

    2013-01-01

    Suite à des accidents sur chantier où des salariés ont eu le pied perforé par des pointes malgré le port de chaussures anti-perforation, une étude a été réalisée. Son objectif était d'évaluer l'essai de résistance à la perforation de la norme NF EN ISO 20344 : 2012 et de mettre au point une, nouvelle méthode d'essai adaptée aux inserts en textile et représentative des conditions réelles d'utilisation.